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Sample records for rat hepatic cytochrome

  1. FLUCONAZOLE-INDUCED HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RATS AND MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of the triazole antifungal agent fluconazole on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes and the activities of Cyp enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats and male CD-1 mice. Alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (AROD) methods w...

  2. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  3. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases. PMID:27882225

  4. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethan...

  5. Metabolism and binding of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite acrolein to rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Marinello, A.J.; Bansal, S.K.; Paul, B.; Koser, P.L.; Love, J.; Struck, R.F.; Gurtoo, H.L.

    1984-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism and metabolic activation of (chloroethyl-3H)cyclophosphamide (( chloroethyl-3H)CP) and (4-14C)cyclophosphamide (( 4-14C)CP) were investigated in vitro in the reconstituted system containing cytochrome P-450 isolated from phenobarbital-treated rats. In addition, hepatic microsomal binding and the hepatic microsome-mediated metabolism of (14C)acrolein, a metabolite of (4-14C)CP, were also investigated. The metabolism of (chloroethyl-3H)CP and (4-14C)CP to polar metabolites was found to depend on the presence of NADPH and showed concentration dependence with respect to cytochrome P-450 and NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Km and Vmax values were essentially similar. The patterns of inhibition by microsomal mixed-function oxidase inhibitors, anti-cytochrome P-450 antibody, and heat denaturation of the cytochrome P-450 were essentially similar, with subtle differences between (4-14C)CP and (chloroethyl-3H)CP metabolism. The in vitro metabolic activation of CP in the reconstituted system demonstrated predominant binding of (chloroethyl-3H)CP to nucleic acids and almost exclusive binding of (4-14C)CP to proteins. Gel electrophoresis-fluorography of the proteins in the reconstituted system treated with (4-14C)CP demonstrated localization of the 14C label in the cytochrome P-450 region. To examine this association further, hepatic microsomes were modified with (14C)acrolein in the presence and the absence of NADPH. The results confirmed covalent association between (14C)acrolein and cytochrome P-450 in the microsomes and also demonstrated further metabolism of (14C)acrolein, apparently to an epoxide, which is capable of binding covalently to proteins. The results of these investigations not only confirm the significance of primary metabolism but also emphasize the potential role of the secondary metabolism of cyclophosphamide in some of its toxic manifestations.

  6. Interaction of epicatechins derived from green tea with rat hepatic cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Das, M; Bickers, D R; Mukhtar, H

    1988-01-01

    Green tea has been used for generations in China and Asia as an antipyretic and diuretic. Prior studies have shown that extracts of green tea inhibit the mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxin B1. In this study, we investigated the interaction of certain flavonoid components of green tea epicatechin derivatives including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450). The addition of EC, EGC, ECG, and EGCG to hepatic microsomes prepared from phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats resulted in spectral changes characterized by absorbance maxima at 420 nm and minima at 380 nm, typical of modified Type II (reverse Type I) binding. Of the epicatechin derivatives, EGCG and ECG showed greater spectral change with oxidized P-450 and time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of the binding of carbon monoxide to dithionite-reduced cytochrome P-450. The addition of EC, EGC, ECG, and EGCG to microsomes prepared from control, PB- or 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P-450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities. EGCG was the most potent in this regard. Green tea polyphenols and epicatechin derivatives also significantly inhibited NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity. An examination of the structure activity relationship of epicatechin derivatives suggests that the inhibitory effect on the microsomal enzyme system may be due to the galloyl groups or hydroxyl groups on the molecule. Our data indicate that these extracts of green tea may have potential as anticarcinogens.

  7. Interaction of sanguinarine alkaloid, isolated from argemone oil, with hepatic cytochrome p450 in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Naveen P; Das, Mukul

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prior studies have shown that argemone oil (AO), responsible for 'Epidemic dropsy', causes inhibition of catalytic activities of Cytochrome P450 (P450). In this study interaction of sanguinarine (SAN) alkaloid, isolated from AO, with rat hepatic P450 was investigated. Hepatic microsomes prepared from 3-methylcholantherene (3MC) treated rats when incubated with SAN (1-3 muM) resulted in a spectral peak at 385 nm and a trough at 415 nm, indicative of Type I binding. Incubation of SAN (50-200 muM) with hepatic microsomes prepared from phenobarbitone (PB) treated rats also showed a Type I spectra with a peak at 395 nm and a trough at 420 nm. Relative binding efficiency (DeltaA(max)/K(s)(app) factor) of SAN with P450 was found to be 1540 and 1030 absorbance units/nmol CYP/M for 3MC and PB induced microsomes, respectively. In a P450 spectral inhibition study SAN showed higher affinity towards 3MC eliciting inhibition at much lesser concentrations (0.25-5 muM) as compared to PB (100-300 muM). The IC50s of SAN with different catalytic markers of P450 isoforms, i.e. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) for CYP1A1, was 2.8 muM and for methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (MROD) for CYP1A2 was 2.2 muM in 3MC induced microsomes, while benzoyloxyresorufin-O-deethylase (BROD) for CYP 2B1/1A1 showed an IC50 of 50 muM but pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) for CYP2B1 showed no inhibition even at higher concentrations of SAN (> 60 muM) in PB-induced microsomes. These results indicate that higher affinity of SAN binding towards the CYP1A family may have a role in SAN toxicity.

  8. Immunochemical evidence for multiple steroid-inducible hepatic cytochromes P-450 in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, K A; Wrighton, S A; Kremers, P; Guzelian, P S

    1987-01-01

    It has been established that there are glucocorticoid-inducible hepatic cytochromes P-450 in the rat (P-450p), the rabbit (LM3c) and man (HLp) which share extensive structural, functional and regulatory features. We prepared immunochemical probes to P-450p and identified a unique monoclonal antibody, 1G8, that recognizes purified P-450p, but neither purified LM3c nor HLp, on immunoblot analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified samples of P-450p was identical with that previously reported for P-450PCN1 [Gonzalez, Nebert, Hardwick & Kasper (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 7435-7441]. Immunoblot analyses of liver microsomes from untreated male rats revealed two 1G8-reactive proteins, whereas liver microsomes from untreated females contained none. Another monoclonal antibody, 13-7-10, reacted specifically with LM3c and HLp, but not with P-450p. A single 13-7-10-reactive microsomal protein was detected in untreated male and female rats, the latter protein exhibiting a greater apparent Mr. 1G8-reactive proteins were induced to the greatest extent by triacetyloleandomycin, followed by dexamethasone, chlordane, pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile and 2,4,2',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. In contrast, 13-7-10-reactive proteins were most strongly induced by dexamethasone, only moderately by triacetyloleandomycin and pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile, weakly by chlordane and not at all by 2,4,2',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. We conclude that the P-450p family in rat liver consists of three or more proteins that are structurally related and yet appear to be under distinct regulatory control. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3311032

  9. Evidence for concerted kinetic oxidation of progesterone by purified rat hepatic cytochrome P-450g

    SciTech Connect

    Swinney, D.C.; Ryan, D.E.; Thomas, P.E.; Levin, W.

    1988-07-26

    Purified cytochrome P-450g, a male-specific rat hepatic isozyme, was observed to metabolize progesterone to two primary metabolites (6..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone and 16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone), two secondary metabolites (6..beta..,16..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone and 6-ketoprogesterone), and one tertiary metabolite (6-keto-16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone). The K/sub m,app/ for the formation of these products from progesterone was determined to be approximately 0.5 ..mu..M, while the K/sub m,app/ for metabolism of 6..beta..- and 16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone was found to be 5-10 ..mu..M. The ratio of primary to secondary metabolites did not change significantly at progesterone concentrations from 6 to 150 ..mu..M, and a lag in formation of secondary metabolites was not observed in 1-min incubations. Concerted oxidation of progesterone to secondary products without the intermediate products leaving the active site was suggested by these results and confirmed by isotopic dilution experiments in which little or no dilution of metabolically formed 6..beta..,16..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone and 6-keto-16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone was observed in incubations containing a mixture of radiolabeled progesterone and unlabeled 6..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone or 16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone. Incubation of 6..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone with a reconstituted system in an atmosphere of /sup 18/I/sub 2/ resulted in > 90% incorporation of /sup 18/O in the 16..cap alpha..-position of 6..beta..,16..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone but no incorporation of /sup 18/O into 6-ketoprogesterone, even though the reaction was dependent upon enzyme and O/sub 2/, and not inhibited by mannitol, catalase, or superoxide dismutase. Factors which characterize the metabolism of progesterone by cytochrome P-450g in terms of active-site constraints and the catalytic competence of the enzyme in microsomes were also explored.

  10. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qinyuan; Lian, Fuzhi; Chavez, Pollyanna R.G.; Chung, Jayong; Ling, Wenhua; Qin, Hua; Seitz, Helmut K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethanol liquid diet or a non-ethanol liquid diet, with or without CMZ for one and ten months. A single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 mg/kg) was given to initiate hepatic carcinogenesis. CYP2E1 expression, inflammatory proteins, cell proliferation, protein-bound 4-HNE, etheno-DNA adducts, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), retinoid concentrations, and hepatic carcinogenesis were examined. Ethanol feeding for 1 month with DEN resulted in significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 levels and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-κB protein and TNF-α expression, which were associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and p-GST positive altered hepatic foci. All of these changes induced by ethanol feeding were significantly inhibited by the one month CMZ treatment. At 10-months of treatment, hepatocellular adenomas were detected in ethanol-fed rats only, but neither in control rats nor in animals receiving ethanol and CMZ. The 8-OHdG formation was found to be significantly increased in ethanol fed animals and normalized with CMZ treatment. In addition, alcohol-reduced hepatic retinol and retinoic acid concentrations were restored by CMZ treatment to normal levels in the rats at 10 months of treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of ethanol-induced CYP2E1 as a key pathogenic factor can counteract the tumor-promoting action of ethanol by decreasing TNF-α expression, NF-κB activation, and oxidative DNA damage as well as restoring normal hepatic levels of retinoic acid in DEN-treated rats. PMID:23543859

  11. Responsiveness of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s in rat offspring prenatally exposed to lindane

    SciTech Connect

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2008-08-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to low doses of lindane has been shown to affect the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs), involved in the metabolism and neurobehavioral toxicity of lindane. Attempts were made in the present study to investigate the responsiveness of CYPs in offspring prenatally exposed to lindane (0.25 mg/kg b. wt.; 1/350th of LD{sub 50}; p. o. to mother) when challenged with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital (PB), inducers of CYP1A and 2B families or a sub-convulsant dose of lindane (30 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) later in life. Prenatal exposure to lindane was found to produce an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2 isoforms in brain and liver of the offspring at postnatal day 50. The increased expression of the CYPs in the offspring suggests the sensitivity of the CYPs during postnatal development, possibly, to low levels of lindane, which may partition into mother's milk. A higher increase in expression of CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes and their catalytic activity was observed in animals pretreated prenatally with lindane and challenged with MC (30 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) or PB (80 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) when young at age (approx. 7 weeks) compared to animals exposed to MC or PB alone. Further, challenge of the control and prenatally exposed offspring with a single sub-convulsant dose of lindane resulted in an earlier onset and increased incidence of convulsions in the offspring prenatally exposed to lindane have demonstrated sensitivity of the CYPs in the prenatally exposed offspring. Our data assume significance as the subtle changes in the expression profiles of hepatic and cerebral CYPs in rat offspring during postnatal development could modify the adult response to a later exposure to xenobiotics.

  12. Selective expression and induction of cytochrome P450PB and P450MC during the development of hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma of LEC rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Suzuki, K; Ookawara, T; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, N

    1989-11-01

    The Long-Evans rat with a cinnamon-like coat color (LEC rat) is a mutant strain displaying hereditary hepatitis with severe jaundice. The age related difference in microsomal dealkylation of pentoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin was examined. The enzyme activity levels of pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase in LEC rats were decreased to 25% of the levels in control [Long-Evans rats with an agouti coat color (LEA rats)]. In contrast, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase exhibited a much less marked difference between the strains. In parallel with these strain differences in enzyme activities, a decrease in phenobarbital (PB) inducible P450 isozymes, mainly P450b and P450e, was observed by Western blot analysis. The level of P450PB in LEC rats was more markedly depressed than in the LEA strain. On the other hand, microsomes from uninduced LEC rat liver had more 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) inducible P450MC, mainly P450c and P450d, than microsomes from LEA rat liver and these isozymes in the LEC were markedly induced by 3-methylcholanthrene treatment. The great difference in cytochrome P450PB content of the liver microsomes between LEC and LEA rats and the maintained constitutive levels of hepatic cytochrome P450MC in the LEC rats suggest a possible role of these cytochrome isozymes in the onset of spontaneous hepatitis and hepatoma.

  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of expressions of hepatic cytochrome P450 in F344 rats following oral treatment with kava extract.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Natasha P; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kissling, Grace E; Burka, Leo T; Chan, Po-Chuen; Nyska, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum), used for relaxation and pain relief, has been one of the leading dietary supplements and several reports linking hepatic functional disturbances and liver failure to kava have resulted in a ban on sales in Europe and Canada and the issuance of warnings by the US FDA. The National Toxicology Program conducted 14-week rat studies to characterize the toxicology of kava exposure in Fischer 344 rats [National Toxicity Program. 90 day gavage toxicity studies of KAVA KAVA EXTRACT in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice. Research Triangle Park, NC; 2005a; National Toxicity Program. Testing status of agents at NTP (KAVA KAVA EXTRACT M990058). Research Triangle Park, NC; 2005b. (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/index.cfm?objectid=071516E-C6E1-7AAA-C90C751E23D14C1B)]. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered kava extract by gavage at 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/day. Increased gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) activities were observed in the 2.0 g/kg males and 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg females, as well as increased serum cholesterol levels in males and females at 0.5 g/kg and higher. Increases in incidence and severity of hepatocellular hypertrophy (HP) were noted in males at 1.0 g/kg and females at 0.5 g/kg and higher, as well as increased liver weights. Immunohistochemical analyses of the expression of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes in liver of the control and 1.0- and 2.0-g/kg-treated groups indicated decreased expression of CYP2D1 (human CYP2D6 homolog) in 2.0 g/kg females and increased expression of CYP1A2, 2B1, and 3A1 in 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg groups of both sexes. The no observed adverse effect levels were decided as 0.25 g/kg in both genders, based on neurotoxic effects, increases in GGT, cholesterol, liver weight, and HP and decreases in body weight. Kava-induced hepatic functional changes in the F344 rat might be relevant to human clinical cases of hepatotoxicity following exposure.

  14. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Elangbam, C.S.; Qualls, C.W.,Jr.; Bauduy, M. )

    1989-05-01

    Wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are ubiquitous throughout the Southeast quadrant of the United States, easy to capture, have a generation interval of less than one year and a limited range of movement (less than one hectare). This species may prove to be an excellent model for monitoring environmental contamination. Traditionally, cytochrome P-450 inducing agents are grouped into two classes. One, represented by phenobarbital, induces P-450b and P-450e; the other, represented by 3-methylcholanthrene, induces P-450c and P-450d isoenzymes. The types and amounts of cytochrome P-450 vary among species, organs, health status, sex, and stress of the animal. If the levels of cytochrome P-450 of wild cotton rats are to be used in monitoring environmental pollution, it is necessary to characterize the inducibility and concentration of cytochrome P-450 in this species. This study was designed to determine the concentration and inducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the livers of cotton rats after intraperitoneal (ip) administration of phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene.

  15. Biological activity of phenolic compounds. Hepatic cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/ and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats fed phenolic monomers, polymers, and glycosides

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, S.A.; Mora, M.I.; Wilson, W.C.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Garst, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine effects of a phenolic polymer (Kraft wood lignin, Indulin), phenolic glycosides (cane molasses and wood molasses), and phenolic monomers (vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid) on liver cytochromes P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/, and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin had a higher cytochromes P-450 content than did chicks fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, or 6.0% arenaceous flour. Chicks fed 12.0% wood molasses had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed 0% fiber or 6.0% wood molasses. Cane molasses incorporated at both 6.0 and 12.0% of the diet induced cytochromes P-450 content over those of control-fed birds. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin, with or without antibiotic, had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed control diets, with or without antibiotic. Additionally, chicks fed 6.0% lignin had lower intestinal diaminopimelic acid (DAP) levels than did chicks fed 0% fiber. Rats fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, 6.0% arenaceous flour, or 6.0% lignin exhibited no difference in cytochrome level or activity among treatments. Chicks fed 0.5% vanillin, 0.5% vanillic acid, 0.5% ferulic acid, or 0.5% p-coumaric acid had comparable cytochromes level and activity compared with chicks fed no phenolics. Chicks fed 0.5% p-coumaric acid had lower rates of gain than did chicks fed control or other phenolic-containing diets. Rats fed these phenolics had similar cytochromes P-450 content among treatments.

  16. Overexpression of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s alters behavioral activity of rat offspring following prenatal exposure to lindane

    SciTech Connect

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2007-12-15

    Oral administration of different doses (0.0625, 0.125 or 0.25 mg/kg corresponding to 1/1400th, 1/700th or 1/350th of LD{sub 50}) of lindane to the pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 were found to produce a dose-dependent increase in the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-d) in brain and liver of offspring postnatally at 3 weeks. The increase in the activity of CYP monooxygenases was found to be associated with the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYP1A, 2B and 2E1 isoenzymes in the brain and liver of offspring. Dose-dependent alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 3 weeks have suggested that increase in CYP activity may possibly lead to the formation of metabolites to the levels that may be sufficient to alter the behavioral activity of the offspring. Interestingly, the inductive effect on cerebral and hepatic CYPs was found to persist postnatally up to 6 weeks in the offspring at the relatively higher doses (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) of lindane and up to 9 weeks at the highest dose (0.25 mg/kg), though the magnitude of induction was less than that observed at 3 weeks. Alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 6 and 9 weeks, though significant only in the offspring at 3 and 6-week of age, have further indicated that due to the reduced activity of the CYPs during the ontogeny, lindane and its metabolites may not be effectively cleared from the brain. The data suggest that low dose prenatal exposure to the pesticide has the potential to produce overexpression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs in brain and liver of the offspring which may account for the behavioral changes observed in the offspring.

  17. In vitro metabolic clearance of pyrethroid pesticides by rat and human hepatic microsomes and cytochrome P450 isoforms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species differences in the intrinsic clearance (CLint) and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of pyrethroid pesticides were examined in rat and human hepatic microsomes. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, S-bioallethrin, bioresmethrin, β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, cis-per...

  18. Species differences in hepatic and intestinal metabolic activities for 43 human cytochrome P450 substrates between humans and rats or dogs.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nomura, Naruaki; Yabuki, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    1. Prediction of human pharmacokinetics might be made more precise by using species with similar metabolic activities to humans. We had previously reported the species differences in intestinal and hepatic metabolic activities of 43 cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. However, the species differences between humans and rats or dogs had not yet been determined using comparable data sets with sufficient number of compounds. 2. Here, we investigated metabolic stabilities in intestinal and liver microsomes obtained from rats, dogs and humans using 43 substrates of human CYP1A2, CYP2J2, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and CYP3A. 3. Hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint) values for most compounds in dogs were comparable to those in humans (within 10-fold), whereas in rats, those for the human CYP2D6 substrates were much higher and showed low correlation with humans. In dog intestine, as with human intestine, CLint values for almost all human CYP1A2, CYP2C, CYP2D6 substrates were not determined because they were very low. Intestinal CLint values for human CYP3A substrates in rats and dogs appeared to be lower for most of the compounds and showed moderate correlation with those in humans. 4. In conclusion, dogs showed the most similar metabolic activity to humans.

  19. Hepatic cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase are affected by five sources of dietary fiber in germ-free rats.

    PubMed

    Nugon-Baudon, L; Roland, N; Flinois, J P; Beaune, P

    1996-02-01

    The influence of dietary fiber on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) was assessed using germ-free rats fed inulin and other sources of fiber (wheat bran, carrot, cocoa and oat). The consumption of cocoa fiber greatly modified the hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymatic profile, causing a strong enhancement of 1A2 and 2B1/B2 forms, concomitant with a significant decrease of the constitutive form 2C11, compared with all of the other types of fiber. Moreover, rats fed the cocoa fiber diet had a higher specific activity of hepatic UDP-glucuronosyl transferase than their carrot fiber- and wheat bran-fed counterparts. Intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase was unaffected by the type of ingested fiber. Diet composition also did not alter the specific activity of glutathione-S-transferase in the liver, small intestine, or colon. Using earlier results obtained in heteroxenic rats, we show that intestinal microflora plays a key role in some of the effects of fiber on XME, although this is not a necessary prerequisite for all of the liver alterations.

  20. Carbon monoxide-bound red blood cells protect red blood cell transfusion-induced hepatic cytochrome P450 impairment in hemorrhagic-shock rats.

    PubMed

    Ogaki, Shigeru; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for massive hemorrhage induce systemic ischemic-reperfusion and influence the disposition and pharmacological activity of drugs as a result of a reduction in the level of expression and activity of cytochrome P450s (P450). It was reported that, when organ-preserving solutions are exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), the treatment was effective in suppressing the postreperfusion reduction in renal P450 levels in cases of kidney transplantation. Therefore, we hypothesized that transfusions with RBC that contain bound CO (CO-RBC) would protect the hepatic level of rat P450 during a massive hemorrhage, compared with plasma expanders and RBC resuscitation. To achieve this, we created 40% hemorrhagic-shock model rats, followed by resuscitation, with use of recombinant human serum albumin, RBCs, and CO-RBCs. At 1 hour after resuscitation, the expressions of hepatic P450 isoforms (1A2, 2C11, 2E1, and 3A2) were significantly decreased in the RBC resuscitation group, compared with the sham group. Such alterations in hepatic P450 significantly resulted in an increase in the plasma concentrations of substrate drugs (caffeine [1A2], tolbutamide [2C11], chlorzoxazone [2E1], and midazolam [3A2]) for each P450 isoform, and thus, the hypnotic action of midazolam could be significantly prolonged. Of interest, the reductions in hepatic P450 activity observed in the RBC group were significantly suppressed by CO-RBC resuscitation, and consequently, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs and the pharmacological action of midazolam remained at levels similar to those under sham conditions. These results indicate that CO-RBC resuscitation has considerable potential in terms of achieving safe and useful drug therapy during massive hemorrhages.

  1. Induction of rat hepatic cytochromes P450 by toxic ingredients in plants: lack of correlation between toxicity and inductive activity.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Nakamura, T; Oguri, K

    1998-12-01

    "Animal-Plant Warfare" is one of the hypotheses for the evolution of drug-metabolizing P450s. To address the validity of this hypothesis, we examined the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s by 12 plant toxins in rats, using hepatic activity for testosterone metabolism as the index. The compounds tested were aconitine, morphine, tubocurarine, physostigmine, pilocarpine, muscarine, cocaine, atropine, amygdalin, digitonin, nicotine and solanine. Drinking water containing a test compound was given to rats for 4 days, and the hepatic activity of testosterone metabolism was determined together with monitoring body weight gain and liver weight as the indices of toxicity. The results showed that while cocaine and nicotine have a minor ability to increase testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylase activity, a marker activity for the CYP2B1 and 2, all other compounds did not have any such effect. No correlation was observed between a change in 16 beta-hydroxylase and toxicity caused by toxins. Therefore, these results did not support the idea that the inducibility of the CYP2B subfamily in animals is acquired through "Animal-Plant Warfare". Several compounds examined here increased or decreased hepatic activities of testosterone 2 alpha-, 6 beta-, 7 alpha- and 16 alpha-hydroxylation and 17-oxidation, indicating a possible effect on the CYP2A, 2C and 3A subfamily. Of these effects, a moderate correlation (r < 0.49) was observed in the changes in the activities of 2 alpha-/16 alpha-hydroxylation and 17-oxidation vs. that in toxicity. It is therefore suggested that inhibition or suppression of the expression of CYP2C11 is one of the mechanisms in the toxicity of plant toxins for rats, although it comes from an examination using limited numbers of compounds.

  2. High dose of commercial products of kava (Piper methysticum) markedly enhanced hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA expression with liver enlargement in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuko; Hashida, Hiroko; Arita, Anna; Hamaguchi, Keiko; Shimura, Fumio

    2008-12-01

    Commercial products containing the kava plant (Piper methysticum), known to have the anxiolytic activity, are banned in several European countries and Canada because of the suspicion of a potential liver toxicity. In some reports, kava and kavalactones (major constituents of kava) inhibited activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms including CYP1A2. On the other hand, a few studies showed that administration of kava to rats moderately increased CYP1A2 proteins in the liver. CYP1A isoforms are likely responsible for the metabolic activation of potent carcinogenic environmental toxins such as aflatoxins, benzo[a]pyrene, and others. On these bases, we have investigated the effects of administration of commercial kava products on gene expression of hepatic CYP1A isoforms in rats. A high dose (equivalent to approximately 380mg kavalactones/kg/day; 100 times of the suggested dosage for human use) of two different types of kava products for 8 days significantly increased liver weights. CYP1A2 mRNA expression was moderately increased (2.8-7.3 fold). More importantly, the high dose of kava markedly enhanced CYP1A1 mRNA expression (75-220 fold) as well as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities and CYP1A1 immunoreactivities. Thus, no observed adverse effect levels of kavalactones would be lower than 380mg/kg/day. When the safety factor of kavalactones is assumed to be 100, a value most often used upon the risk analysis of chemicals and designed to account for interspecies and intraspecies variations, a number of kava product users likely ingest more kavalactones than acceptable daily intakes. Based on overall evidence, we should pay considerable attention to the possibility that kava products induce hepatic CYP1A1 expression in human especially in sensitive individuals.

  3. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  4. The environmental pollutant and carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its human metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone are potent inducers of rat hepatic cytochromes P450 1A1 and -1A2 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Stiborová, Marie; Dracínská, Helena; Hájková, Jana; Kaderábková, Pavla; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Soucek, Pavel; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2006-08-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a suspected human carcinogen occurring in diesel exhaust and air pollution, and its human metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) were investigated for their ability to induce biotransformation enzymes in rat liver and the influence of such induction on DNA adduct formation by the compounds. Rats were treated (i.p.) with 0.4, 4, or 40 mg/kg body weight 3-NBA or 3-ABA. When hepatic cytosolic fractions from rats treated with 40 mg/kg body weight 3-NBA or 3-ABA were incubated with 3-NBA, DNA adduct formation, measured by 32P-postlabeling analysis, was 10-fold higher in incubations with cytosols from pretreated rats than with controls. The increase in 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct formation corresponded to a dose-dependent increase in protein levels and enzymatic activity of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). NQO1 is the major enzyme reducing 3-NBA in human and rat livers. Incubations of 3-ABA with hepatic microsomes of rats treated with 3-NBA or 3-ABA (40 mg/kg body weight) led to as much as a 12-fold increase in 3-ABA-derived DNA adduct formation compared with controls. The observed stimulation of DNA adduct formation by both compounds was attributed to their potential to induce protein expression and enzymatic activity of cytochromes P450 1A1 and/or -1A2 (CYP1A1/2), the major enzymes responsible for 3-ABA activation in human and rat livers. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that by inducing hepatic NQO1 and CYP1A1/2, both 3-NBA and 3-ABA increase the enzymatic activation of these two compounds to reactive DNA adduct-forming species, thereby enhancing their own genotoxic potential.

  5. Zonation of hepatic cytochrome P-450 expression and regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Oinonen, T; Lindros, K O

    1998-01-01

    The CYP genes encode enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes are expressed mainly in the liver and are active in mono-oxygenation and hydroxylation of various xenobiotics, including drugs and alcohols, as well as that of endogenous compounds such as steroids, bile acids, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and biogenic amines. In the liver the CYP enzymes are constitutively expressed and commonly also induced by chemicals in a characteristic zonated pattern with high expression prevailing in the downstream perivenous region. In the present review we summarize recent studies, mainly based on rat liver, on the factors regulating this position-dependent expression and induction. Pituitary-dependent signals mediated by growth hormone and thyroid hormone seem to selectively down-regulate the upstream periportal expression of certain CYP forms. It is at present unknown to what extent other hormones that also affect total hepatic CYP activities, i.e. insulin, glucagon, glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones, act zone-specifically. The expression and induction of CYP enzymes in the perivenous region probably have important toxicological implications, since many CYP-activated chemicals cause cell injury primarily in this region of the liver. PMID:9405271

  6. Hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P-450, glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase are affected by six types of dietary fiber in rats inoculated with human whole fecal flora.

    PubMed

    Roland, N; Nugon-Baudon, L; Flinois, J P; Beaune, P

    1994-09-01

    The effects of six different sources of dietary fiber (inulin, wheat brain, carrot, cocoa, pea and oat fiber) on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P-450 (EC 1.14.14.1), glutathione-S-transferase (GSH-T, EC 2.5.1.18) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPG-T, EC 2.4.1.17) were studied using germ-free F344 rats subsequently inoculated with a human whole fecal flora. In the liver, the total concentration of P-450 was significantly lower in the wheat bran-fed group than in the carrot-fed group. The 2E1 form of P-450, involved in nitrosamine metabolism, was enhanced in the carrot-fed group compared with those fed most other types of fiber. Compared with the pea-fed group, rats fed cocoa had a lower constitutive 2C11 form and a higher 1A2 form. A very high concentration of small intestinal 1A1 form--involved in "toxication" reactions--was observed in rats fed cocoa. The specific activity of hepatic GSH-T was significantly higher in rats fed inulin than in all other groups, except the carrot-fed group. In the colon, GSH-T specific activity was twice as high in the oat-fed group as in the wheat bran-fed counterpart. Small intestinal GSH-T activity and hepatic and intestinal UDPG-T activities were unaffected by diet. Results are discussed in relation to potential health benefits.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by tanshinone I via cytochrome c release in activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Nan, Ji-Xing; Zhao, Yu Zhe; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Sang Jun; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic stellate cells play central roles in hepatic fibrosis. The therapeutic goal in hepatic fibrosis is to halt or reverse fibrosis. Apoptosis is suggested to eliminate activated hepatic stellate cells in fibrosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional medicine used to improve blood circulation and treat chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. We investigated the effect of tanshinone I, an ingredient of Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the apoptotic death of rat hepatic stellate cells transformed by simian virus 40 (T-HSC/Cl-6), which retains the features of activated stellate cells. Treatment of T-HSC/Cl-6 cells with tanshinone I resulted in the induction of typical DNA fragmentation and DNA ladder formation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. Treatment of T-HSC/Cl-6 cells with tanshinone I caused activation of caspase-3 and subsequent proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Tanshinone I induced mitochondrial membrane dipolarization and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that tanshinone I induces apoptosis of T-HSC/Cl-6 cells and that tanshinone I-induced apoptosis involves caspase activation through cytochrome c release and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

  8. PROPICONAZOLE-INDUCED CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RAT AND MOUSE LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are N-substituted azole antifungal agents used as both pesticides and drugs. Some of these compounds are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and some can induce thyroid tumors in rats. Many of these compounds are able to induce and/or inhibit mammalian hepatic cytochrome P450s t...

  9. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY RECOMBINANT RAT AND HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450S

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We report quantitative estimates of the parameters for metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by recombinant preparations of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) from rat and human. BDCM is a drinking water disinfectant byproduct that has been implicated in liver, kidn...

  10. Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Settivari, Raja S.; Evans, Tim J.; Rucker, Ed; Rottinghaus, George E.; Spiers, Donald E.

    2008-03-15

    Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured using real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.

  11. CROSS-SPECIES COMPARISON OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE METABOLITES USING RAT AND RAINBOW TROUT (ONCHORHYNCHUS MYKISS) HEPATIC MICROSOMES AND PURIFIED HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 3A4

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles represent a unique class of azole-containing fungicides that are widely used in both pharmaceutical and agriculture applications. The antifungal property of conazoles occurs via complexation with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) responsible for mediating fungal cell...

  12. Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J. |

    1994-12-31

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

  13. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: Evaluation of hepatic cytochrome p450 induction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, J.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Woolf, A.; French, J.B.; Melancon, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with $-naphthoflavone ($NF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received $NF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  14. An investigation into the hepatic cytochrome P-450 catalysed metabolism of the anaesthetic fluroxene (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether).

    PubMed

    Marsh, J A; Ivanetich, K M; Bradshaw, J J; Harrison, G G; Webber, B L; Kaminsky, L S

    1975-01-01

    The role of the different cytochromes P-450 in the metabolism of the anaesthetic agent fluroxene, and the mechanism of production of toxic effects seen after pre-treatment of the animals with pehnobarbital prior to anaesthesia, have been investigated. Male rats were anaesthetized with fluroxene, or with 2,2,2-trifluroethyl ethyl ether, or with ethyl vinyl ether in an attempt to ascertain the in vivo toxic effects of the three anaesthetic agents. The resultant hepatic histology is reported. A study of the binding and metabolism of fluroxene by isolated rat hepatic microsomes was also made. We conclude that it is elevated levels of cytochrome P-450 which potentiate the toxicity of fluroxene anaesthesia in phenobarbital treated animals and that cytochrome P-448 does not bind or metabolize fluroxene. The potential toxicity of the fluroxene molecule is considered to reside in the trifluoroethyl moiety, while the vinyl group of fluroxene appears to play a role in the observed liver damage.

  15. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA binding following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues generated during repeated fish fried oil in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Manoj K.; Yadav, Sanjay; Parmar, Devendra; Das, Mukul . E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com

    2006-06-01

    In the present study the effect of repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) and its extract (RFFE) on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) metabolism and DNA adduct formation was undertaken. HPLC analysis of RFFO showed the presence of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. CYP in microsomes from control and RFFO-treated animals showed a peak at 450 nm; however, a shift of 2 nm in the SORET region along with significant induction was observed in microsomes prepared from 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)- and RFFE-treated animals. Activities of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and erythromycin-N-demethylase were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) induced following exposure of RFFE, whereas none of these enzymes were altered in RFFO-treated group. Immunoblot analysis revealed that RFFE and MC were potent inducers of CYP1A1, 1A1/2 and 3A1 isozymes, where as RFFO showed no change in these protein levels. RT-PCR analysis showed induction of cDNA of CYP1A1 and CYP3A1 by RFFE treatment. Hepatic microsomes prepared from RFFE exposed animals enhanced BP metabolism with a concomitant increase in the relative proportion of BP 7,8-diol. Hepatic microsomes prepared from animals pretreated with RFFE and MC significantly enhanced the binding of [{sup 3}H]-BP to calf thymus DNA. The overall results suggest that exposure to RFFE may induce hepatic CYP isozymes thereby producing enhanced reactive metabolites with a potential to bind with DNA that may result in cancer.

  16. Sex difference in the principal cytochrome P-450 for tributyltin metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ohhira, Shuji . E-mail: s-ohhira@dokkyomed.ac.jp; Enomoto, Mitsunori; Matsui, Hisao

    2006-01-15

    Tributyltin is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system enzymes, and its metabolic fate may contribute to the toxicity of the chemical. In the present study, it is examined whether sex differences in the metabolism of tributyltin exist in rats. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of tributyltin was investigated using rat hepatic CYP systems to confirm the principal CYP involved. A significant sex difference in metabolism occurred both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that one of the CYPs responsible for tributyltin metabolism in rats is male specific or predominant at least. Eight cDNA-expressed rat CYPs, including typical phenobarbital (PB)-inducible forms and members of the CYP2C subfamily, were tested to determine their capability for tributyltin metabolism. Among the enzymes studied, a statistically significant dealkylation of tributyltin was mediated by CYP2C6 and 2C11. Furthermore, the sex difference in metabolism disappeared in vitro after anti-rat CYP2C11 antibody pretreatment because CYP2C11 is a major male-specific form in rats. These results indicate that CYP2C6 is the principal CYP for tributyltin metabolism in female rats, whereas CYP2C11 as well as 2C6 is involved in tributyltin metabolism in male rats, and it is suggested that CYP2C11 is responsible for the significant sex difference in the metabolism of tributyltin observed in rats.

  17. Vitamin D ameliorates hepatic ischemic/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Seif, Ansam Aly; Abdelwahed, Doaa Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin D, most commonly associated with the growth and remodeling of bone, has been shown to ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in some tissues, yet its underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the protective effect of vitamin D, if any, against hepatic IRI in rats and the underlying mechanism involved. Adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, sham-operated (sham), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and ischemic-reperfused vitamin D-treated (vit D) groups. Rats in the I/R and vit D groups were subjected to partial (70%) hepatic ischemia for 45 min, followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Vitamin D was given to rats orally in a dose of 500 IU/kg daily for 2 weeks before being subjected to I/R. Markers of liver damage, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were evaluated. Hepatic morphology was also examined. Vit D-treated rats had significantly lower serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ glutamyl transferase compared to rats in the I/R group. Also, vit D-treated rats showed a significant decrease in malondialdehyde, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor κB, B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2-associated X protein, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 levels, with higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and B cell lymphoma 2 protein levels in liver tissues compared to I/R rats. Histological examination showed less damaged liver tissues with amelioration of apoptotic signs in the vit D group compared to the I/R group. In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation ameliorates hepatic IRI mostly by alleviating the inflammatory-apoptotic response mediated by the oxidative reperfusion injury insult.

  18. Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP2C subfamily from an Australian marsupial, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Brett R; El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2008-09-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. We have previously reported that the obligate Eucalyptus feeder koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) exhibits a higher hepatic CYP2C activity as compared to non-Eucalyptus feeders human or rat, with stimulation of CYP2C activity by cineole. In the present study, we examine CYP2C expression by immunohistochemistry and describe the identification and cloning of koala CYP2Cs. Utilising anti-rat CYP2C6 antibody, the expression of CYP2C was found to be uniform across the hepatic sections, being consistent with that observed in human and rat. Two 1647 and 1638 bp koala liver CYP2C complete cDNAs, designated CYP2C47 and CYP2C48 respectively, were cloned by cDNA library screening. The koala CYP2C cDNAs encode a protein of 495 amino acids. Three additional partial CYP2C sequences were also identified from the koala, indicating the multiplicity of the CYP2C subfamily in this unique marsupial species. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of koala hepatic CYP2Cs that share several common features with other published CYP2Cs; however CYP2C47 and CYP2C48 contain four extra amino acid residues at the NH2-terminal, a transmembrane anchor which was reported being a fundamentally conserved structure core of all eukaryote CYP enzymes.

  19. The regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 during LPS-induced inflammation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, Dalya; Goralski, Kerry B.; Renton, Kenneth W. . E-mail: Ken.Renton@dal.ca

    2006-10-01

    It is well known that inflammatory and infectious conditions differentially regulate cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated drug metabolism in the liver. We have previously outlined a potential pathway for the downregulation in hepatic cytochrome P450 following LPS-mediated inflammation in the CNS (Abdulla, D., Goralski, K.B., Garcia Del Busto Cano, E., Renton, K.W., 2005. The signal transduction pathways involved in hepatic cytochrome P450 regulation in the rat during an LPS-induced model of CNS inflammation. Drug Metab. Dispos). The purpose of this study was to outline the effects of LPS-induced peripheral and central nervous system inflammation on hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in vivo, an enzyme that plays an important role in various physiological and pathological states. We report an increase in hepatic mRNA expression of CYP2E1 that occurred as early as 2-3 h following either the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5 mg/kg LPS or i.c.v. administration of 25 {mu}g of LPS. This increase in CYP2E1 mRNA expression was sustained for 24 h. In sharp contrast to the increase in hepatic CYP2E1 mRNA, we observed a significant reduction in the catalytic activity of this enzyme 24 h following either the i.c.v. or i.p. administration of LPS. Cycloheximide or actinomycin-D did not change the LPS-mediated downregulation in hepatic CYP2E1 catalytic activity. Our results support the idea that LPS acts at two different levels to regulate hepatic CYP2E1: a transcriptional level to increase CYP2E1 mRNA expression and a post-transcriptional level to regulate CYP2E1 protein and activity.

  20. Differential hepatotoxicity and cytochrome P450 responses of Fischer-344 rats to the three isomers of dichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Allis, J.W.; Simmons, J.E.; House, D.E.; Robinson, B.L.; Berman, E.

    1992-01-01

    The acute hepatotoxicity and response of hepatic cytochrome P450 to treatment with the three isomers of dichlorobenzene (DCB) have been investigated. The objectives were to estimate the onset of toxicity and to further elucidate the role of cytochrome P450 in the metabolism and toxicity of these compounds. In a study design employing one animal per dose level, Fischer-344 rats were gavaged with up to 25 different dosages, then evaluated 24 h later. Hepatic necrosis, serum alanine aminotransferase, and serum aspartate aminotransferase exhibited similar patterns demonstrating that ortho-DCB (o-DCB) was the most toxic in terms of both earliest onset and degree of response at higher dosages. For these three endpoints, meta-DCB (m-DCB) exhibited a lesser toxicity. Para-DCB (p-DCB) did not cause changes in these three endpoints, but hepatic degenerative changes were found. Total hepatic cytochrome P450 responses were also different after treatment with each isomer. The o-DCB produced a dose-dependent decrease in P450 beginning at dosages lower than the onset of necrosis and appeared to be a suicide substrate for P450. The m-DCB treatment increased P450 at dosages below the onset of necrosis and decreased P450 at higher dosages, with the decline preceding the onset of hepatocyte death.

  1. Rapid and accurate liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Ma, Bingliang; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous substances. A sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the products of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. After the substrates were incubated separately, the samples were pooled and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source in the positive and negative ion modes. The method exhibited linearity over a broad concentration range, insensitivity to matrix effects, and high accuracy, precision, and stability. The novel method was successfully applied to study the kinetics of phenacetin-O deethylation, coumarin-7 hydroxylation, bupropion hydroxylation, taxol-6 hydroxylation, omeprazole-5 hydroxylation, dextromethorphan-O demethylation, tolbutamide-4 hydroxylation, chlorzoxazone-6 hydroxylation, testosterone-6β hydroxylation, and midazolam-1 hydroxylation in rat liver microsomes.

  2. The cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway regulates the hepatic inflammatory response in fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Robert N; Zha, Weibin; Edin, Matthew L; Gruzdev, Artiom; Vendrov, Kimberly C; Miller, Tricia M; Xu, Zhenghong; Lih, Fred B; DeGraff, Laura M; Tomer, Kenneth B; Jones, H Michael; Makowski, Liza; Huang, Leaf; Poloyac, Samuel M; Zeldin, Darryl C; Lee, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is an emerging public health problem without effective therapies, and chronic hepatic inflammation is a key pathologic mediator in its progression. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have potent anti-inflammatory effects. Although promoting the effects of EETs elicits anti-inflammatory and protective effects in the cardiovascular system, the contribution of CYP-derived EETs to the regulation of fatty liver disease-associated inflammation and injury is unknown. Using the atherogenic diet model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH), our studies demonstrated that induction of fatty liver disease significantly and preferentially suppresses hepatic CYP epoxygenase expression and activity, and both hepatic and circulating levels of EETs in mice. Furthermore, mice with targeted disruption of Ephx2 (the gene encoding soluble epoxide hydrolase) exhibited restored hepatic and circulating EET levels and a significantly attenuated induction of hepatic inflammation and injury. Collectively, these data suggest that suppression of hepatic CYP-mediated EET biosynthesis is an important pathological consequence of fatty liver disease-associated inflammation, and that the CYP epoxygenase pathway is a central regulator of the hepatic inflammatory response in NAFLD/NASH. Future studies investigating the utility of therapeutic strategies that promote the effects of CYP-derived EETs in NAFLD/NASH are warranted.

  3. Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X

    2013-05-01

    Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens.

  4. Pharmacokinetic changes in drugs during protein-calorie malnutrition: correlation between drug metabolism and hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 isozymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Suh, Ok Kyung; Lee, Myung Gull

    2004-07-01

    The rats with protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM, 5% casein diet for a period of 4-week) were reported to exhibit 60 and 80% suppression in the hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and CYP2C11 levels, respectively, and 40-50% decreases in CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 levels compared to control (23% casein diet for a period of 4-week) based on Western blot analysis. In addition, Northern blot analysis showed that CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2C11, and CYP3A1/2 mRNAs decreased in the state of PCM as well. Hence, pharmacokinetic changes of the drugs in rats with PCM [especially the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) changes of metabolite(s)] reported from literatures were tried to explain in terms of CYP isozyme changes in the rats. Otherwise, the time-averaged nonrenal clearance (CL NR) of parent drug was compared. Pharmacokinetic changes of the drugs in other types of malnutritional state, such as kwashiorkor and marasmus, in both human and animal models were also compared. The drugs reviewed are as follows: diuretics, antibiotics, anticancer agents, antiepileptics, antiarrythmics, analgesics, xanthines, antimalarials, and miscellaneous.

  5. Bromopropylate: induction of hepatic cytochromes P450 and absence of covalent binding to DNA in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Thomas, H; Sagelsdorff, P; Molitor, E; Skripsky, T; Waechter, F

    1994-11-01

    Oral administration of benzilic acid ester-based acaricide bromopropylate at daily doses of 3, 15, 100, and 300 mg/kg body wt to young adult male Tif:MAGf mice for 14 days caused slightly increased liver weights in the high-dose group. A dose-dependent increase of the microsomal cytochrome P450 content was accompanied by elevated ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase, and total testosterone hydroxylase activities. When compared with mice treated in parallel with the model compounds for hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme induction, phenobarbitone, and 3-methylcholanthrene, the enzyme activity changes observed with bromopropylate largely equalled those expressed in phenobarbitone-treated mice. Immunochemical studies with monoclonal antibodies against rat liver cytochrome P450 isoenzymes of the gene families 1A, 2B, 3A, and 4A confirmed that bromopropylate is a phenobarbitone-type inducer in the mouse liver. Titration of liver microsomal suspensions with bromopropylate yielded Type I substrate binding spectra. The specific amplitude was increased 1.5-fold when microsomes from bromopropylate-treated mice (300 mg/kg body wt) were used instead of control microsomes, indicating the induction of cytochromes P450 catalyzing the oxidative metabolism of the test compound. Single oral administration of 300 mg/kg body wt [14C]bromopropylate to male mice, without or following pretreatment for 14 days with 300 mg/kg body wt unlabeled bromopropylate, gave no indication for DNA binding of the test compound in the liver. This excludes a genotoxic potential via covalent DNA modification. The results suggest that, in analogy to phenobarbitone, bromopropylate acts as a tumor promotor rather than a tumor initiator in the mouse liver.

  6. Expression of Cytochrome P450s in the Liver of Rats Administered with Socheongryong-tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential influences of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in vivo. Materials and Methods: SCRT was orally administered to either male or female Sprague-Dawley rats once daily at doses of 0, 1000, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. The mRNA expression of CYP450s (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1) in liver tissues was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. And then, the protein expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 in liver tissues was analyzed by the Western blot. Results: We found no significant influence in the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1 after repeated administration of SCRT for 13 weeks. By contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 was increased by repeated SCRT treatment in male rats, but not in female rats. The mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2 in both genders was increased by administration of SCRT. Conclusion: A caution is needed when SCRT is co-administered with substrates of CYP2B1/2 for clinical usage. In case of male, an attention is also required when SCRT and drugs metabolized by CYP1A1 are taken together. Our findings provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of SCRT when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks did not affect the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1In male rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2In female rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2. Abbreviations used: SCRT: Socheongryong-tang, CYP450: Cytochrome P450, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, RT-PCR: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PMID

  7. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  8. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Niraj; Verbeken, Erik; Ramaekers, Kaat; Dallmeier, Kai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans). As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains). Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies. PMID:27483350

  9. Effects of acetone and fasting on cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism in intact and hypophysectomized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.T.; Simonet, L.

    1987-05-01

    Hypophysectomized and intact male and female rats were fasted for 24-48 hrs or given acetone (5ml/kg body weight) in order to evaluate the effects of these treatments on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total P-450 in intact female rats. However, there was no significant changes in P-450 in microsomes from fasted or acetone-treated hypophysectomized rats. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in significant increases in nitrosamine metabolism in intact rats. This effect was markedly reduced in the hypophysectomized rat. When intact male rats were fasted or treated with acetone there was a significant increase in P-450 in microsomes from acetone treated rats. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was significantly increased in both intact and hypophysectomized male and female rats treated with acetone. These results suggest that the pituitary gland or some product markedly influences acetone-stimulated nitrosamine metabolism.

  10. Ontogeny of the rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)-prazosin, (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine and (/sup 125/I)-pindolol binding to washed particle membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor number occur shortly before birth and at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors which falls 10-20 fold at birth. The number of hepatic beta adrenoceptors decreases 30-50% during the third week after birth increases slightly at weaning, then decreases gradually in the adult. Hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor number increases 3-5 fold at weaning to become the predominant adrenoceptor in the adult rat liver. The basis for the fall in alpha-2 number at birth remains unclear. The fall in beta receptor number at the end of the second week post-natally appears dependent on increased insulin and corticosterone secretion as well as increased NE release form nerve terminals. The basis for the increase in beta number at weaning and the sex-dependent loss of beta function but not receptor number in the adult rat remains unknown. The dramatic increases in alpha-1 number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function. These findings suggest that hepatic adrenoceptor number adapts from the low carbohydrate diet of the suckling rat to the high carbohydrate diet of the adult at weaning.

  11. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity in rats treated with cytochrome P-450 inducers

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, R.E.; Barlow, R.L.; Gregory, E.M.

    1987-05-01

    Pulmonary oxygen toxicity is assumed to result from damage caused by superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -/) hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) and/or hydroxyl radical (OH) produced by the partial reduction of molecular oxygen (O/sub 2/). The microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450) monooxygenase system is known to produce O/sub 2//sup -/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. They have studied the influence of monooxygenase induction using phenobarbital (PB) and ..beta..-naphthoflavone (..beta..-NF) on O/sub 2/ toxicity in the rat. PB- or ..beta..-NF induce hepatic P-450 but only ..beta..-NF induces pulmonary P-450. Pulmonary microsomes produced O/sub 2//sup -/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at rates (expressed per mg microsomal protein) which did not vary as a function of pretreatment. Rats were exposed to 100% O/sub 2/ for up to 3 days. After 3 days of O/sub 2/, lung weights were about 50% above controls regardless of pretreatment. The microsomal monooxygenase enzymes (P-450, b/sub 5/ and NADPH P-450 reductase) were quantified in liver and lung. Lung microsomal P-450 was reduced after 3 days of O/sub 2/ exposure regardless of pretreatment. The protective enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase) and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) were also quantified in lung and liver samples. Lung NPSH and GSH peroxidase were increased after 3 days of O/sub 2/ exposure regardless of pretreatment while SOD was increased in controls and PB- but not ..beta..-NF-treated rats. Three of 14 ..beta..-NF-treated rats died during O/sub 2/ exposure while no animals in the control or PB-treated groups died.

  12. Induction or inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 modifies the acute toxicity of acrylonitrile in rats: biochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Suhua, Wang; Rongzhu, Lu; Wenrong, Xu; Guangwei, Xing; Xiaowu, Zhao; Shizhong, Wang; Ye, Zhang; Fangan, Han; Aschner, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of the inhibition or induction of CYP2E1 activity on acute acrylonitrile (AN) toxicity in rats. Increased or decreased hepatic CYP2E1 activity was achieved by pretreatment with acetone or trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), respectively. AN (50 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Onset of convulsions and death were observed in rats with increased CYP2E1 activity, whereas convulsions and death did not appear in rats within 1 h after treatment with AN alone. Convulsions occurred in all AN-treated animals with increased CYP2E1 activity at approximately 18 min. The levels of cyanide (CN(-)), a terminal metabolite of AN, were significantly increased in the brains and livers of the AN-treated rats with increased CYP2E1 activity, compared with the levels in rats treated with AN alone, DCE + AN or acetone + DCE + AN. The cytochrome c oxidase (CcOx) activities in the brains and livers of the rats treated with AN or AN + acetone were significantly lower than those in the normal control rats and the rats treated with DCE, whereas the CcOx activities in the brains and livers of rats with decreased CYP2E1 activity were significantly higher than those in AN-treated rats. Brain lipid peroxidation was enhanced, and the antioxidant capacity was significantly compromised in rats with decreased CYP2E1 activity compared with rats with normal or increased CYP2E1 activity. Therefore, inhibition of CYP2E1 and simultaneous antioxidant therapy should be considered as supplementary therapeutic interventions in acute AN intoxication cases with higher CYP2E1 activity, thus a longer window of opportunity would be got to offer further emergency medication.

  13. Low levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 in Mexicans with uncomplicated cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zedillo, G; Amézcua, J; González Barranco, D

    1994-01-01

    The multienzymatic complex known as cytochrome P-450 represents one of the most important hemoprotein families of the liver. It participates in the metabolism of steroids, fatty acids, prostaglandins and liposoluble vitamins, and also plays a role in the bioactivation of xenobiotic compounds (generates reactive metabolites which produce acute and chronic lesions in liver tissue). This is a report on the low concentrations of total microsomal P-450 (0.093 +/- SD = 0.069 nMoles/mg protein) found in liver biopsies of 19 mexican patients diagnosed as having biliary lithiasis, as compared to an anglosaxon population with the same liver pathology (0.415 +/- 0.105 nMoles/mg protein). These low values are in agreement with the observation of a high incidence in normal mexicans (91.7%) of poor nifedipine metabolizers. Our findings justify an analyses of hepatic RNAm and cDNA of mexican individuals according to ethnic background, diet and environmental contaminants.

  14. Endotoxin administration to humans inhibits hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Shedlofsky, S I; Israel, B C; McClain, C J; Hill, D B; Blouin, R A

    1994-01-01

    In experimental animals, injection of gram-negative endotoxin (LPS) decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. To evaluate this phenomenon in a human model of gram-negative sepsis, LPS was administered on two consecutive days to healthy male volunteers during which time a cocktail of antipyrine (AP-250 mg), hexobarbital (HB-500 mg), and theophylline (TH-150 mg) was ingested and the apparent oral clearance of each drug determined. Each subject had a control drug clearance study with saline injections. In the first experiment, six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the first dose of LPS. In the second experiment, another six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the second dose of LPS. In both experiments, LPS caused the expected physiologic responses of inflammation including fever with increases in serum concentrations of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and acute phase reactants. In the first experiment, only minor decreases in clearances of the probe drugs were observed (7-12%). However in the second experiment, marked decreases in the clearances of AP (35, 95% CI 18-48%), HB (27, 95% CI 14-34%), and TH (22, 95% CI 12-32%) were seen. The decreases in AP clearance correlated with initial peak values of TNF alpha (r = 0.82) and IL-6 (r = 0.86). These data show that in humans the inflammatory response to even a very low dose of LPS significantly decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and this effect evolves over a 24-h period. It is likely that septic patients with much higher exposures to LPS have more profound inhibition of drug metabolism. PMID:7989576

  15. Effects of kava alkaloid, pipermethystine, and kavalactones on oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 in F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Steven T S; Dragull, Klaus; Tang, Chung-Shih; Bittenbender, Harry C; Efird, Jimmy T; Nerurkar, Pratibha V

    2007-05-01

    Kava-containing products remain popular in the United States and continue to be sold in health food stores and ethnic markets regardless of the fact that it was banned in Western countries such as Germany, France, Switzerland, Australia, and Canada, following reports of alleged hepatotoxicity. It is therefore critical to establish efficacy and verify adverse effects and/or herb-drug interactions for kava-kava (Piper methysticum). We have previously demonstrated that kava alkaloid, pipermethystine (PM), abundant in leaves and stem peelings, induces mitochondrial toxicity in human hepatoma cells, HepG2, as compared with the bioactive components, kavalactones (KL), abundant in the rhizome. The current study compared short-term toxic effects of PM in Fischer-344 (F-344) rats to acetone-water extracts of kava rhizome (KRE). Treatment of F-344 rats with PM (10 mg/kg) and KRE (100 mg/kg) for 2 weeks failed to elicit any significant changes in liver function tests or cause severe hepatic toxicity as measured by lipid peroxidation and apoptosis markers such as malondialdehyde, Bax, and Bcl-2. However, PM-treated rats demonstrated a significant increase in hepatic glutathione, cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 and 1A2, suggesting adaptation to oxidative stress and possible drug-drug interactions.

  16. No evidence of rat hepatitis E virus excretion into urine of rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Johne, Reimar; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-08-31

    To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted into the urine of rats, we infected three Wistar and six nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat HEV RNA in serum, fecal and urine samples. We detected rat HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all rats but not in the urine. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.

  17. Regulation of Porcine Hepatic Cytochrome P450 — Implication for Boar Taint

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is the major family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of several xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Among substrates for CYP450 is the tryptophan metabolite skatole (3-methylindole), one of the major contributors to the off-odour associated with boar-tainted meat. The accumulation of skatole in pigs is highly dependent on the hepatic clearance by CYP450s. In recent years, the porcine CYP450 has attracted attention both in relation to meat quality and as a potential model for human CYP450. The molecular regulation of CYP450 mRNA expression is controlled by several nuclear receptors and transcription factors that are targets for numerous endogenously and exogenously produced agonists and antagonists. Moreover, CYP450 expression and activity are affected by factors such as age, gender and feeding. The regulation of porcine CYP450 has been suggested to have more similarities with human CYP450 than other animal models, including rodents. This article reviews the available data on porcine hepatic CYP450s and its implications for boar taint. PMID:25408844

  18. Exposure to a Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM) Alters Hepatic Energy and Lipid Metabolism Exacerbating Hepatic Steatosis in Obese JCR Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Florian, Maria; Chen, Qixuan; Yan, Jin; Petrov, Ivan; Coughlan, Melanie C.; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Caldwell, Don; Lalande, Michelle; Patry, Dominique; Gagnon, Claude; Sarafin, Kurtis; Truong, Jocelyn; Chan, Hing Man; Ratnayake, Nimal; Li, Nanqin; Willmore, William G.; Jin, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined by the American Liver Society as the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol, is the most common liver disease in North America. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are viewed as the major causes of NAFLD. Environmental contaminants have also been implicated in the development of NAFLD. Northern populations are exposed to a myriad of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, flame retardants, and toxic metals, while also affected by higher rates of obesity and alcohol abuse compared to the rest of Canada. In this study, we examined the impact of a mixture of 22 contaminants detected in Inuit blood on the development and progression of NAFLD in obese JCR rats with or without co-exposure to10% ethanol. Hepatosteatosis was found in obese rat liver, which was worsened by exposure to 10% ethanol. NCM treatment increased the number of macrovesicular lipid droplets, total lipid contents, portion of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. This was complemented by an increase in hepatic total cholesterol and cholesterol ester levels which was associated with changes in the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport. In addition, NCM treatment increased cytochrome P450 2E1 protein expression and decreased ubiquinone pool, and mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit ATP5A and Complex IV activity. Despite the changes in mitochondrial physiology, hepatic ATP levels were maintained high in NCM-treated versus control rats. This was due to a decrease in ATP utilization and an increase in creatine kinase activity. Collectively, our results suggest that NCM treatment decreases hepatic cholesterol export, possibly also increases cholesterol uptake from circulation, and promotes lipid accumulation and alters ATP homeostasis which exacerbates the existing hepatic steatosis in genetically obese JCR rats with or without co

  19. Exposure to a northern contaminant mixture (NCM) alters hepatic energy and lipid metabolism exacerbating hepatic steatosis in obese JCR rats.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Florian, Maria; Chen, Qixuan; Yan, Jin; Petrov, Ivan; Coughlan, Melanie C; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Caldwell, Don; Lalande, Michelle; Patry, Dominique; Gagnon, Claude; Sarafin, Kurtis; Truong, Jocelyn; Chan, Hing Man; Ratnayake, Nimal; Li, Nanqin; Willmore, William G; Jin, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined by the American Liver Society as the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol, is the most common liver disease in North America. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are viewed as the major causes of NAFLD. Environmental contaminants have also been implicated in the development of NAFLD. Northern populations are exposed to a myriad of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, flame retardants, and toxic metals, while also affected by higher rates of obesity and alcohol abuse compared to the rest of Canada. In this study, we examined the impact of a mixture of 22 contaminants detected in Inuit blood on the development and progression of NAFLD in obese JCR rats with or without co-exposure to 10% ethanol. Hepatosteatosis was found in obese rat liver, which was worsened by exposure to 10% ethanol. NCM treatment increased the number of macrovesicular lipid droplets, total lipid contents, portion of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. This was complemented by an increase in hepatic total cholesterol and cholesterol ester levels which was associated with changes in the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport. In addition, NCM treatment increased cytochrome P450 2E1 protein expression and decreased ubiquinone pool, and mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit ATP5A and Complex IV activity. Despite the changes in mitochondrial physiology, hepatic ATP levels were maintained high in NCM-treated versus control rats. This was due to a decrease in ATP utilization and an increase in creatine kinase activity. Collectively, our results suggest that NCM treatment decreases hepatic cholesterol export, possibly also increases cholesterol uptake from circulation, and promotes lipid accumulation and alters ATP homeostasis which exacerbates the existing hepatic steatosis in genetically obese JCR rats with or without co

  20. Differences in metabolism of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid by human and rat cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kolrep, Franziska; Hessel, Stefanie; These, Anja; Ehlers, Anke; Rein, Kathleen; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    The ingestion of seafood contaminated with the marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA) can lead to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning with symptoms like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. Both rat and the human hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) metabolize OA. However, liver cell toxicity of metabolized OA is mainly unclear. The aim of our study was to detect the cellular effects in HepG2 cells exposed to OA in the presence of recombinant CYP enzymes of both rat and human for the investigation of species differences. The results should be set in correlation with a CYP-specific metabolite pattern. Comparative metabolite profiles of OA after incubation in rat and human recombinant CYP enzymes were established by using LC-MS/MS technique. Results demonstrated that metabolism of OA to oxygenated metabolites correlates with detoxification which was mainly catalyzed by human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Detoxification by rat Cyp3a1 was lower compared to human CYP3A enzymes and activation of OA by Cyp3a2 was observed, coincident with minor overall conversion capacity of OA. By contrast human and rat CYP1A2 seem to activate OA into cytotoxic intermediates. In conclusion, different mechanisms of OA metabolism may occur in the liver. At low OA doses, the human liver is likely well protected against cytotoxic OA, but for high shellfish consumers a potential risk cannot be excluded.

  1. [Effects of calcitriol and alfacalcidol on an osteoporosis model in rats with hepatic failure].

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, A; Ishibashi, Y; Kuriyama, K; Tachiiri, T; Kusajima, H; Kojima, E; Momo, K

    1999-01-01

    To predict the potential utility of calcitriol in human osteoporosis with hepatic dysfunction, we examined the effects of calcitriol and alfacalcidol in ovariectomized (OVX) aged-rats with CCl4-induced hepatic failure. In OVX+CCl4 rats, GOT, GTP, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin increased and hepatic enzyme activity (cytochrome b5 and P450) decreased. Repeated oral doses of calcitriol (0.1 and 0.2 microgram/kg) for 51 days inhibited a decrease in serum calcium concentration. This effect was more potent than that of alfacalcidol at the same dose. Both drugs tended to inhibit a decrease in femoral calcium contents. Calcitriol (0.2 microgram/kg) prevented a decrease in femoral bone density (dry and ash weight per volume), unlike alfacalcidol. Soft X-ray imaging analysis revealed that both drugs tended to inhibit the decrease in femoral bone density. There were no differences in the femoral bone strength between OVX+CCl4 and sham-operated rats. The serum calcitriol concentrations increased after the last doses of calcitriol, while they did not increase after the last dose of alfacalcidol. All these effects of calcitriol were related to the serum calcitriol levels. These results suggest that calcitriol, unlike alfacalcidol, may have a clinical therapeutic effect in osteoporosis with hepatic dysfunction.

  2. Interpulse interval in circulating growth hormone patterns regulates sexually dimorphic expression of hepatic cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Waxman, D J; Pampori, N A; Ram, P A; Agrawal, A K; Shapiro, B H

    1991-08-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) profiles are sexually differentiated in many species and regulate the sex-dependence of peripubescent growth rates and liver function, including steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 expression, by mechanisms that are poorly understood. By use of an external pump to deliver to hypophysectomized rats pulses of rat GH of varying frequency and amplitude, a critical element for liver discrimination between male and female GH patterns was identified. Liver expression of the male-specific steroid 2 alpha (or 16 alpha)-hydroxylase P450, designated CYP2C11, was stimulated by GH at both physiological and nonphysiological pulse amplitudes, durations, and frequencies, provided that an interpulse interval of no detectable GH was maintained for at least 2.5 hr. This finding suggests that hepatocytes undergo an obligatory recovery period after stimulation by a GH pulse. This period may be required to reset a GH-activated intracellular signaling pathway or may relate to the short-term absence of GH receptors at the hepatocyte surface after a cycle of GH binding and receptor internalization. These requirements were distinguished from those necessary for the stimulation by GH of normal male growth rates in hypophysectomized rats, indicating that different GH responses and, perhaps, different GH-responsive tissues recognize distinct signaling elements in the sexually dimorphic patterns of circulating GH.

  3. Purification and characterization of a previously unreported form of cytochrome P-448 from the liver of 3-methylcholanthrene-pretreated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, S L; Shires, T K

    1986-01-01

    At least four hepatic isoenzymes of cytochrome P-450 were purified and characterized from rats treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. A monoclonal antibody developed against one of the forms (designated cytochrome P-450 MC-B) and polyclonal antibodies against others were used to demonstrate that form MC-B is immunologically distinct from other methylcholanthrene-inducible forms. Limited N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that cytochrome P-450 MC-B has a primary structure that differs from the N-terminal sequences of other established rat isoenzymes. Cytochrome P-450 MC-B has a minimum Mr of 53,000, a CO-reduced spectral maximum at 448 nm, a Soret maximum of 417 nm in the absolute oxidized spectrum and a pattern of substrate preferences that differs from those of the other methylcholanthrene-induced forms. The other forms (MC-A, MC-C and MC-D) share characteristics with isoenzymes previously reported by other investigators. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3753450

  4. Cytochrome P450-2E1 promotes fast food-mediated hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Choi, Youngshim; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Banerjee, Atrayee; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) increases oxidative stress. High hepatic cholesterol causes non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Thus, we aimed to study the role of CYP2E1 in promoting liver fibrosis by high cholesterol-containing fast-food (FF). Male wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-null mice were fed standard chow or FF for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. Various parameters of liver fibrosis and potential mechanisms such as oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR) were studied. Indirect calorimetry was also used to determine metabolic parameters. Liver histology showed that only WT fed FF (WT-FF) developed NASH and fibrosis. Hepatic levels of fibrosis protein markers were significantly increased in WT-FF. The nitroxidative stress marker iNOS, but not CYP2E1, was significantly elevated only in FF-fed WT. Serum endotoxin, TLR-4 levels, and inflammatory markers were highest in WT-FF. FAS, PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and CB1-R were markedly altered in WT-FF. Electron microscopy and immunoblot analyses showed significantly higher levels of ER stress in FF-fed WT. Indirect calorimetry showed that Cyp2e1-null-mice fed FF exhibited consistently higher total energy expenditure (TEE) than their corresponding WT. These results demonstrate that CYP2E1 is important in fast food-mediated liver fibrosis by promoting nitroxidative and ER stress, endotoxemia, inflammation, IR, and low TEE. PMID:28051126

  5. Five of 12 forms of vaccinia virus-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolically activate aflatoxin B sub 1

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Toshifumi; Yamano, Shigeru; Gelboin, H.V.; Gonzalez, F.J. ); Guzelian, P.S. )

    1990-06-01

    Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B{sub 1} to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B{sub 1} to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production of His revertants of Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. The same P450s catalyzed conversion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} to DNA-bound derivatives as judged by an in situ assay in which the radiolabeled carcinogen was incubated with cells expressing the individual P450 forms. Seven other human P450s, IIC8, IIC9, IID6, IIE1, IIF1, and IIIA5, and IVB1, did not significantly activate aflatoxin B{sub 1} as measured by both the Ames test and the DNA-binding assay. Moreover, polyclonal anti-rat liver P450 antibodies that crossreact with individual human P450s IA2, IIA3, IIIA3, and IIIA4 each inhibited aflatoxin B{sub 1} activation catalyzed by human liver S-9 extracts. Inhibition ranged from as low as 10% with antibody against IIA3 to as high as 65% with antibody against IIIA3 and IIIA4. These results establish that metabolic activation of aflatoxin B{sub 1} in human liver involves the contribution of multiple forms of P450.

  6. Myricetin Increases Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Protein Expression and Decreases Plasma Lipids and Adiposity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of myricetin. Myricetin exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats were dosed orally with myricetin or fenofibrate, once daily for eight weeks. Myricetin (300 mg kg−1 per day) displayed similar characteristics to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 per day) in reducing lowered body weight (BW) gain, visceral fat-pad weights and plasma lipid levels of HFD-fed rats. Myricetin also reduced the hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents, as well as lowered hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and epididymal adipocyte size in HFD-fed rats. Myricetin and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced down-regulation of the hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α. HFD-induced decreases of the hepatic protein level of acyl-CoA oxidase and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 were up-regulated by myricetin and fenofibrate. The elevated expressions of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) of HFD-fed rats were lowered by myricetin and fenofibrate. These results suggest that myricetin suppressed BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing the fatty acid oxidation, which was likely mediated via up-regulation of PPARα and down-regulation of SREBP expressions in the liver of HFD-fed rats. PMID:22474525

  7. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity, Abundance, and Expression Throughout Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Smith, Jordan N.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s are oxidative metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes varies considerably throughout human development; the deficit in our understanding of these dynamics limits our ability to predict environmental and pharmaceutical exposure effects. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 enzymes, we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. Modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s were used as chemical probes for isolating active P450 proteoforms in human hepatic microsomes with developmental stages ranging from early gestation to late adult. High-resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify probe-labeled P450s, allowing for a functional profile of P450 ontogeny. Total protein abundance profiles and P450 rRNA was also measured, and our results reveal life-stage–dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that these results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics. PMID:27084891

  8. Ablation of cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase 4A14 gene attenuates hepatic steatosis and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Sha; Zhou, Yunfeng; Su, Wen; Ruan, Xiongzhong; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Feng; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Guan, Youfei

    2017-03-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by simple hepatic steatosis (SS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in the liver plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase 4A14 (CYP4A14) is a homolog of human CYP4A hydroxylase that catalyzes omega-hydroxylation of medium-chain fatty acids and arachidonic acid in mice. The goal of this study was to determine the role of CYP4A14 in the development and the progression of NAFLD. Here, we showed that hepatic CYP4A expression was up-regulated in the livers of patients and three murine models of NAFLD. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CYP4A14 in the livers of C57BL/6 mice resulted in a fatty liver phenotype with a significant increase in hepatic fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) expression. In contrast, CYP4A14 gene-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet or a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet exhibited attenuated liver lipid accumulation and reduced hepatic FAT/CD36 expression. In addition, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis was markedly ameliorated in MCD diet-fed CYP4A14-deficient mice. Collectively, CYP4A14 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both SS and NASH and may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NAFLD.

  9. Experiment K-6-14. Hepatic function in rats after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, A., Jr.; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Jones, D.; Hargrove, J.; Mullins, R.; Popova, I.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical consequences of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, tissue samples from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for hepatic protein, glycogen and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the hepatic glycogen content and HMG-CoA reductase activities of the rats flown on Cosmos 1887, and a decrease in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P sub 450 and the activity of aniline hydroxylase, a cytochrome P sub 450-dependent enzyme. Decreases in these two indices of the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system indicated that spaceflight may compromise the ability of liver to metabolize drugs and toxins. The higher HMG-CoA reductase correlated with elevated levels of serum cholestrol. Other changes included somewhat higher blood glucose, creatinine, SGOT, and much greater alkaline phosphatase and BUN. These results generally support the earlier observation of changes in these parameters (Merrill et al., Am. J. Physiol. 252:R22-R226, 1987). The importance of these alterations in liver function is not known; however, they have the potential to complicate long-term spaceflight.

  10. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Johne, Reimar; Heckel, Gerald; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Kindler, Eveline; Maresch, Christina; Reetz, Jochen; Schielke, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus infections may be caused by zoonotic transmission of virus genotypes 3 and 4. To determine whether rodents are a reservoir, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E–like virus from 2 Norway rats in Germany. The sequence suggests a separate genotype for this hepatotropic virus. PMID:20735931

  11. Study of biochemical behavior of some exported and nonexported hepatic proteins during an acute inflammatory reaction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mahu, J L; Feldmann, G

    1984-01-01

    Haptoglobin, albumin, glucose-6-phosphatase, p-nitrophenol uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase and cytochrome P-450 were measured in liver microsomes from normal rats and from rats undergoing an acute inflammatory reaction (AIR) induced either by subcutaneous administration of turpentine or by intrapleural injection of calcium pyrophosphate. 24 h after the beginning of the AIR induced by subcutaneous administration of turpentine, haptoglobin and albumin, two exported proteins, had risen to a peak (+313%), and dropped considerably (-52%) whereas nonexported protein levels did not change except for cytochrome P-450, which diminished (-38%). In the same way, intrapleural injection of calcium pyrophosphate was followed after 24 h by significant but smaller variations in haptoglobin (+60%) and cytochrome P-450 (-20%) concentrations. Albumin levels, glucose-6-phosphatase and p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities were unchanged in this experimental model. The drop in cytochrome P-450 under all these conditions and also the diminution of albumin in the first model suggest that all the proteins produced by liver cells might not be synthesized in equal amounts. The decrease in cytochrome P-450 could interfere in hepatic drug metabolism during an AIR.

  12. NADPH- and linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation and destruction of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Iba, M M; Mannering, G J

    1987-05-01

    Temporal aspects of the effects of inhibitors on hepatic cytochrome P-450 destruction and lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH and linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAHP) were compared. In the absence of added Fe2+, NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation in hepatic microsomes exhibited a slow phase followed by a fast phase. The addition of Fe2+ eliminated the slow phase, thus demonstrating that iron is a rate-limiting component in the reaction. EDTA, which complexes iron, and p-chloromercurobenzoate (pCMB), which inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, inhibited both phases of the reaction. Catalase as well as scavengers of hydroxyl radical, inhibited NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation almost completely. GSH also inhibited the NADPH-dependent reaction but only when added at the beginning of the reaction. In contrast with NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, the autocatalytic reaction induced by LAHP was not biphasic, NADPH-dependent or iron-dependent, nor was it inhibited by hydroxyl radical scavengers, catalase or GSH. A synergistic effect on lipid peroxidation was observed when both NADPH and LAHP were added to microsomes. It is concluded that both the fast and slow phases of NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation are catalyzed enzymatically and are dependent upon Fe2+, whereas LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation is autocatalytic. Since the fast phase of enzymatic lipid peroxidation occurred during the fast phase of destruction of cytochrome P-450, it is postulated that iron made available from cytochrome P-450 is sufficient to promote optimal lipid peroxidation. Since catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibited NADPH-dependent but not LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation, it is concluded that the hydroxyl radical derived from H2O2 is the initiating active-oxygen species in the enzymatic reaction but not in the autocatalytic reaction.

  13. Increased hepatic nicotine elimination after phenobarbital induction in the conscious rat

    SciTech Connect

    Foth, H.; Walther, U.I.; Kahl, G.F. )

    1990-09-15

    Elimination parameters of (14C)nicotine in conscious rats receiving nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) either intravenously or orally were studied. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine, derived by comparison of the respective areas under the concentration vs time curves (AUC), was 89%, indicating low hepatic extraction ratios of about 10%. Pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital (PB) markedly increased hepatic first-pass extraction of nicotine. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine in plasma dropped to 1.4% of the corresponding values obtained from PB-treated rats receiving nicotine iv. After PB pretreatment, the clearance of iv nicotine was increased approximately twofold over controls, much less than the observed more than ninefold increase of hepatic first-pass extraction. It is assumed that extrahepatic metabolism contributed significantly to the rapid removal of nicotine from the plasma. The elimination of cotinine, originating from nicotine administered either po or iv, was significantly increased by PB pretreatment, as determined by the ratio of corresponding AUCs. The pattern of nicotine metabolites in urine also indicated an increase in the rate of cotinine metabolic turnover. The amount of norcotinine in the organic extract of urine paralleled PB microsomal enzyme induction. The ratio between urinary concentrations of the normetabolite and cotinine correlated strongly with the PB-induced state of rat liver. This may be a suitable indicator of PB-inducible hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzyme(s). Since smoking habits in man are feedback-regulated by nicotine plasma concentrations, a similar increase of nicotine elimination by microsomal enzyme induction in man may be of relevance for tobacco consumption.

  14. Chemoreceptor discharges and cytochrome redox changes of the rat carotid body: Role of heme ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sukhamay; Ehleben, Wilhelm; Acker, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    In superfused in vitro rat carotid body, we recorded chemoreceptor discharges and the redox state of cytochromes simultaneously to identify the primary oxygen-sensing protein controlling transmitter release and electrical activity of the carotid sinus nerve. These parameters were tested under the influence of heme ligands such as oxygen, cyanide, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride, and CO. During stimulation, there was an initial increase in discharge frequency followed by a decline or suppression of activity. Photometric changes lagged and were maintained as nerve activity decreased. Reducing mitochondrial cytochromes by cyanide or prolonged severe hypoxia, suppressed the chemoreceptor discharge. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride, a specific inhibitor of the phagocytic cytochrome b558, also silenced the chemoreceptors after an initial excitation. CO increased the chemoreceptor discharge under normoxia, an effect inhibited by light, when the cytochromes were not reduced. When the discharges were depressed by severe hypoxia, exposure to light excited the chemoreceptors and the cytochromes were reduced. The rapidity of the chemosensory responses to light and lack of effect on dopamine release from type I cells led us to hypothesize that carotid body type I cells and the apposed nerve endings use different mechanisms for oxygen sensing: the nerve endings generate action potentials in association with membrane heme proteins whereas cytosolic heme proteins signal the redox state, releasing modulators or transmitters from type I cells. PMID:10430959

  15. Expression of cytochromes P-450 in rat hepatoma cells. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies specific for cytochromes P-450 from rat liver induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Wiebel, F J; Park, S S; Kiefer, F; Gelboin, H V

    1984-12-17

    We have studied the expression of aldrin eposidase (AE), 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECDE), and aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) in nine differentiated or dedifferentiated cell lines derived from H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells. The nature of the cytochromes P-450 mediating AE, ECDE and AHH activities was analysed using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) made to the major 3-methylcholanthrene-induced cytochrome P-450 (MAb-MC) or phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P-450 (MAb-PB) from rat liver. The cells were treated with 5 microM dexamethasone for 30 h to increase the levels of the monoxygenase activities. (a) The six differentiated cell lines examined (Faza967, Fao, HF1-4, 2sFou, C2Rev7, and H4IIEC3/G-) contained MAb-PB-sensitive AE comprising 30-75% of the total AE activity. In most of these cell lines MAb-PB also markedly inhibited ECDE; however, the antibody had a considerably weaker effect on AHH. (b) MAb-PB-sensitive AHH, ECDE and AE activities were also observed in untreated and phenobarbital-treated cells. (c) MAb-MC inhibited AHH and ECDE in the two dedifferentiated lines HF1 and H5 by 50-80%. The antibody also inhibited AHH activities in the poorly differentiated line H4IIEC3/T and in the majority of the differentiated lines by 40-65%. MAb-MC-sensitive AHH was found in Fao cells after treatment with benz[a]anthracene but induced AHH in H4IIEC3/T, H4IIEC3/G-, and 2sFou cells 20-30-fold and in Faza967 and Fao cells 3-5-fold. Benz[a]anthracene remained without effect on AHH activity in C2Rev7 cells. The results show that the hepatoma cells examined express to various degrees phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 and/or 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450. These cell lines are versatile tools for studying the regulation of monooxygenase activities and analysing their role in the activation and inactivation of xenobiotics such as carcinogens, drugs and pesticides.

  16. Stereoselective propranolol metabolism in two drug induced rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zeng, Su

    2000-02-01

    (+)enantiomer, and microsome induced by PB showed less enzyme activity to propranolol S(-)enantiomer which remains the same stereoselectivities as that of the control.CONCLUSION:Enzyme activity centers of the microsome were changed in composition and regioselectivity after the induction of BNF and PB, and the stereoselectivities of propranolol cytochrome P450 metabolism in rat hepatic microsomes were likely due to the stereoselectivities of the catalyzing function in enzyme.CYP1A subfamily induced by BNF exhibited pronounced contribution to propranolol metabolism with stereoselectivity to R(+)enantiomer.CYP2B subfamily induced by PB exhibited moderate contribution to propranolol metabolism, but still had the stereoselectivity of S(-)enantiomer.

  17. Effect of dietary eugenol on xenobiotic metabolism and mediation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and cytochrome P450 1A1 expression in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Hidetomo; Ujita, Wakako; Nishikawa, Miyu; Ishii, Satomi; Inoue, Hiroki; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) play an important role in the elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics and drugs. A variety of natural dietary agents are known to protect against cancer by inducing XME. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of XME induction, we examined the effect of dietary eugenol (4-allyl-1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene) on xenobiotic metabolism. In this study, rats were administered dietary eugenol for 4 weeks to investigate the various effects of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression. In rats administered dietary eugenol, expression levels of hepatic CYP1A 1 were reduced to 40% than of the controls, while expression of hepatic UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT2B1 increased to 2-3 times than observed in the controls. Hepatic protein levels of UGT1A6 and 2B1 were also elevated in the eugenol-treated rats. These results suggest that the natural compound eugenol improves the xenobiotic-metabolizing systems that suppress and induce the expression of CYP1A1 and UGT, respectively.

  18. Metformin reduces hepatic resistance and portal pressure in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Dinesh M; Erice, Eva; Lafoz, Erica; García-Calderó, Héctor; Sarin, Shiv K; Bosch, Jaime; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Increased hepatic vascular resistance is the primary factor in the development of portal hypertension. Metformin ameliorates vascular cells function in several vascular beds. Our study was aimed at evaluating the effects, and the underlying mechanisms, of metformin on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhotic rats and its possible interaction with the effects of propranolol (Prop), the current standard treatment for portal hypertension. CCl4-cirrhotic rats received by gavage metformin 300 mg/kg or its vehicle once a day for 1 wk, before mean arterial pressure (MAP), portal pressure (PP), portal blood flow (PBF), hepatic vascular resistance, and putative molecular/cellular mechanisms were measured. In a subgroup of cirrhotic rats, the hemodynamic response to acute Prop (5 mg/kg iv) was assessed. Effects of metformin ± Prop on PP and MAP were validated in common bile duct ligated-cirrhotic rats. Metformin-treated CCl4-cirrhotic rats had lower PP and hepatic vascular resistance than vehicle-treated rats, without significant changes in MAP or PBF. Metformin caused a significant reduction in liver fibrosis (Sirius red), hepatic stellate cell activation (α-smooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β polypeptide, transforming growth factor-βR1, and Rho kinase), hepatic inflammation (CD68 and CD163), superoxide (dihydroethidium staining), and nitric oxide scavenging (protein nitrotyrosination). Prop, by decreasing PBF, further reduced PP. Similar findings were observed in common bile duct ligated-cirrhotic rats. Metformin administration reduces PP by decreasing the structural and functional components of the elevated hepatic resistance of cirrhosis. This effect is additive to that of Prop. The potential impact of this pharmacological combination, otherwise commonly used in patients with cirrhosis and diabetes, needs clinical evaluation.

  19. THE RESPIRATION AND CYTOCHROME OXIDASE ACTIVITY OF RAT AORTA IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Marie M.; Gurpide, E. Gambetta

    1959-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and cytochrome oxidase activity of aortas of rats with experimental hypertension were found to be higher than the corresponding values for aortas of normotensive animals. The higher metabolic activity of aortas of hypertensive animals appeared to be due both to an increase in the proportion of muscle cells to connective tissue fibers and to a higher activity of the intracellular portion of the tissue. PMID:13620848

  20. Cyanide-induced cytochrome a,a3 oxidation-reduction responses in rat brain in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Piantadosi, C A; Sylvia, A L; Jöbsis, F F

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of the brain to cyanide-induced histotoxic hypoxia and the protective effects of known cyanide antagonists, have been assessed in vivo by reflectance spectrophotometry. Cyanide-related changes in cytochrome a,a3 (cytochrome c oxidase) oxidation-reduction (redox) state, tissue hemoglobin saturation, and local blood volume were continuously monitored in cerebral cortex of rats. Noncumulative, dose-dependent inhibition of the in situ mitochondrial respiratory chain was evaluated directly by measuring increases in reduction levels of the terminal oxidase. These transient cytochrome a,a3 reductions were accompanied by increases in regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation and blood volume. Cytochrome redox responses were not altered either in magnitude or kinetics by hyperoxia; however, the cyanide-cytochrome dose-response curve was greatly shifted to the right by pretreatment with sodium nitrite, and the recovery rate of cytochrome a,a3 from cyanide-induced reduction was enhanced fourfold by pretreatment with sodium thiosulfate. PMID:6313756

  1. Long term streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes alters hepatic biotransformational capacity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.B.; Sanders, R.; Beck, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 45 mg STZ/kg rapidly developed the classical symptoms of diabetes which persisted throughout the 90 day test period. Serum ketone concentrations in control and STZ-treated rats were within normal limits. Diabetic animals exhibited depressed cytochrome P-450 content as well as decreased activities of benzphetamine N-demethylase, styrene oxide hydrolase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase toward 1-naphthol and testosterone, and glutathione S-transferase toward ethacrynic acid, sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). STZ-treated rats given 0.025 ml carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/)/kg had even greater decreases in enzyme activities toward benzphetamine, styrene oxide, CDNB, BSP, 1-naphthol and diethylstilbestrol. Similar changes were observed in normal rats given 0.4 ml CCl/sub 4//kg. In other STZ-treated rats, bromobenzene (0.5 ml/kg) did not depress enzyme activity toward these substrates. In normal rats, this same dose of bromobenzene produced decreased activities toward benzphetamine, styrene oxide, ethacrynic acid, and estrone, but increased activities toward 1-naphthol and diethylstilbestrol. Thus, diabetes potentiated the damaging effects of CCl/sub 4/, but not those of bromobenzene, on these hepatic biotransformation reactions.

  2. Hepatic effects of repeated oral administration of diclofenac to hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN™) and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Akingbasote, James A; Foster, Alison J; Wilson, Ian; Sarda, Sunil; Jones, Huw B; Kenna, J Gerry

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase null (HRN™) mice exhibit normal hepatic and extrahepatic biotransformation enzyme activities when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, but express no functional hepatic cytochrome P450 activities. When incubated in vitro with [(14)C]-diclofenac, liver microsomes from WT mice exhibited extensive biotransformation to oxidative and glucuronide metabolites and covalent binding to proteins was also observed. In contrast, whereas glucuronide conjugates and a quinone-imine metabolite were formed when [(14)C]-diclofenac was incubated with HRN™ mouse liver, only small quantities of P450-derived oxidative metabolites were produced in these samples and covalent binding to proteins was not observed. Livers from vehicle-treated HRN™ mice exhibited enhanced lipid accumulation, bile duct proliferation, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, which were not present in livers from WT mice. Elevated liver-derived alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were also observed in plasma from HRN™ mice. When treated orally with diclofenac for 7 days, at 30 mg/kg/day, the severities of the abnormal liver histopathology and plasma liver enzyme findings in HRN™ mice were reduced markedly. Oral diclofenac administration did not alter the liver histopathology or elevate plasma enzyme activities of WT mice. These findings indicate that HRN™ mice are valuable for exploration of the role played by hepatic P450s in drug biotransformation, but poorly suited to investigations of drug-induced liver toxicity. Nevertheless, studies in HRN™ mice could provide novel insights into the role played by inflammation in liver injury and may aid the evaluation of new strategies for its treatment.

  3. Metabolism of melatonin by cytochrome P-450s in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Semak, Igor; Korik, Elena; Antonova, Maria; Wortsman, Jacobo; Slominski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we provide direct evidence for the involvement of rat microsomal cytochrome P450s in melatonin O-demethylation and hydroxylation at two different positions: 2 and 6, as well as generation of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine (AFMK) and two unknown products. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial cytochrome P450s also converts melatonin into AFMK, N-acetylserotonin (NAS), 2-hydroxymelatonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin and the same two unknown products. Eadie-Hofstee plots for 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation reactions were curvilinear for all tested fractions, suggestive of involvement of at least two components, one with a high affinity and low capacity, and another with a low affinity and high capacity. Mitochondrial cytochrome P450s exhibited higher affinity (suggesting lower Km value) and higher Vmax for melatonin 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation for both high-affinity and low-affinity components as compared to microsomal enzymes. The intrinsic clearance for melatonin hydroxylation by high- and low-affinity components displayed the highest values in all tested fractions, indicating that both mitochondrial and microsomal cytochrome P-450s metabolize melatonin principally by 6-hydroxylation, with O-demethylation representing a minor metabolic pathway. PMID:18717775

  4. Metabolism of melatonin by cytochrome P450s in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes.

    PubMed

    Semak, Igor; Korik, Elena; Antonova, Maria; Wortsman, Jacobo; Slominski, Andrzej

    2008-11-01

    In the present study we provide direct evidence for the involvement of rat microsomal cytochrome P450s in melatonin O-demethylation and hydroxylation at two different positions: 2 and 6, as well as generation of N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine (AFMK) and two unknown products. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial cytochrome P450s also converts melatonin into AFMK, N-acetylserotonin, 2-hydroxymelatonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin and the same two unknown products. Eadie-Hofstee plots for 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation reactions were curvilinear for all tested fractions, suggestive of involvement of at least two components, one with a high affinity and low capacity, and another with a low affinity and high capacity. Mitochondrial cytochrome P450s exhibited higher affinity (suggesting lower K(m) value) and higher V(max) for melatonin 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation for both high-affinity and low-affinity components as compared with microsomal enzymes. The intrinsic clearance for melatonin hydroxylation by high- and low-affinity components displayed the highest values in all tested fractions, indicating that both mitochondrial and microsomal cytochrome P450s metabolize melatonin principally by 6-hydroxylation, with O-demethylation representing a minor metabolic pathway.

  5. The protective effects of ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine on diethyldithiocarbamate-induced hepatic toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gaafa, Khadiga Mohammed; Badawy, Mohammed M; Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify the involvement of free radicals, cytochrome P450 toxic metabolites, and deregulation of calcium homeostasis in the mechanism of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) hepatotoxicity. This was elucidated through the preadministration of ascorbic acid (a free radical scavenger), cimetidine (an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes), or nifedipine (a calcium-blocking agent) before DDC treatment to male albino rats. DDC was administered either as a single dose [800 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneously, s.c.] or daily repeated doses for 30 days (400 mg/kg b.w., s.c.). Oxidative stress indicators [e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD)] showed that single or repeated DDC doses induce an increase in MDA level and a decrease in SOD activity in the liver, whereas it causes depletion in hepatic GSH after a single dose and an elevation in its value after repeated doses. Severe histopathological changes were also observed in the livers of rats treated with single or repeated DDC doses. Ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine pretreatments were found to induce highly protective effects against the evinced DDC hepatotoxicity, manifesting that free radical, cytochrome P450, and calcium-dependent processes contribute to DDC liver toxicity. Finally, although multiple mechanisms may be involved in the hepatotoxic changes induced by DDC, calcium disarrangement and free radical formation play a more critical role than cytochrome P450 in metabolic events leading to toxic effects of DDC.

  6. Mechanism-based inactivation of hepatic cytochrome P450 2C6 and P450 3A1 following in vivo administration of 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-ethylpyridine to rats: differences from previously observed in vitro results.

    PubMed

    Kimmett, S M; McNamee, J P; Marks, G S

    1994-04-01

    Using progesterone 21-hydroxylase as a selective substrate for P450 2C6 in phenobarbital-treated male rats, and androstenedione and progesterone 6 beta-hydroxylases as well as erythromycin N-demethylase as selective markers for P450 3A1 in dexamethasone-treated female rats, we have shown that these P450 isozymes undergo mechanism-based inactivation after in vivo administration of 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-ethylpyridine (4-ethyl DDC). These results differ from our previous studies where no inactivation was observed after in vitro administration of 4-ethyl DDC to rat hepatic microsomes. We show that the differences between the in vivo and in vitro effects of 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (DDC) analogues are due to the presence of residual 4-ethyl DDC in the in vitro experiments causing time-independent competitive inhibition and obscuring observation of mechanism-based inactivation.

  7. 21-Aminosteroids prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induced by hypoxia and inflammation in conscious rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Galal, Ahmed; du Souich, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether a 21-aminosteroid, U74389G, could prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) induced by acute moderate hypoxia or an inflammatory reaction.The rabbits of two groups (n=6 per group) were subjected to acute moderate hypoxia (PaO2≈35 mmHg), one pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg−1 i.v. every 6 h, for 48 h). The rabbits of two other groups received 5 ml of turpentine s.c., one of them being pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg−1 i.v. every 6 h, for 72 h). The kinetics of theophylline (2.5 mg kg−1) were assessed to evaluate the activity of the P450. Once the rabbits were sacrificed, the P450 content and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, were estimated in the liver.Compared with control rabbits, hypoxia and inflammation increased theophylline plasma concentrations, as a result of a decrease in theophylline systemic clearance (P<0.05). Both experimental conditions reduced hepatic content of P450 by 40–50% (P<0.05) and increased the amount of hepatic TBARS by around 50% (P<0.05). Pre-treatment with U74389G prevented the hypoxia- and inflammation-induced decrease in theophylline systemic clearance, the down-regulation of hepatic P450, and the increase in liver TBARS.It is concluded that in the rabbit, U74389G prevents hepatic P450 depression produced by acute moderate hypoxia and a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction, possibly by eliciting a radical quenching antioxidant activity. PMID:10510447

  8. Chronic administration of caderofloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, increases hepatic CYP2E1 expression and activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Miao, Ming-xing; Zhong, Ze-yu; Xu, Ping; Chen, Yang; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Caderofloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone that is under phase III clinical trials in China. Here we examined the effects of caderofloxacin on rat hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms as well as the potential of caderofloxacin interacting with co-administered drugs. Methods: Male rats were treated with caderofloxacin (9 mg/kg, ig) once or twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The effects of caderofloxacin on CYP3A, 2D6, 2C19, 1A2, 2E1 and 2C9 were evaluated using a “cocktail” of 6 probes (midazolam, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, theophylline, chlorzoxazone and diclofenac) injected on d 0 (prior to caderofloxacin exposure) and d 15 (after caderofloxacin exposure). Hepatic microsomes from the caderofloxacin-treated rats were used to assess CYP2E1 activity and chlorzoxazone metabolism. The expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein in hepatic microsomes was analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: Fourteen-day administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the activity of hepatic CYP2E1, leading to enhanced metabolism of chlorzoxazone. In vitro microsomal study confirmed that CYP2E1 was a major metabolic enzyme involved in chlorzoxazone metabolism, and the 14-d administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the activity of CYP2E1 in hepatic microsomes, resulting in increased formation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone. Furthermore, the 14-d administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein in liver microsomes, which was consistent with the pharmacokinetic results. Conclusion: Fourteen-day administration of caderofloxacin can induce the expression and activity of hepatic CYP2E1 in rats. When caderofloxacin is administered, a potential drug-drug interaction mediated by CYP2E1 induction should be considered. PMID:26838075

  9. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of triclosan attenuates its cytotoxicity in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Chitranshi, Priyanka; Loukotková, Lucie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Beland, Frederick A; Zhang, Jie; Fang, Jia-Long

    2016-11-28

    Triclosan is a widely used broad-spectrum anti-bacterial agent. The objectives of this study were to identify which cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms metabolize triclosan and to examine the effects of CYP-mediated metabolism on triclosan-induced cytotoxicity. A panel of HepG2-derived cell lines was established, each of which overexpressed a single CYP isoform, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2A7, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP4A11, and CYP4B1. The extent of triclosan metabolism by each CYP was assessed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with online radiochemical detection. Seven isoforms were capable of metabolizing triclosan, with the order of activity being CYP1A2 > CYP2B6 > CYP2C19 > CYP2D6 ≈ CYP1B1 > CYP2C18 ≈ CYP1A1. The remaining 11 isoforms (CYP2A6, CYP2A7, CYP2A13, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP4A11, and CYP4B1) had little or no activity toward triclosan. Three metabolites were detected: 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorocatechol, and 5'-hydroxytriclosan. Consistent with the in vitro screening data, triclosan was extensively metabolized in HepG2 cells overexpressing CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2C18, and these cells were much more resistant to triclosan-induced cytotoxicity compared to vector cells, suggesting that CYP-mediated metabolism of triclosan attenuated its cytotoxicity. In addition, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chlorocatechol were less toxic than triclosan to HepG2/vector cells. Conjugation of triclosan, catalyzed by human glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs), also occurred in HepG2/CYP-overexpressing cells and primary human hepatocytes, with a greater extent of conjugation being associated with higher cell viability. Co-administration of triclosan with UGT or SULT inhibitors led to greater cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes, indicating that glucuronidation and

  10. INDUCTION AND POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL SUPPRESSION OF HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 1A1 BY 3,3',4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) can induce and inhibit cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in vertebrates. TCB may also suppress CYP1A1 protein levels, but the mechanism is unknown. This study examined transcriptional and translational aspects of hepatic ...

  11. Cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in rat esophageal tumorigenesis promoted by gastric and duodenal reflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Andrea H; McIlroy, Marie; McKeen, Hayley D; Bonde, Pramode; Menezes, A A Carlos; Swarbrick, Christine J; Robson, Tracy; Hirst, David G; Campbell, F Charles; McGuigan, James A; McKeown, Stephanie R

    2009-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) mRNA is constitutively expressed in most normal extra-hepatic tissues; however the protein is not detectable in these tissues but is expressed in a wide variety of tumors. CYP1B1 is responsible for the activation of a number of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and food. A surgical model of rat esophageal tumorigenesis, promoted by gastric or duodenal reflux was used to determine CYP1B1 expression in premalignant esophageal tissue. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a modified amplified fluorescein tyramide protocol. CYP1B1 was not observed in normal esophageal mucosa, submucosa, or muscularis mucosa. Animals exposed to gastric reflux developed mild hyperplasia. Varying degrees of hyperplasia were observed in the duodenal reflux group. All regions of hyperplasia showed moderate or strong CYP1B1 immunoreactivity. Duodenal reflux induced a small number of premalignant changes: immunoreactivity was absent from the epithelium of squamous dysplasia (0/10), Barrett's esophagus (0/7), and majority of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (1/4). Moderate or strong immunoreactivity was observed in the majority (7/8) of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in situ. Immunoreactivity was also observed in the lamina propria and submucosa in association with inflammation, regardless of the severity of inflammation. The expression of CYP1B1 in hyperplasia, SCCs in situ, or in association with inflammation may increase the production of carcinogenic metabolites, which may promote esophageal tumorigenesis.

  12. Evaluation of memory enhancing clinically available standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp.

  13. Grapefruit and oroblanco enhance hepatic detoxification enzymes in rats: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Obercyger, Michal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2005-03-09

    Citrus fruits are considered to be functional foods that promote good health. This study was carried out to assess the effect of oroblanco and grapefruit consumption on hepatic detoxification enzymes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with either regular drinking water (control) or experimental treatments of oroblanco juice, grapefruit juice, or a sugar mix for 6 weeks. After 1 week of treatment, half the animals in each group were injected with the procarcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Grapefruit juice significantly increased activity and expression of the hepatic phase I enzyme, cytochrome P450 CYP1A1, with a marked trend toward enhanced NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR) activity. Oroblanco juice significantly increased glutathione S-transferase phase II enzyme activity along with CYP1A1 expression and a notable trend toward increased activity of both CYP1A1 and QR. These results suggest that these citrus fruits are bifunctional inducers, modulating both phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes to enhance hepatic detoxification.

  14. Spermatotoxicity, biochemical changes and histological alteration induced by gossypol in testicular and hepatic tissues of male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Sharaky, A S; Newairy, A A; Elguindy, N M; Elwafa, A A

    2010-12-01

    Gossypol acetic acid (GAA) displays anti-fertility and antioxidant behavior. The efficacies of different doses of gossypol acetic acid were investigated in male albino rats. Rats were allocated into four groups: control group and three GAA-treated groups (2-4), that were injected with GAA (5, 10, 20mg/kg BW, respectively), through inrtaperitonial injection. Treatment of GAA was found to elicit a significant decrease in sperm counting, sperm motility, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, whereas, the activities of testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-ketosteroid reductase were increased. The activities of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase and hepatic glutathione peroxidase; glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase and the level of hepatic glutathione were elevated. While, the lipid peroxidation end product; malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and lipid profile and the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 were decreased in GAA-treated rats. The histological analysis of liver and testicular tissues showed sever hepatocyte damage in addition to abnormal localization of hepatocytic nuclei. Also, the testicular pathology of GAA-treated rats showed depressed spermatogensis, sertoli cell toxicity and degeneration of seminiferous tubules.

  15. Metabolism by rat hepatic microsomes of fluorinated ether anesthetics following isoniazid administration.

    PubMed

    Rice, S A; Sbordone, L; Mazze, R I

    1980-12-01

    The possibility that enflurane defluorination is increased following treatment with isoniazid was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. The effects of various isoniazid dosage regimens on the hepatic microsomal defluorination rates of enflurane were compared with those of several other ether anesthetics, and the conditions for production of maximal enflurane defluorination rates were determined. Seven to ten days of treatment with 50 mg/kg/day isoniazid (Nydrazid) resulted in maximal rates of defluorination of methoxyflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane with no overt sign of toxicity. Compared with saline treatment of control rats, isoniazid increased defluorination of enflurane 370 per cent, methoxyflurane 259 per cent, sevoflurane 283 per cent, and isoflurane 168 per cent. Previous studies have shown that while the enzyme inducer phenobarbital increased in vitro rates of methoxyflurane defluorination approximately 1000 per cent, the rate of enflurane defluorination remained unchanged or increased by 100 per cent at most. In this study, enhanced hepatic microsomal defluorination was not associated with an increase in cytochrome P-450 per mg protein. Anesthetic defluorination rates were not altered by treatment with chlorobutanol, the preservative contained in Nydrazid.

  16. Hepatocarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines that induce cytochrome P-448 isozymes, mainly cytochrome P-448H (P-450IA2), responsible for mutagenic activation of the carcinogens in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Degawa, M; Tanimura, S; Agatsuma, T; Hashimoto, Y

    1989-06-01

    Male F344 rats were treated with hepatocarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines such as amino acid- and protein-pyrolysate components (Trp P-1, Trp P-2, Glu P-1, Glu P-2, A alpha C, MeA alpha C, IQ and MeIQx) and changes in microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes in the livers were examined by means of immuno-Western blotting using anti-rat cytochrome P-450 monoclonal antibodies. The results suggested that all chemicals tested induce cytochrome P-448 isozymes, particularly cytochrome P-448H (P-450IA2), which efficiently mediate mutagenic activation of the carcinogens. This was substantiated by the enzymatic analyses with the substrates showing different characters to rat cytochrome P-450 isozyme-mediated mutagenesis.

  17. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450s and chlorinated hydrocarbons in largha and ribbon seals from Hokkaido, Japan: differential response of seal species to Ah receptor agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Issei; Sakakibara, Akihito; Iwata, T Hisato; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Akahori, Fumiaki; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2002-04-01

    From 16 largha seals (Phoca largha) and 15 ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata) in the coastal waters of Hokkaido, Japan, blubber chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) levels and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) catalytic activities and their immunochemically detected protein content levels were measured. Concentrations of DDTs (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene,p,p'-DDE; 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane, p,p'-DDD; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, p,p'-DDT), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and chlordane compounds (oxychlordane, chlordanes, and nonachlors) in both species were in the range of 290 to 5,300, 420 to 4,000, and 130 to 1,500 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, non-ortho (IUPAC 77 and 126) and mono-ortho (IUPAC 105, 118, and 156) coplanar PCB congeners, were also detected, and the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4.9 to 120 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. Cross-reactive proteins with polyclonal antibodies against rat CYP1A1 and CYP3A2 were notably detected in seal liver microsomes. Interestingly, a polyclonal antibody against rat CYP2B1 recognized proteins only at trace levels. In largha seals, both levels of alkoxyresorufin- (methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxy-, and benzyloxyresorufin) O-dealkylase (AROD) activities and proteins detected by polyclonal antibodies against rat CYP1A1 were significantly correlated with the concentrations of individual coplanar PCB congeners, total TEQs, and total PCBs. Threshold concentrations for TEQs in blubber of the largha seal to induce hepatic CYP1A protein and EROD activity were estimated to be 8.5 and 19 pg TEQ/g fat weight, respectively. In ribbon seals, similar correlations were not detected, although the TEQ levels were not significantly lower than those in largha seals. These results suggest that AROD activity and CYP1A1 protein in the liver of the largha seal could be a biomarker for the exposure to AhR agonists such as coplanar PCB

  18. Melatonin reduces hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic obese rats.

    PubMed

    Agil, Ahmad; El-Hammadi, Mazen; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Tassi, Mohamed; Abdo, Walied; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Reiter, Russel J

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a role in the development of liver steatosis and insulin resistance, which are both common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It was hypothesized that the antioxidant properties of melatonin could potentially improve the impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria in diabetic obese animals. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean littermates (ZL) were given either melatonin (10 mg/kg BW/day) orally for 6 wk (M-ZDF and M-ZL) or vehicle as control groups (C-ZDF and C-ZL). Hepatic function was evaluated by measurement of serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, liver histopathology and electron microscopy, and hepatic mitochondrial functions. Several impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria were observed in C-ZDF in comparison with C-ZL rats. Melatonin treatment to ZDF rats decreases serum levels of ALT (P < 0.001), alleviates liver steatosis and vacuolation, and also mitigates diabetic-induced mitochondrial abnormalities, glycogen, and lipid accumulation. Melatonin improves mitochondrial dysfunction in M-ZDF rats by increasing activities of mitochondrial citrate synthase (P < 0.001) and complex IV of electron transfer chain (P < 0.05) and enhances state 3 respiration (P < 0.001), respiratory control index (RCR) (P < 0.01), and phosphorylation coefficient (ADP/O ratio) (P < 0.05). Also melatonin augments ATP production (P < 0.05) and diminishes uncoupling protein 2 levels (P < 0.001). These results demonstrate that chronic oral melatonin reduces liver steatosis and mitochondria dysfunction in ZDF rats. Therefore, it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabesity.

  19. Environmentally persistent free radicals inhibit cytochrome P450 activity in rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, James R.; Cawley, George F.; Ardoin, Taylor G.; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Hasan, Farhana; Kiruri, Lucy W.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2014-06-01

    Combustion processes generate particulate matter that affects human health. When incineration fuels include components that are highly enriched in aromatic hydrocarbons (especially halogenated varieties) and redox-active metals, ultrafine particulate matter containing air-stable, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) is generated. The exposure to fine EPFRs (less than 2.5 μm in diameter) has been shown to negatively influence pulmonary and cardiovascular functions in living organisms. The goal of this study was to determine if these EPFRs have a direct effect on cytochrome P450 function. This was accomplished by direct addition of the EPFRs to rat liver microsomal preparations and measurement of several P450 activities using form-selective substrates. The EPFRs used in this study were formed by heating vapors from an organic compound (either monochlorophenol (MCP230) or 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230)) and 5% copper oxide supported on silica (approximately 0.2 μm in diameter) to 230 °C under vacuum. Both types of EPFRs (but not silica, physisorbed silica, or silica impregnated with copper oxide) dramatically inhibited the activities of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2E1, CYP2D2 and CYP3A when incubated at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/ml with microsomes and NADPH. Interestingly, at the same concentrations, the EPFRs did not inhibit HO-1 activity or the reduction of cytochrome c by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. CYP2D2-selective metabolism by rat liver microsomes was examined in more detail. The inhibition of CYP2D2-selective metabolism by both DCB230- and MCP230-EPFRs appeared to be largely noncompetitive and was attenuated in the presence of catalase suggesting that reactive oxygen species may be involved in the mechanism of inhibition. - Highlights: • Combustion of organic pollutants generates long-lived particulate radicals (EPFRs). • EPFRs inhibit metabolism by all cytochromes P450 tested in rat liver microsomes. • EPFR-mediated inhibition is related to

  20. Effect of melatonin on the production of microsomal hydrogen peroxide and cytochrome P-450 content in rat treated with aflatoxin B(1).

    PubMed

    Awney, Hala A; Attih, Ahmed M; Habib, Sami L; Mostafa, Mostafa H

    2002-03-20

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a food contaminant fungal toxin that has been implicated as a causative agent in human hepatic and extrahepatic carcinogenesis. In this study we went on to show the effect of melatonin as a free radical scavenger on the production of microsomal hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) during the metabolic activation AFB(1). The production of microsomal H(2)O(2) in vitro during the metabolic activation of different chemical carcinogens has been reported previously. We also studied the effect of melatonin on the cytochrome P-450 content as a major microsomal monooxygenase isoenzymes system in rat liver responsible for the metabolic activation of AFB(1). The amounts of H(2)O(2) and cytochrome P-450 contents in rat treated with melatonin (0.2 mg/kg BW) and/or AFB(1) (0.2 mg/kg BW) at various time intervals has been measured. Animals treated with melatonin exhibited markedly inhibition in the amounts of H(2)O(2) after 1, 3, and 6 h. The highest level of inhibition (3.0 nmol H(2)O(2)/mg protein) was detected after 6 h. However, cytochrome P-450 contents were also decreased after the same period of time. The highest level of inhibition (2.1 nmol/mg protein) was detected after 3 h of injection. A pronounced augmentation of H(2)O(2) production was observed in rat treated with AFB(1) only. The highest level of H(2)O(2) (100 nmol/mg protein) was measured after 1 h. Cytochrome P-450 contents were also decreased in response to AFB(1) injection over the same time intervals. Contrary data was detected in animals received both AFB(1) and melatonin. The generation of H(2)O(2) was inhibited by melatonin after 1, 3 and 6 h. The highest level of inhibition (44.2 nmol/mg protein) was observed after 6 h. Finally, these data suggested that melatonin as a free radical scavenger inhibited the microsomal production of H(2)O(2) in rat treated with AFB(1).

  1. Doxorubicin inactivates myocardial cytochrome c oxidase in rats: cardioprotection by Mito-Q.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Karunakaran; Aggarwal, Deepika; Migrino, Raymond Q; Joseph, Joy; McAllister, Donna; Konorev, Eugene A; Antholine, William E; Zielonka, Jacek; Srinivasan, Satish; Avadhani, Narayan G; Kalyanaraman, B

    2009-02-18

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is used for treating various cancers. Its clinical use is, however, limited by its dose-limiting cardiomyopathy. The exact mechanism of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy still remains unknown. The goals were to investigate the molecular mechanism of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy and cardioprotection by mitoquinone (Mito-Q), a triphenylphosphonium-conjugated analog of coenzyme Q, using a rat model. Rats were treated with DOX, Mito-Q, and DOX plus Mito-Q for 12 weeks. The left ventricular function as measured by two-dimensional echocardiography decreased in DOX-treated rats but was preserved during Mito-Q plus DOX treatment. Using low-temperature ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), a time-dependent decrease in heme signal was detected in heart tissues isolated from rats administered with a cumulative dose of DOX. DOX attenuated the EPR signals characteristic of the exchange interaction between cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)-Fe(III) heme a3 and CuB. DOX and Mito-Q together restored these EPR signals and the CcO activity in heart tissues. DOX strongly downregulated the stable expression of the CcO subunits II and Va and had a slight inhibitory effect on CcO subunit I gene expression. Mito-Q restored CcO subunit II and Va expressions in DOX-treated rats. These results suggest a novel cardioprotection mechanism by Mito-Q during DOX-induced cardiomyopathy involving CcO.

  2. Selective inactivation of rat liver cytochromes P-450 by 21-chlorinated steroids.

    PubMed

    Halpert, J; Jaw, J Y; Cornfield, L J; Balfour, C; Mash, E A

    1989-01-01

    The inactivation by 21-chlorinated steroids of rat liver cytochromes P-450 involved in the hydroxylation of progesterone and androstenedione has been investigated. Preincubation of intact liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats with 21-chloropregnenolone, 21,21-dichloropregnenolone, or 21,21-dichloroprogesterone in the presence of NADPH caused a time-dependent decrease in progesterone 21-hydroxylase and in progesterone or androstenedione 6 beta-hydroxylase activity but had negligible or only minor effects on five other steroid hydroxylases. The compounds differed, however, with regard to the relative rate constants for inactivation of the 21- and 6 beta-hydroxylases. For example, 21,21-dichloroprogesterone and 21,21-dichloropregnenolone inactivated the progesterone 6 beta-hydroxylase at similar rates, but the dichloroprogesterone was a more effective inactivator of the 21-hydroxylase. The results indicate that the introduction of a dichloromethyl group into a substrate bearing a methyl group normally hydroxylated by only one or a few isozymes of cytochrome P-450 may be a rational means of designing isozyme-selective inhibitors but that target and nontarget enzymes may not totally retain the regioselectivity they exhibit towards the underivatized substrate.

  3. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment.

  4. Hepatic cytochrome P450 3A drug metabolism is reduced in cancer patients who have an acute-phase response

    PubMed Central

    Rivory, L P; Slaviero, K A; Clarke, S J

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory disease states (infection, arthritis) are associated with reduced drug oxidation by the cytochrome P450 3A system. Many chemotherapy agents are metabolised through this pathway, and disease may therefore influence inter-individual differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to assess cytochrome P450 3A function in patients with advanced cancer, and its relation to the acute-phase response. We evaluated hepatic cytochrome P450 3A function in 40 patients with advanced cancer using the erythromycin breath test. Both the traditional C20min measure and the recently proposed 1/TMAX values were estimated. The marker of acute-phase response, C-reactive protein and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα and IL-8 were measured in serum or plasma at baseline. Cancer patients with an acute phase response (C-reactive protein >10 mg l−1, n=26) had reduced metabolism as measured with the erythromycin breath test 1/TMAX (Kruskal–Wallis Anova, P=0.0062) as compared to controls (C-reactive protein ⩽10 mg l−1, n=14). Indeed, metabolism was significantly associated with C-reactive protein over the whole concentration range of this acute-phase marker (r=−0.64, Spearman Rank Correlation, P<0.00001). C-reactive protein serum levels were significantly correlated with those of IL-6 (Spearman coefficient=0.58, P<0.0003). The reduction in cytochrome P450 3A function with acute-phase reaction was independent of the tumour type and C-reactive protein elevation was associated with poor performance status. This indicates that the sub-group of cancer patients with significant acute-phase response have compromised drug metabolism, which may have implications for the safety of chemotherapy in this population. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 277–280. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600448 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12177794

  5. Resveratrol inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sil; Shin, Mi-Ok; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2010-06-01

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes and red wines, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of resveratrol on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Oral administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) remarkably prevented the DMN-induced loss in body and liver weight, and inhibited the elevation of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels. Resveratrol also increased serum albumin and hepatic glutathione levels and reduced the hepatic level of malondialdehyde due to its antioxidant effect. Furthermore, DMN-induced elevation of hydroxyproline content was reduced in the resveratrol treated rats, the result of which was consistent with the reduction in type I collagen mRNA expression and the histological analysis of liver tissue stained with Sirius red. The reduction in hepatic stellate cell activation, as assessed by alpha-smooth muscle actin staining, and the reduction in transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA expression were associated with resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, resveratrol exhibited in vivo hepatoprotective and antifibrogenic effects against DMN-induced liver injury, suggesting that resveratrol may be useful in the prevention of the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  6. Is hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 expression predictive of hepatic burdens of dioxins, furans, and PCBs in Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River estuary?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z; Wirgin, M; Courtenay, S; Ikonomou, M; Wirgin, I

    2001-10-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) expression in fishes is frequently used to evaluate bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of aquatic ecosystems. In controlled laboratory experiments, CYP1A1 expression in naïve fishes is usually dose-responsive to aromatic hydrocarbons and in field studies levels of gene expression in natural populations often correspond with known levels of sediment-borne contaminants. We quantified CYP1A1 mRNA levels in juvenile Atlantic tomcod Microgadus tomcod from 42 sites in the Hudson River estuary to evaluate the correspondence between hepatic CYP1A1 expression and hepatic concentrations of persistent halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and to determine the utility of CYP1A1 expression as a biomarker in evaluating the microgeographic distribution of bioavailable contaminants within a large aquatic ecosystem. We found significant spatial heterogeneity in CYP1A1 mRNA levels among collection sites with levels of gene expression differing in some cases by 23-34 folds. CYP1A1 mRNA expression was highest in tomcod from the Newark Bay complex and lowest in tomcod from the most upriver collection sites in the main stem of the Hudson River. Although levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs expressed as TCDD TEQs and CYP1A1 mRNA were highest in tomcod from the Newark Bay complex, there was no relationship between hepatic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon levels and hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA in tomcod from sites in the main stem of the Hudson River. These results suggest that levels of CYP1A1 expression in fish from sites highly polluted with mixtures of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and other xenobiotics may not always be reflective of levels of bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants. Based on these results and earlier controlled laboratory experiments, we hypothesize that elevated levels of CYP1A1 expression in tomcod from the Hudson River may be due primarily to PAHs or other contaminants not measured in this study.

  7. Kupffer cell inactivation by carbon monoxide bound to red blood cells preserves hepatic cytochrome P450 via anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects exerted through the HMGB1/TLR-4 pathway during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Ogaki, Shigeru; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Maeda, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2015-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for controlling hemorrhaging induce systemic ischemia reperfusion, resulting in a decrease in hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels. Carbon monoxide (CO), when bound to red blood cells (CO-RBC) has the potential to protect the hepatic CYP protein to produce a resuscitative effect in a hemorrhagic shock rat model. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which CO-RBC resuscitation from a massive hemorrhage protects against a decrease in hepatic CYP. In the early phase (∼1h) after a hemorrhage and RBC resuscitation, hepatic CYP protein levels were significantly decreased with increasing hepatic free heme levels, but were maintained by a pre-treatment of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a Kupffer cell inhibitor, and Trolox, an anti-oxidant agent, as well as CO-RBC resuscitation. Under these conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from activated Kupffer cells was increased, but this increase was suppressed by CO-RBC resuscitation. At a late phase (6∼24h), CYP mRNA levels decreased after hemorrhage and RBC resuscitation, but not in the case of CO-RBC resuscitation. The increases in plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were decreased by CO-RBC resuscitation via the suppression of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and the expression of the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1). Hepatic CYP protection after a hemorrhage and CO-RBC resuscitation can be attributed to the inactivation of Kupffer cells, resulting in the suppression of ROS production in the early phase and the suppression of inflammatory cytokine production via the TLR-4/HMGB-1signal pathway in the late phase.

  8. Propiconazole increases reactive oxygen species levels in mouse hepatic cells in culture and in mouse liver by a cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated process

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole induces hepatocarcinomas and hepatoadenomas in mice and is a rat liver tumor promoter. Transcriptional, proteomic, metabolomic and biochemical studies of hepatic tissues from mice treated with propiconazole under the conditions of the chronic bioassay indicate that ...

  9. The effects of acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning on cytochrome P450 isoforms activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianqin; Chen, Mengchun; Chen, Xinxin; Ma, Jianshe; Wen, Congcong; Pan, Jianchun; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the second leading cause of toxin related death (after carbon monoxide) in the workplace. H2S is absorbed by the upper respiratory tract mucosa, and it causes histotoxic hypoxemia and respiratory depression. Cocktail method was used to evaluate the influences of acute H2S poisoning on the activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of six specific probe drugs, bupropion, metoprolol, midazolam, phenacetin, omeprazole, and tolbutamide, respectively. The experimental rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and acute H2S poisoning group (inhaling 300 ppm for 2 h). The mixture of six probes was given to rats by oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. The results for acute H2S poisoning and control groups were as follows: there was a statistically significant difference in the AUC and C max for bupropion, metoprolol, phenacetin, and tolbutamide, while there was no statistical pharmacokinetic difference for midazolam and omeprazole. Acute H2S poisoning could inhibit the activity of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9 in rats.

  10. Upregulation of cytochromes P450 2B in rat liver by orphenadrine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Michael; Fiala-Beer, Eva; Sutton, Dylan

    2003-01-01

    The alkylamine drug orphenadrine (ORPH) is an inducer and inhibitor of the microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) system in mammals. This study evaluated the selectivity of CYP induction by ORPH in rat liver. Immunoblot analysis indicated that ORPH was a selective inducer of the phenobarbitone (PB)-inducible CYP2B in rat liver. CYP2B protein was increased to ∼14-fold of levels in untreated rat liver. By comparison PB increased CYP2B expression 40-fold. Corresponding increases in the activity of CYP2B-dependent androstenedione 16β-hydroxylation were measured in microsomes from ORPH and PB-induced rats. Northern analysis indicated that CYP2B1/2 mRNA was increased in ORPH-induced rat liver. Consistent with this finding, ORPH was found to activate a PB-responsive enhancer module in constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-transfected Hep G2 cells. Other alkylamines like troleandomycin impair CYP turnover. We tested whether ORPH induction of CYP2B may include a post-translational component. In PB-pretreated animals ORPH administration delayed the loss of CYP2B after PB withdrawal, but no evidence for altered turnover was found. These studies establish ORPH as a selective inducer of CYP2B in rat liver. Induction appears to be mediated pretranslationally by CAR activation of CYP2B gene transcription. Post-translational stabilisation by an ORPH metabolite does not elicit induction. Induction of CYP2B may influence pharmacokinetic interactions involving ORPH. PMID:12813002

  11. Upper and lower limits of the proton stoichiometry of cytochrome c oxidation in rat liver mitoplasts.

    PubMed

    Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-25

    The stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to oxidation of added ferrocytochrome c by O2 via cytochrome-c oxidase of rat liver mitoplasts was determined employing a fast-responding O2 electrode. Electron flow was initiated by addition of either ferrocytochrome c or O2. When the rates were extrapolated to level flow, the H+/O ratios in both cases were less than but closely approached 4; the directly observed H+/O ratios significantly exceeded 3.0. The mechanistic H+/O ratio was then more closely fixed by a kinetic approach that eliminates the necessity for measuring energy leaks and is independent of any particular model of the mechanism of energy transduction. From two sets of kinetic measurements, an overestimate and an underestimate and thus the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio could be obtained. In the first set, the utilization of respiratory energy was systematically varied through changes in the concentrations of valinomycin or K+. From the slope of a plot of the initial rates of H+ ejection (JH) and O2 uptake (JO) obtained in such experiments, the upper limit of the H+/O ratio was in the range 4.12-4.19. In the second set of measurements, the rate of respiratory energy production was varied by inhibiting electron transport. From the slope of a plot of JH versus JO, the lower limit of the H+/O ratio, equivalent to that at level flow, was in the range 3.83-3.96. These data fix the mechanistic H+/O ratio for the cytochrome oxidase reaction of mitoplasts at 4.0, thus confirming our earlier measurements (Reynafarje, B., Alexandre, A., Davies, P., and Lehninger, A. L. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7218-7222). Possible reasons for discrepancies in published reports on the H+/O ratio of cytochrome oxidase in various mitochondrial and reconstituted systems are discussed.

  12. Sex difference in induction of hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes by nicardipine and nifedipine in rats.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2004-04-01

    Male and female of F344 rats were treated per os with nicardipine (Nic) and nifedipine (Nif), and changes in the levels of mRNA and protein of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, CYP2B1, CYP2B2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2, CYP3A9, and CYP3A18 were examined. Furthermore, hepatic microsomal activities for pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD) and nifedipine oxidation, which are mainly mediated by CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes, respectively, were measured. Analyses of RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that Nic and Nif induced predominantly CYP3A and CYP2B enzymes, respectively. As for the gene activation of CYP2B enzymes, especially CYP2B1, Nif showed high capacity in both sexes of rats, whereas Nic did a definite capacity in the males but little in the females. Gene activations of CYP3A1, CYP3A2, and CYP3A18 by Nic occurred in both sexes of rats, although that of CYP3A9 did only in the male rats. Although gene activations of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 by Nif were observed in both sexes of rats, a slight activation of the CYP3A9 gene occurred only in female rats, and the CYP3A18 gene activation, in neither male nor female rats. Thus, changes in levels of the mRNA or protein of CYP2B and CYP3A enzymes, especially CYP2B1 and CYP3A2, were closely correlated with those in hepatic PROD and nifedipine oxidation activities, respectively. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the sex difference in the Nic- and Nif-mediated induction of hepatic P450 enzymes in rats and further indicate that Nic and Nif show different specificities and sex dependencies in the induction of hepatic P450 enzymes.

  13. Kaempferol regulates the lipid-profile in high-fat diet-fed rats through an increase in hepatic PPARα levels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of the flavonoid kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with kaempferol (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) once daily for eight weeks. Fenofibrate is an antilipemic agent that exerts its therapeutic effects through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). Kaempferol (300 mg/kg/day) produced effects similar to fenofibrate in reducing body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol also caused dose-related reductions in hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content and lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic PPAR α. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1) proteins were reversed by kaempferol and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in HFD-fed rats were lowered by kaempferol and fenofibrate. These results suggest that kaempferol reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-fed obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of SREBPs and promoting the hepatic expression of ACO and CYP4A1, secondary to a direct upregulation hepatic PPAR α expression.

  14. Elucidating the mechanism of cytochrome P450-mediated pyrimidine ring conversion to pyrazole metabolites with the BACE1 inhibitor GNE-892 in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryan; Ma, Shuguang; Deese, Alan; Yue, Qin; Kim-Kang, Heasook; Yi, Yijun; Siu, Michael; Hunt, Kevin W; Kallan, Nicholas C; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Liu, Xingrong; Khojasteh, S Cyrus

    2014-05-01

    We investigated an uncommon biotransformation of pyrimidine during the metabolism of GNE-892 ((R)-2-amino-1,3',3'-trimethyl-7'-(pyrimidin-5-yl)-3',4'-dihydro-2'H-spiro[imidazole-4,1'-naphthalen]-5(1H)-one), a β-secretase 1 inhibitor. Three novel metabolites, formed by conversion of pyrimidine to pyrazole, were observed in the (14)C-radiolabeled mass balance study in rats. Their structures were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Although these metabolites accounted for <5% of the administered dose, their unique nature prompted us to conduct further investigations. The pyrazole-containing metabolites were formed in vitro with rat hepatocytes and liver microsomes, which supported that they were formed during hepatic metabolism. Further, their generation was inhibited by 1-aminobenzotriazole, indicating involvement of cytochrome P450s. Studies with rat recombinant enzymes identified that CYP2D2 generated the N-hydroxypyrazole metabolite from GNE-892. This biotransformation proceeded through multiple steps from the likely precursor, pyrimidine N-oxide. On the basis of these data, we propose a mechanism in which the pyrimidine is activated via N-oxidation, followed by a second oxidative process that opens the pyrimidine ring to form a formamide intermediate. After hydrolysis of the formamide, a carbon is lost as formic acid, together with ring closure to form the pyrazole ring. This article highlights a mechanistic approach for determining the biotransformation of the pyrimidine to a pyrazole for GNE-892.

  15. Expression profile of hepatic genes in cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia, China, and Indonesia: implications for cytochrome P450 genes.

    PubMed

    Ise, Ryota; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Kohara, Sakae; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Nagata, Ryoichi; Fukuzaki, Koichiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques, frequently used in drug metabolism studies, are bred mainly in the countries of Asia; however, comparative studies of drug metabolism between cynomolgus macaques bred in these countries have not been conducted. In this study, hepatic gene expression profiles of cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia (mfCAM), China (mfCHN), and Indonesia (mfIDN) were analyzed. Microarray analysis revealed that expression of most hepatic genes, including drug-metabolizing enzyme genes, was not substantially different between mfCAM, mfCHN, and mfIDN; only 1.1% and 3.0% of all the gene probes detected differential expression (>2.5-fold) in mfCAM compared with mfCHN and mfIDN, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression levels of 14 cytochromes P450 (P450s) important for drug metabolism did not differ (>2.5-fold) in mfCAM, mfCHN, and mfIDN, validating the microarray data. In contrast, expression of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 differed (>2.5-fold, p < 0.05) between cynomolgus (mfCAM, mfCHN, or mfIDN) and rhesus macaques, indicating greater differences in expression of P450 genes between the two lineages. Moreover, metabolic activities measured using 14 P450 substrates did not differ substantially (<1.5-fold) between mfCAM and mfCHN. These results suggest that gene expression profiles, including drug-metabolizing enzyme genes such as P450 genes, are similar in mfCAM, mfCHN, and mfIDN.

  16. Susceptibility of laboratory rats against genotypes 1, 3, 4, and rat hepatitis E viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2013-04-12

    To determine whether or not rats are susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, each of group containing three laboratory rats (Wistar) were experimentally inoculated with genotypes 1, 3, 4 and rat HEV by intravenous injection. Serum and stool samples were collected and used to detect HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The virus infection was monitored up to 3 months after inoculation. None of the serum or stool samples collected from the rats inoculated with G1, G3, or G4 HEV indicated positive sign for virus replication. Although no alteration was observed in ALT level, rat HEV RNA was detected in stools from both of the rats inoculated with rat HEV, and both rats were positive for anti-rat HEV IgG and IgM from 3 weeks after inoculation. These results demonstrated that rats are susceptible to rat HEV but not to G1, G3, and G4 HEV. We also confirm that the nude rats were useful for obtaining a large amount of rat HEV and that the rat HEV was transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

  17. Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun-Xiao; Chen, Jiu; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yan-Li; Jin, Xiao-Dong

    2009-12-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Chinese medicine formula-Yu Zhang Dan (YZD, composed of Herba Lysimachiae, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, Radix Curcumae) on the model rats with hepatic fibrosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in the present study, and they were separated randomly into 4 groups: a normal control group (Group A, n=5), a model control (Group B, n=15), a high dose of YZD (Group C, n=10), and a low dose of YZD (Group D, n=10). Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The variation of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronate acid (HA), laminin (LN), type • • procollagen peptide (P• •NP), L-Glutathione (GSH) was respectively measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and detection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and smooth muscle alpha actin (α-SMA) was conducted with immunohistochemistry. The ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The TGF-β1 and α-SMA levels of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the TGF-β1 levels of the model rats (P<0.05) , and only the high dose of YZD significantly decreased the α-SMA levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in the liver tissues of the rats were in the cytoplasm of the cells. It may be through decreasing the ALT, AST, HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model rats and decreasing the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in the liver tissues of the model rats that YZD significantly relieved the hepatic fibrosis.

  18. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-11-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression.

  19. Regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in primary cultured rat hepatocytes and in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kocarek, T A; Reddy, A B

    1996-11-01

    It was previously demonstrated that treatment of primary cultured rat hepatocytes with lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, induced the mRNAs for several cytochromes P450 (P450s), including CYP2B1/2, CYP3A1/2, and CYP4A. In this study, we have compared the effects of lovastatin with those of three additional HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (simvastatin, pravastatin, and the structurally dissimilar drug fluvastatin) on P450 expression in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, and we have also characterized the effects of in vivo treatment with fluvastatin on P450 expression in rat liver. Treatment of cultured hepatocytes with lovastatin, simvastatin, or fluvastatin increased CYP2B1/2, CYP3A1/2, and CYP4A mRNA and immunoreactive protein levels over the dose range (3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-5) M) required to increase the amount of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA. The increases in CYP2B1/2 levels produced by 3 x 10(-5) M fluvastatin treatment were larger than those produced by lovastatin or simvastatin treatment or by treatment with 10(-4) M phenobarbital. In contrast, treatment of cultured hepatocytes with 3 x 10(-5) M lovastatin, simvastatin, or fluvastatin increased CYP3A1/2 and CYP4A mRNA and immunoreactive protein to lower levels than those produced by treatment with 10(-5) M dexamethasone or 10(-4) M ciprofibrate. Treatment of cultured hepatocytes with pravastatin had little or no effect on the amount of any of the P450s examined, although this drug induced HMG-CoA reductase mRNA as effectively as did fluvastatin. Incubation of hepatocytes with 10(-4) M fluvastatin increased CYP1A1 mRNA to 67% of the level induced by treatment with 10(-5) M beta-naphthoflavone. Doses of 50 or 100 mg/ kg/day fluvastatin administered for 3 days to rats increased the hepatic levels of CYP2B1/2 and CYP4A mRNA and immunoreactive protein, although to much lower levels than those produced by treatment with phenobarbital or ciprofibrate, respectively. Treatment of

  20. Effect of a single oral dose of methanol, ethanol and propan-2-ol on the hepatic microsomal metabolism of foreign compounds in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Powis, G

    1975-01-01

    Methanol and ethanol administered to rats as a single oral dose increased aniline hydroxylation by the hepatic microsomal fraction by a maximum of 169 and 66% respectively, whereas aminopyrine demethylation was inhibited by 51 and 61%. The concentration of microsomal cytochrome P-450, and the activities of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase were unchanged. Propan-2-ol, administered as a single oral dose, increased microsomal aniline hydroxylation by 165% and increased aminopyrine demethylation by 83%. The concentration of cytochrome P-450 was unchanged whereas NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase were both increased by 38%. Methanol, ethanol and propan-2-ol administration resulted in a decreased type I spectral change but had no effect on the reverse type I spectral change. Methanol administration decreased the type II spectral change whereas ethanol and propan-2-ol had no effect. Cycloheximide blocked the increases in aniline hydroxylation and aminopyrine demethylation but could not completely prevent the decreases in aminopyrine demethylation. The increases in aniline hydroxylation were due to an increase in V, but Km was unchanged. The ability of acetone to enhance and compound SKF 525A to inhibit microsomal aniline hydroxylation was decreased by the administration of all three alcohols. The decrease in the metabolism of aminopyrine may result from a decrease in the binding to the type I site with a consequent failure of aminopyrine to stimulate the reduction of cytochrome P-450. Methanol administration may lead to an increase in aniline hydroxylation because of a failure of aniline to inhibit cytochrome P-450 reduction. PMID:168885

  1. Effects of acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, methanol and DMSO on cytochrome P450 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Sidika; Burkina, Viktoriia; Zlabek, Vladimir; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2015-01-01

    In vitro impacts of five organic solvents on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity were investigated using hepatic microsomes of rainbow trout. The rates of several CYP450-mediated reactions were investigated at solvent concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. The solvents greatly affected all tested reactions. In at least 0.8% ethanol, 2% methanol or acetone, 1% acetonitrile or 3% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity decreased and at 3% acetonitrile or ethanol, it was undetected. At 3%, all tested solvents except methanol reduced 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzylase (BFCOD) activity, but at low concentrations of ethanol (2% and lower) or DMSO (1% and lower), it was induced. This was not seen with the inclusion of a pre-incubation step. p-Nitrophenolhydroxylase (PNPH) activity was not affected at concentrations below 1% DMSO, and at 2% acetonitrile it was reduced, as it was above 1% methanol or 0.5% ethanol. Acetone did not affect PNPH activity with or without a pre-incubation step. In general, the degree of inhibition was similar with and without the pre-incubation step. We conclude that the concentration of organic solvent for solubilizing the substrate and inhibitor in in vitro microsomal studies should be minimized.

  2. Evaluation of two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, L M; Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Aller, M A; Nava, M P; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2005-01-01

    The serious neuropsychological repercussions of hepatic encephalopathy have led to the creation of several experimental models in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present investigation, two possible causes of hepatic encephalopathy, cholestasis and portal hypertension, were chosen to study the behavioral impairments caused by the disease using an object recognition task. This working memory test is based on a paradigm of spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample and was performed 60 days after surgery. Male Wistar rats (225-250 g) were divided into three groups: two experimental groups, microsurgical cholestasis (N = 20) and extrahepatic portal hypertension (N = 20), and a control group (N = 20). A mild alteration of the recognition memory occurred in rats with cholestasis compared to control rats and portal hypertensive rats. The latter group showed the poorest performance on the basis of the behavioral indexes tested. In particular, only the control group spent significantly more time exploring novel objects compared to familiar ones (P < 0.001). In addition, the portal hypertension group spent the shortest time exploring both the novel and familiar objects (P < 0.001). These results suggest that the existence of portosystemic collateral circulation per se may be responsible for subclinical encephalopathy.

  3. Hepatic cytochrome P450 activity, abundance, and expression throughout human development

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Smith, Jordan N.; Corley, Richard A.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s are Phase I metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes can vary considerably throughout human development, especially when comparing fetal development to neonates, children, and adults. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 expression and activity we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. To quantify the functional activity of individual P450s we employ activity-based protein profiling, which uses modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s as chemical probes, in tandem with proteomic analyses to quantify activity. Our results reveal life-stage-dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. The results were used to distribute P450s into three general classes based upon developmental stage of expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that our ontogeny results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics.

  4. Ethyl pyruvate reduces hepatic mitochondrial swelling and dysfunction in a rat model of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiyi; Li, Xiaoyue; Lin, Zongqin; Chen, Juan; Guan, Xiangdong; Chen, Minying

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis causes mitochondrial oxidative injury and swelling. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a cytoprotective agent, while aquaporin-8 (AQP8) is a mitochondrial water channel that can induce mitochondrial swelling. We assessed whether EP protects mitochondria during sepsis, and whether AQP8 contributes to the underlying mechanisms. A cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats, randomized to 3 groups: sham (n=20), CLP (n=59) and CLP+EP (n=51). All rats received postoperative intraperitoneal fluid resuscitation (30 ml/kg); the CLP+EP group also received intraperitoneal EP (100 mg/kg). Survival was assessed at 24 hours. Hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure was characterized by electron microscopy. The membrane potential of isolated hepatic mitochondria was determined using JC-1 and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial AQP8 expression and cytochrome C (Cyt C) release were measured by Western blotting (values normalized to ß-actin). Survival in the sham, CLP and CLP+EP groups was 100%, 21% and 41%, respectively. Mitochondrial cross-sectional area was smaller in the CLP+EP group than in the CLP group (0.231±0.110 vs. 0.641±0.460 µm2; P<0.001), with a tendency for a lower form factor (a measure of contour irregularity) in the CLP+EP group. Mitochondrial depolarization by CLP was inhibited by EP. Mitochondrial Cyt C release was higher in the CLP group than in the sham (1.211±0.24 vs. 0.48±0.03) or CLP+EP (0.35±0.39) groups. AQP8 expression was similar between groups, with a trend for lower expression in the CLP+EP group compared with the CLP group. EP improves sepsis outcome by targeting the mitochondrion, possibly through modulation of AQP8 expression. PMID:26339342

  5. D-penicillamine-induced granulomatous hepatitis in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Metushi, Imir G; Zhu, Xu; Uetrecht, Jack

    2014-08-01

    The mechanism of idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) remains poorly understood. D-penicillamine treatment is associated with a wide range of autoimmune reactions including liver injury. An animal model which utilizes brown Norway (BN) rats has been used to investigate the mechanism of D-penicillamine-induced IDRs because it mimics the autoimmune reactions that occur in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the type of liver injury that results from D-penicillamine treatment in BN rats. We had previously noted that D-penicillamine caused histological changes in the liver, but there was no increase in alanine transaminase (ALT), and we assumed that there was no significant injury. However, we subsequently discovered that D-penicillamine inhibits the ALT assay. In the present study, we found that treatment of BN rats with a low doses of D-penicillamine (10 or 15 mg/day) resulted in a mild increases in glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activities; however, this was not associated with histological changes. A higher dose of D-penicillamine (20 mg/day) resulted in 63% of the rats developing a skin rash, and these rats had elevated serum GLDH and SDH levels with histopathological changes characteristic of granulomatous hepatitis. This included large clusters of leukocytes in the form of granulomas that contained neutrophils, macrophages, and CD8 T cells. These changes did not occur in the rats that did not get sick. This model may be a good model to investigate the characteristics of drug-induced granulomatous hepatitis.

  6. The effect of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf extracts on rat hepatic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Valentová, K; Moncion, A; de Waziers, I; Ulrichová, J

    2004-03-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), originating from South America, has become popular in Japan and in New Zealand for its tubers which contain beta-1,2-oligofructans as the main saccharides. The plant is also successfully cultivated in Central Europe in the Czech Republic in particular. Its aerial part is used in Japan and in Brazil as a component in medicinal teas; while aqueous leaf extracts have been studied for their hypoglycemic activity in normal and diabetic rats. We have already demonstrated the high content of phenolic compounds in yacon leaf extracts and their in vitro antioxidant activity. In this paper, we present the effects of two organic fractions and two aqueous extracts from the leaves of S. sonchifolius on rat hepatocyte viability, on oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH) and allyl alcohol (AA), and on glucose metabolism and their insulin-like effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA. All the extracts tested exhibited strong protective effect against oxidative damage to rat hepatocyte primary cultures in concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microg/ml, reduced hepatic glucose production via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis at 1000 microg/ml. Moreover, the effects of the organic fractions (200 and 250 microg/ml) and to a lesser extent, the tea infusion (500 microg/ml) on rat CYP2B and CYP2E mRNA expression, were comparable to those observed with insulin. The combination of radical scavenging, cytoprotective and anti-hyperglycemic activity predetermine S. sonchifolius leaves for use in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases involving oxidative stress, particularly diabetes.

  7. Characterization of a novel ACTH inducible cytochrome P-450 from rat adrenal microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, S.A.; Marcus, C.M.; Jefcoate, C.R. )

    1990-02-26

    In rat adrenal cortex 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) causes massive necrosis that is dependent of ACTH. This is related to an ACTH inducible adrenal microsomal cytochrome P-450 that catalyzes hydrocarbon metabolism. Rat adrenal microsomes, catalyze the formation of DMBA 3,4 diol a precursor of the bay region reactive electrophile DMBA 3,4 diol 1,2 oxide. Both DMBA metabolism and a 57Kd protein have disappeared from microsomes 30 days after hypophysectomy, but are restored by 14 days treatment with ACTH. Dexamethasone which fully suppresses ACTH only partially suppresses this activity. The 57 Kd protein was partially purified to a single major band in one step from solubilized microsomes by h.p.l.c. chromatography using detergent elution from a novel column that mimics phospholipid membranes. This preparation exhibits a specific content of 2 nm P-450/mg protein and a turnover number of 1,500pm DMBA/nm P-450/minutes. A polyclonal antisera raised against this preparation provides a single western blot corresponding to the 57Kd ACTH sensitive protein. This antibody did not blot microsomal P-450 c21, nor did selected antibodies from known families react with this adrenal P-450 protein, suggesting substantial sequence differences from known P-450's.

  8. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. Methods: A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. Results: In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. Conclusion: The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation. PMID:27186297

  9. In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of theobromine by phenobarbital- and 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in rat liver. Role of thiol compounds.

    PubMed

    Shively, C A; Vesell, E S

    1987-01-01

    A new in vitro method was developed and applied to establish the role of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in theobromine biotransformation by control and phenobarbital (PB)- and 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. In vivo theobromine metabolite formation and pharmacokinetic parameters were also determined to serve as a comparison for in vitro studies. In vivo, the major urinary metabolite was 6-amino-5-[N-methylformylamino]-1-methyluracil (3,7DAU) with lesser amounts of 3,7-dimethyluric acid (3,7DMU), 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, 7-methyluric acid, and traces of dimethylallantoin (DMA). Following induction with 3MC, but not PB, selective increases occurred in the urinary excretion of 3,7DAU, indicating that a 3MC-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozyme plays a significant role in this metabolic pathway. Both PB and 3MC induction increased slightly urinary elimination of DMA, a minor metabolite. Pharmacokinetic studies after a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg theobromine revealed a marked effect of 3MC treatment on theobromine elimination, as evidenced by a 59% decrease in theobromine t1/2, a 75% decrease in AUC, and a 284% increase in clearance. By contrast, PB had no effect. Fecal 14C elimination accounted for approximately 5% of the administered theobromine dose, and biliary excretion studies revealed the presence of 3,7DMU, DMA, 3,7DAU, and unchanged theobromine. Studies in vitro indicated that 3,7DMU was the major theobromine metabolite produced by liver microsomes. Conversion rates in PB- and 3MC-induced rats were 2- and 11-fold higher, respectively, than in controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in mink fed Saginaw Bay carp (SBC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; LeCaptain, L.; Rattner, B.A.; Heaton, S.; Aulerich, R.; Tillitt, D.; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from mink fed diets containing 0% (n = 12), 10% (n = 11), 20% (n = 12) and 40% (n = 10) SBC for 6 months contained 0.1, 2.2, 3.6, and 6.3 ug/g total PCBs, respectively. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxy-ROD (ER0D), pentoxy-ROD (PROD), and ethoxycoumarin-OD (ECOD). Mink fed SBC had increased AHH, EROD, and ECOD (group means 2.2-3.4 X control means), decreased BROD and unchanged PROD (the latter 2 assays indicators for phenobarbital-type induction in mammals). Three samples from each group were examined by western blot using a polyclonal anti-P450llB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450lA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Mink fed SBC showed induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450lA (8 X control), but had little protein recognized by anti-P450IlB. The monooxygenase activities and western blot data give a consistent picture of MC-type but not PB-type induction in mink fed SBC.

  11. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zan, Yanlu; Zhang, Yuxia; Tien, Po

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs.

  12. Human hepatic cytochrome P450-specific metabolism of the organophosphorus pesticides methyl parathion and diazinon.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Corie A; Tian, Yuan; Knaak, James B; Kostyniak, Paul J; Olson, James R

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a public health concern due to their worldwide use and documented human exposures. Phosphorothioate OPs are metabolized by cytochrome P450s (P450s) through either a dearylation reaction to form an inactive metabolite, or through a desulfuration reaction to form an active oxon metabolite, which is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor. This study investigated the rate of desulfuration (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of methyl parathion and diazinon in human liver microsomes. In addition, recombinant human P450s were used to determine the P450-specific kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) for each compound for future use in refining human physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models of OP exposure. The primary enzymes involved in bioactivation of methyl parathion were CYP2B6 (K(m) = 1.25 μM; V(max) = 9.78 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 1.03 μM; V(max) = 4.67 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP1A2 (K(m) = 1.96 μM; V(max) = 5.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and the bioactivation of diazinon was mediated primarily by CYP1A1 (K(m) = 3.05 μM; V(max) = 2.35 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 7.74 μM; V(max) = 4.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP2B6 (K(m) = 14.83 μM; V(max) = 5.44 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). P450-mediated detoxification of methyl parathion only occurred to a limited extent with CYP1A2 (K(m) = 16.8 μM; V(max) = 1.38 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)) and 3A4 (K(m) = 104 μM; V(max) = 5.15 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), whereas the major enzyme involved in diazinon detoxification was CYP2C19 (K(m) = 5.04 μM; V(max) = 5.58 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). The OP- and P450-specific kinetic values will be helpful for future use in refining human PBPK/PD models of OP exposure.

  13. Human Hepatic Cytochrome P450-Specific Metabolism of the Organophosphorus Pesticides Methyl Parathion and Diazinon

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Knaak, James B.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a public health concern due to their worldwide use and documented human exposures. Phosphorothioate OPs are metabolized by cytochrome P450s (P450s) through either a dearylation reaction to form an inactive metabolite, or through a desulfuration reaction to form an active oxon metabolite, which is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor. This study investigated the rate of desulfuration (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of methyl parathion and diazinon in human liver microsomes. In addition, recombinant human P450s were used to determine the P450-specific kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) for each compound for future use in refining human physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models of OP exposure. The primary enzymes involved in bioactivation of methyl parathion were CYP2B6 (Km = 1.25 μM; Vmax = 9.78 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), CYP2C19 (Km = 1.03 μM; Vmax = 4.67 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), and CYP1A2 (Km = 1.96 μM; Vmax = 5.14 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), and the bioactivation of diazinon was mediated primarily by CYP1A1 (Km = 3.05 μM; Vmax = 2.35 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), CYP2C19 (Km = 7.74 μM; Vmax = 4.14 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), and CYP2B6 (Km = 14.83 μM; Vmax = 5.44 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1). P450-mediated detoxification of methyl parathion only occurred to a limited extent with CYP1A2 (Km = 16.8 μM; Vmax = 1.38 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1) and 3A4 (Km = 104 μM; Vmax = 5.15 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), whereas the major enzyme involved in diazinon detoxification was CYP2C19 (Km = 5.04 μM; Vmax = 5.58 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1). The OP- and P450-specific kinetic values will be helpful for future use in refining human PBPK/PD models of OP exposure. PMID:21969518

  14. Regional specificity in deltamethrin induced cytochrome P450 expression in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Sanjay; Johri, Ashu; Dhawan, Alok; Seth, Prahlad K.; Parmar, Devendra . E-mail: parmar_devendra@hotmail.com

    2006-11-15

    Oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg x 7 or 15 or 21 days) was found to produce a time-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), 1A2 and CYP2B1, 2B2 isoenzymes in rat brain. RT-PCR studies further showed that increase in the mRNA expression of these CYP isoenzymes observed after 21 days of exposure was region specific. Hippocampus exhibited maximum increase in the mRNA expression of CYP1A1, which was followed by pons-medulla, cerebellum and hypothalamus. The mRNA expression of CYP2B1 also exhibited maximum increase in the hypothalamus and hippocampus followed by almost similar increase in midbrain and cerebellum. In contrast, mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and CYP2B2, the constitutive isoenzymes exhibited relatively higher increase in pons-medulla, cerebellum and frontal cortex. Immunoblotting studies carried out with polyclonal antibody raised against rat liver CYP1A1/1A2 or CYP2B1/2B2 isoenzymes also showed increase in immunoreactivity comigrating with CYP1A1/1A2 or 2B1/2B2 in the microsomal fractions isolated from hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of rat treated with deltamethrin. Though the exact relationship of the xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs with the physiological function of the brain is yet to be clearly understood, the increase in the mRNA expression of the CYPs in the brain regions that regulate specific brain functions affected by deltamethrin have further indicated that modulation of these CYPs could be associated with the various endogenous functions of the brain.

  15. Comparison of hepatic and extra hepatic induction of cytochrome P4501A by graded doses of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in Atlantic tomcod from two populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhanpeng; Courtenay, Simon; Wirgin, Isaac

    2006-03-10

    Atlantic tomcod Microgadus tomcod from the Hudson River, New York, are exposed to high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bioaccumulate mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinatedfurans (PCDD/Fs). Previous studies demonstrated that hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA was not inducible in tomcod from the Hudson River treated with single doses of PCB77 or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), but was inducible with PAHs. In this study, we sought to determine if CYP1A mRNA was inducible with higher doses of these and other halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) in Hudson River tomcod and if decreased sensitivity to gene inducibility occurs across all tissues. Tomcod from the Hudson River and the cleaner Miramichi River, New Brunswick, were treated individually with graded doses of TCDD and coplanar PCBs (PCB77, PCB81, PCB126, PCB169) and profiles of hepatic CYP1A mRNA expression were compared between the two populations. CYP1A mRNA inducibility was also compared in multiple tissues of tomcod from the two rivers that were treated with PCB77. Additionally, hepatic CYP1A mRNA was characterized in Miramichi River tomcod treated with pairs of PCB congeners that included aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists and antagonists. Hepatic CYP1A mRNA was significantly inducible by all agonists in tomcod from the Miramichi River and TCDD and two of four PCBs in tomcod from the Hudson River. CYP1A mRNA was also significantly inducible in four of five tissues of tomcod from the Miramichi River but only in liver of Hudson River tomcod. In summary, CYP1A mRNA inducibility was approximately two orders of magnitude less sensitive in tomcod from the Hudson River than in those from the Miramichi River. But when achieved, maximum levels of CYP1A expression were similar in tomcod from the two populations. Co-administration of PCB126 and PCB77 did not produce significantly greater CYP1A mRNA induction

  16. Effects of colupulone, a component of hops and brewers yeast, and chromium on glucose tolerance and hepatic cytochrome P450 in nondiabetic and spontaneously diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mannering, G J; Shoeman, J A; Shoeman, D W

    1994-05-16

    Brewers yeast contains factors that increase and decrease glucose tolerance. Hop components (lupulones) that adhere to yeast during the brewing process elicit a variety of biological effects including the induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A. Colupulone was tested for its effects on glucose tolerance and cytochrome P450. Serum glucose levels 30 min after the injection of glucose were lowered by colupulone in nondiabetic Swiss-Webster mice, elevated in diabetic C57B1/KSJ-db/db mice, and unaffected in nondiabetic C57B1/KSJ+m/+m mice. Colupulone lowered hemoglobin glycation slightly in +m/+m mice but not in db/db mice. The cytochrome P450 system was highly induced by colupulone in both db/db and +m/+m mice. Chromium, which acts in concert with the factor in yeast that enhances glucose tolerance, had little or no effect on the plasma glucose level or the cytochrome P450 system in either +m/+m or db/db mice.

  17. Enantioselective, mechanism-based inactivation of guinea pig hepatic cytochrome P450 by N-(alpha-methylbenzyl)-1-aminobenzotriazole.

    PubMed

    Sinal, C J; Hirst, M; Webb, C D; Bend, J R

    1998-07-01

    N-Aralkylated derivatives of 1-aminobenzotriazole are well-established, mechanism-based inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450). In this study, the kinetics of inactivation of CYP2B-dependent 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation (PROD) and CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities by enantiomers of N-(alpha-methylbenzyl)-1-aminobenzotriazole (alphaMB) were compared. The racemic mixture (+/-)-alphaMB, as well as the enantiomers (-)-alphaMB and (+)-alphaMB, produced a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent loss of PROD and EROD activity in hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital-treated guinea pigs. The rates of PROD inactivation by (-)-alphaMB were significantly faster than for (+)-alphaMB. Consistent with this, the derived maximal kinact was also significantly greater for (-)-alphaMB than for (+)-alphaMB (0.49 vs. 0.35 min-1). In contrast, the concentrations required for the half-maximal rate of inactivation (Ki) were equivalent for (-)-alphaMB and (+)-alphaMB, whereas the degree of competitive inhibition of PROD activity was greater for (+)-alphaMB. No significant differences were found among (-)-alphaMB, (+)-alphaMB, and (+/-)-alphaMB with respect to mechanism-based inactivation (kinact = 0.18, 0.16, and 0.17 min-1, respectively) or competitive inhibition of EROD activity. No differences were found for the maximal extent of PROD or EROD inhibition or the loss of spectral P450 after an extended 30-min incubation with the inhibitors. We conclude that mechanism-based inactivation of guinea pig CYP2B, but not CYP1A, isozymes by alphaMB occurs in a stereoselective manner, most likely as a result of a difference in the balance between metabolic activation and deactivation for the alphaMB enantiomers.

  18. Identification of the antibiotic hops component, colupulone, as an inducer of hepatic cytochrome P-4503A in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Mannering, G J; Shoeman, J A; Deloria, L B

    1992-01-01

    A higher level of cytochrome P-450 (P450)-dependent ethylmorphine (EM) N-demethylase activity was observed in hepatic microsomes from mice fed a natural-ingredient diet ("crude diet") than in those from mice fed a semi-purified diet ("purified diet"). This led to the testing of individual ingredients of the crude diet as inducers of the P-450 system. Brewers yeast proved to be the most significant inductive component of the crude diet. Further investigation revealed that hop components (lupulones) absorbed on yeast during the brewing process were responsible for the induction of the P-450 system. The induction of P-450 and several P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities (EM N-demethylation, aniline hydroxylation, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation) by colupulone with respect to dose and time course were investigated. The very large increase in EM N-demethylase activity elicited by colupulone suggested that P-4503A had been induced. Western blot technology verified this speculation. Western blot analysis of microsomal protein from mice fed hops, brewers yeast, or the residue of a hexane extract of hops supported the conclusion that all of these substances induced P-4503A. These substances were also relatively good inducers of P-4502B, but not as inductive of this isozyme as the crude diet. This is interpreted to mean that not all of the inductive properties of the crude diet are due to hop components. These studies question the use of crude commercial diets in studies of P-450 systems. They may also challenge some current definitions of "constitutive" and "induced" P-450s.

  19. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: Role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Shimoji, Manami; Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Sunakawa, Hajime; Aniya, Yoko

    2008-10-01

    Microsomal glutathione transferase (MGST1) is activated by oxidative stress. Although MGST1 is found in mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1), there is no information about the oxidative activation of mtMGST1. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether mtMGST1 also undergoes activation and about its function. When rats were treated with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS), mtMGST1 activity was significantly increased, and the increased activity was reduced by the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol. In mitochondria from GalN/LPS-treated rats, disulfide-linked mtMGST1 dimer and mixed protein glutathione disulfides (glutathionylation) were detected. In addition, cytochrome c release from mitochondria isolated from GalN/LPS-treated rats was observed, and the release was inhibited by anti-MGST1 antibodies. Incubation of mitochondria from control rats with diamide and diamide plus GSH in vitro resulted in dimer- and mixed disulfide bond-mediated activation of mtMGST1, respectively. The activation of mtMGST1 by diamide plus GSH caused cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and the release was prevented by treatment with anti-MGST1 antibodies. In addition, diamide plus GSH treatment caused mitochondrial swelling accompanied by cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BKA), inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore. Furthermore, mtMGST1 activity was also inhibited by CsA and BKA. These results indicate that mtMGST1 is activated through mixed disulfide bond formation that contributes to cytochrome c release from mitochondria through the MPT pore.

  20. Xyloketal B, a marine compound, acts on a network of molecular proteins and regulates the activity and expression of rat cytochrome P450 3a: a bioinformatic and animal study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junhui; Chang, Cui; Xiang, Qi; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Luo, Rong; Yang, Lun; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Hongtu; Li, Jianan; Bei, Yu; Xu, Jinmei; Zhang, Minjing; Zhang, Qihao; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Pang, Jiyan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds are becoming popular for the treatment of illnesses and health promotion, but the mechanisms of action and safety profiles are often unknown. Xyloketal B (XKB) is a novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove fungus Xylaria sp., with potent antioxidative, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. However, its molecular targets and effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential molecular targets of XKB using bioinformatic approaches and to examine the effect of XKB on the expression and activity of rat cytochrome P450 3a (Cyp3a) subfamily members using midazolam as a model probe. DDI-CPI, a server that can predict drug–drug interactions via the chemical–protein interactome, was employed to predict the targets of XKB, and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used to analyze the pathways of the predicted targets of XKB. Homology modeling was performed using the Discovery Studio program 3.1. The activity and expression of rat hepatic Cyp3a were examined after the rats were treated with XKB at 7 and 14 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. Rat plasma concentrations of midazolam and its metabolite 1′-OH-midazolam were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Bioinformatic analysis showed that there were over 324 functional proteins and 61 related signaling pathways that were potentially regulated by XKB. A molecular docking study showed that XKB bound to the active site of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and rat Cyp3a2 homology model via the formation of hydrogen bonds. The in vivo study showed that oral administration of XKB at 14 mg/kg to rats for 8 days significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam, with a concomitant decrease in the plasma clearance and AUC ratio of 1′-OH-midazolam over midazolam. Further, oral administration of 14 mg/kg XKB for 8 days markedly reduced the

  1. Isolation and characterization of hepatic mast cells from cholestatic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, Laura; Graf-Eaton, Allyson; Kennedy, Lindsey; Demieville, Jennifer; Owens, Jennifer; Hodges, Kyle; Ladd, Brittany; Francis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells that release histamine and other mediators. MC number increases after bile duct ligation (BDL) and blocking mast cell-derived histamine decrease biliary proliferation. We aimed to isolate and characterize MCs from cholestatic livers. Rats were subjected to BDL starting at 6 hrs and up to 14 days. MC infiltration was evaluated by toluidine blue. BDL rats were perfused using standard collagenase perfusion. Following enzymatic digestion, tissue was passed through a fine gauge needle. Suspensions were incubated with MAb AA4, washed and incubated with goat anti-mouse coated Dynal® beads. MCs were stained with toluidine blue, and in isolated MCs, the expression of FCεRI and MC proteases was measured. The expression of histidine decarboxylase, histamine receptors, VEGF-receptors and TIE 1 and 2 was evaluated by qPCR. Histamine and VEGF-A secretion was measured in MC supernatants. MC purity was evaluated by CK-19, CK-8, albumin, VAP-1 and α-SMA expression. In vitro, cholangiocytes and HSCs were treated with isolated MC supernatants from BDL rats treated with either NaCl or cromolyn sodium (to block MC histamine release) and biliary proliferation and hepatic fibrosis were measured. MCs infiltrate the liver and surround bile ducts starting at day 2. We isolated a virtually pure preparation of mature, functional MCs. TEM images reveal distinct secretory granules and isolated MCs secrete histamine. MCs express FCεRI, chymase, tryptase, RMCPI and RMCPII, but were virtually void of other cell markers. Biliary proliferation and fibrosis increased following treatment with MC supernatants from BDL rats + NaCl and these parameters decreased in cells treated with MC supernatants from BDL + cromolyn sodium. In conclusion, we have isolated and characterized MCs from cholestatic livers. MCs regulate cholestatic liver injury and hepatic fibrosis. This tool provides a better understanding of the paracrine influence of mast cells on biliary

  2. Catalytic and Immunochemical Detection of Hepatic and Extrahepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in White-sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joanna Y.; Moore, Michael J.; Stegeman, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized microsomal systems and measured the levels of microsomal cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in multiple internal organs of male and female white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) from the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Internal organs were sampled within 24 hours of death, sometimes in a period of hours, collection times which are significantly less than usually seen for marine mammals. Tissue autolysis, as assessed by histological analysis of liver, was minimal to none in all individuals. Total P420 did not correlate with time from death to sampling, suggesting that it is a poor indicator of P450 degradation in cetacean tissues where perfusion isn’t practical. The total hepatic microsomal P450 content, cytochrome b5 content, and NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase (CPR) activity averaged 0.29 nmol mg−1, 0.12 nmol mg−1, and 238 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. Microsomal CPR activity in liver was higher than that in lung and kidney, and was higher than that reported in liver of most other cetacean species. Immunodetected CYP1A1 content was low in all organs, less than 3 pmoles CYP1A equivalents mg−1. EROD activity ranged from 9 – 376 pmoles mg−1 min−1 and was greater in liver than in other tissues. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity and CYP1A1 content did not correlate. However, hepatic EROD activity, but not CYP1A1 protein content, was well correlated with both total PCB and Σmono-ortho PCB concentrations in blubber. Length, as a proxy for age, did not correlate with hepatic EROD activity or CYP1A1 protein levels, and sex did not influence the relationship between EROD and contaminant concentrations. We cannot easily control for the extent of tissue degradation in cetacean studies nor do we have a complete history of these animals. Therefore, other factors such as degradation or hormonal state may have a role in the observed relationships. Yet, as in other mammals, hepatic tissues appear to be

  3. The effects of fenvalerate on hepatic and cerebral xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in selenium and/or iodine deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Caglayan, Aydan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Hincal, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Particularly in developing countries, selenium and/or iodine deficiencies are encountered and use of pesticides in agriculture are not well-controlled. Fenvalerate is a pyrethroid insectide used in agriculture and has applications against a wide range of pests. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of fenvalerate on hepatic and cerebral xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in the presence of iodine and/or selenium deficiency on a rat model. Materials and Methods: Iodine and/or selenium deficiency was induced by feeding three-week-old Wistar rats with a diet containing <0.005 mg selenium kg-1, and/or administering 1% sodium perchlorate in drinking water for 7 weeks. Test groups received fenvalerate (100 mg kg-1 BW IP) for the last 7 days. Hepatic and cerebral microsomal aniline hydroxylase (CYP2E1) and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were determined. Besides, hepatic NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD, CYP1A1/1A2) and penthoxyresorufin O-depenthylase (PROD, CYP2B1/2B2), activities were also measured. Results: Fenvalerate had a general inductive effect on the hepatic and cerebral xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities. Moreover, enzyme activities were also altered by iodine and/or selenium deficiency, but the effects seemed to be enzyme- and tissue-specific. Conclusion: The inductive effect of fenvalerate, particularly in high dose exposures, may change the metabolism of several xenobiotics, including drugs, as well as endogenous substrates. The effects may vary depending on the selenium and/or iodine status of individual. PMID:27872699

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon induction of rat cytochrome P-450d results from increased precursor RNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, G; Krauter, K S

    1990-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that cytochrome P-450d mRNA accumulation is induced at a posttranscriptional level by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes grown in serum-free hormonally defined medium. Using dactinomycin chase experiments in this culture system, we found that MCA had no effect on the P-450d mRNA half-life. In addition, induction of P-450d occurred both in the presence and in the absence of protein synthesis inhibitors. An analysis of nuclear precursors showed that the accumulation of the primary transcript of the P-450d gene was induced to the same extent as that of the mature mRNA after MCA treatment and that the pattern of accumulation of precursors differed between treated and control liver cells. Since P-450d induction is thought to be a receptor-mediated event, these data are consistent with a model in which a direct interaction occurs between the receptor-ligand complex and the primary transcript. Images PMID:2247082

  5. Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions.

  6. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor SKF-525A disrupts autophagy in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Yang, Xi; Shi, Qiang

    2016-08-05

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor SKF-525A is commonly used to study drug metabolism and toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity. By using Western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we unexpectedly found that SKF-525A at 2-20 μM caused remarkable accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in primary rat hepatocytes at 1, 4 and 24 h, indicating that autophagy was disrupted. SKF-525A showed no effects on chloroquine induced LC3-II accumulation, suggesting that autophagic flux was blocked, which is further supported by the increased level of the p62 protein after SKF-525A treatment. SKF-525A did not affect proteasome activities or gene expression of LC3-II or p62. Immunofluorescence of green fluorescent protein fused lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1, a specific protein marker for lysosomes) and LC3-II showed that co-localization of these two proteins was partially abolished by SKF-525A, indicating that autophagosome-lysosome fusion was blocked. The other five CYP inhibitors, metyrapone, 1-aminobenzotriazole, alpha-naphthoflavone, ticlopidine, and ketoconazole, showed no effects in parallel experiments. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which various CYP inhibitors differentially affect a same drug's toxicity in hepatocytes. The data also indicate that SKF-525A is not an ideal chemical inhibitor for probing the relation between CYP mediated metabolism and toxicity in primary hepatocytes.

  7. Effects of pristane on cytochrome P450 isozyme expression in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Howard, Carolyn B; Samuel, Jacqueline; Henderson, Shalonda B; Stevens, Jacqueline; Thomas, Paul E; Cuchens, Marvin A

    2005-04-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis studies are powerful tools to obtain information on potential mechanisms of chemical factors for malignancies. In this study Western blot analyses, using monoclonal antibodies specific for three different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B), were employed to examine the effect(s) of 3-methylcholanthrene and/or pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) on the basal and inducible levels of expression of CYP proteins within Copenhagen rat tissues. Pristane exposure led to tissue specific differences in the CYP isozymes expressed and elicited increased CYP protein expression over 3-methylcholanthrene induced levels in microsomes isolated from liver, Peyer's Patches, and thymus. Within the context of the chemical carcinogenesis model employed in this study, these observations correlated with the induction of B-cell malignancies by low doses of 3-methylcholanthrene and of thymic lymphomas by a high 3-methylcholanthrene dose. The data suggest that pristane treatment affects CYP isozyme expression. This pristane-mediated effect clearly could be a contributing factor in the chemical carcinogenesis of the previously observed lymphoid malignancies, and a possible basis for the tumor enhancing effects of pristane.

  8. Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Leitch, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    Radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats, which is characterized by marked ascites accompanied by liver necrosis, fibrosis, and vein lesions, is described in this study. These adverse sequelae are produced within 30 days after irradiation if there is surgical removal of two-thirds of the liver immediately after whole-liver irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ day and median survival time after liver irradiation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy is 24 Gy and 17 days, respectively. Death is preceded by reduction in liver function as measured by (/sup 131/I)-labeled rose bengal clearance. Prior to death, liver sepsis and endotoxemia were detected in most irradiated, partially hepatectomized animals. Pretreatment of the animals with endotoxin and/or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract resulted in increased survival time, but no irradiated, partially hepatectomized animal survived beyond 63 days. This suggests that sepsis and endotoxemia resulting from the bacteria in the intestine are the immediate cause of death after 30-Gy liver irradiation and partial hepatectomy. It is concluded that the hepatectomized rat model is an economical and scientifically manageable experimental system to study a form of radiation hepatitis that occurs in compromised human livers.

  9. 17β-estradiol attenuates reduced-size hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu Sheng; Shen, Shi Qiang; Chen, Zu Bing; Yan, Rui Chen

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on hepatocyte apoptosis after reduced-size hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its mechanism. A rat model of reduced-size hepatic I/R injury was established. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into sham, I/R, and E2 + I/R group. 17β-Estradiol (4 mg/kg) or the vehicle was administered i.p. 1 h before ischemia and immediately after operation. For each group, 10 rats were used to investigate the survival during a week after reperfusion. Blood samples and liver tissues were obtained in the remaining animals after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h of reperfusion to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, liver tissue malondialdehyde concentration, superoxide dismutase activity, and histopathologic changes. Apoptosis ratio; expression of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins; and enzymatic activities of caspase 9 and caspase 3 were performed in the samples at 12 h after reperfusion. The serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels and tissue malondialdehyde concentration were increased in the I/R group, whereas the increase was significantly reduced by E2. The superoxide dismutase activity, depressed by I/R injury, was elevated back to normal levels by treatment with E2. Severe hepatic damage was observed by light microscopy in the I/R group, whereas administration of E2 resulted in tissue and cellular preservation. Furthermore, E2 inhibited hepatocellular apoptosis by upregulating the ratio of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, reduced cytosolic cytochrome c level, and decreased caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities. The 7-day survival rate was significantly higher in the E2 + I/R group than in the I/R group. These results indicated that E2 protects liver tissues from reduced-size hepatic I/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

  10. Resveratrol mitigates hepatic injury in rats by regulating oxidative stress, nuclear factor-kappa B, and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Seif el-Din, Sayed Hassan; El-Lakkany, Naglaa Mohamed; Salem, Maha Badr; Hammam, Olfat Ali; Saleh, Samira; Botros, Sanaa Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol, possesses several pharmacological activities including anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antinociceptive, and antiasthmatic activity. Little is known about its hepatoprotective action mechanisms. This study was conceived to explore the possible protective mechanisms of resveratrol compared with the hepatoprotective silymarin in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups; normal control (i), TAA (100 mg/kg) (ii), TAA + silymarin (50 mg/kg) (iii), and TAA + resveratrol (10 mg/kg) (iv). Liver function and histopathology, pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and apoptotic markers were examined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test followed by Tukey post hoc test. Compared to TAA-intoxicated group, resveratrol mitigated liver damage, and inflammation as noted by less inflammatory infiltration, hydropic degeneration with decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma by 78.83, 18.12, and 64.49%, respectively. Furthermore, it reduced (P < 0.05) alanine and aspartate aminotransferases by 36.64 and 48.09%, respectively, restored hepatic glutathione content and normalized superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. While it inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B, cytochrome 2E1, and enhanced apoptosis of necrotic hepatocytes via increasing caspase-3 activity. Our findings indicated that the potential hepatoprotective mechanisms of resveratrol are associated with inhibition of inflammation, enhancing the apoptosis of necrotic hepatocytes, and suppression of oxidative stress. PMID:27429929

  11. Sesamin ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in rats on a high-fat diet via LXRα and PPARα.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Zhang, Jinghua; Yang, Haixia; Han, Bei; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin

    2016-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by a nonalcohol relevant pathological accumulation of fat in the liver. Previous studies have shown that sesamin exerts antioxidant effects and improves lipid metabolism of the fatty liver. In this study, we hypothesized that sesamin improves lipid homeostasis of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) by regulating the expression of genes related to de novo lipogenesis and β-oxidation. We induced NAFLD in rats with HFD and examined the effect of sesamin in vivo. The results showed that HFD rats accumulated total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the liver and developed inflammation, as evidenced by the elevation of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the liver and serum. Sesamin attenuated the disease progression by improving the blood lipid profile in a dose-dependent manner. Sesamin reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and free fatty acid, whereas it increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Meanwhile, sesamin increased the activities of hepatic glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase while reducing the level of malonaldehyde and cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, higher doses of sesamin reduced the expression of liver X receptor α and its downstream target genes, whereas it upregulated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-mediated signaling. These findings suggest that sesamin attenuates diet-induced dyslipidemia and inflammation of NAFLD in rats via mechanisms regulated by liver X receptor α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α.

  12. Coexistence of translocated cytochrome c and nitrated protein in neurons of the rat cerebral cortex after oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alonso, D; Encinas, J M; Uttenthal, L O; Boscá, L; Serrano, J; Fernández, A P; Castro-Blanco, S; Santacana, M; Bentura, M L; Richart, A; Fernández-Vizarra, P; Rodrigo, J

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of immunoreactive cytochrome c and protein nitration were studied in the rat cerebral cortex after oxygen and glucose deprivation by bright field, confocal and electron microscopy. In control cerebral cortex, nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity indicating protein nitration was found mostly in the neuronal nuclear region, with only a small amount distributed in the cytosol, whereas cytochrome c immunoreactivity was found at the inner membrane and in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. During the recovery phase after oxygen and glucose deprivation, cytochrome c immunoreactivity was released from the intermembrane space of swollen mitochondria into the surrounding cytosol. The cytosol now also displayed nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity, which had diminished in the nuclear region. Both immunoreactivities were dispersed throughout the soma and processes of the cortical neurons. These changes were largely prevented by the administration of cyclosporin A, which inhibits both the mitochondrial permeability transition and the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase while blocking the induction of the inducible isoform. Ischemia/reperfusion injury increases the production of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and intracellular factors that damage the mitochondria and liberate apoptotic factors. We suggest that translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, which has been shown to precede the mitochondrial permeability transition, could result from peroxynitrite-mediated nitration. This phenomenon is attenuated by cyclosporin A administration, suggesting a neuroprotective role for this agent.

  13. Effects of cytochrome P450 inhibitors on potassium currents and mechanical activity in rat portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, G.; Zygmunt, P. M.; Högestätt, E. D.; Weston, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitors, proadifen, clotrimazole and 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA) on K-currents in freshly-isolated single cells derived from rat portal vein and on mechanical activity in whole veins were studied. 2. When cells were stepped from -90 mV to a series of test potentials (from -80 to +50 mV), a delayed rectifier current (IK(V)) and an A-type current (IK(A)) could be identified. Proadifen (10 microM), clotrimazole (30 microM) and 17-ODYA (5 microM) each inhibited IK(V) but had little effect on IK(A). 3. When cells were held at -10 mV to inactivate the time-dependent K-currents, IK(V) and IK(A), levcromakalim (3 microM) induced a time-independent outward K-current (IK(ATP)) which was totally inhibited by clotrimazole (30 microM) and almost fully inhibited by proadifen (10 microM). 17-ODYA (5 microM) had no effect on IK(ATP) and exerted only a minor inhibitory action on this current at 20 microM. 4. 17-ODYA (5 microM) potentiated current flow through the large conductance, Ca-sensitive K-channel (BKCa). In contrast, proadifen (10 microM) had no effect on IBK(Ca) whereas clotrimazole (30 microM) exerted a small but significant inhibitory action. 5. Proadifen (10 microM) and clotrimazole (30 microM) each inhibited the magnitude but increased the frequency of spontaneous contractions in whole portal veins. 17-ODYA (5 microM) had no effect on spontaneous contractions but these were inhibited when the concentration of 17-ODYA was increased to 50 microM. 6. The spasmolytic effect of levcromakalim on spontaneous contractions was antagonized by proadifen (10-30 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner but 17-ODYA (up to 50 microM) was without effect. 7. These results in portal vein show that cytochrome P450 inhibitors exert profound effects on a variety of K-channel subtypes. This suggests that enzymes dependent on this cofactor may be important regulators of K-channel activity in smooth muscle. The relevance of these findings for the

  14. Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity alters cardiac cytochrome P450 expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zordoky, Beshay N.M.; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Aboutabl, Mona E.

    2010-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-neoplastic antibiotic used to treat a variety of malignancies; however, its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolites and the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the effect of acute DOX toxicity on the expression of several CYP enzymes and their associated arachidonic acid metabolites in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute DOX toxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of the drug. Our results showed that DOX treatment for 24 h caused a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, CYP4F4, and EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats as compared to the control. Similarly, there was a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A, and sEH proteins after 24 h of DOX administration. In the heart microsomes, acute DOX toxicity significantly increased the formation of 20-HETE which is consistent with the induction of the major CYP omega-hydroxylases: CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, and CYP4F4. On the other hand, the formation of 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) was significantly reduced, whereas the formation of their corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids was significantly increased. The decrease in the cardioprotective EETs can be attributed to the increase of sEH activity parallel to the induction of the EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats. In conclusion, acute DOX toxicity alters the expression of several CYP and sEH enzymes with a consequent alteration in arachidonic acid metabolism. These results may represent a novel mechanism by which this drug causes progressive cardiotoxicity.

  15. Does hepatic vagus nerve modulate the progression of biliary fibrosis in rats?

    PubMed

    Hajiasgharzadeh, Khalil; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Javan, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad R; Mani, Ali R

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that vagus nerve activation inhibits cytokine production in a variety of non-neural cells though activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Since chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in liver fibrosis, this study was designed to investigate the role of hepatic vagus nerve in the progression of hepatic fibrosis in rats. Cirrhosis was induced by chronic ligation of the bile duct. Hepatic hydroxyproline level, portal pressure, serum transaminase level, hepatic TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1) expression were measured in order to assess the progression of liver cirrhosis. α7nAChR expression was assessed using RT-PCR as well as immunostaining. RT-PCR analysis of the liver showed that α7nAChR mRNA is expressed in rat liver. Immunostaining study demonstrated that hepatic α7nAChR is mainly expressed in the hepatocytes of cirrhotic liver with minimum α7nAChR expression in biliary epithelium or myofibroblasts. Bile duct ligation was associated with portal hypertension, increased hepatic hydroxyproline level as well as TIMP-1 and MCP-1 expression in the liver. However neither selective hepatic vagotomy nor methyllycaconitine (an α7nAChR antagonist) could significantly affect development of portal hypertension or hepatic fibrosis in rats. Selective hepatic vagotomy could only attenuate serum aspartate aminotransferase level in bile duct ligated rats but did not have a significant effect on hepatic inflammation as assessed by MCP-1 mRNA expression. Our study provides evidence against a crucial role for the hepatic vagus nerve as an intrinsic protective mechanism in modulation of hepatic fibrosis in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis.

  16. Organ-specific distribution of 7-chlorinated benz[a]anthracene and regulation of selected cytochrome P450 genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Ohura, Takashi; Kido, Taketoshi; Yamanaka, Noriko; Tanimura, Nobuhiko; Shimoi, Kayoko; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2013-02-01

    We previously reported that 14-day exposure to 7-chlorinated benz[a]anthracene (7-Cl-BaA), a new environmental pollutant, selectively induced hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A2 in rats, although treatment with its parent, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. In this study, to better understand the relative contribution of chlorination to the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we investigated the organ-specific distributions of 7-Cl-BaA and BaA in F334 rats. After 14 days of oral administration of 7-Cl-BaA or BaA at a concentration of 1 or 10 mg/kg body weight/day, both chemicals were detected in their plasma, which was collected 24 hr after the last administration, even at the lower dosage. Dose-dependent accumulation patterns were observed in the liver, muscle, kidney, spleen, heart, and lung. The 7-Cl-BaA concentrations in the organs were higher than those of the BaA. Furthermore, at the end of the exposure, 7-Cl-BaA specifically regulated several CYP genes in the heart more so than in other organs, although these inductions were not significant in the BaA treatment. 7-Cl-BaA might also stimulate the metabolic pathways of chemicals other than AhR-mediated metabolism, which is specific to normal PAHs, because of the alterations of CYP2J4, CYP4B1, and CYP17A1 expression in rats. In conclusion, our results imply that the chlorination of PAHs may change their organ-specific distribution and consequently alter their toxicological impacts compared to their parent PAHs.

  17. Distinct organization of methylcholanthrene- and phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 genes in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Sogawa, K; Gotoh, O; Kawajiri, K; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y

    1984-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450c gene was determined by sequence analysis of cloned genomic DNA and the sequence, consisting of 524 amino acids, of the protein was deduced therefrom. The gene for the cytochrome was approximately 6.0 kilobases long and was split into seven exons. Comparison of the gene with that of the phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450e showed that the gene structures for the two types of cytochrome P-450 differ greatly; the location, number, and size of intervening sequences are very dissimilar. However, the sequence homology between the two types of cytochrome suggests that the two genes have evolved from a common ancestor. Images PMID:6089174

  18. Activating nuclear xenobiotic receptors and triggering ER stress and hepatic cytochromes P450 systems in quails (Coturnix C. coturnix) during atrazine exposure.

    PubMed

    Du, Zheng-Hai; Qin, Lei; Lin, Jia; Sun, Yan-Chun; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Cong; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jin-Long

    2017-02-10

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most widely detected contaminant in the ecosystem. Nuclear xenobiotic receptors are activated by herbicides and induce the transcription of CYP450 isoforms involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. However, little is known about hepatic nuclear xenobiotic receptors in birds are responsible for ATR-induced hepatotoxicity via regulating the cytochrome P450 enzyme systems (CYP450s). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of ATR hepatotoxicity in quails. For this purpose, male quails were dosed by oral gavage from sexual immaturity to maturity with 0, 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day ATR for 45 days. The results showed that ATR exposure caused the hepatotoxicity damage and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) degeneration. It suggested that ER is a target organelle of ATR toxicity in hepatocytes. ATR exposure disrupted the hepatic CYP450s homeostasis. This study also demonstrated that ATR triggered the CYP450 isoforms transcription via activating the hepatic CAR/PXR pathway. The present study provides new insights regarding the mechanism of the ATR-induced hepatotoxicity through activating nuclear xenobiotic receptors and triggering ER stress and hepatic CYP450s in quails.

  19. Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes. PMID:24587216

  20. Hepatic oxidative stress, genotoxicity and vascular dysfunction in lean or obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Løhr, Mille; Folkmann, Janne K; Sheykhzade, Majid; Jensen, Lars J; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which could be related to oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the associations between hepatic oxidative stress and vascular function in pressurized mesenteric arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats at 14, 24 and 37 weeks of age. Obese Zucker rats had more hepatic fat accumulation than their lean counterparts. Nevertheless, the obese rats had unaltered age-related level of hepatic oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) or human oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) sensitive sites as measured by the comet assay. There were decreasing levels of oxidatively damaged DNA with age in the liver of lean rats, which occurred concurrently with increased expression of Ogg1. The 37 week old lean rats also had higher expression level of Hmox1 and elevated levels of DNA strand breaks in the liver. Still, both strain of rats had increased protein level of HMOX-1 in the liver at 37 weeks. The external and lumen diameters of mesenteric arteries increased with age in obese Zucker rats with no change in media cross-sectional area, indicating outward re-modelling without hypertrophy of the vascular wall. There was increased maximal response to acetylcholine-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in both strains of rats. Collectively, the results indicate that obese Zucker rats only displayed a modest mesenteric vascular dysfunction, with no increase in hepatic oxidative stress-generated DNA damage despite substantial hepatic steatosis.

  1. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, and Psidium guajava on hepatic and intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devendra; Trivedi, Neerja; Dixit, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Background: This study was to investigated the synergistic effect of polyherbal formulations (PHF) of Allium sativum L., Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn., and Psidium guajava L. in the inhibition/induction of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and Phase-II conjugated drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Consumption of these herbal remedy has been extensively documented for diabetes treatment in Ayurveda. Methodology: PHF of these five herbs was prepared, and different doses were orally administered to Sprague–Dawley rats of different groups except control group. Expression of mRNA and activity of DMEs were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and high performance liquid chromatography in isolated liver and intestine microsomes in PHF pretreated rats. Results: The activities of hepatic and intestinal Phase-II enzyme levels increased along with mRNA levels except CYP3A mRNA level. PHF administration increases the activity of hepatic and intestinal UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase in response to dose and time; however, the activity of hepatic sulfotransferase increased at higher doses. Conclusions: CYPs and Phase-II conjugated enzymes levels can be modulated in dose and time dependent manner. Observations suggest that polyherbal formulation might be a possible cause of herb-drug interaction, due to changes in pharmacokinetic of crucial CYPs and Phase-II substrate drug. PMID:27757267

  2. CRISPR knockout rat cytochrome P450 3A1/2 model for advancing drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics research.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Shao, Yanjiao; Qin, Xuan; Liu, Daozhi; Chen, Ang; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2017-02-20

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A accounts for nearly 30% of the total CYP enzymes in the human liver and participates in the metabolism of over 50% of clinical drugs. Moreover, CYP3A plays an important role in chemical metabolism, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. New animal models are needed to investigate CYP3A functions, especially for drug metabolism. In this report, Cyp3a1/2 double knockout (KO) rats were generated by CRISPR-Cas9 technology, and then were characterized for viability and physiological status. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rats were viable and fertile, and had no obvious physiological abnormities. Compared with the wild-type (WT) rat, Cyp3a1/2 expression was completely absent in the liver of the KO rat. In vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of the CYP3A1/2 substrates indicated that CYP3A1/2 was functionally inactive in double KO rats. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rat model was successfully generated and characterized. The Cyp3a1/2 KO rats are a novel rodent animal model that will be a powerful tool for the study of the physiological and pharmacological roles of CYP3A, especially in drug and chemical metabolism in vivo.

  3. CRISPR knockout rat cytochrome P450 3A1/2 model for advancing drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics research

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Shao, Yanjiao; Qin, Xuan; Liu, Daozhi; Chen, Ang; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A accounts for nearly 30% of the total CYP enzymes in the human liver and participates in the metabolism of over 50% of clinical drugs. Moreover, CYP3A plays an important role in chemical metabolism, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. New animal models are needed to investigate CYP3A functions, especially for drug metabolism. In this report, Cyp3a1/2 double knockout (KO) rats were generated by CRISPR-Cas9 technology, and then were characterized for viability and physiological status. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rats were viable and fertile, and had no obvious physiological abnormities. Compared with the wild-type (WT) rat, Cyp3a1/2 expression was completely absent in the liver of the KO rat. In vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of the CYP3A1/2 substrates indicated that CYP3A1/2 was functionally inactive in double KO rats. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rat model was successfully generated and characterized. The Cyp3a1/2 KO rats are a novel rodent animal model that will be a powerful tool for the study of the physiological and pharmacological roles of CYP3A, especially in drug and chemical metabolism in vivo. PMID:28218310

  4. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Gabriela S.; Cardoso, João Felipe R.; Calder, Philip C.; Jordão, Alceu A.; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  5. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-05

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.

  6. Separation, purification, and properties of cytochrome P-450 from uninduced rat liver microsomes for the studies of metabolism of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Dialameh, G.H. )

    1988-09-01

    This study reports the authors present results on the development of a procedure for purification of multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 from un-induced rat liver microsomes. These cytochromes are catalytically active when reconstituted with NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and lipid and exhibit substrate specificities. The presence of four distinct forms of cytochrome P-450 in uninduced rat liver microsomes which is the result of this research report, compared with the presence of six forms in induced animals represent the importance of genetic control of these enzymes for the metabolism and detoxification of environmental chemicals. These metabolite patterns are not only different for the various species, but also among different individuals. The molecular basis for this are genetic and environmental factors, which exhibit interesting evolutionary aspects.

  7. Effect of p-xylene metabolites, p-methylbenzyl alcohol and 2,5-dimethylphenol, on rat hepatic and pulmonary microsomal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Day, B J; Carlson, G P

    1992-04-01

    Pulmonary metabolites of p-xylene, p-methylbenzyl alcohol (PMBA) and 2,5-dimethylphenol (DMP), were employed to investigate the divergent effects of p-xylene on pulmonary and hepatic metabolism. Rats were given PMBA, DMP, or 10% cremophore (control) ip daily for 3 days, and effects on hepatic and pulmonary microsomal metabolism were determined 12 hours later. Both PMBA and DMP mimic the decrease in pulmonary benzyloxyresorufin-O-debenzylase activity previously reported for p-xylene, but neither could account for the potent induction of cytochrome P450 in the liver. Only PMBA had a consistent effect on P450IIB apoprotein levels, decreasing them in both the liver and lung. These data suggest that PMBA may have a significant role in the inhibition of pulmonary P450 caused by p-xylene.

  8. Effect of naked eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding rat augmenter of liver regeneration on acute hepatic injury and hepatic failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Liu, Dian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Long-Mei; Wang, Li-Qin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) on acute hepatic injury and hepatic failure in rats. METHODS: The PCR-amplified ALR gene was recombined with pcDNA3 plasmid, and used to treat rats with acute hepatic injury. The rats with acute hepatic injury induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL/kg 50% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were randomly divided into saline control group and recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid treatment groups. Recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid DNA (50 or 200 μg/kg) was injected into the rats with acute hepatic injury intraven-ously, intraperitoneally, or intravenously and intraperitoneally in combination 4 h after CCl4 administration, respectively. The recombinant plasmid was injected once per 12 h into all treatment groups four times, and the rats were decapitated 12 h after the last injection. Hepatic histopathological alterations were observed after HE staining, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was determined by biochemical method. The recombinant plasmid DNA (200 μg/kg) and saline were intraperitoneally injected into the rats with acute hepatic failure induced by intraperitoneal injection of 4 mL/kg 50% CCl4 after 4 h of CCl4 administration, respectively. Rats living over 96 h were considered as survivals. RESULTS: The sequence of ALR cDNA of recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid was accordant with the reported sequence of rat ALR cDNA. After the rats with acute hepatic injury were treated with recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid, the degree of liver histopathological injury markedly decreased. The pathologic liver tissues, in which hepatic degeneration and necrosis of a small amount of hepatocytes and a large amount of infiltrating inflammatory cells were observed, and they became basically normal in the

  9. Comparative toxicology of tetrachlorobiphenyls in mink and rats. I. Changes in hepatic enzyme activity and smooth endoplasmic reticulum volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, D.M.; Corey, R.D.; Helferich, W.G.; McFarland, J.M.; Lowenstine, L.J.; Moody, D.E.; Hammock, B.D.; Shull, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Mink have been shown previously to be extraordinarily sensitive to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related classes of halogenated hydrocarbons. This study explored several aspects of the acute response of mink to two purified tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) congeners and compared their response with that of the rat, a less sensitive and more thoroughly studied species. Young female pastel mink and young female Sprague-Dawley rats received three daily intraperitoneal injections with equimolar doses of either 2,4,2',4'-TCB or 3,4,3',4'-TCB, and were sacrificed after 7 days. Two control groups were used for each species; one was allowed free access to food and the other was pair-fed to the 3,4,3',4'-TCB treatment group. Rats remained clinically normal, while mink treated with 3,4,3',4'-TCB developed severe anorexia, diarrhea, and melena. Both species had significant increases in hepatic cytochrome P-450 content and the characteristic shift in the spectral maxima from 450 to 448 nm in the 3,4,3',4'-TCB- but not in the 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated animals. Rats but not mink had increased activities of several hepatic monooxygenases in response to both congeners while microsomal epoxide hydrolase was increased in rats after 2,4,2',4'-TCB and in mink after 3,4,3',4'-TCB. Significant increases in the relative volume of smooth endoplasmic reticulum within hepatocytes of 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated rats but not mink were confirmed by ultrastructural morphometry. Accumulation of both congeners was greater in adipose tissue than in the liver of either species. In both species, concentrations in adipose tissue were much greater for 2,4,2',4'-TCB than for 3,4,3',4'-TCB. PCB toxicosis in mink, as in other species, appeared to be dependent on isomeric arrangement of chlorine substituents. However, unlike other species, the toxicosis was not associated with biochemical or morphological evidence of hepatic enzyme induction.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Tanshinone IIA on Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Wei; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB pathways in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is one therapeutic approach to hepatic fibrosis. Tanshinone IIA (C19H18O3, Tan IIA) is a lipophilic diterpene isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, with reported anti-inflammatory activity. We tested whether Tan IIA could inhibit HSC activation. Materials and Methods The cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/ml). Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. HSC-T6 cells were pretreated with Tan IIA (1, 3 and 10 µM), then induced by LPS (100 ng/ml). NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Western blotting analysis was performed to measure NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38). Cell chemotaxis was assessed by both wound-healing assay and trans-well invasion assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect gene expression in HSC-T6 cells. Results All concentrations of drugs showed no cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells. LPS stimulated NF-κB luciferase activities, nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of ERK, JNK and p38, all of which were suppressed by Tan IIA. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited LPS-induced HSCs chemotaxis, in both wound-healing and trans-well invasion assays. Moreover, Tan IIA attenuated LPS-induced mRNA expressions of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, iNOS, and α-SMA in HSC-T6 cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that Tan IIA decreased LPS-induced HSC activation. PMID:25076488

  11. Hepatic intralobular mapping of fructose metabolism in the rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, S P; Murphy, H C; Iles, R A; Bailey, R A; Cohen, R D

    2000-01-01

    Detailed mapping of glucose and lactate metabolism along the radius of the hepatic lobule was performed in situ in rat livers perfused with 1.5 mM lactate before and during the addition of 5 mM fructose. The majority of fructose uptake occurred in the periportal region; 45% of fructose taken up in the periportal half of the lobular volume being converted into glucose. Periportal lactate uptake was markedly decreased by addition of fructose. Basal perivenous lactate output, which was derived from glucose synthesized periportally, was increased in the presence of fructose. During fructose infusion there was a small decrease in cell pH periportally, but acidification of up to 0.5 pH units perivenously. The evidence suggests that in situ the apparent direct conversion of fructose into lactate represents, to a substantial extent, the result of periportal conversion of fructose into glucose and the subsequent uptake and glycolysis to lactate in the perivenous zone of some of that glucose. (31)P NMR spectroscopy showed that the cellular concentration of phosphomonoesters changes very little periportally during fructose infusion, but there was an approximate twofold increase perivenously, presumably due to the accumulation of fructose 1-phosphate. It may be inferred that fructokinase activity is expressed throughout the hepatic lobule. PMID:10880353

  12. In vivo and in vitro 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of the hepatic response of healthy rats and rats with acute hepatic damage to fructose loading.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Locke, S J; Brauer, M

    1994-05-01

    The hepatic response to a fructose challenge for control rats, and rats subjected to an acute sublethal dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or bromobenzene (BB), was compared using dynamic in vivo 31P MRS. Fructose loading conditions were used in which control rats showed only a modest increase in hepatic phosphomonoester (PME), and a small decrease in ATP, Pi, and intracellular pH after fructose administration. Both CCl4 and BB-treated rats showed a much greater fructose-induced accumulation of PME than did controls. Trolox C, a free radical scavenger, prevented most of this PME increase. BB-treated rats, given sufficient time to recover from the hepatotoxic insult, responded to the fructose load similarly to controls. Liver aldolase activities of control, toxicant-treated rats, and toxicant plus Trolox C-treated rats correlated inversely with PME accumulation after fructose loading (correlation coefficient: -0.834, P < 0.05). Perchloric acid extracts of rat livers studied by in vitro 31P MRS confirmed that the PME accumulation after fructose loading is mainly due to an increase in fructose 1-phosphate. These studies are consistent with the aldolase-catalyzed cleavage of fructose 1-phosphate being rate-limiting in hepatic fructose metabolism, and that the CCl4 and BB treatment modify and inactivate the aldolase enzyme.

  13. Effect of O-ethylrutoside on serum and hepatic lipids in acute ethanal-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, J

    1977-01-01

    The serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations, as well as hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, were increased in acutely ethanol-treated rats. Treatment of ethanol-given animals with o-ethylrutoside resulted in a significant reduction in all examined fractions of serum lipids and in the hepatic total cholesterol level.

  14. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to a liver condition called hepatitis . What Is Hepatitis? The liver is one of the body's powerhouses. ...

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  16. Selective inhibition by chloramphenicol of pregnenolone-16. cap alpha. -carbonitrile-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, P.E.; Kaminsky, L.S.; Halpert, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnenolone-16 ..cap alpha..-carbonitrile (PCN) has been shown to induce, in male rats, cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the formation of R-10-hydroxywarfarin and R-dehydrowarfarin. Antibodies to the major PCN-inducible isozyme (PB/PCN-E) inhibit both activities in microsomal preparations. Recently the authors have shown that PCN treatment of female rats also induces the formation of both R-warfarin metabolites. However, in both sexes chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment selectively inhibits only the rate of formation of the R-dehydrowarfarin. A decrease in microsomal P-450 content occurs after in vivo administration of CAP to PCN-treated rats of both sexes. This is in contrast to the lack of effect of CAP on P-450 levels in phenobarbital-treated rats. Covalent binding of /sup 14/C-CAP to microsomal protein in vitro was increased 3 to 4-fold following PCN treatment. Chromatographic evidences suggests the presence of at least two PCN-induced isozymes of similar molecular weights in both male and female rat liver microsomes. These data are consistent with the multiplicity of PCN-inducible P-450 in rat liver.

  17. Hepatic Clearance Prediction of Nine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors in Rat.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Tom; Augustijns, Patrick F; Annaert, Pieter P

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the rate-limiting step in the overall hepatic clearance of the marketed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) in rats by predicting the experimentally determined hepatic in vivo clearance of these drugs based on in vitro clearance values for uptake and/or metabolism. In vitro uptake and metabolic clearance values were determined in suspended rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. In vivo hepatic clearance was determined after intravenous bolus administration in rats. Excellent in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC; R(2) = 0.80) was observed when metabolic intrinsic Cl values were used, which were determined in vitro at a single concentration corresponding to the blood concentration observed in rats in vivo at the mean residence time. On the contrary, poor IVIVC was observed when in vitro metabolic Cl values based on full Michaelis-Menten profiles were used. In addition, the use of uptake Cl values or a combination of both uptake and metabolic clearance data led to poor predictions of in vivo clearance. Although our findings indicate a key role for metabolism in the hepatic clearance of several HIV PI in rats, subsequent simulations revealed that inhibition of hepatic uptake can lead to altered hepatic clearance for several of these drugs.

  18. Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Wen, Yanmei; Yang, Yuhui; Mi, Shumei; Zhou, Lili; Wu, Xin; Ding, Sheng; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid as a natural hydroxycinnamic acid has protective effect for liver. Endotoxin induced metabolic disorder, such as lipid dysregulation and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, the area of visceral adipocyte was decreased and liver injury was ameliorated, as compared to LD group. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased, the proportion of C20:1, C24:1 and C18:3n-6, Δ9-18 and Δ6-desaturase activity index in the liver were decreased, and the proportion of C18:3n-3 acid was increased, compared to the LD group. Moreover, levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, and fatty acid β-oxidation were increased in chlorogenic acid-LD group compared to LD rats, whereas levels of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were decreased. These findings demonstrate that chlorogenic acid effectively improves hepatic lipid dysregulation in rats by regulating fatty acid metabolism enzymes, stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase activation, and modulating levels of hepatic fatty acids.

  19. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  20. High prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus in wild rats in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guan, Dawei; Su, Juan; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji; Li, Tian-Cheng; Ke, Chang Wen

    2013-08-30

    Serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in Zhanjiang city in China from December 2011 to September 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) by exploring rat HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. By an ELISA based on recombinant rat HEV-like particles (HEV-LPs), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. The IgG-positive rates in Rattus norvegicus, Bandicota indica, Rattus flavipectus, Rattus rattoides losea, and Rattus rattus hainanus, were 27.8% (64/230), 23.0% (40/174), 19.9% (34/171), 21.5% (26/121), and 11.8% (2/17), while the IgM-positive rates were 8.3% (19/230), 6.9% (12/174), 8.2% (14/171), 10.7% (13/121), and 5.9% (1/17), respectively. The IgG-positive rate of the rats captured in rural areas, 24.1% (84/348), was higher than that in the central area of Zhanjiang city, 15.1% (32/212). The highest IgG-positive rates, as high as 45.3% (39/86), were detected in wild rats trapped in the garbage dump. Twelve of the 59 IgM-positive serum samples were positive for HEV RNA, which was detected in all of the wild rat species except R. rattus hainanus. A phylogenetic analysis of the partial genome of rat HEV ORF1 indicated that all of the 12 HEV strains belong to rat HEV, and no other genotype HEV were detected. The rat HEV from Zhangjiang city could be classified into three separated clusters, suggesting that the infection due to rat HEV with a variety of genome entities occurs extensively among wild rats in China.

  1. Cytochrome P450 2E1 Gene Polymorphisms/Haplotypes and Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatitis in a Chinese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaowen; Lv, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Shanshan; Yang, Zhirong; Xia, Yinyin; Tu, Dehua; Deng, Peiyuan; Ma, Yu; Chen, Dafang; Zhan, Siyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The pathogenic mechanism of anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced hepatitis is associated with drug metabolizing enzymes. No tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) in the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis have been reported. The present study was aimed at exploring the role of tSNPs in CYP2E1 gene in a population-based anti-TB treatment cohort. Methods and Design A nested case-control study was designed. Each hepatitis case was 14 matched with controls by age, gender, treatment history, disease severity and drug dosage. The tSNPs were selected by using Haploview 4.2 based on the HapMap database of Han Chinese in Beijing, and detected by using TaqMan allelic discrimination technology. Results Eighty-nine anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis cases and 356 controls were included in this study. 6 tSNPs (rs2031920, rs2070672, rs915908, rs8192775, rs2515641, rs2515644) were genotyped and minor allele frequencies of these tSNPs were 21.9%, 23.0%, 19.1%, 23.6%, 20.8% and 44.4% in the cases and 20.9%, 22.7%, 18.9%, 23.2%, 18.2% and 43.2% in the controls, respectively. No significant difference was observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the 6 tSNPs between case group and control group, and neither of haplotypes in block 1 nor in block 2 was significantly associated with the development of hepatitis. Conclusion Based on the Chinese anti-TB treatment cohort, we did not find a statistically significant association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. None of the haplotypes showed a significant association with the development of hepatitis in Chinese TB population. PMID:23460870

  2. Lung and liver injury following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in the rat is increased by exogenous lipopolysaccharide which also increases hepatic TNF production in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Colletti, L M; Green, M

    2001-10-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release. Kupffer cells (KC) are one source of this TNF. This study investigates the effects of hepatic I/R combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the lung and liver injury that follow hepatic I/R and on hepatic release of TNF, epithelial neutrophil activating protein (ENA-78), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). The effects of these experimental conditions on TNF production by primary rat KC in vitro were also investigated. Rats were subjected to hepatic I/R alone, hepatic I/R + LPS, sham laparotomy alone, or sham laparotomy + LPS and pulmonary MPO, pulmonary microvascular permeability, hepatic neutrophil influx, hepatic injury, and hepatic TNF, ENA-78, and MIP-2 production were measured. These experiments demonstrated that hepatic I/R in conjunction with LPS results in a more severe lung and liver injury and increased hepatic TNF, ENA-78, and MIP-2 release. The effects of these experimental conditions on rat KC TNF production demonstrated that hepatic I/R + LPS results in a more significant release of TNF as compared to LPS alone or I/R alone. Hepatic I/R plus LPS results in a more severe lung and liver injury and is likely secondary to a more significant and prolonged release of TNF by KC. This may provide a mechanism for development of multiple organ system failure in some patients undergoing hepatic resection, hepatic transplantation, complex vascular operations, or in the setting of hypovolemic shock. Portal endotoxemia related to mesenteric venous congestion or other systemic insults may have a significant impact on post-operative complications and recovery in the setting of a local or global hepatic I/R injury.

  3. Effects of raloxifene on portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Hsin, I-Fang; Hsu, Shao-Jung; Chang, Ting; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2017-05-05

    Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been used extensively for osteoporosis. In addition to the effect of osteoporosis treatment, emerging evidences show that raloxifene affects the vascular function in different tissues. Cirrhosis is characterized with portal hypertension and complicated with hepatic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension affects portal-systemic shunt which leads to hepatic encephalopathy that the vascular modulation might influence severity of hepatic encephalopathy. Herein, we evaluated the impact of raloxifene on bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced cirrhotic rats. The female Sprague-Dawley rats received BDL plus ovariectomy or sham-operation. Four weeks later, rats were divided into 2 subgroups respectively to receive of raloxifene (10mg/kg/day) or saline (vehicle) for 14 days. On the 43th day, motor activities and hemodynamic parameters were measured. Hepatic and vascular mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The histopathological change of liver was examined. We found that the liver biochemistry, ammonia level and motor activity were similar between cirrhotic rats with or without raloxifene administration. The hemodynamic parameters were not significantly different except that raloxifene reduced portal venous inflow. Raloxifene exacerbated hepatic fibrosis and up-regulated hepatic endothelin-1 and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expressions. In addition, raloxifene modulated the mRNA expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase and endothelin-1 in the superior mesenteric artery and collateral vessel. In conclusion, raloxifene aggravates hepatic fibrosis and decreases portal venous inflow in cirrhotic rats without adversely affecting portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy. The modulation of hepatic and vascular endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase expressions may play a role in the mechanism.

  4. Effects of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Hepatic CYP2B1 and in Vivo Bupropion Disposition in Rats Fed a High-Fat or Methionine/Choline-Deficient Diet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Kim, Sang-Bum; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Chong, Saeho; Chung, Suk-Jae; Kang, Il-Mo; Lee, Jangik Ike; Yoon, In-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2016-07-13

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to hepatic pathologies, including simple fatty liver (SFL), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and cirrhosis, that may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. These liver disease states may affect the activity and expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes, potentially resulting in an alteration in the pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy, and safety of drugs. This study investigated the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B1-modulating effect of a specific NAFLD state in dietary rat models. Sprague-Dawley rats were given a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) or high-fat (HF) diet to induce NASH and SFL, respectively. The induction of these disease states was confirmed by plasma chemistry and liver histological analysis. Both the protein and mRNA levels of hepatic CYP2B1 were considerably reduced in MCD diet-fed rats; however, they were similar between the HF diet-fed and control rats. Consistently, the enzyme-kinetic and pharmacokinetic parameters for CYP2B1-mediated bupropion metabolism were considerably reduced in MCD diet-fed rats; however, they were also similar between the HF diet-fed and control rats. These results may promote a better understanding of the influence of NAFLD on CYP2B1-mediated metabolism, which could have important implications for the safety and pharmacokinetics of drug substrates for the CYP2B subfamily in patients with NAFLD.

  5. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... clotting problems or chronic liver disease. previous continue Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Although hep A is a ... does — through direct contact with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in ...

  6. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A if they've been vaccinated against it. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. It may lead ... of which cause severe illness and even death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from person to person ...

  7. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Hepatitis Page Content Article Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of ... it has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool ...

  8. [Effect of Siwu decoction and its combined administration on hepatic P450 enzymatic activity and mRNA expression in rats].

    PubMed

    Liang, Miao; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Yi, Jian-Feng; Wang, Yu-Guang; Tan, Hong-Ling; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Liang, Qian-De; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Li, Hua; Shen, Guo-Lin; Gao, Yue

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of Siwu decoction (SWD) compound and its combined administration on hepatic P450 enzymatic activity and mRNA expression in rats. Rats were orally administered with SWD and water decoction combined with other medicines for two weeks, and then sacrificed. Their livers were perfused with normal saline to prepare liver micrisomes. Mixed probe and liver microsome in vitro incubation method were adopted to detect the effect of SWD on hepatic cytochrome P450. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to detect the effect of SWD on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450. Compared with the control group, the SWD compound group showed higher CYP1A2 enzymatic activity (P < 0.05); Rehmanniae-paeoniae, angelicae-paeoniae, angelicae-rhizome, paeoniae-rhizome groups had lower CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 enzymatic activities (P < 0.05); And the compound group, the single component group and the combination group showed lower CYP2B6 enzymatic activities (P < 0.05). The compound could up-regulated the mRNA expression of CYP2B1 (P < 0.05); And the four single components could down-regulated the mRNA expression of CYP2B1 (P < 0.05). SWD compound had the effect in inducing CYP1A2 enzymatic activity. The rehmanniae-paeoniae group and the angelicae-paeoniae group had identical enzymatic activity with the control group, but significant down-regulation in CYP1A2 enzymatic activity after being combined with paeoniae. The compound and its combined administration showed the inhibitory effect on CYP2B6 enzymatic activity, particularly being combined with angelicae. The compound showed identical effect with the four single components in terms of CYP1A2 mRNA expression and enzymatic activity.

  9. The role of hepatic transport and metabolism in the interactions between pravastatin or repaglinide and two rOatp inhibitors in rats.

    PubMed

    Badolo, Lassina; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Garmer, Mats; Jensen, Bente

    2013-07-16

    A change in the function or expression of hepatic drug transporters may have significant effect on the efficacy or safety of orally administered drugs. Although a number of clinical drug-drug interactions associated with hepatic transport proteins have been reported, in practice it is not always straightforward to discriminate other pathways (e.g. drug metabolism) from being involved in these interactions. The present study was designed to assess the interactions between organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) substrates (pravastatin or repaglinide) and inhibitors (spironolactone or diphenhydramine) in vivo in rats. The mechanisms behind the interactions were then investigated using in vitro tools (isolated hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes). The results showed a significant increase in the systemic exposures of pravastatin (2.5-fold increase in AUC) and repaglinide (1.8-fold increase in AUC) after co-administration of spironolactone to rats. Diphenhydramine increased the AUC of repaglinide by 1.4-fold. The in vivo interactions observed in rats between Oatp substrates and inhibitors may a priori be classified as transport-mediated drug-drug interactions. However, mechanistic studies performed in vitro using both isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes showed that the interaction between pravastatin and spironolactone may be solely linked to the inhibition of pravastatin uptake in liver. On the contrary, the inhibition of cytochrome P450 seemed to be the reason for the interactions observed between repaglinide and spironolactone. Although the function and structure of transport proteins may vary between rats and humans, the approach used in the present study can be applied to humans and help to understand the role of drug transport and drug metabolism in a given drug-drug interaction. This is important to predict and mitigate the risk of drug-drug interactions for a candidate drug in pre-clinical development, it is also important for the optimal

  10. Inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 2B1 in rat liver by promazine and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Murray, M

    1992-09-25

    Phenothiazine tranquilizers have been associated with pharmacokinetic drug interactions in man. In this study the in vivo and in vitro effects of the clinically important phenothiazines promazine (PZ) and chlorpromazine (CPZ) on drug oxidations catalysed by specific cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes were investigated in the rat. In vitro, the two drugs were relatively ineffective inhibitors of constitutive P450 activities, but were inhibitory toward the principal phenobarbital-inducible P450 2B1 and, to a lesser extent, P450 1A1. Administration of PZ and CPZ to male rats did not markedly influence the total microsomal P450 content of the liver. However, the quantitatively important male-specific P450 2C11 was down-regulated by CPZ and concomitant induction of P450 2B1 and associated 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase activity were noted. A small increase in the activity of microsomal 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase was also observed following administration of both drugs to rats, suggesting induction of P450 1A1/2. Considered together, it is apparent that the two phenothiazines are preferential inhibitors and inducers of P450 2B1 in rat liver. Drug interactions in humans involving phenothiazines may reflect a combined effect of induction and inhibition processes as well as down-regulation of other P450s, such as that produced by CPZ on P450 2C11.

  11. Tamarix gallica ameliorates thioacetamide-induced hepatic oxidative stress and hyperproliferative response in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Sultana, Sarwat

    2006-04-01

    Tamarix gallica, a hepatic stimulant and tonic, was examined for its ability to inhibit thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity and early tumor promotion response in male Wistar rats. TAA (6.6 mmol/kg body wt. i.p) enhanced lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content, glutathione S-transferase and xanthine oxidase with reduction in the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and caused depletion in the level of hepatic glutathione content. A marked increase in liver damage markers was also observed. TAA treatment also enhanced tumor promotion markers, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H] thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Pretreatment of rats orally with Tamarix gallica extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) prevented TAA-promoted oxidative stress and toxicity. Prophylaxis with Tamarix gallica significantly reduced the susceptibility of the hepatic microsomal membrane for iron-ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, glutathione S-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities. There was also reversal of the elevated levels of liver marker parameters and tumor promotion markers. Our data suggests that Tamarix gallica is a potent chemopreventive agent and may suppress TAA-mediated hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity, and tumor promotion response in rats.

  12. FXR agonist obeticholic acid reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of toxic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Len; Mannaerts, Inge; Schierwagen, Robert; Govaere, Olivier; Klein, Sabine; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Farre, Ricard; Wenes, Mathias; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Nevens, Frederik; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Trebicka, Jonel; Laleman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation drives hepatic stellate cells (HSC), resulting in liver fibrosis. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes inflammation through NF-κB inhibition. We investigated preventive and therapeutic effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in toxic cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. OCA was given during or after intoxication with vehicle-treated rats as controls. At sacrifice, fibrosis, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were assessed. HSC activation, cell turn-over, hepatic NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were determined. The effect of OCA was further evaluated in isolated HSC, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). OCA decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during TAA-administration and reversed fibrosis in established cirrhosis. Portal pressure decreased through reduced intrahepatic vascular resistance. This was paralleled by decreased expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines (transforming growth-factor β, connective tissue growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor) as well as markers of hepatic cell turn-over, by blunting effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1). In vitro, OCA inhibited both LSEC and Kupffer cell activation; while HSC remained unaffected. This related to NF-κB inhibition via up-regulated IκBα. In conclusion, OCA inhibits hepatic inflammation in toxic cirrhotic rats resulting in decreased HSC activation and fibrosis. PMID:27634375

  13. Effect of structurally diverse peroxisome proliferators on rat hepatic sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F; Coughtrie, M; Fultz, C; Lipscomb, J

    1996-01-05

    Exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids, pthalate esters, and some hypolipidemic agents results in the proliferation of peroxisomes in the rodent liver. The structural diversity of these compounds suggests mechanistic diversity in their toxicity as well. To establish reliable biomarkers of peroxisome proliferation (PP) in compounds with distinct chemical toxicities, this study investigated the effect of in vivo exposure to perfluoro-n-octanoic acid, perfluoro-n-decanoic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and clofibrate on two-dimensional electrophoretic protein patterns of rat hepatic sulfotransferases, ST1A1, ST1C1 and ST2A1. After exposure to peroxisome proliferative doses, both ST1A1 and ST1C1 abundance in whole liver homogenates was significantly reduced, but only as a result of perfluorocarboxylic and exposure. The well-established PPs, DEHP and clofibrate had no effect on sulfotransferase expression whatsoever. The observed down-regulation of these STs is significant with respect to their normal detoxication activities and its potential correlation to carcinogenesis warrants further study. The present investigation supports previous studies that demonstrate the unique features of perfluorocarboxylic acid toxicity, relative to classic peroxisome proliferators and endorses the continued use of 2D protein-mapping of Sts and other proteins as biomarkers of chemical toxicity.

  14. [Effect of metformin on the formation of hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetic rats].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Gui-Fen; Zhang, Li; Xuan, Qi; Yang, Xiu-Ying; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Heng-Ai; Chen, Bai-Nian; Du, Guan-Hua

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the metformin on the formation of hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetic rats and discuss its mechanism of liver-protecting activity. After SD rats were fed with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for four weeks, low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) was injected intraperitoneally to make the animal mode of type 2 diabetes. Then, all diabetic rats was fed with the high-fat diet and metformin (ig, 100 mg x kg(-1)) was given orally to metformin group for four months. After the last administration, fasting blood glucose was determined. The livers were removed to calculate the hepatic coefficient and to make HE and Picro acid-Sirius red staining, immunohistochemistry (alpha-SMA and TGFbeta1) and TUNEL staining in order to evaluate the effect of metformin on the hepatic fibrosis. The animal model of type 2 diabetes with hepatic fibrosis was successfully made. Metformin can significantly alleviate the lesions of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, markedly reduce the expressions of alpha-SMA and TGFbeta1 in liver tissue of type 2 diabetic rats. However, TUNEL staining result suggested that metformin could not reduce apoptosis of hepatocytes. The results suggest that metformin can inhibit the formation of hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetes.

  15. High Sucrose Intake Ameliorates the Accumulation of Hepatic Triacylglycerol Promoted by Restraint Stress in Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ida Soto; Cuevas, Estela; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2015-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder. Stress promotes the onset of the NAFLD with a concomitant increment in the activity of the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1). However, the interaction between the stress and a carbohydrate-enriched diet for the development of NAFLD in young animals is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of chronic stress on the hepatic triacylglycerol level of young rats fed or not with a high sucrose-diet. For doing this, 21-day old male Wistar rats were allocated into 4 groups: control (C), chronic restraint stress (St), high-sucrose diet (S30), and chronic restraint stress plus a 30 % sucrose diet (St + S30). Chronic restraint stress consisted of 1-hour daily session, 5 days per week and for 4 weeks. Rats were fed with a standard chow and tap water (C group) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (S30 group). The St + S30 groups consumed less solid food but had an elevated visceral fat accumulation in comparison with the St group. The St group showed a high level of serum corticosterone and a high activity of the hepatic 11β-HSD-1 concomitantly to the augmentation of hepatic steatosis signs, a high hepatic triacylglycerol content, and hepatic oxidative stress. Conversely, the high-sucrose intake in stressed rats (St + S30 group) reduced the hepatic 11β-HSD-1 activity, the level of serum corticosterone, and the hepatic triacylglycerol content. Present findings show that a high-sucrose diet ameliorates the triacylglycerol accumulation in liver promoted by the restraint stress in young male rats.

  16. Protective effects of L-carnosine on CCl4 -induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alsheblak, Mehyar Mohammad; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; El-Karef, Amro; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring. In addition, CAR treatment significantly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of liver-injury parameters in serum. CAR treatment also combatted oxidative stress; possibly by restoring hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) levels. Moreover, CAR treatment prevented the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as indicated by reduced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver, and decreased hepatic inflammation as demonstrated by a reduction in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. In conclusion, CCl4-induced hepatic injury was alleviated by CAR treatment. The results suggest that these beneficial, protective effects are due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.

  17. Inhibitory effect of oestradiol on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, I; Mizobuchi, Y; Yasuda, M; Shiba, M; Ma, Y; Horie, T; Liu, F; Ito, S

    1999-01-01

    Background—Hepatic stellate cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. 
Aims—To examine the inhibitory effect of oestradiol on stellate cell activation. 
Methods—In vivo, hepatic fibrosis was induced in rats by dimethylnitrosamine or pig serum. In vitro, rat stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. 
Results—In the dimethylnitrosamine and pig serum models, treatment with oestradiol at gestation related doses resulted in a dose dependent suppression of hepatic fibrosis with restored content of hepatic retinyl palmitate, reduced collagen content, lower areas of stellate cells which express α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin, and lower procollagen type I and III mRNA levels in the liver. In cultured stellate cells, oestradiol inhibited type I collagen production, α-SMA expression, and cell proliferation. These findings suggest that oestradiol is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation. 
Conclusion—The antifibrogenic role of oestradiol in the liver may contribute to the sex associated differences in the progression from hepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis. 

 Keywords: hepatic stellate cells; hepatic fibrosis; oestradiol; α smooth muscle actin; retinyl palmitate PMID:9862839

  18. Effect in the rat of the interaction of dichloromaleic acid and carbon tetrachloride on renal and hepatic function

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, W.R.; Davis, M.E.; Berndt, W.O. )

    1989-10-01

    Water purification generates a variety of chlorinated contaminants, one of which is dichloromaleic acid (DCMA). Exposure to this compound is likely to occur in combination with other drinking water pollutants, some of which are hepatotoxic. This study was designed to examine the interactive effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a known hepatotoxin, with DCMA on liver and kidney function in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Administration of a single dose of DCMA (200-400 mg/kg, ip) caused modest dose-dependent increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and plasma urea nitrogen, as well as a marked depletion of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) in the liver, but not the kidney, by 24 hr. Pretreatment with inducers (phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene) or an inhibitor (SKF 525A) of cytochrome P-450 activity failed to alter the response observed with DCMA alone. Alterations in 24-hr urine volume, osmolality, and water consumption also were observed. DCMA-mediated changes in plasma urea nitrogen and NPSH were reduced in magnitude with coadministration of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, ip), while anticipated CCl4-induced increases in ALT and AST were reduced with coexposure to DCMA. Renal slice experiments indicated that DCMA-treated rats were less able to accumulate the organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH), whereas DCMA had no effect on accumulation of the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA). The combination of CCl4 and DCMA produced only additive effects on organic ion accumulation. These results suggest hepatic interaction possibly related to the metabolism of CCl4 and DCMA, resulting in renal and hepatic toxicity diminished from that observed with exposure to either agent alone.

  19. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  20. Suppressive effect of the ethanolic extract of adlay bran on cytochrome P-450 enzymes in rat liver and lungs.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lin, Jia-Hsuan; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Wenchang; Luo, Mei-Nin; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2011-04-27

    Adlay ( Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a grass crop and is reported to protect against various diseases such as cancer. To investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of adlay bran (ABE) on drug-metabolizing enzymes and glutathione-related antioxidant enzymes in rats, three groups of eight male Sprague-Dawley rats each were fed a control diet or a diet containing 5 or 10% ABE for 4 weeks. Significant decreases in microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1-catalyzed ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, CYP2C-catalyzed diclofenac 4-hydroxylation, CYP2D-catalyzed dextromethorphan O-demethylation, and CYP3A-catalyzed testosterone 6β-hydroxylation in the liver and CYP1A1-catalyzed ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation in the lungs of rats fed ABE were observed. Immunoblot analyses also showed decreases of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C6, 2C11, 2D1, 2E1, 3A1, and 3A2 in the liver and CYP1A1 in the lungs. Furthermore, rats fed the 10% ABE diet had a higher glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activities in the lungs, but such an increase was not noted in the liver. Inhibition of various CYP-catalyzed enzyme reactions by ABE in rat and human liver microsomes had also been shown. The results of this study indicate that ABE feeding may suppress CYP enzyme activities and CYP protein expression in the liver and lungs of rats. Moreover, the increase of the antioxidant potential by ABE is tissue-specific.

  1. Prenatal copper deficiency in rat dams causes persistent reduction in nuclear-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits in cardiac mitochrondria of the first generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that the offspring of rat dams having low copper (Cu) intake during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) after postnatal day 10. The present study was undertaken to determine the relative influences of pre-and postnatal Cu ...

  2. Cardiac Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity and Contents of Submits 1 and 4 are Altered in Offspring by Low Prenatal Intake by Rat Dams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been reported previously that the offspring of rat dams consuming low dietary copper (Cu) during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) characterized by reduced catalytic activity and mitochondrial- and nuclear-subunit content after postnatal day...

  3. Effect of β-napthoflavone on hepatic cytochrome P4501A activity in the scribbled rabbitfish (Siganus spinus) from tropical Indo-Pacific coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Carmen; Reyes, Andres; Biggs, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Several classes of carcinogenic environmental organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins, negatively affect aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Pollutant detection is often difficult and expensive, especially when dealing with complex mixtures and matrices. Biological markers are informative tools to identify living sources that may harbor toxic compounds and areas unsuitable for recreation. Currently, no species have established biomarkers for organopollutant monitoring in Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This study evaluated the time- and dose-dependent induction of the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) system in the scribbled rabbitfish, Siganus spinus (Siganidae), as a biomarker for organic pollutant exposures in these environments. Results indicate that S. spinus hepatic CYP1A enzymatic activity and protein level respond dose-, and time-dependently following a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of the classic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist, β-napthoflavone (BNF). S. spinus hepatic CYP1A protein and enzymatic activity rose as function of dose during the first two days and slowly returned to levels close to normal after 16 days, as measured using the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and the non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays, respectively. These findings support use of the inducible CYP1A system of S. spinus as a biomarker for reef fish exposure to coastal marine pollution. Baseline CYP1A expression levels among Guam’s wild S. spinus populations were also measured and compared. PMID:22760666

  4. Green tea catechins, alleviate hepatic lipidemic-oxidative injury in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, E; Jayakumar, T; Elanchezhian, R; Sakthivel, M; Geraldine, P; Thomas, P A

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the efficacy of green tea catechins (GTC from the plant Camellia sinensis), with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as the major component, was studied in relation to hepatic oxidative abnormalities in atherosclerotic rats. When male albino Wistar rats were fed an atherogenic diet for 30 days and then treated with saline for 7 or 15 days, there was a significant decline in hepatic mean activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase), and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E) while there was a significant elevation in the mean level of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), in comparison to the values noted in control rats fed a normal diet. In addition, a concomitant increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was noted, when compared to the values in control rats. Following intraperitoneal administration of GTC (100mg/kg) for 7 or 15 days to rats fed the atherogenic diet, significantly higher mean activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lower mean levels of MDA in hepatic tissue and lower mean activities of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH in serum were observed, compared to the values in the rats fed the atherogenic diet and treated with saline. Histopathological studies were performed to provide direct evidence of the atherogenic diet-induced hepatic changes and of the hepatoprotective effect of GTC. These results suggest that EGCG as a major component of green tea catechins may protect against the hepatic abnormalities occurring in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

  5. Evaluation of chlorinated benz[a]anthracene on hepatic toxicity in rats and mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kido, T; Sakakibara, H; Ohura, T; Guruge, K S; Kojima, M; Hasegawa, J; Iwamura, T; Yamanaka, N; Masuda, S; Sakaguchi, M; Amagai, T; Shimoi, K

    2013-01-01

    Chlorinated benz[a]anthracenes (Cl-BaA) are halogenated aromatic compounds (typified by dioxins) found in the environment at relatively high concentrations. Fischer 344 rats were intragastrically administered 0, 1, or 10 mg of Cl-BaA or its parent compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA) per kg of body weight for 14 consecutive days. Both chemicals at 10 mg/kg/day inhibited the gain in body weight, and consequent increase in relative liver weight. Hepatic gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 was significantly stimulated by administration of BaA (10 mg/kg/day) compared with the control. After administration of Cl-BaA, only the CYP1A2 gene was significantly induced, even at the lower dosage; CYP1A1 and 1B1 mRNA levels remained unchanged in Cl-BaA-treated rats compared with controls. To elucidate the role of such Cl-BaA exposure and induced CYPs at toxicity onset, we investigated the mutagenicity of BaA and Cl-BaA using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. BaA and Cl-BaA at 10 μg/plate produced positive results in both strains in the presence of rat S-9. Incubation of Cl-BaA with recombinant rat CYP1A2 produced a significantly higher number of revertant colonies in TA98 and TA100 than in controls, but no such change was observed for BaA. In conclusion, BaA changes its own physiological and toxicological actions by its chlorination; (1) daily exposure to Cl-BaA selectively induces hepatic CYP1A2 in rats and (2) Cl-BaA induces frameshift mutations in the presence of CYP1A2, although BaA does not exert mutagenicity. This indicates that CYP1A2 may metabolize Cl-BaA to active forms.

  6. Reduction in hepatic non-esterified fatty acid concentration after long-term treatment with atorvastatin lowers hepatic triglyceride synthesis and its secretion in sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Goto, Masahide; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Masanori; Ida, Motoko; Nishijima, Satomi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yasuda, Shuhei; Miyata, Keiji

    2002-02-28

    The mechanism by which atorvastatin lowers plasma triglyceride (TG) levels is mainly through a decrease in hepatic TG secretion. However, it is not clear why atorvastatin, which does not inhibit TG synthesis in vitro, decreases hepatic TG secretion without a prospective increase in hepatic TG concentration. For the investigation of the mechanisms that underlie the hypotriglyceridemic effects of atorvastatin, we characterized the effect of either a single or an 11 day administration of atorvastatin in sucrose-induced hypertriglyceridemic rats. Atorvastatin (30 mg/kg p.o.) strongly decreased the rate of both very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B secretion. The inhibitor also decreased hepatic TG concentration. Hepatic TG synthesis activity was also decreased by atorvastatin, and its activity was correlated with both hepatic and plasma TG concentration. There was also a strong correlation between the hepatic TG synthesis and hepatic non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration (r(2)=0.815). These effects required chronic administration of the inhibitor and were not observed by acute treatment. Repeated administration of atorvastatin also strongly reduced hepatic acyl-coenzyme A synthase mRNA levels. These results suggest that the reduced hepatic NEFA most likely lowers hepatic TG synthesis and TG secretion in sucrose-fed hypertriglyceridemic rats.

  7. Increased oxidative DNA damage and hepatocyte overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in hepatitis of mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed Central

    Sipowicz, M. A.; Chomarat, P.; Diwan, B. A.; Anver, M. A.; Awasthi, Y. C.; Ward, J. M.; Rice, J. M.; Kasprzak, K. S.; Wild, C. P.; Anderson, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    A recently discovered bacterium, Helicobacter hepaticus, infects the intrahepatic bile canaliculi of mice, causing a severe chronic hepatitis culminating in liver cancer. Thus, it affords an animal model for study of bacteria-associated tumorigenesis including H. pylori-related gastric cancer. Reactive oxygen species are often postulated to contribute to this process. We now report that hepatitis of male mice infected with H. hepaticus show significant increases in the oxidatively damaged DNA deoxynucleoside 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, with the degree of damage increasing with progression of the disease. Perfusion of infected livers with nitro blue tetrazolium revealed that superoxide was produced in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, especially in association with plasmacytic infiltrates near portal triads. Contrary to expectations, Kupffer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were rarely involved. However, levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 1A2 and 2A5 in hepatocytes appeared to be greatly increased, as indicated by the number of cells positive in immunohistochemistry and the intensity of staining in many cells, concomitant with severe hepatitis. The CYP2A5 immunohistochemical staining co-localized with formazan deposits resulting from nitro blue tetrazolium reduction and occurred in nuclei as well as cytoplasm. These findings suggest that CYP2A5 contributes to the superoxide production and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation, although reactive oxygen species from an unknown source in the hepatocytes leading to CYP2A5 induction or coincidental occurrence of these events are also possibilities. Three glutathione S-transferase isoforms, mGSTP1-1 (pi), mGSTA1-1 (YaYa), and mGSTA4-4, also showed striking increases evidencing major oxidative stress in these livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9327726

  8. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Benton, E. . Environmental Science Dept.)

    1994-09-01

    Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni exhibited marked induction of P4501A compared to reference whitefish (rw), as measured by both catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein content. Similar P4501A induction was observed 4 d after rw were treated with 20 mg/kg [beta]-naphthoflavone. Whitefish P4501A levels have declined from a peak in spring 1991, following mill process modifications and concurrent with reductions in body burdens of hydrophobic compounds. Whitefish collected near the mill, moved upstream of effluent discharges, and held for 8 d showed no significant loss of hepatic P4501A-related (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) enzyme activity or P4501A protein levels. For spring 1991, correlations were found between EROD activity and measures of chronic exposure to BKME, but not between EROD and measures of acute exposure. These and other lines of evidence indicate that the P4501A-inducing agent(s) at this site may be neither waterborne nor rapidly eliminated. A second species, longnose sucker, collected near the mill exhibited modest P4501A induction. For both species, no significant correlations between P4501A induction and trends in other biological responses were found. Burbot (Lota lota) had hepatic EROD activities generally in the range of reference values, despite substantial exposure to mill-related compounds. In contrast to studies at historically degraded pulpmill sites, P4501A induction is the only major biological response observed to date at this site. As P4501A induction is not related to adverse effects, it is classified as an indicator of exposure to BKME.

  9. Hypokinesia of myocardium of perfused rat heart at different oxygenation of myoglobin and redox state of cytochrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Klaus H.; Zuendorf, J.; Tauschek, D.; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2002-06-01

    Questions about development of hypo-kinetic zones in myocardium of patients suffering from severe coronary heart disease are discussed controversially among heart surgeons. We established a model for isolated and hemoglobin free perfusion of rat heart in which sufficient flow was established within all capillaries and thus existence of ischemic capillaries could be excluded. A definite diagnosis of tissue anoxia is only possible by optical measurements of the oxidation and the reduction (redox state) of the cytochrome oxidase of intact myocytes. Therefore, we used an EMPHO for this kind of measurements. Intracellular oxygenation of myoglobin oxygenation (MbO2) and redox state of cytochrome aa3, b and c were recorded in the outer wall of working, hypo-kinetic and a-kinetic myocardium. As a result of our investigations we were able to prove that by lowering at the venous end of capillaries tissue pO2 and myoglobin oxygenation stepwise below 5 mmHg and 50% of saturation respectively, a continuous decrease of myocardial contractility could be achieved.

  10. Dioxin-like and perfluorinated compounds in pigs in an Indian open waste dumping site: toxicokinetics and effects on hepatic cytochrome P450 and blood plasma hormones.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Michio X; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2010-07-01

    Dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) and perfluorinated compounds were measured in the livers of pigs (Sus scrofa) collected from an open waste dumping site in South India. Hepatic concentrations of DRCs and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; up to 200 ng/g wet wt) were significantly higher in male and female pigs, respectively, collected from the dumping site than in those from a reference site. Results suggest that dumping sites are a source of DRCs and PFOS. Hepatic concentrations of DRCs in piglets were higher than in mothers, especially for the congeners with molecular weights in the range of 360 to 400, implying congener-specific maternal transfer of DRCs in swine. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and some non-ortho dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the liver of pigs were higher than those in the adipose fat and muscle of the same specimens. In addition, the liver-to-adipose concentration ratios for each congener had a significant positive correlation with the levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A-like protein, suggesting congener-specific and CYP1A-dependent hepatic sequestration of DRCs in the swine. Total hepatic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs; 8.9-350 pg/g fat wt) had a significant positive correlation with CYP1A-like protein expression (r=0.56, p=0.012), suggesting the induction of CYP1A by DRCs. However, the total TEQs had a significant negative correlation with CYP4A-like protein (r=-0.49, p=0.029), suggesting repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha)-mediated signaling pathway by DRCs. Decreases in plasma total thyroxine (T4), free T4, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G were also found in pigs from the dumping site compared with those from the reference site. This study provides insight into the toxicological impacts of DRCs and perfluorinated compounds in wild animals from open waste dumping sites.

  11. Metabolism of galangin by rat cytochromes P450: relevance to the genotoxicity of galangin.

    PubMed

    Silva, I D; Rodrigues, A S; Gaspar, J; Laires, A; Rueff, J

    1997-10-24

    The mutagenicity of flavonols seems to depend on the number and position of hydroxyl groups in the B ring. Galangin is a flavonol that does not have any hydroxyl group in the B ring and has been suggested to be a substrate of cytochromes P450 which, through the hydroxylation of the B ring, could metabolise it to more genotoxic products. The present study was undertaken to test this hypothesis. Using high performance liquid chromatography we show that glangin is sequentially transformed to kaempferol and then to quercetin by a mechanism dependent on cytochrome P450 reactions. The metabolites of galangin are responsible for its mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay and for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in V79 cells.

  12. Evidence in rat and mouse liver for temporal control of two forms of cytochrome P-450 inducible by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Nebert, D W

    1978-11-15

    In the liver of perinatal rats or mice, the ratio of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase to total cytochrome P-450 content decreases, whereas the ratio of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced acetanilide 4-hydroxylase to total cytochrome P-450 content increases, between 18 or 19 days and 22 days following conception. The ontogenesis of inducible aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase corresponds well with increases in a 56000-Mr electrophoretic band; we suggest this band represents the cytochrome P1-450 subunit. The later temporal expression of inducible acetanilide 4-hydroxylase closely parallels 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced increases in size of a 54000-Mr electrophoretic band and a 2--3-nm hypsochromic shift in the Soret peak of the total microsomal reduced cytochrome P-450 . CO complex. We suggest this band represents the cytochrome P-448 subunit. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that this developmental difference is separated by several weeks in rabbit liver, as compared with several day's separation shown in this report with rat or mouse liver. The data here therefore provide evidence in the rodent for temporal control of the expression of different structural gene products regulated by the Ah locus.

  13. Purification and characterization of a benzene hydroxylase: A cytochrome P-450 from rat liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Karaszkiewicz, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This laboratory previously demonstrated that incubation of ({sup 14}C)benzene with isolated mitochondria resulted in the formation of mtDNA adducts. Since benzene is incapable of spontaneously covalently binding to nuclei acids, it was hypothesized that enzyme(s) present in the organelle metabolized benzene to reactive derivatives. We have purified, to electrophoretic homogeneity, a 52 kDa cytochrome P-450 from liver mitoplasts which metabolizes benzene to phenol. The enzyme has a K{sub M} for benzene of 0.012 mM, and a V{sub MAX} of 22.6 nmol phenol/nmol P-450/10 min, and requires NADPH, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase for activity. Activity also can be reconstituted with microsomal cytochrome P-450 reductase. Benzene hydroxylase activity could be inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A, and by specific inhibitors of microsomal benzene metabolism. The purified enzyme oxidized phenol, forming catechol; aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also demonstrated. These data confirm that a cytochrome P-450 of mitochondrial origin is involved in benzene metabolism, and indicate a role for the mitochondrion in xenobiotic activation.

  14. Combined effect of sesamin and soybean phospholipid on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We studied the combined effect of sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamine) and soybean phospholipid on lipid metabolism in rats. Male rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin, and containing 0 or 50 g/kg soybean phospholipid, for 19 days. Sesamin and soybean phospholipid decreased serum triacylglycerol concentrations and the combination of these compounds further decreased the parameter in an additive fashion. Soybean phospholipid but not sesamin reduced the hepatic concentration of triacylglycerol. The combination failed to cause a strong decrease in hepatic triacylglycerol concentration, presumably due to the up-regulation of Cd36 by sesamin. Combination of sesamin and soybean phospholipid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Sesamin strongly increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Soybean phospholipid increased hepatic activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase although it failed to affect the activity of other enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin strongly increased hepatic concentration of carnitine. Sesamin and soybean phospholipid combination further increased this parameter, accompanying a parallel increase in mRNA expression of carnitine transporter. These changes can account for the strong decrease in serum triacylglycerol in rats fed a diet containing both sesamin and soybean phospholipid.

  15. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH) could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin), which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance. PMID:20653983

  16. Production of a recombinant hybrid hemoflavoprotein: engineering a functional NADH:cytochrome c reductase.

    PubMed

    Barber, M J; Quinn, G B

    2001-11-01

    A gene has been constructed coding for a unique fusion protein, NADH:cytochrome c reductase, that comprises the soluble heme-containing domain of rat hepatic cytochrome b(5) as the amino-terminal portion of the protein and the soluble flavin-containing domain of rat hepatic cytochrome b(5) reductase as the carboxyl terminus. The gene has been expressed in Escherichia coli resulting in the highly efficient production of a functional hybrid hemoflavoprotein which has been purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on 5'-ADP agarose, and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified protein exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 46 kDa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 40,875 Da, for the apoprotein, using mass spectrometry which also confirmed the presence of both heme and FAD prosthetic groups. The fusion protein showed immunological cross-reactivity with both anti-rat cytochrome b(5) and anti-rat cytochrome b(5) reductase antibodies indicating the conservation of antigenic determinants from both native domains. Spectroscopic analysis indicated the fusion protein contained both a b-type cytochrome and flavin chromophors with properties identical to those of the native proteins. Amino-terminal and internal amino acid sequencing confirmed the identity of peptides derived from both the heme- and flavin-binding domains with sequences identical to the deduced amino acid sequence. The isolated fusion protein retained NADH:ferricyanide reductase activity (k(cat) = 8.00 x 10(2) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 4 microM, K(FeCN(6))(m) = 11 microM) comparable to that of that of native NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductase and also exhibited both NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity (k(cat) = 2.17 x 10(2) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 2 microM, K(FeCN(6))(m) = 11 microM, K(Cyt.c)(m) = 1 microM) and NADH:methemoglobin reductase activity (k(cat) = 4.40 x 10(-1) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 3 microM, K(mHb)(m) = 47 microM), the latter two activities

  17. Cytochrome P450 dependent metabolism of the new designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP). In vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats as well as in vitro studies in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Paul, Liane D; Springer, Dietmar; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2004-01-15

    1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) is a designer drug with serotonergic properties. Previous studies with male Wistar rats (WI) had shown, that TFMPP was metabolized mainly by aromatic hydroxylation. In the current study, it was examined whether this reaction may be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 by comparing TFMPP vs. hydroxy TFMPP ratios in urine from female Dark Agouti rats, a model of the human CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype (PM), male Dark Agouti rats, an intermediate model, and WI, a model of the human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype. Furthermore, the human hepatic CYPs involved in TFMPP hydroxylation were identified using cDNA-expressed CYPs and human liver microsomes. Finally, TFMPP plasma levels in the above mentioned rats were compared. The urine studies suggested that TFMPP hydroxylation might be catalyzed by CYP2D6 in humans. Studies using human CYPs showed that CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed TFMPP hydroxylation, with CYP2D6 being the most important enzyme accounting for about 81% of the net intrinsic clearance, calculated using the relative activity factor approach. The hydroxylation was significantly inhibited by quinidine (77%) and metabolite formation in poor metabolizer genotype human liver microsomes was significantly lower (63%) compared to pooled human liver microsomes. Analysis of the plasma samples showed that female Dark Agouti rats exhibited significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels compared to those of male Dark Agouti rats and WI. Furthermore, pretreatment of WI with the CYP2D inhibitor quinine resulted in significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels. In conclusion, the presented data give hints for possible differences in pharmacokinetics in human PM and human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype subjects relevant for risk assessment.

  18. Effects of acute hepatic and renal failure on pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hepatic and renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and glycerol-treated rats. After intravenous administration of flunixin (2 mg/kg), the plasma concentration of flunixin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both acute hepatic and renal failure resulted in significantly increased area under the curve (AUC), prolonged elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and reduced total body clearance (Cl(tot)) compared with respective controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic failure as well as renal failure modified the pharmacokinetics of flunixin.

  19. An epoxysuccinic acid derivative(loxistatin)-induced hepatic injury in rats and hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, K.; Arai, M.; Kohno, Y.; Suwa, T.; Satoh, T. )

    1990-08-01

    Loxistatin is a possible therapeutic agent of muscular dystrophy. A single oral administration of loxistatin to male rats caused focal necrosis of the liver with inflammatory cell infiltration. The severity of the lesions was dose-dependent up to 200 mg/kg and also manifest by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels decreased with a maximum 20% depletion within 5 hr after the oral administration of loxistatin. Pretreatment with diethyl maleate did not potentiate the loxistatin-induced hepatic injury. On the other hand, the hepatoprotective effect of cysteamine was observed when cysteamine was administered 24 hr before loxistatin dosing, but the effect was not observed when the antidote was administered concomitantly with loxistatin. Pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital or trans-stilbene oxide provided partial protection against the hepatotoxic effect of loxistatin. Pretreatment with SKF-525A resulted in increased hepatic injury, while pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide, cimetidine, or 3-methylcholanthrene had no effect on hepatic damage by loxistatin. Five hours after (14C)loxistatin administration to rats, the covalent binding of the radioactivity to proteins was greatest in the liver, followed by the kidney, then muscle and blood to a lesser extent. (14C)Loxistatin acid, the pharmacologically active form of loxistatin, irreversibly bound to rat liver microsomal proteins; more binding occurred when the NADPH-generating system was omitted and when the microsomes were boiled first. GSH did not alter the extent of irreversible binding, whereas N-ethylmaleimide decreased the binding of (14C)loxistatin acid to rat liver microsomal proteins by 75%. Unlike the rat, administration of loxistatin to hamsters caused neither hepatic injury nor hepatic GSH depletion.

  20. Hepatic regeneration after sublethal partial liver irradiation in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ke; Lai, Song-Tao; Ma, Ning-Yi; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Our previous animal study had demonstrated that partial liver irradiation (IR) could stimulate regeneration in the protected liver, which supported the measurements adopted in radiotherapy planning for hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this present study is to investigate whether cirrhotic liver repopulation could be triggered by partial liver IR. The cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. After cirrhosis establishment, TAA was withdrawn. In Experiment 1, only right-half liver was irradiated with single doses of 5 Gy, 10 Gy and 15 Gy, respectively. In Experiment 2, right-half liver was irradiated to 15 Gy, and the left-half to 2.5 Gy, 5 Gy and 7.5 Gy, respectively. The regeneration endpoints, including liver index (LI); mitotic index (MI); liver proliferation index (LPI); PCNA-labeling index (PCNA-LI); serum HGF, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on 0 day, 30-day, 60-day, 90-day, 120-day and 150-day after IR. Serum and in situ TGF-β1 were also measured. In both experimental groups, the IR injuries were sublethal, inducing no more than 9% animal deaths. Upon TAA withdrawal, hepatic regeneration decelerated in the controls. In Experiment 1 except for LI, all other regeneration parameters were significantly higher than those in controls for both right-half and left-half livers. In Experiment 2 all regeneration parameters were also higher compared with those in controls for both half livers. Serum HGF and VEGF were increased compared with that of controls. Both unirradiated and low dose-irradiated cirrhotic liver were able to regenerate triggered by sublethal partial liver IR and higher doses and IR to both halves liver triggered a more enhanced regeneration.

  1. Hepatic ornithine decarboxylase induction by potato glycoalkaloids in rats.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, K A; Grosjean, O K; Henika, P R; Friedman, M

    1991-08-01

    The induction of hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in rat livers by the potato glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and their aglycone solanidine, has been studied. Ip administration of alpha-solanine at 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight produced markedly elevated enzyme activity at 4 hr after treatment, with a linear dose response. The increase was four-fold at the lowest dose administered to 12-fold at the highest. ODC activity was measured at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24hr after alpha-solanine was given. A statistically significant increase in enzyme activity was evident at 3 hr after treatment; maximal activity occurred at 5 hr and was approximately 12 times greater than the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control level. Elevated activities persisted for several hours, decreasing to about one-third of the maximal level at 8 hr. The relative effects of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine and solanidine on ODC activities were studied at 4 hr using an equimolar dose of 17 mM/kg body weight. ODC activity induced by alpha-chaconine was higher than that induced by alpha-solanine; the latter activity was two-thirds that of the former. The aglycone solanidine did not induce any increase in activity compared with the DMSO control. ODC activity with dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, at 4 mg/kg body weight, followed a pattern similar to that of alpha-solanine. However, maximal activity occurred slightly earlier at 4 hr after treatment. The results show that the extent of induced ODC activity depends on the structure of the potato alkaloid.

  2. Radiation induced cytochrome c release causes loss of rat colonic fluid absorption by damage to crypts and pericryptal myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajah, J; Gourmelon, P; Griffiths, N; Lebrun, F; Naftalin, R; Pedley, K

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Therapeutic or accidental exposure to radiation commonly causes gastrointestinal disturbances, including diarrhoea. Rats subjected to whole body ionising radiation at a dose of 8 Gy lose their capacity to absorb fluid via the descending colon after four days. After seven days, fluid absorption recovers to control levels.
AIMS—To investigate the effect of ionising radiation on colonic permeability together with its effect on mitochondria dependent apoptotic signals and intercellular adhesion molecules.
METHODS—Rats were irradiated with doses of 0-12 Gy. Colonic permeability was measured by accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran in crypt lumens. Changes in levels of cytochrome c, caspase 3, E and OB cadherin, β-catenin smooth muscle actin, and collagen IV were assessed using immunocytochemistry with confocal microscopy.
RESULTS—Cytosolic cytochrome c increased after 8 Gy (t1/2 1.4 (0.6) hours) and peaked at approximately six hours. Caspase 3 increased more slowly, particularly in crypt epithelial cells (t1/2 57 (14.5) hours). Pericryptal myofibroblasts disintegrated within 24 hours as was evident from loss of OB cadherin and smooth muscle actin. This coincided with increased crypt permeability to dextran. Intercellular adhesion between crypt luminal cells was not lost until day 4 when both β-catenin and E-cadherin were minimal. The half maximal dose-response for these effects was in the range 2-4 Gy. Recovery of colonic transport was concurrent with recovery of pericryptal smooth muscle actin and OB cadherin. The pan caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp.fluoromethylketone (1 mg/kg per day) had a small effect in conserving the pericryptal sheath myofibroblasts and sheath permeability but had no systemic therapeutic effects.
CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that radiation damage to the colon may be initiated by mitochondrial events. Loss of crypt fluid absorption and increased permeability coincided with decreased

  3. Comparative hepatic and renal toxicity of cadmium in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Gubrelay, Udita; Mehta, Ashish; Singh, Maninder; Flora, S J S

    2004-01-01

    Rats (male and female) were exposed to 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg cadmium as cadmium chloride for 3 days and subsequently sacrificed for cadmium concentration and other biochemical variables indicative of hepatic and renal damage. The absorption of cadmium was supported by biochemical changes, which were significantly higher in females than in males. This could be due to higher rate of intestinal absorption of cadmium in females than males. Male and female rats both showed relatively higher cadmium concentration in kidneys than in liver. Female rats also showed the similar trend in tissue metal levels as compared to male rats. However, hepatic and renal histopathological observations showed that female rats suffered from severe hepatic injury like hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, granulation, bile duct proliferation etc. In comparison to female rats, male rats did not show much remarkable changes. Renal damage was more prominent in female than male in the form of renal tubular damage; most of the tubular nuclei were pyknotic, congestion of the boundary of cortex and medulla etc. The results suggested that females were comparatively more vulnerable to the toxic effects of cadmium than males.

  4. Endogenous carbon monoxide downregulates hepatic cystathionine-γ-lyase in rats with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHI-BIN; DUAN, ZHI-JUN; WANG, QIU-MING; ZHOU, QIN; LI, QING; SUN, XIAO-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) on the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-γ-lyase (H2S/CSE) pathway in cirrhotic rat livers. The rats were allocated at random into four groups: Sham, cirrhosis, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). The expression of hepatic CSE mRNA was evaluated using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while CSE protein expression was determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for the histological evaluation of liver fibrosis. The levels of H2S, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the arterial blood were determined, in addition to the portal vein pressure. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic CSE and the serum levels of H2S were significantly decreased in the cirrhosis group compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05). Compared with the cirrhosis group, rats in the ZnPP group had significantly lower levels of serum ALT, AST and TBIL, arterial COHb and hepatic fibrosis, while hepatic CSE expression and the production of H2S were significantly increased (P<0.05). The CoPP group exhibited decreased hepatic CSE expression and H2S production, but aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, the H2S/CSE pathway is involved in the formation of liver cirrhosis and serves a crucial function in protecting liver cells against the progression of liver fibrosis. Endogenous CO downregulates hepatic CSE mRNA and protein expression and the production of H2S in rats with liver cirrhosis. PMID:26668593

  5. Knockdown of Neuropeptide Y in the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus Promotes Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; de La Serre, C Barbier; Zhang, Ni; Yang, Liang; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence has shown that alterations in dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH) neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling influence glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism through which DMH NPY acts to affect glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Here we report that DMH NPY descending signals to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) modulate hepatic insulin sensitivity to control hepatic glucose production in rats. Using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we revealed that knockdown of NPY in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated NPY-specific RNAi promoted insulin's action on suppression of hepatic glucose production. This knockdown silenced DMH NPY descending signals to the DMV, leading to an elevation of hepatic vagal innervation. Hepatic vagotomy abolished the inhibitory effect of DMH NPY knockdown on hepatic glucose production, but this glycemic effect was not affected by vagal deafferentation. Together, these results demonstrate a distinct role for DMH NPY in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through the hepatic vagal efferents and insulin action on hepatic glucose production.

  6. Melatonin pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effects of exogenous mitochondria against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chua, Sarah; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin (Mel) enhances exogenous mitochondria (Mito) treatment against rodent hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In vitro study utilized three groups of hepatocytes (i.e. nontreatment, menadione, and menadione-melatonin treatment, 4.0 × 10(5) each), while in vivo study used adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40) equally divided into sham-control (SC), IR (60-min left-lobe ischemia + 72-hr reperfusion), IR-Mel (melatonin at 30 min/6/8 hr after reperfusion), IR-Mito (mitochondria 15,000 μg/rat 30 min after reperfusion), and IR-Mel-Mito. Following menadione treatment in vitro, oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3/PARP), DNA damage (γ-H2AX/CD90/XRCC1), mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers, and mitochondrial permeability transition were found to be lower, whereas mitochondrial cytochrome c were found to be higher in hepatocytes with melatonin treatment compared to those without (all P < 0.001). In vivo study demonstrated highest liver injury score and serum AST in IR group, but lowest in SC group and higher in IR-Mito group than that in groups IR-Mel and IR-Mel-Mito, and higher in IR-Mel group than that in IR-Mel-Mito group after 72-hr reperfusion (all P < 0.003). Protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/IL-1β/MMP-9), oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (caspase-3/PARP/Bax), and mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers displayed an identical pattern, whereas mitochondria integrity marker (mitochondrial cytochrome c) showed an opposite pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Microscopically, expressions of apoptotic nuclei, inflammatory (MPO(+) /CD68(+) /CD14(+) cells), and DNA damage (γ-H2AX(+) cells) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Melatonin-supported mitochondria treatment offered an additional

  7. Induction of cytochrome P450IA1 gene expression in rat epidermis and human keratinocytes by. beta. -napthoflavone and benzanthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, I.U.; Mukhtar, H.; Bickers, D.R.; Haqqi, T.M. )

    1991-03-15

    Cytochrome P450IA1 (P450IA1) plays a major role in the bioactivation of procarcinogens in various tissues including skin. However, factors controlling the expression of P450IA1 gene message in mammalian skin are unknown. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers was employed to study the expression of P450IA1 mRNA transcripts in rat epidermis and human keratinocytes (HK) treated with {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}NF) and benzanthracene (BA). Total RNA was extracted from the epidermis of control and inducer-treated 4-day-old and adult Sprague Dawley rats, and from control and inducer-treated HL. cDNAs were synthesized using random primers and reverse transcriptase. PCR products were analyzed on agarose gel and quantitated by densitometry. Inducer treatment of rats and HK resulted in several-fold increases in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity. The level of P450IA1 gene message increased 2-5-fold in treated animals as compared to controls; higher basal level and inducibility in adult than in 4-day-old rats. This induction occurred as early as 4 h after {beta}NF application, reached a maximum at 16 h and returned to basal levels by 36 h. Exposure to {beta}NF and BA resulted in 2-3-fold increase in gene message in HK. Northern blot analysis complemented PCR data. These results indicate that in mammalian skin P450IA1 gene expression is increased by the inducers of epidermal AHH activity.

  8. Assessment of regional cytochrome P450 activities in rat liver slices using resorufin substrates and fluorescence confocal laser cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, J T; Sidhu, J S; Reilly, M T; Farin, F M; Omiecinski, C J; Eaton, D L; Kavanagh, T J

    1996-01-01

    Characterizing constitutive activities and inducibility of various cytochrome P450 isozymes is important for elucidating species and individual differences in susceptibility to many toxicants. Although expression of certain P450s has been studied in homogenized tissues, the ability to assess functional enzyme activity without tissue disruption would further our understanding of interactive factors that modulate P450 activities. We used precision-cut, viable rat liver slices and confocal laser cytometry to determine the regional enzyme activities of P450 isozymes in situ. Livers from control and beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF)-treated rats were sectioned with a Krumdieck tissue slicer into 250-microns thick sections. A slice perfusion chamber that mounts on the cytometer stage was developed to allow for successive measurement of region-specific P450-dependent O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxy-, 7-pentoxy-, and 7-benzyloxyresorufin (EROD, PROD, and BROD activity, respectively) in the same liver slice. Images of the accumulated fluorescent resorufin product within the tissue were acquired using a confocal laser cytometer in confocal mode. As expected, slices isolated from beta NF-treated rats showed high levels of centrilobular EROD activity compared to slices from control rats, whereas PROD and BROD activities remained at control levels. These techniques should allow for the accurate quantification of regional and cell-specific P450 enzyme activity and, with subsequent analysis of the same slice, the ability to correlate specific P450 mRNAs or other factors with enzymatic activity. Moreover, these techniques should be amenable to examination of similar phenomena in other tissues such as lung and kidney, where marked heterogeneity in cellular P450 expression patterns is also known to occur. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8743442

  9. The simultaneous occurrence of human norovirus and hepatitis E virus in a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sandro; Reetz, Jochen; Johne, Reimar; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Petri, Samuel; Kanig, Hanna; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2013-07-01

    Wild rats can be reservoirs and vectors for several human pathogens. An initial RT-PCR screening of the intestinal contents of Norway rats trapped in the sewer system of Copenhagen, Denmark, for caliciviruses revealed the presence of a human norovirus in one of 11 rodents. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the ~4.0-kb 3'-terminus of the norovirus genome resulted in the identification of a recombinant GI.b/GI.6 strain. The simultaneous detection of hepatitis E virus-like particles in the feces of this rat by transmission electron microscopy was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequence determination, resulting in the identification of a novel rat hepatitis E virus.

  10. Atorvastatin reverses age-related reduction in rat hepatic PPARalpha and HNF-4.

    PubMed

    Sanguino, Elena; Roglans, Nuria; Alegret, Marta; Sánchez, Rosa M; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Laguna, Juan C

    2005-08-01

    Old rats are resistant to fibrate-induced hypolipidemia owing to a reduction in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). We tested whether the age-related decrease in PPARalpha is prevented by atorvastatin (ATV), a hypolipidemic statin. We determined the activity and expression of Liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha) and PPARalpha in the liver of 18-month-old rats treated with 10 mg kg(-1) of ATV for 21 days. We measured fatty acid oxidation (FAO), the expression of PPARalpha-target genes, liver triglyceride (TG) and cholesteryl ester (CE) contents and plasma concentrations of TG, cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin and leptin. While old female rats were practically unresponsive, ATV-treated old males showed lower liver TG (-41%) and CE (-48%), and plasma TG (-35%), glucose (-18%) and NEFA (-39%). Age-related alterations in LXRalpha expression and binding activity were reverted in ATV-treated old males. These changes were related to an increase in hepatic FAO (1.2-fold), and PPARalpha mRNA (2.2-fold), PPARalpha protein (1.6-fold), and PPARalpha-binding activity. Hepatic nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) and chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor-II participate in the transcriptional regulation of the PPARalpha gene, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1) behaves as a PPAR coactivator. Ageing reduced the hepatic content of HNF-4 (74%) and PGC-1 (77%) exclusively in male rats. ATV administration to old males enhanced the hepatic expression and binding activity (two-fold) of HNF-4. ATV-induced changes in hepatic HNF-4 and PPARalpha may be responsible for the improvement of the lipid metabolic phenotype produced by ATV administration to senescent male rats.

  11. Olanzapine modulation of hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in socially isolated rats.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Nevena; Tomanović, Nada; Gass, Peter; Filipović, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is efficient in stress associated psychiatric diseases, but its effect on the liver, a primary organ for drug activation and detoxification, still remains unclear. The effect of olanzapine administration (7.5mg/kg/day), on rat hepatic glutathione (GSH)-dependent defense and proinflammatory cytokines following 6weeks of chronic social isolation (CSIS), which causes depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in adult male Wistar rats, was investigated. The subcellular distribution of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cytosolic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels and hepatic histological alterations were also determined. Decreased GSH content and glutathione reductase activity associated with increased catalase and glutathione S-transferase activity following CSIS indicated hepatic oxidative stress. Moreover, CSIS caused NF-κB nuclear translocation and the concomitant increase in iNOS together with increase in interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha protein levels, but no effect on interleukin-6. Olanzapine treatment suppressed NF-κB activation and iNOS expression and caused modulation of GSH-dependent defense systems but failed to reverse CSIS-induced increase in hepatic proinflammatory cytokines. Portal inflammation, focal hepatocyte necrosis and an increased number of Kupffer cells in CSIS rats (vehicle- or olanzapine-treated) were found. Olanzapine-treated socially reared rats showed portal inflammation and focal hepatocyte necrosis. Data suggest that CSIS compromised GSH-dependent defense, triggered a proinflammatory response and histological alterations in rat liver. Olanzapine treatment partially reversed the alterations in hepatic GSH-dependent defense, but showed no anti-inflammatory effect suggesting that it may provide protective effect against hepatic CSIS-induced oxidative stress, but not against inflammation.

  12. Atorvastatin reverses age-related reduction in rat hepatic PPARα and HNF-4

    PubMed Central

    Sanguino, Elena; Roglans, Nuria; Alegret, Marta; Sánchez, Rosa M; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Laguna, Juan C

    2005-01-01

    Old rats are resistant to fibrate-induced hypolipidemia owing to a reduction in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). We tested whether the age-related decrease in PPARα is prevented by atorvastatin (ATV), a hypolipidemic statin. We determined the activity and expression of Liver X receptor α (LXRα) and PPARα in the liver of 18-month-old rats treated with 10 mg kg−1 of ATV for 21 days. We measured fatty acid oxidation (FAO), the expression of PPARα-target genes, liver triglyceride (TG) and cholesteryl ester (CE) contents and plasma concentrations of TG, cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin and leptin. While old female rats were practically unresponsive, ATV-treated old males showed lower liver TG (−41%) and CE (−48%), and plasma TG (−35%), glucose (−18%) and NEFA (−39%). Age-related alterations in LXRα expression and binding activity were reverted in ATV-treated old males. These changes were related to an increase in hepatic FAO (1.2-fold), and PPARα mRNA (2.2-fold), PPARα protein (1.6-fold), and PPARα-binding activity. Hepatic nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) and chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor-II participate in the transcriptional regulation of the PPARα gene, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1) behaves as a PPAR coactivator. Ageing reduced the hepatic content of HNF-4 (74%) and PGC-1 (77%) exclusively in male rats. ATV administration to old males enhanced the hepatic expression and binding activity (two-fold) of HNF-4. ATV-induced changes in hepatic HNF-4 and PPARα may be responsible for the improvement of the lipid metabolic phenotype produced by ATV administration to senescent male rats. PMID:15912134

  13. Analytical study of microsomes and isolated subcellular membranes from rat liver. V. Immunological localization of cytochrome b5 by electron microscopy: methodology and application to various subcellular fractions

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The localization of cytochrome b5 on the membranes of various subcellular organelles of rat liver was studied by a cytoimmunological procedure using anti-cytochrome b5/anti-ferritin hybrid antibodies and ferritin as label. For this study, highly purified and biochemically characterized membrane preparations were employed. Outer mitochondrial membranes were found to be heavily labeled by the hybrid antibodies whereas Golgi and plasma membranes were not marked by the reagent. Peroxisome membranes were moderately labeled by the hybrid antibodies, suggesting that they may contain some cytochrome b5. The preparation and purification of hybrid antibodies without peptic digestion is described and an analysis made of the composition of the final reagent product. PMID:791954

  14. Methanethiol metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Blom, H J; Chamuleau, R A; Rothuizen, J; Deutz, N E; Tangerman, A

    1990-04-01

    The metabolism of methanethiol was studied in rats. Administration of a noncomatogenic dose of methanethiol through inspired air or injection into the upper colon resulted in an elevation of the concentrations of methanethiol mixed disulfides in serum (protein--S--S--CH3 and X--S--S--CH3, X yet unknown) and in urine (X--S--S--CH3). The concentrations of methanethiol mixed disulfides proved to be a relative measure of exposure to methanethiol. The levels of volatile sulfur compounds methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide in the air expired by rats exposed to a noncomatogenic dose of methanethiol through the colon were also elevated. Rats with acute hepatic encephalopathy caused by liver ischemia also showed elevation of methanethiol mixed disulfide levels on challenge of methanethiol through the colon or inspired air, but to a significantly smaller extent than did the corresponding sham-operated rats. This suggests that the liver is at least partly responsible for formation of methanethiol mixed disulfides. No additional toxic effects were observed in the rats with ischemic livers on methanethiol exposition when compared with normal rats, suggesting that the liver does not play an essential role in methanethiol detoxification. Metabolism of methanethiol by blood to sulfate, for example, might be more important. In rats with acute hepatic encephalopathy caused by liver ischemia and in dogs suffering from hepatic encephalopathy resulting from chronic liver disease, large and significant increases in ammonia levels were measured. However, the mean levels of methanethiol mixed disulfides in rats and dogs with hepatic encephalopathy were not different from the mean normal levels in these animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Identification of the rat liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of the calcium channel blocker dipfluzine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weili; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of dipfluzine hydrochloride using the combination of a chemical inhibition study, a correlation analysis and a panel of recombinant rat CYP450 enzymes. The incubation of Dip with rat liver microsomes yielded four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results from the assays involving eight selective inhibitors indicated that CYP3A and CYP2A1 contributed most to the metabolism of Dip, followed by CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2; however, CYP2B1, CYP2C6 and CYP2D1 did not contribute to the formation of the metabolites. The results of the correlation analysis and the assays involving the recombinant CYP450 enzymes further confirmed the above results and concluded that CYP3A2 contributed more than CYP3A1. The results will be valuable in understanding drug-drug interactions when Dip is coadministered with other drugs.

  16. Similarities and differences between the brain networks underlying allocentric and egocentric spatial learning in rat revealed by cytochrome oxidase histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rubio, S; Begega, A; Méndez, M; Méndez-López, M; Arias, J L

    2012-10-25

    The involvement of different brain regions in place- and response-learning was examined using a water cross-maze. Rats were trained to find the goal from the initial arm by turning left at the choice point (egocentric strategy) or by using environmental cues (allocentric strategy). Although different strategies were required, the same maze and learning conditions were used. Using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry as a marker of cellular activity, the function of the 13 diverse cortical and subcortical regions was assessed in rats performing these two tasks. Our results show that allocentric learning depends on the recruitment of a large functional network, which includes the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus, medial mammillary nucleus and supramammillary nucleus. Along with the striatum, these last three structures are also related to egocentric spatial learning. The present study provides evidence for the contribution of these regions to spatial navigation and supports a possible functional interaction between the two memory systems, as their structural convergence may facilitate functional cooperation in the behaviours guided by more than one strategy. In summary, it can be argued that spatial learning is based on dynamic functional systems in which the interaction of brain regions is modulated by task requirements.

  17. The effects of tramadol on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mona F.; Gamal, Samar; Shaheen, Mohamed A.; El-Fayoumi, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic. It has a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat heart. We hypothesized that tramadol may exert a similar protective effect on hepatic I/R injury. Hence, the current investigation was designed to study the possible protective effects of tramadol on experimentally-induced hepatic I/R injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Tramadol was administered 30 min before ischemia following which the rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Results: Tramadol attenuated hepatic injury induced by I/R as evidenced by the reduction of transaminases, structural changes, and apoptotic cell death. It decreased the level of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TNF-α/interleukin-10 (IL-10) ratio, and nuclear factor-κB gene expression. It also increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 levels in hepatic tissues. Furthermore, it reduced oxidative stress parameters except manganese superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that tramadol has hepatoprotective effects against hepatic I/R injury via anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects. PMID:27298497

  18. Influence of zinc on the ontogeny of hepatic metallothionein in the fetal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Charles-Shannon, V.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Burbank, D.K.; Kelman, B.J.

    1981-10-01

    The ontogeny of hepatic metallothioneins (Mt) in fetal tissue as related to dietary and hepatic Zn was investigated. Sixty 6-month-old female rats were divided into two groups and given either double-distilled water or water containing 700 )g of Zn per milliliter. Dams from each group were killed on 16, 19, or 21 days of gestation, and maternal and fetal livers were removed. Mt content of the tissue was estimated by Piotrowski's Hg-saturation method. Results established the presence of an endogenous hepatic Mt in the fetal rat as early as 16 days of gestation. We further demonstrated a marked progressive increase in fetal Mt from Day 16 through gestation accompanied by a decrease in maternal hepatic Mt. It is suggested that Zn increased fetal Mt by inducing fetal synthesis, redistributing fetal Mt, or increasing Mt transport to the fetus, because both fetal and maternal hepatic Mt were increased. Fetal hepatic Mt concentration was several times greater than maternal Mt at corresponding stages of gestation. Mt may serve to either ensure adequate storage of Zn or Cu for fetal development or protect the fetus against metal toxicity, but the significance of these high endogenous levels of fetal Mt are not clear at this time.

  19. Hepatic cytochrome p450-2A and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein mRNA are induced in gerbils after consumption of isoflavone-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Orsolya; Chou, Chris N; Kennedy, Kathleen J; Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Shay, Neil F

    2002-09-01

    Soy intake reduces cholesterol levels, but neither the exact component in soy causing this reduction nor the mechanism by which cholesterol is reduced is known with certainty. In this study, a genetic screen was performed to identify hepatic mRNA in gerbils regulated by soy or soy isoflavones. Gerbils were fed casein, an alcohol-washed soy-based diet (containing low levels of isoflavones), and the soy-based diet supplemented with an isoflavone-containing soy extract. After feeding for 28 d, gerbils were killed, hepatic RNA was isolated, and genes that were differentially expressed in any of the three dietary conditions were identified. Fifteen different mRNA were originally selected, including two mRNA that were studied further and shown to be highly regulated. Messenger RNA levels for both cytochrome P450-2A and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner when soy replaced casein in the diet at 0, 33, 67 and 100% of original casein levels. A subsequent experiment used purified amino acid mixtures resembling the percentage amino acid composition of soy and casein to ensure that isoflavone-free protein sources could be tested. Using these mixtures, a 2 x 2 x 2 design tested: natural vs. synthetic protein sources, casein- vs. soy-based diets, and isoflavone extract-supplemented or supplement-free diets. This design demonstrated that these two mRNA were again significantly up-regulated more than twofold (P < 0.05) in gerbils fed all diets containing isoflavones. Induction of these two mRNA by soy may be due to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor element in the promoter region of both genes.

  20. Organohalogens and their hydroxylated metabolites in the blood of pigs from an open waste dumping site in south India: association with hepatic cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Subramanian, Annamalai; Iwata, Hisato; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs) were measured in the blood of Eurasian wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from a municipal waste open dumping site (DS) and a reference site (RS) in South India. We showed that contamination with OH-PCBs was higher in female pigs from the DS than in all other adult pigs. The highest OH-PCB concentrations were found in piglets from the DS. Moreover, the hepatic expression levels of CYP1A and CYP2B were higher in piglets than in their dam, implying metabolism of PCBs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The OH-PCB congener profiles differed according to sex and collection sites, possibly because of variations in the expression levels of phase I and phase II enzymes among individual pigs, differences in the exposure sources, and maternal transfer of parent PCBs. The hepatic CYP1A expression levels were positively correlated with the blood concentrations of 4OH-CB107, 4OH-CB162, and 4OH-CB187, implying CYP1A-dependent formation of these OH-PCBs in the pig liver. We found no significant correlations between the blood concentrations of OH-PCBs and thyroid hormones (THs); however, the thyroxin (T4) levels were lower in pigs from the DS than in pigs from the RS. Our limited dataset suggest that induced CYP enzymes accelerate the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous molecules in pigs. Thus, besides parental compounds, the risk of hydroxylated metabolites entering wildlife and humans living in and around municipal open waste dumping sites should be considered.

  1. Functional proteomic analysis of corticosteroid pharmacodynamics in rat liver: Relationship to hepatic stress, signaling, energy regulation, and drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ayyar, Vivaswath S; Almon, Richard R; DuBois, Debra C; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Qu, Jun; Jusko, William J

    2017-03-14

    Corticosteroids (CS) are anti-inflammatory agents that cause extensive pharmacogenomic and proteomic changes in multiple tissues. An understanding of the proteome-wide effects of CS in liver and its relationships to altered hepatic and systemic physiology remains incomplete. Here, we report the application of a functional pharmacoproteomic approach to gain integrated insight into the complex nature of CS responses in liver in vivo. An in-depth functional analysis was performed using rich pharmacodynamic (temporal-based) proteomic data measured over 66h in rat liver following a single dose of methylprednisolone (MPL). Data mining identified 451 differentially regulated proteins. These proteins were analyzed on the basis of temporal regulation, cellular localization, and literature-mined functional information. Of the 451 proteins, 378 were clustered into six functional groups based on major clinically-relevant effects of CS in liver. MPL-responsive proteins were highly localized in the mitochondria (20%) and cytosol (24%). Interestingly, several proteins were related to hepatic stress and signaling processes, which appear to be involved in secondary signaling cascades and in protecting the liver from CS-induced oxidative damage. Consistent with known adverse metabolic effects of CS, several rate-controlling enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty-acid metabolism were altered by MPL. In addition, proteins involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds, xenobiotics, and therapeutic drugs including cytochrome P450 and Phase-II enzymes were differentially regulated. Proteins related to the inflammatory acute-phase response were up-regulated in response to MPL. Functionally-similar proteins showed large diversity in their temporal profiles, indicating complex mechanisms of regulation by CS.

  2. Rat hepatitis E virus: geographical clustering within Germany and serological detection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Johne, Reimar; Dremsek, Paul; Kindler, Eveline; Schielke, Anika; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Gregersen, Henrike; Wessels, Ute; Schmidt, Katja; Rietschel, Wolfram; Groschup, Martin H; Guenther, Sebastian; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2012-07-01

    Zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in industrialised countries is thought to be caused by transmission from wild boar, domestic pig and deer as reservoir hosts. The detection of HEV-specific antibodies in rats and other rodents has suggested that these animals may represent an additional source for HEV transmission to human. Recently, a novel HEV (ratHEV) was detected in Norway rats from Hamburg, Germany, showing the typical genome organisation but a high nucleotide and amino acid sequence divergence to other mammalian and to avian HEV strains. Here we describe the multiple detection of ratHEV RNA and HEV-specific antibodies in Norway rats from additional cities in north-east and south-west Germany. The complete genome analysis of two novel strains from Berlin and Stuttgart confirmed the association of ratHEV to Norway rats. The present data indicated a continuing existence of this virus in the rat populations from Berlin and Hamburg. The phylogenetic analysis of a short segment of the open reading frame 1 confirmed a geographical clustering of the corresponding sequences. Serological investigations using recombinant ratHEV and genotype 3 capsid protein derivatives demonstrated antigenic differences which might be caused by the high amino acid sequence divergence in the immunodominant region. The high amount of animals showing exclusively ratHEV RNA or anti-ratHEV antibodies suggested a non-persistent infection in the Norway rat. Future studies have to prove the transmission routes of the virus in rat populations and its zoonotic potential. The recombinant ratHEV antigen generated here will allow future seroepidemiological studies to differentiate ratHEV and genotype 3 infections in humans and animals.

  3. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Luo, Y; Yang, X F; Yang, M X; Yang, J; Yang, X S; Zhou, J; Gao, F; He, L T; Xu, J

    2016-12-08

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells

  4. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J.; Luo, Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, M.X.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.S.; Zhou, J.; Gao, F.; He, L.T.; Xu, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells

  5. Decline in cytochrome c oxidase activity in rat-brain mitochondria with aging. Role of peroxidized cardiolipin and beneficial effect of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, Giuseppe; De Benedictis, Valentina; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Paradies, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a key factor in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with brain aging process. Mitochondrial respiration is an important source of ROS and hence a potential contributor to brain functional changes with aging. In this study, we examined the effect of aging on cytochrome c oxidase activity and other bioenergetic processes such as oxygen consumption, membrane potential and ROS production in rat brain mitochondria. We found a significant age-dependent decline in the cytochrome c oxidase activity which was associated with parallel changes in state 3 respiration, membrane potential and with an increase in H2O2 generation. The cytochrome aa3 content was practically unchanged in mitochondria from young and aged animals. The age-dependent decline of cytochrome c oxidase activity could be restored, in situ, to the level of young animals, by exogenously added cardiolipin. In addition, exposure of brain mitochondria to peroxidized cardiolipin resulted in an inactivation of this enzyme complex. It is suggested that oxidation/depletion of cardiolipin could be responsible, at least in part, for the decline of cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain aging. Melatonin treatment of old animals largely prevented the age-associated alterations of mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters. These results may prove useful in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction associated with brain aging process, and may have implications in etiopathology of age-associated neurodegenerative disorders and in the development of potential treatment strategies.

  6. Repeated transplantation of hepatocytes prevents fulminant hepatitis in a rat model of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Vanessa; Siaj, Ramsi; Stöppeler, Sandra; Bahde, Ralf; Spiegel, Hans-Ullrich; Köhler, Gabriele; Zibert, Andree; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2012-02-01

    The outcome of consecutive hepatocyte transplants was explored in a rat model of Wilson's disease before the onset of fulminant hepatitis without preconditioning regimens. Rats received a high-copper diet in order to induce a rapid induction of liver failure. Sham-operated rats (15/15) developed jaundice and fulminant hepatitis, and they died within 4 weeks of first transplantation. Despite the continuation of a high dietary copper challenge, long-term survival was observed for a notable proportion of the transplanted animals (7/18). All survivors displayed normalized levels of hepatitis-associated serum markers and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity by posttransplant days 50 and 98, respectively. The liver copper concentrations, the liver histology, and the expression of marker genes were significantly restored within 4 months of transplantation in comparison with the control group. The high expression of a copper transporter gene (ATPase Cu++ transporting beta polypeptide) in the livers of the survivors indicated a high rate of repopulation by donor hepatocytes. Our data suggest that repeated cell transplantation can overcome the limitations of a single therapy session in rats with severe hepatic disease by functionally restoring the host liver without preconditioning.

  7. HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF RATS EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Exposed to Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in utero.
    J.A. Bjork1, J.M. Berthiaume1, C. Lau2, J. L. Butenhoff3, and K.B. Wallace1

    1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Dulut...

  8. Effects of hepatic enzyme inducers on thyroxine (T4) catabolism in primary rat hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptor agonists such as phenobarbital (PB), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 3-methylcholantrene (3-MC) decrease circulating thyroxine (T4) concentrations in rats. It is suspected that this decrease occurs through the induction of hepatic metabolizing en...

  9. Effect of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture on CCl(4)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ling; Yang, Suh-Ching; Huang, Guan-Cheng; Tsi, Daniel; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Li, Joe-Sharg

    2009-02-01

    To study the effects of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control group (olive oil injection), CCl(4) group (CCl(4) injection), silymarin group (CCl(4) injection combined with supplementation of silymarin, 7.5 mg/kg/day), low dose group (CCl(4) injection combined with supplementation of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture at a low dose, 43 mg/kg/day) and high dose group (CCl(4) injection combined with the supplementation of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture at a high dose, 215 mg/kg/day). The hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities of rats in the low dose and high dose groups were increased significantly compared with those in the CCl(4) group. The hepatic reduced glutathione concentration in the silymarin, low dose and high dose groups were increased significantly (48%, 45% and 53%, respectively) when compared with those of the CCl(4) group. In addition, the concentration of glutathione in the erythrocytes of the low dose group was significantly higher than the CCl(4) group by 25%. These results suggest that the schisandrin B-sesamin mixture exerted a hepatoprotective effect by improving the antioxidative capacity in rats under CCl(4)-induced hepatic oxidative stress.

  10. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated depression of rat testicular heme synthesis and microsomal cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Tofilon, P J; Piper, W N

    1982-11-15

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces hirsutism, alopecia, and chloracne, symptoms that suggest a possible alteration of endocrine function. Therefore, the effects of TCDD on rat testicular cytochrome P-450 content were investigated. Forty-eight hours after a single, oral dose of TCDD (25 microgram/kg) testicular microsomal cytochrome P-450 levels were depressed by approximately 24%. Microsomal cytochrome P-450 continued to decrease to 62% of control levels at 4 days and remained at approximately the same levels 7 days following treatment. Testicular microsomal heme content exhibited a similar pattern after administration of TCDD. No alterations in testicular delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase were detected. The incorporation of [14C]ALA into microsomal heme was decreased to approximately 36% of control values at 24 hr after TCDD administration. Testicular weights were not altered during the 7-day experimental period. These data suggest that TCDD depresses cytochrome P-450 levels in the rat testis through an inhibition of the synthesis of testicular heme.

  11. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides attenuate hepatic lipid deposition in growing rats with protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Amano, Saki; Yokoyama, Meiko; Shimamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on hepatic lipid accumulation in growing rats with protein malnutrition. Weaning rats were fed either a low-protein diet (3%, LP) or control protein diet (20%, CP), in combination with or without MCT. The four groups were as follows: CP-MCT, CP+MCT, LP-MCT, and LP+MCT. Rats in the CP-MCT, CP+MCT and LP+MCT groups were pair-fed their respective diets based on the amount of diet consumed by the LP-MCT group. Rats were fed each experimental diet for 30 d. Four weeks later, the respiratory quotient was higher in the LP-MCT group than those in the other groups during the fasting period. Hepatic triglyceride content increased in the LP groups compared with the CP groups. Hepatic triglyceride content in the LP+MCT group, however, was significantly decreased compared with that in the LP-MCT group. Levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1a mRNA and CPT2 mRNA were significantly decreased in the livers of the LP-MCT group, as compared with corresponding mRNA levels of the other groups. These results suggest that ingestion of a low-protein diet caused fatty liver in growing rats. However, when rats were fed the low-protein diet with MCT, hepatic triglyceride deposition was attenuated, and mRNA levels encoding CPT1a and CPT2 were preserved at the levels of rats fed control protein diets.

  12. Stimulatory effect of sesamin on hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is not directly associated with expression of genes related to xenobiotic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zlabek, Vladimir; Vestergren, AnnaLotta Schiller; Trattner, Sofia; Wagner, Liane; Pickova, Jana; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2015-01-01

    1. This study examined hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) response to dietary sesamin in combination with different n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in fish diet. Over a period of 4 months, fish were fed seven different experimental diets an n-6/n-3 FA ratio of either 0.5 or 1.0 in combination with two sesamin levels: low sesamin = 1.16 g/kg feed and high sesamin = 5.8 g/kg feed. Control diets did not contain sesamin. 2. The CYP450-associated activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-debenzylation (BFCOD), pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD), coumarin hydroxylase (COH), methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNPH) were significantly induced by dietary sesamin in a dose-related manner. 3. Expressions of the genes CYP1A1, CYP1A3, CYP3A, AhR1α, AhR2β, AhR2δ and PXR involved in the regulation of CYP450 activities, was not the primary source of this induction.

  13. Accurately mapping the location of the binding site for the interaction between hepatitis B virus X protein and cytochrome c oxidase III

    PubMed Central

    LI, DAN; DING, JIAN; CHEN, ZHIXIN; CHEN, YUN; LIN, NA; CHEN, FENGLIN; WANG, XIAOZHONG

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) plays an important pathogenetic role in hepatocarcinoma tumorigenesis. As HBx does not have the ability to bind to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), protein-protein interaction is crucial for HBx functions. In a previous study, we screened a novel HBx-interacting protein, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COXIII). In the present study, we aimed to accurately map the location of the binding site for the interaction of HBx with COXIII. Two fragments of HBx mutants (X1 aa1-72 and X2 aa1-117) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separately inserted into the pAS2-1 plasmid. PCR and gene sequencing confirmed the correct insertion of the mutant fragments in the plasmid. The tanscription of the mutant fragments in yeast cells was demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analysis confirmed that they were accurately translated into fusion proteins. Hybridization on solid medium and the detection of β-galactosidase (β-gal) activity indicated that the binding site for the interaction between HBx and COXIII was located between aa72 and aa117. Specific interactions between the HBxX2 protein and COXIII were verified by co-immunoprecipitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing to demonstrate that aa72-117 in HBx is the key region for binding with COXIII. PMID:25483779

  14. Impact of six fruits--banana, guava, mangosteen, pineapple, ripe mango and ripe papaya--on murine hepatic cytochrome P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of six Thai fruits, namely banana, guava, mangosteen, pineapple, ripe mango and ripe papaya, on cytochrome P450 (P450) activities were investigated. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50) ) of each of the fruit juices on CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 activities were determined. Pineapple juice showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all the evaluated P450 isozyme activities in mouse hepatic microsomes, followed by mangosteen, guava, ripe mango, ripe papaya and banana. The study was further performed in male ICR mice given pineapple juice intragastrically at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 or 28 days. In a concentration-dependent fashion, the pineapple juice raised ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, aniline hydroxylase and erythromycin N-demethylase activities, which are marker enzymatic reactions responsible for CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11, respectively. The effect of pineapple juice on the expression of CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 mRNAs corresponded to their enzymatic activities. However, the pineapple juice significantly decreased methoxyresorufin O-demethylase activity. These observations supported that the six Thai fruits were a feasible cause of food-drug interaction or adverse drug effects owing to their potential to modify several essential P450 activities. Individuals consuming large quantities of pineapple for long periods of time should be cautioned of these potential adverse effects.

  15. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase participates in nitric oxide consumption by rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hall, Catherine N; Keynes, Robert G; Garthwaite, John

    2009-04-15

    In low nanomolar concentrations, NO (nitric oxide) functions as a transmitter in brain and other tissues, whereas near-micromolar NO concentrations are associated with toxicity and cell death. Control of the NO concentration, therefore, is critical for proper brain function, but, although its synthesis pathway is well-characterized, the major route of breakdown of NO in brain is unclear. Previous observations indicate that brain cells actively consume NO at a high rate. The mechanism of this consumption was pursued in the present study. NO consumption by a preparation of central glial cells was abolished by cell lysis and recovered by addition of NADPH. NADPH-dependent consumption of NO localized to cell membranes and was inhibited by proteinase K, indicating the involvement of a membrane-bound protein. Purification of this activity yielded CYPOR (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase). Antibodies against CYPOR inhibited NO consumption by brain membranes and the amount of CYPOR in several cell types correlated with their rate of NO consumption. NO was also consumed by purified CYPOR but this activity was found to depend on the presence of the vitamin E analogue Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid), included in the buffer as a precaution against inadvertent NO consumption by lipid peroxidation. In contrast, NO consumption by brain membranes was independent of Trolox. Hence, it appears that, during the purification process, CYPOR becomes separated from a partner needed for NO consumption. Cytochrome P450 inhibitors inhibited NO consumption by brain membranes, making these proteins likely candidates.

  16. Hepatic cytochrome P450 deficiency in mouse models for intrahepatic cholestasis predispose to bile salt-induced cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Kunne, Cindy; de Graaff, Marijke; Duijst, Suzanne; de Waart, Dirk R; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Paulusma, Coen C

    2014-10-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) types 1 and 3 are severe cholestatic liver diseases caused by deficiency of ATB8B1 and ABCB4, respectively. Mouse models for PFIC display mild phenotypes compared with human patients, and this can be explained by the difference in bile salt pool composition. Mice, unlike humans, have the ability to detoxify hydrophobic bile salts by cytochrome P450-mediated (re)hydroxylation and thus have a less toxic bile salt pool. We have crossed mouse models for PFIC1 and PFIC3 with Hrn mice that have a reduced capacity to (re)hydroxylate bile salts. Double transgenes were obtained by backcrossing Atp8b1(G308V/G308V) and Abcb4(-/-) mice with Hrn mice that have a liver-specific disruption of the cytochrome P450 reductase gene and therefore have markedly reduced P450 activity. In these mice, a more hydrophobic bile salt pool was instilled by cholic acid supplementation of the diet, and bile formation and liver pathology was studied. As opposed to single transgenes, Atp8b1(G308V/G308V)/Hrn and Abcb4(-/-)/Hrn mice rapidly developed strong cholestasis that was evidenced by increased plasma bilirubin and bile salt levels. The bile salt pool was more toxic in both models; Atp8b1(G308V/G308V)/Hrn mice had a more hydrophobic plasma pool compared with the single transgene, whereas Abcb4(-/-)/Hrn mice had a more hydrophobic biliary pool compared with the single transgene. In line with these findings, liver damage was not aggravated in Atp8b1(G308V/G308V)/Hrn but was more severe in Abcb4(-/-)/Hrn mice. These data indicate that bile salt pool composition is a critical determinant in the initiation and progression of cholestasis and liver pathology in PFIC1 and PFIC3. Most importantly, our data suggest that the hydrophobicity of the plasma bile salt pool is an important determinant of the severity of cholestasis, whereas the hydrophobicity of the biliary bile salt pool is an important determinant of the severity of liver pathology.

  17. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of midazolam in hepatic microsomes from chickens, turkeys, pheasant and bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Cortright, K A; Craigmill, A L

    2006-12-01

    In vitro putative cytochrome P450 3A mediated activity, and inhibition thereof, were measured in four avian species using midazolam (MDZ) as a substrate and ketoconazole as an inhibitor. All species produced 1-hydroxymidazolam (1-OH MDZ) to a much greater extent than 4-hydroxymidazolam (4-OH MDZ). Calculated Vmaxapparent values for formation of 1-OH MDZ were 117+/-17, 239+/-108, 437+/-168, and 201+/-55 pmol/mg protein*min and Kmapparent values were 2.1+/-0.8, 2.4+/-1.6, 6.7+/-5.1 and 3.2+/-2.1 microm for chicken, turkey, pheasant and bobwhite quail, respectively. For the formation of 4-OH MDZ the Vmaxapparent values were 21+/-10, 94+/-46, 144+/-112, and 68+/-30 pmol/mg protein*min and Kmapparent values for 4-OH MDZ formation were 12.4+/-10.1, 18.0+/-10.8, 38.6+/-34.7 and 29.1+/-10.1 microm for chicken, turkey, pheasant and bobwhite quail, respectively. In all four species, ketoconazole inhibited the production of both major metabolites of MDZ, with 4-OH MDZ formation more sensitive to inhibition than 1-OH MDZ. Pheasant and bobwhite quail appeared most sensitive to ketoconazole inhibition.

  18. Predominant 4-hydroxylation of estradiol by constitutive cytochrome P450s in the female ACI rat liver.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Reed, G A

    2001-02-01

    The ACI rat is extremely sensitive to estrogens as mammary carcinogens, whereas the Sprague-Dawley strain is relatively resistant. Comparison of the disposition and effects of estrogens in these two strains should provide insights into the mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenicity. We have begun this investigation by comparing the metabolism of [(3)H]17beta-estradiol (E2) by liver microsomes prepared from female rats from each strain. Both strains produce estrone (E1) as the major product at E2 concentrations >1 microM, with smaller amounts of 2-hydroxy-E2 formed. As the E2 concentration is decreased, however, aromatic hydroxylation becomes a more dominant pathway for both strains. At starting E2 concentrations as low as 3 nM, Sprague-Dawley liver microsomes produced comparable yields of 2-hydroxy-E2 and E1. In contrast, ACI liver microsomes yielded a profound shift to aromatic hydroxylation as the dominant pathway as E2 concentrations dropped below 1 microM, and this shift reflected the production of 4-hydroxy-E2 as the predominant product. The apparent K(m) for 4-hydroxylation of E2 is <0.8 microM, as opposed to approximately 4 microM for 2-hydroxylation, suggesting that different cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are responsible. Western immunoblotting of the liver microsomal preparations from ACI and Sprague-Dawley rats for CYPs known to catalyze 2- and 4-hydroxylation of E2 revealed that both strains contained comparable amounts of CYP 2B1/2 and 3A1/2, but no detectable amounts of CYP 1B1, the proposed E2 4-hydroxylase. Although this enzyme is not a constitutive CYP in Sprague-Dawley rat liver, its presence in ACI liver could provide a ready explanation for the predominance of 4-hydroxy-E2 as a product. The identity of the estradiol 4-hydroxylase in ACI rat liver and the role of this unique reaction in the heightened sensitivity to E2 carcinogenicity remain to be elucidated.

  19. The role of hepatic mitochondria in the regulation of glucose metabolism in BHE rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The interacting effects of dietary fat source and thyroxine treatment on the hepatic mitochondrial function and glucose metabolism were studied. In the first study, three different sources of dietary fatty acids and thyroxine treatment were used to investigate the hepatic mitochondrial thermotropic behavior in two strains of rat. The NIDDM BHE and Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Feeding coconut oil increased serum T{sub 4} levels and T{sub 4} treatment increased serum T{sub 3} levels in the BHE rats. In the mitochondria from BHE rats fed coconut oil and treated with T{sub 4}, the transition temperature disappeared due to a decoupling of succinate supported respiration. This was not observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats. In the second study, two different sources of dietary fat and T{sub 4} treatment were used to investigate hepatic mitochondrial function. Coconut oil feeding increased Ca{sup ++}Mg{sup ++}ATPase and Mg{sup ++}ATPase. T{sub 4} treatment had potentiated this effect. T{sub 4} increased the malate-aspartate shuttle and {alpha}-glycerophosphate shuttle activities. In the third study, the glucose turnover rate from D-({sup 14}C-U)/(6-{sup 3}H)-glucose and gluconeogeneis from L-({sup 14}C-U)-alanine was examined. Dietary fat or T{sub 4} did not affect the glucose mass. T{sub 4} increased the irreversible fractional glucose turnover rate.

  20. Cytochrome P4504A inhibitors attenuate the exaggerated natriuretic response to volume expansion in thyroidectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Colombero, Cecilia; Venara, Marcela; Gonzalez, Daniel; Roman, Richard J.; Nowicki, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Thyroidectomy augments the natriuretic response to volume expansion; however, the mechanism remains unknown. This study assessed the role of 20‐hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20‐HETE) in the natriuretic response to an acute volume expansion in hypothyroid rats. Urine flow (1.9‐fold), sodium excretion (2.4‐fold), fractional sodium excretion (3.8‐fold), and distal delivery of sodium (4.1‐fold) increased to a greater extent in thyroidectomized rats (TX) than in sham‐operated controls (SHAM) following i.v. infusion of isotonic saline (5% body weight) over 60 min. This was associated with inhibition of both proximal and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium. Administration of two mechanistic and chemical dissimilar inhibitors of the synthesis of 20‐HETE, 1‐aminobenzotriazole (ABT), and N‐hydroxy‐N’‐(‐4‐butyl‐2‐methylphenyl)formamidine (HET0016) decreased the natriuretic response in TX rats. Glomerular filtration rate was lower in TX than in SHAM rats and was not altered by the CYP4A inhibitors. The expression, intrarenal distribution, and the formation of 20‐HETE and expoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid were similar in the cortex and medulla of SHAM and TX rats. These results suggest that CYP4A‐derived metabolites of arachidonic acid play an important role in the enhanced natriuretic response to volume expansion in hypothyroid rats even though TX did not alter the expression or activity of these enzymes. PMID:24920124

  1. Rat hepatitis E virus derived from wild rats (Rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jirintai, Suljid; Tanggis; Mulyanto; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-06-24

    Although rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. A recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat HEV in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat HEV in human cells. When liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat HEV replicated efficiently in PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7 and HepG2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group (G1-G3). The rat HEV particles released from cultured cells harbored lipid-associated membranes on their surface that were depleted by treatment with detergent and protease, with the buoyant density in sucrose shifting from 1.15-1.16 g/ml to 1.27-1.28 g/ml. A Northern blotting analysis revealed genomic RNA of 7.0 kb and subgenomic RNA of 2.0 kb in the infected cells. The subgenomic RNA of G1-G3 each possessed the extreme 5'-end sequence of GUAGC (nt 4933-4937), downstream of the highly conserved sequence of GAAUAACA (nt 4916-4923). The establishment of culture systems for rat HEV would allow for extended studies of the mechanisms of viral replication and functional roles of HEV proteins. Further investigation is required to clarify the zoonotic potential of rat HEV.

  2. Caged and wild fish: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A1) as an environmental biomonitor

    SciTech Connect

    Haasch, M.L.; Lech, J.J. ); Prince, R.; Cooper, K.R. ); Wejksnora, P.J. )

    1993-05-01

    Hepatic monooxygenase activity can be induced by many different environmental chemical contaminants, and measurement of this activity has been proposed as an environmental biomonitor. Using in situ caged catfish and largemouth bass, and collected wild killifish, environmental induction of hepatic CYP1A1 was investigated using catalytic enzyme assays, regiospecific metabolism, immunodetection, and nucleic acid hybridization. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate these techniques for detection of CYP1A1 induction as a potential environmental biomonitor of environmental chemical contamination. Exposure of catfish in cages to polyaromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) and polychlorinated biphenyl- (PCB-) contaminated river water for two, four, or six weeks resulted in fourfold increases in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and three- and fivefold increases in immunoreactive CYP1A1 protein and hybridizable CYP1A1 mRNA, respectively, when compared to laboratory water control values. Hybridizable CYP1A1 mRNA in caged largemouth bass increased 5.1-fold at 1 d of exposure. Caged largemouth bass had 5-, 1.4-, and 0.8-fold increases at 3 d and 6-, 2.4-, 0.4-fold increases at 7 d of river water exposure in EROD, immunoreactive CYP1A1 protein, and CYP1A1 mRNA, respectively, when compared to laboratory water control values. Liver of killifish from a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-contaminated area had threefold higher EROD activity and similarly elevated immunoreactive CYP1A1 protein, a two- to fourfold increase in CYP1A1 mRNA, and a four- to eightfold increase in 6[beta]-hydroxyprogesterone activity, when compared to killifish livers sampled from a clean site.

  3. Hepatic drug metabolizing profile of Flinders Sensitive Line rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsovolou, Olga; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lang, Matti A; Marselos, Marios; Overstreet, David H; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zoi; Johanson, Inger; Fotopoulos, Andrew; Konstandi, Maria

    2010-08-16

    The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat model of depression exhibits some behavioral, neurochemical, and pharmacological features that have been reported in depressed patients and has been very effective in screening antidepressants. Major factor that determines the effectiveness and toxicity of a drug is the drug metabolizing capacity of the liver. Therefore, in order to discriminate possible differentiation in the hepatic drug metabolism between FSL rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) controls, their hepatic metabolic profile was investigated in this study. The data showed decreased glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lower expression of certain major CYP enzymes, including the CYP2B1, CYP2C11 and CYP2D1 in FSL rats compared to SD controls. In contrast, p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNP), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and 16alpha-testosterone hydroxylase activities were higher in FSL rats. Interestingly, the wide spread environmental pollutant benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P) induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2 and ALDH3c at a lesser extend in FSL than in SD rats, whereas the antidepressant mirtazapine (MIRT) up-regulated CYP1A1/2, CYP2C11, CYP2D1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2, mainly, in FSL rats. The drug also further increased ALDH3c whereas suppressed GSH content in B(alpha)P-exposed FSL rats. In conclusion, several key enzymes of the hepatic biotransformation machinery are differentially expressed in FSL than in SD rats, a condition that may influence the outcome of drug therapy. The MIRT-induced up-regulation of several drug-metabolizing enzymes indicates the critical role of antidepressant treatment that should be always taken into account in the designing of treatment and interpretation of insufficient pharmacotherapy or drug toxicity.

  4. Butyrate Protects Rat Liver against Total Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury with Bowel Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingbao; Wang, Fangrui; Ma, Zhenyu; Qiao, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery, especially in liver transplantation with bowel congestion, during which endotoxemia is often evident. The inflammatory response aggravated by endotoxin after I/R contributes to liver dysfunction and failure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid in the body and a dietary component of foods such as cheese and butter, on hepatic injury complicated by enterogenous endotoxin, as well as to examine the underlying mechanisms involved. SD rats were subjected to a total hepatic ischemia for 30 min after pretreatment with either vehicle or butyrate, followed by 6 h and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate preconditioning markedly improved hepatic function and histology, as indicated by reduced transaminase levels and ameliorated tissue pathological changes. The inflammatory factors levels, macrophages activation, TLR4 expression, and neutrophil infiltration in live were attenuated by butyrate. Butyrate also maintained the intestinal barrier structures, reversed the aberrant expression of ZO-1, and decreased the endotoxin translocation. We conclude that butyrate inhibition of endotoxin translocation, macrophages activation, inflammatory factors production, and neutrophil infiltration is involved in the alleviation of total hepatic I/R liver injury in rats. This suggests that butyrate should potentially be utilized in liver transplantation. PMID:25171217

  5. Aqueous garlic extract attenuates hepatitis and oxidative stress induced by galactosamine/lipoploysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A

    2008-10-01

    Injection of D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (DGaIN/LPS) is useful as an experimental model of acute hepatic damage. Juvenile rats were used for investigation. The hepatoprotective activity of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract (AGE) at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 14 days, intraperitoneal (i.p.) prior to the induction of DGalN/LPS, was investigated against DGalN/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats. DGalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight, i.p.), induced hepatic damage that was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (gamma GT)], bilirubin, lipid peroxides (LPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity level in serum. Also, the lipid profile in serum and liver homogenate including total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids were significantly deteriorated. The antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; reduced glutathione, GSH; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPX) in liver homogenate were significantly decreased in the DGalN/LPS. Pretreatment of rats with AGE reversed these altered parameters near to normal control values. Results of this study revealed that AGE could afford a significant protection in the alleviation of DGalN/LPS-induced hepatic damage.

  6. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Rat Hepatic Fibrosis via Downregulating Angiotensin II Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Wang, Lina; Yan, Xiuchuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Li, Junxia; Peng, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Liu, Chenghai

    2012-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), one of the water-soluble components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been used to treat hepatic fibrosis, but it is still not clear whether the effect of Sal B is related to angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling pathway. In the present study, we studied Sal B effect on rat liver fibrosis and Ang-II related signaling mediators in dimethylnitrosamine-(DMN-) induced rat fibrotic model in vivo and Ang-II stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro, with perindopril or losartan as control drug, respectively. The results showed that Sal B and perindopril inhibited rat hepatic fibrosis and reduced expression of Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and ERK activation in fibrotic liver. Sal B and losartan also inhibited Ang II-stimulated HSC activation including cell proliferation and expression of type I collagen I (Col-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production in vitro, reduced the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and downregulated AT1R expression and ERK and c-Jun phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results indicate that Sal B may exert an antihepatic fibrosis effect via downregulating Ang II signaling in HSC activation. PMID:23243430

  7. Transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophage populations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Munmun; Golbar, Hossain M.; Bondoc, Alexandra; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes have been used as a vehicle for encapsulating chemicals or toxins in toxicological studies. We investigated the transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophages by applying a single intravenous injection at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight in 6-week-old male F344 rats. One day after injection, the numbers of hepatic macrophages reacting to CD163, CD68, Iba-1, MHC class II, Gal-3 and CD204 were significantly increased in liposome-treated rats. CD163+ Kupffer cells and CD68+ macrophages with increased phagocytic activity in hepatic lobules were most sensitive. The histological architecture of the liver was not changed following liposome injection; however, hepatocytes showed increased proliferating activity, demonstrable with proliferation marker immunostaining and by an increase in gene profiles related to the cell cycle. In the liposome-treated rats, interestingly, AST and ALT values were significantly decreased, and MCP-1, IL-1β and TGF-β1 mRNAs were significantly increased. Collectively, the present study found that hepatic macrophages activated by liposomes can influence liver homeostasis. This information would be useful for background studies on liposomes. PMID:27182120

  8. Induction of cytochrome P450IA1 in rat colon and liver by indole-3-carbinol and 5,6-benzoflavone.

    PubMed

    Vang, O; Jensen, M B; Autrup, H

    1990-08-01

    It is known that consumption of cruciferous vegetables protects against the chemical induction of cancer in many organs. It has been suggested that this protection is mediated through an effect on the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. This system is responsible for the activation of a number of chemical carcinogens to their ultimate forms. In the present study, the effect of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 5,6-benzoflavone (5,6BF) on the expression of cytochrome P450IA1 in rat colon and liver has been investigated. Cytochrome P450IA1 mRNA was induced in colon following a single oral administration of I3C or 5,6BF. A biphasic induction profile was obtained with maxima at 4 and 16 h post-administration. Both inducers caused an approximately 2-fold increase in P450IA1 mRNA at 4 h and a 10-fold increase at 16 h. In contrast, both cytochrome P450IA1 and IA2 mRNAs was increased over the control between 4 and 24 h. The total amount of P450IA mRNAs in liver at 4 and 16 h was increased about 2- and 4-fold respectively by I3C; 5,6BF induced the P450IA mRNAs 4- and 5-fold respectively. The expression of cytochrome P450IA1 and IA2 is induced by I3C and several flavones present in cruciferous vegetables. This suggests that one of the protective effects of cruciferous vegetables in the reduction of chemically induced cancer may be regulation of cytochrome P450s involved in the metabolism of the chemical carcinogens.

  9. Accumulation of Mitochondrial P450MT2, NH2-terminal Truncated Cytochrome P4501A1 in Rat Brain during Chronic Treatment with β-Naphthoflavone

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Anandatheerthavarada, Hindupur K.; Bhagwat, Shripad V.; Biswas, Gopa; Fang, Ji-Kang; Avadhani, Narayan G.

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical and molecular characteristics of cytochrome P4501A1 targeted to rat brain mitochondria was studied to determine the generality of the targeting mechanism previously described for mitochondrial cytochrome P450MT2 (P450MT2) from rat liver. In rat brain and C6 glioma cells chronically exposed to β-na-phoflavone (BNF), P450MT2 content reached 50 and 95% of the total cellular pool, respectively. P450MT2 from 10 days of BNF-treated rat brain was purified to over 85% purity using hydrophobic chromatography followed by adrenodoxin affinity binding. Purified brain P450MT2 consisted of two distinct molecular species with NH2 termini identical to liver mitochondrial forms. These results confirm the specificity of endoprotease-processing sites. The purified P450MT2 showed a preference for adrenodoxin + adrenodoxin reductase electron donor system and exhibited high erythromycin N-demethylation activity. Brain mitoplasts from 10-day BNF-treated rats and also purified P450MT2 exhibited high N-de-methylation activities for a number of neuroactive drugs, including trycyclic anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and opiates. At 10 days of BNF treatment, the mitochondrial metabolism of these neuroactive drugs represented about 85% of the total tissue activity. These results provide new insights on the role of P450MT2 in modulating the pharmacological potencies of different neuroactive drugs in chronically exposed individuals. PMID:10915793

  10. Characterization of cytochrome P-450 2D1 activity in rat brain: high-affinity kinetics for dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Tyndale, R F; Li, Y; Li, N Y; Messina, E; Miksys, S; Sellers, E M

    1999-08-01

    We investigated the enzymatic function, stability, and regional distribution of rat brain cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D1 activity. CYP2D1 is the homolog of human CYP2D6, a genetically variable enzyme that activates or inactivates many clinical drugs acting on the central nervous system (e.g., antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin uptake inhibitors, and neuroleptics), drugs of abuse (e.g., amphetamine and codeine), neurotoxins (e.g., 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroquinoline), and endogenous neurochemicals (e.g., tryptamine). The CYP2D family has been identified in rodent, canine, and primate brain. Conversion of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan by rat brain membranes was assayed by HPLC and was dependent on NADPH, protein concentration, and incubation time. Significant loss of activity was observed in some homogenizing buffers and after freezing of whole tissues or membrane preparations. Dextromethorphan (0.5-640 microM) metabolism was mediated by high- and low-affinity enzyme systems; K(m1) was 2.7 +/- 2.6 and K(m2) was 757 +/- 156 microM (n = 3 rats, mean +/- S.E.). The enzyme activity was significantly (p <.01) and stereoselectively inhibited by CYP2D1 inhibitors quinine and quinidine (not by CYP2C or CYP3A inhibitors), and by anti-CYP2D6 peptide antiserum (not by anti-CYP2C, -CYP2B, or -CYP3A antibodies). The enzymatic activity demonstrated significant brain regional variation (n = 10 regions, p <.001). These data characterize CYP2D1-mediated dextromethorphan metabolism in rat brain and suggest that localized metabolism of other CYP2D1 substrates (drugs, neurotoxins, and possibly endogenous compounds) within the brain will occur. In humans, CYP2D6 is genetically polymorphic; the variable expression of brain CYP2D6 may result in interindividual differences in central drug and neurotoxin metabolism, possibly contributing to interindividual differences in drug effects and neurotoxicity.

  11. Factors involved in changes in hepatic lipogenesis during development of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Elizabeth A.; Bailey, E.; Taylor, C. B.

    1970-01-01

    1. Changes in the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2), phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11), aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13), extramitochondrial aconitate hydratase (EC 4.2.1.3) and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) have been measured in the livers of developing rats from late foetal life to maturity. 2. The effect of altering the weaning time on some enzymes associated with lipogenesis has been studied. Weaning rats at 15 days of age instead of 21 days results in an immediate increase in the activity of `malic' enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) whereas the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) and ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8) did not increase until 4–5 days and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2–3 days after early weaning. Weaning rats on to an artificial-milk diet led to complete repression of the rise in activity of hepatic enzymes associated with lipogenesis normally found on weaning, except for `malic' enzyme, which increased in activity after 20 days of age. 3. The effect of intraperitoneal injections of glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone and thyroxine on the same hepatic enzymes has been investigated. Only thyroxine had any effect on enzyme activities and caused a 20-fold increase in `malic' enzyme activity and a twofold increase in ATP citrate lyase activity. 4. The activities of hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and `malic' enzyme are higher in adult female than in adult male rats and it has been shown that this sex difference in enzyme activities is due to both male and female sex hormones. 5. Hepatic malate, citrate, pyruvate, glucose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations have been measured throughout development. 6. The results are discussed in relation to the dietary and hormonal control of hepatic enzyme activities during development. PMID:4248618

  12. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion in the rat. Role of hepatic cholesterol esterification.

    PubMed Central

    Nervi, F; Bronfman, M; Allalón, W; Depiereux, E; Del Pozo, R

    1984-01-01

    Although the significance of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in the solubilization and biliary excretion of cholesterol is well established, little is known about the intrahepatic determinants of biliary cholesterol output. Studies were undertaken to elucidate some of these determinants in the rat. Feeding 1% diosgenin for 1 wk increased biliary cholesterol output and saturation by 400%. Bile flow, biliary bile salt, phospholipid and protein outputs remained in the normal range. When ethynyl estradiol (EE) was injected into these animals, biliary cholesterol output decreased to almost normal levels under circumstances of minor changes in the rates of biliary bile salt and phospholipid outputs. Similarly, when chylomicron cholesterol was intravenously injected into diosgenin-fed animals, biliary cholesterol output significantly decreased as a function of the dose of chylomicron cholesterol administered. Relative rates of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and esterification were measured in isolated hepatocytes. Although hepatic cholesterogenesis increased 300% in diosgenin-fed animals, the contribution of newly synthesized cholesterol to total biliary cholesterol output was only 19 +/- 9%, compared with 12 +/- 6% in control and 15 +/- 5% in diosgenin-fed and EE-injected rats. The rate of oleate incorporation into hepatocytic cholesterol esters was 30% inhibited in diosgenin-fed rats. When EE was injected into these animals, the rate of cholesterol esterification increased to almost 300%. To investigate further the interrelationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and biliary cholesterol output, we studied 21 diosgenin-fed rats. Six of them received in addition EE and 10 received chylomicron cholesterol. The relationships between biliary cholesterol output as a function of both microsomal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and hepatic cholesterol ester concentration were significantly correlated in a reciprocal manner. From these

  13. Investigation of drug-drug interaction via mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by macrolides in dexamethasone-treated female rats.

    PubMed

    Kanazu, Takushi; Sato, Norihito; Kadono, Kyoko; Touchi, Akira; Takeda, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Baba, Takahiko

    2012-05-01

    The in vitro and in vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A with mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) by macrolides was investigated using dexamethasone-treated female rats (DEX-female rats). In the in vitro CYP inhibition studies using erythromycin (ERM) and clarithromycin (CAM), similar inhibition responses were observed between human and DEX-female rat liver microsomes, however, there were fewer effects in intact male rats. The ex vivo study showed that midazolam (MDZ) metabolism in liver microsomes of DEX-female rats was reduced by ERM administration and the inhibitory effect was increased with increasing ERM doses, indicating that metabolite intermediate complex formation caused irreversible inhibition of CYP3A activity in DEX-female rats as well as in humans. In the in vivo studies, ERM and CAM significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of MDZ and decreased the total clearance in DEX-female rats. It was concluded that the DDIs via MBI of CYP3A following macrolide administration in humans could be reproduced in female rats, suggesting that DEX-female rats can serve as an in vivo model for assessing this DDI in humans.

  14. Respirable coal dust particles modify cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) expression in rat alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed M; Porter, Dale; Battelli, Lori A; Vallyathan, Val; Kashon, Michael L; Ma, Jane Y; Barger, Mark W; Nath, Joginder; Castranova, Vincent; Hubbs, Ann F

    2004-08-01

    Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke to DNA-binding reactive intermediates associated with carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies indicate that the majority of coal miners are smokers but have a lower risk of lung cancer than other smokers. We hypothesized that coal dust (CD) exposure modifies pulmonary carcinogenesis by altering CYP1A1 induction. Therefore, male Sprague Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg CD/rat or vehicle (saline); and 11 d later, pulmonary CYP1A1 was induced by intraperitoneal injection of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF; 50 mg/kg). Fourteen days after CD exposure, CYP1A1 protein and activity were measured by Western blot and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, respectively. CYP1A1 and the alveolar type II markers, cytokeratins 8/18, were localized and quantified in lung sections by dual immunofluorescence with morphometry. The area of CYP1A1 expression in alveolar septa and alveolar type II cells in response to BNF was reduced by exposure to 20 or 40 mg CD compared with BNF alone. CD exposure significantly inhibited BNF-induced 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in a dose-responsive manner. By Western blot, induction of CYP1A1 protein by BNF was significantly reduced by 40 mg CD compared with BNF alone. These findings indicate that CD decreases BNF-induced CYP1A1 protein expression and activity in the lung.

  15. Effects of environmental enrichment on anxiety responses, spatial memory and cytochrome c oxidase activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Zancada-Menendez, C; Begega, A; Rubio, S; Arias, J L

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the effect of an environmental enrichment (EE) protocol in adult Wistar rats on the activity in the elevated zero-maze (EZM), performance in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) and we have also examined the changes in the neuronal metabolic activity of several brain regions related to anxiety response and spatial memory through cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry (COx). Our EE protocol had anxiolytic effect in the EZM; the animals spent more time and made more entries into the open quadrants, they had lower latency to enter into the open quadrant and lower levels of defecation. Also, the EE group showed fewer working memory and reference memory errors, as well as lesser distance travelled in the first day of the spatial training. In relation to the neuronal metabolic activity, EE reduced the COx activity in brain regions related to anxiety response, such as the infralimbic cortex, the paraventricular thalamic and hypothalamic nucleus, the basolateral amygdala, and the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between groups in the dorsal hippocampus, more related to spatial cognition. These results suggest a beneficial effect of EE on spatial memory as a result of reducing anxiety levels and the COx activity in brain regions involved in anxiety response. We also found a differential pattern of activation inside the hippocampus, suggesting that the dorsal hippocampus has a preferential involvement in spatial learning and memory, whereas the ventral hippocampus has a role in anxiety response.

  16. Effects of various compounds on lipid peroxidation mediated by detergent-solubilized rat liver NADPH-cytochrome C reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamataki, T; Sugita, O; Naminohira, S; Kitagawa, H

    1978-12-01

    A reconstituted lipid peroxidation system containing NADPH-cytochrome c reductase isolated from detergent-solubilized rat liver microsomes was used to determine the effects of several compounds, including drugs, on the lipid peroxidation activity. EDTA and ferrous ion were essential requirements for reconstitution of the activity. The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline to the system containing both EDTA and ferrous ion further enhanced the activity. Pyrocatecol, thymol, p-aminophenol, imipramine, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited strong inhibition, aniline, N-monomethylaniline, aminopyrine, benzphetamine, SKF 525-A and NADP exhibited moderate inhibition, and phenol, benzoic acid, acetanilide and nicotinamide exhibited less or no inhibition at the concentrations lower than 1000 micron M. Metal ions such as Hg+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and U6+ inhibited lipid peroxidation strongly. In addition, Cd2+, St2+ and Ca2+ exhibited less potent to moderate inhibition, and Ba2+ and Mg2+ were without effects on the activity. Among sulfhydryl compounds tested, dithiothreitol inhibited lipid peroxidation to a greater extent than did the other three compounds, glutathione, cysteine and mercaptoethanol.

  17. Isolation and sequencing of the cDNA of a novel cytochrome P450 from rat oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Brookman-Amissah, N; Mackay, A G; Swann, P F

    2001-01-01

    RT-PCR was used to find whether cytochromes P450 of the 2A, 2B and 2E sub-families are expressed in the rat oesophagus. This showed that this tissue expresses a previously unknown member of the CYP2B sub-family, now designated CYP2B21. Using a combination of 5'- and 3'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and library screening, the cDNA was amplified and sequenced. The cDNA sequence (GenBank accession no. AF159245) covers the whole of the coding region and the whole of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), but only 17 nt of the 5'-UTR. The DNA sequence has strong similarity to those of CYP2B1 and CYP2B2, with the derived amino acid sequence being 84 and 83% identical, respectively. The ease with which this cDNA was found in the cDNA library suggests that CYP2B21 is a major P450 of the oesophagus. The catalytic activity of this new CYP2B is not yet known, but as previous authors have reported that other members of this sub-family (CYP2B1 or 2B2) metabolize the selective oesophageal carcinogen N:-nitrosomethylbutylamine with the chemical selectivity necessary for carcinogenesis, i.e. they preferentially hydroxylate the alpha-carbon of the butyl chain, this new CYP2B may be the nitrosamine-activating enzyme of the oesophagus.

  18. The Transcriptomic Response of Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells to Endotoxin: Implications for Hepatic Inflammation and Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ashish; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.

    2013-01-01

    With their location in the perisinusoidal space of Disse, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) communicate with all of the liver cell types both by physical association (cell body as well as cytosolic processes penetrating into sinusoids through the endothelial fenestrations) and by producing several cytokines and chemokines. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), circulating levels of which are elevated in liver diseases and transplantation, stimulates HSCs to produce increased amounts of cytokines and chemokines. Although recent research provides strong evidence for the role of HSCs in hepatic inflammation and immune regulation, the number of HSC-elaborated inflammatory and immune regulatory molecules may be much greater then known at the present time. Here we report time-dependent changes in the gene expression profile of inflammatory and immune-regulatory molecules in LPS-stimulated rat HSCs, and their validation by biochemical analyses. LPS strongly up-regulated LPS-response elements (TLR2 and TLR7) but did not affect TLR4 and down-regulated TLR9. LPS also up-regulated genes in the MAPK, NFκB, STAT, SOCS, IRAK and interferon signaling pathways, numerous CC and CXC chemokines and IL17F. Interestingly, LPS modulated genes related to TGFβ and HSC activation in a manner that would limit their activation and fibrogenic activity. The data indicate that LPS-stimulated HSCs become a major cell type in regulating hepatic inflammatory and immunological responses by altering expression of numerous relevant genes, and thus play a prominent role in hepatic pathophysiology including liver diseases and transplantation. PMID:24349206

  19. Ionone Derivatives from the Mycelium of Phellinus linteus and the Inhibitory Effect on Activated Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiow-Chyn; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Pan, Tai-Long; Chen, Fu-An; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Three new γ-ionylideneacetic acid derivatives, phellinulins A–C (1–3), were characterized from the mycelium extract of Phellinus linteus. The chemical structures were established based on the spectroscopic analysis. In addition, phellinulin A (1) was subjected to the examination of effects on activated rat hepatic stellate cells and exhibited significant inhibition of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27164091

  20. Effect of hypoxia alone or combined with inflammation and 3-methylcholanthrene on hepatic cytochrome P450 in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kurdi, J; Maurice, H; El-Kadi, A O; Ong, H; Dalkara, S; Bélanger, P M; Souich, P

    1999-09-01

    1 To investigate the effect of moderate hypoxia alone or combined with an inflammatory reaction or after 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) pre-treatment on cytochrome P450 (P450), conscious rabbits were exposed for 24 h to a fractional concentration of inspired O2 of 10% (mean PaO2 of 34 mmHg). Hypoxia decreased theophylline metabolic clearance (ClM) from 1.73+/-0.43 to 1.48+/-0.13 ml min-1 kg-1 (P<0. 05), and reduced (P<0.05) the formation clearance of theophylline metabolites, 3-methylxanthine (3MX), 1-methyluric acid (1MU) and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3DMU). Hypoxia reduced the amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 but increased CYP3A6 proteins. 2 Turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction reduced (P<0.05) the formation clearance of 3MX, 1MU, and 1,3DMU, and diminished the amount of CYP1A1, 1A2 and 3A6 proteins. However, when combined with hypoxia, inflammation partially prevented the decrease in ClM, especially by impeding the reduction of 1,3DMU. The amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 remained reduced but the amount of CYP3A6 protein returned to normal values. 3 Pre-treatment with 3MC augmented the ClM by 114% (P<0.05) due to the increase in the formation clearance of 3MX, 1MU and 1,3DMU. 3MC treatment increased the amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 proteins. Pre-treatment with 3MC prevented the hypoxia-induced decrease in amount and activity of the P450. 4 It is concluded that acute moderate hypoxia and an inflammatory reaction individually reduce the amount and activity of selected apoproteins of the P450. However, the combination of hypoxia and the inflammatory reaction restores P450 activity to near normal values. On the other hand, pre-treatment with 3MC prevents the hypoxia-induced depression of the P450.

  1. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  2. Cytochrome P450 induction in mallard duck (MD), black-crowned night heron (BCNH) and Fisher-344 rat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Stegeman, John J.

    1991-01-01

    P450 induction was studied in adult and pipping MDs, pipping BCNHs, and rats. Adult MDs and rats received i.p. injection of corn oil, 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) in corn oil (20 mg/kg), saline or phenobarbital (PB) in saline (80 mg/kg) for 3 days. MD and BCNH embryos received MC and PB by injection into the aircell approximately 2 days before pipping and were sacrificed at pipping. Hepatic microsomes were assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzphetamine-N-demethylase (BEND), ethoxy-resorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD), and by SDS-PAGE with western blot using a polyclonal anti-P4S0IIB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450IA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Although species and age caused substantial differences in responses, all treated groups showed an increase in one or more monooxygenase assays. All animals treated with MC showed a strong induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450IA, and all those treated with PB showed strong induction of a band recognized by anti-P450IIB.

  3. Suppression of rat hepatic fatty acid synthase and S14 gene transcription by dietary polyunsaturated fat.

    PubMed

    Blake, W L; Clarke, S D

    1990-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA levels by altering FAS gene transcription. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were meal-fed for 10 d a high glucose diet supplemented with 20% digestible energy as menhaden oil or tripalmitin. The transcription rate for FAS was determined by nuclear run-on analysis in hepatic nuclei isolated from rats 2 h postmeal. The values for transcription rates of FAS and S14 (a putative lipogenic protein) in rats fed menhaden oil were only 6 and 21%, respectively, of the rates in rats fed the tripalmitin diet (p less than 0.02). Gene transcription for beta-actin and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase did not differ between treatments. The reduction in hepatic FAS mRNA levels caused by dietary polyunsaturated fats appears to be caused primarily by an inhibition of FAS transcription. The control of transcription by polyunsaturated fats appears not to be mediated by cAMP because the transcription rate for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (whose gene is very sensitive to cAMP stimulation) was unaffected by the source of dietary fat.

  4. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Takanari; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Adams, Sean H; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2013-12-01

    Branched-chain α-ketoacid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of BCKA catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal models. In this study, we examined the regulation of hepatic BCKDC in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed a control or a 60% of energy high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Concentrations of blood components and the activities and protein amounts of hepatic BCKDC and its specific kinase (BDK) were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, and corticosterone were significantly elevated in DIO rats compared to those fed the control diet, suggestive of insulin resistance. Blood BCAA concentrations were not increased. The activity of hepatic BCKDC that was present in the active form in the liver was higher in DIO rats compared to controls, although the total activity and the enzyme amount were not different between two diet groups. The activity of hepatic BDK and the abundance of BDK bound to the BCKDC were decreased in DIO rats. The total amount of hepatic BDK was also significantly decreased in DIO rats. In rats made obese through HFD feeding, in contrast to prior studies in rat models of type 2 diabetes, hepatic BDK was down-regulated and thereby hepatic BCKDC was activated, suggesting that DIO promotes liver BCKA catabolism. In this model there was no evidence that increased blood BCAAs drive DIO-associated insulin resistance, since concentrations of BCAAs were not altered by DIO.

  5. The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Pramyothin, Pornpen; Samosorn, Patcharavadee; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2006-10-11

    This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats.

  6. Impact of high altitude on the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Qian; Shao, Yuan; Wang, Ying Zhen; Jing, Yu Hong; Zhang, You Cheng

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Acute exposure to high altitude (HA) increased hepatic fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation. • Acute exposure of rats to HA increased hepatic FA synthesis. • PPARα and AMPK can regulate the FA metabolism. • FA may be a key energy fuel and a compensation for CHO during acute exposure to HA. • The acute changes of FA metabolism may be a mechanism of acclimatization. - Abstract: High altitude (HA) affects energy metabolism. The impact of acute and chronic HA acclimatization on the major metabolic pathways is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to unveil the impact of HA on the key enzymes involved in the fatty acid (FA) metabolism in liver. Rats were exposed to an altitude of 4300 m for 30 days and the expressions of two key proteins involved in FA β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, CPT-I; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα), two proteins involved in FA synthesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase-1, ACC-1; and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK), as well as the total ketone body in the liver and the plasma FFAs were examined. Rats without HA exposure were used as controls. We observed that the acute exposure of rats to HA (3 days) led to a significant increase in the expressions of CPT-I and PPARα and in the total hepatic ketone body. Longer exposure (15 days) caused a marked decrease in the expression of CPT-I and PPARα. By 30 days after HA exposure, the expression levels of CPT-I and PPARα returned to the control level. The hepatic ACC-1 level showed a significant increase in rats exposed to HA for 1 and 3 days. In contrast, the hepatic level of AMPK showed a significant reduction throughout the experimental period. Plasma FFA concentrations did not show any significant changes following HA exposure. Thus, increased hepatic FA oxidation and synthesis in the early phase of HA exposure may be among the important mechanisms for the rats to respond to the hypoxic stress in order to acclimatize themselves to the

  7. Conformational anti-cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) auto-antibodies contribute to necro-inflammatory injury in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sutti, S; Vidali, M; Mombello, C; Sartori, M; Albano, E

    2010-10-01

    Circulating auto-antibodies against cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) have been observed in a significant fraction of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study investigated the clinical significance of these auto-antibodies in relation to their antigen specificity. The presence of anti-CYP2E1 IgG was investigated in 137 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven CHC. Anti-CYP2E1 IgG above control threshold levels was detected in 52 (38%) subjects. By combined immunoprecipitation and western blotting, we observed that among anti-CYP2E1 IgG-positive sera, 23 (44%) were unreactive towards denaturated CYP2E1, indicating a prevalent recognition of conformational CYP2E1 antigens. Conformational anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies were unrelated to circulating gamma-globulins, alcohol intake or infection by specific HCV genotypes. The presence of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies was associated with an 11-fold (OR 10.9 95%CI 1.4-86.6 P = 0.008) increased prevalence of necro-inflammatory grading ≥ 4 (Ishack's criteria) and 4-fold (OR 4.0; 95%CI 1.3-11-7: P = 0.014) increased prevalence of fibrosis staging ≥ 2, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed conformational anti-CYP2E1 IgG (P = 0.005) and age (P = 0.033) as independent predictors of necro-inflammatory grading ≥ 4. The development of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies targeting conformational CYP2E1 epitopes is associated with more severe liver damage in CHC.

  8. Fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells in ovariectomised rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Bobowiec, R; Wojcik, M; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Tusinska, E

    2013-02-01

    The discrepancy about the role of estrogens in hepatic fibrogenesis and lack of studies addressed of ketogenic diet (KD) on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), prompted us to investigate the activity of HSC in control, KD- and thioacetamide (TAA)-administrated rats with different plasma concentration of estradiol (E2). HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion methods and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4(th) and 8(th) day of incubation, lysates of HSC and the media were collected for further analysis. The HSC derived from KD-rats released remarkably more transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 than cells obtained from animals fed with a standard diet. The ovariectomy of KD-rats markedly intensified the secretion of this fibrogenic cytokine on the 8(th) day of incubation (201.33 ±1 7.15 pg/ml). In HSC of rats exposed to E2, the TGF-β1 concentration did not exceed 157 ± 34.39 pg/ml. In respect to the collagen type I, the HSC obtained from ovariectomised KD-rats released an augmented amount of this ECM protein after the 8(th) day of culture (1.83 ± 0.14 U/ml). In the same time, higher quantities of ASMA appeared in the KD rats (1.41 ± 0.3 pg/mg protein). Exposition of rats to E2 did not markedly decrease the amount of ASMA. In summary, KD was able to induce morphological and functional changes in HSC, especially derived from rats deprived of ovarian estrogens. However, the preservation of E2 in ovariectomised rats didn't substantially alter the activation of HSC.

  9. Inhibition of rat respiratory-tract cytochrome P-450 isozymes following inhalation of m-Xylene: possible role of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Anu; Foy, J W-D; Schatz, Robert

    2003-06-27

    Xylene is used as a solvent in paints, cleaning agents, and gasoline. Exposure occurs primarily by inhalation. The volatility and lipophilicity of the xylenes make the lung and nasal mucosa the primary target organs. m-Xylene (m-XYL) has been shown to alter cytochrome P-450 (CYP) activity in an organ- and isozyme-specific manner. The purpose of this work was to determine if the metabolism of m-XYL to the inhibitory metabolite m-tolualdehyde (m-ALD) is the cause of inhibition of CYP isozymes following in vivo inhalation exposure to m-XYL (100, 300 ppm), 3-methylbenzyl alcohol (3-MBA) (50, 100 ppm), or m-ALD (50, 100 ppm). A single 6-h inhalation exposure of rats to m-XYL inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1, 2E1, and 4B1 in a dose-dependent manner. Inhalation of 3-MBA inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1 and 4B1 in a dose-dependent manner. m-ALD inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1 and 2E1 in a dose-dependent manner, while 4B1 activity was increased dose dependently. Nasal mucosa CYP 2B1 and 2E1 activity was inhibited following exposure to m-XYL dose dependently, 3-MBA inhibited nasal mucosa CYPs 2E1 and 4B1 dose dependently. CYPs 2B1, 2E1, and 4B1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion following inhalation of m-ALD. Following high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, m-ALD was detected after in vivo exposure to m-XYL, m-ALD, and 3-MBA in a dose-dependent manner, with highest m-ALD levels in the nasal mucosa and lung. Alteration of cytochrome P-450 activity by m-XYL could result in increased or decreased toxicity, changing the metabolic profiles of xenobiotics in coexposure scenarios in an organ-specific manner.

  10. Dynamic expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat liver tissue during hepatic fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chang-Chun; Zheng, Yi-Lin; Liu, Li; Wang, Zhan-Kui; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) is activated and associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation in fibrotic rat liver tissue. METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson’s trichrome method. ERK1 mRNA in rat liver tissue was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, while the distribution of ERK1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ERK1 protein was detected by Western blotting analysis. The number of activated HSCs was quantified after alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining. RESULTS: With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive staining cells of α-SMA increased obviously, and mainly resided in the portal ducts. Fiber septa and perisinuses were accompanied with proliferating bile ducts. The positive staining areas of the rat livers in model groups 1-4 wk after ligation of common bile duct (12.88% ± 2.63%, 22.65% ± 2.16%, 27.45% ± 1.86%, 35.25% ± 2.34%, respectively) were significantly larger than those in the control group (5.88% ± 1.46%, P < 0.01). With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive cells of ERK1 increased a lot, and were mainly distributed in portal ducts, fiber septa around the bile ducts, vascular endothelial cells and perisinusoidal cells. Western blotting analysis displayed that the expression of ERK1 and ERK2 protein was up-regulated during the model course, and its level was the highest 4 wk after operation, being 3.9-fold and 7.2-fold higher in fibrotic rat liver than in controls. ERK1 mRNA was expressed in normal rat livers as well, which was up-regulated two days after BDL and reached the highest 4 wk after BDL. The expression of ERK1 was positively correlated with α-SMA expression (r = 0.958,P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of ERK1 protein and mRNA is greatly increased in fibrotic rat liver tissues, which may play a

  11. Acetylcholinesterase activity in an experimental rat model of Type C hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Marta; Méndez-López, Magdalena; López, Laudino; Aller, María A; Arias, Jaime; Arias, Jorge L

    2011-05-01

    Patients with liver malfunction often suffer from hepatic encephalopathy, a neurological complication which can affect attention and cognition. Diverse experimental models have been used to study brain alterations that may be responsible for hepatic encephalopathy symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine whether cognitive impairment found in cirrhosis could be due to disturbance of acetylcholinesterase activity. Acetylcholinesterase activity was assessed in the brains of Wistar rats with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. The cirrhotic group displayed up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase levels in the entorrhinal cortex, anterodorsal and anteroventral thalamus and accumbens, whereas down-regulation was found in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Our results indicate that the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy by chronic administration of thioacetamide presents alterations of acetylcholinesterase activity in brain limbic system regions, which play a role in attention and memory.

  12. Loss and recovery of liver regeneration in rats with fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, S; Lilja, H; Hewitt, W R; Middleton, Y; Demetriou, A A; Rozga, J

    1997-10-01

    We earlier described a model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in the rat where partial hepatectomy is combined with induction of right liver lobes necrosis. After this procedure, lack of regenerative response in the residual viable liver tissue (omental lobes) was associated with elevated plasma hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) levels and delayed expression of HGF and c-met mRNA in the remnant liver. Here, we investigated whether syngeneic isolated hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen will prolong survival and facilitate liver regeneration in FHF rats. Inbred male Lewis rats were used. Group I rats (n = 46) received intrasplenic injection of 2 x 10(7) hepatocytes and 2 days later FHF was induced. Group II FHF rats (n = 46) received intrasplenic injection of saline. Rats undergoing partial hepatectomy of 68% (PH; n = 30) and a sham operation (SO; n = 30) served as controls. In 20 FHF rats (10 rats/group), survival time was determined. The remaining 72 FHF rats (36 rats/group) were used for physiologic studies (liver function and regeneration and plasma growth factor levels). In Group I rats survival was longer than that of Group II controls (73 +/- 22 hr vs. 33 +/- 9 hr; P < 0. 01). During the first 36 hr, Group I rats had lower blood ammonia, lactate, total bilirubin, PT, and PTT values, lower activity of liver enzymes, and higher monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) production than Group II rats. In Group I rats, livers increased in weight at a rate similar to that seen in PH controls and showed distinct mitotic and DNA synthetic activity (incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and proliferation cell nuclear antigen expression). Plasma HGF and TGF-beta1 levels in these rats decreased and followed the pattern seen in PH rats; additionally, c-met expression in the remnant liver was accelerated. Hepatocyte transplantation prolonged survival in FHF rats and facilitated liver regeneration. Even though the remnant liver increased

  13. Relationship between light scattering and absorption due to cytochrome c oxidase reduction during loss of tissue viability in brains of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    We performed simultaneous measurement of light scattering and absorption due to reduction of cytochrome c oxidase as intrinsic optical signals that are related to morphological characteristics and energy metabolism, respectively, for rat brains after oxygen/glucose deprivation by saline infusion. To detect change in light scattering, we determined the wavelength that was the most insensitive to change in light absorption due to the reduction of cytochrome c oxidase on the basis of multiwavelength analysis of diffuse reflectance data set for each rat. Then the relationships between scattering signal and absorption signals related to the reductions of heme aa 3 (605 nm) and CuA (830 nm) in cytochrome c oxidase were examined. Measurements showed that after starting saline infusion, the reduction of heme aa 3 started first; thereafter triphasic, large scattering change occurred (200-300 s), during which the reduction of CuA started. Despite such complex behaviors of IOSs, almost linear correlations were seen between the scattering signal and the heme aa 3-related absorption signal, while a relatively large animal-to-animal variation was observed in the correlation between the scattering signal and CuA-related absorption signal. Transmission electron microscopic observation revealed that dendritic swelling and mitochondrial deformation occurred in the cortical surface tissue after the triphasic scattering change. These results suggest that mitochondrial energy failure accompanies morphological alteration in the brain tissue and results in change in light scattering; light scattering will become an important indicator of tissue viability in brain.

  14. A possible role of cAMP dependent phosphorylation of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450: a mechanism to increase lipid peroxidation in response to hormone.

    PubMed

    Mkrtchian, S L; Andersson, K K

    1990-01-30

    Enzymatic lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes is believed to involve cytochrome P450. cAMP dependent phosphorylation of cytochrome P450 was found to increase the NADPH dependent production of malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) by about 30%. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor cyanide abolished this activity. The presence of spermine decreased the cytochrome P450 dependent lipid peroxidation in non-phosphorylated microsomes, phosphorylation partially reversed this effect. Thus, phosphorylation of cytochrome P450 and the associated increased lipid peroxidation may be a hormone dependent response to pathological conditions e.g. stress Phosphorylation was observed to subtly alter other properties of cytochrome P450. The rate of 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase activity was reduced and the microwave power required to saturate the EPR spectrum of the low spin cytochrome P450 was decreased. It is hypothesized that phosphorylation of cytochrome P450 alters the interaction between the components of the cytochrome P450 system, which may enhance production of free radical species, initiating lipid peroxidation.

  15. Preconditioning somatothermal stimulation on Qimen (LR14) reduces hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human beings or animals, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the liver may occur in many clinical conditions, such as circulating shock, liver transplantation and surgery and several other pathological conditions. I/R injury has a complex pathophysiology resulting from a number of contributing factors. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve effective treatment or protection by individually targeting the mediators. This study aimed at studying the effects of local somatothermal stimulation preconditioning on the right Qimen (LR14) on hepatic I/R injury in rats. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The rats were preconditioned with thermal tolerance study, which included one dose of local somatothermal stimulation (LSTS) on right Qimen (LR14) at an interval of 12 h, followed by hepatic ischemia for 60 min and then reperfusion for 60 min. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) have been used to assess the liver functions, and liver tissues were taken for the measurements such as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Results The results show that the plasma ALT and AST activities were higher in the I/R group than in the control group. In addition, the plasma ALT and AST activities decreased in the groups that received LSTS. The hepatic SOD levels reduced significantly by I/R injury. Moreover, the hepatic MPO activity significantly increased by I/R injury while it decreased in the groups given LSTS. Conclusions Our findings show that LSTS provides a protective effects on the liver from the I/R injury. Therefore, LSTS might offer an easy and inexpensive intervention for patients who have suffered from I/R of the liver especially in the process of hepatotomy and hepatic transplantation. PMID:24417801

  16. The hepatoprotective effects of Hypericum perforatum L. on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Engur, Selin; Senturk, Hakan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Colak, Suat

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the effective role of Hypericum perforatum on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Hence, albino rats were subjected to 45 min of hepatic ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion period. Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (HPE50) was intraperitonally injected as a single dose, 15 min prior to ischemia. Rats were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion period and then, biochemical investigations were made in serum and liver tissue. Liver tissue homogenates were used for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. At the same time alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in serum samples and compared statistically. While the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels were significantly increased, CAT and GPx activities significantly decreased in only I/R-induced control rats compared to normal control rats (p < 0.05). Treatment with HPE50 significantly decreased the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels, and markedly increased activities of CAT and GPx in tissue homogenates compared to I/R-induced rats without treatment-control group (p < 0.05). In oxidative stress generated by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, H. perforatum L. as an antioxidant agent contributes an alteration in the delicate balance between the scavenging capacity of antioxidant defence systems and free radicals in favour of the antioxidant defence systems in the body.

  17. Enhancement by Wy-14,643, a hepatic peroxisome proliferator, of diethylnitrosamine-initiated hepatic tumorigenesis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, J. K.; Rao, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), at a concentration of 100 parts/10(6) in drinking water for 14 days, caused the development, by 48 weeks, of very few liver tumours in 5 of 18 (27%) male F=344 rats fed control diet. When the DEN treatment was followed one week later by continuous feeding of the hypolipidemic hepatic peroxisome proliferator, Wy-14,643, at 0.1% dietary level, all of 28 rats (100%) developed, between 38 and 48 weeks, a significantly higher number of liver tumours. Furthermore, laparotomy at 22 weeks revealed that several rats fed Wy-14,643 after DEN initiation had developed visible liver nodules, suggesting that Wy-14,643 also accelerates the appearance of these tumours. Administration of another peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate, at 0.5% level in the diet after DEN initiation, also caused a substantial enhancement of liver tumorigenesis. The enhancement of liver-tumour development by clofibrate, however, was less than that by Wy-14,643. The marked enhancing effect of Wy-14,643 may be due to its profound hepatomegalic and peroxisome proliferative properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:728341

  18. Nuclear ploidy of neonatal rat livers: effects of two hepatic carcinogens (mirex and dimethylnitrosamine)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.; Abraham, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of two hepatic carcinogens, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (genotoxic) and mirex (epigenetic), on polyploidization in 12-d-old neonatal rats was investigated by Coulter counteranalysis and (/sup 3/H) thymidine uptake in isolated hepatic nuclear classes. DMN disturbed the normal ploidy development in the neonatal liver and the proportion of nuclei in the ploidy classes by inducing the premature formation of a significant population of tetraploids with a concommitant reduction in diploids. A great proportion of the replicative activity was present in tetraploid nuclei as measured by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H) thymidine. The labeling index and number of mitoses were also increased. In contrast to DMN, mirex had no influence on polyploidization. The neonatal rats used in these studies thus offer an opportunity to investigate in vivo the mode of action of genotoxic versus epigenetic compounds with reference to their effect on DNA.

  19. Characterization of murine hepatitis virus (JHM) RNA from rats with experimental encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Percy, D H; Morris, V L

    1984-09-01

    When Wistar Furth rats are inoculated intracerebrally with the murine hepatitis virus JHM they often develop a demyelinating disease with resulting hind leg paralysis. Using an RNA transfer procedure and hybridization kinetic analysis, the virus-specific RNA in these rats was characterized. The pattern of JHM-specific RNA varied with individual infections of Wistar Furth rats. However, two species of JHM-specific RNA, the nucleocapsid and a 2.1-2.4 X 10(6)-Da RNA species were generally present. A general decrease in JHM-specific RNA in brains and spinal cord samples taken later than 20 days postinoculation was observed; however, JHM-specific RNA persisted in the spinal cord longer than in the brain of these rats.

  20. Effects of creatine supplementation on biomarkers of hepatic and renal function in young trained rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Wronski, Evanio Castor; Ulbrich, Anderson Zampier; Boff, Everton

    2013-11-01

    Creatine supplementation has been widely used by athletes and young physical exercise practioneers in order of increasing muscle mass and enhancing athletic performance, but their use/overuse may represent a health risk on hepatic and renal impaired function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 40 days of oral creatine supplementation on hepatic and renal function biomarkers in a young animal model. Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were divided in five groups (n = 7): control (CONTR), oral creatine supplementation (CREAT), moderate exercise training (EXERC), moderate exercise training plus oral creatine supplementation (EXERC + CREAT) and pathological group (positive control for liver and kidney injury) by the administration of rifampicin (RIFAMPICIN). Exercise groups were submitted to 60 min/day of swimming exercise session with a 4% of body weight workload for six weeks. The EXERC + CREAT showed the higher body weight at the end of the training protocol. The CREAT and EXERC + CREAT group showed an increase in hepatic (Aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) and renal (urea and creatinine) biomarkers levels (p < 0.05). Our study showed that the oral creatine supplementation promoted hepatic and renal function challenge in young rats submitted to moderate exercise training.

  1. Effect of dietary selenium concentration and duration of selenium feeding on hepatic glutathione concentrations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoeuf, R.A.; Zentner, K.L.; Hoekstra, W.G.

    1985-11-01

    Studies were conducted in rats to determine the effect of dietary selenium (Se) concentration on hepatic glutathione concentrations and enzyme activities associated with the maintenance of the cellular glutathione status. Male rats were fed 0.1, 3.0, or 6.0 ppm Se as Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ for 2, 4, or 6 weeks at which time they were killed and analyses were performed. Both 3.0 and 6.0 ppm Se caused a significant dose-dependent increase in hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH) by 4 weeks of feeding compared to 0.1 ppm Se. The increase in GSH was preceded by significant, dose-dependent increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the GSSG to GSH ratio. Increases in GSSG and the GSSG to GSH ratio as well as in glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were observed by 2 weeks of high Se feeding. The current findings substantiate previous results demonstrating effects of high Se on hepatic glutathione concentrations and further suggest that increased cellular GSSG concentrations or the GSSG to GSH ratio caused by 3.0 and 6.0 ppm dietary Se signals for adaptive changes in hepatic glutathione metabolism.

  2. Regulation of development of hepatic glucokinase in the neonatal rat by the diet.

    PubMed

    Walker, D G; Eaton, S W

    1967-11-01

    1. Feeding a high-glucose diet to weanling rats showed that high hepatic glucokinase activities could be induced at 18 days of age, i.e. 2 days after development of the enzyme begins. 2. The normal development of glucokinase activity can be retarded by weaning rats on to carbohydrate-free, high-fat and high-protein diets. 3. Precocious development of the enzyme before 16 days of age cannot be induced by oral glucose administration. 4. It is concluded that the ability to synthesize glucokinase develops very rapidly and that the nature of the diet determines the normal developmental pattern.

  3. Simultaneous in vivo assessment of cardiac and hepatic metabolism in the diabetic rat using hyperpolarized MRS

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Daniel R.; Ball, Vicky; Dodd, Michael S.; Miller, Jack J.; Heather, Lisa C.; Tyler, Damian J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and assessing diabetic metabolism is vital for monitoring disease progression and improving treatment of patients. In vivo assessments, using MRI and MRS, provide non‐invasive and accurate measurements, and the development of hyperpolarized 13C spectroscopy in particular has been demonstrated to provide valuable metabolic data in real time. Until now, studies have focussed on individual organs. However, diabetes is a systemic disease affecting multiple tissues in the body. Therefore, we have developed a technique to simultaneously measure metabolism in both the heart and liver during a single acquisition. A hyperpolarized 13C MRS protocol was developed to allow acquisition of metabolic data from the heart and liver during a single scan. This protocol was subsequently used to assess metabolism in the heart and liver of seven control male Wistar rats and seven diabetic rats (diabetes was induced by three weeks of high‐fat feeding and a 30 mg/kg injection of streptozotocin). Using our new acquisition, we observed decreased cardiac and hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in our diabetic rat model. These diabetic rats also had increased blood glucose levels, decreased insulin, and increased hepatic triglycerides. Decreased production of hepatic [1‐13C]alanine was observed in the diabetic group, but this change was not present in the hearts of the same diabetic animals. We have demonstrated the ability to measure cardiac and hepatic metabolism simultaneously, with sufficient sensitivity to detect metabolic alterations in both organs. Further, we have non‐invasively observed the different reactions of the heart and liver to the metabolic challenge of diabetes. PMID:27779334

  4. Effects of anti-ulcer agents on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis rats.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Yomota, Eiji; Nogi, Koji; Onoda, Yuichi

    2002-01-01

    Patients with hepatic injury have an increased incidence of gastric ulcers and erosions. In this study, the effect of D-galactosamine(GalN)-induced hepatitis on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and the protective effect of anti-ulcer agents in rats were examined. Subcutaneous injection of GalN (1 g/kg) remarkably increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities suggesting induction of hepatic injury. Gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol were significantly aggravated in GalN-induced hepatitis rats. Orally administered ecabet (CAS 86408-72-2; 20-200 mg/kg) dose dependently inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in GalN-induced hepatitis rats. Sucralfate (CAS 54182-58-0) tended to inhibit the gastric mucosal lesions at a dose of 200 mg/kg but teprenone (CAS 6809-52-5), cimetidine (CAS 51481-61-9) and rebamipide (CAS 90098-04-7) had little effect. All anti-ulcer agents had no effect on the serum ALT and AST activities increased by GalN pretreatment. These results indicate that the gastric mucosa of GalN-induced hepatitis rats is more susceptible to injury induced by luminal irritants such as ethanol. Ecabet potently inhibited gastric mucosal lesions suggesting its clinical utility for the gastric mucosal damage in patients with hepatic injury.

  5. Antifibrotic effects of triptolide on hepatic stellate cells and dimethylnitrosamine-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2011-07-01

    Triptolide (C₃₈H₄₂O₆N₂, TP, a diterpene triepoxide derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), is a potent immunosuppresive and antiinflammatory agent. The present study investigated whether TP exerted antihepatofibrotic effects in vitro and in vivo. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The inhibitory effects of TP on the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling cascade and fibrosis markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen, were assessed. An in vivo therapeutic study was conducted in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-treated rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control rats, DMN rats receiving vehicle only and DMN rats receiving TP (20 μg/kg). Treatment was given by gavage twice daily for 3 weeks starting 1 week after the start of DMN administration. TP (5-100 nM) concentration-dependently inhibited the NFκB transcriptional activity induced by TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, TP also suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β1-induced collagen deposition and α-SMA secretion in HSC-T6 cells. In vivo, TP treatment significantly reduced hepatic fibrosis scores, collagen contents, IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and the number of α-SMA and NFκB-positive cells in DMN rats. The results showed that TP exerted antifibrotic effects in both HSC-T6 cells and DMN rats.

  6. Trans-11 vaccenic acid reduces hepatic lipogenesis and chylomicron secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Wright, David C; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2009-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) is the predominant trans isomer in ruminant fat and a major precursor to the endogenous synthesis of cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animals. We have previously shown that 3-wk VA supplementation has a triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (JCR:LA-cp rats). The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effect (16 wk) of VA on lipid homeostasis in both the liver and intestine in obese JCR:LA-cp rats. Plasma TG (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01), and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, as well as the serum haptoglobin concentration, were all lower in obese rats fed the VA diet compared with obese controls (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a decrease in the postprandial plasma apolipoprotein (apo)B48 area under the curve (P < 0.05) for VA-treated obese rats compared with obese controls. The hepatic TG concentration and the relative abundance of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase proteins were all lower (P < 0.05) in the VA-treated group compared with obese controls. Following acute gastrointestinal infusion of a VA-triolein emulsion in obese rats that had been fed the control diet for 3 wk, the TG concentration was reduced by 40% (P < 0.05) and the number of chylomicron (CM) particles (apoB48) in nascent mesenteric lymph was reduced by 30% (P < 0.01) relative to rats infused with a triolein emulsion alone. In conclusion, chronic VA supplementation significantly improved dyslipidemia in both the food-deprived and postprandial state in JCR:LA-cp rats. The appreciable hypolipidemic benefits of VA may be attributed to a reduction in both intestinal CM and hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathways.

  7. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate (/sup 14/C)glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring (/sup 14/C)leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, (/sup 14/C)fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration.

  8. Anti-fibrotic effects of the Masson pine pollen aqueous extract on hepatic fibrosis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Tao; Jin, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Long; Li, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Ping; Guo, Chang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the antifibrotic effects of Masson Pine Pollen aqueous extract. Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CG), hepatic fibrosis model (MG), MPPAE low dose (LG), MPPAE high dose (HG), and MPP original powder (MPPOP; OG) groups. Each group was treated with specific protocols and sacrificed 8 weeks later. Multiple indicators such as serum transaminase, HE staining of the liver tissue, and relevant indexes to fibrosis were determined. Results: Severe hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissues was observed in livers of the MG group rats, while aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels and collagen content obviously increased, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and MMPs expression decreased, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine concentrations increased, while mRNA expressions of hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-related cytokines such as transforming growth factor-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB p65, and signaling protein α-smooth muscle actin were all increased significantly. Conclusions: MPPAE effectively inhibited the fibrotic process in this CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis rat model. It may be associated with synergic functions of antioxidant activity, inhibitory activity on HSC proliferation, collagen synthesis, and MMPs expression induction. PMID:26191155

  9. Experimental Study on Transarterial Administration of GRGDSP Combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization in Rats with Hepatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Jun Yin Jun; Liang Huimin; Wang Yong; Feng Gansheng

    2008-03-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of transarterial administration of an integrin antagonist, GRGDSP (Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro), combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treat hepatic carcinoma in rats. Methods. Walker-256 tumor was implanted beneath the liver capsule in 26 Wistar rats. Animal subjects were assigned to groups based on which treatment was injected into the hepatic artery: group A, GRGDSP + TACE; group B, TACE alone; and group C, normal saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tumor pathology, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess each treatment. Results. The ratios of the post-treatment to pretreatment tumor volumes (V2/V1) in groups A, B, and C were 4.42 {+-} 0.48, 6.98 {+-} 1.09, and 13.00 {+-} 1.68, respectively. The metastatic potential of the tumors was assessed by tumor cell nest counts, which were 5.00 {+-} 1.25, 6.63 {+-} 1.60, and 7.22 {+-} 1.92 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Microvessel density (MVD) was quantified by measuring von Willebrand factor density values, which were 0.18 {+-} 0.02, 0.22 {+-} 0.02, and 0.23 {+-} 0.02 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. Transarterial infusion of GRGDSP combined with TACE noticeably inhibited the growth of hepatic carcinoma and intrahepatic metastases in rats.

  10. Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Kil, Jeung-Ha; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-08-01

    Bamboo salt, a Korean folk medicine, is prepared with solar salt (sea salt) and baked several times at high temperatures in a bamboo case. In this study, we compared the preventive effects of bamboo salt and purified and solar salts on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with purified and solar salts, bamboo salts prevented hepatic damage in rats, as evidenced by significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.05). Bamboo salt (baked 9×) triggered the greatest reduction in these enzyme levels. In addition, it also reduced the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Histopathological sections of liver tissue demonstrated the protective effect of bamboo salt, whereas sections from animals treated with the other salt groups showed a greater degree of necrosis. We also performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat liver tissues. Bamboo salt induced a significant decrease (~80%) in mRNA and protein expression levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β, compared with the other salts. Thus, we found that baked bamboo salt preparations could prevent CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo.

  11. Agmatine protects rat liver from nicotine-induced hepatic damage via antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic pathways.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; Ateyya, Hayam

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco smoking with its various forms is a global problem with proved hazardous effects to human health. The present work was planned to study the defending role of agmatine (AGM) on hepatic oxidative stress and damage induced by nicotine in rats. Thirty-two rats divided into four groups were employed: control group, nicotine-only group, AGM group, and AGM-nicotine group. Measurements of serum hepatic biochemical markers, lipid profile, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were done. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activity, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were estimated in the liver homogenates. Immunohistochemistry for Bax and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) and histopathology of the liver were also included. Data of the study demonstrated that nicotine administration exhibited marked liver deterioration, an increase in liver enzymes, changes in lipid profile, and an elevation in MDA with a decline in levels of SOD, GSH, and NOx (nitrate/nitrite). Also, levels of proapoptotic Bax and profibrotic TGF-β1 showed marked elevation in the liver. AGM treatment to rats in nicotine-only group ameliorated all the previous changes. These findings indicate that AGM could successfully overcome the nicotine-evoked hepatic oxidative stress and tissue injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

  12. Protective effect of morin on dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seung; Jung, Kyung Hee; Park, In-Suh; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Don-Haeng; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2009-04-01

    Morin, a plant-derived flavonoid, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of morin on hepatic fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Oral administration of morin remarkably prevented weight loss in the body and liver from DMN and inhibited the elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and total bilirubin levels. For the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis-related factors, we investigated expressions of collagen type I, transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in mRNA and protein levels. We observed that morin significantly reduced the expression of collagen type I, TGF-beta(1), and alpha-SMA on hepatic fibrosis induced by DMN. Taken together, this study demonstrated that morin showed hepatoprotective and antifibrogenic effects against DMN-induced hepatic injury. This suggests that morin may be useful in preventing the development of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  13. Aloe emodin suppresses myofibroblastic differentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun Wook; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Eun-Jeon; Zhao, Yu Zhe; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2002-04-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of aloe emodin on hepatic stellate cells activation and proliferation, as these cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Rat hepatic stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes, resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. Primary hepatic stellate cells were exposed to aloe emodin (1-10 microg/ml). Possible cytotoxic effects were measured on stellate cells and hepatocytes using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of aloe emodin on production of type I collagen and smooth muscle cell alpha-actin were examined at the same concentration, by quantitative immunoprecipitation. Antiproliferative effects were examined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Aloe emodin at 10 microg/ml restored the morphological changes characteristic of activated primary stellate cells, reduced DNA synthesis to 95% of control hepatic stellate cells at 10 microg/ml without affecting cell viability, and inhibited type I collagen production and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by 86.77% and 99%, respectively, which suggest that aloe emodin is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation.

  14. Cerebral Epiphyseal Proteins and Melatonin Modulate the Hepatic and Renal Antioxidant Defense of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.; Subramaian, P.; Warren Spence, D.; Pandi-Perumal, S. R.; Brown, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The cerebral epiphysis (pineal gland) secrets melatonin and number of other proteins and peptides. It was thus hypothesized that antioxidant properties of epiphyseal proteins and melatonin could potentially benefit from exogenous therapies. In view of the therapeutic potential of these proteins, the present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of buffalo epiphyseal proteins (BEP, at 100 μg/kg BW, i.p.) and melatonin (MEL, at 10 mg/kg BW, i.p) on changes in hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes of adult female Wistar rats. Buffalo epiphyseal proteins significantly (P < .05) increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and renal LPO, catalase (CAT), GR, GSH, GPx levels as compared to control animals. Similarly, MEL treatment significantly (P < .05) up-regulated hepatic SOD and GPx activity, whereas CAT, GR, GPx, and GSH levels in renal tissues were increased while SOD and LPO remained unaffected. Buffalo epiphyseal protein treatment produced greater effects on hepatic GPx and renal CAT and GSH levels than did MEL. These findings support the conclusion that buffalo epiphyseal proteins and melatonin activate a number of antioxidant mechanisms in hepatic and renal tissues. PMID:21660111

  15. boc-Aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone attenuates mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and delays brain tissue loss after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert S B; Nathaniel, Paula D; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Dixon, C Edward; Alber, Sean M; Watkins, Simon C; Melick, John A; Kochanek, Patrick M; Graham, Steven H

    2007-02-01

    The pathobiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes activation of multiple caspases followed by cell death with a spectrum of apoptotic phenotypes. There are initiator (e.g. caspase-2, -8, and -9) and effector (e.g. caspase-3 and -7) caspases. Recently, caspase-2 and -8 have been shown to regulate cell death via provoking cytochrome c release from the mitochondria upstream of caspase-9. Here, we show that an intracerebral injection of the pan-caspase inhibitor boc-Aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (BAF; 1 micromol) 1 min after TBI in rats reduces caspase-3-like activity, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and tissue damage, and cytochrome c release in ipsilateral cortex at 24 h versus vehicle. To investigate whether either caspase-2 and/or caspase-8 activation may contribute to cytochrome release, the effect of BAF treatment on caspase-2 and caspase-8 proteolysis was also examined. boc-aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone treatment inhibited proteolysis of caspase-2 but not caspase-8 24 h after TBI in rats versus vehicle. However, BAF with or without nerve growth factor (12.5 ng/h x 14 days intracerebrally via osmotic pump) did not result in differences in motor function, Morris water maze performance, hippocampal neuron survival, nor contusion volume at 14 days. These data suggest that BAF treatment reduces acute cell death after TBI by inhibiting mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, possibly via a mechanism involving initiator caspases; however, BAF appears to delay cell death, rather than result in permanent protection.

  16. Combustion derived ultrafine particles induce cytochrome P-450 expression in specific lung compartments in the developing neonatal and adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Vogel, Christoph F.; Baek, Jaeeun; Kodani, Sean D.; Uppal, Ravi S.; Bein, Keith J.; Anderson, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and can be a dominant contributor to ultrafine urban particulate matter (PM). Exposure to ultrafine PM is correlated with respiratory infections and asthmatic symptoms in young children. The lung undergoes substantial growth, alveolarization, and cellular maturation within the first years of life, which may be impacted by environmental pollutants such as PM. PAHs in PM can serve as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that induces expression of certain isozymes in the cytochrome P-450 superfamily, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, localized in specific lung cell types. Although AhR activation and induction has been widely studied, its context within PM exposure and impact on the developing lung is poorly understood. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP) generating system and used in vitro and in vivo models to define PM effects on AhR activation in the developing lung. We exposed 7-day neonatal and adult rats to a single 6-h PFP exposure and determined that PFPs cause significant parenchymal toxicity in neonates. PFPs contain weak AhR agonists that upregulate AhR-xenobiotic response element activity and expression and are capable inducers of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in both ages with different spatial and temporal patterns. Neonatal CYP1A1 expression was muted and delayed compared with adults, possibly because of differences in the enzyme maturation. We conclude that the inability of neonates to sufficiently adapt in response to PFP exposure may, in part, explain their susceptibility to PFP and urban ultrafine PM. PMID:23502512

  17. Characterization of arachidonic acid metabolism by rat cytochrome P450 enzymes: the involvement of CYP1As.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2014-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes mediate arachidonic acid (AA) oxidation to several biologically active metabolites. Our aims in this study were to characterize AA metabolism by different recombinant rat P450 enzymes and to identify new targets for modulating P450-AA metabolism in vivo. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous measurements of AA and 15 of its P450 metabolites. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C6, and CYP2C11 were found to metabolize AA with high catalytic activity, and CYP2A1, CYP2C13, CYP2D1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A1 had lower activity. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 produced ω-1→4 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) as 88.7 and 62.7%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. CYP2C11 produced epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) as 61.3%, and CYP2C6 produced midchain HETEs and EETs as 48.3 and 29.4%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. The formation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C6, and CYP2C11 major metabolites followed an atypical kinetic profile of substrate inhibition. CYP1As inhibition by α-naphthoflavone or anti-CYP1As antibodies significantly reduced ω-1→4 HETE formation in the lungs and liver, whereas CYP1As induction by 3-methylcholanthrene resulted in a significant increase in ω-1→4 HETEs formation in the heart, lungs, kidney, and livers by 370, 646, 532, and 848%, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that CYP1As and CYP2Cs are major players in the metabolism of AA. The significant contribution of CYP1As to AA metabolism and their strong inducibility suggest their possible use as targets for the prevention and treatment of several diseases.

  18. Combustion derived ultrafine particles induce cytochrome P-450 expression in specific lung compartments in the developing neonatal and adult rat.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jackie K W; Vogel, Christoph F; Baek, Jaeeun; Kodani, Sean D; Uppal, Ravi S; Bein, Keith J; Anderson, Donald S; Van Winkle, Laura S

    2013-05-15

    Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and can be a dominant contributor to ultrafine urban particulate matter (PM). Exposure to ultrafine PM is correlated with respiratory infections and asthmatic symptoms in young children. The lung undergoes substantial growth, alveolarization, and cellular maturation within the first years of life, which may be impacted by environmental pollutants such as PM. PAHs in PM can serve as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that induces expression of certain isozymes in the cytochrome P-450 superfamily, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, localized in specific lung cell types. Although AhR activation and induction has been widely studied, its context within PM exposure and impact on the developing lung is poorly understood. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP) generating system and used in vitro and in vivo models to define PM effects on AhR activation in the developing lung. We exposed 7-day neonatal and adult rats to a single 6-h PFP exposure and determined that PFPs cause significant parenchymal toxicity in neonates. PFPs contain weak AhR agonists that upregulate AhR-xenobiotic response element activity and expression and are capable inducers of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in both ages with different spatial and temporal patterns. Neonatal CYP1A1 expression was muted and delayed compared with adults, possibly because of differences in the enzyme maturation. We conclude that the inability of neonates to sufficiently adapt in response to PFP exposure may, in part, explain their susceptibility to PFP and urban ultrafine PM.

  19. In vivo oxidative damage in rats is associated with barbiturate response but not other cytochrome P450 inducers.

    PubMed

    Dostalek, Miroslav; Brooks, Joshua D; Hardy, Klarissa D; Milne, Ginger L; Moore, Megan M; Sharma, Sameer; Morrow, Jason D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2007-12-01

    Previously published studies have shown that cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme systems can produce reactive oxygen species and suggest roles of P450s in oxidative stress. However, most of the studies have been done in vitro, and the potential link between P450 induction and in vivo oxidative damage has not been rigorously explored with validated biomarkers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with typical P450 inducers (beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital (PB), Aroclor 1254, isoniazid, pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile, and clofibrate) or the general P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenztriazole; induction of P4501A, -2B, -2E, -3A, and -4A subfamily enzymes was confirmed by immunoblotting and the suppression of P450 by 1-aminobenztriazole using spectral analysis. PB and Aroclor 1254 significantly enhanced malondialdehyde and H2O2 generation and NADPH oxidation in vitro and significantly enhanced formation in vivo, in both liver and plasma. Some of the other treatments changed in vitro parameters but none did in vivo. The PB-mediated increases in liver and plasma F2-isoprostanes could be ablated by 1-aminobenztriazole, implicating the PB-induced P450(s) in the F2-isoprostane elevation. The markers of in vivo oxidative stress were influenced mainly by PB and Aroclor 1254, indicative of an oxidative damage response only to barbiturate-type induction and probably related to 2B subfamily enzymes. These studies define the contribution of P450s to oxidative stress in vivo, in that the phenomenon is relatively restricted and most P450s do not contribute substantially.

  20. Altered hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rats with intake of tart cherry.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E Mitchell; Singer, Andrew A M; Kirakosyan, Ara; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2008-06-01

    Elevated plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and fatty liver are among components of metabolic syndrome, a phenotypic pattern that typically precedes the development of Type 2 diabetes. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanins reduces hyperlipidemia, obesity, and atherosclerosis and that anthocyanin-rich extracts may exert these effects in association with altered activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, studies are lacking to test this correlation using physiologically relevant, whole food sources of anthocyanins. Tart cherries are a rich source of anthocyanins, and whole cherry fruit intake may also affect hyperlipidemia and/or affect tissue PPARs. This hypothesis was tested in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rat having insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. For 90 days, Dahl rats were pair-fed AIN-76a-based diets supplemented with either 1% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole tart cherry or with 0.85% additional carbohydrate to match macronutrient and calorie provision. After 90 days, the cherry-enriched diet was associated with reduced fasting blood glucose, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and reduced fatty liver. The cherry diet was also associated with significantly enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha mRNA, enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha target acyl-coenzyme A oxidase mRNA and activity, and increased plasma antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypic risk factors that are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Tart cherries may represent a whole food research model of the health effects of anthocyanin-rich foods and may possess nutraceutical value against risk factors for metabolic syndrome and its clinical sequelae.

  1. Anti-fibrotic effects of thalidomide on hepatic stellate cells and dimethylnitrosamine-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2006-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a central role in cellular necrosis, apoptosis, organ failure, tissue damage, inflammation and fibrosis. These processes, occurring in liver injury, may lead to cirrhosis. Thalidomide, alpha-N-phthalidoglutarimide, (C(13)H(10)N(2))(4), has been shown to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, possibly mediated through its anti-TNF-alpha effect. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of thalidomide on hepatic fibrosis. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) or TNF-alpha. The inhibitory effects of thalidomide on the NFkappaB signaling cascade and fibrosis markers including alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and collagen, were assessed. An in vivo therapeutic study was conducted in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-treated rats, which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: vehicle (0.7% carboxyl methyl cellulose, CMC), thalidomide (40 mg/kg), thalidomide (200 mg/kg), or silymarin (50 mg/kg), each given by gavage twice daily for 3 weeks starting after 1 week of DMN administration. Thalidomide (100-800 nM) concentration-dependently inhibited NFkappaB transcriptional activity induced by TNF-alpha, including IKKalpha expression and IkappaBalpha phosphorylation in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, thalidomide also suppressed TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA expression and collagen deposition in HSC-T6 cells. Fibrosis scores of livers from DMN-treated rats receiving high dose of thalidomide (0.89 +/- 0.20) were significantly reduced in comparison with those of DMN-treated rats receiving vehicle (1.56 +/- 0.18). Hepatic collagen contents of DMN rats were also significantly reduced by either thalidomide or silymarin treatment. Immunohistochemical double staining results showed that alpha-SMA- and NFkappaB-positive cells were decreased in the livers from DMN rats receiving either thalidomide or silymarin treatment. In addition

  2. Surgical technique of orthotopic liver transplantation in rats: the Kamada technique and a new splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Eiichi; Shimizu, Akira; Takahashi, Mikiko; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Ryuji; Masuda, Yukinari; Fukuda, Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.

  3. Effect of chlorpromazine on hepatic transport of indocyanine green in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsao, S C; Sawada, Y; Iga, T; Hanano, M

    1983-03-15

    The effect of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) on the hepatic transport of indocyanine green (ICG) was studied in the rat, in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity of CPZ in vivo, by comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters of ICG after bolus and chronic administration of CPZ. Delays were shown in both plasma disappearance and biliary excretion of ICG in the CPZ-treated rats (10 and 15 mg/kg intraportal bolus administration). Significant decreases were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters, V2 and total body clearance (CLtot) in CPZ 10 mg/kg treated rats and k34, V2 and CLtot in CPZ 15 mg/kg treated rats, while a significant increase was observed in k21 in both CPZ-treated groups; V1 was not altered. The apparent liver-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,app) of ICG at 50 min after i.v. administration was decreased significantly in CPZ 15 mg/kg treated rats when compared to control rats, suggesting an alteration in the distribution of ICG to the liver by CPZ. Bile flow rates decreased immediately after bolus intraportal administration of CPZ in both CPZ-treated groups, and they then returned progressively to the basal levels. The output of bile acids was also inhibited by CPZ in a time-dependent and reversible manner and the bile acid independent fraction of bile flow was decreased significantly in both CPZ-treated groups. Chronic treatment with CPZ (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p., per day for 3 weeks) did not alter either the pharmacokinetic parameters or the bile secretion profile of ICG, although there were significant decreases in body and liver weights in CPZ-treated groups. This may have been due to the rapid metabolism and excretion of CPZ in the rat when compared to humans. It is proposed that the acute toxic effect of CPZ on hepatic transport of ICG in the rat may be due mainly to the time-dependent and reversible cholestasis induced by CPZ, and that chronic treatment with CPZ may not alter the hepatic transport of ICG in the rat.

  4. Hepatic uptake of gamma-butyrobetaine, a precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Takeo; Shibue, Yuta; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Moseley, Richard H; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2009-10-01

    Gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB) is a precursor in the biosynthesis of carnitine, which plays an important role in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and is converted to carnitine by gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBD) predominantly in liver. We investigated the molecular mechanism of hepatic uptake of GBB in rat hepatocytes. Cellular localization of rat Octn2 (rOctn2:Slc22A5) was studied by Western blot analysis. Uptake of deuterated GBB (d(3)-GBB) was examined in HEK293 cells expressing rOctn2 (HEK293/rOctn2) and freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. d(3)-GBB was quantified by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis demonstrated an expression of OCTN2 protein in hepatic basolateral membrane but not in bile canalicular membrane fraction. Furthermore, we found that d(3)-GBB was taken up by rOctn2 in an Na(+)-dependent manner with K(m) value of 13 microM. The apparent K(m) value for d(3)-GBB transport in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes was 9 microM. d(3)-GBB uptake by the rat hepatocytes was inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to 30% of the control, whereas it was inhibited by carnitine to 62% of the control, even at 500 microM. Furthermore, d(3)-GBB uptake by rat hepatocytes was decreased by 45% with rat Gat2 (Slc6A13, a major liver GABA transporter) silenced by the microRNA method. Accordingly, the present study clearly demonstrates that GBB is taken up by hepatocytes for carnitine biosynthesis not only via Octn2 but also via the GABA transporter, possibly Gat2.

  5. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  6. UPLC-MS-MS method for simultaneous determination of caffeine, tolbutamide, metoprolol, and dapsone in rat plasma and its application to cytochrome P450 activity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Chunjuan; Tai, Sheng; Zhang, Xiangning; Liu, Gaofeng

    2013-01-01

    A specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method has been described for the simultaneous determination of caffeine, tolbutamide, metoprolol and dapsone in rat plasma, which are the four probe drugs of the four cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH HILIC C(18) column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) (15:85, v/v). The triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection was operated by positive electrospray ionization. Phenacetin was chosen as internal standard. Plasma samples were extracted with dichloromethane-butanol (10:1, v/v). The recoveries ranged from 67.5% to 98.5%. The calibration curves in plasma were linear in the range of 2.5-1,000 ng/mL for caffeine and dapsone, 5-5,000 ng/mL for tolbutamide and 2.5-250 ng/mLfor metoprolol, with correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9936, 0.9966, 0.9990 and 0.9998, respectively. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of the four probe drugs of the four CYP450 isoforms and used to evaluate the effects of breviscapine on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats.

  7. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult.

  8. Study on pretreatment of FPS-1 in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiqing; Liu, Kexuan; Wu, Weikang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuanhong

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether FPS-1, the water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from fuzi, protected against hepatic damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and its mechanism. SD rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. FPS-1 (160 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 5 days before ischemia-reperfusion injury in treatment group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and albumin (ALB) were assayed to evaluate liver functions. Liver samples were taken for histological examination and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), that catalase (CAT) in liver. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in mitochondria were measured with colorimetry method. Morphological changes were also investigated by using both light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). In addition, apoptosis and oncosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Serum AST and ALT levels were elevated in groups exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (p < 0.05). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a marked increase in MDA level, and significant decreases in hepatic SOD and CAT (p < 0.05). Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase were reduced in ischemia-reperfusion groups compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). Oncosis and apoptosis were also observed in ischemia-reperfusion groups. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reversed all these biochemical parameters as well as histological alterations, evidently by increased SOD, CAT, reduced MDA and histological scores compared to the model group (p < 0.05). FPS-1 could attenuate the necrotic states by the detection of immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reduced hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidative effects and attenuation of necrotic states.

  9. Hepatic energy metabolism correlated with pathology score in rats chronically fed ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Takahasi, H.; Geoffrion, Y.; Butler, K.W.; French, S.W. )

    1989-02-09

    We repeatedly measured in vivo levels of hepatic phosphorylated metabolites in alcohol-fed rats using non-invasive 31P MRS to evaluate their relation to the severity of the pathologic changes of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Five pairs of Wister rats were pair-fed with a liquid diet plus ethanol or an isocaloric amount of dextrose via an implanted intragastric tube for up to 6 months (mo). For MRS, the rats were sedated, air was provided by a face mask, and the diet was infused to maintain high blood alcohol levels. {sup 31}P MRS spectra were obtained using a CYCLOPS pulse-acquire sequence, 200 scans, and a 2s recycle delay. The inorganic phosphate (Pi)/ATP peak area ratio was found to be consistently higher in the alcohol-fed rats (E) compared to the pair-fed controls (C). The sugar phosphate/ATP ratio tended to be higher in E when compared to C. Cytosolic pH measured by the chemical shift of the Pi peak showed no significant differences between E and C. The monthly liver biopsies from E showed more severe steatosis, necrosis, and fibrosis with time of feeding and the Pi/ATP ratio was positively correlated with the scored histological changes. These results suggest that a low hepatic energetic state is associated with the progression of ALD pathology.

  10. Direct pathway for hepatic glycogenesis predominates in meal-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.T.; Veech, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The pathway for hepatic glycogen synthesis in the postprandial state was studied in meal-fed rats chronically cannulated in the portal vein. The rate of glycogen synthesis in livers of rats meal-fed for seven days was found to be about 1 umol/g/min. Plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein was generally below 8 mM before meal-feeding and could reach up to 12 mM at the end of the meal-feeding. Studies on the hepatic-portal (H-P) difference of plasma glucose showed that liver released glucose in the fasted state and could either extract or release glucose after feeding, depending on plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein. The cross-over concentration for the transition was found to be 8 mM. The relative importance of the direct vs indirect pathway for the replenishment of hepatic glycogen was determined by injecting (3-/sup 3/H,U-/sup 14/C)-glucose into the portal vein at the end of meal-feeding. Six minutes after the injection, the ratio of /sup 3/H//sup 14/C in glycogen-glucose was found to be 83-92% of the ratio in liver free glucose. The H-P differences of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and alanine during feeding were determined. It was found that the H-P difference of (glc) was about 9 times greater than the combined total of ..delta.. (lac), ..delta.. (pyr), and ..delta.. (ala) as early as 10 minutes after the onset of feeding. It is concluded that the direct pathway for the replenishment of hepatic glycogen is predominant and can account for more than 80% of the total glycogen synthesized in vivo in the postprandial state, in contrast to the result of < 30% reported previously by Newgard et al in acute traumatized rats.

  11. Hepatic and extrahepatic uptake of HDL-derived plasma cholesterol in exercised and sedentary rats

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanathan, S.; Green, M.H.; Kris-Etherton, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    The present investigation was designed to study high density lipoprotein (HDL)-derived plasma cholesterol (C) turnover in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues of sedentary (S) and exercised (E) rats. 4-week-old Long Evans rats were exercised for 1 hr, 6 days weekly, for a period of 38 weeks, on a motor-driven treadmill at 0.8 mph at a 12% grade. Animals were injected with HDL that was labelled in vitro with /sup 3/H-cholesteryl ester. Serial blood samples and tissues were collected. HDL-C concentration was lower in E vs S rats (23.0 +/- 1.2 and 26.6 +/- 1.9 mg/dl, p < 0.01). While total plasma C was not different, liver C was higher in S vs E rats (8.2 +/- 0.8 and 7.2 +/- 0.5 mg/g). Adrenal C was higher in E vs S rats (29.5 +/- 2.3 and 20.7 +/- 2.3 mg/g, p < 0.01). Multicompartmental analysis of plasma and tissue tracer response led to development of an 8-component model (5 physiological; 3 nonphysiological) that depicted HDL-derived plasma C turnover. Plasma fraction of tracer declined more rapidly in E vs S rats. E rats cleared nonphysiological tracer more rapidly than S rats, but delayed release of tracer into the plasma longer. Fractional rate of tracer uptake into adrenals, liver, testes, and carcass was greater in E rats. There was a greater fractional turnover rate of tracer in adrenals and liver in S vs E rats. Hence HDL-derived plasma C turnover is altered with vigorous exercise.

  12. Size- and time-dependent alteration in metabolic activities of human hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes by gold nanoparticles via microsomal coincubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Meiling; Tang, Ling; Luo, Mengjun; Zhou, Jing; Guo, Bin; Liu, Yangyuan; Chen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Nano-sized particles are known to interfere with drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which can be anticipated to be a potential source of unintended adverse reactions, but the mechanisms underlying the inhibition are still not well understood. Herein we report a systematic investigation of the impacts of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on five major CYP isozymes under in vitro incubations of human liver microsomes (HLMs) with tannic acid (TA)-stabilized AuNPs in the size range of 5 to 100 nm. It is found that smaller AuNPs show more pronounced inhibitory effects on CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in a dose-dependent manner, while 1A2 is the least susceptible to the AuNP inhibition. The size- and dose-dependent CYP-specific inhibition and the nonspecific drug-nanogold binding in the coincubation media can be significantly reduced by increasing the concentration ratio of microsomal proteins to AuNPs, probably via a noncompetitive mode. Remarkably, AuNPs are also found to exhibit a slow time-dependent inactivation of 2D6 and 3A4 in a β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate (NADPH)-independent manner. During microsomal incubations, UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta-potential measurements were used to monitor the changes in particle properties under the miscellaneous AuNP/HLM/CYP dispersion system. An improved stability of AuNPs by mixing HLM with the gold nanocolloid reveals that the stabilization via AuNP-HLM interactions may occur on a faster time scale than the salt-induced nanoaggregation by incubation in phosphate buffer. The results suggest that the AuNP induced CYP inhibition can be partially attributed to its adhesion onto the enzymes to alter their structural conformations or onto the HLM membrane therefore impairing the integral membrane proteins. Additionally, AuNPs likely block the substrate pocket on the CYP surface, depending on both the particle characteristics and the

  13. Potential Contribution of Cytochrome P450 2B6 to Hepatic 4-Hydroxycyclophosphamide Formation In Vitro and In VivoS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Raccor, Brianne S.; Claessens, Adam J.; Dinh, Jean C.; Park, Julie R.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Thomas, Sushma S.; Makar, Karen W.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from retrospective studies on the relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B6 (CYP2B6) genotype and cyclophosphamide (CY) efficacy and toxicity in adult cancer patients have been conflicting. We evaluated this relationship in children, who have faster CY clearance and receive different CY-based regimens than adults. These factors may influence the P450s metabolizing CY to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4HCY), the principal precursor to CY's cytotoxic metabolite. Therefore, we sought to characterize the in vitro and in vivo roles of hepatic CYP2B6 and its main allelic variants in 4HCY formation. CYP2B6 is the major isozyme responsible for 4HCY formation in recombinant P450 Supersomes. In human liver microsomes (HLM), 4HCY formation correlated with known phenotypic markers of CYP2B6 activity, specifically formation of (S)-2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl pyrrolidine and hydroxybupropion. However, in HLM, CYP3A4/5 also contributes to 4HCY formation at the CY concentrations similar to plasma concentrations achieved in children (0.1 mM). 4HCY formation was not associated with CYP2B6 genotype at low (0.1 mM) or high (1 mM) CY concentrations potentially because CYP3A4/5 and other isozymes also form 4HCY. To remove this confounder, 4HCY formation was evaluated in recombinant CYP2B6 enzymes, which demonstrated that 4HCY formation was lower for CYP2B6.4 and CYP2B6.5 compared with CYP2B6.1. In vivo, CYP2B6 genotype was not directly related to CY clearance or ratio of 4HCY/CY areas under the curve in 51 children receiving CY-based regimens. Concomitant chemotherapy agents did not influence 4HCY formation in vitro. We conclude that CYP2B6 genotype is not consistently related to 4HCY formation in vitro or in vivo. PMID:21976622

  14. Partial Portal Vein Arterialization Attenuates Acute Bile Duct Injury Induced by Hepatic Dearterialization in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jishu; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Kuirong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic infarcts or abscesses occur after hepatic artery interruption. We explored the mechanisms of hepatic deprivation-induced acute liver injury and determine whether partial portal vein arterialization attenuated this injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either complete hepatic arterial deprivation or partial portal vein arterialization, or both. Hepatic ischemia was evaluated using biochemical analysis, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Hepatic ATP levels, the expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and the expression of bile transporter genes were assessed. Complete dearterialization of the liver induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the histological changes, significantly increased serum biochemical markers, decreased ATP content, increased expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and decreased expression of bile transporter genes. These detrimental changes were extenuated but not fully reversed by partial portal vein arterialization, which also attenuated ductular reaction and fibrosis in completely dearterialized rat livers. Collectively, complete hepatic deprivation causes severe liver injury, including bile infarcts and biloma formation. Partial portal vein arterialization seems to protect against acute ischemia-hypoxia-induced liver injury. PMID:27872855

  15. Decreased exposure of atorvastatin in diabetic rats partly due to induction of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2.

    PubMed

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Liu, Can; Zhang, Mian; Ling, Zhaoli; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Chen, Yang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    1. Atorvastatin is frequently prescribed for lowering blood cholesterol and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin in diabetic rats. 2. Diabetes was induced in rats by combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin following oral (10 mg/kg) and intravenous (2 mg/kg) administrations to rats were measured by LC-MS. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes of experimental rats were assessed. Protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2 were further investigated. 3. Clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administrations were remarkably increased, leading to marked decreases in area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). The estimated oral and systematic clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats were 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold of control rats, respectively. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes isolated from diabetic rats were significantly increased, which were consistent with the up-regulated protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2. 4. All these results demonstrated that the plasma exposure of atorvastatin was significantly decreased in diabetic rats, which was partly due to the up-regulated activities and expressions of both hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2.

  16. Glycyrrhizinate reduces portal hypertension in isolated perfused rat livers with chronic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Deng, Bo; Xu, Xue-Yan; Yang, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Song, Yi-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Yue-Qi; Cai, Da-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (Gly) on portal hypertension (PHT) in isolated portal perfused rat liver (IPPRL) with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatitis. METHODS: PHT model was replicated with CCl4 in rats for 84 d. Model was identified by measuring the ascetic amounts, hepatic function, portal pressure in vivo, splenic index, and pathological alterations. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IPPRLs were performed at d0, d28, d56, and d84. After phenylephrine-induced constriction, Gly was geometrically used to reduce PHT. Gly action was expressed as median effective concentration (EC50) and area under the curve (AUC). Underlying mechanism was exploited by linear correlation between AUC values of Gly and existed iNOS in portal triads. RESULTS: PHT model was confirmed with ascites, splenomegaly, serum biomarkers of hepatic injury, and elevated portal pressure. Pathological findings had shown normal hepatic structure at d0, degenerations at d28, fibrosis at d56, cirrhosis at d84 in PHT rats. Pseudo lobule ratios decreased and collagen ratios increased progressively along with PHT development. Gly does dose-dependently reduce PHT in IPPRLs with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. Gly potencies were increased gradually along with PHT development, characterized with its EC50 at 2.80 × 10-10, 3.03 × 10-11, 3.77 × 10-11 and 4.65×10-11 mol/L at d0, d28, d56 and d84, respectively. Existed iNOS was located at hepatocyte at d0, stellate cells at d28, stellate cells and macrophages at d56, and macrophages in portal triads at d84. Macrophages infiltrated more into portal triads and expressed more iNOS along with PHT development. AUC values of Gly were positively correlated with existed iNOS levels in portal triads. CONCLUSION: Gly reduces indirectly PHT in IPPRL with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. The underlying mechanisms may relate to rescue NO bioavailability from macrophage

  17. Species difference among experimental rodents in the activity and induction of cytochrome P-450 isozymes for mutagenic activation of carcinogenic aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Degawa, M; Agatsuma, T; Hashimoto, Y

    1990-12-01

    The expressions of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes in male rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs were studied comparatively with or without an ip injection of a cytochrome P-450 inducer. The activity and quantity of microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes were determined respectively by a bacterial mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and immunochemical assays using monoclonal antibodies against rat cytochrome P-450 isozymes. 3-Methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene (3-MeO-AAB), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole acetate (MeA alpha C) and 3-methylcholanthrene were used as cytochrome P-450 inducers, and 7 carcinogenic aromatic amines including 3-MeO-AAB and MeA alpha C were used as substrates for the mutation assay. By means of these assays, we examined the species differences among rodents in the activity and induction rate of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the mutagenic activation of carcinogenic aromatic amines.

  18. Effect of a lignan-enriched fructus schisandrae extract on hepatic glutathione status in rats: protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, K M; Ip, S P; Poon, M K; Wu, S S; Che, C T; Ng, K H; Kong, Y C

    1995-04-01

    The effect of a lignan-enriched extract of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (FS) on hepatic glutathione (GSH) status was examined in both control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. FS treatment caused a dose-dependent enhancement in hepatic GSH status, as evidenced by significant increases in hepatic GSH level and activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate and glutathione reductase (GRD), as well as a decreased susceptibility of hepatic tissue homogenates to in vitro peroxide-induced GSH depletion. The beneficial effect of FS treatment on hepatic GSH status became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Pretreating rats with FS extract at increasing daily doses ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 g/kg for 3 days caused a dose-dependent protection against the CCl4-induced impairment in hepatic GSH status. The enhancement in hepatic GSH status was associated with corresponding decreases in tissue malondialdehyde levels and plasma alanine aminotransferases activities, indicating a significant reduction in the extent of oxidative hepatocellular damage. Our results indicate that the molecular mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by FS pretreatment may involve the facilitation of GSH regeneration via the GRD-catalyzed and NADPH-mediated reaction.

  19. Differential metabolism of acetanilide versus ethoxycoumarin and benzo[a]pyrene by two 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible forms of rat liver cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Sundheimer, D W; Caveness, M B; Goldstein, J A

    1983-10-15

    The present study compares the catalytic activities of two 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) inducible forms of cytochrome P-450. These isozymes (P-448HCB and P-448MC) were isolated from liver microsomes of rats treated with 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) and 3-MC, respectively. Catalytic activities of the isozymes were compared in a reconstituted system and by antibody inhibition studies in microsomes. In a reconstituted system, P-448HCB had very little catalytic activity toward benzo[a]pyrene or ethoxycoumarin (substrates metabolized preferentially by P-448MC). In contrast, both isozymes had high turnover numbers for aniline and acetanilide. However, catalytic activities of the purified isozymes were affected dramatically by Emulgen 911, a nonionic detergent. Since nonionic detergents used in the purification of P-450 isozymes cannot be completely removed after purification, residual amounts of detergent probably affect turnover numbers in a reconstituted system. Therefore, specific antibodies to cytochromes P-448MC and P-448HCB were used to examine the contribution of these isozymes to microsomal metabolism. Antibody inhibition studies confirmed that the majority of benzo[a]pyrene and ethoxycoumarin metabolism in 3-MC-induced microsomes was catalyzed by cytochrome P-448MC. In contrast, P-448HCB accounted for the majority of the acetanilide hydroxylase activity in 3-MC- and HCB-induced microsomes. Neither isozyme contributed appreciably to metabolism of these substrates in control microsomes.

  20. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

  1. Hepatic gene expression analysis of 2-aminoanthracene exposed Fisher-344 rats reveal patterns indicative of liver carcinoma and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gato, Worlanyo E; Hales, Dale B; Means, Jay C

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine hepatic differential gene expression patterns in Fisher-344 rats in response to dietary 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) ingestion for 14 and 28 days. Twenty four post-weaning 3-4 week old F-344 male rats were exposed to 0 mgkg(-1)-diet (control), 50 mgkg(-1)-diet (low dose), 75 mgkg(-1)-diet (medium dose) and 100 mgkg(-1)-diet (high dose) 2AA for 14 and 28 days. This was followed by analysis of the liver for global gene expression changes. In both time points, the numbers of genes affected seem to correlate with the dose of 2AA. Sixteen mRNAs were differentially expressed in all treatment groups for the short-term exposure group. Similarly, 51 genes were commonly expressed in all 28-day exposure group. Almost all the genes seem to have higher expression relative to the controls. In contrast, cytochrome P450 family 4, subfamily a, polypeptide 8 (Cyp4a8), and monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (Mmd2) were down-regulated relative to controls. Differentially expressed mRNAs were further analyzed for associations via DAVID. GO categories show the effect of 2AA to be linked with genes responsible for carbohydrate utilization and transport, lipid metabolic processes, stress responses such as inflammation and apoptosis processes, immune system response, DNA damage response, cancer processes and circadian rhythm. The data from the current study identified altered hepatic gene expression profiles that may be associated with carcinoma, autoimmune response, and/or type 2 diabetes. Possible biomarkers due to 2AA toxicity in the liver for future study include Abcb1a, Nhej1, Adam8, Cdkn1a, Mgmt, and Nrcam.

  2. Cytochrome f

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, G.M.; Smith, J.L.; Cramer, W.A.

    2001-07-17

    Cytochrome f (f, folium, leaf), a c-type cytochrome with a characteristic CysXXCysHis amino acid sequence for heme ligation, is the largest of the four major protein subunits of the membrane-embedded cytochrome b{sub 6}{sup f} complex of oxygenic photosynthesis. It contains 285-86 amino acids, consisting of a soluble 250-residue domain on the p-side (positive-side) or lumen-side of the membrane, a single trans-membrane 20-residue {alpha}-helix, and an n- or stromal-side segment consisting of 15 residues. These domains contain, respectively, the heme prosthetic group and intraprotein electron transfer pathway, the membrane anchor and a short segment that is important in the assembly of the b{sub 6}{sup f} complex. The function of the cytochrome f in oxygenic photosynthesis is to act as the terminal electron acceptor in the membrane-embedded cytochrome b{sub 6}{sup f} complex that provides the electron transport connection between the photosystem II and photosystem I reaction centers. Electron transfer through the complex is coupled to proton translocation and generation of a proton electrochemical potential that is utilized to drive the synthesis of ATP through the proton-motive ATP synthase. These functions of the cytochrome b{sub 6}{sup f} complex are analogous to those of the multisubunit cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and photosynthetic bacteria. Both complexes contain four redox centers with very similar redox and structural properties: a covalently bound c-type heme in cytochrome f or c{sub 1}, the 2Fe-2S cluster of the Rieske ISP, and the two noncovalently bound hemes of cytochrome b. The structure properties have been defined in 3.0-3.1 {angstrom} structures of the b{sub 6}{sup f} complex from a thermophilic cyanobacterium and a green alga. These structures also defined a fifth redox prosthetic group, a novel covalently bound heme, tentatively called heme x. With the exception of

  3. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Milton Prabu, S; Muthumani, M; Shagirtha, K

    2012-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats.

  4. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Milton Prabu, S.; Muthumani, M.; Shagirtha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

  5. Effect of sinapic acid against dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Su; Kim, Kung Wook; Chung, Hae Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Sinapic acid is a member of the phenylpropanoid family and is abundant in cereals, nuts, oil seeds, and berries. It exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of sinapic acid on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury in rats. Sinapic acid remarkably prevented DMN-induced loss of body weight. This was accompanied by a significant increase in levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and liver malondialdehyde content. Furthermore, sinapic acid reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, which correlated with a reduction in the expression of type I collagen mRNA and histological analysis of collagen in liver tissue. Additionally, the expression of hepatic fibrosis-related factors such as α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), were reduced in rats treated with sinapic acid. Sinapic acid exhibited strong scavenging activity. In conclusion, we find that sinapic acid exhibits hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced liver injury, most likely due to its antioxidant activities of scavenging radicals, its capacity to suppress TGF-β1 and its ability to attenuate activation of hepatic stellate cells. This suggests that sinapic acid is a potentially useful agent for the protection against liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  6. Increased hepatic expression of nitric oxide synthase type II in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Qiu, Fa-Zu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role and effect of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS II) in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Expression of NOS II mRNA was detected by real time RT-PCR. The activity of nitric oxide synthase and serum levels of NO, systemic and portal hemodynamics and degrees of cirrhosis were measured with high sensitive methods. Chinese traditional medicine tetrandrine was used to treat cirrhotic rats and to evaluate the function of NO. Double-blind method was applied during the experiment. RESULTS: The concentration of NO and the activity of NOS were increased markedly at all stages of cirrhosis, and iNOSmRNA was greatly expressed. Meanwhile the portal-venous-pressure (PVP), and portal-venous-flow (PVF) were significantly increased. NO, NOS and iNOSmRNA were positively correlated to the quantity of hepatic fibrosis. Tetrandrine significantly inhibited NO production and the expression of iNOSmRNA. CONCLUSION: Increased hepatic expression of NOS II is one of the important causes of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. PMID:15222038

  7. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Dietary Lentinus edodes on Plasma, Feces and Hepatic Tissues in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki Nam; Alam, Nuhu; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Kim, Hye Young; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2011-01-01

    We investigated diet supplementation with shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies on biochemical and histological changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. A diet containing 5% Lentinus edodes fruiting bodies given to hypercholesterolemic rats reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total lipid, phospholipids, and the LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 34.33, 53.21, 75.00, 34.66, 25.73, and 71.43%, respectively. Feeding mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no detrimental effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, or enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that L. edodes significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein but increased α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red-O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. These results suggest that shiitake mushrooms could be recommended as a natural cholesterol lowering substance in the diet. PMID:22783084

  9. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIANCE OF CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN HUMAN HEPATIC MICROSOMES: CORRELATION OF INDIVIDUAL FORMS WITH XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM AND IMPLICATIONS IN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in biotransformation activities may alter the bioavailability or efficacy of drugs, provide protection from certain xenobiotic and environmental agents, or increase toxicity of others. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are responsible for the majority of oxidation reac...

  10. Anti-fibrotic effects of a methylenedioxybenzene compound, CW209292 on dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Woong; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Ha, Jong-Ryul; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2009-08-01

    A series of methylenedioxybenzene compounds were synthesized and found to have hepatoprotective effects in chemical-induced hepatotoxicity models. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of a synthetic methylenedioxybenzene compound, CW209292, using the dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury model in rats. Liver injuries were induced in Sprague Dawley rats by injection of DMN (intraperitoneally, 10 microl/kg) 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The rats were treated with CW209292 (per os, 25 or 75 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks. Treatment of rats with DMN for 4 weeks resulted in significant decreases in serum albumin levels, whereas concomitant treatment with CW209292 prevented these decreases. CW209292 treatment also shortened prothrombin time prolonged by DMN, providing evidence that the agent was active in preserving liver function against DMN insult. DMN treatment caused marked increases in plasma bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and hyaluronic acid levels; CW209292 treatment reversed these increases. CW209292 also significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content as well as hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in histological examination. Additionally, immunochemically detectable hepatic collagen type IV and alpha-smooth muscle actin levels were decreased by CW209292 treatment. Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells isolated from DMN-treated rats was inhibited by CW209292. Furthermore, tumor growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNA expression was increased in DMN-treated rats, whereas CW209292 treatment prevented these increases. These results suggest that CW209292 exhibits anti-fibrotic effects in Sprague Dawley rats with DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis by blocking the mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 and subsequent inhibition of the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells.

  11. Changes in mixed-function oxidase system in the perfused liver of the cold-acclimated rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Motohashi, Y.; Yamada, K.

    1986-09-01

    Changes in the hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent drug-metabolizing system were studied in perfused livers obtained from cold-acclimated male Wistar rats after 30 days of cold exposure (4‡C) when using hexobarbital as a substrate. In fasted animals the cold-acclimated rats showed higher levels of hexobarbital metabolic rates compared to control rats, but there was no significant difference in fed animals. The maximum rates of hexobarbital metabolism produced by xylitol perfusion were also significantly higher in the perfused liver of cold-acclimated rats. It was concluded that the function of the cytochrome P-450 system for hexobarbital in cold-acclimated rats changed due to both an increase in the activity of the cytochrome P-450 system and to changes in regulation of the cytochrome P-450 system by the supply of reducing equivalents.

  12. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P < 0.05) of blood glucose; RLW; RKW; RPW; serum and hepatic AST, ALT, and ALP; serum total and conjugated bilirubin; and serum lipase activities compared with nondiabetic while these parameters were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the rats fed unripe plantain. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the amylase levels of the diabetic rats compared with the nondiabetic, but there was nonsignificant increase (P > 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Conclusion Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications. PMID:25838921

  13. Atorvastatin increases hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation in sucrose-fed rats: comparison with an MTP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Miyata, Keiji

    2002-11-29

    We investigated the effects of atorvastatin, a widely used 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, and BMS-201038, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, in sucrose-fed hypertriglyceridemic rats to determine whether the activation of beta-oxidation by these compounds plays a role in their hypotriglyceridemic effect. The decrease in plasma triglyceride concentration and post-Triton very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride concentration, a measure of hepatic triglyceride secretion, by atorvastatin (30 mg/kg p.o.) for 2 weeks was to approximately the same degree as those by BMS-201038 (0.3 mg/kg). Atorvastatin (30 mg/kg) increased hepatic beta-oxidation activity by 54% (P < 0.01), while BMS-201038 (0.3 mg/kg) had no significant effect. Atorvastatin decreased hepatic triglyceride, fatty acid and cholesteryl ester concentrations by 21% to 39%, whereas BMS-201038 increased these variables by 28% to 307%. In the atorvastatin-treated groups, a significant relationship was seen not only between hepatic beta-oxidation activity and hepatic triglyceride concentration (R(2) = 0.535, P < 0.01), but also between hepatic and plasma triglyceride concentrations (R(2) = 0.586, P < 0.01). No effect of atorvastatin on hepatic fatty acid synthesis was observed. These results indicate that the activation of hepatic beta-oxidation by atorvastatin may contribute to the decrease in hepatic triglyceride concentration, leading to its hypotriglyceridemic effect.

  14. Role of prostanoids and nitric oxide inhibition in rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Criado, M; Flores, O; Vázquez, M J; Esteller, A

    2000-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins have been proposed as vasodilator substances involved in peripheral vasodilatation characteristic of the liver cirrhosis. A link between NO and prostanoids has been suggested. The present study investigated the effect of simultaneous blockade of both, NO synthase (NOS) and cyclooxigenase (COX) in sham-operated (SO), or rats with bile-duct ligation (BDL) in the development of liver fibrosis. Animals were distributed in two groups SO (n=15) or BDL (n=15). Treatments (5 days) started three weeks after surgical procedure. Both, SO and BDL animals were treated with indomethacin (INDO) (5 mg/kg/day) alone, with NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (NAME) (4 mg/kg/day) alone or with INDO and NAME combination at the same doses. At the end of follow-up body weight, packed cell volume, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured. Liver tissue was processed for histological studies. In this study, BDL animals showed a decreased MAP. Treatment with L-NAME in BDL rats increased MAP. The chronic COX inhibition alone did not play an important role in the haemodynamic changes. The BDL produced a loss of hepatic structure, with ductular metaplasia that occupied the greater part of the hepatic parenchyma. Also, an important degree of fibrosis was observed. Both NO and PG synthesis inhibitors, alone or in combination, induced enhancing collagen fiber deposition in the hepatic parenchyma. These findings support the notion that the interaction between the NOS and COX pathways should be relevant in hepatic cirrhosis in which both NOS and COX are induced.

  15. High-Fat Diet Increased Renal and Hepatic Oxidative Stress Induced by Vanadium of Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Cui, R Y; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Xuan, Y; Su, Z W

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effect of vanadium (V) in high-fat diet on the liver and kidney of rats in a 5-week trial. Seventy-two female Wistar rats (BW = 95 ± 5 g) were randomly allotted into eight groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV obtained low-fat diet containing 0, 3, 15, and 30 mg/kg V, and V, VI, VII, and VIII groups received the respective vanadium doses with high-fat diet, respectively. There were lesions in the liver and kidney of V, VI, VII, and VIII groups, granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration were observed in the renal tubular and glomerulus epithelial cells, and hepatocytes showed granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration. Supplemented high-fat diet with vanadium was shown to decrease (P < 0.05) activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione-S transferase, and NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and increase malondialdehyde content in the liver and kidney. The relative expression of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and NQO1 mRNA was downregulated by V addition and high-fat diet, and the effect of V was more pronounced in high-fat diet (interaction, P < 0.05), with VIII group having the lowest mRNA expression of Nrf-2 and NQO1 in the liver and kidney. In conclusion, it suggested that dietary vanadium ranging from 15 to 30 mg/kg could lead to oxidative damage and vanadium accumulation in the liver and kidney, which caused renal and hepatic toxicity. The high-fat diet enhanced vanadium-induced hepatic and renal damage, and the mechanism was related to the modulation of the hepatic and renal mRNA expression of Nrf-2 and NQO1.

  16. Montelukast and irbesartan ameliorate metabolic and hepatic disorders in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Abdelzaher, Walaa Y; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2014-02-05

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global health problem. Elucidation of the role of 5- lipooxygenase/leukotriene pathway and renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of MetS suggests a variety of potential therapies worthy of testing. The present work investigated the effect of montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist and/or irbesartan, an angiotensin II-receptor blocker, in the prevention of fructose-induced MetS in rats. Rats were allocated into 9 groups and treated for 6 weeks as follow: normal control; MetS group (received 20% fructose); MetS+montelukast groups (treated with montelukast, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively); MetS+irbesartan groups (treated withirbesartan 15, 30, and 45 mg/kg/day, respectively); and MetS+montelukast+irbesartan group (co treated with montelukast 5 mg/kg plus irbesartan 15 mg/g). Metabolic parameters (visceral fat index, liver index, insulin resistance, and serum lipid profile), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and catalase), and inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, and uric acid) were measured. Expression of caspase-3 in hepatic tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Liver injury was evaluated by histopathological examination and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Montelukast, irbesartan, and their combination caused significant attenuation in metabolic and hepatic disorders. Their effect was associated with attenuation of oxidative stress markers, inflammatory mediators, and caspase-3 expression. This study highlighted the protective effects of montelukast and irbesartan against fructose-induced metabolic and hepatic disorders. The protective effect of either drug relies, at least in part, on their antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect, as well as on the reduction of caspase-3 expression in hepatic tissue.

  17. Phenobarbital in the genetically obese Zucker rat. II. In vivo and in vitro assessments of microsomal enzyme induction.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, K L; Kostenbauder, H B; McNamara, P J; Blouin, R A

    1984-12-01

    In vivo and in vitro alterations in drug metabolism and the extent of enzyme induction of the hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 system were evaluated in obese and lean Zucker and lean Sprague-Dawley rats. Phenobarbital enzyme-inducing regimens were administered p.o. to achieve similar steady-state phenobarbital plasma concentrations. Control rats received p.o. placebo solution. No significant intra- or inter-strain differences in antipyrine clearance (milliliters per hour) or apparent volume of distribution (liters) were observed between the placebo-treated lean Sprague-Dawley, lean Zucker and obese Zucker rats. Intra- and inter-strain differences in hepatic microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 content were observed. Compared to placebo, antipyrine clearance (milliliters per hour) after chronic phenobarbital pretreatment was increased in the Sprague-Dawley (198%) and lean Zucker rats (131%), but not significantly altered in the obese Zucker rats. Similarly, increases in hepatic weight, whole liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 content were also observed in the Sprague-Dawley (34, 124 and 352%, respectively) and the lean Zucker rats (24, 96 and 249%, respectively). However, no significant alterations in these parameters were observed in the obese Zucker rats after phenobarbital treatment. Results from these in vivo and in vitro studies implicate alterations in drug metabolism and genetic differences in cytochrome P-450 content in Zucker rats relative to the Sprague-Dawley strain. Obese Zucker rats failed to exhibit a significant induction response after phenobarbital pretreatment.

  18. Inhibitory effects of curcumin on activity of cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme in human and 2C11 in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Sun, Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ke; Wang, Li; Xia, Meng-Ming; Cui, Xiao; Hu, Guo-Xin; Wang, Zeng-Shou

    2015-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), one of the most important phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, could catalyze the reactions that convert diclofenanc into diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. Evaluation of the inhibitory effects of compounds on CYP2C9 is clinically important because inhibition of CYP2C9 could result in serious drug-drug interactions. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of curcumin on CYP2C9 in human and cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11) in rat liver microsomes. The results showed that curcumin inhibited CYP2C9 activity (10 µmol L(-1) diclofenac) with half-maximal inhibition or a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 15.25 µmol L(-1) and Ki = 4.473 µmol L(-1) in human liver microsomes. Curcumin's mode of action on CYP2C9 activity was noncompetitive for the substrate diclofenanc and uncompetitive for the cofactor NADPH. In contrast to its potent inhibition of CYP2C9 in human, diclofenanc had lesser effects on CYP2C11 in rat, with an IC50 ≥100 µmol L(-1). The observations imply that curcumin has the inhibitory effects on CYP2C9 activity in human. These in vitro findings suggest that more attention should be paid to special clinical caution when intake of curcumin combined with other drugs in treatment.

  19. Therapeutic Effect of Captopril, Pentoxifylline, and Cordyceps Sinensis in Pre-Hepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed F.; El-Maraghy, Nabila N.; Ghaney, Rasha H. Abdel; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Patients and Methods: Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Results: Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level. PMID:22626797

  20. Reasons for reduced activities of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase in spite of increased contents of cytochrome P-450 in mature rat testis fetally irradiated with 60Co.

    PubMed

    Inano, H; Ishii-Ohba, H; Suzuki, K; Ikeda, K

    1990-05-01

    Pregnant rats received whole body irradiation with 2.6 Gy gamma-ray from a 60Co source at Day 20 of gestation. When pups were 4 months old, activities of electron transport system and steroid monooxygenase in tests were assayed. The content of total cytochrome P-450 in the irradiated testes had increased to 170% of that in non-irradiated rats, but NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity had reduced to 36% of the control. Also, amounts of cytochrome b5 in testicular microsomal fraction were decreased markedly after irradiation, but no significant change of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activity was observed in the treated pups. Because both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase activities tended to be decreased by fetal irradiation, testosterone production from progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was reduced to about 30% of the control. From these results, it has been suggested that the testicular cytochrome P-450 is radioresistant but steroid monooxygenase activities are reduced after the fetal irradiation. We propose that the discrepancy arises from the marked decrement of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity.

  1. Rats fed fructose-enriched diets have characteristics of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takahiro; Igarashi, Kanji; Koeda, Tatsuki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Hayashi, Shuichi; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2009-11-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are increasing in adults and are likely to be increasing in children. Both conditions are hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome. Experimental animals fed fructose-enriched diets are widely recognized as good models for metabolic syndrome. However, few reports have described the hepatic pathology of these experimental animals. In this study, 5-wk-old Wistar specific pathogen-free rats, which are a normal strain, were fed experimental diets for 5 wk. We then evaluated the degree of steatohepatitis. The 5 diet groups were as follows: cornstarch (70% wt:wt) [control (C)], high-fructose (70%) (HFr), high-sucrose (70%) (HS), high-fat (15%) (HF), and high-fat (15%) high-fructose (50%) (HFHFr) diets. The macrovesicular steatosis grade, liver:body weight ratio, and hepatic triglyceride concentration were significantly higher in the HFr group than in the other 4 groups. However, the HFr group had a significantly lower ratio of epididymal white fat:body weight than the other 4 groups and had a lower final body weight than the HF and HFHFr groups. The HF group had a greater final body weight than the C, HFr, and HS groups, but no macrovesicular steatosis was observed. The HFr group had a significantly higher grade of lobular inflammation than the other 4 groups. The distribution of lobular inflammation was predominant over portal inflammation, which is consistent with human NASH. In conclusion, rats fed fructose-enriched diets are a better model for NASH than rats fed fat-enriched diets.

  2. Effect of DDT on hepatic gap junctional intercellular communication in rats.

    PubMed

    Tateno, C; Ito, S; Tanaka, M; Oyamada, M; Yoshitake, A

    1994-03-01

    The effects of in vivo exposure to DDT on hepatic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and connexin gene/protein expression in Sprague-Dawley rats were examined by in vivo/in vitro dye-transfer assay, immunohistochemical staining, and by Western and Northern blot analyses. In the dose-response study, three dose levels of DDT (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to rats once a day for 2 weeks. The average size of the dye spread after injection of Lucifer Yellow and the area of Cx32 spots per hepatocyte decreased in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no effect on the number of Cx32 spots per hepatocyte. In the time-course study, DDT (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally once a day for up to 6 weeks. Hepatic GJIC decreased at week 1 but recovered at week 6. The average area of Cx32 spots per hepatocyte gradually decreased at weeks 2 and 4, and remained at the same level at week 6, correlating with the decreased Cx32 protein level in plasma membranes. The average area of Cx26 spots per hepatocyte in the peripheral zones clearly decreased at week 1, but quickly recovered at week 2 and increased at week 6; however, no clear change of the Cx26 protein level in plasma membranes was observed. No changes of Cx32 and Cx26 mRNA levels were observed in DDT groups. These results suggest that DDT, a liver tumor-promoting agent, inhibits hepatic GJIC in vivo dose-dependently in rats and that aberrant Cx32 and Cx26 protein expression and/or localization may be responsible for this effect.

  3. Hepatic lipid metabolism changes in short- and long-term prehepatic portal hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Maria-Angeles; Vara, Elena; García, Cruz; Nava, Maria-Paz; Angulo, Alejandra; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Calderón, Ana; Vergara, Patri; Arias, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To verify the impairment of the hepatic lipid metabolism in prehepatic portal hypertension. METHODS: The concentrations of free fatty acids, diacylglycerol, triglycerides, and phospholipids were assayed by using D-[U-14C] glucose incorporation in the different lipid fractions and thin-layer chromatography and cholesterol was measured by spectrophotometry, in liver samples of Wistar rats with partial portal vein ligation at short- (1 mo) and long-term (1 year) (i.e. portal hypertensive rats) and the control rats. RESULTS: In the portal hypertensive rats, liver phospholipid synthesis significantly decreased (7.42 ± 0.50 vs 4.70 ± 0.44 nCi/g protein; P < 0.01) and was associated with an increased synthesis of free fatty acids (2.08 ± 0.14 vs 3.36 ± 0.33 nCi/g protein; P < 0.05), diacylglycerol (1.93 ± 0.2 vs 2.26 ± 0.28 nCi/g protein), triglycerides (2.40 ± 0.30 vs 4.49 ± 0.15 nCi/g protein) and cholesterol (24.28 ± 2.12 vs 57.66 ± 3.26 mg/g protein; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Prehepatic portal hypertension in rats impairs the liver lipid metabolism. This impairment consists in an increase in lipid deposits (triglycerides, diacylglycerol and cholesterol) in the liver, accompanied by a decrease in phospholipid synthesis. PMID:17106932

  4. Hepatoprotection by freshwater clam extract against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Chen; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater clam is traditionally used as a food and has been mentioned in ancient books to have a hepatoprotective effect. The hepatoprotective effect of freshwater clam extract was evaluated in the model of chronic hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with freshwater clam extract (0.3, 0.6 and 1.5 g/kg of bw) or silymarin (0.2 g/kg of bw) along with the administration of CCl4 (0.5 ml/rat, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) for eight consecutive weeks. Blood samples were collected for assaying serum biochemical parameters. The livers were excised for evaluating peroxidation products and antioxidant substances, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Pathological histology was also performed. The data showed that supplementation of freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in rats treated with CCl4, and also decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroxyproline and excessive inflammation in the livers of CCl4-treated rats. Histopathological analysis of the liver showed that freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) markedly reduced the injury score of the fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. The data suggest that oral administration with freshwater clam extract might provide a novel and alternative approach for treating chronic liver failure.

  5. Alteration of the mutagenicity 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine by modifiers of rat hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Iba, M.M.

    1986-03-05

    The involvement of arene oxides in the activation of benzidines was assessed by examining the effect of (I) the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor trichloropropylene oxide (TCPO), (II) purified rat liver microsomal (P) epoxide hydrolase (EH), and (III) pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital (PB) on hepatic Sg- or P-catalyzed mutagenicity of benzidine (BZ) and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (DCB) to Salmonella TA 98. When catalyzed by Sg from untreated rats, the mutagenicity of DCB and BZ was 601 +/- 101 and 79 +/- 25 (His/sup +/ revertants/plate) respectively, but was 345 +/- 55 and 226 +/- 30 respectively, when catalyzed by microsomes (P) from untreated rats. PB-pretreatment enhanced the Sg-catalyzed mutagenicity of DCB and BZ (2.3-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively) and the P-catalyzed mutagenicity of DCB (1.7-fold), but totally inhibited the P-catalyzed mutagenicity of BZ. In TCPO-supplemented activating systems from PB-pretreated rats, the mutagenicity of DCB was enhanced in both Sg and P (1.9-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively), whereas that of BZ was unchanged. Added EH enhanced the P-catalyzed mutagenicity of DCB (1.4-fold) but had no effect on that of BZ, suggesting that the activity of the enzyme on DCB metabolites may not be entirely detoxifying. The data suggest that epoxidation may contribute to the activation of DCB but not BZ.

  6. Deregulation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity Induced by Central Lipid Infusion in Rats Is Mediated by Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Marsollier, Nicolas; Kassis, Nadim; Mezghenna, Karima; Soty, Maud; Fioramonti, Xavier; Lacombe, Amélie; Joly, Aurélie; Pillot, Bruno; Zitoun, Carine; Vilar, José; Mithieux, Gilles; Gross, René; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Routh, Vanessa; Magnan, Christophe; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline

    2009-01-01

    Background Deregulation of hypothalamic fatty acid sensing lead to hepatic insulin-resistance which may partly contribute to further impairment of glucose homeostasis. Methodology We investigated here whether hypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) could mediate deleterious peripheral effect of central lipid overload. Thus we infused rats for 24 hours into carotid artery towards brain, either with heparinized triglyceride emulsion (Intralipid, IL) or heparinized saline (control rats). Principal Findings Lipids infusion led to hepatic insulin-resistance partly related to a decreased parasympathetic activity in the liver assessed by an increased acetylcholinesterase activity. Hypothalamic nitric oxide synthases (NOS) activities were significantly increased in IL rats, as the catalytically active neuronal NOS (nNOS) dimers compared to controls. This was related to a decrease in expression of protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN). Effect of IL infusion on deregulated hepatic insulin-sensitivity was reversed by carotid injection of non selective NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and also by a selective inhibitor of the nNOS isoform, 7-Nitro-Indazole (7-Ni). In addition, NO donor injection (L-arginine and SNP) within carotid in control rats mimicked lipid effects onto impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity. In parallel we showed that cultured VMH neurons produce NO in response to fatty acid (oleic acid). Conclusions/Significance We conclude that cerebral fatty acid overload induces an enhancement of nNOS activity within hypothalamus which is, at least in part, responsible fatty acid increased hepatic glucose production. PMID:19680547

  7. Synbiotics reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation by improving intestinal permeability and microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wan-Chun; Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Ya-Ling; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Yang, Suh-Ching

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and animal experiments indicated that gut-derived endotoxin and imbalanced intestinal microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In this study, we investigated whether synbiotic supplementation could improve ALD in rats by altering the intestinal microbial composition and improving the intestinal integrity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and subjected to either a normal liquid diet (C), a normal liquid diet with synbiotic supplementation (C + S), an ethanol liquid diet (E), or an ethanol liquid diet with synbiotic supplementation (E + S) for 12 weeks. Results revealed that the ethanol-fed group showed increases in plasma AST and ALT activities, the endotoxin level, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) level, and hepatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels, and a decrease in the hepatic IL-10 level. Ethanol-feeding also contributed to increased intestinal permeability and decreased fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli amounts. However, synbiotic supplementation effectively attenuated the plasma endotoxin, hepatic TG and TNF-α levels, and increased the hepatic IL-10 level. Furthermore, synbiotic supplementation protected the rats against ethanol-induced hyperpermeability of the intestine, and significantly increased amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the feces. This study demonstrated that synbiotics possess a novel hepatoprotective function by improving the intestinal permeability and microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury.

  8. Effects of salvianolic acids on oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.-K.; Lin, Y.-L.; Huang, Y.-T.

    2010-01-15

    Enhanced oxidative stress is associated with hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acids A (Sal A) and B (Sal B) have been reported to be strong polyphenolic antioxidants and free radical scavengers. The present study is to investigate if Sal A and B could attenuate oxidative stress and liver fibrosis in rats. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, 10 ng/ml). The inhibitory effects of Sal A and B on intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels were measured with dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) dye assay. alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits were measured by Western blotting. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg) twice per week for 6 weeks. Sal A (10 mg/kg), Sal B (50 mg/kg) or S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe, 10 mg/kg), was given by gavage twice per day consecutively for 4 weeks starting 2 weeks after TAA injection. In vitro, PDGF increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in HSCs, which was attenuated by Sal A (10 muM) and Sal B (200 muM). Sal A and B attenuated the PDGF-stimulated expressions of alpha-SMA and NADPH oxidase subunits gp91{sup phox} and p47{sup phox} in membrane fractions. In vivo studies showed that the hepatic levels of collagen, malondialdehyde, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta, fibrosis scores and protein expressions of alpha-SMA, heme-oxygenase-1, iNOS, and gp91{sup phox}, and serum levels of ALT, AST, IL-6, and IL-1beta were increased in TAA-intoxicated rats, all of which were attenuated by 4-week treatment of Sal A or Sal B. Our results showed that Sal A and B attenuated PDGF-induced ROS formation in HSCs, possibly through inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Sal A and B treatments were also effective against hepatic fibrosis in TAA-intoxicated rats.

  9. Specific Inhibition of the Distribution of Lobeglitazone to the Liver by Atorvastatin in Rats: Evidence for a Rat Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1B2-Mediated Interaction in Hepatic Transport.

    PubMed

    Yim, Chang-Soon; Jeong, Yoo-Seong; Lee, Song-Yi; Pyeon, Wonji; Ryu, Heon-Min; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Kyeong-Ryoon; Maeng, Han-Joo; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2017-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes and human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 are reported to be involved in the pharmacokinetics of lobeglitazone (LB), a new peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist. Atorvastatin (ATV), a substrate for CYP3A and human OATP1B1, is likely to be coadministered with LB in patients with the metabolic syndrome. We report herein on a study of potential interactions between LB and ATV in rats. When LB was administered intravenously with ATV, the systemic clearance and volume of distribution at steady state for LB remained unchanged (2.67 ± 0.63 ml/min per kg and 289 ± 20 ml/kg, respectively), compared with that of LB without ATV (2.34 ± 0.37 ml/min per kg and 271 ± 20 ml/kg, respectively). Although the tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp) of LB was not affected by ATV in most major tissues, the liver Kp for LB was decreased by ATV coadministration. Steady-state liver Kp values for three levels of LB were significantly decreased as a result of ATV coadministration. LB uptake was inhibited by ATV in rat OATP1B2-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and in isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro. After incorporating the kinetic parameters for the in vitro studies into a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model, the characteristics of LB distribution to the liver were consistent with the findings of the in vivo study. It thus appears that the distribution of LB to the liver is mediated by the hepatic uptake of transporters such as rat OATP1B2, and carrier-mediated transport is involved in the liver-specific drug-drug interaction between LB and ATV in vivo.

  10. Detection of human lung cytochromes P450 that are immunochemically related to cytochrome P450IIE1 and cytochrome P450IIIA.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, C W; Wrighton, S A; Guenthner, T M

    1992-07-07

    We have used monoclonal antibodies that were prepared against and specifically recognize human hepatic cytochromes P450 as probes for solid phase radioimmunoassay and Western immunoblotting to directly demonstrate the presence in human lung microsomes of cytochromes P450 immunochemically related to human liver cytochromes P450IIE1 (CYP2E1) and P450IIIA (CYP3A). The detected levels of these cytochromes are much lower than levels in human liver microsomes, but similar to the levels seen in microsomes from untreated baboon lung. Proteins immunochemically related to two other constitutive hepatic cytochromes P450, cytochrome P450IIC8 (CYP2C8) and cytochrome P450IIC9 (CYP2C9), were not detectable in lung microsomes.

  11. Photodynamic effects of new silicon phthalocyanines: in vitro studies utilizing rat hepatic microsomes and human erythrocyte ghosts as model membrane sources.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S I; Agarwal, R; Eichler, G; Rihter, B D; Kenney, M E; Mukhtar, H

    1993-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is a modality that relies upon the irradiation of tumors with visible light following selective uptake of a photosensitizer by the tumor tissue. There is considerable emphasis to define new photosensitizers suitable for PDT of cancer. In this study we evaluated six phthalocyanines (Pc) for their photodynamic effects utilizing rat hepatic microsomes and human erythrocyte ghosts as model membrane sources. Of the newly synthesized Pc, two showed significant destruction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activities, and enhancement of lipid peroxidation, when added to microsomal suspension followed by irradiation with approximately 675 nm light. These two Pc named SiPc IV (HOSiPcOSi[CH3]2[CH2]3N[CH3]2) and SiPc V (HOSiPc-OSi[CH3]2[CH2]3N[CH3]3+I-) showed dose-dependent photodestruction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activities in liver microsomes, and photoenhancement of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxide formation and lipid fluorescence in microsomes and erythrocyte ghosts. Compared to chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate, SiPc IV and SiPc V produced far more pronounced photodynamic effects. Sodium azide, histidine, and 2,5-dimethylfuran, the quenchers of singlet oxygen, afforded highly significant protection against SiPc IV- and SiPc V-mediated photodynamic effects. However, to a lesser extent, the quenchers of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical also showed some protective effects. These results suggest that SiPc IV and SiPc V may be promising photosensitizers for the PDT of cancer.

  12. Strain differences in cytochrome P450 mRNA and protein expression, and enzymatic activity among Sprague Dawley, Wistar, Brown Norway and Dark Agouti rats.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Kawai, Yusuke K; Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-05-03

    Rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) exhibits inter-strain differences, but their analysis has been scattered across studies under different conditions. To identify these strain differences in CYP more comprehensively, mRNA expression, protein expression and metabolic activity among Wistar (WI), Sprague Dawley (SD), Dark Agouti (DA) and Brown Norway (BN) rats were compared. The mRNA level and enzymatic activity of CYP1A1 were highest in SD rats. The rank order of Cyp3a2 mRNA expression mirrored its protein expression, i.e., DA>BN>SD>WI, and was similar to the CYP3A2-dependent warfarin metabolic activity, i.e., DA>SD>BN>WI. These results suggest that the strain differences in CYP3A2 enzymatic activity are caused by differences in mRNA expression. Cyp2b1 mRNA levels, which were higher in DA rats, did not correlate with its protein expression or enzymatic activity. This suggests that the strain differences in enzymatic activity are not related to Cyp2b1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, WI rats tended to have the lowest CYP1A1, 2B1 and 3A2 mRNA expression, protein expression and enzymatic activity among the strains. In addition, SD rats had the highest CYP1A1 mRNA expression and activity, while DA rats had higher CYP2B1 and CYP3A2 mRNA and protein expression. These inter-strain differences in CYP could influence pharmacokinetic considerations in preclinical toxicological studies.

  13. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Govatati, Suresh; Matha, Sumanth Kumar; Korla, Swapna Vahini; Malempati, Sravanthi; Pasupuleti, Sreenivasa Rao; Bhanoori, Manjula; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2017-05-01

    The present study principally sought to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in alcohol receiving rats. MtDNA was isolated from hepatic tissues of albino wistar rats after alcohol treatment with and without GTE supplementation. Entire displacement loop (D-loop) of mtDNA was screened by PCR-Sanger's sequencing method. In addition, mtDNA deletions and antioxidant activity were measured in hepatic tissue of all rats. Results showed increased frequency of D-loop mutations in alcoholic rats (ALC). DNA mfold analysis predicted higher free energy for 15507C and 16116C alleles compared to their corresponding wild alleles which represents less stable secondary structures with negative impact on overall mtDNA function. Interestingly, D-loop mutations observed in ALC rats were successfully restored on GTE supplementation. MtDNA deletions were observed in ALC rats, but intact native mtDNA was found in ALC + GTE group suggesting alcohol induced oxidative damage of mtDNA and ameliorative effect of GTE. Furthermore, markedly decreased activities of glutathione peroxidise, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content were identified in ALC rats; however, GTE supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) restored these levels close to normal. In conclusion, green tea could be used as an effective nutraceutical against alcohol induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

  14. Anticytoproliferative effect of Vitamin C on rat hepatic stellate cell

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Chao, Guo; Liang, Minqing; Song, Jianhua; Wu, Ka

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potential therapeutical benefit of Vitamin (VC), a potent antioxidant, on suppressing proliferation of immortalized rat liver stellate cell line (HSC-T6) in vitro, and to discuss the underlying mechanism. HSC-T6 was co-treated with different concentrations of VC (50, 100, 200 μmol/L) on designed time points. Then, cell viability was assessed by using MTT analysis, and the changes of cytomorphology was observed with apoptosis-specific TUNEL and immunohistochemical stains, as well as the intracellular target genes was determined by using RT-PCR, respectively. As the outcomes, VC-treated HSC-T6 showed significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the vehicle control. Cytologically, VC increased TUNEL-labeled positive cells in cultured HSC-T6, which the cell count was greater than vehicle control. Meanwhile, VC-treated HSC-T6 showed elevated immunoreactive for TGF-β1-labeled cells. Moreover, VC contributed to down-regulated expressions of intracellular c-myc, cyclin D1, mTOR mRNAs in HSC-T6. Collectively, these preliminary findings have demonstrated that VC-mediated anti-proliferative effect on HSCs is involved in molecular mechanisms of promoting apoptosis and blocking endogenous collagenation. PMID:27398165

  15. Duodenal-jejunal bypass normalizes pancreatic islet proliferation rate and function but not hepatic steatosis in hypothalamic obese rats.

    PubMed

    Cantelli, K R; Soares, G M; Ribeiro, R A; Balbo, S L; Lubaczeuski, C; Boschero, A C; Araújo, A C F; Bonfleur, M L

    2017-03-30

    Modifications in life-style and/or pharmacotherapies contribute to weight loss and ameliorate the metabolic profile of diet-induced obese humans and rodents. Since these strategies fail to treat hypothalamic obesity, we have assessed the possible mechanisms by which duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and the morphophysiology of pancreatic islets, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. During the first 5 days of life, male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate (4 g/kg body weight, HyO group), or saline (CTL). At 90 days of age, HyO rats were randomly subjected to DJB (HyO DJB group) or sham surgery (HyO Sham group). HyO Sham rats were morbidly obese, insulin resistant, hypertriglyceridemic and displayed higher serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and hepatic triglyceride (TG). These effects were associated with higher expressions of the lipogenic genes and fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein content in the liver. Furthermore, hepatic genes involved in β-oxidation and TG export were down-regulated in HyO rats. In addition, these rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, β-cell hypersecretion, a higher percentage of islets and β-cell area/pancreas section, and enhanced nuclear content of Ki67 protein in islet-cells. At 2 months after DJB surgery, serum concentrations of TG and NEFA, but not hepatic TG accumulation and gene and protein expressions, were normalized in HyO rats. Insulin release and Ki67 positive cells were also normalized in HyO DJB islets. In conclusion, DJB decreased islet-cell proliferation, normalized insulinemia, and ameliorated insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile, independently of changes in hepatic metabolism.

  16. Reduction of manganese intake improves neuropsychological manifestations in rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Mei, Li Hong; Qiang, Jin Wei; Ji, Chang Xue; Ju, Shuai

    2017-04-07

    Brain manganese deposition is led by liver dysfunction and/or portal-systemic shunting in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Manganese is toxic and can cause cognitive disorders and extrapyramidal symptoms. Thus, reduction of manganese intake might be considered as a potential treatment strategy for MHE. In this study we aimed to investigate whether low- or no-manganese feed can improve the neuropsychological manifestations in MHE rats. Rats with MHE were established by partially ligating the portal vein and fed a manganese diet (MHE-M, 10mg per kg feed; n=24), a no-manganese diet (MHE-N; n=24) and a half-manganese diet (MHE-H; n=24) for 2, 4, 6 and 8weeks, with six rats in each subgroup. Morris water maze (MWM), open-field test and narrow beam test (NBT) were used to evaluate the cognitive and locomotor situations. Fasted blood ammonia, manganese content and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in basal ganglia and cortex were measured. A significantly longer MWM escape latency, less locomotor activity, longer NBT latency and total time, higher blood ammonia, higher brain manganese content and GS activity were found in MHE-M rats. However, a significantly shorter MWM escape latency, increased locomotor activity, shorter NBT latency and total time, lower blood ammonia, lower brain manganese content and lower GS activity were found in MHE-N rats after no-manganese feed treatment. Partial improvements were found in MHE rats with half-manganese feed treatment. Reduction of manganese intake can significantly improve the cognitive and locomotor situations in MHE rats by reducing brain manganese content and regulating GS activity.

  17. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in relation to in vitro metabolism/inhibition of polychlorinated biphenyls and testosterone in Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Boon, Jan P; Lewis, Wilma E; van den Berg, Martin; Nyman, Madeleine; Letcher, Robert J

    2003-03-01

    Among other factors, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity determines polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and toxicity in exposed species. We measured the oxidative metabolism in vitro of 12 PCB congeners, representing structural groups based on the number and position of the chlorine atoms, by the hepatic microsomes of one Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). Microsomal metabolism was observed for several PCBs with vicinal H atoms exclusively in the ortho and meta positions and without any ortho-Cl substituents (CB-15 [4,4'-Cl2] and CB-77 [3,3',4,4'-Cl4]), vicinal meta and para-H atoms (CB-52 [2,2',5,5'-Cl4], and -101 [2,2',4,5,5'-Cl5]) or with both characteristics in combination with either only one ortho-Cl (CB-26 [2,3',5-Cl3], CB-31 [2,4',5-Cl3]) or two ortho-Cl substituents (CB-44 [2,2',3,5'-Cl4]). To allocate PCB biotransformation to specific CYPs, the inhibitive effect of compounds with known CYP-specific inhibition properties was assessed on in vitro PCB metabolism and on regio- and stereospecific testosterone hydroxylase activities. Metabolic inhibition was considered relevant at concentrations < or = 1.0 microM because these inhibitors became decreasingly selective at higher concentrations. At < 1.0 microM, ellipticine (CYPIAI/2 inhibitor) selectively inhibited CB-15, -26, -31, and -77 metabolism, with no significant inhibition of CB-44, -52, and -101 metabolism. Inhibition of CB-52 and -101 metabolism by chloramphenicol (CYP2B inhibitor) started at 1.0 microM and maximized at about 100% at 10 microM. Ketoconazole (CYP3A inhibitor) appeared to selectively inhibit CB-26, -31, and -44 metabolism relative to CB-15, -77, and -52 at concentrations < or = 1.0 microM. Major testosterone metabolites formed in vitro were 2beta-(CYP3A), 6beta- (CYP3A, CYPIA), and 16beta- (CYP2B) hydroxytestosterone and androstenedione (CYP2B, CYP2C11). The CYP forms indicated are associated with the specific metabolism of testosterone in laboratory

  18. Interactions of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics on hepatic pregnane X receptor and cytochrome P450 3A signaling pathway in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Wassmur, Britt; Gräns, Johanna; Kling, Peter; Celander, Malin C

    2010-10-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily and is commonly described as a xenophore or a pharmacophore, as it can be activated by a wide array of xenobiotics, including numerous pharmaceuticals and other environmental pollutants. The PXR regulates expression of e.g. cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that are involved in excretion of lipophilic xenobiotics and endobiotics. A full length PXR cDNA was isolated from rainbow trout liver and it was expressed in a descending order of magnitude in liver>intestine>kidney>heart. A rainbow trout PXR reporter assay was developed and a suite of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics were screened. However, no specific activation of rainbow trout PXR was observed with the substances tested. Interactions of prototypical PXR agonists on PXR signaling in rainbow trout were further investigated in cells of hepatic origin exposed in vitro and in juvenile rainbow trout exposed in vivo. The rainbow trout hepatoma cell line (RTH-149), displayed 600 times lower expression of CYP3A mRNA compared to primary cultures of hepatocytes, and did not respond to treatment with either pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), ketoconazole (KCZ) or rifampicin (RIF), which implies a non-functional PXR in this cell line. Exposure of hepatocytes to PCN and lithocholic acid (LA), resulted in a weak concentration-dependent induction of CYP3A and P-gp mRNA levels, though, exposure to the higher concentration of LA (50 μM) decreased PXR mRNA levels. Exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) resulted in a decrease in PXR mRNA, without affecting CYP3A mRNA levels in hepatocytes in vitro. Injections of rainbow trout in vivo with 1 mg LA/kg fish resulted in a slight (albeit not significant) increase in CYP3A mRNA levels without affecting PXR mRNA levels. Although, injection with 10mg omeprazole (OME)/kg fish had no effect on PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels, a 60% inhibition of CYP3A enzyme activities was evident

  19. Effects of Lactobacillus fermented soymilk and soy yogurt on hepatic lipid accumulation in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    PubMed

    Kitawaki, Ryoko; Nishimura, Yuko; Takagi, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Kimiko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effects of lactic acid fermented soymilk, in which part of the soymilk was replaced with okara (soy yogurt), on plasma and hepatic lipid profiles in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Additionally, we investigated the effects of soy yogurt on hepatic gene expression in rats using DNA microarray analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 weeks (n=5/group) were fed a control diet (AIN-93) or a test diet in which 20% of the diet was replaced by soy yogurt for 7 weeks. Soy yogurt consumption did not affect body weight or adipose tissue weight as compared with control diet. In the soy yogurt group, the liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly lower than the control group, and the level of plasma cholesterol was also lower. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis indicated that soy yogurt ingestion down-regulated the expression of the SREBP-1 gene and enzymes related to lipogenesis in the rat liver, while expression of beta-oxidation-related genes was up-regulated. These results suggest that soy yogurt is beneficial in preventing hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.

  20. Intermittent hypoxia upregulates hepatic heme oxygenase-1 and ferritin-1, thereby limiting hepatic pathogenesis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and a high-fat diet (HFD) reproduce SAS and NAFLD, respectively, in rodents. In this study, rats were fed either an HFD or a standard diet (SD) for 2 weeks, and breathed either IH air or normoxic air for 4 days (early phase) or 6 weeks (late phase), with the same diets maintained during the exposure. HFD increased hepatic lipid accumulation, as detected by oil-red staining and triglyceride content. However, IH exposure reversed the hepatic steatosis at the late phase in these HFD-rats. IH exposure also increased hepatic expression of HO-1 and iron-binding protein ferritin-1 at the late phase, in association with increase in serum iron, bilirubin, and hepatic levels of lipid peroxides, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). IH exposure increased serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb) at the early phase and immunofluorescence of Hb and HO-1 in CD68-positive Kupffer cells (KCs) at the late phase. These findings support that IH induces erythrocytosis, erythro-phagocytosis, and generation of Hb in the KCs. The Hb promotes HO-1 expression in KCs, thereby produces iron, bilirubin, and carbon monoxide (CO). The iron would be either sequestrated by ferritin-1, transferred to the bone marrow for erythropoiesis, or would produce hydroxyradicals and HNE in the liver of rats fed an HFD. HNE might also contribute to the upregulation of HO-1, transferrin-1, and IκB, thereby limiting hepatic steatosis and inflammation via inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation.

  1. On the Mechanisms Responsible for Selection of Hepatic Veins as Target for Thrombosis Following Injection of Endotoxin in Hyperlipemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Jean-Gilles; Léger, Claudette; Renaud, Serge; Simard, Pierre

    1974-01-01

    The feeding of a butter-rich diet, to sensitize rats for studying the phenomenon of hepatic vein thrombosis, is shown to produce severe liver steatosis leading to a sinusoidal barrage and portal hypertension. The portal pressure in these animals was 210 ± 4 mm of saline, as compared to 113 ± 3 mm in the normal rat. Blood circulation studies using carbon suspensions revealed production of a vascular stasis in the hepatic veins after 60 to 90 minutes, when endotoxin (Salmonella typhosa, 0.3 mg/kg) is introduced into the blood circulation to initiate hepatic vein thrombosis. Similar results were observed after 15 minutes with ellagic acid (1 mg/kg/min). The stasis was found in connection with an additional intrahepatic resistance to blood flow as evidenced by a rise in portal pressure and by a reduction in liver perfusion in relation with development of systemic hypotension. In contrast with this, endotoxin initiated only slight and transient changes in the normal rat. Thrombosis immediately followed production of stasis in the hepatic vein, whether the phenomenon was initiated by endotoxin or ellagic acid. Furthermore, inhibition of the vascular stasis of α-adrenergic blockade (phenoxybenzamine, 3 mg/kg) was accompanied by prevention of hepatic vein thrombosis. It is concluded that stasis in the hepatic veins resulting from a mechanical obstruction of the circulation by steatosis and by an additional reduction in blood flow initiated by endotoxin, is responsible for selection of hepatic veins as targets for thrombosis following injection of endotoxin in hyperlipemic rats. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4843382

  2. Genistein Alleviates Neuroinflammation and Restores Cognitive Function in Rat Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Husain, Mohammad

    2017-02-21

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from acute liver failure. Previously, we demonstrated hepatoprotective effects of genistein in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). In this study, we evaluated behavioural and neuroprotective effects of genistein in rat model of HE. HE was induced by intraperitonial administration of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 30 days Genistein was given as co-treatment through oral gavage daily at dose of 5 mg/kg BW. D-GalN administration significantly resulted in acute liver failure which was further associated with hyperammonemia, neurological dysfunction, as evident from behavioural and functional impairment and reduced learning ability in Morris water maze. Genistein significantly alleviated behavioural and functional impairment and restored learning ability in Morris water maze. Considerable histopathological changes, including portal inflammation, sinusoidal dilation, necrotic lesions and swelled astrocytes with pale nuclei, were seen in the liver and brain sections of D-GalN-challenged rats while genistein co-treated rats revealed normal cellular and morphological architecture as no pathological features were seen. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory markers (interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, IL-1β and TNF-α) and membrane expression of subunits α1 of GABAA receptor and GluR2 of AMPA marked significant increase, while subunits GluR1 of AMPA receptors showed reduced expression in D-GalN-challenged rats leading to neuroinflammation and dysregulated neurotransmission. Genistein significantly normalized altered expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and membrane receptor of GABA and GluR. Our study suggests strong therapeutic potential of genistein in animal model of HE. Genistein can be used a strong anti-oxidant to attenuate neurotoxic effects of xenobiotics.

  3. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet.

  4. Ethanol feeding enhances age-related deterioration of the rat hepatic mitochondrion

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Alan; Hershman, Stuart; Davies, Adrian; Sykora, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding damages the hepatic mitochondrion by increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidation, lowering mtDNA yields and impairing mitochondrial respiration. These effects are also seen during aging. By employing a 21-day chronic feeding regimen, we investigated the effects of ethanol consumption on mtDNA content and mitochondrial respiration in 2-, 12-, and 24-mo-old male rats. Aging resulted in decreased mtDNA content, increased mtDNA damage (as indicated by inhibition of Taq polymerase progression), and a decline in state 3 respiration; effects that were further exacerbated by ethanol feeding. Additionally, ethanol consumption caused an increase in the levels of citrate synthase while not impacting mitochondrial protein content. In conclusion, ethanol and aging combine to cause deterioration in the structural and functional integrity of the hepatic mitochondrion. The additive effects of aging and ethanol feeding may have serious consequences for hepatic energy metabolism in aged animals, and their detrimental combination may serve as one of the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:16020655

  5. Determinants of hepatic function in liver cirrhosis in the rat. Multivariate analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Reichen, J; Egger, B; Ohara, N; Zeltner, T B; Zysset, T; Zimmermann, A

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the determinants of hepatic clearance functions in a rat model of liver cirrhosis induced by phenobarbital/CCl4. Aminopyrine N-demethylation (ABT), galactose elimination (GBT), and serum bile acids (SBA) were determined in vivo. The livers were then characterized hemodynamically: intrahepatic shunting (IHS) was determined by microspheres and sinusoidal capillarization by measuring the extravascular albumin space (EVA) by a multiple indicator dilution technique. The intrinsic clearance was determined by assaying the activity of the rate-limiting enzymes in vitro. Hepatocellular volume (HCV) was measured by morphometry. ABT and SBA, but not GBT, differentiated cirrhotic from normal liver. IHS ranged from normal to 10%; all cirrhotic livers showed evidence of sinusoidal capillarization (reduced EVA). The cirrhotic livers showed a bimodal distribution of HCV, HCV being decreased in 50% of the cirrhotic livers. Multivariate analysis showed EVA and portal flow to be the main determinants of microsomal (ABT) and cytosolic (GBT) clearance function; SBA, by contrast, were determined solely by IHS. We conclude that sinusoidal capillarization is the main determinant of hepatic clearance, while serum bile acids reflect intrahepatic shunting. These findings emphasize the importance of alterations of hepatic nutritional flow to explain reduced clearance function in cirrhosis of the liver. PMID:3198765

  6. Influence of dietary supplementation with dextrin or oligofructose on the hepatic redox balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kozmus, Carina E P; Moura, Eduardo; Serrão, Maria P; Real, Helena; Guimarães, João T; Guedes-de-Pinho, Paula; Duarte, Barbara P; Marques, Franklim; Martins, Maria João; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A

    2011-11-01

    We assessed the impact of oligofructose (OFS) and dextrin (DEX) as diet supplements on hepatic redox state. Rats were fed either a 10% OFS or a 10% DEX supplemented diet for 9 wk. In the DEX diet group, the levels of hepatic protein carbonylation were decreased by 63%. Total glutathione and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were reduced in the OFS and DEX diet groups by around 20%. DEX supplementation significantly reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels resulting in a 33% increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. The activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes was not changed by either OFS or DEX supplementation. OFS supplementation caused a decrease in serum levels of triglycerides (36%), cholesterol (24%), HDL (16%) and LDL (17%). DEX supplementation only reduced triglycerides (32%) and urea (22%). Both diets increased serum levels of acetate by fivefold and propionate by twofold, but DEX diet decreased butyrate levels by 75%. Due to their different composition/structure these two dietary fibers affected metabolism in different ways. Diet supplementation with 10% DEX can potentially improve host health, by protecting the liver from protein carbonylation and by improving GSH/GSSG ratio and diet supplementation with 10% OFS can improve the lipid profile.

  7. Phospholipid and cholesterol alterations accompany structural disarray in myelin membrane of rats with hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Swapna, I; Kumar, K V Sathya Sai; Reddy, P Vijaya Bhaskar; Murthy, Ch R K; Reddanna, P; Senthilkumaran, B

    2006-08-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is often associated with a wide range of neurological symptoms which are collectively referred to as hepatic encephalopathy. Fulminant hepatic failure with associated hepatic encephalopathy has a poor prognosis with the currently available sure treatment being only liver transplantation. This is largely owing to the lack of understanding of critical factors involved in the etiology of the condition. Lipid changes have been implicated in cerebral derangements characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy. About 79% of the brain lipid is concentrated in the myelin fraction where they play an important role in ion balance and conduction of nerve impulses. Hence, in the present study we aimed to investigate changes in myelin lipid composition and structure. Myelin was isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation from cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g body weight) treated with 300 mg/kg body weight thioacetamide administered twice at 24h interval to induce hepatic encephalopathy. Significant decrease was observed in the cholesterol and phospholipids content of myelin from treated rats. Sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine content also decreased significantly following 18 h of thioacetamide administration. However, phosphatidylcholine levels remained unaltered. Transmission electron microscopic observation of myelin membrane from cerebral cortex sections showed considerable disorganization in myelin structure. Increase in malondialdehyde levels precede lipid changes leading to the speculation that oxidative damage may be the critical factor leading to decrease in the anionic phospholipids. Changes in myelin were evident only in later stages of hepatic encephalopathy indicating that myelin alteration may not play a role in early stages of hepatic encephalopathy. Nevertheless, myelin alteration may have a crucial role to play in various psycho-motor alterations during later stages of hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. The Effect of rhCygb on CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrogenesis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Wei, Wei; Chen, Bohong; Cai, Gaotai; Li, Xin; Wang, Ping; Tang, Jinping; Dong, Wenqi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the use of recombinant human cytoglobin (rhCygb) impact on hepatic fibrogenesis caused by CCl4. SD (n = 150) rats were randomly divided into three groups of normal, CCl4 model and rhCygb groups. After model establishment, rats in rhCygb groups were administered daily with rhCygb (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Histological lesions were staged according to metavir. Serum parameters including ALT, AST, HA, LN, Col III and Col IV were determined. The liver proteins were separated by 2-DE and identified. As a result, the stage of hepatic damage and liver fibrosis in rhCygb groups were significantly milder than that in CCl4 model groups. Meanwhile, rhCygb dramatically reversed serum levels of ALT and AST, and also markedly decreased the liver fibrosis markers levels of LN, HA, Col III and Col IV. In 2-DE, 33 proteins among three groups with the same changing tendency in normal and rhCygb treated groups compared with CCl4 model group were identified. GO analysis showed that several identified proteins involved in oxidative stress pathway. The study provides new insights and data for administration of rhCygb reversing CCl4-induced liver fibrosis suggesting that rhCygb might be used in the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27006085

  9. Ibuprofen hepatic encephalopathy, hepatomegaly, gastric lesion and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats.

    PubMed

    Ilic, Spomenko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Kolenc, Danijela; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Bozo; Djuzel, Viktor; Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Romic, Zeljko; Dzidic, Senka; Kalogjera, Livije; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2011-09-30

    Chronic ibuprofen (0.4 g/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 4 weeks) evidenced a series of pathologies, not previously reported in ibuprofen-dosed rats, namely hepatic encephalopathy, gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased AST and ALT serum values with prolonged sedation/unconsciousness, and weight loss. In particular, ibuprofen toxicity was brain edema, particularly in the cerebellum, with the white matter being more affected than in gray matter. In addition, damaged and red neurons, in the absence of anti-inflammatory reaction was observed, particularly in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei, but was also present although to a lesser extent in the hippocampus, dentate nucleus and Purkinje cells. An anti-ulcer peptide shown to have no toxicity, the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, 10 μg, 10 ng/kg) inhibited the pathology seen with ibuprofen (i) when given intraperitoneally, immediately after ibuprofen daily or (ii) when given in drinking water (0.16 μg, 0.16 ng/ml). Counteracted were all adverse effects, such as hepatic encephalopathy, the gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased liver serum values. In addition, BPC 157 treated rats showed no behavioral disturbances and maintained normal weight gain. Thus, apart from efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease and various wound treatments, BPC 157 was also effective when given after ibuprofen.

  10. Polymyxin B protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model of obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Dai, Chao-Liu; Peng, Song-Lin; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Chang-Jun; Xu, Yong-Qing; Zhao, Chuang

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of polymyxin B (PMB) against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats with obstructive jaundice. Thirty-six Wistar rats (eighteen each) with induced hepatic I/R injury by biliary tract ligation and recanalization were assigned to a control group (reperfused with normal saline) and a PMB group (reperfused with PMB). Indicators involving liver function, oxidation resistance, pro-inflammatory state, and anti-apoptosis effect were determined following the instructions. Compared with normal saline, PMB reperfusion resulted in a significant improvement of liver function (increase of glutathione and reduction of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), oxidation resistance (decreased malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity), alleviation of pro-inflammatory state (less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) mRNA, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1), and anti-apoptosis effect (more Bcl-2 and less Bax). PMB protects the liver from I/R injury mainly through reducing cellular oncosis and apoptosis and regulating the expression of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and ICAM-1.

  11. Sulfasalazine-induced renal and hepatic injury in rats and the protective role of taurine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Reza; Rasti, Maryam; Shirazi Yeganeh, Babak; Niknahad, Hossein; Saeedi, Arastoo; Najibi, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sulfasalazine is a drug commonly administrated against inflammatory-based disorders. On the other hand, kidney and liver injury are serious adverse events accompanied by sulfasalazine administration. No specific therapeutic option is available against this complication. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the potential protective effects of taurine against sulfasalazine-induced kidney and liver injury in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with sulfasalazine (600 mg/kg, oral) for 14 consecutive days. Animals received different doses of taurine (250, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg, i.p.) every day. Markers of organ injury were evaluated on day 15th, 24 h after the last dose of sulfasalazine. Results: Sulfasalazine caused renal and hepatic injury as judged by an increase in serum level of creatinine (Cr), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were raised in kidney and liver of sulfasalazine-treated animals. Moreover, tissue glutathione reservoirs were depleted after sulfasalazine administration. Histopathological changes of kidney and liver also endorsed organ injury. Taurine administration (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated sulfasalazine-induced renal and hepatic damage. Conclusion: Taurine administration could serve as a potential protective agent with therapeutic capabilities against sulfasalazine adverse effects. PMID:27340618

  12. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism following a chronic ingestion of cesium-137 starting at fetal stage in rats.

    PubMed

    Racine, Radjini; Grandcolas, Line; Blanchardon, Eric; Gourmelon, Patrick; Veyssiere, Georges; Souidi, Maamar

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released many radionuclides in the environment. Some are still contaminating the ground and thus the people through dietary intake. The long-term sanitary consequences of this disaster are still unclear and several biological systems remain to be investigated. Cholesterol metabolism is of particular interest, with regard to the link established between atherosclerosis and exposure to high-dose ionizing radiations. This study assesses the effect of cesium-137 on cholesterol metabolism in rats, after a chronic exposure since fetal life. To achieve this, rat dams were contaminated with cesium-137-supplemented water from two weeks before mating until the weaning of the pups. Thereafter, the weaned rats were given direct access to the contaminated drinking water until the age of 9 months. After the sacrifice, cholesterol metabolism was investigated in the liver at gene expression and protein level. The cholesterolemia was preserved, as well as the cholesterol concentration in the liver. At molecular level, the gene expressions of ACAT 2 (a cholesterol storage enzyme), of Apolipoprotein A-I and of RXR (a nuclear receptor involved in cholesterol metabolism) were significantly decreased. In addition, the enzymatic activity of CYP27A1, which catabolizes cholesterol, was increased. The results indicate that the rats seem to adapt to the cesium-137 contamination and display modifications of hepatic cholesterol metabolism only at molecular level and within physiological range.

  13. Serological validation of an alveolar echinococcosis rat model with a single hepatic lesion

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHITA, Masamichi; IMAGAWA, Tomohiro; SAKO, Yasuhito; OKAMOTO, Munehiro; YANAGIDA, Tetsuya; OKAMOTO, Yoshiharu; TSUKA, Takeshi; OSAKI, Tomohiro; ITO, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Serology is important for the diagnosis and follow-up of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However, patient conditions are highly variable among those with AE, and antibody responses in serological follow-up have not been well-defined. We recently described a new AE rat model established by implantation of small AE tissue into a single arbitrary location in the liver; no metastasis and dissemination were observed. In the present study, we examined the serological characteristics in our rat model before and after surgical treatment. The results showed that antibody responses against crude antigens were increased at one month after transplantation and similar to those of other model animals. For the antigen Em18, antibody responses were slower in our rat model than in other animal models. After surgical resection, changes in antibody responses against Em18 were similar to those observed in human patients with AE. Because of the slow growth of lesions, establishment of a single hepatic lesion and patterns of antibody responses, our rat model may be useful for clarifying follow-up serodiagnoses in human AE and determining the mechanisms of multi-organ involvement by primary infection with oncospheres rather than metastasis. PMID:27890868

  14. Therapeutic effect of probiotic dahi on plasma, aortic, and hepatic lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod Kumar; Shah, Dilip; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Manoj; Gautam, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Birbal; Behare, Pradip Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effects of probiotic dahi prepared by Lactobacillus plantarum Lp9 and dahi culture in buffalo milk on lowering cholesterol in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic basal diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and fed with probiotic dahi, dahi, or buffalo milk for 120 days. Following the consumption of supplements (probiotic dahi, dahi or buffalo milk), the animals were fed a basal hypercholesterolemic diet. Plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides (TAGs) were decreased by 35% and 72% in rats fed with probiotic dahi group, while cholesterol levels increased by 70% and TAGs increased by 97% in buffalo milk and 59% in dahi fed groups. Supplementation of probiotic dahi further lowered plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) + very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)- cholesterol by 59%, while it elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 116%. As a result, atherogenic index, the ratio of HDL to LDL + VLDL was markedly improved. Deposition of cholesterol and TAGs in liver and aorta were significantly reduced in rats fed with probiotic dahi. These observations suggest that probiotic dahi may have therapeutic potential to decrease plasma, hepatic and aortic lipid profile, and attenuate diet-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Hepatic VLDL-TG production and MTP gene expression are decreased in ovariectomized rats: effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Barsalani, R; Chapados, N A; Lavoie, J-M

    2010-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of estrogen withdrawal and exercise training on hepatic very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) production and on expression of genes involved in hepatic VLDL synthesis in response to lipid infusion. Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ovariectomy (Ovx), sham surgery (Sham), and Ovx with 17β-estradiol supplementation (OvxE2) before being subdivided into sedentary (Sed) and trained (Tr) groups for 8 weeks. Exercise training consisted of continuous running on a rodent treadmill 5 times/wk. At the end of the 8-week period, all rats in the fasted state were intravenously infused with a 20% solution of Intralipid for 3-h followed by an injection of Triton WR-1339 to block lipoprotein lipase activity. Plasma TG accumulation was subsequently measured during 90 min to estimate VLDL-TG production. An additional control group consisting of Sham-Sed rats was infused with saline (0.9% NaCl). Estrogen withdrawal resulted in higher (p<0.01) liver fat accumulation concomitantly with lower (p<0.01) VLDL-TG production and lower mRNA and protein content of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). All of these effects in Ovx rats were corrected with estrogen supplementation. Training in Ovx rats reduced (p<0.01) liver fat accumulation and further reduced (p<0.01) hepatic VLDL-TG production along with gene expression of MTP and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2). It is concluded that VLDL-TG synthesis and/or secretion is decreased in Ovx rats probably via MTP regulation and that this decrease may constitute one of the factors involved in hepatic fat accumulation. The training effect on reducing VLDL production was independent of the estrogenic status.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of apatinib (YN968D1) on cytochrome P450 enzymes with cocktail probe drugs in rats by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunfang; Wang, Shuanghu; Ding, Ting; Chen, Mengchun; Wang, Li; Wu, Mingdong; Hu, Guoxin; Lu, Xianghong

    2014-10-22

    An accurate and validated liquid chromatography method and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method were developed and validated to simultaneously evaluate the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vivo using the co-administration of these probes. Phenacetin, losartan, metoprolol and midazolam were used as the probe substrates for rat CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2D4 and CYP3A1 enzymes, respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of apatinib on these cytochrome P450 enzymes in vivo with co-administration of these probes. Plasma samples were prepared by precipitating protein with acetonitrile. The analytes were separated using a reversed-phase BEH C18 column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm, Waters, USA) maintained at 40°C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) with a gradient elution pumped at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The analytes were detected with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for target fragment ions m/z 180.05→109.94 for phenacetin, m/z 423.1→207.2 for losartan, m/z 268.12→115.8 for metoprolol, m/z 326.02→290.99 for midazolam and m/z 285.1→193.1 for diazepam (IS). Good linearity was achieved to quantify the concentration ranges of 10-2000ng/mL for phenacetin, 10-1000ng/mL for losartan, 10-1000ng/mL for metoprolol and 1-100ng/mL for midazolam in rat plasma. The mean recoveries of phenacetin, losartan, midazolam and metoprolol from the plasma exceeded 77.07%. The intra-run and inter-run assay precisions were both less than 8.9%. This method was successfully applied to evaluate the effects of apatinib on the cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

  17. The antifibrotic effects of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA on hepatic fibrosis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Qing; Liu, Qi; Xu, Ning; Qian, Ke-Li; Qi, Jing-Hu; Sun, Yin-Chun; Xiao, Lang; Shi, Xiao-Feng

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We constructed CCL4 induced liver fibrosis model successfully. {yields} We proofed that the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had a definite therapy effect to CCL4 induced liver fibrosis. {yields} The therapy effect of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had dose-dependent. -- Abstract: Background/aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from the excessive secretion of matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which proliferate during fibrotic liver injury. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1 is the dominant stimulus for extracellular matrix (ECM) production by stellate cells. Our study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of using short interference RNA (siRNA) to target TGF-{beta}1 in hepatic fibrosis and its mechanism in rats exposed to a high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Methods: A total of 40 healthy, male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five even groups containing of eight rats each: normal group, model group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group and TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group (0.25 mg/kg). CCL4 and a high-fat diet were used for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. All the rats were then sacrificed to collect liver tissue samples. A portion of the liver samples were soaked in formalin for Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, classifying the degree of liver fibrosis, and detecting the expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1; the remaining liver samples were stored in liquid nitrogen to be used for detecting TGF-{beta}1 by Western blotting and for measuring the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Comparing the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group to the model group, the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group and the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group showed significantly reduced levels of pathological changes, protein expression and the m

  18. Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Ling; Yeh, Teng-Kuang

    2008-02-28

    Shengmai San (SMS), which is comprised of the medicinal herbs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Schisandra chinensis Baill., and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl (2:1:2)., is a traditional Chinese medicine being used for treating coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SMS on the plasma and liver lipids, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in liver and heart of cholesterol-fed rats. Rats were fed on a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet containing 2% SMS (2% SMS group) and 4% SMS (4% SMS group) for four weeks. The oxidative stress marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and antioxidant defense systems including glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in rat liver and heart were evaluated. Results showed that rats fed with SMS-containing diet had reduced the H(2)O(2)-induced erythrocytes susceptibility to hemolysis, and 4% SMS feeding rats had higher plasma GSH concentration compared to the animals fed with the control diet. However, SMS had no effect on plasma lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and TBARS concentration. On the other hand, rats fed with the 4% SMS diet reduced the hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride contents. Fecal bile acid excretion was significantly increased in rats fed with the SMS-containing diet. Higher hepatic GSH and lower TBARS concentrations were observed in rats fed with the 4% SMS diet compared with the rats fed with the control diet. No significant difference in activities of GSH-Px, GST and SOD was found in liver and heart after the SMS treatment. Results from this study indicate that the SMS may reduce hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats.

  19. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P < 0.05) and those of HTGL were lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed docosahexaenoic acid, a major component of fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  20. Alterations in lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic function in rat fed with saccharin and methyl-salicylates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal Adel; AlMuzafar, Hessah Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food additives attract consumers, improve foods quality, control weight, and replace sugar in foods, while it may affect seriously children and adults health. Aim: To investigate the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function, and oxidative stress/antioxidant (lipid peroxidation, Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues). Methods: 46 young male albino rats were used. Saccharin and methylsalicylate were giving orally as low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd low and high saccharin-treated groups and 4th and 5th low and high methylsalicylate-treated group. Results: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were decreased in saccharin high dose compared to control. Rats ingested high dose of saccharin presented a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Saccharin high dose induce a significant decline in hepatic GSH levels, catalase and SOD activities while increased in hepatic MDA level. Conclusion: It could be concluded that, saccharin affects harmfully and alters biochemical markers in hepatic and renal tissues not only at greater doses but also at low doses. Whereas uses of metylsalicylates would not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26131217

  1. Inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on diethylstilbestrol-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis in male rats and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Kohigashi, K; Fukuda, Y; Imura, H

    1988-12-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg body weight). Two weeks later the rats were divided into 4 groups; DEN-C group rats were given no further treatment; DEN-DES group rats were fed diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5 mg/day); DEN-TMX group rats were given tamoxifen (TMX, 1.0 mg/day) orally; DEN-DES TMX group rats were fed both DES and TMX for 8 months. Rats of the DEN-DES group developed grossly visible hepatic tumors. On the other hand, tumor development was significantly inhibited in rats of the DEN-DES TMX group. Total area of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive lesions and the mean area per lesion were significantly larger in rats of the DEN-DES group than those of the DEN-C, DEN-TMX or DEN-DES-TMX group. Estrogen receptor (ER) content of liver cytosol assayed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly greater in rats of the DEN-DES group than in those of the DEN-C group and smaller in rats of the DEN-TMX and DEN-DES TMX group than in the DEN-C group. On the contrary, ER content of liver nuclei was significantly greater in rats of the DEN-TMX and DEN-DES TMX group than in those of the DEN-C or DEN-DES group. These results suggest that the promotive action of DES and the inhibitory action of TMX on DES-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis are, at least in part, mediated by ER in the rat.

  2. Isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments exert a low activity on reproductive organs and on hepatic metabolism of estradiol in ovariectomized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Phrakonkham, Pascal; Chevalier, Joelle; Desmetz, Catherine; Pinnert, Marie-France; Berges, Raymond; Jover, Emmanuel; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Coxam, Veronique; Artur, Yves; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2007-10-15

    The use of soy isoflavones is a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal bone-loss prevention. Nevertheless, phytoestrogens can target other organs and may disrupt cell proliferation, or could modify endogenous steroid hormone metabolism. These mechanisms could be linked to an increased risk of developing cancer. We therefore studied the possible side effects of such treatments in an experimental model of menopause. Forty adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and fed with a genistein-, daidzein- or equol-supplemented diet at bone-sparing levels (10 mg/kg BW/day) for 3 months. The estrogenic effects were assessed by histological and molecular analyses on reproductive organs. The impact on the oxidative metabolism of estradiol and on associated cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities was evaluated in liver microsomes. The relative wet weights of both the uterus and the vagina were increased in the equol group, but no significant changes in proliferating cell nuclear antigen or hormone receptor mRNA expression were noticed. In contrast, genistein and daidzein did not induce uterotrophy but caused an overexpression of estrogen receptor {alpha} mRNA which could correspond to a long-lasting effect of physiological concentrations of estrogens. The hepatic metabolism of estradiol was influenced by daidzein which increased the synthesis of putative mutagenic derivatives. At the same time, genistein favored estrogen 2-hydroxylation, and equol decreased 4-hydroxyestrogen production. Surprisingly, no significant alteration in hepatic CYP activities was detected. Taken together, these results demonstrate that isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments are able to cause side effects on other estrogen-sensitive target organs when given in the long-term.

  3. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolism and in vitro formation of B(a)P-DNA adducts by hepatic microsomes from rats fed diets containing corn and menhaden oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dharwadkar, S.; Bellow, J.; Ramanathan, R.; Wade, A.

    1986-03-01

    Dietary unsaturated fat is required for maximum induction of hepatic mixed function oxidases responsible for activating carcinogens which may bind covalently to DNA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of dietary fat type on in vitro B(a)P metabolism and B(a)P-DNA adduct formation. Male rats were starved 2 days and refed diet devoid of fat, or containing 20% corn oil (CO) or 20% menhaden oil (MO) for 4 days. Both dietary fats increased Vmax for B(a)P hydroxylation without affecting Km. Phenobarbital (PB) administration increased Vmax in all animals but Km was increased only in rats fed the fat diets. PB resulted in decreased B(a)P metabolism when conducted at 15 =M only in rats fed the two fat diets even in the presence of increased cytochrome P-450 (P-450). This effect was due to a decrease in B(a)P metabolism at low substrate concentrations in PB treated fat-fed animals. Binding of B(a)P to calf-thymus DNA was increased in animals fed both fats which was enhanced further by PB only in rats fed the CO and MO diets. When the data are calculated as B(a)P metabolized per unit of P-450, PB seems to induce a P-450 in fat-fed animals having lower affinity and capacity for B(a)P metabolism and activation.

  4. Kinetics and selectivity of mechanism-based inhibition of guinea pig hepatic and pulmonary cytochrome P450 by N-benzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole and N-alpha-methylbenzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole.

    PubMed

    Sinal, C J; Bend, J R

    1996-09-01

    The time dependence for mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation (PROD), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) activities by N-benzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole (BBT) and N-alpha-methylbenzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole (alpha MB) was investigated in hepatic and pulmonary microsomes from phenobarbital-treated guinea pigs. In the presence of NADPH, both compounds inhibited P450-dependent catalytic activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Inactivation of hepatic PROD activity was more rapid (t1/2 = 13.2 vs. 155 min) for 0.1 microM alpha MB when compared with equimolar BBT. On the other hand, hepatic EROD inactivation was more rapid (t1/2 = 8.1 vs. 11 min) with 0.1 microM BBT, compared with equimolar alpha MB. Inactivation of pulmonary PROD activity was the most rapid and potent, with an apparent half-life for inactivation of t1/2 = 0.94 and 32.2 min for 0.025 microM alpha MB and BBT, respectively. Incubation of hepatic microsomes for 45 min in the presence of NADPH and 10 microM BBT or alpha MB resulted in > 90% inhibition of PROD, EROD, and MROD activities. After washing by repeated sedimentation and resuspension, inhibition of PROD (78%; 93% for BBT and alpha MB, respectively), EROD (80% and 50%), and MROD (15% and 3%) activities was reversed to varying degrees. We conclude that BBT and alpha MB are rapidly metabolized to products that inhibit individual P450 isozymes by both mechanism-based (P4502B and P4501A1) and reversible (P4501A2) mechanisms. Of the two inhibitors, alpha MB is relatively more potent and selective for guinea pig lung P4502B isozyme(s).

  5. Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 improves insulin resistance and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in high fructose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, is the most common form of diabetes. Probiotics are live micro-organisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer delaying effect on DM development. In this study, the effects Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263), a new probiotic strain developed by our laboratory, on insulin resistance and the development of hepatic steatosis in high-fructose fed rats were explored. Furthermore, the relevant regulatory pathways involved were also investigated. Method Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet with or without Lr263 administration for 14 weeks. The composition of fecal microbiota, oral glucose tolerance, glycated haemoglobin, insulin, leptin, C-peptide, and incretins were measured. The markers of liver injury, serum and hepatic lipids profile, activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme, and proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue were investigated. Additionally, the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and insulin signaling related genes in adipose tissue were also studied. Liver sections were examined for hepatic steatosis using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results The levels of serum glucose, insulin, leptin, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, GLP-1, liver injury markers, lipid profile in serum and liver were significantly increased in high-fructose-fed rats. However, after Lr263 administration, the elevation of these parameters was significantly suppressed. Feeding of Lr263 reversed the decreased number of bifidobacterium species and lactobacillus species and increased number of clostridium species induced by high fructose treatment. The decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in HFD rats were dramatically reversed by Lr263 treatment. Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in adipose tissue which were elevated in high fructose treatment were markedly decreased after Lr263 feeding. Decreased levels of PPAR-γ and GLUT4 mRNA after high fructose

  6. Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37 g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

  7. Fish Oil Reduces Hepatic Injury by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability and Microbiota in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiun-Rong; Chen, Ya-Ling; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Lu, Yu-An; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Hsiao-Yun; Su, Yu-Ju; Yang, Suh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of fish oil on hepatic injury in ethanol-fed rats based on the intestinal permeability and microbiota. Rats were assigned to 6 groups and fed either a control diet or an ethanol diet such as C (control), CF25 (control with 25% fish oil), CF57 (control with 57% fish oil), E (ethanol), EF25 (ethanol with 25% fish oil), and EF57 (ethanol with 57% fish oil) groups. Rats were sacrificed at the end of 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and aminotransferase (ALT) activities, hepatic cytokines, and plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in the E group. In addition, hepatic histopathological analysis scores in the E group were significantly elevated. Rats in the E group also showed increased intestinal permeability and decreased numbers of fecal Bifidobacterium. However, plasma AST and ALT activities and hepatic cytokine levels were significantly lower in the EF25 and EF57 groups. Histological changes and intestinal permeability were also improved in the EF25 and EF57 groups. The fecal Escherichia coli numbers were significantly lower, but fecal Bifidobacterium numbers were significantly higher in the EF25 and EF57 groups. PMID:27143963

  8. Alterations in hepatic gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation in rat offspring exposed to maternal obesity in utero

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult offspring from obese (OB) rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass than controls when fed HFD. At PND21, we examined energy expenditure (EE) (indirect calorimetry), hepatic gene expression (microarrays), and changes in genome-wide and global DNA methylation (enrichment-coupled DNA seque...

  9. A neuroanatomical analysis of the effects of a memory impairing dose of scopolamine in the rat brain using cytochrome c oxidase as principle marker.

    PubMed

    Hescham, Sarah; Temel, Yasin; Casaca-Carreira, João; Arslantas, Kemal; Yakkioui, Youssef; Blokland, Arjan; Jahanshahi, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Acetylcholine plays a role in mnemonic and attentional processes, but also in locomotor and anxiety-related behavior. Receptor blockage by scopolamine can therefore induce cognitive as well as motor deficits and increase anxiety levels. Here we show that scopolamine, at a dose that has previously been found to affect learning and memory performance (0.1 mg/kg i.p.), has a widespread effect on cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in various regions of the rat brain. We found a down-regulation of cytochrome c oxidase in the nucleus basalis, in movement-related structures such as the primary motor cortex and the globus pallidus, memory-related structures such as the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex and in anxiety-related structures like the amygdala, which also plays a role in memory. However choline acetyltransferase levels were only affected in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and both, choline acetyltransferase and c-Fos expression levels were decreased in the amygdala. These findings corroborate strong cognitive behavioral effects of this drug, but also suggest possible anxiety- and locomotor-related changes in subjects. Moreover, they present histochemical evidence that the effects of scopolamine are not ultimately restricted to cognitive parameters.

  10. Therapeutic role of niacin in the prevention and regression of hepatic steatosis in rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Shobha H; Kukes, Gary D; Lambrecht, Nils; Kashyap, Moti L; Kamanna, Vaijinath S

    2014-02-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a leading cause of liver damage, comprises a spectrum of liver abnormalities including the early fat deposition in the liver (hepatic steatosis) and advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Niacin decreases plasma triglycerides, but its effect on hepatic steatosis is elusive. To examine the effect of niacin on steatosis, rats were fed either a rodent normal chow, chow containing high fat (HF), or HF containing 0.5% or 1.0% niacin in the diet for 4 wk. For regression studies, rats were first fed the HF diet for 6 wk to induce hepatic steatosis and were then treated with niacin (0.5% in the diet) while on the HF diet for 6 wk. The findings indicated that inclusion of niacin at 0.5% and 1.0% doses in the HF diet significantly decreased liver fat content, liver weight, hepatic oxidative products, and prevented hepatic steatosis. Niacin treatment to rats with preexisting hepatic steatosis induced by the HF diet significantly regressed steatosis. Niacin had no effect on the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes (including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) but significantly inhibited mRNA levels, protein expression, and activity of diacylglycerol acyltrasferase 2, a key enzyme in triglyceride synthesis. These novel findings suggest that niacin effectively prevents and causes the regression of experimental hepatic steatosis. Approved niacin formulation(s) for other indications or niacin analogs may offer a very cost-effective opportunity for the clinical development of niacin for treating NAFLD and fatty liver disease.

  11. Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, Rocio F. Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Ven, Leo T.M. van der; Berg, Martin van den; Heneweer, Marjoke

    2008-09-01

    Hexabromoyclododecane (HBCD), used as flame retardant (FR) mainly in textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacture, has been identified as a contaminant at levels comparable to other brominated FRs (BFRs). HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand. The toxicological database of HBCD is too limited to perform at present a solid risk assessment, combining data from exposure and effect studies. In order to fill in some gaps, a 28-day HBCD repeated dose study (OECD407) was done in Wistar rats. In the present work liver tissues from these animals were used for gene expression profile analysis. Results show clear gender specificity with females having a higher number of regulated genes and therefore being more sensitive to HBCD than males. Several specific pathways were found to be affected by HBCD exposure, like PPAR-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, triacylglycerol metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and phase I and II pathways. These results were corroborated with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism were especially down-regulated in females. Genes involved in phase I and II metabolism were up-regulated predominantly in males, which could explain the observed lower HBCD hepatic disposition in male rats in this 28-day study. These sex-specific differences in gene expression profiles could also underlie sex-specific differences in toxicity (e.g. decreased thyroid hormone or increased serum cholesterol levels). To our knowledge, this is the fist study that describes the changes in rat hepatic gene profiles caused by this commonly used flame retardant.

  12. Vascularization in tissue remodeling after rat hepatic necrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Lan; Enzan, Hideaki; Kuroda, Naoto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Toi, Makoto; Miyazaki, Eriko; Hamauzu, Tadashi; Hiroi, Makoto; Guo, Li-Mei; Shen, Zhe-Shi; Saibara, Toshiji

    2006-03-01

    We observed postnecrotic tissue remodeling to examine vascularization in adult rat livers. Livers, bone marrow, and peripheral blood from rats at 24 h to 14 days after an injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) were examined by light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods. Numerous ED-1 (a marker for rat monocytes/macrophages)-positive round mononuclear cells infiltrated in the necrotic areas at 36 h after DMN treatment. On day 5, when necrotic tissues were removed, some of the cells were transformed from round to spindle in shape. On day 7, these cells were contacted with residual reticulin fibers and became positive for SE-1, a marker of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and Tie-1, an endothelial cell-specific surface receptor, associated with frequent occurrence of ED-1/SE-1 and ED-1/Tie-1 double-positive spindle cells. Ultrastructurally, the spindle cells simultaneously showed phagocytosis and endothelial cell-like morphology. With time necrotic areas diminished, and on day 14, the necrotic tissues were almost replaced by regenerated liver tissues and thin bundles of central-to-central bridging fibrosis. Bone marrow from 12 h to day 2 showed an increase of BrdU-positive mononuclear cells. Some of them were positive for ED-1. The BrdU-labeled and ED-1-positive cells appeared as early as 12 h after DMN injection and reached a peak in number at 36 h. They were similar in structure to ED-1-positive cells in necrotic liver tissues. These findings suggest that round mononuclear ED-1-positive cells proliferate first in bone marrow after DMN treatment, reach necrotic areas of the liver through the circulation, and differentiate to sinusoidal endothelial cells. Namely, hepatic sinusoids in DMN-induced necrotic areas may partly be reorganized possibly by vasculogenesis.

  13. Diurnal variation in hepatic expression of the rat S14 gene is synchronized by the photoperiod

    SciTech Connect

    Kinlaw, W.B.; Fish, L.H.; Schwartz, H.L.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1987-04-01

    We have analyzed the factors responsible for the circadian variation in rat hepatic mRNA-S14. Regulation of this sequence, which is found in lipogenic tissues and encodes a protein (S14) believed to be associated with fatty acid synthesis, is an excellent model of the interaction of thyroid hormone and dietary factors at the hepatocellular level. The mRNA exhibits a 3-fold diurnal variation (peak, approximately 2000 h; nadir, 0800 h) in ad libitum feeding rats on a 12-h light, 12-h dark photoschedule. We studied the effects of the photoschedule, periodic food intake, hypophysectomy, and induction by thyroid hormone (T3) on the mRNA-S14 rhythm. Adaptation to feeding restricted to either light or dark periods for 15 days did not greatly affect the diurnal rhythm. Photoreversal resulted in a 180 degrees phase shift, whereas the rhythm persisted in the presence of constant light. Oscillation continued around a higher baseline after a receptor-saturating dose of T3 in both normal and hypophysectomized rats. Our results indicate primary entrainment of the mRNA-S14 diurnal rhythm to the photoperiod, rather than to periodic food intake. Moreover, the circadian regulatory signal, which probably originates in the central nervous system, appears capable of antagonizing a maximal T3-inductive stimulus and does not originate in the pituitary gland. Persistence of the oscillation in constant light rules out circulating melatonin as the mediator. Synchronization of the rhythm by the photoschedule suggests that neuroendocrine factors are important determinants of rhythmic changes in hepatic gene expression.

  14. Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rocío F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Piersma, Aldert H; van der Ven, Leo T M; van den Berg, Martin; Heneweer, Marjoke

    2008-09-01

    Hexabromoyclododecane (HBCD), used as flame retardant (FR) mainly in textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacture, has been identified as a contaminant at levels comparable to other brominated FRs (BFRs). HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand. The toxicological database of HBCD is too limited to perform at present a solid risk assessment, combining data from exposure and effect studies. In order to fill in some gaps, a 28-day HBCD repeated dose study (OECD407) was done in Wistar rats. In the present work liver tissues from these animals were used for gene expression profile analysis. Results show clear gender specificity with females having a higher number of regulated genes and therefore being more sensitive to HBCD than males. Several specific pathways were found to be affected by HBCD exposure, like PPAR-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, triacylglycerol metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and phase I and II pathways. These results were corroborated with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism were especially down-regulated in females. Genes involved in phase I and II metabolism were up-regulated predominantly in males, which could explain the observed lower HBCD hepatic disposition in male rats in this 28-day study. These sex-specific differences in gene expression profiles could also underlie sex-specific differences in toxicity (e.g. decreased thyroid hormone or increased serum cholesterol levels). To our knowledge, this is the fist study that describes the changes in rat hepatic gene profiles caused by this commonly used flame retardant.

  15. Graptopetalum Paraguayense Ameliorates Chemical-Induced Rat Hepatic Fibrosis In Vivo and Inactivates Stellate Cells and Kupffer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yang, Chih-Hsueh; Hsieh, Shur-Jong; Wu, Yi-Chin; Lai, Jin-Mei; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Chi-Ying F.; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Background Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP) is a folk herbal medicine with hepatoprotective effects that is used in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of GP on experimental hepatic fibrosis in both dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury rats. Methods Hepatic fibrosis-induced rats were fed with the methanolic extract of GP (MGP) by oral administration every day. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical assays, and Western blot analysis were performed. The effects of MGP on the expression of fibrotic markers and cytokines in the primary cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and Kupffer cells, respectively, were evaluated. Results Oral administration of MGP significantly alleviated DMN- or CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis. High levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, prothrombin activity and mortality rates also decreased in rats treated with MGP. There were significantly decreased hydroxyproline levels in therapeutic rats compared with those of the liver-damaged rats. Collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were all reduced by incubation with MGP in primary cultured rat HSCs. Furthermore, MGP induced apoptotic cell death in activated HSCs. MGP also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat Kupffer cell activation by decreasing nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production, and increasing interleukin-10 expression. Conclusions The results show that the administration of MGP attenuated toxin-induced hepatic damage and fibrosis in vivo and inhibited HSC and Kupffer cell activation in vitro, suggesting that MGP might be a promising complementary or alternative therapeutic agent for liver inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:23335984

  16. Monitoring of cytochrome P-450 1A activity by determination of the urinary pattern of caffeine metabolites in Wistar and hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, U; Schrader, E; Klaunick, G; Kapitulnik, J; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Kahl, G F; Foth, H

    2000-04-03

    Various studies suggest that induction of cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) might be a valuable therapeutic modality for reducing the hyperbilirubinemia of infants with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CNS-I), a severe form of congenital jaundice. To evaluate inducers of CYP1A as possible tools in the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia, a novel assay was established, based on the analysis of the urinary pattern of caffeine metabolites in rats. Wistar rats received [1-Me-(14)C]-caffeine (10 mg/kg i.p.), before and 48h after administration of the potent CYP1A inducer 5,6-benzoflavone (BNF) (80 mg/kg, i.p.). A substantial increase in the fractions of the terminal caffeine metabolites 1-methyluric acid (1-U), 1-methylxanthine (1-X), and a concomitant decrease in the caffeine demethylation product 1,7-dimethylxanthine (1,7-X) was observed after application of BNF. The ratio of the caffeine metabolites (1-U+1-X)/1,7-X may serve as an index of CYP1A activity in rats in vivo. Hyperbilirubinemic, homozygous (jj) Gunn rats are an accepted model for human CNS-I. In male jj Gunn rats treated with BNF or with indole-3-carbinol (I3C, 80 mg/kg, oral gavage), the inducing effect of BNF and 13C on CYP1A activity was confirmed by the urinary pattern of caffeine metabolites, and was parallelled by a decrease in plasma bilirubin levels. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the established caffeine assay for the evaluation of inducers of CYP1A as tools for reducing hyperbilirubinemia and further confirm the potential value of I3C in the treatment of CNS-I.

  17. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    PubMed

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  18. Quercetin induces hepatic γ-glutamyl hydrolase expression in rats by suppressing hepatic microRNA rno-miR-125b-3p.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia Anette; Laviano, Alessandro; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous factors such as food components including the flavonoid quercetin are suspected to influence micro RNA (miRNA) concentrations and thus possibly target enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. This study therefore investigates the influence of orally administered quercetin on hepatic miRNA and the identification of enzyme target mRNAs relevant in drug metabolism. Male Wistar rats (n=16) were fed either a diet without (C) or with (Q) the addition of 100-ppm quercetin for 7 weeks and subsequently euthanized at the end of the dark phase. To avoid strong effects of food deprivation on hepatic metabolism, food was not removed until 5 h prior to the procedure. Liver was immediately dissected and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Concentrations of 352 hepatic miRNA were measured in pool samples of each dietary group (n=8) using the RT(2) miRNA PCR Array System. Differential expression of miRNAs was assumed with fold changes ≥3. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were identified using the database TargetScan. Because rno-miR-125b-3p showed the most prominent fold-change (-9) we further analyzed the expression of its top predicted target gene gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) by quantitative real-time PCR using hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt1) as endogenous control. Compared to controls, 23 miRNAs were differentially expressed in rats fed quercetin. A ninefold reduction in hepatic miRNA rno-miR-125b-3p was paralleled by significant induction of GGH mRNA in liver of quercetin fed rats. Because increased GGH expressions were repeatedly associated with resistance to methotrexate, concomitant intake with quercetin should be monitored carefully.

  19. Protective Effects of N-acetylcysteine and a Prostaglandin E1 Analog, Alprostadil, Against Hepatic Ischemia: Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chu; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has a complex pathophysiology resulting from a number of contributing factors. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve effective treatment or protection by individually targeting the mediators or mechanisms. Our aim was to analyze the individual and combined effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) analog alprostadil on hepatic I/R injury in rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (six rats per group) as follows: Control group, I/R group, I/R + NAC group, I/R + alprostadil group, and I/R + NAC + alprostadil group. The rats received injections of NAC (150 mg/kg) and/or alprostadil (0.05 μg/kg) over a period of 30 min prior to ischemia. These rats were then subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia followed by a 60-min reperfusion period. Hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione levels were significantly decreased as a result of I/R injury, but they were increased in groups treated with NAC. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) activities were significantly increased after I/R injury, but they were decreased in the groups with NAC treatment. Alprostadil decreased NO production, but had no effect on MDA and MPO. Histological results showed that both NAC and alprostadil were effective in improving liver tissue morphology during I/R injury. Although NAC and alprostadil did not have a synergistic effect, our findings suggest that treatment with either NAC or alprostadil has benefits for ameliorating hepatic I/R injury.

  20. Attenuation of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and hepatic oxidative stress by resveratrol in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Bagul, Pankaj K; Middela, Harish; Matapally, Saidulu; Padiya, Raju; Bastia, Tanmay; Madhusudana, K; Reddy, B Raghunath; Chakravarty, Sumana; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2012-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress are common complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to determine whether resveratrol, a widely used nutritional supplement, can improve insulin sensitivity, metabolic complication as well as hepatic oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (180-200 g) were divided into four groups with 8 animals each. Fructose-fed insulin resistant group (Dia) animals were fed 65% fructose (Research diet, USA) for a period of 8 weeks, whereas control group (Con) animals were fed 65% cornstarch (Research Diet, USA). Resveratrol, 10 mg/kg/day (Dia+Resv) or metformin 300 mg/kg/day (Dia+Met) were administered orally to the 65% fructose-fed rats for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding schedule, Dia group had insulin resistance along with increased blood glucose, triglyceride, uric acid and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Significant (p<0.05) increase in hepatic TBARS and conjugated dienes, and significant (p<0.05) decrease in hepatic SOD and vitamin C was observed in Dia group compared to Con group. Administration of metformin or resveratrol significantly (p<0.05) normalized all the altered metabolic parameters. However, a marked insulin sensitizing action was only observed in the Dia+Resv group. Similarly, while metformin administration failed to normalize the increased TBARS levels and decreased SOD activity, resveratrol showed a more promising effect of all oxidative stress parameters measured in the present study. Attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress in fructose-fed rat liver after resveratrol administration was associated with significant (p<0.05) increase in nuclear level of NRF2 compared with other groups. The present study demonstrates that resveratrol is more effective than metformin in improving insulin sensitivity, and attenuating metabolic syndrome and hepatic oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats.