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Sample records for rat hepatic stellate

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Tanshinone IIA on Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Wei; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB pathways in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is one therapeutic approach to hepatic fibrosis. Tanshinone IIA (C19H18O3, Tan IIA) is a lipophilic diterpene isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, with reported anti-inflammatory activity. We tested whether Tan IIA could inhibit HSC activation. Materials and Methods The cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/ml). Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. HSC-T6 cells were pretreated with Tan IIA (1, 3 and 10 µM), then induced by LPS (100 ng/ml). NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Western blotting analysis was performed to measure NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38). Cell chemotaxis was assessed by both wound-healing assay and trans-well invasion assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect gene expression in HSC-T6 cells. Results All concentrations of drugs showed no cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells. LPS stimulated NF-κB luciferase activities, nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of ERK, JNK and p38, all of which were suppressed by Tan IIA. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited LPS-induced HSCs chemotaxis, in both wound-healing and trans-well invasion assays. Moreover, Tan IIA attenuated LPS-induced mRNA expressions of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, iNOS, and α-SMA in HSC-T6 cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that Tan IIA decreased LPS-induced HSC activation. PMID:25076488

  2. Inhibitory effect of oestradiol on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, I; Mizobuchi, Y; Yasuda, M; Shiba, M; Ma, Y; Horie, T; Liu, F; Ito, S

    1999-01-01

    Background—Hepatic stellate cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. 
Aims—To examine the inhibitory effect of oestradiol on stellate cell activation. 
Methods—In vivo, hepatic fibrosis was induced in rats by dimethylnitrosamine or pig serum. In vitro, rat stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. 
Results—In the dimethylnitrosamine and pig serum models, treatment with oestradiol at gestation related doses resulted in a dose dependent suppression of hepatic fibrosis with restored content of hepatic retinyl palmitate, reduced collagen content, lower areas of stellate cells which express α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin, and lower procollagen type I and III mRNA levels in the liver. In cultured stellate cells, oestradiol inhibited type I collagen production, α-SMA expression, and cell proliferation. These findings suggest that oestradiol is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation. 
Conclusion—The antifibrogenic role of oestradiol in the liver may contribute to the sex associated differences in the progression from hepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis. 

 Keywords: hepatic stellate cells; hepatic fibrosis; oestradiol; α smooth muscle actin; retinyl palmitate PMID:9862839

  3. Aloe emodin suppresses myofibroblastic differentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun Wook; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Eun-Jeon; Zhao, Yu Zhe; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2002-04-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of aloe emodin on hepatic stellate cells activation and proliferation, as these cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Rat hepatic stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes, resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. Primary hepatic stellate cells were exposed to aloe emodin (1-10 microg/ml). Possible cytotoxic effects were measured on stellate cells and hepatocytes using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of aloe emodin on production of type I collagen and smooth muscle cell alpha-actin were examined at the same concentration, by quantitative immunoprecipitation. Antiproliferative effects were examined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Aloe emodin at 10 microg/ml restored the morphological changes characteristic of activated primary stellate cells, reduced DNA synthesis to 95% of control hepatic stellate cells at 10 microg/ml without affecting cell viability, and inhibited type I collagen production and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by 86.77% and 99%, respectively, which suggest that aloe emodin is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation.

  4. Anticytoproliferative effect of Vitamin C on rat hepatic stellate cell

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Chao, Guo; Liang, Minqing; Song, Jianhua; Wu, Ka

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potential therapeutical benefit of Vitamin (VC), a potent antioxidant, on suppressing proliferation of immortalized rat liver stellate cell line (HSC-T6) in vitro, and to discuss the underlying mechanism. HSC-T6 was co-treated with different concentrations of VC (50, 100, 200 μmol/L) on designed time points. Then, cell viability was assessed by using MTT analysis, and the changes of cytomorphology was observed with apoptosis-specific TUNEL and immunohistochemical stains, as well as the intracellular target genes was determined by using RT-PCR, respectively. As the outcomes, VC-treated HSC-T6 showed significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the vehicle control. Cytologically, VC increased TUNEL-labeled positive cells in cultured HSC-T6, which the cell count was greater than vehicle control. Meanwhile, VC-treated HSC-T6 showed elevated immunoreactive for TGF-β1-labeled cells. Moreover, VC contributed to down-regulated expressions of intracellular c-myc, cyclin D1, mTOR mRNAs in HSC-T6. Collectively, these preliminary findings have demonstrated that VC-mediated anti-proliferative effect on HSCs is involved in molecular mechanisms of promoting apoptosis and blocking endogenous collagenation. PMID:27398165

  5. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zan, Yanlu; Zhang, Yuxia; Tien, Po

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs.

  6. Ionone Derivatives from the Mycelium of Phellinus linteus and the Inhibitory Effect on Activated Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiow-Chyn; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Pan, Tai-Long; Chen, Fu-An; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Three new γ-ionylideneacetic acid derivatives, phellinulins A–C (1–3), were characterized from the mycelium extract of Phellinus linteus. The chemical structures were established based on the spectroscopic analysis. In addition, phellinulin A (1) was subjected to the examination of effects on activated rat hepatic stellate cells and exhibited significant inhibition of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27164091

  7. Phenols from the roots of Rheum palmatum attenuate chemotaxis in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Lian; Wu, Ching-Fen; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2008-08-01

    In liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) acquire an activated phenotype, migrate to the injured region in response to chemotactic factors and produce extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and collagen in order to repair the damage. HSC-T6, a cell line of rat HSCs, was used in in vitro experiments. TGF-beta1 was used as a chemoattractant. The expression of alpha-SMA was used as a marker of activated hepatic stellate cells and cell migration was assayed with the Transwell method to investigate the active principles of the roots of Rheum palmatum L. (Dahuang), a well-known traditional Chinese herb used for treating liver diseases. Under cell activation and chemotaxis-directed fractionation and purification, four anthraquinones, rhein ( 1), emodin ( 2), chrysophanol ( 3) and physcion ( 4), and four phenylbutanoids, lindleyin ( 5), isolindleyin ( 7), 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'- O-beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 8), and 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone ( 9), and a stilbene, 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'- O-beta- D-glucopyranoside 6'- O-gallate ( 6) were isolated from the active fractions. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited alpha-SMA expression. However, compounds 3, 4, 6 and 8 attenuated chemotactic migration, but not alpha-SMA expression.

  8. All-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid alter rat hepatic stellate cell phenotype differentially

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, K; Grinko, I; Rombouts, K; Schuppan, D; Geerts, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Hepatic stellate cells exert specific functions in the liver: storage of large amounts of retinyl esters, synthesis and breakdown of hepatic extracellular matrix, secretion of a variety of cytokines, and control of the diameter of the sinusoids.
AIMS—To examine the influence of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis retinoic acid (9RA) on extracellular matrix production and proliferation of activated hepatic stellate cells.
METHODS—Cells were isolated using collagenase/pronase, purified by centrifugation in nycodenz, and cultured for two weeks. At this time point the cells exhibited the activated phenotype. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of ATRA and 9RA. The expression of procollagens I, III, and IV, of fibronectin and of laminin were analysed by immunoprecipitation and northern hybridisation.
RESULTS—ATRA exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the synthesis of procollagens type I, III, and IV, fibronectin, and laminin, but did not influence stellate cell proliferation, whereas 9RA showed a clear but late effect on proliferation. 9RA increased procollagen I mRNA 1.9-fold, but did not affect the expression of other matrix proteins.
CONCLUSION—Results showed that ATRA and 9RA exert different, often contrary effects on activated stellate cells. These observations may explain prior divergent results obtained following retinoid administration to cultured stellate cells or in animals subjected to fibrogenic stimuli.


Keywords: hepatic stellate cells; retinoic acid; extracellular matrix proteins; proliferation PMID:10369717

  9. Fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells in ovariectomised rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Bobowiec, R; Wojcik, M; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Tusinska, E

    2013-02-01

    The discrepancy about the role of estrogens in hepatic fibrogenesis and lack of studies addressed of ketogenic diet (KD) on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), prompted us to investigate the activity of HSC in control, KD- and thioacetamide (TAA)-administrated rats with different plasma concentration of estradiol (E2). HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion methods and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4(th) and 8(th) day of incubation, lysates of HSC and the media were collected for further analysis. The HSC derived from KD-rats released remarkably more transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 than cells obtained from animals fed with a standard diet. The ovariectomy of KD-rats markedly intensified the secretion of this fibrogenic cytokine on the 8(th) day of incubation (201.33 ±1 7.15 pg/ml). In HSC of rats exposed to E2, the TGF-β1 concentration did not exceed 157 ± 34.39 pg/ml. In respect to the collagen type I, the HSC obtained from ovariectomised KD-rats released an augmented amount of this ECM protein after the 8(th) day of culture (1.83 ± 0.14 U/ml). In the same time, higher quantities of ASMA appeared in the KD rats (1.41 ± 0.3 pg/mg protein). Exposition of rats to E2 did not markedly decrease the amount of ASMA. In summary, KD was able to induce morphological and functional changes in HSC, especially derived from rats deprived of ovarian estrogens. However, the preservation of E2 in ovariectomised rats didn't substantially alter the activation of HSC.

  10. Antifibrotic effects of triptolide on hepatic stellate cells and dimethylnitrosamine-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2011-07-01

    Triptolide (C₃₈H₄₂O₆N₂, TP, a diterpene triepoxide derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), is a potent immunosuppresive and antiinflammatory agent. The present study investigated whether TP exerted antihepatofibrotic effects in vitro and in vivo. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The inhibitory effects of TP on the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling cascade and fibrosis markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen, were assessed. An in vivo therapeutic study was conducted in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-treated rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control rats, DMN rats receiving vehicle only and DMN rats receiving TP (20 μg/kg). Treatment was given by gavage twice daily for 3 weeks starting 1 week after the start of DMN administration. TP (5-100 nM) concentration-dependently inhibited the NFκB transcriptional activity induced by TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, TP also suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β1-induced collagen deposition and α-SMA secretion in HSC-T6 cells. In vivo, TP treatment significantly reduced hepatic fibrosis scores, collagen contents, IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and the number of α-SMA and NFκB-positive cells in DMN rats. The results showed that TP exerted antifibrotic effects in both HSC-T6 cells and DMN rats.

  11. Anti-fibrotic effects of thalidomide on hepatic stellate cells and dimethylnitrosamine-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2006-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a central role in cellular necrosis, apoptosis, organ failure, tissue damage, inflammation and fibrosis. These processes, occurring in liver injury, may lead to cirrhosis. Thalidomide, alpha-N-phthalidoglutarimide, (C(13)H(10)N(2))(4), has been shown to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, possibly mediated through its anti-TNF-alpha effect. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of thalidomide on hepatic fibrosis. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) or TNF-alpha. The inhibitory effects of thalidomide on the NFkappaB signaling cascade and fibrosis markers including alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and collagen, were assessed. An in vivo therapeutic study was conducted in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-treated rats, which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: vehicle (0.7% carboxyl methyl cellulose, CMC), thalidomide (40 mg/kg), thalidomide (200 mg/kg), or silymarin (50 mg/kg), each given by gavage twice daily for 3 weeks starting after 1 week of DMN administration. Thalidomide (100-800 nM) concentration-dependently inhibited NFkappaB transcriptional activity induced by TNF-alpha, including IKKalpha expression and IkappaBalpha phosphorylation in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, thalidomide also suppressed TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA expression and collagen deposition in HSC-T6 cells. Fibrosis scores of livers from DMN-treated rats receiving high dose of thalidomide (0.89 +/- 0.20) were significantly reduced in comparison with those of DMN-treated rats receiving vehicle (1.56 +/- 0.18). Hepatic collagen contents of DMN rats were also significantly reduced by either thalidomide or silymarin treatment. Immunohistochemical double staining results showed that alpha-SMA- and NFkappaB-positive cells were decreased in the livers from DMN rats receiving either thalidomide or silymarin treatment. In addition

  12. Sedum mexicanum Britt. Induces Apoptosis of Primary Rat Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Chin, Ting-Yu; Lai, Ching-Long; Wang, Wen-Han

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver fibrosis is a significant liver disease in Asian countries. Sedum mexicanum Britt. (SM) has been claimed to have antihepatitis efficacy. In traditional folk medicine, a solution of boiling water-extracted SM (SME) is consumed to prevent and treat hepatitis. However, its efficacy has not yet been verified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of SME on hepatoprotection. Methods. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes (HCs) were isolated from the livers of the rats by enzymatic digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Results. Treating the HCs and aHSCs with SME caused a dose-dependent decrease in the viability of aHSCs but not that of HCs. In addition, treatment with SME resulted in apoptosis of aHSCs, as determined by DAPI analysis and flow cytometry. SME also increased the amount of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in aHSCs. Furthermore, SME treatment induced a dose-dependent reduction in Bcl-2 expression and increased the expression of Bax in aHSCs. Conclusions. SME did not cause cytotoxicity in HCs, but it induced apoptosis in aHSCs through the mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 pathway. Therefore, SME may possess therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis. PMID:26078767

  13. Sedum mexicanum Britt. Induces Apoptosis of Primary Rat Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Chin, Ting-Yu; Lai, Ching-Long; Wang, Wen-Han

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver fibrosis is a significant liver disease in Asian countries. Sedum mexicanum Britt. (SM) has been claimed to have antihepatitis efficacy. In traditional folk medicine, a solution of boiling water-extracted SM (SME) is consumed to prevent and treat hepatitis. However, its efficacy has not yet been verified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of SME on hepatoprotection. Methods. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes (HCs) were isolated from the livers of the rats by enzymatic digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Results. Treating the HCs and aHSCs with SME caused a dose-dependent decrease in the viability of aHSCs but not that of HCs. In addition, treatment with SME resulted in apoptosis of aHSCs, as determined by DAPI analysis and flow cytometry. SME also increased the amount of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in aHSCs. Furthermore, SME treatment induced a dose-dependent reduction in Bcl-2 expression and increased the expression of Bax in aHSCs. Conclusions. SME did not cause cytotoxicity in HCs, but it induced apoptosis in aHSCs through the mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 pathway. Therefore, SME may possess therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis.

  14. Apoptosis of rat hepatic stellate cells induced by diallyl trisulfide and proteomics profiling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajie; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xu, Lipeng; Wang, Lulu; Liu, Jinling; Ye, Jing; Qiu, Pengxin; Liu, Qinghua

    2016-11-18

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a major garlic derivative, inhibits cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines. However, the effects of DATS on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of DATS on cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as the protein expression profile in rat HSCs. Rat HSCs were treated with or without 12 and 24 μg/mL DATS for various time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay, bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine; BrdU) assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, electroscopy, and flow cytometry. Protein expression patterns in HSCs were systematically studied using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. DATS inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of HSCs in a time-dependent manner. We observed clear morphological changes in apoptotic HSCs and dramatically increased annexin V-positive - propidium iodide negative apoptosis compared with the untreated control group. Twenty-one significant differentially expressed proteins, including 9 downregulated proteins and 12 upregulated proteins, were identified after DATS administration, and most of them were involved in apoptosis. Our results suggest that DATS is an inducer of apoptosis in HSCs, and several key proteins may be involved in the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by DATS.

  15. Silymarin suppresses hepatic stellate cell activation in a dietary rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Analysis of isolated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, MINA; YANG, SU-GEUN; KIM, JOON MI; LEE, JIN-WOO; KIM, YOUNG SOO; LEE, JUNG IL

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatocellular injury and initial fibrosis severity has been suggested as an important prognostic factor of NASH. Silymarin was reported to improve carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis and reduce the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). We investigated whether silymarin could suppress the activation of HSCs in NASH induced by methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet fed to insulin-resistant rats. NASH was induced by feeding MCD diet to obese diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were fed with standard chow and served as the control. OLETF rats were fed on either standard laboratory chow, or MCD diet or MCD diet mixed with silymarin. Histological analysis of the liver showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score in silymarin-fed MCD-induced NASH. Silymarin reduced the activation of HSCs, evaluated by counting α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells and measuring α-SMA mRNA expression in the liver lysates as well as in HSCs isolated from the experimental animals. Although silymarin decreased α1-procollagen mRNA expression in isolated HSCs, the anti-fibrogenic effect of silymarin was not prominent so as to show significant difference under histological analysis. Silymarin increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression in the liver. Our study suggested that the possible protective effect of silymarin in diet induced NASH by suppressing the activation of HSCs and disturbing the role of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. PMID:22710359

  16. The Transcriptomic Response of Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells to Endotoxin: Implications for Hepatic Inflammation and Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ashish; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.

    2013-01-01

    With their location in the perisinusoidal space of Disse, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) communicate with all of the liver cell types both by physical association (cell body as well as cytosolic processes penetrating into sinusoids through the endothelial fenestrations) and by producing several cytokines and chemokines. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), circulating levels of which are elevated in liver diseases and transplantation, stimulates HSCs to produce increased amounts of cytokines and chemokines. Although recent research provides strong evidence for the role of HSCs in hepatic inflammation and immune regulation, the number of HSC-elaborated inflammatory and immune regulatory molecules may be much greater then known at the present time. Here we report time-dependent changes in the gene expression profile of inflammatory and immune-regulatory molecules in LPS-stimulated rat HSCs, and their validation by biochemical analyses. LPS strongly up-regulated LPS-response elements (TLR2 and TLR7) but did not affect TLR4 and down-regulated TLR9. LPS also up-regulated genes in the MAPK, NFκB, STAT, SOCS, IRAK and interferon signaling pathways, numerous CC and CXC chemokines and IL17F. Interestingly, LPS modulated genes related to TGFβ and HSC activation in a manner that would limit their activation and fibrogenic activity. The data indicate that LPS-stimulated HSCs become a major cell type in regulating hepatic inflammatory and immunological responses by altering expression of numerous relevant genes, and thus play a prominent role in hepatic pathophysiology including liver diseases and transplantation. PMID:24349206

  17. Parthenolide-induced apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and anti-fibrotic effects in an in vivo rat model.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Hee; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Seong Hun; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae Ghon; Lee, Mi Jin; Park, Woo Hyun

    2012-07-31

    Parthenolide (PT), a sesquiterpene lactone derived from the plant feverfew, has pro-apoptotic activity in a number of cancer cell types. We assessed whether PT induces the apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HCSs) and examined its effects on hepatic fibrosis in an in vivo model. The effects of PT on rat HSCs were investigated in relation to cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, NF-κB binding activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and glutathione (GSH) levels. In addition, the anti-fibrotic effects of PT were investigated in a thioacetamide-treated rat model. PT induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in HSCs, as evidenced by cell growth inhibition and apoptosis assays. PT increased the expression of Bax proteins during apoptosis, but decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) proteins. PT also induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and caspase-3 activation. PT inhibited TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB binding activity in HSCs. The pro-apoptotic activity of PT in HSCs was associated with increased intracellular oxidative stress as evidenced by increased intracellular ROS levels and depleted intracellular GSH levels. Furthermore, PT ameliorated hepatic fibrosis significantly in a thioacetamide- treated rat model. In conclusion, PT exhibited pro-apoptotic effects in rat HSCs and ameliorated hepatic fibrosis in a thioacetamide-induced rat model.

  18. Rat hepatic stellate cells alter the gene expression profile and promote the growth, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Ming; Zhou, Le-Yuan; Liu, Bin-Bin; Jia, Qin-An; Dong, Yin-Ying; Xia, Yun-Hong; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and their paracrine secretions, on hepatocellular cancer cell growth and gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Differentially expressed genes in McA-RH7777 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells following non-contact co-culture with activated stellate cells, were identified by a cDNA microarray. The effect of the co-injection of HCC cells and activated HSCs on tumor size in rats was also investigated. Non-contact co-culture altered the expression of 573 HCC genes by >2-fold of the control levels. Among the six selected genes, ELISA revealed increased protein levels of hepatic growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9). Incubation of HCC cells with medium conditioned by activated HSCs significantly increased the proliferation rate (P<0.001), migration rate and the number of invasive HCC cells (P=0.001). Co-injection of HCC cells and activated HSCs into rats significantly increased the weight of the resulting HCC tumors (P<0.01). The paracrine activity of activated HSCs markedly altered the gene expression profile of HCC cells and affected their growth, migration and invasiveness. The results from the present study indicate that the interaction between the activated HSCs and HCC has an important role in the development of HCC.

  19. Graptopetalum Paraguayense Ameliorates Chemical-Induced Rat Hepatic Fibrosis In Vivo and Inactivates Stellate Cells and Kupffer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yang, Chih-Hsueh; Hsieh, Shur-Jong; Wu, Yi-Chin; Lai, Jin-Mei; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Chi-Ying F.; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Background Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP) is a folk herbal medicine with hepatoprotective effects that is used in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of GP on experimental hepatic fibrosis in both dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury rats. Methods Hepatic fibrosis-induced rats were fed with the methanolic extract of GP (MGP) by oral administration every day. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical assays, and Western blot analysis were performed. The effects of MGP on the expression of fibrotic markers and cytokines in the primary cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and Kupffer cells, respectively, were evaluated. Results Oral administration of MGP significantly alleviated DMN- or CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis. High levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, prothrombin activity and mortality rates also decreased in rats treated with MGP. There were significantly decreased hydroxyproline levels in therapeutic rats compared with those of the liver-damaged rats. Collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were all reduced by incubation with MGP in primary cultured rat HSCs. Furthermore, MGP induced apoptotic cell death in activated HSCs. MGP also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat Kupffer cell activation by decreasing nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production, and increasing interleukin-10 expression. Conclusions The results show that the administration of MGP attenuated toxin-induced hepatic damage and fibrosis in vivo and inhibited HSC and Kupffer cell activation in vitro, suggesting that MGP might be a promising complementary or alternative therapeutic agent for liver inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:23335984

  20. Anti-hepatic fibrosis effects of a novel turtle shell decoction by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell proliferation and blocking TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ganping; Yan, Guohe; Wang, Guojian; Wan, Ping; Zhang, Ronghua

    2016-11-01

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF), a wound-healing response to a variety of chronic stimuli, is characterized by the excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and eventually the development of hepatic cirrhosis. Turtle shell pill (TSP) is a common traditional Chinese medicine used for preventing and treating HF and early hepatic cirrhosis, but its side-effects and the shortage of ingredients limit its clinical application. In addition, its mechanism of action is not clear. In the present study, we first improved the original formula of TSP to produce a novel turtle shell decoction (NTSD) with less toxicity and easier accessible materials. In a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced HF rat model, we observed that NTSD and TSP had similar effects on the improvement of liver functions in rats, including a decrease in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) serum concentrations and increased albumin content in addition to a marked attenuation of CCl4-induced liver damage and fibrosis. NTSD containing rat serum inhibited rat liver stellate cell line HSC-T6 cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, the NTSD treatment significantly decreased the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and Smad3 gene expression and increased inhibitory Smad7 gene expression in liver tissues of HF rats, suggesting that NTSD inhibited the ECM expression of HSC by downregulating the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. The results of our rat model study revealed that NTSD showed good in vitro and in vivo anti-HF effects via proliferation inhibition and the induction of apoptosis of HSCs and blocked the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.

  1. DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation confers hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrogenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Er-Bao; Huang, Cheng; Ma, Tao-Tao; Tao, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Chang; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Li, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during liver fibrogenesis. Phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is a negative regulator of this process. PTEN promoter hypermethylation is a major epigenetic silencing mechanism in tumors. The present study aimed to investigate whether PTEN promoter methylation was involved in HSC activation and liver fibrosis. Treatment of activated HSCs with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) decreased aberrant hypermethylation of the PTEN gene promoter and prevented the loss of PTEN expression that occurred during HSC activation. Silencing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene also decreased the PTEN gene promoter methylation and upregulated the PTEN gene expression in activated HSC-T6 cells. In addition, knockdown of DNMT1 inhibited the activation of both ERK and AKT pathways in HSC-T6 cells. These results suggest that DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation caused the loss of PTEN expression, followed by the activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways, resulting in HSC activation. Highlights: ► PTEN methylation status and loss of PTEN expression ► DNMT1 mediated PTEN hypermethylation. ► Hypermethylation of PTEN contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.

  2. Histological and immunohistochemical effects of Curcuma longa on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells after cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Mansy, A A; Mazroa, S A; Hamed, W S; Yaseen, A H; El-Mohandes, E A

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a target for toxic chemicals such as cadmium (Cd). When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated and transformed into myofibroblast-like cells, which are responsible for liver fibrosis. Curcuma longa has been reported to exert a hepato-protective effect under various pathological conditions. We investigated the effects of C. longa administration on HSC activation in response to Cd induced hepatotoxicity. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group 1 (control), group 2 (Cd treated), group 3 (C. longa treated) and group 4 (Cd and C. longa treated). After 6 weeks, liver specimens were prepared for light and electron microscopy examination of histological changes and immunohistochemical localization of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) as a specific marker for activated HSC. Activated HSC with a positive αSMA immune reaction were not detected in groups 1 and 3. Large numbers of activated HSC with αSMA immune reactions were observed in group 2 in addition to Cd induced hepatotoxic changes including excess collagen deposition in thickened portal triads, interlobular septa with hepatic lobulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, a significant increase in Kupffer cells and degenerated hepatocytes. In group 4, we observed a significant decrease in HSC that expressed αSMA with amelioration of the hepatotoxic changes. C. longa administration decreased HSC activation and ameliorated hepatotoxic changes caused by Cd in adult rats.

  3. Pressure activates Src-dependent FAK-Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Qi; Yu, Bang; Liu, Su; Qin, Kai-Rong; Zhu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with elevated sinusoidal pressure, which can be transmitted to the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in the perisinusoidal space of Disse. Here, we sought to determine the effects of pressure on cellular growth and Src-dependent signaling pathways in the rat HSCs. Cultured rat HSCs were exposed to pressures (0 to 80 mmHg) by using a pressure-inducing apparatus. The proliferation of the cells was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western-blot analysis were used to examine the mRNA and protein levels of representative molecules in Src-dependent signaling pathways. Pressure at 10 to 20 mmHg applied to the HSCs over 1 h upregulated Brdu incorporation and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and type I collagen, while a higher pressure of 40-80 mmHg did not have noticeable effect. The mRNA level of beta (3) integrin was increased by 1-h application of 5 to 20 mmHg. Immunoblot with phospho-specific antibodies demonstrated the phosphorylation of Src (Tyr418), focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (Tyr397), Akt (Ser473) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) (Thr421/Ser424) was increased in response to 10-mmHg pressure. Herbimycin A, an inhibitor of Src phosphorylation, attenuated the pressure-induced HSC proliferation and phosphorylation of above-mentioned signaling molecules. Our data demonstrated that pressure alone induced HSC proliferation involving the activation of Src-dependent signaling pathways. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. p38-MAPK- and Caspase-3-Mediated Superoxide-Induced Apoptosis of Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells: Reversal by Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Noor Mohamed; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Wu, Tong; Watkins, Simon C.; Friedman, Scott L.; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate retinoid-containing quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSCs) to retinoid-deficient fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells (aHSCs). However, ROS also cause apoptosis of aHSCs, and apoptotic aHSCs are observed in inflammatory fibrotic liver. Here, we investigated mechanisms of the effects of oxidative stress on the survival of qHSCs and aHSCs. HSCs from normal rat liver were used after overnight culture (qHSCs), or in 3–5 passages (aHSCs). For in vivo induction of oxidative stress, tert-butylhydroperoxide was injected into control and CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats. Spontaneous caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, observed in cultured qHSCs, decreased with time and were unaffected by superoxide. In contrast, superoxide caused caspase-3 and p38-MAPK activation, reduction in Bcl-xL expression, and apoptosis in aHSCs. Inhibition of caspase-3 and p38-MAPK did not affect the viability of qHSCs in the absence or presence of superoxide, but inhibited superoxide-induced death of aHSCs. Glutathione (GSH) level and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were lower in aHSCs than qHSCs. Superoxide increased GSH content, and activities of SOD, catalase and GPx in qHSCs but not in aHSCs. Incubation of 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA)-treated aHSCs with superoxide increased their GSH content significantly, and prevented superoxide-induced p38-MAPK and caspase-3 activation while dramatically reducing the extent of apoptosis. Finally, oxidative stress induced in vivo caused apoptosis of aHSCs in cirrhotic but not of qHSCs in control rats. These results suggest that the absence of retinoids render aHSCs susceptible to superoxide-induced apoptosis via caspase-3 and p38-MAPK activation. PMID:18792915

  5. Proliferative and oxidative response of hepatocytes (Hep) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) isolated from rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, M; Wessely-Szponder, J; Kosior-Korzecka, U

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is considered in the context of its anti-epileptic effects, but its influence on liver dysfunction has not been elucidated yet. The study was aimed to investigate the activity of hepatocytes (Hep) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) isolated from rats fed with KD, in respect of NO and superoxide generation by these cells as well as their proliferative activity in vitro. We also sought to characterize the plasma FFA profiles in control and ketogenic rats. Hep and HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion method and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4th, 8th and 12th day of incubation, the media were collected for further analysis. NO generation increased within the time of incubation both in Hep and HSC isolated from KD-rats. In HSC group NO production raised significantly from 2.65 ± 0.07 μM/10(6) cells on 4th day of incubation to 5.49 ± 1.2 μM/10(6) cells on 12th day of incubation. In respect to O2⁻· generation experimental Hep and HSC provide considerably higher quantities of this free radical until 12th day of incubation (2.5 ± 0.07 and 3.2 ± 0.3 nM/10(6) cells, respectively). Although KD exerts anti-proliferative effect on hepatocytes, in respect to HSC it intensifies their proliferative activity. Furthermore, as we estimated on the basis of NO and O2⁻. generation both Hep and HSC exposed to KD are the source of free radicals.

  6. Identification of endoglin in rat hepatic stellate cells: new insights into transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Steffen K; Tihaa, Lidia; Lahme, Birgit; Gressner, Axel M; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2005-01-28

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling is mediated by the cell surface TGF-beta type I (ALK5), type II, and the accessory type III receptors endoglin and betaglycan. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the most profibrogenic cell type in the liver, express ALK5, TbetaRII, and betaglycan. To monitor the expression of betaglycan in HSC, we used the commercially available antibody sc-6199 in Western blot analysis. This antibody, raised against a peptide mapping at the carboxyl terminus of the human betaglycan, is claimed to be specific for betaglycan, although it is known that the C-terminal domain is highly conserved in type III receptors. Proteins recognized in HSC by sc-6199 did not match the characteristic migration pattern of betaglycan. Moreover, the determined molecular weight (M(r) 160) and the observed reductant sensitivity after treatment with dithiothreitol resemble those of a closely related type III receptor, endoglin (CD105). Endoglin, a disulfide-linked homodimer, is an accessory component of the TGF-beta receptor complex and mainly expressed on endothelial cells. The presence of endoglin in HSC of rat liver was confirmed by molecular cloning of the endoglin cDNA and immunocytochemistry. The reactivity of sc-6199 with both auxiliary TGF-beta receptors (betaglycan and endoglin) from rats was demonstrated by Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis of cells heterologously expressing these proteins. Furthermore, Northern and Western blotting revealed that both betaglycan and endoglin genes are differentially regulated in HSC and in transdifferentiated myofibroblasts (MFB). By surface labeling and immunoprecipitation experiments, we show that endoglin is found in significant amounts exposed at the plasma membrane of HSC and MFB, which is a pivotal prerequisite for binding of and signaling in response to TGF-beta. In conclusion, we hypothesize that TGF-beta signals in HSC and MFB are tuned by two different interconnected signaling pathways, as it

  7. Hsian-tsao (Mesona procumbens Heml.) prevents against rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl(4) via inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Ming-Huan; Kao, Tzu-Chien; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the protective effect of extract of Hsian-tsao (Mesona procumbens) (EHT) against liver fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-injured rats was evaluated. The inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), which are the active compounds in EHT, on the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) was also determined. The results showed that EHT at a dosage of 1.2g/kg of b.w. significantly reduced the liver injury induced by CCl(4) in rats. It also decreased the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the deposition of collagen in the liver. Oral administration of EHT reduced the levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rats injured by treatment with CCl(4). In addition, we performed experiments with the rat hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 in which we induced the expression of MMP-2 and alpha-SMA with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Treating these cells with OA (20microM) or UA (10microM) caused a decrease in the levels of both proteins. Taken together, our data indicate that EHT can efficiently inhibit CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. EHT may therefore be a useful functional food for preventing liver fibrosis.

  8. Gardenia jasminoides attenuates hepatocellular injury and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats and human hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Hua; Lan, Tian; Li, Jing; Qiu, Chun-Hui; Wu, Teng; Gou, Hong-Ju; Lu, Min-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-hepatofibrotic effects of Gardenia jasminoides in liver fibrosis. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL) for 14 d and were treated with Gardenia jasminoides by gavage. The effects of Gardenia jasminoides on liver fibrosis and the detailed molecular mechanisms were also assessed in human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) in vitro. RESULTS: Treatment with Gardenia jasminoides decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (BDL vs BDL + 100 mg/kg Gardenia jasminoides, 146.6 ± 15 U/L vs 77 ± 6.5 U/L, P = 0.0007) and aspartate aminotransferase (BDL vs BDL + 100 mg/kg Gardenia jasminoides, 188 ± 35.2 U/L vs 128 ± 19 U/L, P = 0.005) as well as hydroxyproline (BDL vs BDL + 100 mg/kg Gardenia jasminoides, 438 ± 40.2 μg/g vs 228 ± 10.3 μg/g liver tissue, P = 0.004) after BDL. Furthermore, Gardenia jasminoides significantly reduced liver mRNA and/or protein expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), collagen type I (Col I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Gardenia jasminoides significantly suppressed the upregulation of TGF-β1, Col I and α-SMA in LX-2 exposed to recombinant TGF-β1. Moreover, Gardenia jasminoides inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation in LX-2 cells. CONCLUSION: Gardenia jasminoides exerts antifibrotic effects in the liver fibrosis and may represent a novel antifibrotic agent. PMID:23326120

  9. Cadmium induces alpha(1)collagen (I) and metallothionein II gene and alters the antioxidant system in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Escobar Ma; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Hernández, Elizabeth; Damián-Matsumura, Pablo; Zaga, Verónica; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Ma Concepción

    2002-01-15

    The mechanism of cadmium-mediated hepatotoxicity has been the subject of numerous investigations, principally in hepatocytes. Although, some uncertainties persist, sufficient evidence has emerged to provide a reasonable account of the toxic process in parenchymal cells. However, there is no information about the effect of cadmium in other hepatic cell types, such as stellate cells (fat storing cells, Ito cells, perisinusoidal cells, parasinusoidal cells, lipocytes). Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) express a quiescent phenotype in a healthy liver and acquire an activated phenotype in liver injury. These cells play an important role in the fibrogenic process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 24 h treatment of low Cd concentrations in glutathione content, lipid peroxidation damage, cytosolic free Ca, antioxidant enzyme activities: glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase along with the capacity of this heavy metal to induce metallothionein II and alpha(1)collagen (I) in an hepatic stellate cell line (CFSC-2G). Cd-treated cells increased lipid peroxidation and the content of cytosolic free calcium, decreased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. Cd was able to induce the expression of the metallothionein II and alpha(1)collagen (I) gene, that was not described in this cell type. Cadmium may act as a pro-fibrogenic agent in the liver probably by inducing oxidative damage by enhancing lipid peroxidation and altering the antioxidant system of the cells. Although, the exact role metallothionein induction plays in this process is unknown, it probably, provides a cytosolic pool of potential binding sites to sequester ionic Cd, thereby decreasing its toxicity.

  10. Resistin mediates the hepatic stellate cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhi-Xia; Su, Lin; Brymora, Joanne; Bird, Claire; Xie, Qing; George, Jacob; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the role of resistin in liver fibrosis. METHODS: For the in vivo animal study, Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) for 4 wk. Rat liver, adipose tissue (epididymal fat) and serum were analyzed for resistin expression. For the in vitro experiment, rat primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and Kupffer cells (KCs) were used. HSCs were exposed to recombinant resistin, and collagen I, transforming growth factor β1, α smooth muscle actin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and connective tissue growth factor expression were analyzed. Resistin gene and protein expression was quantified as was the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). The effects of resistin on HSC proliferation, migration and apoptosis were determined. The effects of resistin on KCs were also investigated. RESULTS: Following BDL, rat epididymal fat and serum rather than liver showed higher resistin expression compared to control rats. In liver, resistin was expressed in quiescent HSCs and KCs. Resistin treatment resulted in enhancement of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 gene expression and increased IL-6 and MCP-1 protein in HSCs. Resistin activated HSC phospho-MAPK/p38, and p38 inhibition diminished IL-6 and MCP-1 expression. Furthermore, resistin facilitated HSC proliferation and migration, but decreased apoptosis which was via an IL-6 and MCP-1 mechanism. Finally, resistin-induced transforming growth factor β1 from KCs enhanced HSC collagen Iexpression. CONCLUSION: Resistin directly and indirectly modulates HSC behavior towards a more pro-fibrogenic phenotype. PMID:23901222

  11. (+)-Catechin attenuates activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Bragança de Moraes, Cristina Machado; Bitencourt, Shanna; de Mesquita, Fernanda Cristina; Mello, Denizar; de Oliveira, Leticia Paranhos; da Silva, Gabriela Viegas; Lorini, Vinicius; Caberlon, Eduardo; de Souza Basso, Bruno; Schmid, Julia; Ferreira, Gabriela Acevedo; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    (+)-Catechin is a type of catechin present in large amounts in açaí fruits and cocoa seeds. Besides its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, little is known about its effects in the liver, especially during hepatic fibrosis. We report here the effects of (+)-catechin on hepatic stellate cells. (+)-Catechin induced quiescent phenotype in GRX cells, along with an increase in lipid droplets. Proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression was upregulated, whereas type I collagen mRNA expression was downregulated. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were not influenced by (+)-catechin, whereas the levels of interleukin 10 were significantly increased. The data provide evidence that (+)-catechin can reduce hepatic stellate cell activation.

  12. Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue-Hong; Chen, Yun-Xin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin‑10 (rIL‑10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid‑expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL‑transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen.

  13. Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YUE-HONG; CHEN, YUN-XIN; ZHANG, LI-JUAN; CHEN, ZHI-XIN; WANG, XIAO-ZHONG

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin-10 (rIL-10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid-expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL-transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen. PMID:24993843

  14. Discovery of Aptamer Ligands for Hepatic Stellate Cells Using SELEX.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijin; Liu, Hao; Jain, Akshay; Zhang, Li; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor II receptor (IGFIIR) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are the major target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. In this study, we aim to discover an IGFIIR-specific aptamer that can be potentially used as a targeting ligand for the treatment and diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was conducted on recombinant human IGFIIR to identify IGFIIR-specific aptamers. The binding affinity and specificity of the discovered aptamers to IGFIIR and hepatic stellate cells were studied using flow cytometry and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Aptamer-20 showed the highest affinity to recombinant human IGFIIR protein with a Kd of 35.5 nM, as determined by SPR. Aptamer-20 also has a high affinity (apparent Kd 45.12 nM) to LX-2 human hepatic stellate cells. Binding of aptamer-20 to hepatic stellate cells could be inhibited by knockdown of IGFIIR using siRNA, indicating a high specificity of the aptamer. The aptamer formed a chimera with an anti-fibrotic PCBP2 siRNA and delivered the siRNA to HSC-T6 cells to trigger silencing activity. In Vivo biodistribution study of the siRNA-aptamer chimera also demonstrated a high and specific uptake in the liver of the rats with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. These data suggest that aptamer-20 is a high-affinity ligand for antifibrotic and diagnostic agents for liver fibrosis.

  15. Cluster of differentiation 147 is a key molecule during hepatocellular carcinoma cell-hepatic stellate cell cross-talk in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tianyou; Wang, Zhilun; Yang, Zhantian; Chen, Jinghong

    2015-07-01

    The cross-talk between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is considered to be important for modulating the biological behavior of tumor cells. However, the molecular links between inflammation and cancer in the activation of HSCs remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that cluster of differentiation (CD)147 is a key molecule involved in the interaction between HCC cells and HSCs. The effects of conditioned medium from human HCC cells on the activation of the human HSC line, LX-2, were assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Western blotting, RT-qPCR and gelatin zymography were also used to investigate the effects of CD147 on the activation of LX-2. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and CD147 were assessed in a co-culture system of LX-2 and FHCC-98 cells by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. In hepatic tissues from a rat model of fibrosis, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were performed to detect the expression levels of α-SMA and CD147. Tumor-conditioned medium and CD147 promoted cell proliferation, activated LX-2 cells, increased the expression levels of α-SMA, collagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and increased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. The HSCs, which were induced in the co-culture system of HCC cells and HSCs exhibited marked expression levels of CD147. In the hepatic tissue of rat models of fibrosis induced by CCl4, marked expression levels of CD147 were observed in the activated HSCs. Therefore, CD147 promoted the activation of HSCs and was a key molecule during HCC cell-HSC cross-talk in the rat liver.

  16. Long live the liver: immunohistochemical and stereological study of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells of male and female rats throughout ageing.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Male/female differences in enzyme activity and gene expression in the liver are known to be attenuated with ageing. Nevertheless, the effect of ageing on liver structure and quantitative cell morphology remains unknown. Male and female Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12 and 18 months were examined by means of stereological techniques and immunohistochemical tagging of hepatocytes (HEP), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in order to assess the total number and number per gram of these cells throughout life. The mean cell volume of HEP and HSC, the lobular position and the collagen content of the liver were also evaluated with stereological techniques. The number per gram of HSC was similar for both genders and was maintained throughout ageing. The mean volume of HSC was also conserved but differences in the cell body and lobular location were observed. Statistically significant gender differences in HEP were noted in young rats (females had smaller and more binucleated HEP) but were attenuated with ageing. The same occurred for KC and LSEC, since the higher number per gram in young females disappeared in older animals. Liver collagen increased with ageing but only in males. Thus, the numbers of these four cell types are related throughout ageing, with well-defined cell ratios. The shape and lobular position of HSC change with ageing in both males and females. Gender dimorphism in HEP, KC and LSEC of young rat liver disappears with ageing.

  17. Dicliptera Chinensis polysaccharides target TGF-β/Smad pathway and inhibit stellate cells activation in rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zhang, J; Jia, L; Xiao, S

    2016-01-27

    This study aims to study impact of Dicliptera chinensis polysaccharide (DCP) on hepatic fibrosis (HF) and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Liver fibrosis model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of dimethyl nitrosamines (DMN) in rat. Rats in treatment group were administrated with different concentrations of DCP (0, 100, 300 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining were used to assess histo-pathological change. α-SMA, TGF-β1 and pSmad 2/3 were assayed by immuno-histochemistry. HSC-T6 cells were stimulated by recombined rat TGF-β1 (1 ng/mL) to simulate an activating model in vitro and then interfered with DCP (concentration of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 µg/ml). MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation and western blotting was used to detect α-SMA and pSmad 2/3 expression. Results demonstrated that DCP alleviated DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rat and significantly down-regulated TGF-β1 expression, pSmad2/3 and α-SMA in liver tissue in a dose-dependent way. DCP inhibited proliferation and activation of TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 in vitro and significantly down-regulated α-SMA and pSmad2/3 expression. In conclusion, this study revealed that DCP attenuates progression of liver fibrosis through suppressing TGF-β/Smad pathway. DCP is a potential botanical polysaccharide to management liver fibrosis.

  18. The antioxidant effect of β-caryophyllene protects rat liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Miguel Angel; Vieites, Jose María; Montero-Meléndez, Trinidad; Montero-Meterdez, Trinidad; Torres, María Isabel; Faus, María José; Gil, Angel; Suárez, Antonio

    2013-02-14

    Plant-based whole foods provide thousands of bioactive metabolites to the human diet that reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases. β-Caryophyllene (CAR) is a common constituent of the essential oil of numerous plants, vegetables, fruits and medicinal herbs, and has been used as a flavouring agent since the 1930 s. Here, we report the antioxidant activity of CAR, its protective effect on liver fibrosis and its inhibitory capacity on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. CAR was tested for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and as a free radical scavenger. CAR had higher inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation than probucol, α-humulene and α-tocopherol. Also, CAR showed high scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion. The activity of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme that actively participates in fibrogenesis, was significantly inhibited by CAR. Carbon tetrachloride-treated rats received CAR at 2, 20 and 200 mg/kg. CAR significantly improved liver structure, and reduced fibrosis and the expression of Col1a1, Tgfb1 and Timp1 genes. Oxidative stress was used to establish a model of HSC activation with overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins. CAR (1 and 10 μm) increased cell viability and significantly reduced the expression of fibrotic marker genes. CAR, a sesquiterpene present in numerous plants and foods, is as a natural antioxidant that reduces carbon tetrachloride-mediated liver fibrosis and inhibits hepatic cell activation.

  19. [Effect of tetramethylpyrazine and rat CTGF miRNA plasmids on connective tissue growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta in high glucose stimulated hepatic stellate cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Li, Jun; Xing, Nini; Xiang, Ying; Shen, Yan; Li, Xiaosheng

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) miRNA plasmids on the expressive levels of CTGF, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) and type I collagen of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which are stimulated by high glucose. The rat HSCs which were successfully transfected rat CTGF miRNA plasmids and the rat HSCs which were successfully transfected negative plasmids were cultured in vitro. After stimulus of the TMP and the high glucose, the protein levels and gene expressive levels of CTGF, TGF-beta and type I collagen were tested. The results indicated that high glucose increased the expression of CTGF mRNA, CTGF protein, TGF-beta mRNA,TGF-beta protein and type I collagen (P < 0.05). The expressive levels of CTGF mRNA, CTGF protein, TGF-beta mRNA, TGF-beta and type I collagen in TMP group were lower than those in high glucose group and showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). Compared with high glucose group, the expressive levels of CTGF mRNA, CTGF protein, TGF-beta mRNA, TGF-beta and type I collagen in rat CTGF miRNA plasmid interference group were significantly lower (P < 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was found in CTGF mRNA and CTGF protein levels between TMP group and CTGF miRNA group (P > 0.05), while type I collagen levels showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). It is concluded that high glucose could promote the expressions of CTGF, TGF-beta and type I collagen, and TMP and rat CTGF miRNA plasmids could reduce the expressions of CTGF, TGF-beta, type I collagen.

  20. A Novel Matrine Derivative WM130 Inhibits Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Attenuates Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Peng, Zhangxiao; Ji, Weidan; Li, Xiang; Lin, Xuejing; Qian, Liqiang; Li, Xiaoya; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wu, Qiuye; Gao, Quangen; Su, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a critical event in process of hepatic fibrogenesis and cirrhosis. Matrine, the active ingredient of Sophora, had been used for clinical treatment of acute/chronic liver disease. However, its potency was low. We prepared a high potency and low toxicity matrine derivate, WM130 (C30N4H40SO5F), which exhibited better pharmacological activities on antihepatic fibrosis. This study demonstrated that WM130 results in a decreased proliferative activity of HSC-T6 cells, with the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 68 μM. WM130 can inhibit the migration and induce apoptosis in HSC-T6 cells at both concentrations of 68 μM (IC50) and 34 μM (half IC50). The expression of α-SMA, Collagen I, Collagen III, and TGF-β1 could be downregulated, and the protein phosphorylation levels of EGFR, AKT, ERK, Smad, and Raf (p-EGFR, p-AKT, p-ERK, p-Smad, and p-Raf) were also decreased by WM130. On the DMN-induced rat liver fibrosis model, WM130 can effectively reduce the TGF-β1, AKT, α-SMA, and p-ERK levels, decrease the extracellular matrix (ECM) formation, and inhibit rat liver fibrosis progression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that WM130 can significantly inhibit the activation of HSC-T6 cells and block the rat liver fibrosis progression by inducing apoptosis, suppressing the deposition of ECM, and inhibiting TGF-β/Smad and Ras/ERK pathways.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated cell proliferation through a prostaglandin E receptor EP2 subtype in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Koide, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Oki, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2004-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 inhibits hepatic stellate cell (HSC) mitogenesis. PGE-specific receptors are divided into four subtypes that are coupled either to Ca2+ mobilization (EP1 and EP3) or to the stimulation of adenyl cyclase (EP2 and EP4). The aims of the current study were to identify PGE receptor subtypes in cultured rat HSC and to examine which PGE receptor subtype(s) mediates the inhibitory effect of PGE2 on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated proliferation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to detect PGE receptor subtype mRNA expression. Cell proliferation was determined by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation, and intracellular cyclic AMP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cultured rat HSC expressed mRNAs for all four subtypes of PGE receptor. PGE2- and EP2-selective agonist produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on PDGF-stimulated proliferation. Neither EP1-, EP3-, nor EP4-selective agonists showed any inhibitory effect. An adenylate cyclase inhibitor strongly blunted the inhibition of DNA synthesis elicited by PGE2 and the EP2 agonist. The EP2 agonist generated higher and more prolonged increases in intracellular cyclic AMP than the EP4 agonist. Activation of the PGE EP2 receptor has an antiproliferative effect in HSC that may be mediated by cyclic AMP-related signal transduction pathways.

  2. Pirfenidone inhibits proliferation, arrests the cell cycle, and downregulates heat shock protein-47 and collagen type I in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xian-Hong; Jiang, Tian-Peng; Zhang, Shuai; Song, Jie; Li, Xing; Yang, Jian-Yong; Zhou, Shi

    2015-07-01

    Pirfenidone (esbiret) is an established anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory drug used to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, the dose-dependent effects of pirfenidone on the cell cycle, proliferation and expression of heat shock protein (HSP)-47 and collagen type I in a cultured rat hepatic stellate cell line (HSC-T6) were investigated. Following pirfenidone treatment, cell proliferation was determined using the cell counting kit-8 assay and the cell cycle was measured using flow cytometry. HSP-47 expression was estimated using western blot analysis and collagen type I mRNA was assessed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pirfenidone induced significant dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in HSC-T6 cells. Cell viability was unaffected by treatment with pirfenidone (0, 10 or 100 µM) for 24 and 72 h. However, after 24 h, HSC-T6 cells exhibited dose-dependent decreases in HSP-47 protein and collagen I mRNA levels. In conclusion, pirfenidone inhibited HSC-T6 cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle and reduced the expression of HSP-47 and collagen type I, indicating that pirfenidone may be a promising drug in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  3. Adenovirus-mediated expression of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 targeting hepatic stellate cell attenuates liver fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengguo; Li, Jie; Huo, Yan; Lu, Jin; Wan, Lili; Yang, Quanjun; Huang, Jinlu; Gan, Run; Guo, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response characterized with the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). And hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the principal cell source of ECM. NR4A2 (Nurr1) is a member of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A family and acts as transcription factor. It participates in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. We previously demonstrated that NR4A2 expression in fibrotic liver reduced significantly compared with normal liver and NR4A2 knockout in HSCs promoted ECM production. In the present study we explored the role of NR4A2 on liver fibrosis. Studies in cultured HSCs demonstrated that NR4A2 over-expression suppressed the activation of HSCs, such as ECM production and invasion ability. Moreover cell cycle was arrested, cell apoptosis was promoted and cell signaling pathway was influenced. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of NR4A2 in rats ameliorated significantly dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) induced liver fibrosis. The In vivo experiments produced results consistent with in vitro experiments. Taken together these results demonstrate NR4A2 enhancement attenuates liver fibrosis via suppressing the activation of HSCs and NR4A2 may be an ideal target for anti-fibrotic therapy. PMID:27646469

  4. JNK1 and JNK2 regulate α-SMA in hepatic stellate cells during CCl4 -induced fibrosis in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Park, Sang-Joon; Goo, Moon-Jung; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2013-10-01

    Following liver injuries, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) express α-SMA. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways mediate α-SMA expression in distinct cell types. However, the regulation of α-SMA expression by MAPKs in HSCs has been rarely studied. We aimed to study the role of MAPKs in the activation of HSCs during liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis of rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride. HSC-T6 cells, murine embryonic fibroblasts, JNK1(-/-) and JNK2(-/-) cells were used for in vitro studies. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used. We have found that the expression of JNK and α-SMA co-localized in HSCs during liver fibrosis, but ERK and p38 expressed in macrophages. The expression of α-SMA was up-regulated by JNK1 and JNK2 in non-stress condition. Under TGF-β stimulation, however, the level α-SMA expression was increased by only JNK1, but not significantly changed by JNK2. We suggest that JNKs are responsible for α-SMA regulation, and especially JNK1 has a major role in up-regulation of α-SMA expression in HSCs under stress condition induced by TGF-β during liver fibrosis. © 2013 The Authors. Pathology International © 2013 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Hepatic stellate cells in liver development, regeneration, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chunyue; Evason, Kimberley J.; Asahina, Kinji; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells are liver-specific mesenchymal cells that play vital roles in liver physiology and fibrogenesis. They are located in the space of Disse and maintain close interactions with sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic epithelial cells. It is becoming increasingly clear that hepatic stellate cells have a profound impact on the differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis of other hepatic cell types during liver development and regeneration. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the recent advances in our understanding of the formation and characteristics of hepatic stellate cells, as well as their function in liver development, regeneration, and cancer. We also discuss how improved knowledge of these processes offers new perspectives for the treatment of patients with liver diseases. PMID:23635788

  6. Induction of apoptosis by tanshinone I via cytochrome c release in activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Nan, Ji-Xing; Zhao, Yu Zhe; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Sang Jun; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic stellate cells play central roles in hepatic fibrosis. The therapeutic goal in hepatic fibrosis is to halt or reverse fibrosis. Apoptosis is suggested to eliminate activated hepatic stellate cells in fibrosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional medicine used to improve blood circulation and treat chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. We investigated the effect of tanshinone I, an ingredient of Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the apoptotic death of rat hepatic stellate cells transformed by simian virus 40 (T-HSC/Cl-6), which retains the features of activated stellate cells. Treatment of T-HSC/Cl-6 cells with tanshinone I resulted in the induction of typical DNA fragmentation and DNA ladder formation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. Treatment of T-HSC/Cl-6 cells with tanshinone I caused activation of caspase-3 and subsequent proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Tanshinone I induced mitochondrial membrane dipolarization and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that tanshinone I induces apoptosis of T-HSC/Cl-6 cells and that tanshinone I-induced apoptosis involves caspase activation through cytochrome c release and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

  7. Carvedilol Improves Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis in the Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats by Regulating Kuppfer Cells and Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes de; Garcia, Vinícius Barreto; Leitão, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Guedes, Paulo Marcos Matta; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2016-01-01

    ), procollagen type III (PCIII), and NF-κB were decreased in the alcohol-CARV 5 mg/kg group relative to the alcohol-only group. CARV can reduce the stress oxidative, inflammatory response and fibrosis in ethanol-induced liver injury in a rat model by downregulating signalling of Kuppfer cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) through suppression of inflammatory cytokines.

  8. Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by phosphorylation of CREB on serine 133.

    PubMed Central

    Houglum, K; Lee, K S; Chojkier, M

    1997-01-01

    Proliferating, activated, hepatic stellate cells have a high level of collagen type I expression. Therefore, stellate cell proliferation is a critical step in hepatic fibrosis. Here we show that proliferation of activated primary rat stellate cells was blocked by elevation of cAMP with 8 Br-cAMP or isomethylbutyl xanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and by stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes with the Ca2+ ionophore A-23187. Because phosphorylation of CREB on Ser133 is an important mediator of cAMP-protein kinase (PKA) and Ca2+-calmodulin kinase II (CAMK-II) activation, we tested whether CREB-PSer133 was essential for stellate cell quiescence. Nuclear extracts from quiescent, but not from activated, stellate cells contained CREB-PSer133. Moreover, the phosphorylation of CREB on Ser133 was stimulated in activated cells by inducing the activity of PKA or CAMK-II. In addition, coexpression of CREB and either a constitutively active PKA or a constitutively active CAMK-II inhibited the proliferation of activated stellate cells. In contrast, expression of CREB alone, PKA or CAMK-II alone, CREB-Ala 133 (which lacks the Ser133 phosphoacceptor) with PKA or CAMK-II, or CREB with inactive PKA or CAMK-II mutants did not affect stellate cell proliferation, suggesting that CREB-PSer133 is necessary for blocking the stellate cell cycle. Conversely, expression of a trans-dominant negative CREB-Ala 133 mutant (which competes with CREB/CREB-PSer133 for cognate DNA binding sites and presumably for protein interactions) induced a greater than fivefold entry into S-phase of quiescent stellate cells, compared with control cells expressing either beta-galactosidase or wt CREB, indicating that CREB-PSer133 may be indispensable for the quiescent stellate cell phenotype. This study suggests that PKA and CAMK-II play an essential role on stellate cell activation through the induction of CREB phosphorylation on Ser133, and provides potential approaches for the treatment of hepatic fibrogenesis in

  9. Epigenetic regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    El Taghdouini, Adil; van Grunsven, Leo A

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver injury to hepatocytes or cholangiocytes, when left unmanaged, leads to the development of liver fibrosis, a condition characterized by the excessive intrahepatic deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Activated hepatic stellate cells constitute the predominant source of extracellular matrix in fibrotic livers and their transition from a quiescent state during fibrogenesis is associated with important alterations in their transcriptional and epigenetic landscape. Areas covered: We briefly describe the processes involved in hepatic stellate cell activation and discuss our current understanding of alterations in the epigenetic landscape, i.e DNA methylation, histone modifications and the functional role of non-coding RNAs that accompany this key event in the development of chronic liver disease. Expert commentary: Although great progress has been made, our understanding of the epigenetic regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation is limited and, thus far, insufficient to allow the development of epigenetic drugs that can selectively interrupt liver fibrosis.

  10. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of activated hepatic stellate cells with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide targeting integrin αvβ3 for staging liver fibrosis in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caiyuan; Liu, Huanhuan; Cui, Yanfen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhongyang; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Dengbin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the expression level of integrin αvβ3 on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) at different stages of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat model and the feasibility to stage liver fibrosis by using molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide modified ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) specifically targeting integrin αvβ3. Materials and methods All experiments received approval from our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 subjects each, and intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 for either 3, 6, or 9 weeks. Controls (n=10) received pure olive oil. The change in T2* relaxation rate (ΔR2*) pre- and postintravenous administration of RGD-USPIO or naked USPIO was measured by 3.0T clinical MRI and compared by one-way analysis of variance or the Student’s t-test. The relationship between expression level of integrin αvβ3 and liver fibrotic degree was evaluated by Spearman’s ranked correlation. Results Activated HSCs were confirmed to be the main cell types expressing integrin αvβ3 during liver fibrogenesis. The protein level of integrin αv and β3 subunit expressed on activated HSCs was upregulated and correlated well with the progression of liver fibrosis (r=0.954, P<0.001; r=0.931, P<0.001, respectively). After injection of RGD-USPIO, there is significant difference in ΔR2* among rats treated with 0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks of CCl4 (P<0.001). The accumulation of iron particles in fibrotic liver specimen is significantly greater for RGD-USPIO than naked USPIO after being injected with equal dose of iron. Conclusion Molecular MRI of integrin αvβ3 expressed on activated HSCs by using RGD-USPIO may distinguish different liver fibrotic stages in CCl4 rat model and shows promising to noninvasively monitor the progression of the liver fibrosis and therapeutic response to

  11. Effects of interferon-alpha on expression of hepatic stellate cell and transforming growth factor-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin in rats with hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xin-Ming; Chang, Ying; Jia, Ai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of interferon-α (IFN-α) on preventing or reversing hepatic fibrosis in rat experimental model induced by CCl4. METHODS: One hundred and ten Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: group A (normal controls, n = 18), group B (fibrotic model controls, n = 22), group C (IFN-α prevention, n = 22) initially treated with intra-muscular injection of IFN-α in saline daily at the doses of 1×105 U for 6 wk, group D (IFN-α treatment, n = 24) treated with intra-muscular injection of IFN-α in saline daily at the doses of 1×105 U for 6 wk after the first 6 wk, group E (0.9% sodium chloride treatment control, n = 24) treated with intra-muscular injection of 0.01 mL/kg daily for 6 wk after the first 6 wk. At the end of the experiment, all rats of each group were killed. Samples of the liver obtained by biopsy were subjected to histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies for the expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). RESULTS: The expressions of TGF-β1, the number of activated hepatic stellate cells and α-SMA in hepatic tissue of group C were significantly less than those of group B (P<0.01). The degree of fibrosis score in group B was also significantly less than that of group C under light microscope (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: IFN-α can inhibit the production of TGF-β1, decrease HSC activation and stimulate its apoptosis. PMID:15849824

  12. MicroRNA-130a and -130b enhance activation of hepatic stellate cells by suppressing PPARγ expression: A rat fibrosis model study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Le; Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Guoyu; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Yafei; Shang, Hao; Ji, Hong; Chen, Xi; Duan, Yanxia; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-25

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary sources of extracellular matrix (ECM) in normal and fibrotic liver. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) maintains HSCs in a quiescent state, and its downregulation induces HSC activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can induce PPARγ mRNA degradation, but the mechanism by which miRNAs regulate PPARγ in rat HSCs is unclear. This study aimed to investigate some miRNAs which putatively bind to the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of PPARγ mRNA, and increase expression of ECM genes in rat HSCs. In carbon tetrachloride injection (CCl{sub 4}) and common bile duct ligation (CBDL) liver fibrosis models, miRNAs miR-130a, miR-130b, miR-301a, miR-27b and miR-340 levels were found to be increased and PPARγ expression decreased. Overexpression of miR-130a and miR-130b enhanced cell proliferation by involving Runx3. MiR-130a and miR-130b decreased PPARγ expression by targeting the 3′-UTR of PPARγ mRNA in rat HSC-T6 cells. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) may mediate miR-130a and miR-130b overexpression, PPARγ downregulation, and ECM genes overexpression in cell culture. These findings suggest that miR-130a and miR-130b are involved in downregulation of PPARγ in liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • MiR-130a and miR-130b are increased and PPARγ is decreased in liver fibrosis models. • MiR-130a and miR-130b decreased PPARγ by targeting the 3′-UTR of PPARγ mRNA. • MiR-130a and miR-130b enhanced HSC cell proliferation by involving Runx3. • TGF-β1 may mediate miR-130a and miR-130b overexpression.

  13. Pharmacological Intervention in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Bartneck, Matthias; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Nattermann, Jacob; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into contractile, matrix-producing myofibroblasts (MFBs) are central events in hepatic fibrogenesis. These processes are driven by autocrine- and paracrine-acting soluble factors (i.e., cytokines and chemokines). Proof-of-concept studies of the last decades have shown that both the deactivation and removal of hepatic MFBs as well as antagonizing profibrogenic factors are in principle suitable to attenuate ongoing hepatic fibrosis. Although several drugs show potent antifibrotic activities in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis, there is presently no effective pharmaceutical intervention specifically approved for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Pharmaceutical interventions are generally hampered by insufficient supply of drugs to the diseased liver tissue and/or by adverse effects as a result of affecting non-target cells. Therefore, targeted delivery systems that bind specifically to receptors solely expressed on activated HSCs or transdifferentiated MFBs and delivery systems that can improve drug distribution to the liver in general are urgently needed. In this review, we summarize current strategies for targeted delivery of drugs to the liver and in particular to pro-fibrogenic liver cells. The applicability and efficacy of sequestering molecules, selective protein carriers, lipid-based drug vehicles, viral vectors, transcriptional targeting approaches, therapeutic liver- and HSC-specific nanoparticles, and miRNA-based strategies are discussed. Some of these delivery systems that had already been successfully tested in experimental animal models of ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis are expected to translate into clinically useful therapeutics specifically targeting HSCs. PMID:26941644

  14. The role of curcumin in streptozotocin-induced hepatic damage and the trans-differentiation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hesham N

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic patients frequently suffer from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The current study aimed to investigate the role of curcumin and the response of hepatic stellate cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hepatic damage. Sixty male rats were divided into three groups. The normal control injected with a citrate buffer vehicle and the diabetic control group which was injected intraperitoneally (IP) with a single-dose of streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight) and a diabetic group was treated with an oral dose of curcumin at 80 mg/kg body weight daily for 60 days. Curcumin effectively counteracts oxidative stress-mediated hepatic damage and improves biochemical parameters. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was significantly reduced, and insulin antibodies showed strong positive immunoreactivity with curcumin administration. These results optimistically demonstrate the potential use of curcumin, which is attributed to its antiradical/antioxidant activities and its potential β-cell regenerative properties. Also, it has the capability to encourage the trans-differentiation of hepatic stellate cells into insulin-producing cells for a period of time. In addition, as it is an anti-fibrotic mediator that inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation and the transition to myofibroblast-like cells, this suggests the possibility of considering curcumin's novel therapeutic effects in reducing hepatic dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  15. Suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation through downregulation of gremlin1 expression by the miR-23b/27b cluster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hu; Ni, Yi-Ran; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jiang-Feng; Liu, Chang-Bai

    2016-01-01

    The imbalance between transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic protein 7 signaling pathways is a critical step in promoting hepatic stellate cell activation during hepatic fibrogenesis. Gremlin1 may impair the balance. Something remains unclear about the regulatory mechanisms of gremlin1 action on hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatic fibrosis. In the current study, gremlin1 overexpression promotes activation of hepatic stellate cells. Knockdown of gremlin1 with siRNAs suppresses hepatic stellate cell activation and attenuates hepatic fibrosis in rat model. Our results also show that miR-23b/27b cluster members bind to 3′-untranslated region of gremlin1 resulting in reduction of transforming growth factor β, α-smooth muscle actin and collagenI α1/2 gene expression. Our findings suggest that gremlin1 promotes hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatic fibrogenesis through impairment of the balance between transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic protein 7 signaling pathways. The miR-23b/27b cluster suppresses activation of hepatic stellate cells through binding gremlin1 to rectify the imbalance. PMID:27863390

  16. Over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} induces apoptosis in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells depending on p53 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xueqing; Huang Guangcun; Mei Shuang; Qian Jin; Ji Juling; Zhang Jinsheng

    2009-03-06

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In our previous studies, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-{alpha} (C/EBP-{alpha}) has been shown to be involved in the activation of HSCs and to have a repression effect on hepatic fibrosis in vivo. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that the infection of adenovirus vector expressing C/EBP-{alpha} gene (Ad-C/EBP-{alpha}) could induce HSCs apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and flow cytometry. Also, over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} resulted in the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) and P53, while P53 expression was regulated by PPAR-{gamma}. In addition, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, and TRAIL were studied. The results indicated that the death receptor pathway was mainly involved and regulated by PPAR-{gamma} and p53 in the process of apoptosis triggered by C/EBP-{alpha} in HSCs.

  17. Over-expression of C/EBP-alpha induces apoptosis in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells depending on p53 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Guangcun; Mei, Shuang; Qian, Jin; Ji, Juling; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2009-03-06

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In our previous studies, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha) has been shown to be involved in the activation of HSCs and to have a repression effect on hepatic fibrosis in vivo. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that the infection of adenovirus vector expressing C/EBP-alpha gene (Ad-C/EBP-alpha) could induce HSCs apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and flow cytometry. Also, over-expression of C/EBP-alpha resulted in the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and P53, while P53 expression was regulated by PPAR-gamma. In addition, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, and TRAIL were studied. The results indicated that the death receptor pathway was mainly involved and regulated by PPAR-gamma and p53 in the process of apoptosis triggered by C/EBP-alpha in HSCs.

  18. Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells in the Early Phase of Liver Regeneration in Rat: Formation of Tight Adhesion to Parenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Ayako; Mullaney, Ian; Sheard, Philip; Hessian, Paul; Zimmermann, Arthur; Senoo, Haruki; Wheatley, Antony M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated activation mechanisms of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are known to play pivotal roles in the regeneration process after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx). Parenchymal liver cells (PLCs) and non-parenchymal cells (NPLCs) were isolated and purified from the regenerating livers at 1, 3, 7, 14 days after PHx. Each liver cell fraction was stained by immunocytochemistry using an anti-desmin antibody as a marker for HSCs, anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) as a marker for activated HSCs, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for detection of proliferating cells. Tissue sections from regenerating livers were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with the results obtained for isolated cell fractions. One and 3 days after PHx, PLC-enriched fraction contained HSCs adhered to PLCs. The HSCs adhered to PLCs were double positive for BrdU and alpha-SMA, and formed clusters suggesting that these HSCs were activated. However, HSC-enriched fraction contained HSCs not adhered PLCs showed positive staining for anti-desmin antibody but negative for anti-alpha-SMA antibody. These results suggest that HSCs are activated by adhering to PLCs during the early phase of hepatic regeneration. PMID:14960181

  19. Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells in the Early Phase of Liver Regeneration in Rat: Formation of Tight Adhesion to Parenchymal Cells.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Ayako; Mullaney, Ian; Sheard, Philip; Hessian, Paul; Zimmermann, Arthur; Senoo, Haruki; Wheatley, Antony M

    2004-01-14

    We investigated activation mechanisms of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are known to play pivotal roles in the regeneration process after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx). Parenchymal liver cells (PLCs) and non-parenchymal cells (NPLCs) were isolated and purified from the regenerating livers at 1, 3, 7, 14 days after PHx. Each liver cell fraction was stained by immunocytochemistry using an anti-desmin antibody as a marker for HSCs, anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) as a marker for activated HSCs, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for detection of proliferating cells. Tissue sections from regenerating livers were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with the results obtained for isolated cell fractions. One and 3 days after PHx, PLC-enriched fraction contained HSCs adhered to PLCs. The HSCs adhered to PLCs were double positive for BrdU and alpha-SMA, and formed clusters suggesting that these HSCs were activated. However, HSC-enriched fraction contained HSCs not adhered PLCs showed positive staining for anti-desmin antibody but negative for anti-alpha-SMA antibody. These results suggest that HSCs are activated by adhering to PLCs during the early phase of hepatic regeneration.

  20. The improving effects on hepatic fibrosis of interferon-γ liposomes targeted to hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghua; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Feng; Lu, Weiyue; Wang, Jiyao; Guo, Chuanyong

    2012-07-05

    No satisfactory anti-fibrotic therapies have yet been applied clinically. One of the main reasons is the inability to specifically target the responsible cells to produce an available drug concentration and the side-effects. Exploiting the key role of the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in both hepatic fibrogenesis and over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor- (PDGFR- ), we constructed targeted sterically stable liposomes (SSLs) modified by a cyclic peptide (pPB) with affinity for the PDGFR- to deliver interferon (IFN)- to HSCs. The pPB-SSL-IFN- showed satisfactory size distribution. In vitro pPB-SSL could be taken up by activated HSCs. The study of tissue distribution via living-body animal imaging showed that the pPB-SSL-IFN- mostly accumulated in the liver until 24 h. Furthermore, the pPB-SSL-IFN- showed more significant remission of hepatic fibrosis. In vivo the histological Ishak stage, the semiquantitative score for collagen in fibrotic liver and the serum levels of collagen type IV-C in fibrotic rats treated with pPB-SSL-IFN- were less than those treated with SSL-IFN- , IFN- and the control group. In vitro pPB-SSL-IFN- was also more effective in suppressing activated HSC proliferation and inducing apoptosis of activated HSCs. Thus the data suggest that pPB-SSL-IFN- might be a more effective anti-fibrotic agent and a new opportunity for clinical therapy of hepatic fibrosis.

  1. The antifibrogenic effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate results from the induction of de novo synthesis of glutathione in passaged rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Yumei, Fu; Zhou, Yajun; Zheng, Shizhong; Chen, Anping

    2006-07-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major players during hepatic fibrogenesis. Overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a characteristic of activated HSC. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is the most potent fibrogenic cytokine while connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediates the production of TGF-beta-induced ECM in activated HSC. HSC activation and hepatic fibrogenesis are stimulated by oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is the most important intracellular antioxidant. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major and most active component in green tea extracts, in the inhibition of ECM gene expression in activated HSC. It is hypothesized that EGCG inhibits ECM gene expression in activated HSC by interrupting TGF-beta signaling through attenuating oxidative stress. It is found that EGCG interrupts TGF-beta signaling in activated HSC by suppressing gene expression of type I and II TGF-beta receptors. EGCG inhibits CTGF gene expression, leading to the reduction in the abundance of ECM, including alphaI(I) procollagen. Exogenous CTGF dose dependently eliminates the antifibrogenic effect. EGCG attenuates oxidative stress in passaged HSC by scavenging reactive oxygen species and reducing lipid peroxidation. De novo synthesis of GSH is a prerequisite for EGCG to interrupt TGF-beta signaling and to reduce the abundance of alphaI(I) procollagen in activated HSC in vitro. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the interruption of TGF-beta signaling by EGCG results in the suppression of gene expression of CTGF and ECM in activated HSC in vitro. In addition, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that the antioxidant property of EGCG derived from de novo synthesis of intracellular GSH plays a critical role in its antifibrogenic effect. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of EGCG as an antifibrogenic candidate in the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.

  2. Subcellular localization of (latent) transforming growth factor beta and the latent TGF-beta binding protein in rat hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Roth-Eichhorn, S; Kühl, K; Gressner, A M

    1998-12-01

    Recently, the existence of the large latent transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) complex, consisting of TGF-beta, the N-terminal part of its precursor (latency-associated peptide [LAP]), and the latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP), was demonstrated in rat liver parenchymal cells (PC) and stellate cells (HSC). However, in contrast to HSC, in freshly isolated PC, no message of these proteins is detectable. This study was performed to investigate the subcellular distribution of the proteins forming the latent TGF-beta complex in PC and HSC from rat liver to obtain more information about their origin and potential intracellular functions. PC and HSC were isolated from rat liver by protease reperfusion and investigated for TGF-beta1,-2,-3, beta1-LAP, and LTBP-1 after cultivation using double-immunofluorescent staining, followed by high-resolution confocal microscopic analysis. Subcellular fractions obtained by standard differential centrifugation of rat liver homogenate were analyzed using a TGF-beta1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting for beta1-LAP and LTBP-1. By confocal microscopy, a diffuse distribution of TGF-beta and LAP in the cytoplasm of PC is noticed, whereas the LTBP immunostaining predominates at plasma membranes. In PC, distinct intracellular granules were superimposed with TGF-beta, LAP, and LTBP stainings identified as lysosomal compartments and mitochondria by ELISA and immunoblotting of subcellular fractions. In HSC, stainings of colocalized TGF-beta, LAP, and LTBP are strongest in the perinuclear area, indicating synthesis and secretion via endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, respectively. Partially, the proteins were also found in HSC nuclei. During the transformation of HSC to myofibroblasts, LAP and LTBP become strongly colocalized with other components of the cytoskeletal network like smooth muscle--actin, desmin, and talin. The results confirm biochemical data about the existence and expression of the large latent

  3. Gradually softening hydrogels for modeling hepatic stellate cell behavior during fibrosis regression.

    PubMed

    Caliari, Steven R; Perepelyuk, Maryna; Soulas, Elizabeth M; Lee, Gi Yun; Wells, Rebecca G; Burdick, Jason A

    2016-06-13

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) presents an evolving set of mechanical cues to resident cells. We developed methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogels containing both stable and hydrolytically degradable crosslinks to provide cells with a gradually softening (but not fully degradable) milieu, mimicking physiological events such as fibrosis regression. To demonstrate the utility of this cell culture system, we studied the phenotype of rat hepatic stellate cells, the major liver precursors of fibrogenic myofibroblasts, within this softening environment. Stellate cells that were mechanically primed on tissue culture plastic attained a myofibroblast phenotype, which persisted when seeded onto stiff (∼20 kPa) hydrogels. However, mechanically primed stellate cells on stiff-to-soft (∼20 to ∼3 kPa) hydrogels showed reversion of the myofibroblast phenotype over 14 days, with reductions in cell area, expression of the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and Yes-associated protein/Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (YAP/TAZ) nuclear localization when compared to stellate cells on stiff hydrogels. Cells on stiff-to-soft hydrogels did not fully revert, however. They displayed reduced expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and underwent abnormally rapid re-activation to myofibroblasts in response to re-stiffening of the hydrogels through introduction of additional crosslinks. These features are typical of stellate cells with an intermediate phenotype, reported to occur in vivo with fibrosis regression and re-injury. Together, these data suggest that mechanics play an important role in fibrosis regression and that integrating dynamic mechanical cues into model systems helps capture cell behaviors observed in vivo.

  4. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  5. Post‑translational modification of CREB‑1 decreases collagen I expression by inhibiting the TGF‑β1 signaling pathway in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoling; Deng, Liang; Wang, Pei; Cheng, Chunwei; Xu, Keshu

    2016-12-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound‑healing response to liver damage. Following liver injury, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) cause excessive deposition of collagen and other components of the extracellular matrix, which may eventually impair liver function. Transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) is critical for the development of liver fibrosis, and acts by activating HSCs, stimulating matrix deposition and inducing other profibrotic responses. Certain studies have demonstrated that the transcription factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)‑response element binding protein‑1 (CREB‑1) is important in the inhibition of fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study hypothesized that CREB‑1 inhibits fibrosis via blocking the TGF‑β1 signaling pathway in HSCs. Treatment with the cAMP‑elevating agent, forskolin stimulated CREB‑1 phosphorylation and transcription activation in HSCs. In addition, treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A extended CREB‑1 phosphorylation. The present study used a pRSV‑CREB‑1 expression vector to upregulate CREB‑1 gene expression. The results indicated that activated CREB‑1 reduced TGF‑β1‑stimulated expression of collagen I, activated Smad2/3 and upregulated expression of Smad7. In addition, activated CREB‑1 attenuated the activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 induced by TGF‑β1, expression of Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) and Rho‑associated coiled‑coil containing protein kinase 1. Thus, post‑translational modification of CREB‑1 inhibited the profibrotic effects of TGF‑β1 in HSCs via Smad‑dependent and ‑independent signaling pathways.

  6. Discovery of Peptide ligands for hepatic stellate cells using phage display.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijin; Jin, Wei; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Zhen; Cheng, Kun

    2015-06-01

    Regardless of its cause, liver fibrosis is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main producers responsible for the excessive production of ECM and profibrogenic cytokines in fibrotic liver. Therefore, development of HSC-specific delivery systems is essential for the success of antifibrotic agents. The objective of this study is to identify peptide ligands targeting the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), which is overexpressed on HSCs. We expect to use the peptide ligands for the future development of HSC-targeted drug delivery system. Protein- and whole cell-based phage display biopannings were conducted to identify phage/peptide candidates. Phage ELISA, cellular uptake, and cell viability assay were employed to evaluate the binding affinity and specificity of these peptide ligands to recombinant human IGF2R and HSCs. IGF2R siRNA was used to silence the IGF2R protein expression in human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) to confirm the specificity of the identified peptide ligands. Among the identified peptide candidates, peptide-431 shows the highest binding affinity and specificity to recombinant human IGF2R protein and HSCs. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of peptide-431 is 6.19 μM for LX-2 cells and 12.35 μM for rat hepatic stellate cells HSC-T6. Cellular uptake of peptide-431 in LX-2 cells is significantly reduced after silencing IGF2R with siRNA. Peptide-431 also enhances the uptake of a proapoptotic peptide (KLA peptide) in LX-2 and HSC-T6 cells, indicating that peptide-431 can be used as a targeting ligand to deliver antifibrotic agents into not only rat but also human HSCs. Dimerization of peptide-431 further increase its binding affinity to LX-2 cells by approximately 9-fold.

  7. The improving effects on hepatic fibrosis of interferon-γ liposomes targeted to hepatic stellate cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinghua; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Feng; Lu, Weiyue; Wang, Jiyao; Guo, Chuanyong

    2012-07-01

    No satisfactory anti-fibrotic therapies have yet been applied clinically. One of the main reasons is the inability to specifically target the responsible cells to produce an available drug concentration and the side-effects. Exploiting the key role of the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in both hepatic fibrogenesis and over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), we constructed targeted sterically stable liposomes (SSLs) modified by a cyclic peptide (pPB) with affinity for the PDGFR-β to deliver interferon (IFN)-γ to HSCs. The pPB-SSL-IFN-γ showed satisfactory size distribution. In vitro pPB-SSL could be taken up by activated HSCs. The study of tissue distribution via living-body animal imaging showed that the pPB-SSL-IFN-γ mostly accumulated in the liver until 24 h. Furthermore, the pPB-SSL-IFN-γ showed more significant remission of hepatic fibrosis. In vivo the histological Ishak stage, the semiquantitative score for collagen in fibrotic liver and the serum levels of collagen type IV-C in fibrotic rats treated with pPB-SSL-IFN-γ were less than those treated with SSL-IFN-γ, IFN-γ and the control group. In vitro pPB-SSL-IFN-γ was also more effective in suppressing activated HSC proliferation and inducing apoptosis of activated HSCs. Thus the data suggest that pPB-SSL-IFN-γ might be a more effective anti-fibrotic agent and a new opportunity for clinical therapy of hepatic fibrosis.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, T; Schrum, L; Rippe, R; Xiong, S; Yee, H F; Motomura, K; Anania, F A; Willson, T M; Tsukamoto, H

    2000-11-17

    The present study examined the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), a pivotal event in liver fibrogenesis. RNase protection assay detected mRNA for PPARgamma1 but not that for the adipocyte-specific gamma2 isoform in HSC isolated from sham-operated rats, whereas the transcripts for neither isoforms were detectable in HSC from cholestatic liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction confirmed a 70% reduction in PPARgamma mRNA level in HSC from BDL. Nuclear extracts from BDL cells showed an expected diminution of binding to PPAR-responsive element, whereas NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding were increased. Treatment of cultured-activated HSC with ligands for PPARgamma (10 microm 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15dPGJ(2)); 0.1 approximately 10 microm BRL49653) inhibited DNA and collagen synthesis without affecting the cell viability. Suppression of HSC collagen by 15dPGJ(2) was abrogated 70% by the concomitant treatment with a PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662). HSC DNA and collagen synthesis were inhibited by WY14643 at the concentrations known to activate both PPARalpha and gamma (>100 microm) but not at those that only activate PPARalpha (<10 microm) or by a synthetic PPARalpha-selective agonist (GW9578). 15dPGJ(2) reduced alpha1(I) procollagen, smooth muscle alpha-actin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA levels while inducing matrix metalloproteinase-3 and CD36. 15dPGJ(2) and BRL49653 inhibited alpha1(I) procollagen promoter activity. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (10 ng/ml) reduced PPARgamma mRNA, and this effect was prevented by the treatment with 15dPGJ(2). These results demonstrate that HSC activation is associated with the reductions in PPARgamma expression and PPAR-responsive element binding in vivo and is reversed by the treatment with PPARgamma ligands in vitro. These findings implicate diminished PPARgamma signaling in

  9. Aqueous Date Flesh or Pits Extract Attenuates Liver Fibrosis via Suppression of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Reduction of Inflammatory Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Angiogenic Markers in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf M.; Attia, Hala A.; Mohamad, Raeesa A.; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M.; Al-Amin, Maha A.; AL-Onazi, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Previous data indicated the protective effect of date fruit extract on oxidative damage in rat liver. However, the hepatoprotective effects via other mechanisms have not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the antifibrotic effect of date flesh extract (DFE) or date pits extract (DPE) via inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), reducing the levels of inflammatory, fibrotic and angiogenic markers. Coffee was used as reference hepatoprotective agent. Liver fibrosis was induced by injection of CCl4 (0.4 mL/kg) three times weekly for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE (6 mL/kg), coffee (300 mg/kg), and combination of coffee + DFE and coffee + DPE were given to CCl4-intoxicated rats daily for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE, and their combination with coffee attenuated the elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. The increased levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and collagen deposition in injured liver were alleviated by both extracts. CCl4-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin was suppressed indicating HSCs inactivation. Increased angiogenesis was ameliorated as revealed by reduced levels and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD31. We concluded that DFE or DPE could protect liver via different mechanisms. The combination of coffee with DFE or DPE may enhance its antifibrotic effects. PMID:25945106

  10. Hepatic uptake of (TH)retinol bound to the serum retinol binding protein involves both parenchymal and perisinusoidal stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blomhoff, R.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.

    1985-11-05

    We have studied the hepatic uptake of retinol bound to the circulating retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex. Labeled complex was obtained from the plasma of donor rats that were fed radioactive retinol. When labeled retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex was injected intravenously into control rats, about 45% of the administered dose was recovered in liver after 56 h. Parenchymal liver cells were responsible for an initial rapid uptake. Perisinusoidal stellate cells initially accumulated radioactivity more slowly than did the parenchymal cells, but after 16 h, these cells contained more radioactivity than the parenchymal cells. After 56 h, about 70% of the radioactivity recovered in liver was present in stellate cells. For the first 2 h after injection, most of the radioactivity in parenchymal cells was recovered as unesterified retinol. The radioactivity in the retinyl ester fraction increased after a lag period of about 2 h, and after 5 h more than 60% of the radioactivity was recovered as retinyl esters. In stellate cells, radioactivity was mostly present as retinyl esters at all time points examined. Uptake of retinol in both parenchymal cells and stellate cells was reduced considerably in vitamin A-deficient rats. Less than 5% of the injected dose of radioactivity was found in liver after 5-6 h (as compared to 25% in control rats), and the radioactivity recovered in liver from these animals was mostly in the unesterified retinol fraction. Studies with separated cells in vitro suggested that both parenchymal and stellate cells isolated from control rats were able to take up retinol from the retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex. This uptake was temperature dependent.

  11. Antiproliferative activity of triterpenoids from Eclipta prostrata on hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Kyeong; Ha, Na Ry; Yang, Hyekyung; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Gun Hee; Kim, Young Choong

    2008-09-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. In the course of screening antifibrotic activity of natural products employing HSC-T6, a rat hepatic stellate cell line as an in vitro assay system, the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Eclipta prostrata L. showed significant inhibitory activity on HSCs proliferation. Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five oleanane-type triterpenoids, echinocystic acid (1), eclalbasaponin II (2), eclalbasaponin V (3), eclalbasaponin I (4) and eclalbasaponin III (5), which are all echinocystic acid derivatives. Among the five echinocystic acid derivatives isolated, echinocystic acid (1) and eclalbasaponin II (2) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HSCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. Our present study also suggests the importance of free carboxylic acid at C-28 position in echinocystic acid derivatives for the antifibrotic activity. Taken together, antifibrotic activity of E. prostrata and its triterpenoids might suggest the therapeutic potentials against liver fibrosis.

  12. Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Stellate Cells: A PARADOXICAL RELATIONSHIP.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2012-01-01

    In physiology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by most cells for normal function and as a defense mechanism against foreign particles, microbes and viruses. Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells), sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are all capable of generating ROS in physiology and pathology. ROS are also produced by infiltrating inflammatory cells during acute and chronic liver injury. Increased levels of ROS have been implicated in apoptotic/necrotic death of hepatocytes, and liver failure. In contrast to causing injury to hepatocytes, ROS and lipid peroxidation products induce transdifferentiation of the quiescent HSCs into an activated highly proliferative myofibroblast-like phenotype. ROS and lipid peroxidation products also stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) by activated HSCs. Deposition of excessive amounts of ECM is the primary mechanism of fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and interactions between ROS and HSCs appear to play a major role in this pathology. Although these findings suggest that HSCs are resistant to the injurious actions of ROS, there is compelling evidence demonstrating ROS-induced death of activated HSCs. Detailed mechanistic understanding of such paradoxical interactions between ROS and HSCs will be critical for developing therapies for chronic fibrotic liver disease.

  13. Morin attenuates diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell activation by co-ordinated regulation of Hippo/Yap and TGF-β1/Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Perumal, NaveenKumar; Perumal, MadanKumar; Halagowder, Devaraj; Sivasithamparam, NiranjaliDevaraj

    2017-09-01

    Despite great progress in understanding the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during liver fibrosis, therapeutic approaches to inhibit HSC activation remain very limited. Recent reports highlight Yes-associated protein (Yap) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) as critical regulators of HSC activation and henceforth a compound targeting Hippo/Yap and TGF-β1/Smad pathways would be a potential anti-fibrotic candidate. Morin, a dietary flavonoid, was earlier reported to inhibit HSC proliferation and induction of apoptosis of cultured HSCs, mainly by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling, but its effect on Hippo/Yap and TGF-β1/Smad pathways was not determined. To address this concern, this study was carried out in cultured LX-2 cells and diethylnitrosamine-induced fibrotic rats. Morin activated hippo signaling through significantly increased expression of Mst1 and Lats1 with decreased expression of transcriptional effectors Yap/TAZ, thereby prevented HSC activation and also suppressed the expression of exacerbated TGF-β/Smad signaling molecules such as TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, collagen-I, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in cultured LX-2 and DEN induced fibrotic rats. Both the in vitro and in vivo results clearly showed that, morin by acting on Hippo/Yap and TGF-β1/Smad pathways, ameliorated experimental liver fibrosis, indicating that morin has potential for effective treatment of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatic SATB1 induces paracrine activation of hepatic stellate cells and is upregulated by HBx

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jin; Tu, Wei; Han, Jian; He, Jiayi; Liu, Jingmei; Han, Ping; Wang, Yunwu; Li, Mengke; Liu, Mei; Liao, Jiazhi; Tian, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver diseases, but its involvement in hepatic fibrogenesis remains unclear. Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) has been implicated in reprogramming chromatin organization and transcription profiles in many cancers and non-cancer-related conditions. We found that hepatic SATB1 expression was significantly up-regulated in fibrotic tissues from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients and HBV transgenic (HBV-Tg) mouse model. Knockdown of SATB1 in the liver significantly alleviated CCl4-induced fibrosis in HBV-Tg mouse model. Moreover, we suggested HBV encoded x protein (HBx) induced SATB1 expression through activation of JNK and ERK pathways. Enforced expression of SATB1 in hepatocytes promoted the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by secretion of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and platelet derived growth factor-A (PDGF-AA). Our findings demonstrated that HBx upregulated hepatic SATB1 which exerted pro-fibrotic effects by paracrine activation of stellate cells in HBV-related fibrosis. PMID:27883059

  15. Effects of platelet-derived growth factor and interleukin-10 on Fas/Fas-ligand and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA expression in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Chen, Yun-Xin; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Huang, Yue-Hong; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) on Fas/Fas-ligand and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA expressions in rat hepatic stellate cells. METHODS: Rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated and purified from rat liver by in situ digestion of collagenase and pronase and single-step density Nycodenz gradient. After activated by culture in vitro, HSCs were divided into 4 groups and treated with nothing (group N), PDGF (group P), IL-10 (group I) and PDGF in combination with IL-10 (group C), respectively. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was employed to compare the mRNA expression levels of Fas/FasL and Bcl-2/Bax in HSCs of each group. RESULTS: The expression levels of Fas between the 4 groups had no significant differences (P > 0.05). FasL mRNA level in normal culture-activated HSCs (group N) was very low. It increased obviously after HSCs were treated with IL-10 (group I) (0.091 ± 0.007 vs 0.385 ± 0.051, P < 0.01), but remained the low level after treated with PDGF alone (group P) or PDGF in combination with IL-10 (group C). Contrast to the control group, after treated with PDGF and IL-10, either alone or in combination, Bcl-2 mRNA expression was down-regulated and Bax mRNA expression was up-regulated, both following the turn from group P, group I to group C. Expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in group C was significantly lower than that in group P (0.126 ± 0.008 vs 0.210 ± 0.024, P < 0.01). But no significant difference was found between group C and group I, as well as between group I and group P (P > 0.05). Similarly, the expression of Bax in group C was higher than that in group P (0.513 ± 0.016 vs 0.400 ± 0.022, P < 0.01). No significant difference was found between group I and group P (P > 0.05). But compared with group C, Bax expressions in group I tended to decrease (0.449 ± 0.028 vs 0.513 ± 0.016, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PDGF may promote proliferation of HSCs but is

  16. Hepatic stellate cell interferes with NK cell regulation of fibrogenesis via curcumin induced senescence of hepatic stellate cell.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanhuan; Jia, Yan; Yao, Zhen; Huang, Jingjing; Hao, Meng; Yao, Shunyu; Lian, Naqi; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Chenxi; Chen, Xingran; Bian, Mianli; Shao, Jiangjuan; Wu, Li; Chen, Anping; Zheng, Shizhong

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, a common scarring response to various forms of chronic liver injury, is a precursor to cirrhosis and liver cancer. During liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) initially activate and proliferate, which are responsible for the secretion of extracellular matrix components. However, these cells eventually senesce and are cleared by natural killer (NK) cells. Our previous researches have shown that the natural product curcumin could promote the senescence of activated HSC. In this study, we investigated how NK cells target senescent HSC and assessed the effect of this process on liver fibrosis. We found that senescent HSC induced by curcumin are susceptible to NK cells killing, due to the increased expression of NK cell activating ligand major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related genes A (MICA) and UL16-binding proteins 2 (ULBP2), but not Poliovirus Receptor (PVR). Further studies displayed that the interaction between NK cells and senescent LX2 cells stimulated granule exocytosis. Moreover, the inhibition of granule exocytosis weakened the cytotoxicity of NK cells and promoted the accumulation of senescent LX2 cells. Therefore, these aggregated data indicated that NK cells mediated clearance of senescent LX2 cells and granule exocytosis could play a protective role in the improvement of liver fibrosis.

  17. Hepatic stellate cell-targeted delivery of hepatocyte growth factor transgene via bile duct infusion enhances its expression at fibrotic foci to regress dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Narmada, Balakrishnan Chakrapani; Kang, Yuzhan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Peng, Qiwen; Sakban, Rashidah Binte; Nugraha, Bramasta; Jiang, Xuan; Bunte, Ralph M; So, Peter T C; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Mao, Hai-Quan; Yu, Hanry

    2013-05-01

    Liver fibrosis generates fibrotic foci with abundant activated hepatic stellate cells and excessive collagen deposition juxtaposed with healthy regions. Targeted delivery of antifibrotic therapeutics to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) might improve treatment outcomes and reduce adverse effects on healthy tissue. We delivered the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene specifically to activated hepatic stellate cells in fibrotic liver using vitamin A-coupled liposomes by retrograde intrabiliary infusion to bypass capillarized hepatic sinusoids. The antifibrotic effects of DsRed2-HGF vector encapsulated within vitamin A-coupled liposomes were validated by decreases in fibrotic markers in vitro. Fibrotic cultures transfected with the targeted transgene showed a significant decrease in fibrotic markers such as transforming growth factor-β1. In rats, dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis is manifested by an increase in collagen deposition and severe defenestration of sinusoidal endothelial cells. The HSC-targeted transgene, administered via retrograde intrabiliary infusion in fibrotic rats, successfully reduced liver fibrosis markers alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen, accompanied by an increase in the expression of DsRed2-HGF near the fibrotic foci. Thus, targeted delivery of HGF gene to hepatic stellate cells increased the transgene expression at the fibrotic foci and strongly enhanced its antifibrotic effects.

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factor signal via c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent Smad2/3 phosphorylation in rat hepatic stellate cells after acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Katsunori; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Mori, Shigeo; Tahashi, Yoshiya; Yamagata, Hideo; Furukawa, Fukiko; Seki, Toshihito; Nishizawa, Mikio; Fujisawa, Junichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2005-04-01

    After liver injury, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) regulate the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and tissue remodeling. Mechanisms of PDGF signaling in the TGF-beta-triggered cascade are not completely understood. TGF-beta signaling involves phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 at linker and C-terminal regions. Using antibodies to distinguish Smad2/3 phosphorylated at linker regions from those phosphorylated at C-terminal regions, we investigated Smad2/3-mediated signaling in rat liver injured by CCl(4) administration and in cultured HSCs. In acute liver injury, Smad2/3 were transiently phosphorylated at both regions. Although linker-phosphorylated Smad2 remained in the cytoplasm of alpha-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive mesenchymal cells adjacent to necrotic hepatocytes in centrilobular areas, linker-phosphorylated Smad3 accumulated in the nuclei. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the activated HSCs directly phosphorylated Smad2/3 at linker regions. Co-treatment of primary cultured HSCs with TGF-beta and PDGF activated the JNK pathway, subsequently inducing endogenous linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3. The JNK pathway may be involved in migration of resident HSCs within the space of Disse to the sites of tissue damage because the JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited HSC migration induced by TGF-beta and PDGF signals. Moreover, treatment of HSCs with both TGF-beta and PDGF increased transcriptional activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 through linker phosphorylation of Smad3. In conclusion, TGF-beta and PDGF activate HSCs by transmitting their signals through JNK-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation at linker regions, both in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Hepatic Stellate Cells: Partners in Crime for Liver Metastases?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ningling; Gores, Gregory; Shah, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells were recently postulated as a component of the prometastatic liver microenvironment because they can transdifferentiate into highly proliferative and motile myofibroblasts that are implicated in the desmoplastic reaction and metastatic growth. This review focuses on bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and HSC in the liver microenvironment and discusses mechanisms whereby tumor derived factors activate HSC, and in turn, activated HSC promote metastatic growth. Bidirectional interactions between tumors and HSC may function as an “amplification loop” to further enhance metastatic growth in the liver. The activation of HSC is a complex process regulated by multiple factors such as TGF-β and PDGF signaling pathways, which may present as therapeutic targets in the prevention and treatment of liver metastases. Targeting HSC/myofibroblasts with TGF-β or PDGF antagonists in coordination with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery may prove to be effective at reducing liver metastases and increasing the survival benefit of patients by targeting both tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21520207

  20. Immunomodulation of activated hepatic stellate cells by mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parekkadan, Biju; Poll, Daan van; Megeed, Zaki; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tilles, Arno W.; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2007-11-16

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to prevent the development of liver fibrosis in a number of pre-clinical studies. Marked changes in liver histopathology and serological markers of liver function have been observed without a clear understanding of the therapeutic mechanism by which stem cells act. We sought to determine if MSCs could modulate the activity of resident liver cells, specifically hepatic stellate cells (SCs) by paracrine mechanisms using indirect cocultures. Indirect coculture of MSCs and activated SCs led to a significant decrease in collagen deposition and proliferation, while inducing apoptosis of activated SCs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of SC activity by MSCs were examined. IL-6 secretion from activated SCs induced IL-10 secretion from MSCs, suggesting a dynamic response of MSCs to the SCs in the microenvironment. Blockade of MSC-derived IL-10 and TNF-{alpha} abolished the inhibitory effects of MSCs on SC proliferation and collagen synthesis. In addition, release of HGF by MSCs was responsible for the marked induction of apoptosis in SCs as determined by antibody-neutralization studies. These findings demonstrate that MSCs can modulate the function of activated SCs via paracrine mechanisms provide a plausible explanation for the protective role of MSCs in liver inflammation and fibrosis, which may also be relevant to other models of tissue fibrosis.

  1. Curcumin attenuates angiogenesis in liver fibrosis and inhibits angiogenic properties of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zili; Chen, Li; Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lu, Chunfeng; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is concomitant with sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis, which has been highlighted as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic liver disease. Our prior studies have demonstrated that curcumin has potent antifibrotic activity, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The current work demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of a number of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and rat aortic ring angiogenesis were not impaired by curcumin. These results indicated that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are characterized as liver-specific pericytes could be potential target cells for curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in HSCs associated with disrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR)/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin associated with blocking PDGF-βR/focal adhesion kinase/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPAR-γ activation-dependent mechanism. PPAR-γ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis. PMID:24779927

  2. An HNF1α-regulated feedback circuit modulates hepatic fibrogenesis via the crosstalk between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hui; Deng, Xing; Huang, Zhao-Wei; Wei, Ji; Ding, Chen-Hong; Feng, Ren-Xin; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Yue-Xiang; Ding, Jin; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ping; Xie, Wei-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocytes are critical for the maintenance of liver homeostasis, but its involvement in hepatic fibrogenesis remains elusive. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that plays a key role in hepatocyte function. Our previous study revealed a significant inhibitory effect of HNF1α on hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we report that the expression of HNF1α is significantly repressed in both human and rat fibrotic liver. Knockdown of HNF1α in the liver significantly aggravates hepatic fibrogenesis in either dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) or bile duct ligation (BDL) model in rats. In contrast, forced expression of HNF1α markedly alleviates hepatic fibrosis. HNF1α regulates the transcriptional expression of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) via directly binding to SHP-1 promoter in hepatocytes. Inhibition of SHP-1 expression abrogates the anti-fibrotic effect of HNF1α in DMN-treated rats. Moreover, HNF1α repression in primary hepatocytes leads to the activation of NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways and initiates an inflammatory feedback circuit consisting of HNF1α, SHP-1, STAT3, p65, miR-21 and miR-146a, which sustains the deregulation of HNF1α in hepatocytes. More interestingly, a coordinated crosstalk between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) participates in this positive feedback circuit and facilitates the progression of hepatocellular damage. Our findings demonstrate that impaired hepatocytes play an active role in hepatic fibrogenesis. Early intervention of HNF1α-regulated inflammatory feedback loop in hepatocytes may have beneficial effects in the treatment of chronic liver diseases. PMID:26169608

  3. Serum Amyloid A Induces Inflammation, Proliferation and Cell Death in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Sören V; Schlosser, Monika; Schildberg, Frank A; Seki, Ekihiro; De Minicis, Samuele; Uchinami, Hiroshi; Kuntzen, Christian; Knolle, Percy A; Strassburg, Christian P; Schwabe, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an evolutionary highly conserved acute phase protein that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes. However, its role in liver injury and fibrogenesis has not been elucidated so far. In this study, we determined the effects of SAA on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type of the liver. Serum amyloid A potently activated IκB kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Erk and Akt and enhanced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in primary human and rat HSCs. Serum amyloid A induced the transcription of MCP-1, RANTES and MMP9 in an NF-κB- and JNK-dependent manner. Blockade of NF-κB revealed cytotoxic effects of SAA in primary HSCs with signs of apoptosis such as caspase 3 and PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Serum amyloid A induced HSC proliferation, which depended on JNK, Erk and Akt activity. In primary hepatocytes, SAA also activated MAP kinases, but did not induce relevant cell death after NF-κB inhibition. In two models of hepatic fibrogenesis, CCl4 treatment and bile duct ligation, hepatic mRNA levels of SAA1 and SAA3 were strongly increased. In conclusion, SAA may modulate fibrogenic responses in the liver in a positive and negative fashion by inducing inflammation, proliferation and cell death in HSCs.

  4. Serum Amyloid A Induces Inflammation, Proliferation and Cell Death in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Sören V.; Schlosser, Monika; Schildberg, Frank A.; Seki, Ekihiro; De Minicis, Samuele; Uchinami, Hiroshi; Kuntzen, Christian; Knolle, Percy A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an evolutionary highly conserved acute phase protein that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes. However, its role in liver injury and fibrogenesis has not been elucidated so far. In this study, we determined the effects of SAA on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type of the liver. Serum amyloid A potently activated IκB kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Erk and Akt and enhanced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in primary human and rat HSCs. Serum amyloid A induced the transcription of MCP-1, RANTES and MMP9 in an NF-κB- and JNK-dependent manner. Blockade of NF-κB revealed cytotoxic effects of SAA in primary HSCs with signs of apoptosis such as caspase 3 and PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Serum amyloid A induced HSC proliferation, which depended on JNK, Erk and Akt activity. In primary hepatocytes, SAA also activated MAP kinases, but did not induce relevant cell death after NF-κB inhibition. In two models of hepatic fibrogenesis, CCl4 treatment and bile duct ligation, hepatic mRNA levels of SAA1 and SAA3 were strongly increased. In conclusion, SAA may modulate fibrogenic responses in the liver in a positive and negative fashion by inducing inflammation, proliferation and cell death in HSCs. PMID:26937641

  5. Accumulation of vitamin A in the hepatic stellate cell of arctic top predators.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Haruki; Imai, Katsuyuki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Miura, Mitsutaka; Morii, Mayako; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Blomhoff, Rune

    2012-10-01

    We performed a systematic characterization of the hepatic vitamin A storage in mammals and birds of the Svalbard Archipelago and Greenland. The liver of top predators, including polar bear, Arctic fox, bearded seal, and glaucous gull, contained about 10-20 times more vitamin A than the liver of all other arctic animals studied, as well as their genetically related continental top predators. The values are also high compared to normal human and experimental animals like mouse and rat. This massive amount of hepatic vitamin A was located in large autofluorescent lipid droplets in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs; also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells). The droplets made up most of the cells' cytoplasm. The development of such an efficient vitamin A-storing mechanism in HSCs may have contributed to the survival of top predators in the extreme environment of the arctic. These animals demonstrated no signs of hypervitaminosis A. We suggest that HSCs have capacity to take-up and store large amounts of vitamin A, which may play a pivotal role in maintenance of the food web, food chain, biodiversity, and eventually ecology of the arctic. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tetrandrine induces lipid accumulation through blockade of autophagy in a hepatic stellate cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamae, Yusaku; Nishito, Yukina; Nakai, Naomi; Nagumo, Yoko; Usui, Takeo; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Nagao, Masaya

    2016-08-12

    Macroautophagy, or autophagy, is a cellular response in which unnecessary cytoplasmic components, including lipids and organelles, are self-degraded. Recent studies closely related autophagy to activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a process critical in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. During HSC activation, cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) are degraded as autophagic cargo, and then cells express fibrogenic genes. Thus, inhibition of autophagy in HSCs is a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating liver fibrosis. We found that tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Stephania tetrandra, induced lipid accumulation, a phenotype associated with quiescent HSCs, through blockade of autophagy in the rat-derived HSC line HSC-T6. Tetrandrine inhibited autophagic flux without affecting lysosomal function. A phenotypic comparison using siRNA knockdown suggested that tetrandrine may target regulators, involved in fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes (e.g., syntaxin 17). Moreover, perilipin 1, an LD-coated protein, co-localized specifically with LC3, a marker protein for autophagosomes, in tetrandrine-treated HSC-T6 cells. This suggests a potential role for perilipin 1 in autophagy-mediated LD degradation in HSCs. Our results identified tetrandrine as a potential tool for prevention and treatment of HSC activation. - Highlights: • Autophagy is closely related to lipid degradation in hepatic stellate cells. • Tetrandrine (Tet) causes lipid accumulation via blockade of autophagy in HSC-T6 cells. • Tet blocked autophagy without affecting lysosomal function unlike bafilomycin A{sub 1}. • Perilipin 1 was specifically co-localized with LC3 in Tet-treated cells. • Perilipin 1 may play potential roles in autophagy-mediated lipid degradation.

  7. Alcohol directly stimulates epigenetic modifications in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Page, Agata; Paoli, Pier P; Hill, Stephen J; Howarth, Rachel; Wu, Raymond; Kweon, Soo-Mi; French, Jeremy; White, Steve; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Mann, Derek A; Mann, Jelena

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol is a primary cause of liver disease and an important co-morbidity factor in other causes of liver disease. A common feature of progressive liver disease is fibrosis, which results from the net deposition of fibril-forming extracellular matrix (ECM). The hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is widely considered to be the major cellular source of fibrotic ECM. We determined if HSCs are responsive to direct stimulation by alcohol. HSCs undergoing transdifferentiation were incubated with ethanol and expression of fibrogenic genes and epigenetic regulators was measured. Mechanisms responsible for recorded changes were investigated using ChIP-Seq and bioinformatics analysis. Ethanol induced changes were confirmed using HSCs isolated from a mouse alcohol model and from ALD patient's liver and through precision cut liver slices. HSCs responded to ethanol exposure by increasing profibrogenic and ECM gene expression including elastin. Ethanol induced an altered expression of multiple epigenetic regulators, indicative of a potential to modulate chromatin structure during HSC transdifferentiation. MLL1, a histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase, was induced by ethanol and recruited to the elastin gene promoter where it was associated with enriched H3K4me3, a mark of active chromatin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIPseq) revealed that ethanol has broad effects on the HSC epigenome and identified 41 gene loci at which both MML1 and its H3K4me3 mark were enriched in response to ethanol. Ethanol directly influences HSC transdifferentiation by stimulating global changes in chromatin structure, resulting in the increased expression of ECM proteins. The ability of alcohol to remodel the epigenome during HSC transdifferentiation provides mechanisms for it to act as a co-morbidity factor in liver disease. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel technique for experimental stellate ganglion block in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Salahadin; Yang, Zongqi

    2005-08-01

    A stellate ganglion block (SGB) is routinely performed in a clinical setting for the treatment of sympathetically maintained pain syndromes. However, the cardiovascular effects of SGB have not been well defined. The purpose of the present study was to develop a new technique of SGB in a rat model. Our new technique of SGB is a posterior percutaneous approach and uses the cartilaginous process of the C7 spinous process as a landmark. Twenty-six Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into six groups. Group I (n = 4) underwent right sided SGB, Group II (n = 5) underwent left-sided SGB, and Group III (n = 5) underwent bilateral SGB using bupivacaine 0.25%. Three additional sham groups (n = 4 in each group) served as controls to each of the three treatment groups. Ipsilateral eyelid droop (ptosis) was observed in all animals that underwent SGB with bupivacaine. Heart rate decreased significantly for up to 45 min after bilateral SGB compared with control groups. However, this value did not change in rats after unilateral SGB. In 9 additional rats, we evaluated the accuracy of SGB by injecting methylene blue to stain the right (n = 3), left (n = 3), and bilateral SGB (n = 3). At autopsy, 11 of 12 SG were stained post-methylene blue injection. We conclude from our study that our new approach, posterior percutaneous SGB is a reliable technique that can be used for further studies. We describe a new technique for stellate ganglion block in rats that may be used in future studies to investigate the role of cervical sympathetic nervous system (especially the stellate ganglion) in regulating sympathetically maintained pain and myocardial function.

  9. Development of a peptide-modified siRNA nanocomplex for hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Li, Yuanke; Jain, Akshay; Chen, Zhijin; Liu, Hao; Jin, Wei; Cheng, Kun

    2017-09-07

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is overexpressed in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and therefore can be utilized for HSC-specific drug delivery. We recently discovered an IGF2R-specific peptide using a novel biopanning. Here, we adopted biotin-conjugated IGF2R-specific peptide, cholesterol, and vitamin A as the targeting ligands for the neutravidin-based siRNA nanocomplex to deliver PCBP2 siRNA, a potentially antifibrotic agent, to HSCs. Compared to vitamin A and cholesterol, the IGF2R-specific peptide exhibited the highest targeting effect to human LX-2 HSC, rat HSC-T6 cell line, and activated primary rat HSCs. Accordingly, the IGF2R-specific peptide coupled nanocomplex demonstrated higher silencing activity of PCBP2 and better inhibition on the migration of activated HSCs. Compared to free siRNA and the nanocomplexes coupled with vitamin A and cholesterol, the IGF2R-specific peptide coupled nanocomplex showed the highest uptake in the liver and lowest uptake in the lung and kidney of the rats with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Discovery of cytoglobin and its roles in physiology and pathology of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIZATO, Katsutoshi; THUY, Le Thi Thanh; SHIOTA, Goshi; KAWADA, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (CYGB), a new member of the globin family, was discovered in 2001 as a protein associated with stellate cell activation (stellate cell activation-associated protein [STAP]). Knowledge of CYGB, including its crystal, gene, and protein structures as well as its physiological and pathological importance, has increased progressively. We investigated the roles of oxygen (O2)-binding CYGB as STAP in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to understand the part played by this protein in their pathophysiological activities. Studies involving CYGB-gene-deleted mice have led us to suppose that CYGB functions as a regulator of O2 homeostasis; when O2 homeostasis is disrupted, HSCs are activated and play a key role(s) in hepatic fibrogenesis. In this review, we discuss the rationale for this hypothesis. PMID:26972599

  11. Partial hepatectomy-induced regeneration accelerates reversion of liver fibrosis involving participation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Cuenca, Juan A; Chagoya de Sánchez, Victoria; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Sánchez-Sevilla, Lourdes; Martínez-Pérez, Lidia; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2008-07-01

    Hepatic fibrosis underlies most types of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), altered liver architecture, and impaired hepatocyte proliferation; however, the fibrotic liver can still regenerate after partial hepatectomy (PH). Therefore, the present study was aimed at addressing whether a PH-induced regeneration normalizes ECM turnover and the possible involvement of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) during resolution of a pre-established fibrosis. Male Wistar rats were rendered fibrotic by intraperitoneal administration of swine serum for 9 weeks and subjected afterwards to 70% PH or sham-operation. Histological and morphometric analyses were performed, and parameters indicative of cell proliferation, collagen synthesis and degradation, and activation of HSC were determined. Liver collagen content was reduced to 75% after PH in cirrhotic rats when compared with sham-operated cirrhotic rats. The regenerating fibrotic liver oxidized actively free proline and had diminished transcripts for alpha-1 (I) collagen mRNA, resulting in decreased collagen synthesis. PH also increased collagenase activity, accounted for by higher amounts of pro-MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-13, which largely coincided with a lower expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Therefore, an early decreased collagen synthesis, mild ECM degradation, and active liver regeneration were followed by higher collagenolysis and limited deposition of ECM, probably associated with increased mitochondrial activity. Activated HSC readily increased during liver fibrosis and remained activated after liver regeneration, even during fibrosis resolution. In conclusion, stimulation of liver regeneration through PH restores the balance in ECM synthesis/degradation, leading to ECM remodeling and to an almost complete resolution of liver fibrosis. As a response to the regenerative stimulus, activated HSC seem to play a controlling role on ECM remodeling during experimental

  12. Catalase ameliorates hepatic fibrosis by inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuwei; Qu, Ying; Xu, Mingyi; Wang, Xingpeng; Lu, Lungen

    2014-01-01

    Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is thought to have rescue effects on hepatic fibrosis. In this study, the regulation of catalase in CCl₄-induced hepatic fibrogenesis was investigated. Our results indicated that catalase expression was decreased upon CCl₄ treatment in a time-dependent manner, while the expression of several profibrosis and proangiogenic factors, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiopoietin 1 were significantly increased. To assess the role of catalase in hepatic fibrosis, catalase was overexpressed in HSC-T6 cells. This overexpression resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migratory activity, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression, key features that characterize activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Overexpression of catalase led to a decrease in the secretion of collagen type 1 and angiopoietin 1. These results indicate that loss of catalase activity is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis caused by the activation of HSCs.

  13. Exosome-Mediated Intercellular Communication between Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Hepatocytes and Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Devhare, Pradip B; Sasaki, Reina; Shrivastava, Shubham; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M; Ray, Ranjit; Ray, Ratna B

    2017-03-15

    Fibrogenic pathways in the liver are principally regulated by activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Fibrosis is associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, although the mechanism is poorly understood. HSC comprise the major population of nonparenchymal cells in the liver. Since HCV does not replicate in HSC, we hypothesized that exosomes secreted from HCV-infected hepatocytes activate HSC. Primary or immortalized human hepatic stellate (LX2) cells were exposed to exosomes derived from HCV-infected hepatocytes (HCV-exo), and the expression of fibrosis-related genes was examined. Our results demonstrated that HCV-exo internalized to HSC and increased the expression of profibrotic markers. Further analysis suggested that HCV-exo carry miR-19a and target SOCS3 in HSC, which in turn activates the STAT3-mediated transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway and enhances fibrosis marker genes. The higher expression of miR-19a in exosomes was also observed from HCV-infected hepatocytes and in sera of chronic HCV patients with fibrosis compared to healthy volunteers and non-HCV-related liver disease patients with fibrosis. Together, our results demonstrated that miR-19a carried through the exosomes from HCV-infected hepatocytes activates HSC by modulating the SOCS-STAT3 axis. Our results implicated a novel mechanism of exosome-mediated intercellular communication in the activation of HSC for liver fibrosis in HCV infection.IMPORTANCE HCV-associated liver fibrosis is a critical step for end-stage liver disease progression. However, the molecular mechanisms for hepatic stellate-cell activation by HCV-infected hepatocytes are underexplored. Here, we provide a role for miR-19a carried through the exosomes in intercellular communication between HCV-infected hepatocytes and HSC in fibrogenic activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the role of exosomal miR-19a in activation of the STAT3-TGF-β pathway in HSC. This study contributes to the

  14. Prolyl oligopeptidase attenuates hepatic stellate cell activation through induction of Smad7 and PPAR-γ

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Da; Wang, Jing; He, Ling-Nan; Li, Bing-Hang; Ding, Yong-Nian; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase widely distributed in vivo with high activity in the liver. However, its biological functions in the liver have remained largely elusive. A previous study by our group has shown that POP produced N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) and thereby exerted an anti-fibrogenic effect on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. It was therefore hypothesized that POP may affect the activation state of HSCs and has an important role in liver fibrosis. The HSC-T6 immortalized rat liver stellate cell line was treated with the POP inhibitor S17092 or transfected with recombinant lentivirus to overexpress POP. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. The activation status of HSCs was determined by examination of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-Smad signaling and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Inhibition by S17092 decreased, whereas lentiviral expression increased the activity of POP and cell proliferation, while neither of the treatments affected cell apoptosis. Of note, S17092 significantly increased, whereas POP overexpression decreased the expression of α-SMA and MCP-1 without affecting the expression of collagen I and TGF-β1. Furthermore, S17092 caused a reduction, whereas POP overexpression caused an upregulation of Smad7 protein and PPAR-γ, but not phosphorylated-Smad2/3 expression. In conclusion, POP attenuated the activation of HSCs through inhibition of TGF-β signaling and induction of PPAR-γ, which may have therapeutic potential in liver fibrosis. PMID:28352366

  15. Prolyl oligopeptidase attenuates hepatic stellate cell activation through induction of Smad7 and PPAR-γ.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da; Wang, Jing; He, Ling-Nan; Li, Bing-Hang; Ding, Yong-Nian; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-02-01

    Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase widely distributed in vivo with high activity in the liver. However, its biological functions in the liver have remained largely elusive. A previous study by our group has shown that POP produced N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) and thereby exerted an anti-fibrogenic effect on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. It was therefore hypothesized that POP may affect the activation state of HSCs and has an important role in liver fibrosis. The HSC-T6 immortalized rat liver stellate cell line was treated with the POP inhibitor S17092 or transfected with recombinant lentivirus to overexpress POP. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. The activation status of HSCs was determined by examination of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-Smad signaling and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Inhibition by S17092 decreased, whereas lentiviral expression increased the activity of POP and cell proliferation, while neither of the treatments affected cell apoptosis. Of note, S17092 significantly increased, whereas POP overexpression decreased the expression of α-SMA and MCP-1 without affecting the expression of collagen I and TGF-β1. Furthermore, S17092 caused a reduction, whereas POP overexpression caused an upregulation of Smad7 protein and PPAR-γ, but not phosphorylated-Smad2/3 expression. In conclusion, POP attenuated the activation of HSCs through inhibition of TGF-β signaling and induction of PPAR-γ, which may have therapeutic potential in liver fibrosis.

  16. Hepatic Stellate Cells: Protean, Multifunctional, and Enigmatic Cells of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    The hepatic stellate cell has surprised and engaged physiologists, pathologists, and hepatologists for over 130 years, yet clear evidence of its role in hepatic injury and fibrosis only emerged following the refinement of methods for its isolation and characterization. The paradigm in liver injury of activation of quiescent vitamin A-rich stellate cells into proliferative, contractile, and fibrogenic myofibroblasts has launched an era of astonishing progress in understanding the mechanistic basis of hepatic fibrosis progression and regression. But this simple paradigm has now yielded to a remarkably broad appreciation of the cell's functions not only in liver injury, but also in hepatic development, regeneration, xenobiotic responses, intermediary metabolism, and immunoregulation. Among the most exciting prospects is that stellate cells are essential for hepatic progenitor cell amplification and differentiation. Equally intriguing is the remarkable plasticity of stellate cells, not only in their variable intermediate filament phenotype, but also in their functions. Stellate cells can be viewed as the nexus in a complex sinusoidal milieu that requires tightly regulated autocrine and paracrine cross-talk, rapid responses to evolving extracellular matrix content, and exquisite responsiveness to the metabolic needs imposed by liver growth and repair. Moreover, roles vital to systemic homeostasis include their storage and mobilization of retinoids, their emerging capacity for antigen presentation and induction of tolerance, as well as their emerging relationship to bone marrow-derived cells. As interest in this cell type intensifies, more surprises and mysteries are sure to unfold that will ultimately benefit our understanding of liver physiology and the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease. PMID:18195085

  17. Apelin mediates the induction of profibrogenic genes in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Casals, Gregori; Pauta, Montserrat; Ros, Josefa; Reichenbach, Vedrana; Bataller, Ramon; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Jimenez, Wladimiro

    2010-11-01

    Apelin is a peptide with relevant functions in angiogenesis and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that apelin is overexpressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of cirrhotic rats. Moreover, patients with cirrhosis show high circulating levels of this peptide. We evaluated the role of endogenous apelin system in fibrogenesis-related gene induction in human HSCs. Messenger expression and immunolocalization of apelin were analyzed in human cirrhotic liver and in control samples. Apelin expression was analyzed in a human HSC line (LX-2) under hypoxic conditions or in the presence of proinflammatory or profibrogenic stimuli. LX-2 cells were stimulated with apelin, and a selected profile of fibrogenesis-related genes was quantified. In vivo inactivation of apelin was analyzed in the liver of fibrotic rats after administrating specific blockers of the molecules triggering apelin induction. Apelin was overexpressed in HSCs from human cirrhotic liver. Neither hypoxia nor proinflammatory substances induced the expression of apelin in LX-2. By contrast, both profibrogenic molecules angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) enhanced apelin expression in these cells. Apelin increased the synthesis of collagen-I and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in LX-2. AII and ET-1 stimulated collagen-I and PDGFRβ expression, and this induction was drastically reduced when apelin receptor was blocked in these cells. In accordance, AII or ET-1 receptor antagonists reduced the hepatic synthesis of apelin, collagen-I, and PDGFRβ in fibrotic rats. apelin mediates some of the fibrogenic effects triggered by AII and ET-1, thus suggesting that apelin could be an important mediator of fibrogenesis in human liver disease.

  18. Withagulatin A inhibits hepatic stellate cell viability and procollagen I production through Akt and Smad signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xu; Yu, Liang; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the natural product Withagulatin A on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) viability and type I procollagen production. The potential mechanism underlying the pharmacological actions was also explored. Methods: The effect of Withagulatin A on cell viability was evaluated in HSC and LX-2 cells using a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry. Type I procollagen gene expression was determined using real-time PCR. Regulation of signaling molecules by Withagulatin A was detected using Western blotting. Results: Primary rat HSCs and the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 treated with Withagulatin A (0.625-20 μmol/L) underwent a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, which was associated with S phase arrest and the induction of cell apoptosis. In addition, the natural product decreased phosphorylation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway that controls cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, Withagulatin A (1, 2 μmol/L) inhibited transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) stimulated type I procollagen gene expression, which was attributable to the suppression of TGF-β stimulated Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Withagulatin A potently inhibited HSC viability and type I procollagen production, thereby implying that this natural product has potential use in the development of anti-fibrogenic reagents for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:20644552

  19. Switching-on of serotonergic calcium signaling in activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu-Sang; Sin, Pyo-Jin; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Na-Hyun; Baik, Soon-Koo; Jeong, Seong-Woo; Kong, In Deok

    2011-01-14

    To investigate serotonergic Ca²+ signaling and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors, as well as Ca²+ transporting proteins, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The intracellular Ca²+ concentration [Ca²+](i) of isolated rat HSCs was measured with a fluorescence microscopic imaging system. Quantitative PCR was performed to determine the transcriptional levels of 5-HT receptors and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins involved in Ca²+ storage and release in cultured rat HSCs. Distinct from quiescent cells, activated HSCs exhibited [Ca²+](i) transients following treatment with 5-HT, which was abolished by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. Upregulation of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors, but not 5-HT₃, was prominent during trans-differentiation of HSCs. Pretreatment with ritanserin, a 5-HT₂ antagonist, inhibited [Ca²+](i) changes upon application of 5-HT. Expression of type 1 inositol-5'-triphosphate receptor and type 2 sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ ATPase were also increased during activation of HSCs and serve as the major isotypes for ER Ca²+ storage and release in activated HSCs. Ca²+ binding chaperone proteins of the ER, including calreticulin, calnexin and calsequestrin, were up-regulated following activation of HSCs. The appearance of 5-HT-induced [Ca²+](i) response accompanied by upregulation of metabotropic 5-HT₂ receptors and Ca²+ transporting/chaperone ER proteins may participate in the activating process of HSCs.

  20. Bone marrow-derived pancreatic stellate cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Gisela; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Hofmeister-Mielke, Nicole; Koczan, Dirk; Jaster, Robert; Liebe, Stefan; Wolff, Daniel; Emmrich, Jörg

    2010-03-01

    Origin and fate of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) before, during and after pancreatic injury are a matter of debate. The crucial role of PSCs in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is generally accepted. However, the turnover of the cells remains obscure. The present study addressed the issue of a potential bone marrow (BM) origin of PSCs. We used a model of stable hematopoietic chimerism by grafting enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-expressing BM cells after irradiation of acceptor rats. Chimerism was detected by FACS analysis of eGFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood. Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was used to induce acute pancreatic inflammation with subsequent recovery over 4 weeks. Investigations have been focused on isolated cells to detect the resting PSC population. The incidence of eGFP-positive PSC obtained from the pancreas of chimeric rats was approximately 7% in healthy pancreatic tissue and increased significantly to a mean of 18% in the restored pancreas 4 weeks after DBTC-induced acute inflammation. Our results suggest that BM-derived progenitor cells represent a source of renewable stellate cells in the pancreas. Increased numbers of resting PSCs after regeneration point toward enhanced recruitment of BM-derived cells to the pancreas and/or re-acquisition of a quiescent state after inflammation-induced activation.

  1. DDR2 receptor promotes MMP-2-mediated proliferation and invasion by hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Olaso, E; Ikeda, K; Eng, F J; Xu, L; Wang, L H; Lin, H C; Friedman, S L

    2001-11-01

    Type I collagen provokes activation of hepatic stellate cells during liver injury through mechanisms that have been unclear. Here, we tested the role of the discoidin domain tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (DDR2), which signals in response to type I collagen, in this pathway. DDR2 mRNA and protein are induced in stellate cells activated by primary culture or in vivo during liver injury. The receptor becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in response to either endogenous or exogenous type I collagen, whereas its expression is downregulated during cellular quiescence induced by growth on Matrigel. We developed stellate cell lines stably overexpressing either wild-type DDR2, a constitutively active chimeric DDR2 receptor (Fc-DDR2), a truncated receptor expressing the extracellular domain, or a kinase-dead DDR2 Cells overexpressing DDR2 showed enhanced proliferation and invasion through Matrigel, activities that were directly related to increased expression of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). These data show that DDR2 is induced during stellate cell activation and implicate the phosphorylated receptor as a mediator of MMP-2 release and growth stimulation in response to type I collagen. Moreover, type I collagen-dependent upregulation of DDR2 expression establishes a positive feedback loop in activated stellate cells, leading to further proliferation and enhanced invasive activity.

  2. ATGL and CGI-58 are lipid droplet proteins of the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Thomas O; Grumet, Lukas; Taschler, Ulrike; Hartler, Jürgen; Heier, Christoph; Woblistin, Aaron; Pajed, Laura; Kollroser, Manfred; Rechberger, Gerald; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Günter; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contain large amounts of vitamin A [in the form of retinyl esters (REs)] as well as other neutral lipids such as TGs. During times of insufficient vitamin A availability, RE stores are mobilized to ensure a constant supply to the body. To date, little is known about the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of neutral lipid esters, in particular of REs, in HSCs. In this study, we aimed to identify LD-associated neutral lipid hydrolases by a proteomic approach using the rat stellate cell line HSC-T6. First, we loaded cells with retinol and FAs to promote lipid synthesis and deposition within LDs. Then, LDs were isolated and lipid composition and the LD proteome were analyzed. Among other proteins, we found perilipin 2, adipose TG lipase (ATGL), and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), known and established LD proteins. Bioinformatic search of the LD proteome for α/β-hydrolase fold-containing proteins revealed no yet uncharacterized neutral lipid hydrolases. In in vitro activity assays, we show that rat (r)ATGL, coactivated by rat (r)CGI-58, efficiently hydrolyzes TGs and REs. These findings suggest that rATGL and rCGI-58 are LD-resident proteins in HSCs and participate in the mobilization of both REs and TGs.

  3. ATGL and CGI-58 are lipid droplet proteins of the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6[S

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Thomas O.; Grumet, Lukas; Taschler, Ulrike; Hartler, Jürgen; Heier, Christoph; Woblistin, Aaron; Pajed, Laura; Kollroser, Manfred; Rechberger, Gerald; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Günter; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contain large amounts of vitamin A [in the form of retinyl esters (REs)] as well as other neutral lipids such as TGs. During times of insufficient vitamin A availability, RE stores are mobilized to ensure a constant supply to the body. To date, little is known about the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of neutral lipid esters, in particular of REs, in HSCs. In this study, we aimed to identify LD-associated neutral lipid hydrolases by a proteomic approach using the rat stellate cell line HSC-T6. First, we loaded cells with retinol and FAs to promote lipid synthesis and deposition within LDs. Then, LDs were isolated and lipid composition and the LD proteome were analyzed. Among other proteins, we found perilipin 2, adipose TG lipase (ATGL), and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), known and established LD proteins. Bioinformatic search of the LD proteome for α/β-hydrolase fold-containing proteins revealed no yet uncharacterized neutral lipid hydrolases. In in vitro activity assays, we show that rat (r)ATGL, coactivated by rat (r)CGI-58, efficiently hydrolyzes TGs and REs. These findings suggest that rATGL and rCGI-58 are LD-resident proteins in HSCs and participate in the mobilization of both REs and TGs. PMID:26330055

  4. Cytoglobin as a Marker of Hepatic Stellate Cell-derived Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Norifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblasts play important roles in inflammation, fibrosis and tumorigenesis in chronically inflamed liver. Liver myofibroblasts originate from hepatic stellate cells, portal fibroblasts or mesothelial cells, and they are localized in and around fibrotic septum and portal tracts. Liver myofibroblasts are the source of extracellular matrix materials, including type I collagen and multiple fibrogenic growth factors, such as transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor. Although a detailed characterization of the function of individual myofibroblasts has not been conducted, owing to the lack of appropriate cell markers, recent lineage-tracing technology has revealed the limited contribution of myofibroblasts that are derived from portal fibroblasts to various types of liver fibrosis, as compared with the contribution of hepatic stellate cells. In addition, cytoglobin, which is the fourth globin in mammals and function as a local gas sensor, provides a new perspective on the involvement of stellate cells in fibrosis and carcinogenesis, possibly through its anti-oxidative properties and is a promising new marker that discriminates between myofibroblasts derived from stellate cells and those from portal fibroblasts. PMID:26617531

  5. Betaine treatment decreased oxidative stress, inflammation, and stellate cell activation in rats with alcoholic liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bingül, İlknur; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Aydın, A Fatih; Çoban, Jale; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of betaine (BET) on alcoholic liver fibrosis in rats. Fibrosis was experimentally generated with ethanol plus carbon tetrachloride (ETH+CCl4) treatment. Rats were treated with ETH (5% v/v in drinking water) for 14 weeks. CCl4 was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 0.2mL/kg twice a week to rats in the last 6 weeks with/without commercial food containing BET (2% w/w). Serum hepatic damage markers, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels, and oxidative stress parameters were measured together with histopathologic observations. In addition, α-smooth muscle-actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and type I collagen (COL1A1) protein expressions were assayed immunohistochemically to evaluate stellate cell (HSC) activation. mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were also determined. BET treatment diminished TG and HYP levels; prooxidant status and fibrotic changes; α-SMA, COL1A1 and TGF-β protein expressions; MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions in the liver of fibrotic rats. In conclusion, these results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of BET may be related to its suppressive effects on oxidant and inflammatory processes together with HSC activation in alcoholic liver fibrosis.

  6. Canonical Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent stage of hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kordes, Claus Sawitza, Iris; Haeussinger, Dieter

    2008-02-29

    It is well known that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) develop into cells, which are thought to contribute to liver fibrogenesis. Recent data suggest that HSC are progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of endothelial and hepatocyte lineages. The present study shows that {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling is active in freshly isolated HSC of rats. Mimicking of the canonical Wnt pathway in cultured HSC by TWS119, an inhibitor of the glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}, led to reduced {beta}-catenin phosphorylation, induced nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin, elevated glutamine synthetase production, impeded synthesis of {alpha}-smooth muscle actin and Wnt5a, but promoted the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Wnt10b, and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c. In addition, canonical Wnt signaling lowered DNA synthesis and hindered HSC from entering the cell cycle. The findings demonstrate that {beta}-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent state of HSC and, similar to stem and progenitor cells, influences their developmental fate.

  7. Curcumin affects β-catenin pathway in hepatic stellate cell in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Jia, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Zhai, Xuguang; Zhou, Yajun; Zhu, Huixia

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that Wnt/β-catenin pathway is linked to the fibrosis of different organs including liver fibrosis. β-Catenin promotes hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, a key event in the development of liver fibrosis, and has emerged as a novel mediator of fibrosis. Curcumin, a natural active ingredient derived from turmeric, possesses an inhibitory effect on liver fibrosis. This study is aimed to examine whether curcumin affects β-catenin expression/activity in HSCs and explores the underlying mechanisms. The researchers used Western blot, real-time PCR, transfection assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay and employed cultured HSCs and rat model of liver injury. Results showed that curcumin could reduce β-catenin protein level in HSCs in vitro and in vivo. Both β-catenin transactivation activity and DNA-binding activity were suppressed by curcumin. Moreover, nuclear β-catenin protein level was decreased by curcumin treatment. Further experiments suggested that delta-like homologue 1 contributed to curcumin inhibition of β-catenin transactivation activity in cultured HSCs. Curcumin affects β-catenin pathway in HSCs and might suggest a possible new explanation for the effects of curcumin on HSC activation and liver fibrosis. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Intracellular calcium signals regulate growth of hepatic stellate cells via specific effects on cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Elwy M; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Sheung, Nina; Yu, Jin; Amaya, Maria Jimina; Nathanson, Michael H; Dranoff, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are important mediators of liver fibrosis. Hormones linked to downstream intracellular Ca(2+) signals upregulate HSC proliferation, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+) signals may have distinct effects on cell proliferation, so we expressed plasmid and adenoviral constructs containing the Ca(2+) chelator parvalbumin (PV) linked to either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a nuclear export sequence (NES) to block Ca(2+) signals in distinct compartments within LX-2 immortalized human HSC and primary rat HSC. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs each targeted to the appropriate intracellular compartment and blocked Ca(2+) signals only within that compartment. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs inhibited HSC growth. Furthermore, blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca(2+) signals arrested growth at the G2/mitosis (G2/M) cell-cycle interface and prevented the onset of mitosis. Blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca(2+) signals downregulated phosphorylation of the G2/M checkpoint phosphatase Cdc25C. Inhibition of calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II) had identical effects on LX-2 growth and Cdc25C phosphorylation. We propose that nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+) are critical signals that regulate HSC growth at the G2/M checkpoint via CaMK II-mediated regulation of Cdc25C phosphorylation. These data provide a new logical target for pharmacological therapy directed against progression of liver fibrosis.

  9. Decoding the role of the nuclear receptor SHP in regulating hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Carino, Adriana; Masullo, Dario; Zampella, Angela; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an orphan nuclear receptor that lacks the DNA binding domain while conserves a putative ligand-binding site, thought that endogenous ligands for this receptor are unknown. Previous studies have determined that SHP activation protects against development of liver fibrosis a process driven by trans-differentiation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a miofibroblast like cell type, involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. To dissect signals involved in this activity we generated SHP-overexpressing human and rat HSCs. Forced expression of SHP in HSC-T6 altered the expression of 574 genes. By pathway and functional enrichment analyses we detected a cluster of 46 differentially expressed genes involved in HSCs trans-differentiation. Using a isoxazole scaffold we designed and synthesized a series of SHP agonists. The most potent member of this group, ISO-COOH (EC50: 9 μM), attenuated HSCs trans-differentiation and ECM deposition in vitro, while in mice rendered cirrhotic by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or α-naphthyl-isothiocyanate (ANIT), protected against development of liver fibrosis as measured by morphometric analysis and expression of α-SMA and α1-collagen mRNAs. In aggregate, present results identify SHP as a counter-regulatory signal for HSCs transactivation and describe a novel class of SHP agonists endowed with anti-fibrotic activity. PMID:28117422

  10. The antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits rat hepatic stellate cell proliferation in vitro by blocking the tyrosine phosphorylation and reducing the gene expression of platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anping; Zhang, Li

    2003-06-27

    During hepatic fibrogenesis, quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSC) become active and trans-differentiate into myofibroblast-like cells. This process coincides with an increase in cell proliferation, loss of stored vitamin A droplets, and excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components. HSC activation is coupled with the sequential expression of cytokine receptors, including platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor (PDGF-betaR). Although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood, it is widely accepted that oxidative stress plays critical roles in activation of HSC during hepatic fibrogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that the antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component in green tea extracts, significantly inhibited the proliferation of passaged HSC. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Since PDGF is a potent mitogen for HSC and mediates the early proliferative response, it was hypothesized that EGCG might inhibit HSC proliferation by interfering with the PDGF signal transduction. In this report, we demonstrated that EGCG, in two steps, significantly and effectively inhibited the proliferation of primary and passaged HSC. The polyphenolic compound initiated its inhibitory action by rapidly blocking the phosphorylation of tyrosines in PDGF-betaR elicited by PDGF in serum. This action was short lived, persisting for a few hours. In addition, this antioxidant inhibited the gene expression of PDGF-betaR by blocking the activation of transcription factors activator protein-1 and NF-kappaB, which were required for the gene transcription. The latter action remained effective for no less than 48 hours. These results provided a novel insight into the mechanisms by which EGCG inhibits HSC growth. The inhibitory effect of the natural antioxidant, its long history of beverage consumption without adverse health effects, and higher potent antioxidant capability make it a good

  11. Inhibitory Effects of microRNA 19b in Hepatic Stellate Cell-Mediated Fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lakner, Ashley M.; Steuerwald, Nury M.; Walling, Tracy L.; Ghosh, Sriparna; Li, Ting; McKillop, Iain H.; Russo, Mark W.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Schrum, Laura W.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is a pivotal event in initiation and progression of hepatic fibrosis and a major contributor to collagen deposition driven by transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). microRNAs (miRs), small non-coding RNAs modulating mRNA and protein expression, have emerged as key regulatory molecules in chronic liver disease. We investigated differentially expressed miRs in quiescent and activated HSCs to identify novel regulators of profibrotic TGFβ signaling. miR microarray analysis was performed on quiescent and activated rat HSCs. Members of the miR-17-92 cluster (19a, 19b, 92a) were significantly down-regulated in activated HSCs. Since miR 19b showed the highest fold-change of the cluster members, activated HSCs were transfected with miR 19b mimic or negative control and TGFβ signaling and HSC activation assessed. miR 19b expression was determined in fibrotic rat and human liver specimens. miR 19b mimic negatively regulated TGFβ signaling components demonstrated by decreased TGFβ receptor II (TGFβRII) and SMAD3 expression. Computational prediction of miR 19b binding to the 3’UTR of TGFβRII was validated by luciferase reporter assay. Inhibition of TGFβ signaling by miR 19b was confirmed by decreased expression of type I collagen and by blocking TGFβ-induced expression of α1(I) and α2(I) procollagen mRNAs. miR 19b blunted the activated HSC phenotype by morphological assessment and decreased αSMA expression. Additionally, miR 19b expression was markedly diminished in fibrotic rat liver compared to normal liver; similarly, miR 19b expression was markedly down-regulated in fibrotic compared to normal human livers. CONCLUSIONS miR 19b is a novel regulator of TGFβ signaling in HSCs suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22278637

  12. NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Ramón; Schwabe, Robert F.; Choi, Youkyung H.; Yang, Liu; Paik, Yong Han; Lindquist, Jeffrey; Qian, Ting; Schoonhoven, Robert; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Lemasters, John J.; Brenner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:14597764

  13. 2',4',6'-Tris(methoxymethoxy) chalcone induces apoptosis by enhancing Fas-ligand in activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hee; Zhao, Yu-Zhe; Park, Eun-Jeon; Che, Xian-Hua; Seo, Geom Seog; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2011-05-01

    Suppression of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in activated HSCs have been proposed as therapeutic strategies for the treatment and prevention of the hepatic fibrosis. We previously showed that 2',4',6'-tris(methoxymethoxy) chalcone (TMMC), a synthesized chalcone derivative, inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced HSC proliferation at 5-20 μM. Here, we showed that TMMC induces apoptosis in activated HSCs at higher concentrations (30-50 μM), but is not cytotoxic to primary hepatocytes. Moreover, TMMC induces hyperacetylation of histone by inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) in activated HSCs. Interestingly, TMMC treatment remarkably increased Fas-ligand (FasL) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Cycloheximide treatment reversed the induction of TMMC on apoptosis, indicating that de novo protein synthesis was required for TMMC-induced apoptosis in activated HSCs. In addition, FasL synthesis by TMMC is closely associated with maximal procaspase-3 proteolytic processing. In vivo, TMMC reduced activated HSCs in CCl(4)-intoxicated rats during liver injury recovery, as demonstrated by α-smooth muscle actin expression in rat liver. TMMC treatment also resulted in apoptosis, as demonstrated by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in rat liver. In conclusion, TMMC may have therapeutic potential by inducing HSC apoptosis for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Murine junctional adhesion molecules JAM-B and JAM-C mediate endothelial and stellate cell interactions during hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hintermann, Edith; Bayer, Monika; Ehser, Janine; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Imhof, Beat A; Christen, Urs

    2016-07-03

    Classical junctional adhesion molecules JAM-A, JAM-B and JAM-C influence vascular permeability, cell polarity as well as leukocyte recruitment and immigration into inflamed tissue. As the vasculature becomes remodelled in chronically injured, fibrotic livers we aimed to determine distribution and role of junctional adhesion molecules during this pathological process. Therefore, livers of naïve or carbon tetrachloride-treated mice were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to localize all 3 classical junctional adhesion molecules. Hepatic stellate cells and endothelial cells were isolated and subjected to immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry to determine localization and functionality of JAM-B and JAM-C. Cells were further used to perform contractility and migration assays and to study endothelial tubulogenesis and pericytic coverage by hepatic stellate cells. We found that in healthy tissue, JAM-A was ubiquitously expressed whereas JAM-B and JAM-C were restricted to the vasculature. During fibrosis, JAM-B and JAM-C levels increased in endothelial cells and JAM-C was de novo generated in myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells. Soluble JAM-C blocked contractility but increased motility in hepatic stellate cells. Furthermore, soluble JAM-C reduced endothelial tubulogenesis and endothelial cell/stellate cell interaction. Thus, during liver fibrogenesis, JAM-B and JAM-C expression increase on the vascular endothelium. More importantly, JAM-C appears on myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells linking them as pericytes to JAM-B positive endothelial cells. This JAM-B/JAM-C mediated interaction between endothelial cells and stellate cells stabilizes vessel walls and may control the sinusoidal diameter. Increased hepatic stellate cell contraction mediated by JAM-C/JAM-C interaction may cause intrahepatic vasoconstriction, which is a major complication in liver cirrhosis.

  15. A novel Golgi-Cox staining method for detecting and characterizing roles of the hepatic stellate cells in liver injury.

    PubMed

    Gómez Villalobos, Ma de Jesús; Vidrio, Susana; Giles López, Ruth; Flores Gómez, Gabriel; Chagoya de Sánchez, Victoria

    2017-06-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Golgi-Cox method to characterize the distribution and morphological changes of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4 liver damaged rats. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were injected with CCl4 for ten weeks. The livers were processed with the Golgi-Cox method, reticuline, and Massońs Trichrome stains, and analyzed under light microscopy. Histological evaluation of livers was made through the METAVIR score. In normal livers, the HSCs show stellate form with abundant thin cytoplasmic processes, distributed into hepatic lobule, mainly in zone 1. In addition, an intricate and broad network of fibers with radial distribution from the central vein to the periphery of the hepatic lobule was observed. In CCl4 damaged livers, with METAVIR score I and II, HSCs showed a moderate increase in the soma size, in the cytoplasmic processes and in density, distributed in zone 2 and 3; changes associated with a decrease in network fibers. In livers with METAVIR score III and IV, the morphology changes of the HSCs consisted of a significant increase in the soma size, cut and fraying appearance of the emerging cytoplasmic processes, and a decrease in HSCs density, distributed mainly in zone 3, with a significant depletion of network fibers. Results show that Golgi-Cox stain is able to impregnate the HSCs and could be an additional tool to study the morphological changes of the HSCs in the different experimental pathological conditions of the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Maotai liquor in inducing metallothioneins and on hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming-Liang; Wu, Jun; Wang, Hai-Qin; Xue, Lie-Ming; Tan, Ying-Zhi; Ping, Liu; Li, Cheng-Xiu; Huang, Neng-Hui; Yao, Yu-Mei; Ren, Lan-Zheng; Ye, Lan; Li, Ling; Jia, Mei-Lin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanism why drinking Maotai liquor dose not cause hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: After being fed with Maotai for 56 days consecutively, the male SD rats were decollated for detecting the biological indexes, and the livers were harvested to examine the liver indexes and the level of hepatic metallothioneins (MT). Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) proliferation and collagen generation were also observed. RESULTS: Hepatic MT contents were 216.0 ng·g-1 ± 10.8 ng·g-1 in the rats of Maotai group and 10.0 ng·g-1 ± 2.8 ng·g-1 in the normal control group, which was increased obviously in Maotain group (P < 0.05). In the rats with grade CCL2 poisoning induced by Maotai, hepatic MT content was 304.8 ng·g-1 ± 12.1 ng·g-1 whereas in the controls with grade CCL4 poisoning, it was 126.4 ng·g-1 ± 4.8 ng·g-1 (P < 0.05). MDA was 102.0 nmol·g-1 ± 3.4 nmol·g-1 in Maotai group and 150.8 nmol·g-1 ± 6.7 nmol·g-1 in the control group (P < 0.05). When both of the groups were suffering from grade CCL4 poisoning, hepatic MT contents was negatively correlated with MDA (r = -0.8023, n = 20, P < 0.01). The 570 nmA values of each tube with HSC regeneration at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 g·L-1 of Maotai were 0.818, 0.742, 0.736, 0.72, 0.682, and 0.604, respectively. From the concentration of 10 g·L-1, Maotai began to show obvious inhibitory effects against HSC, and the inhibition was concentration-dependent (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Type I collagen contents in HSC were 61.4, 59.9, 50.1, 49.2, 48.7, 34.4 μg·g-1 at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 g·L-1 of Maotai. At the concentration of 100-200 g·L-1, Maotai had obvious inhibitory effect against the secretion of type I collagen (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis was conducted on cells with Maotai concentrations of 0, 50, 100 g·L-1 respectively and the ash values of β-actin gene expression were 0.88, 0.74, and 0.59, respectively, suggesting that at the concentration of 100 g·L-1

  17. Effect of Kruppel-like factor 4 on Notch pathway in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yin-Kai; Tan, Jun; Dou, Dong-Wei; Chen, Ding; Chen, Lu-Jia; Ren, Huan-Ping; Chen, Li-Bo; Xiong, Xin-Gao; Zheng, Hai

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and the Notch pathway was determined to investigate the effect of KLF4 on the activation of hepatic stellate cells and underlying mechanisms. Fifty SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups. A liver fibrosis model was established in 25 mice as the experimental group, and the remaining 25 mice served as controls. On the day 0, 7, 14, and 35, liver tissues were removed for immunofluorescent detection. The Notch pathway inhibitor DAPT was added to the primary original hepatic stellate cells, and KLF4 and Notch-associated factor expression was detected by qRT-PCR. Additionally, the hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 was used to establish control and experimental groups, and was cultured in vitro. LX-2 cells in the experimental groups were treated with DAPT and the Notch activator transforming growth factor-beta 1 separately, whereas those in the control group were given isotonic culture medium. After 48 h, KLF4 expression was examined by Western blotting. After transient transfection of LX-2 cells to increase KLF4, the expression of Notch factor was examined. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that, with the aggravation of liver fibrosis, the absorbance (A) values of KLF4 were decreased (day 0: 980.73±153.19; day 7: 1087.99±230.23; day 14: 390.95±93.56; day 35: 245.99±87.34). The expression of Notch pathway- related factors (Notch-1, Notch-2, and Jagged-1) in the hepatic stellate cell membrane was negatively correlated to KLF4 expression. With the increase of KLF4 expression, Notch-2 (0.73±0.13) and Jagged-1 (0.43±0.12) expression decreased, whereas Notch-1 level was not detectable. When the Notch pathway was inhibited, KLF4 levels generally increased (18.12±1.31). Our results indicate that KLF4 expression is negatively correlated to the Notch pathway in hepatic stellate cells, which may provide a reference for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  18. Hepatic Stellate Cells and microRNAs in Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Mio; Bloomston, P. Mark

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by either blocking translation or inducing degradation of target mRNA. miRNAs play essential roles in diverse biological and pathological processes, including development of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a central role in development of hepatic fibrosis and there are intricate regulatory effects of miRNAs on their activation, proliferation, collagen production, migration, and apoptosis. There are multiple differentially expressed miRNAs in activated HSCs, and in this review we aim to summarize current data on miRNAs that participate in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Based on this review, miRNAs may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis of liver disease, as well as markers of disease progression. Most importantly, dysregulated miRNAs may potentially be targeted by novel therapies to treat and reverse progression of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26999230

  19. Prevention of in vitro hepatic stellate cells activation by the adenosine derivative compound IFC305.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Loyden, Gabriela; Pérez-Carreón, Julio Isael; Agüero, José Fernando Cabello; Romero, Pilar Cabrales; Vidrio-Gómez, Susana; Martínez-Pérez, Lidia; Yáñez-Maldonado, Lucia; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Macías-Silva, Marina; de Sánchez, Victoria Chagoya

    2010-12-01

    We have previously shown that adenosine and the aspartate salt of adenosine (IFC305) reverse pre-established CCl(4)-induced cirrhosis in rats. However, their molecular mechanism of action is not clearly understood. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in liver fibrogenesis leading to cirrhosis, mainly through their activation, changing from a quiescent adipogenic state to a proliferative myofibrogenic condition. Therefore, we decided to investigate the effect of IFC305 on primary cultured rat HSC. Our results reveal that this compound suppressed the activation of HSC, as demonstrated by the maintenance of a quiescent cell morphology, including lipid droplets content, inhibition of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen α1(I) expression, and up-regulation of MMP-13, Smad7, and PPARγ expression, three key antifibrogenic genes. Furthermore, IFC305 was able to repress the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation of HSC. This inhibition was independent of adenosine receptors stimulation; instead, IFC305 was incorporated into cells by adenosine transporters and converted to AMP by adenosine kinase. On the other hand, addition of pyrimidine ribonucleoside as uridine reversed the suppressive effect of IFC305 on the proliferation and activation of HSC, suggesting that intracellular pyrimidine starvation would be involved in the molecular mechanism of action of IFC305. In conclusion, IFC305 inhibits HSC activation and maintains their quiescence in vitro; these results could explain in part the antifibrotic liver beneficial effect previously described for this compound on the animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EPAC activation inhibits acetaldehyde-induced activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cell via Rap1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yang, Feng; Wu, Xiaojuan; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation represents an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF). Previous studies have demonstrated that the rat HSCs could be significantly activated after exposure to 200 μmol/L acetaldehyde for 48 h, and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathways were also dramatically upregulated in activated HSCs isolated from alcoholic fibrotic rat liver. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the small Ras-like GTPases Rap, and is being considered as a vital mediator of cAMP signaling in parallel with the principal cAMP target protein kinase A (PKA). Our data showed that both cAMP/PKA and cAMP/EPAC signaling pathways were involved in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Acetaldehyde could reduce the expression of EPAC1 while enhancing the expression of EPAC2. The cAMP analog Me-cAMP, which stimulates the EPAC/Rap1 pathway, could significantly decrease the proliferation and collagen synthesis of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Furthermore, depletion of EPAC2, but not EPAC1, prevented the activation of HSC measured as the production of α-SMA and collagen type I and III, indicating that EPAC1 appears to have protective effects on acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Curiously, activation of PKA or EPAC perhaps has opposite effects on the synthesis of collagen and α-SMA: EPAC activation by Me-cAMP increased the levels of GTP-bound (activated) Rap1 while PKA activation by Phe-cAMP had no significant effects on such binding. These results suggested that EPAC activation could inhibit the activation and proliferation of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs via Rap1.

  1. MicroRNA-34a Promotes Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation via Targeting ACSL1

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Gangli; Li, Binbin; Xin, Xuan; Xu, Midie; Ji, Guoqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of liver fibrosis remains high due to the lack of effective therapies. Our previous work found that microRNA (miR)-34a expression was increased, while acy1-CoA synthetase long-chain family member1 (ACSL1) was decreased, in a dimethylnitrosamine (DNS)-induced hepatic fibrosis rat model. We hypothesized that miR-34a may play a role in the process of hepatic fibrosis by targeting ACSL1. Material/Methods From days 2 to 14, cultured primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) underwent cell morphology, immunocytochemical staining, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) for alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin, rno-miR-34a, and ACSL1 expression. Wild-type and mutant luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed according to the predicted miR-34a binding site on the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of the ACSL1 mRNA and then transfected into HEK293 cells. rno-miR-34a was silenced in HSCs to confirm that rno-miR-34a negatively regulates ACSL1 expression. mRNA and protein expression of α-SMA, type I collagen, and desmin were assayed in miR-34a-silenced HSCs. Results HSCs were deemed quiescent during the first 3 days and activated after 10 days. rno-miR-34a expression increased, and ACSL1 expression decreased, from day 2 to 7 to 14. rno-miR-34a was shown to specifically bind to the 3′-UTR of ACSL1. miR-34a-silenced HSCs showed higher ACSL1and lower α-SMA, type I collagen, and desmin expression than that of matching negative controls and non-transfected cells. Conclusions miR-34a appears to play an important role in the process of liver fibrosis by targeting ACSL1 and may show promise as a therapeutic molecular target for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26437572

  2. Autophagy Releases Lipid That Promotes Fibrogenesis by Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells in Mice and in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    HERNÁNDEZ–GEA, VIRGINIA; GHIASSI–NEJAD, ZAHRA; ROZENFELD, RAPHAEL; GORDON, RONALD; FIEL, MARIA ISABEL; YUE, ZHENYU; CZAJA, MARK J.; FRIEDMAN, SCOTT L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The pathogenesis of liver fibrosis involves activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is associated with depletion of intracellular lipid droplets. When hepatocytes undergo autophagy, intracellular lipids are degraded in lysosomes. We investigated whether autophagy also promotes loss of lipids in hepatic stellate cells to provide energy for their activation and extended these findings to other fibrogenic cells. METHODS We analyzed hepatic stellate cells from C57BL/6 wild-type, Atg7F/F, and Atg7F/F-GFAP-Cre mice, as well as the mouse stellate cell line JS1. Fibrosis was induced in mice using CCl4 or thioacetamide (TAA); liver tissues and stellate cells were analyzed. Autophagy was blocked in fibrogenic cells from liver and other tissues using small interfering RNAs against Atg5 or Atg7 and chemical antagonists. Human pulmonary fibroblasts were isolated from samples of lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or from healthy donors. RESULTS In mice, induction of liver injury with CCl4 or TAA increased levels of autophagy. We also observed features of autophagy in activated stellate cells within injured human liver tissue. Loss of autophagic function in cultured mouse stellate cells and in mice following injury reduced fibrogenesis and matrix accumulation; this effect was partially overcome by providing oleic acid as an energy substrate. Autophagy also regulated expression of fibrogenic genes in embryonic, lung, and renal fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS Autophagy of activated stellate cells is required for hepatic fibrogenesis in mice. Selective reduction of autophagic activity in fibrogenic cells in liver and other tissues might be used to treat patients with fibrotic diseases. PMID:22240484

  3. Human hepatic stellate cells are not permissive for hepatitis C virus entry and replication.

    PubMed

    Florimond, Alexandre; Chouteau, Philippe; Bruscella, Patrice; Le Seyec, Jacques; Mérour, Emilie; Ahnou, Nazim; Mallat, Ariane; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    Chronic HCV infection is associated with the development of hepatic fibrosis. The direct role of HCV in the fibrogenic process is unknown. Specifically, whether HCV is able to infect hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is debated. To assess whether human HSCs are susceptible to HCV infection. We combined a set of original HCV models, including the infectious genotype 2a JFH1 model (HCVcc), retroviral pseudoparticles expressing the folded HCV genotype 1b envelope glycoproteins (HCVpp) and a subgenomic genotype 1b HCV replicon, and two relevant cellular models, primary human HSCs from different patients and the LX-2 cell line, to assess whether HCV can infect/replicate in HSCs. In contrast with the hepatocyte cell line Huh-7, neither infectious HCVcc nor HCVpp infected primary human HSCs or LX-2 cells. The cellular expression of host cellular factors required for HCV entry was high in Huh-7 cells but low in HSCs and LX-2 cells, with the exception of CD81. Finally, replication of a genotype 2a full-length RNA genome and a genotype 1b subgenomic replicon was impaired in primary human HSCs and LX-2 cells, which expressed low levels of cellular factors known to play a key role in the HCV life-cycle, suggesting that human HSCs are not permissive for HCV replication. Human HSCs are refractory to HCV infection. Both HCV entry and replication are deficient in these cells, regardless of the HCV genotype and origin of the cells. Thus, HCV infection of HSCs does not play a role in liver fibrosis. These results do not rule out a direct role of HCV infection of hepatocytes in the fibrogenic process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Hepatitis B virus X protein activates human hepatic stellate cells through upregulating TGFβ1.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Chen, Z-X; Huang, R-F; Lin, N; Wang, X-Z

    2014-10-27

    We investigated the effects of the hepatitis B virus X gene (HBV X) on the activation of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the possible mechanisms underlying the pathway. Recombinant plasmid pHBV-X-IRES2-EGFP was constructed and transfected into HL-7702 cells using a lipid-mediated method. Transfected cells were screened by G418, which detected stable expression of the X gene by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and Western blot analysis, and named L02/x. Cells not subjected to G418-selection were analyzed to confirm the transient expression of the X gene and named L02/48x. Subsequently, L02/x and L02/48x, together with non-HBx-expressing cells, were co-cultured with HSCs in a non-contact transwell system. After 36 h of co-culture, the proliferation and migration of HSCs was detected using different cell counting methods. Finally, the mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA, Col I, and TGFβ1 in HSCs were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that L02/x and L02/48x cells can express HBV X gene mRNA and protein. Additionally, HSCs co-cultured with L02/x or L02/48x cells showed significantly higher proliferation and migration levels than control groups. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of α-SMA, Col I, and TGFβ1 in HSCs co-cultured with HBx-expressing liver cells were higher than those in control groups. HBx protein activated HSCs in vitro, leading to increased proliferation and migration of HSCs and upregulation of α-SMA and Col I. The TGFβ1 gene may be involved in this pathway.

  5. Melatonin suppresses activation of hepatic stellate cells through RORα-mediated inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Shajari, Shiva; Laliena, Almudena; Heegsma, Janette; Tuñón, María Jesús; Moshage, Han; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2015-10-01

    Liver fibrosis is scar tissue resulting from an uncontrolled wound-healing process in response to chronic liver injury. Liver damage generates an inflammatory reaction that activates hepatic stellate cells (HSC) that transdifferentiate from quiescent cells that control retinol metabolism to proliferative and migratory myofibroblasts that produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagen 1a1 (COL1A1). Although liver fibrosis is reversible, no effective drug therapy is available to prevent or reverse HSC activation. Melatonin has potent hepatoprotective properties in a variety of acute and chronic liver injury models and suppresses liver fibrosis. However, it remains unclear whether melatonin acts indirectly or directly on HSC to prevent liver fibrosis. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin on culture-activated rat HSC. Melatonin dose-dependently suppressed the expression of HSC activation markers Col1a1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, Acta2), as well as HSC proliferation and loss of lipid droplets. The nuclear melatonin sensor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-alpha (RORα/Nr1f1) was expressed in quiescent and activated HSC, while the membranous melatonin receptors (Mtrn1a and Mtrn1b) were not. The synthetic RORα agonist SR1078 more potently suppressed Col1a1 and αSma expression, HSC proliferation, and lipid droplet loss, while the RORα antagonist SR1001 blocked the antifibrotic features of melatonin. Melatonin and SR1078 inhibited the expression of Alox5, encoding 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). The pharmacological 5-LO inhibitor AA861 reduced Acta2 and Col1a1 expression in activated HSC. We conclude that melatonin directly suppresses HSC activation via RORα-mediated inhibition of Alox5 expression, which provides novel drug targets to treat liver fibrosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hepatic stellate cell is activated by microRNA-181b via PTEN/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianjian; Wu, Cunzao; Xu, Ziqiang; Xia, Peng; Dong, Peihong; Chen, Bicheng; Yu, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is an essential event in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis. MicroRNAs have been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating HSC functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recently, miR-181b has been reported to promote HSCs proliferation by targeting p27. But whether alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or collagens could be promoted by miR-181b in activated HSCs is still not clear. Therefore, the understanding of the role of miR-181b in liver fibrosis remains limited. Our results showed that miR-181b expression was increased much higher than miR-181a expression in vitro in transforming growth factor-β1-induced HSC activation as well as in vivo in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis. Of note, overexpression of miR-181b significantly increased the expressions level of α-SMA and type I collagen, and further promoted HSCs proliferation. Furthermore, phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt pathway, were confirmed as a direct target of miR-181b. We demonstrated that miR-181b could suppress PTEN expression and increase Akt phosphorylation in HSCs. Interestingly, the effects of miR-181b on the activation of HSCs were blocked down by Akt inhibitor LY294002. Our results revealed a profibrotic role of miR-181b in HSC activation and demonstrated that miR-181b could activate HSCs, at least in part, via PTEN/Akt pathway.

  7. Quercetin stimulates mitochondrial apoptosis dependent on activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    He, Liwei; Hou, Xianbang; Fan, Fangtian; Wu, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a hallmark of liver fibrosis. Quercetin has benefits for liver fibrosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the quercetin effect on HSC survival and the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Rat HSCs and LO2 hepatocytes were treated with quercetin (0.5-120 μM) for 24 h. Quercetin (10-40 μM) effects on apoptosis for 24 h were analyzed by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Quercetin (10-40 μM) effects on the expression of Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP-1, PERK, IRE1, ATF6, calnexin and CHOP for 24 h were analyzed by Western blot. Quercetin (10-40 μM) effects on mRNA expression of calnexin and CHOP for 24 h were analyzed by Real-time PCR. Quercetin at concentrations greater than 20 μM significantly inhibited HSC proliferation (IC50 27.2 μM), but did not affect hepatocyte growth until 80 μM (IC50 68.5 μM). Quercetin stimulated HSC apoptosis and the apoptotic rate reached 40% at a concentration of 40 μM (EC50 51.6 μM). Quercetin induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, and increased cytochrome C in the cytoplasm in HSCs. The cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 were also increased by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin elevated mRNA and protein expression of calnexin and CHOP in HSCs but not in hepatocytes. Quercetin also increased phosphorylation of PERK and IRE1 and ATF6 cleavage. However, ERS inhibitor salubrinal significantly abrogated quercetin induction of HSC apoptosis. Quercetin activated ERS pathway in HSCs leading to apoptosis. We characterized an ERS-mediated mechanism for quercetin as a promising antifibrotic agent.

  8. Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Human Pancreatic and Hepatic Stellate Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Kadiyala, Vivek; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin L.; Steen, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the liver and the pancreas differ; however, chronic inflammation in both organs is associated with fibrosis. Evidence suggests that fibrosis in both organs is partially regulated by organ-specific stellate cells. We explore the proteome of human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and human pancreatic stellate cells (hPaSC) using mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics to investigate pathophysiologic mechanisms. Proteins were isolated from whole cell lysates of immortalized hHSC and hPaSC. These proteins were tryptically digested, labeled with tandem mass tags (TMT), fractionated by OFFGEL, and subjected to MS. Proteins significantly different in abundance (P < 0.05) were classified via gene ontology (GO) analysis. We identified 1223 proteins and among them, 1222 proteins were quantifiable. Statistical analysis determined that 177 proteins were of higher abundance in hHSC, while 157 were of higher abundance in hPaSC. GO classification revealed that proteins of relatively higher abundance in hHSC were associated with protein production, while those of relatively higher abundance in hPaSC were involved in cell structure. Future studies using the methodologies established herein, but with further upstream fractionation and/or use of enhanced MS instrumentation will allow greater proteome coverage, achieving a comprehensive proteomic analysis of hHSC and hPaSC. PMID:23528454

  9. Brucella abortus promotes a fibrotic phenotype in hepatic stellate cells with concomitant autophagy pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Herrmann, Claudia Karina; Dennis, Vida A; Comerci, Diego José; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2017-10-09

    The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. The present study demonstrates that B. abortus infection induces the activation of the autophagic pathway in hepatic stellate cells to create a microenvironment that promote a profibrogenic phenotype through the induction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), collagen deposition and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion. Autophagy was revealed by up-regulation of the LC3II/LC3I ratio and beclin-1 expression as well as inhibition of p62 expression in infected cells. The above findings were dependent on the type IV secretion system (VirB) and the secreted BPE005 protein; which were partially corroborated using the pharmacological inhibitors wortmannin - a PI3-kinase inhibitor - and leupeptin plus E64 (inhibitors of lysosomal proteases). Activation of the autophagic pathway in hepatic stellate cells during Brucella infection could have an important contribution in attenuating inflammatory hepatic injury by inducing fibrosis. However, with time, B. abortus infection induced beclin-1 cleavage with concomitant cleavage of caspase-3 indicating the onset of apoptosis of LX-2 cells, as was confirmed by the TUNEL assay and Hoechst staining. These results demonstrate that the crosstalk of LX-2 cells and B. abortus induces autophagy and fibrosis with concomitant apoptosis of LX-2 cells, which may explain some potential mechanisms of liver damage observed in human brucellosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. MircoRNA-145 promotes activation of hepatic stellate cells via targeting krüppel-like factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Men, Ruoting; Wen, Maoyao; Zhao, Mingyue; Dan, Xuelian; Yang, Zongze; Wu, Wenchao; Wang, Maggie Haitian; Liu, Xiaojing; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4), a target gene of miR-145, can negatively regulate lung fibrosis. However, the potential role of KLF4 and miR-145 in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation or in hepatic fibrosis keeps unclear. This study aims to characterize miR-145 and KLF4 in activated HSCs and liver cirrhotic, and the underlying molecular basis. miR-145 was significantly up-regulated, while KLF4 was dramatically down-regulated during the activation of rat primary HSCs and TGF-βtreated HSCs. Furthermore, miR-145 mimics induced and inhibition of miR-145 reduced α-SMA and COL-I expression in primary HSCs. Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of KLF4 in the liver of cirrhotic patients and rats were significantly down-regulated. α-SMA and COL-I were increased after inhibition of KLF4 by specific shRNA in primary HSCs. Forced KLF4 expression led to a reduction of α-SMA and COL-I expression in HSCs. miR-145 promotes HSC activation and liver fibrosis by targeting KLF4. PMID:28091538

  11. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a polyphenol component of green tea, suppresses both collagen production and collagenase activity in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Makoto; Higashi, Nobuhiko; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Fukushima, Marie; Ohta, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Naoya; Enjoji, Munechika

    2005-10-01

    Catechins such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin (EGC) are polyphenol components of green tea. EGCG is the major component and has been reported to possess a wide range of biological properties including anti-fibrogenic activity. In hepatic fibrosis, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a central role. In this study, we investigated the effect of catechins, including EGCG, on collagen production and collagenase activity in rat primary HSCs and activated human HSC-derived TWNT-4 cells. EGCG (50 microM) suppressed type I collagen production in rat HSCs more than ECG (50 microM) did; however, EGC (50 microM) did not show suppressive effects. EGCG also inhibited both collagen production and collagenase activity (active matrix metalloproteinase-1 [MMP-1]) in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production in TWNT-4 cells. Real-time PCR unexpectedly revealed that EGCG enhanced the transcription of type I collagen and TIMP-1, but did not affect the transcription of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and reduced the transcription MMP-1 in TWNT-4 cells. These findings demonstrated that EGCG inhibited collagen production regardless of enhanced collagen transcription and suppressed collagenase activity, and suggested that EGCG might have therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis.

  12. CXCL12 induces hepatic stellate cell contraction through a calcium-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Saiman, Yedidya; Agarwal, Ritu; Hickman, DaShawn A; Fausther, Michel; El-Shamy, Ahmed; Dranoff, Jonathan A; Friedman, Scott L; Bansal, Meena B

    2013-09-01

    Liver fibrosis, with subsequent development of cirrhosis and ultimately portal hypertension, results in the death of patients with end-stage liver disease if liver transplantation is not performed. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), central mediators of liver fibrosis, resemble tissue pericytes and regulate intrahepatic blood flow by modulating pericapillary resistance. Therefore, HSCs can contribute to portal hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We have previously demonstrated that activated HSCs express functional chemokine receptor, CXCR4, and that receptor engagement by its ligand, CXCL12, which is increased in patients with CLD, leads to further stellate cell activation in a CXCR4-specific manner. We therefore hypothesized that CXCL12 promotes HSC contraction in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Stimulation of HSCs on collagen gel lattices with CXCL12 led to gel contraction and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which was blocked by addition of AMD3100, a CXCR4 small molecule inhibitor. These effects were further mediated by the Rho kinase pathway since both Rho kinase knockdown or Y-27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, blocked CXCL12 induced phosphorylation of MLC and gel contraction. BAPTA-AM, a calcium chelator, had no effect, indicating that this pathway is calcium sensitive but not calcium dependent. In conclusion, CXCL12 promotes stellate cell contractility in a predominantly calcium-independent fashion. Our data demonstrates a novel role of CXCL12 in stellate cell contraction and the availability of small molecule inhibitors of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis justifies further investigation into its potential as therapeutic target for portal hypertension.

  13. Dihydroartemisinin counteracts fibrotic portal hypertension via farnesoid X receptor-dependent inhibition of hepatic stellate cell contraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxuan; Lu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Feng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Yao, Shunyu; Zheng, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a frequent pathological symptom occurring especially in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Current paradigms indicate that inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and contraction is anticipated to be an attractive therapeutic strategy, because activated HSC dominantly facilitates an increase in intrahepatic vein pressure through secreting extracellular matrix and contracting. Our previous in vitro study indicated that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibited contractility of cultured HSC by activating intracellular farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, the effect of DHA on fibrosis-related portal hypertension still requires clarification. In this study, gain- and loss-of-function models of FXR in HSC were established to investigate the mechanisms underlying DHA protection against chronic CCl4 -caused hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. Immunofluorescence staining visually showed a decrease in FXR expression in CCl4 -administrated rat HSC but an increase in that in DHA-treated rat HSC. Serum diagnostics and morphological analyses consistently indicated that DHA exhibited hepatoprotective effects on CCl4 -induced liver injury. DHA also reduced CCl4 -caused inflammatory mediator expression and inflammatory cell infiltration. These improvements were further enhanced by INT-747 but weakened by Z-guggulsterone. Noteworthily, DHA, analogous to INT-747, significantly lowered portal vein pressure and suppressed fibrogenesis. Experiments on mice using FXR shRNA lentivirus consolidated the results above. Mechanistically, inhibition of HSC activation and contraction was found as a cellular basis for DHA to relieve portal hypertension. These findings demonstrated that DHA attenuated portal hypertension in fibrotic rodents possibly by targeting HSC contraction via a FXR activation-dependent mechanism. FXR could be a target molecule for reducing portal hypertension during hepatic fibrosis.

  14. Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Are Dependent on Self-collagen, Cleaved by Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase for Their Growth

    PubMed Central

    Birukawa, Naoko Kubo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akemi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishita, Hiroki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kajiwara, Keiko; Miyazaki, Miyono; Nakashima, Yusuke; Ota, Sigenori; Murakami, Yuya; Tanaka, Yasunobu; Minomi, Kenjiro; Tamura, Yasuaki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Stellate cells are distributed throughout organs, where, upon chronic damage, they become activated and proliferate to secrete collagen, which results in organ fibrosis. An intriguing property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is that they undergo apoptosis when collagen is resolved by stopping tissue damage or by treatment, even though the mechanisms are unknown. Here we disclose the fact that HSCs, normal diploid cells, acquired dependence on collagen for their growth during the transition from quiescent to active states. The intramolecular RGD motifs of collagen were exposed by cleavage with their own membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The following evidence supports this conclusion. When rat activated HSCs (aHSCs) were transduced with siRNA against the collagen-specific chaperone gp46 to inhibit collagen secretion, the cells underwent autophagy followed by apoptosis. Concomitantly, the growth of aHSCs was suppressed, whereas that of quiescent HSCs was not. These in vitro results are compatible with the in vivo observation that apoptosis of aHSCs was induced in cirrhotic livers of rats treated with siRNAgp46. siRNA against MT1-MMP and addition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), which mainly inhibits MT1-MMP, also significantly suppressed the growth of aHSCs in vitro. The RGD inhibitors echistatin and GRGDS peptide and siRNA against the RGD receptor αVβ1 resulted in the inhibition of aHSCs growth. Transduction of siRNAs against gp46, αVβ1, and MT1-MMP to aHSCs inhibited the survival signal of PI3K/AKT/IκB. These results could provide novel antifibrosis strategies. PMID:24867951

  15. Activated hepatic stellate cells are dependent on self-collagen, cleaved by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase for their growth.

    PubMed

    Birukawa, Naoko Kubo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akemi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishita, Hiroki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kajiwara, Keiko; Miyazaki, Miyono; Nakashima, Yusuke; Ota, Sigenori; Murakami, Yuya; Tanaka, Yasunobu; Minomi, Kenjiro; Tamura, Yasuaki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-07-18

    Stellate cells are distributed throughout organs, where, upon chronic damage, they become activated and proliferate to secrete collagen, which results in organ fibrosis. An intriguing property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is that they undergo apoptosis when collagen is resolved by stopping tissue damage or by treatment, even though the mechanisms are unknown. Here we disclose the fact that HSCs, normal diploid cells, acquired dependence on collagen for their growth during the transition from quiescent to active states. The intramolecular RGD motifs of collagen were exposed by cleavage with their own membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The following evidence supports this conclusion. When rat activated HSCs (aHSCs) were transduced with siRNA against the collagen-specific chaperone gp46 to inhibit collagen secretion, the cells underwent autophagy followed by apoptosis. Concomitantly, the growth of aHSCs was suppressed, whereas that of quiescent HSCs was not. These in vitro results are compatible with the in vivo observation that apoptosis of aHSCs was induced in cirrhotic livers of rats treated with siRNAgp46. siRNA against MT1-MMP and addition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), which mainly inhibits MT1-MMP, also significantly suppressed the growth of aHSCs in vitro. The RGD inhibitors echistatin and GRGDS peptide and siRNA against the RGD receptor αVβ1 resulted in the inhibition of aHSCs growth. Transduction of siRNAs against gp46, αVβ1, and MT1-MMP to aHSCs inhibited the survival signal of PI3K/AKT/IκB. These results could provide novel antifibrosis strategies.

  16. Resveratrol Regulates Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells by Modulating NF-κB and the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Quan; Sun, Peng; Jin, Quan; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lian, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether resveratrol could suppress the hepatic fibrogenesis in activated hepatic stellate cells. The immortalized rat hepatic stellate cells, t-HSC/Cl-6, were treated with resveratrol 1 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL). Resveratrol decreased t-HSC/Cl-6 cell viability at much lower concentrations within 24 h. Resveratrol pretreatment also decreased the LPS-induced protein expression of α-SMA and collagen I. In addition, resveratrol significantly reduced the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and the expression of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase B (Akt). Moreover, resveratrol markedly blocked the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in LPS-activated HSCs. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited HSCs activation through stimulating LXRβ, but did not influence LXRα. Overall, we conclude that the antifibrotic effect of resveratrol is the result of blocking NF-κB activation and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, which inhibits HSC activation to obstruct liver fibrosis. Thus, resveratrol may be a natural agent for preventing hepatic fibrosis.

  17. TRPM7 channel regulates PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via PI3K and ERK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ling Zhan, Shuxiang; Huang, Cheng; Cheng, Xi; Lv, Xiongwen; Si, Hongfang; Li, Jun

    2013-11-01

    TRPM7, a non-selective cation channel of the TRP channel superfamily, is implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cell proliferation. Recently, TRPM7 has been reported in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, we investigated the contribution role of TRPM7 in activated HSC-T6 cell (a rat hepatic stellate cell line) proliferation. TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot in rat model of liver fibrosis in vivo and PDGF-BB-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Both mRNA and protein of TRPM7 were dramatically increased in CCl{sub 4}-treated rat livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with PDGF-BB resulted in a time-dependent increase of TRPM7 mRNA and protein. However, PDGF-BB-induced HSC-T6 cell proliferation was inhibited by non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7, and this was accompanied by downregulation of cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1, PCNA and CDK4. Blockade of TRPM7 channels also attenuated PDGF-BB induced expression of myofibroblast markers as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, associated with cell proliferation, decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TRPM7 channels contribute to perpetuated fibroblast activation and proliferation of PDGF-BB induced HSC-T6 cells via the activation of ERK and PI3K pathways. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 mRNA and protein in the fibrotic livers from CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. • Increasing expression of TRPM7 mRNA and protein during HSC activation. • Blockade of TRPM7 inhibited the PDGF-BB induced proliferation of HSC-T6 cells. • Blockade of TRPM7 decreased α-SMA and Col1α1 expressions in activated HSC-T6 cells. • TRPM7 up-regulation contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.

  18. CD95/CD95L-mediated apoptosis of the hepatic stellate cell. A mechanism terminating uncontrolled hepatic stellate cell proliferation during hepatic tissue repair.

    PubMed Central

    Saile, B.; Knittel, T.; Matthes, N.; Schott, P.; Ramadori, G.

    1997-01-01

    During liver tissue repair, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), a pericyte-like mesenchymal liver cell population, transform from a "quiescent" status ("resting" HSC) into myofibroblast-like cells ("activated" HSC) with the latter representing the principle matrix synthesizing cell of the liver. Presently, the mechanisms that terminate HSC cell proliferation when tissue repair is concluded are poorly understood. Controlled cell death known as apoptosis could be a mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, apoptosis and its regulation were studied in HSC using an in vitro and in vivo approach. Spontaneous apoptosis became detectable in parallel with HSC activation because resting cells (2 days after isolation) displayed no sign of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was present in 8% (+/- 5%) of "transitional" cells (day 4) and in 18% (+/- 8%) of fully activated cells (day 7). Both CD95 (APO-1/Fas) and CD95L (APO-1-/Fas-ligand) became increasingly expressed during the course of activation. Apoptosis could be fully blocked by CD95-blocking antibodies in normal cells and HSC already entering the apoptotic cycle. Using CD95-activating antibodies, transition of more than 95% cells into apoptosis was evident at each activation step. The apoptosis-regulating proteins Bcl-2 and p53 could not be detected in resting cells but were found in increasing amounts at days 4 and 7 of cultivation. Whereas p53 expression was induced by the CD95-activating antibody, no change was inducible in Bcl-2 expression. The Bcl-2-related protein bax could be found at days 2 and 4 in similar expression, was considerably up-regulated at day 7, but was not regulated by CD95-agonistic antibodies. In vivo, acute tissue damage was first accompanied by activation and proliferation of HSC displaying no sign of apoptosis. In the recovery phase, apoptotic HSC were detectable in parallel to a reduction in the total number of HSC present in the liver tissue. The data demonstrate that apoptosis becomes detectable

  19. SIRT1 antagonizes liver fibrosis by blocking hepatic stellate cell activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Hong, Wenxuan; Hao, Chenzhi; Li, Luyang; Wu, Dongmei; Shen, Aiguo; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuanlin; Li, Ping; Xu, Yong

    2017-09-26

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a major source of fibrogenesis in the liver contributing to cirrhosis. When activated, HSCs transdifferentiate into myofibroblast and undergo profound functional alterations paralleling an overhaul of the transcriptome, the mechanism of which remains largely undefined. We investigated the involvement of the class III deacetylase sirtuin (silent information regulator 1, SIRT1) in HSC activation and liver fibrosis. SIRT1 levels were down-regulated in the livers in mouse models of liver fibrosis, in patients with cirrhosis, and in activated HSCs as opposed to quiescent HSCs. SIRT1 activation halted whereas SIRT1 inhibition promoted HSC trans-differentiation into myofibroblast. Liver fibrosis was exacerbated in mice with HSC-specific deletion of SIRT1 (conditional knockout, cKO), receiving CCl4 (1 mg/kg) injection or subjected to bile duct ligation, compared to wild-type littermates. SIRT1 regulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transcription by deacetylating enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in quiescent HSCs. Finally, EZH2 inhibition or PPARγ activation ameliorated fibrogenesis in cKO mice. In summary, our data suggest that SIRT1 plays an essential role guiding the transition of HSC phenotypes.-Li, M., Hong, W., Hao, C., Li, L., Wu, D., Shen, A., Lu, J., Zheng, Y., Li, P., Xu, Y. SIRT1 antagonizes liver fibrosis by blocking hepatic stellate cell activation in mice. © FASEB.

  20. Single cell analysis in native tissue: Quantification of the retinoid content of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Galler, Kerstin; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Glaser, Uwe; Markwart, Robby; Bocklitz, Thomas; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are retinoid storing cells in the liver: The retinoid content of those cells changes depending on nutrition and stress level. There are also differences with regard to a HSC’s anatomical position in the liver. Up to now, retinoid levels were only accessible from bulk measurements of tissue homogenates or cell extracts. Unfortunately, they do not account for the intercellular variability. Herein, Raman spectroscopy relying on excitation by the minimally destructive wavelength 785 nm is introduced for the assessment of the retinoid state of single HSCs in freshly isolated, unprocessed murine liver lobes. A quantitative estimation of the cellular retinoid content is derived. Implications of the retinoid content on hepatic health state are reported. The Raman-based results are integrated with histological assessments of the tissue samples. This spectroscopic approach enables single cell analysis regarding an important cellular feature in unharmed tissue. PMID:27063397

  1. Single cell analysis in native tissue: Quantification of the retinoid content of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Galler, Kerstin; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Glaser, Uwe; Markwart, Robby; Bocklitz, Thomas; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2016-04-11

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are retinoid storing cells in the liver: The retinoid content of those cells changes depending on nutrition and stress level. There are also differences with regard to a HSC's anatomical position in the liver. Up to now, retinoid levels were only accessible from bulk measurements of tissue homogenates or cell extracts. Unfortunately, they do not account for the intercellular variability. Herein, Raman spectroscopy relying on excitation by the minimally destructive wavelength 785 nm is introduced for the assessment of the retinoid state of single HSCs in freshly isolated, unprocessed murine liver lobes. A quantitative estimation of the cellular retinoid content is derived. Implications of the retinoid content on hepatic health state are reported. The Raman-based results are integrated with histological assessments of the tissue samples. This spectroscopic approach enables single cell analysis regarding an important cellular feature in unharmed tissue.

  2. Single cell analysis in native tissue: Quantification of the retinoid content of hepatic stellate cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galler, Kerstin; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Glaser, Uwe; Markwart, Robby; Bocklitz, Thomas; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are retinoid storing cells in the liver: The retinoid content of those cells changes depending on nutrition and stress level. There are also differences with regard to a HSC’s anatomical position in the liver. Up to now, retinoid levels were only accessible from bulk measurements of tissue homogenates or cell extracts. Unfortunately, they do not account for the intercellular variability. Herein, Raman spectroscopy relying on excitation by the minimally destructive wavelength 785 nm is introduced for the assessment of the retinoid state of single HSCs in freshly isolated, unprocessed murine liver lobes. A quantitative estimation of the cellular retinoid content is derived. Implications of the retinoid content on hepatic health state are reported. The Raman-based results are integrated with histological assessments of the tissue samples. This spectroscopic approach enables single cell analysis regarding an important cellular feature in unharmed tissue.

  3. Regulation of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Fibrogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function. Regulation of HSCs by the endocrine FGFs, namely, FGF15/19 and FGF21, has also recently been identified. With the ability to modulate HSC proliferation and transdifferentiation, targeting FGF signaling pathways constitutes a promising new therapeutic strategy to treat hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27699175

  4. Early activated hepatic stellate cell-derived molecules reverse acute hepatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ju; Song, Lu-Jun; Yi, Tuo; Shen, Kun-Tang; Wang, Hong-Shan; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Li, Min; Xu, Jian-Min; Niu, Wei-Xin; Qin, Xin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To test whether hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) at different activation stages play different roles in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury (ALI). METHODS: HSCs were isolated from mouse liver and cultured in vitro. Morphological changes of initiation HSCs [HSCs (5d)] and perpetuation HSCs [HSCs (p3)] were observed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The protective effects of HSC-derived molecules, cell lysates and HSC-conditioned medium (HSC-CM) were tested in vivo by survival and histopathological analyses. Liver injury was determined by measuring aminotransferase levels in the serum and by histologic examination of tissue sections under a light microscope. Additionally, to determine the molecular mediators of the observed protective effects of initiation HSCs, we examined HSC-CM using a high-density protein array. RESULTS: HSCs (5d) and HSCs (p3) had different morphological and phenotypic traits. HSCs (5d) presented a star-shaped appearance with expressing α-SMA at non-uniform levels between cells. However, HSCs (p3) evolved into myofibroblast-like cells without lipid droplets and expressed a uniform and higher level of α-SMA. HSC-CM (5d), but not HSC-CM (p3), provided a significant survival benefit and showed a dramatic reduction of hepatocellular necrosis and panlobular leukocyte infiltrates in mice exposed to APAP. However, this protective effect was abrogated at higher cell masses, indicating a therapeutic window of effectiveness. Furthermore, the protein array screen revealed that HSC-CM (5d) was composed of many chemokines and growth factors that correlated with inflammatory inhibition and therapeutic activity. When compared with HSC-CM (p3), higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1γ, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-10, and matrix metalloproteinase-2, but lower levels of stem cell factor and Fas-Ligand were observed in HSC-CM (5d). CONCLUSION: These data indicated

  5. Suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation by microRNA-29b

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, Yumiko; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Ikeda, Kazuo; Kawada, Norifumi

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Expression of miR-29b was found to be down-regulated during the activation of hepatic stellate cells in primary culture. {yields} Transfection of a miR-29b precursor markedly attenuated the expression of Col1a1 and Col1a2 mRNAs. {yields} It blunted the increased expression of {alpha}-SMA, DDR2, FN1, ITGB1, and PDGFR-b mRNAs essential for stellate cell activation. {yields} miR-29b overexpression led stellate cells to remain in a quiescent state, as evidenced by their star-like morphology. {yields} miR-29b overexpression suppressed the expression of c-fos mRNA. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the regulation of cellular functions including proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. It has been previously shown that the miR-29 family is involved in regulating type I collagen expression by interacting with the 3'UTR of its mRNA. Here, we investigated the roles of miR-29b in the activation of mouse primary-cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a principal collagen-producing cell in the liver. Expression of miR-29b was found to be down-regulated during HSC activation in primary culture. Transfection of a miR-29b precursor markedly attenuated the expression of Col1a1 and Col1a2 mRNAs and additionally blunted the increased expression of {alpha}-SMA, DDR2, FN1, ITGB1, and PDGFR-{beta}, which are key genes involved in the activation of HSCs. Further, overexpression of miR-29b led HSCs to remain in a quiescent state, as evidenced by their quiescent star-like cell morphology. Although phosphorylation of FAK, ERK, and Akt, and the mRNA expression of c-jun was unaffected, miR-29b overexpression suppressed the expression of c-fos mRNA. These results suggested that miR-29b is involved in the activation of HSCs and could be a candidate molecule for suppressing their activation and consequent liver fibrosis.

  6. Diallyl Trisulfide Suppresses Oxidative Stress-Induced Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells through Production of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Jin, Huanhuan; Wu, Li; Shao, Jiangjuan; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Anping; Zheng, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating data reveal that garlic has beneficial effects against chronic liver disease. We previously reported that diallyl trisulfide (DATS), the primary organosulfur compound in garlic, reduced fibrosis and attenuated oxidative stress in rat fibrotic liver. The present study was aimed at elucidating the underlying mechanisms. The primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were cultured and stimulated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for inducing HSC activation under oxidative stress. We examined the effects of DATS on the profibrogenic properties and oxidative stress in H2O2-treated HSCs. The results showed that DATS suppressed and reduced fibrotic marker expression in HSCs. DATS arrested cell cycle at G2/M checkpoint associated with downregulating cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1, induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, and reduced migration in HSCs. Moreover, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxide were decreased by DATS, but intracellular levels of glutathione were increased in HSCs. Furthermore, DATS significantly elevated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels within HSCs, but iodoacetamide (IAM) reduced H2S levels and significantly abrogated DATS production of H2S within HSCs. IAM also abolished all the inhibitory effects of DATS on the profibrogenic properties and oxidative stress in HSCs. Altogether, we demonstrated an H2S-associated mechanism underlying DATS inhibition of profibrogenic properties and alleviation of oxidative stress in HSCs. Modulation of H2S production may represent a therapeutic remedy for liver fibrosis.

  7. Diallyl Trisulfide Suppresses Oxidative Stress-Induced Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells through Production of Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Jin, Huanhuan; Wu, Li; Shao, Jiangjuan; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Anping

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating data reveal that garlic has beneficial effects against chronic liver disease. We previously reported that diallyl trisulfide (DATS), the primary organosulfur compound in garlic, reduced fibrosis and attenuated oxidative stress in rat fibrotic liver. The present study was aimed at elucidating the underlying mechanisms. The primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were cultured and stimulated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for inducing HSC activation under oxidative stress. We examined the effects of DATS on the profibrogenic properties and oxidative stress in H2O2-treated HSCs. The results showed that DATS suppressed and reduced fibrotic marker expression in HSCs. DATS arrested cell cycle at G2/M checkpoint associated with downregulating cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1, induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, and reduced migration in HSCs. Moreover, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxide were decreased by DATS, but intracellular levels of glutathione were increased in HSCs. Furthermore, DATS significantly elevated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels within HSCs, but iodoacetamide (IAM) reduced H2S levels and significantly abrogated DATS production of H2S within HSCs. IAM also abolished all the inhibitory effects of DATS on the profibrogenic properties and oxidative stress in HSCs. Altogether, we demonstrated an H2S-associated mechanism underlying DATS inhibition of profibrogenic properties and alleviation of oxidative stress in HSCs. Modulation of H2S production may represent a therapeutic remedy for liver fibrosis. PMID:28303169

  8. Corona-directed nucleic acid delivery into hepatic stellate cells for liver fibrosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengping; Wang, Chunming; Zha, Yinhe; Hu, Wei; Gao, Zhongfei; Zang, Yuhui; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng; Dong, Lei

    2015-03-24

    Strategies to modify nanoparticles with biological ligands for targeted drug delivery in vivo have been widely studied but met with limited clinical success. A possible reason is that, in the blood circulation, serum proteins could rapidly form a layer of protein "corona" on the vehicle surface, which might block the modified ligands and hamper their targeting functions. We speculate that strategies for drug delivery can be designed based upon elegant control of the corona formation on the vehicle surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate a retinol-conjugated polyetherimine (RcP) nanoparticle system that selectively recruited the retinol binding protein 4 (RBP) in its corona components. RBP was found to bind retinol, and direct the antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-laden RcP carrier to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which play essential roles in the progression of hepatic fibrosis. In both mouse fibrosis models, induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and bile duct ligation (BDL), respectively, the ASO-laden RcP particles effectively suppressed the expression of type I collagen (collagen I), and consequently ameliorated hepatic fibrosis. Such findings suggest that this delivery system, designed to exploit the power of corona proteins, can serve as a promising tool for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  9. Tricyclic Antidepressants Promote Ceramide Accumulation to Regulate Collagen Production in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jennifer Y.; Newcomb, Benjamin; Zhou, Chan; Pondick, Joshua V.; Ghoshal, Sarani; York, Samuel R.; Motola, Daniel L.; Coant, Nicolas; Yi, Jae Kyo; Mao, Cungui; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Bronova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Hannun, Yusuf; Chung, Raymond T.; Mullen, Alan C.

    2017-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in response to injury is a key step in hepatic fibrosis, and is characterized by trans-differentiation of quiescent HSCs to HSC myofibroblasts, which secrete extracellular matrix proteins responsible for the fibrotic scar. There are currently no therapies to directly inhibit hepatic fibrosis. We developed a small molecule screen to identify compounds that inactivate human HSC myofibroblasts through the quantification of lipid droplets. We screened 1600 compounds and identified 21 small molecules that induce HSC inactivation. Four hits were tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and they repressed expression of pro-fibrotic factors Alpha-Actin-2 (ACTA2) and Alpha-1 Type I Collagen (COL1A1) in HSCs. RNA sequencing implicated the sphingolipid pathway as a target of the TCAs. Indeed, TCA treatment of HSCs promoted accumulation of ceramide through inhibition of acid ceramidase (aCDase). Depletion of aCDase also promoted accumulation of ceramide and was associated with reduced COL1A1 expression. Treatment with B13, an inhibitor of aCDase, reproduced the antifibrotic phenotype as did the addition of exogenous ceramide. Our results show that detection of lipid droplets provides a robust readout to screen for regulators of hepatic fibrosis and have identified a novel antifibrotic role for ceramide. PMID:28322247

  10. Adoptive transfer of hepatic stellate cells ameliorates liver ischemia reperfusion injury through enriching regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Guan, Wenxian; Lu, Ling

    2014-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that adoptive transferred regulatory T cells (Tregs) attenuated liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Recent studies demonstrated that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were producers of induced Tregs (iTregs) via retinoic acid. This study aimed to investigate the role of adoptive transferred HSCs in liver IRI. Mice were treated with gradient doses of HSCs before surgery at 24h or 72h. The levels of serum aminotransferases and hepatic cytokines were evaluated after reperfusion. Meanwhile, hepatic Tregs and their subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that adoptive transferred HSCs attenuated liver IRI. Administration of HSCs expanded the number of hepatic iTregs and natural Tregs (nTregs) after reperfusion. In addition, we found that the increased Tregs were almost Helios-Tregs before surgery. These Helios-Tregs were considered as iTregs and protected liver from IRI partially. Furthermore, adoptive transferred HSCs stabilized nTregs and prevented nTregs from reducing after reperfusion. These nTregs also attenuated liver IRI partially. Depletion of Tregs abolished the protective effect of HSCs. Thus, we conclude that adoptive transferred HSCs ameliorate liver IRI in Tregs-dependent manner.

  11. Oleoylethanolamide, an endogenous PPAR-α ligand, attenuates liver fibrosis targeting hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Li, Long; Chen, Junde; Li, Lei; Zheng, Zihan; Ren, Jie; Qiu, Yan

    2015-12-15

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endocannabinoid-like molecule, was revealed to modulate lipid metabolism through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) mediated mechanism. In present study, we further investigated the activities and mechanisms of OEA in ameliorating hepatic fibrosis in Sv/129 mice induced by a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet or thioacetamide (TAA) treatment. Liver fibrosis development was assessed by Hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius red staining. Treatment with OEA (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) significantly attenuated the progress of liver fibrosis in both two experimental animal models by blocking the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Gene expression analysis of hepatic tissues indicated that OEA inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle action (α-SMA) and collagen matrix, fibrosis markers, and genes involved in inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. In vitro studies showed that OEA inhibited transforming growth factor β1-stimulated HSCs activation through suppressing Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA expression and myofibroblast transformation. These improvements could not be observed in PPAR-α knockout mice models with OEA administration, which suggested all the anti-fibrotic effects of OEA in vivo and in vitro were mediated by PPAR-α activation. Collectively, our results suggested that OEA exerted a pharmacological effect on modulating hepatic fibrosis development through the inhibition of HSCs activation in liver and therefore may be a potential therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis.

  12. Oleoylethanolamide, an endogenous PPAR-α ligand, attenuates liver fibrosis targeting hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junde; Li, Lei; Zheng, Zihan; Ren, Jie; Qiu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endocannabinoid-like molecule, was revealed to modulate lipid metabolism through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) mediated mechanism. In present study, we further investigated the activities and mechanisms of OEA in ameliorating hepatic fibrosis in Sv/129 mice induced by a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet or thioacetamide (TAA) treatment. Liver fibrosis development was assessed by Hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius red staining. Treatment with OEA (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) significantly attenuated the progress of liver fibrosis in both two experimental animal models by blocking the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Gene expression analysis of hepatic tissues indicated that OEA inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle action (α-SMA) and collagen matrix, fibrosis markers, and genes involved in inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. In vitro studies showed that OEA inhibited transforming growth factor β1-stimulated HSCs activation through suppressing Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA expression and myofibroblast transformation. These improvements could not be observed in PPAR-α knockout mice models with OEA administration, which suggested all the anti-fibrotic effects of OEA in vivo and in vitro were mediated by PPAR-α activation. Collectively, our results suggested that OEA exerted a pharmacological effect on modulating hepatic fibrosis development through the inhibition of HSCs activation in liver and therefore may be a potential therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis. PMID:26729705

  13. The let-7/Lin28 axis regulates activation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Kelly; Huang, Li; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Ramos-Lorenzo, Sugeily; Wan, Ying; Huang, Qiaobing; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2017-07-07

    The let-7/Lin28 axis is associated with the regulation of key cellular regulatory genes known as microRNAs in various human disorders and cancer development. This study evaluated the role of the let-7/Lin28 axis in regulating a mesenchymal phenotype of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury. We identified that ethanol feeding significantly down-regulated several members of the let-7 family in mouse liver, including let-7a and let-7b. Similarly, the treatment of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly decreased the expressions of let-7a and let-7b. Conversely, overexpression of let-7a and let-7b suppressed the myofibroblastic activation of cultured human HSCs induced by LPS and TGF-β, as evidenced by repressed ACTA2 (α-actin 2), COL1A1 (collagen 1A1), TIMP1 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1), and FN1 (fibronectin 1); this supports the notion that HSC activation is controlled by let-7. A combination of bioinformatics, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot analysis revealed that Lin28B and high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA2) were the direct targets of let-7a and let-7b. Furthermore, Lin28B deficiency increased the expression of let-7a/let-7b as well as reduced HSC activation and liver fibrosis in mice with alcoholic liver injury. This feedback regulation of let-7 by Lin28B is verified in hepatic stellate cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the model. The identification of the let-7/Lin28 axis as an important regulator of HSC activation as well as its upstream modulators and down-stream targets will provide insights into the involvement of altered microRNA expression in contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver fibrosis and novel therapeutic approaches for human alcoholic liver diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Stiffening hydrogels for investigating the dynamics of hepatic stellate cell mechanotransduction during myofibroblast activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliari, Steven R.; Perepelyuk, Maryna; Cosgrove, Brian D.; Tsai, Shannon J.; Lee, Gi Yun; Mauck, Robert L.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2016-02-01

    Tissue fibrosis contributes to nearly half of all deaths in the developed world and is characterized by progressive matrix stiffening. Despite this, nearly all in vitro disease models are mechanically static. Here, we used visible light-mediated stiffening hydrogels to investigate cell mechanotransduction in a disease-relevant system. Primary hepatic stellate cell-seeded hydrogels stiffened in situ at later time points (following a recovery phase post-isolation) displayed accelerated signaling kinetics of both early (Yes-associated protein/Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, YAP/TAZ) and late (alpha-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) markers of myofibroblast differentiation, resulting in a time course similar to observed in vivo activation dynamics. We further validated this system by showing that α-SMA inhibition following substrate stiffening resulted in attenuated stellate cell activation, with reduced YAP/TAZ nuclear shuttling and traction force generation. Together, these data suggest that stiffening hydrogels may be more faithful models for studying myofibroblast activation than static substrates and could inform the development of disease therapeutics.

  15. Hepatic Stellate Cells Alter Liver Immune Environment to Promote Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer, accounting for up to 90 percent of cases, and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide according to the World Health Organization’s 2014 World Cancer Report. Even when caught early, HCC often recurs, either from intra-liver metastases or new primary tumors, and recurrence is the leading cause of death for patients with HCC. The liver microenvironment is an important contributor to HCC initiation and progression and also likely plays a role in tumor recurrence. Xin Wei Wang, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, and his colleagues wondered whether activated hepatic stellate cells (A-HSCs), stromal cells in the liver known to participate in repair following injury and in the development of fibrosis, contribute directly to HCC recurrence.

  16. Hepatic stellate cells and astrocytes: Stars of scar formation and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Schachtrup, Christian; Le Moan, Natacha; Passino, Melissa A; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2011-06-01

    Scar formation inhibits tissue repair and regeneration in the liver and central nervous system. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) after liver injury or of astrocytes after nervous system damage is considered to drive scar formation. HSCs are the fibrotic cells of the liver, as they undergo activation and acquire fibrogenic properties after liver injury. HSC activation has been compared to reactive gliosis of astrocytes, which acquire a reactive phenotype and contribute to scar formation after nervous system injury, much like HSCs after liver injury. It is intriguing that a wide range of neuroglia-related molecules are expressed by HSCs. We identified an unexpected role for the p75 neurotrophin receptor in regulating HSC activation and liver repair. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC activation and reactive gliosis and their contributions to scar formation and tissue repair. Juxtaposing key mechanistic and functional similarities in HSC and astrocyte activation might provide novel insight into liver regeneration and nervous system repair.

  17. Hedgehog-mediated paracrine interaction between hepatic stellate cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Nan Tang Zhaofeng; Deng Meihai; Zhong Yuesi; Lin Jizong; Yang Xuhui; Xiang Peng; Xu Ruiyun

    2008-07-18

    During liver injury, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate and differentiate into hepatocytes. Hepatic stellate cell (SC) activation is a pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that SCs may play an important role in regulating MSC proliferation and differentiation through the paracrine signaling pathway. We demonstrate that MSCs and SCs both express hedgehog (Hh) pathway components, including its ligands, receptors, and target genes. Transwell co-cultures of SCs and MSCs showed that the SCs produced sonic hedgehog (Shh), which enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. These findings demonstrate that SCs indirectly modulate the activity of MSCs in vitro via the Hh pathway, and provide a plausible explanation for the mechanisms of transplanted MSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  18. Fate tracing reveals hepatic stellate cells as dominant contributors to liver fibrosis independent of its aetiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Hsu, Christine C.; Troeger, Juliane S.; Huebener, Peter; Mu, Xueru; Dapito, Dianne H.; Pradere, Jean-Philippe; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2013-11-01

    Although organ fibrosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in chronic diseases, the lack of detailed knowledge about specific cellular contributors mediating fibrogenesis hampers the design of effective antifibrotic therapies. Different cellular sources, including tissue-resident and bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, pericytes and epithelial cells, have been suggested to give rise to myofibroblasts, but their relative contributions remain controversial, with profound differences between organs and different diseases. Here we employ a novel Cre-transgenic mouse that marks 99% of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a liver-specific pericyte population, to demonstrate that HSCs give rise to 82-96% of myofibroblasts in models of toxic, cholestatic and fatty liver disease. Moreover, we exclude that HSCs function as facultative epithelial progenitor cells in the injured liver. On the basis these findings, HSCs should be considered the primary cellular target for antifibrotic therapies across all types of liver disease.

  19. Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: A possible molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia; Zhao, Juhui; Dong, Lei

    2011-01-10

    Neferine is a major alkaloid component of "Lian Zi Xin", embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner, Nymphaeaceae. Previous studies have shown that neferine has an inhibitory effect on pulmonary fibrosis through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities and inhibition of cytokines and NF-κB. However, it is unknown whether neferine also has an inhibitory effect on liver fibrosis through inhibition of TGF-β1 and collagen I and facilitation of apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. This study examined the effects of neferine on cultured hepatic stellate (HSC-T6) cells and explored its possible action mechanisms by means of MTT assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow-cytometric annexin V-PI assay and Hoechst 33258 staining, as well as real-time PCR and western blotting. The results showed that neferine administration (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10μmol/l) significantly decreased the TGF-β1 and collagen I produced in HSC-T6 cells, and increased the HSC-T6 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Neferine treatment for 48h at concentrations of 6 and 10μmol/l significantly increased Bax and caspase 3 mRNAs and proteins, and reduced Bcl2 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNAs and proteins. Our data indicate that neferine efficiently inhibits cultured HSC-T6 cell activation and induces apoptosis by increasing Bax and caspase 3 expression via the mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tubulin alpha 8 is expressed in hepatic stellate cells and is induced in transformed hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Zimny, Sebastian; Neumann, Maximilian; Eisinger, Kristina; Weiss, Thomas S; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) is highly abundant in murine liver tumors suggesting a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a risk factor for HCC. In mice that are fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet for two weeks to induce advanced murine NASH, we do see increased hepatic levels of TUBA8 protein. In animals given a high-fat diet for 14 weeks or an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks, hepatic TUBA8 is unchanged. TUBA8 is highly expressed in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and co-localizes with the HSC marker desmin in the murine liver. Inflammatory (TNF, LPS, IL-6) and profibrotic mediators (TGF-beta) do not regulate TUBA8 in HepG2 cells, primary HSC and the HSC cell line LX-2, when stimulated for 24 h. Agonists of the farnesoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, which are nuclear receptors involved in NASH and HCC pathophysiology, have no effect on TUBA8 in HepG2 and LX-2 cells. In human HCC tissues of 18 patients TUBA8 is significantly upregulated when compared to the corresponding non-tumorous tissues. Compared to non-transformed hepatocytes, TUBA8 protein is strongly expressed in transformed cells. Thus, TUBA8 is a marker of HSC whose cell number is increased in NASH, while higher levels in HCC may be related to induction of TUBA8 in parenchymal cells.

  1. Antrodia cinnamomea profoundly exalted the reversion of activated hepatic stellate cells by the alteration of cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ren; Chang, Kai-Ting; Tsai, May-Jywan; Lee, Chia-Hung; Huang, Kao-Jean; Cheng, Henrich; Ho, Yen-Peng; Chen, Jian-Chyi; Yang, Hsueh-Hui; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-07-01

    The direct modulation of Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) on the prominent role of liver fibrosis-hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in situ remains unclear. Firstly, the administration of A. cinnamomea mycelial extract (ACME) could improve liver morphology and histological changes including collagen formation and GPT activity in the liver of thioacetamide (TAA)-injured rats. The morphology and fatty acid restore of TAA-induced HSCs (THSCs) returned to the non-chemical induced HSCs (NHSCs) type as measured by immunofluorescence and Oil Red O staining. PPARγ was upregulated associated with the lowering of α-SMA protein in NHSC-ACME. ACME inhibited the MMP-2 activity in NHSCs by gelatin Zymography. After LC-MS/MS, the cytoskeleton (tubulin, lamin A) and heat shock protein 8 in NHSC-ACME, and guanylate kinase, brain-specific kinase, SG-II and p55 proteins were downregulated in THSC-ACME. Whereas MHC class II, SMC6 protein, and phospholipase D were upregulated in NHSC-ACME. Furthermore, PKG-1 was downregulated in NHSC-ACME and upregulated in THSC-ACME. SG-II and p55 proteins were downregulated in NHSC-ACME and THSC-ACME by Western blotting. Taken together, the beneficial effect of A. cinnamomea on the induction of HSC cellular proteins is potentially applied as an alternative and complementary medicine for the prevention and amelioration of a liver injury.

  2. Human T cell microparticles circulate in blood of hepatitis patients and induce fibrolytic activation of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Kornek, Miroslaw; Popov, Yury; Libermann, Towia A.; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Schuppan, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Microparticles (MP) are small cell membrane vesicles which are released from cells during apoptosis or activation. While circulating platelet MP have been studied in some detail, the existence and functional role of T cell MP remain elusive. We show that blood from patients with active hepatitis C (ALT>100 IU/ml) contains elevated numbers of T cell MP compared to patients with mild hepatitis C (ALT<40 IU/ml) and healthy controls. T cell MP fuse with cell membranes of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the major effector cells for excess matrix deposition in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. MP uptake is partly ICAM-1 dependent and leads to activation of NFkB and ERK1/2 and subsequent upregulation of fibrolytic genes in HSC, to downregulation of procollagen α1(I) mRNA, and blunting of profibrogenic activities of TGFβ1. Ex vivo the induced fibrolytic activity is evident in MP derived from activated CD4+ T cells, and highest with MP from activated and apoptotic CD8+ T cells. Mass spectrometry, FACS analysis and function blocking antibodies revealed CD147/Emmprin as candidate transmembrane molecule in HSC fibrolytic activation by CD8+ T cell MP. We conclude that 1) circulating T cell MP are a novel diagnostic marker for inflammatory liver diseases, and 2) in vivo induction of T cell MP may be a novel strategy to induce regression of liver fibrosis. PMID:20979056

  3. Nanoscale hepatoprotective herbal decoction attenuates hepatic stellate cell activity and chloroform-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sherry; Chang, Shu-Jen; Yang, Miffy; Chen, Justin Jin-Ching; Chang, Walter H

    2011-01-01

    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT) decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine containing Rhei rhizome, Coptidis rhizome, and Scutellariae radix, is widely used in hepatoprotective therapy. However, preparation of the decoction requires addition of boiling water that causes loss of numerous effective components. To improve the bioavailability of the decoction, nanoscale SHXXT was developed. Chloroform-induced liver injury and hepatic stellate cell activity in mice were used to demonstrate the hepatoprotective characteristics of nanoscale SHXXT decoction. Liver/body weight ratio and serum aspartate and alanine aminotranferase levels were recovered by the nanoscale SHXXT. TIMP-1 gene expression was inhibited and MMP-2 gene expression was accelerated in activated hepatic stellate cells. Nanoscale SHXXT decoction prepared in room temperature water could have preserved hepatoprotective ability. The results of this study indicate that nanoscale SHXXT could be extracted easily. The simple preparation of this herbal decoction is more convenient and energy-efficient.

  4. Hop bitter acids exhibit anti-fibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saugspier, Michael; Dorn, Christoph; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Gehrig, Manfred; Heilmann, Jörg; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Female inflorescences of the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. contain a variety of secondary metabolites with bitter acids (BA) as quantitatively dominating secondary metabolites. The use of hops in beer brewing has a long history due to the antibacterial effects of the BA and their typical bitter taste. Furthermore, hop cones are used in traditional medicine and for pharmaceutical purposes. Recent studies indicate that BA may affect activity of the transcription factor NFκB. NFκB plays a key role in the activation process of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which is the key event of hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BA on HSC (activation) and their potential to inhibit molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. HSC were isolated from murine and human liver tissue and incubated with a characterized fraction of bitter acids purified from a CO(2) hop extract. At a concentration of 25μg/ml BA started to induce LDH leakage. Already at lower concentrations BA lead to a dose dependent inhibition of HSC proliferation and inhibited IκB-α-phosphorylation, nuclear p65 translocation and binding activity in a dose dependent way (up to 10μg/ml). Accordingly, the same BA-doses inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and NFκB regulated genes as MCP-1 and RANTES, but did not affect expression of genes not related to NFκB signaling. In addition to the effect on activated HSC, BA inhibited the in vitro activation process of freshly isolated HSC as evidenced by delayed expression of collagen I and α-SMA mRNA and protein. Together, these findings indicate that BA inhibit NFκB activation, and herewith the activation and development of profibrogenic phenotype of HSC. Thus, bitter acids appear as potential functional nutrients for the prevention or treatment hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

  5. Effect of melanoma cells on proliferation and migration of activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Theresa; Koch, Andreas; Ebert, Eva-Vanessa; Czech, Barbara; Mueller, Martina; Bosserhoff, Anja; Lang, Sven Arke; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2017-04-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor of the skin. The clinical outcome is determined by the presence or absence of metastases, and the liver is a common site of distant metastases. Hepatic metastasis is causing activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which form the stroma of hepatic metastases and are increasingly recognized as a crucial component of the pro- metastatic liver microenvironment. Most studies have focused on the effects of HSC on (metastasizing) tumor cells. Here, we aimed to analyze functional in vitro effects of conditioned medium (CM) of twelve different human melanoma cell lines on LX2 cells and HSC(htert) cells, two well established human activated HSC cell lines. CM from melanoma cells significantly induced HSC proliferation and acted as chemoattractant for HSC in Boyden chamber assays. The CM effects significantly varied between different HSC as well as melanoma cells. Interestingly, CM from melanoma cell lines derived from melanoma metastases (WM239A, WM9, WM1158, WM1232, 451Lu and 1205Lu) had a stronger effect on proliferation of HSC(htert) cells than CM derived from primary melanoma tumors (SbCl2, WM3211, WM35, WM278, WM1366 and WM793). Moreover, we observed a significant correlation between the chemoattractive effects of CM from the different melanoma cells on HSC(htert) and LX2 cells. In contrast, the melanoma CM effects on the proliferation of the two HSC lines did not show a significant correlation. In summary, our data indicate that melanoma cells metastasizing to the liver have the potential to attract HSC and to induce HSC proliferation, respectively. Still, it appears that melanoma effects on HSC migration and proliferation are mediated via different soluble factors indicating the complexity of melanoma-HSC interaction. Furthermore, the intensity of at least some functional effects varies between different human tumor cells and HSC which may point to mechanisms explaining diverse hepatic metastasis in melanoma patients

  6. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  7. Possible Involvement of Hepatitis B Virus Infection of Hepatocytes in the Attenuation of Apoptosis in Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Haga, Yuki; Wu, Shuang; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background The induction of apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy against hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatic fibrosis. The underlying mechanisms of apoptosis in HSCs, however, are unknown under consideration of HBV infection. In this study, the effects of HBV on apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling in HSCs were examined. Methods The effects of conditioned media (CM) from HepG2.2.15 on apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in LX-2 and HHSteC were studied in regard to c-Jun. In combination with c-Fos, c-Jun forms the AP-1 early response transcription factor, leading to AP-1 activation, signal transduction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. Results In LX-2 cells, MG132 treatment was associated with the phosphorylation of c-Jun, activation of AP-1 and apoptosis. However, in the presence of CM from HepG2.2.15, these phenomena were attenuated. In HHSteC cells, similar results were observed. HBV genomic DNA is not involved in the process of HSC apoptosis. It is possible that HBeAg has an inhibitory effect on MG132-induced apoptosis in LX-2. We also observed the upregulation of several ER stress-associated genes, such as cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3, inhibin-beta A and solute carrier family 17-member 2, in the presence of CM from HepG2.2.15, or CM from PXB cells infected with HBV. Conclusions HBV inhibits the activation of c-Jun/AP-1 in HSCs, contributing to the attenuation of apoptosis and resulting in hepatic fibrosis. HBV also up-regulated several ER stress genes associated with cell growth and fibrosis. These mechanistic insights might shed new light on a treatment strategy for HBV-associated hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26731332

  8. Activation of PPARγ/P53 signaling is required for curcumin to induce hepatic stellate cell senescence

    PubMed Central

    Jin, H; Lian, N; Zhang, F; Chen, L; Chen, Q; Lu, C; Bian, M; Shao, J; Wu, L; Zheng, S

    2016-01-01

    Activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the major event in hepatic fibrogenesis, along with enhancement of cell proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix. Although inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis are potential strategies to block the activation of HSCs, a better understanding of the senescence of activated HSCs can provide a new therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. The antioxidant curcumin, a phytochemical from turmeric, has been shown to suppress HSC activation in vitro and in vivo. The current work was aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin on senescence of activated HSCs and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this study, curcumin promoted the expression of senescence marker Hmga1 in rat fibrotic liver. In addition, curcumin increased the number of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive HSCs in vitro. At the same time, curcumin induced HSC senescence by elevating the expression of senescence markers P16, P21 and Hmga1, concomitant with reduced abundance of HSC activation markers α-smooth muscle actin and α1(I)-procollagen in cultured HSCs. Moreover, curcumin affected the cell cycle and telomerase activity. We further demonstrated that P53 pharmacological inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) or transfection with P53 siRNA abrogated the curcumin-induced HSC senescence in vitro. Meanwhile, curcumin disruption of P53 leading to increased senescence of activated HSCs was further verified in vivo. Further studies indicated that curcumin promoted the expression of P53 through a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. Moreover, promoting PPARγ transactivating activity by a PPARγ agonist 15d-PGJ2 markedly enhanced curcumin induction of senescence of activated HSCs. However, the PPARγ antagonist PD68235 eliminated curcumin induction of HSC senescence. Taken together, our results provided a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying curcumin inhibition of HSC

  9. Interleukin-1 as an Injury Signal Mobilizes Retinyl Esters in Hepatic Stellate Cells through Down Regulation of Lecithin Retinol Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Yujiro; Xia, Zanxian; Zheng, Sujun; Mordwinkin, Nicholas M.; Louie, Stan G.; Zheng, Song Guo; Feng, Min; Shi, Hongbo; Duan, Zhongping; Han, Yuan-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids are mostly stored as retinyl esters in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) through esterification of retinol and fatty acid, catalyzed by lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). This study is designated to address how retinyl esters are mobilized in liver injury for tissue repair and wound healing. Initially, we speculated that acute inflammatory cytokines may act as injury signal to mobilize retinyl esters by down-regulation of LRAT in HSCs. By examining a panel of cytokines we found interleukin-1 (IL-1) can potently down-regulate mRNA and protein levels of LRAT, resulting in mobilization of retinyl esters in primary rat HSCs. To simulate the microenvironment in the space of Disse, HSCs were embedded in three-dimensional extracellular matrix, by which HSCs retaine quiescent phenotypes, indicated by up-regulation of LRAT and accumulation of lipid droplets. Upon IL-1 stimulation, LRAT expression went down together with mobilization of lipid droplets. Secreted factors from Kupffer cells were able to suppress LRAT expression in HSCs, which was neutralized by IL-1 receptor antagonist. To explore the underlying mechanism we noted that the stability of LRAT protein is not significantly regulated by IL-1, indicating the regulation is likely at transcriptional level. Indeed, we found that IL-1 failed to down-regulate recombinant LRAT protein expressed in HSCs by adenovirus, while transcription of endogenous LRAT was promptly decreased. Following liver damage, IL-1 was promptly elevated in a close pace with down-regulation of LRAT transcription, implying their causative relationship. After administration of IL-1, retinyl ester levels in the liver, as measured by LC/MS/MS, decreased in association with down-regulation of LRAT. Likewise, IL-1 receptor knockout mice were protected from injury-induced down-regulation of LRAT. In summary, we identified IL-1 as an injury signal to mobilize retinyl ester in HSCs through down-regulation of LRAT, implying a mechanism governing

  10. Liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells: Etiology, pathological hallmarks and therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chong-Yang; Yuan, Wei-Gang; He, Pei; Lei, Jia-Hui; Wang, Chun-Xu

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing process aimed at maintaining organ integrity, and presents as the critical pre-stage of liver cirrhosis, which will eventually progress to hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of liver transplantation. Fibrosis generally results from chronic hepatic injury caused by various factors, mainly viral infection, schistosomiasis, and alcoholism; however, the exact pathological mechanisms are still unknown. Although numerous drugs have been shown to have antifibrotic activity in vitro and in animal models, none of these drugs have been shown to be efficacious in the clinic. Importantly, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the initiation, progression, and regression of liver fibrosis by secreting fibrogenic factors that encourage portal fibrocytes, fibroblasts, and bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts to produce collagen and thereby propagate fibrosis. These cells are subject to intricate cross-talk with adjacent cells, resulting in scarring and subsequent liver damage. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis and their relationships with HSCs is essential for the discovery of new therapeutic targets. This comprehensive review outlines the role of HSCs in liver fibrosis and details novel strategies to suppress HSC activity, thereby providing new insights into potential treatments for liver fibrosis. PMID:28082803

  11. Upregulation of SIRT1-AMPK by thymoquinone in hepatic stellate cells ameliorates liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Bai, Ting; Yao, You-Li; Zhang, De-Quan; Wu, Yan-Ling; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2016-11-16

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a biologically active compound isolated from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Ranuculaceae). This study investigated the hepato-protective effect of TQ on liver injury through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In vitro, TGF-β time-dependently attenuated liver kinase B-1 (LKB1) and AMPK phosphorylation, which were blocked by pretreatment with TQ and AICAR (an activator of AMPK). TQ significantly inhibited collagen-Ι, α-SMA, TIMP-1 and enhanced MMP-13 expression, contributing to prevent TGF-β-induced human HSCs activation. Moreover, TQ induced peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression, which was inhibited by genetic deletion of AMPK. In vivo, C57BL/6 mice were fed with ethanol diet for 10 days, then administering a single dose of ethanol (5g/kg body weight) via gavage. TQ (20 or 40mg/kg) were given by gavage every day. TQ attenuated the increases in serum aminotransferase and hepatic triglyceride in mice fed with ethanol, while significantly activated LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, TQ enhanced the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AMPK pathway is a key therapeutic target for controlling liver injury and TQ confers hepato-protection against TGF-β-induced the activation of HSCs and ethanol-induced liver injury.

  12. Hepatic Stellate Cells Preferentially Induce Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells by Production of Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Richard M.; Thapa, Manoj; Velazquez, Victoria M.; Elrod, Elizabeth J.; Denning, Timothy L.; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    The liver has long been described as immunosuppressive, although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are incompletely understood. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a population of liver nonparenchymal cells, are potent producers of the regulatory T cell (Treg)–polarizing molecules TGF-β1 and all-trans retinoic acid, particularly during states of inflammation. HSCs are activated during hepatitis C virus infection and may therefore play a role in the enrichment of Tregs during infection. We hypothesized that Ag presentation in the context of HSC activation will induce naive T cells to differentiate into Foxp3+ Tregs. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the molecular interactions between murine HSCs, dendritic cells, and naive CD4+ T cells. We found that HSCs alone do not present Ag to naive CD4+ T cells, but in the presence of dendritic cells and TGF-β1, preferentially induce functional Tregs. This Treg induction was associated with retinoid metabolism by HSCs and was dependent on all-trans retinoic acid. Thus, we conclude that HSCs preferentially generate Foxp3+ Tregs and, therefore, may play a role in the tolerogenic nature of the liver. PMID:23359509

  13. Bone Marrow Stem Cells Anti-liver Fibrosis Potency: Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cells Activity and Extracellular Matrix Deposition.

    PubMed

    Sitanggang, Ervina Julien; Antarianto, Radiana Dhewayani; Jusman, Sri Widia A; Pawitan, Jeanne Adiwinata; Jusuf, Ahmad Aulia

    2017-05-30

    Transplantation of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) has been reported inhibits liver fibrosis. Several in vitro studies by co-culturing BMSCs and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) indirectly or directly in 2D models showed inhibition of HSC as the key player in liver fibrosis. In this study, we investigated direct effect of BMSCs on HSCs by co-culturing BMSCs and HSCs in 3D model as it represents the liver microenvironment with intricate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Primary isolated rat HSCs and BMSCs were directly co-cultured at 1:1 ratio with hanging drop method. The monoculture of rat HSCs served as positive control. Mono-culture and co-culture samples were harvested on day 3, 5 and 7 for histological analysis. The samples were analyzed for extracellular matrix deposition by Masson's Trichrome staining, tenascin-C immunocytochemistry, resting HSC's state as shown by positive Oil Red O stained cells. Our results indicated CD90(+)CD34(-) BMSCs anti-liver fibrosis potency as evidenced by higher proportion of Oil Red O-positive cells in the co-culture group compared to the monoculture group and the significant decrease in extracellular matrix deposition as well as the decrease in tenascin-C expression in the co-culture group (p<0.05) compared to the monoculture group. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs have a potential therapeutic effect against liver fibrotic process through their capacity to inhibit HSCs activation and their effect in minimizing extracellular matrix deposition.

  14. Wedelolactone exhibits anti-fibrotic effects on human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yanzhe; Chen, Jie; Cao, Yuan; Xu, Chenshu; Li, Ruiming; Pan, Yuhua; Chen, Xiao

    2013-08-15

    Wedelolactone is a major coumarin of Eclipta prostrata, which is used for preventing liver damage. However the effects of wedelolactone on hepatic fibrosis remained unexplored. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the anti-fibrotic effects of wedelolactone on activated human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX-2 and the possible underlying mechanisms by means of MTT assay, Hoechst staining, as well as real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The results showed that wedelolactone reduced the cellular viability of LX-2 in a time and dose-dependent manner. After treatment of wedelolactone, the expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin, two biomarkers of LX-2 activation, were remarkably decreased. The apoptosis of LX-2 cells was induced by wedelolactone accompanied with the decreasing expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and increasing expression of pro-apoptotic Bax. In addition, phosphorylated status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was up-regulated, but not in p38. Moreover, wedelolactone significantly repressed the level of phosphorylated inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (IκB) and p65 in nucleus in spite of tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation. In conclusion, wedelolactone could significantly inhibit the activation of LX-2 cells, the underlying mechanisms of which included inducing Bcl-2 family involved apoptosis, up-regulating phosphorylated status of ERK and JNK expressions, and inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) mediated activity. Wedelolactone might present as a useful tool for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human hepatic stellate cells treated with natural taurine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Wu, Fa-Sheng; Tang, Yan-Fang

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of genes and proteins between natural taurine (NTau)‑treated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and control cells as well as the underlying mechanism of NTau in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis. A microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to analyze the proliferation of NTau‑treated HSCs. Flow cytometry was performed to compare the apoptosis rate between NTau-treated and non‑treated HSCs. Proteomic analysis using a combination of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was conducted to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate the differential expression of genes and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to validate the results. The experimental findings obtained demonstrated that NTau decreased HSC proliferation, resulting in an increased number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and a reduced number of cells in the S phase. Flow cytometric analysis showed that NTau-treated HSCs had a significantly increased rate of apoptosis when compared with the non‑treated control group. A total of 15 differentially expressed proteins and 658 differentially expressed genes were identified by 2DE and MS, and microarray analysis, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) functional analysis indicated that these genes and proteins were enriched in the function clusters and pathways related to cell proliferation, cellular apoptosis and oxidation. The transcriptome and proteome analyses of NTau-treated HSCs demonstrated that NTau is able to significantly inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis, highlighting its potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  16. Succinate causes α-SMA production through GPR91 activation in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying Hui; Woo, Sung Hoon; Choi, Dae Hee; Cho, Eun-Hee

    2015-08-07

    Succinate acts as an extracellular signaling molecule as well as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. It binds to and activates its specific G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91). GPR91 is present in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), but its role in hepatic fibrogenesis remains unclear. Cultured HSCs treated with succinate showed increased protein expression of GPR91 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), markers of fibrogenic response. Succinate also increased mRNA expression of α-SMA, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and collagen type I. Transfection of siRNA against GPR91 abrogated succinate-induced increases in α-SMA expression. Malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), increased succinate levels in cultured HSCs and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Feeding mice a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet is a widely used technique to create an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HSCs cultured in MCD media showed significantly decreased SDH activity and increased succinate concentration and GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Similarly, palmitate treatment significantly decreased SDH activity and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Finally, C57BL6/J mice fed the MCD diet had elevated succinate levels in their plasma. The MCD diet also decreased SDH activity, increased succinate concentration, and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression in isolated HSCs. Collectively, our results show that succinate plays an important role in HSC activation through GPR91 induction, and suggest that succinate and GPR91 may represent new therapeutic targets for modulating hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Amphiregulin activates human hepatic stellate cells and is upregulated in non alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Chad; Sigala, Barbara; Soeda, Junpei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Morgan, Maelle; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Cabibi, Daniela; Pazienza, Valerio; Selden, Claire; Roskams, Tania; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AR) involvement in liver fibrogenesis and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) regulation is under study. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Our aim was to investigate ex vivo the effect of AR on human primary HSC (hHSC) and verify in vivo the relevance of AR in NAFLD fibrogenesis. hHSC isolated from healthy liver segments were analyzed for expression of AR and its activator, TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE). AR induction of hHSC proliferation and matrix production was estimated in the presence of antagonists. AR involvement in fibrogenesis was also assessed in a mouse model of NASH and in humans with NASH. hHSC time dependently expressed AR and TACE. AR increased hHSC proliferation through several mitogenic signaling pathways such as EGFR, PI3K and p38. AR also induced marked upregulation of hHSC fibrogenic markers and reduced hHSC death. AR expression was enhanced in the HSC of a murine model of NASH and of severe human NASH. In conclusion, AR induces hHSC fibrogenic activity via multiple mitogenic signaling pathways, and is upregulated in murine and human NASH, suggesting that AR antagonists may be clinically useful anti-fibrotics in NAFLD. PMID:25744849

  18. Alteration and localization of glycan-binding proteins in human hepatic stellate cells during liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yaogang; Qin, Yannan; Dang, Liuyi; Jia, Liyuan; Zhang, Zhiwei; Wu, Haoxiang; Cui, Jihong; Bian, Huijie; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) play an important role in cell adhesion, bacterial/viral infection, and cellular signaling pathways. However, little is known about the precision alteration of GBPs referred to pathological changes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during liver fibrosis. Here, the carbohydrate microarrays were used to probe the alteration of GBPs in the activated HSCs and quiescent HSCs. As a result, 12 carbohydrates (e.g. Gal, GalNAc, and Man-9Glycan) showed increased signal, while seven carbohydrates (e.g. NeuAc, Lac, and GlcNAc-O-Ser) showed decreased signal in activated HSCs. Three carbohydrates (Gal, GalNAc, and NeuAc) were selected and subsequently used to validate the results of the carbohydrate microarrays as well as assess the distribution and localization of their binding proteins in HSCs and liver tissues by cy/histochemistry; the results showed that GBPs mainly distributed in the cytoplasma membrane and perinuclear region of cytoplasm. The immunocytochemistry was further used to verify some GBPs really exist in Golgi apparatus of the cells. The precision alteration and localization of GBPs referred to pathological changes in HSCs may provide pivotal information to help understand the biological functions of glycans how to exert through their recognition by a wide variety of GBPs. This study could lead to the development of new anti-fibrotic strategies.

  19. Hepatic stellate cell-specific deletion of SIRT1 exacerbates liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Hong, Wenxuan; Hao, Chenzhi; Li, Luyang; Xu, Huihui; Li, Ping; Xu, Yong

    2017-09-14

    Liver fibrosis is widely perceived as a host defense mechanism that aids tissue repair following liver injury. Excessive fibrogenesis, however, serves to disrupts normal liver structure and precedes such irrevocable human pathologies as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a hallmark event during liver fibrosis. In the present study we investigated the mechanism by which the lysine deacetylase SIRT1 regulates HSC activation. We report here that SIRT1 levels were decreased in the liver in different mouse models and in cultured HSCs undergoing activation. SIRT1 down-regulation paralleled HDAC4 up-regulation. HDAC4 was recruited to the SIRT1 promoter during HSC activation and removed acetylated histones H3 and H4 from the SIRT1 promoter leading to SIRT1 trans‑repression. HDAC4 silencing restored SIRT1 expression and attenuated HSC activation in SIRT1-dependent manner. More important, selective deletion of SIRT1 in HSCs exacerbated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Mechanistically, SIRT1 deacetylated PPARγ to block HSC activation. Together, our data reveal an HDAC4-SIRT1-PPARγ axis that contributes to the regulation of HSC activation and liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse hepatic stellate cells during Schistosoma J. infection

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Nan; Xia, Min; Lu, Ya-Qi; Wang, Mi; Boini, Krishna M.; Li, Pin-Lan; Tang, Wang-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The major pathological changes during Schistosoma J. infection are characterized by granulomatous inflammation in the liver, a cellular immune response to schistosomal egg antigens. The molecular mechanisms initiating or promoting this schistosomal granulomatous inflammation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we first demonstrated that in mice infected with Schistosoma J. for 6 weeks exhibited increased levels of IL-1β in liver, a major product of NLRP3 inflammasomes and collagen deposition around the eosinophilic granuloma with Schistosoma J. eggs, which was substantially attenuated by caspase-1 inhibitor, YVAD. This activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome occurred in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as shown by a marked increase in co-localization of IL-1β with HSCs marker, desmin. Using isolated, cultured mouse HSCs, we further explored the mechanisms by which soluble egg antigen (SEA) from Schistosoma J. activates NLRP3 inflammasomes. SEA induced the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes, which was associated with both redox regulation and lysosomal dysfunction, but not with potassium channel activation. These results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HSCs may serve as an early mechanism to turn on the inflammatory response and thereby instigate liver fibrosis during Schistosoma J. infection. PMID:27322427

  1. Suppression of hedgehog signaling regulates hepatic stellate cell activation and collagen secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Leng, Xi-Sheng; Zhu, Ji-Ye; Wang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play an important role in liver fibrosis. This study investigates the expression of hedgehog in HSC and the role of hedgehog signaling on activation and collagen secretion of HSC. Liver ex vivo perfusion with collagenase IV and density gradient centrifugation were used to isolate HSC. Expression of hedgehog signaling components Ihh, Smo, Ptc, Gli2 and Gli3 in HSC were detected by RT-PCR. Hedgehog siRNA vectors targeting Ihh, Smo and Gli2 were constructed and transfected into HSC respectively. Suppression of hedgehog signaling were detected by SYBR Green fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. Effects of hedgehog signaling inhibition on HSC activation and collagen I secretion were analyzed. Hedgehog signaling components Ihh, Smo, Ptc, Gli2 and Gli3 were expressed in HSC. siRNA vectors targeting Ihh, Smo and Gli2 were successfully constructed and decreased target gene expression. Suppression of hedgehog signaling significantly decreased the expression of α-SMA in HSC (P<0.01). Collagen type I secretion of HSC were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). In summary, HSC activation and collagen secretion can be regulated by hedgehog signaling. Hedgehog may play a role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis.

  2. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Soumya C; Kannan, Anbarasu; Gopal, Ashidha; Devaraj, Niranjali; Halagowder, Devaraj

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy.

  3. Hepatic Stellate Cells Regulate Immune Response via Induction of Myeloid Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hong-Shiue; Hsieh, Ching-Chuan; Yang, Horng-Ren; Wang, Lianfu; Arakawa, Yusuke; Brown, Kathleen; Wu, Qingyu; Lin, Feng; Peters, Marion; Fung, John J.; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang

    2011-01-01

    Although organ transplants have been applied for decades, outcomes of somatic cell transplants remain disappointing, presumably due to lack of appropriate supporting stromal cells. Thus, cotransplantation with liver stromal cells, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), achieves long-term survival of islet allografts in mice via induction of effector T cell apoptosis and generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. In this study, we provide evidence both in vitro and in vivo that HSC can promote generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). HSC-induced MDSC demonstrate potent immune inhibitory activity. Induction of MDSC is dependent on intact IFN-γ signaling pathway in HSC, and is mediated by soluble factors, suggesting that the specific tissue stromal cells, such as HSC, play a crucial role in regulating immune response via inflammation-induced generation of MDSC. Large amounts of MDSC can be propagated in vitro from bone marrow derived myeloid precursor cells under the influence of HSC. Cotransplantation with in vitro generated MDSC can effectively protects islet allografts from host immune attack. Local delivery of potent immune suppressor cells for cell transplants holds a great clinical application potential. PMID:21374665

  4. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (ENKO) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in ENKO mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  5. Regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and activation by glutamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Liu, Ke; Huang, Yixian; Chang, Na; Fan, Jie; He, Fengtian; Li, Liying; Bu, Shizhong; Xie, Wen; Ma, Xiaochao; Li, Song

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, which is mainly caused by accumulation of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The mechanisms of activation and proliferation of HSCs, two key events after liver damage, have been studied for many years. Here we report a novel pathway to control HSCs by regulating glutamine metabolism. We demonstrated that the proliferation of HSCs is critically dependent on glutamine that is used to generate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and non-essential amino acid (NEAA). In addition, both culture- and in vivo-activated HSCs have increased glutamine utilization and increased expression of genes related to glutamine metabolism, including GLS (glutaminase), aspartate transaminase (GOT1) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1). Inhibition of these enzymes, as well as glutamine depletion, had a significant inhibitory effect on HSCs activation. In addition to providing energy expenditure, conversion of glutamine to proline is enhanced. The pool of free proline may also be increased via downregulation of POX expression. Hedgehog signaling plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine metabolism, as well as TGF-β1, c-Myc, and Ras signalings, via transcriptional upregulation and repression of key metabolic enzymes in this pathway. Finally, changes in glutamine metabolism were also found in mouse liver tissue following CCl4-induced acute injury. Glutamine metabolism plays an important role in regulating the proliferation and activation of HSCs. Strategies that are targeted at glutamine metabolism may represent a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  6. Vitamin A and insulin are required for the maintenance of hepatic stellate cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akihiro; Sakai-Sawada, Kaori; Niitsu, Yoshiro; Tamura, Yasuaki

    2016-02-01

    Transdifferentiation of vitamin A-storing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to vitamin A-depleted myofibroblastic cells leads to liver fibrosis. Vitamin A regulates lipid accumulation and gene transcription, suggesting that vitamin A is involved in the maintenance of HSC quiescence under a physiological condition. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive because there is no appropriate in vitro culture system for quiescent HSCs. Here, we show that treatment of quiescent HSCs with vitamin A partially maintained the accumulation of lipid droplets and expression of quiescent HSC markers (glial fibrillary acidic protein, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α) and also the expression of myofibroblastic markers (α-smooth muscle actin, heat shock protein 47 and collagen type I). On the other hand, combined treatment with vitamin A and insulin sustained the characteristic of HSC quiescence and completely suppressed the expression of myofibroblastic markers through activation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway and increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. These treated HSCs transdifferentiated to myofibroblastic cells under a culture condition with fetal bovine serum. The results suggest an important role of vitamin A and insulin in the maintenance of HSC quiescence under a physiological condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vinculin and cellular retinol-binding protein-1 are markers for quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human liver.

    PubMed

    Van Rossen, Elke; Vander Borght, Sara; van Grunsven, Leo Adrianus; Reynaert, Hendrik; Bruggeman, Veerle; Blomhoff, Rune; Roskams, Tania; Geerts, Albert

    2009-03-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have important roles in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. As response to chronic injury HSCs are activated and change from quiescent into myofibroblast-like cells. Several HSC-specific markers have been described in rat or mouse models. The aim of our work was to identify the best marker(s) for human HSCs. To this end we used the automated high throughput NexES IHC staining device (Ventana Medical Systems) to incubate sections under standardized conditions. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) normal and diseased human livers were studied. With immunohistochemistry we examined the expression of synemin, desmin, vimentin, vinculin, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 2 (CRP2), and cytoglobin/stellate cell activation-associated protein (cygb/STAP). This is the first study in which a series of HSC markers is compared on serial FFPE human tissues. CRBP-1 clearly stains lobular HSCs without reacting with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and shows variable cholangiocyte positivity. Vinculin has a similar staining pattern as CRBP-1 but additionally stains SMCs, and (myo)fibroblasts. In conclusion, we therefore propose to use CRBP-1 and/or vinculin to stain HSCs in human liver tissues.

  8. A bioinformatic and mechanistic study elicits the antifibrotic effect of ursolic acid through the attenuation of oxidative stress with the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human hepatic stellate cells and rat liver.

    PubMed

    He, Wenhua; Shi, Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Li, Bimin; Zhang, Kunhe; Zhang, Xinhua; Ouyang, Canhui; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are a predominant mediator of redox homeostasis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with various pharmacological activities, but the molecular targets and underlying mechanisms for its antifibrotic effect in the liver remain elusive. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactome and mechanistically investigate the antifibrotic effect of UA on oxidative stress, with a focus on NOX4 activity and cross-linked signaling pathways in human HSCs and rat liver. Drug-drug interaction via chemical-protein interactome tool, a server that can predict drug-drug interaction via chemical-protein interactome, was used to predict the molecular targets of UA, and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery was employed to analyze the signaling pathways of the predicted targets of UA. The bioinformatic data showed that there were 611 molecular proteins possibly interacting with UA and that there were over 49 functional clusters responding to UA. The subsequential benchmarking data showed that UA significantly reduced the accumulation of type I collagen in HSCs in rat liver, increased the expression level of MMP-1, but decreased the expression level of TIMP-1 in HSC-T6 cells. UA also remarkably reduced the gene expression level of type I collagen in HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, UA remarkably attenuated oxidative stress via negative regulation of NOX4 activity and expression in HSC-T6 cells. The employment of specific chemical inhibitors, SB203580, LY294002, PD98059, and AG490, demonstrated the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in the regulatory effect of UA on NOX4 activity and expression. Collectively, the antifibrotic effect of UA is partially due to the oxidative stress attenuating effect through manipulating NOX4 activity and expression. The results suggest that

  9. A bioinformatic and mechanistic study elicits the antifibrotic effect of ursolic acid through the attenuation of oxidative stress with the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human hepatic stellate cells and rat liver

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenhua; Shi, Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Li, Bimin; Zhang, Kunhe; Zhang, Xinhua; Ouyang, Canhui; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are a predominant mediator of redox homeostasis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with various pharmacological activities, but the molecular targets and underlying mechanisms for its antifibrotic effect in the liver remain elusive. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactome and mechanistically investigate the antifibrotic effect of UA on oxidative stress, with a focus on NOX4 activity and cross-linked signaling pathways in human HSCs and rat liver. Drug–drug interaction via chemical–protein interactome tool, a server that can predict drug–drug interaction via chemical–protein interactome, was used to predict the molecular targets of UA, and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery was employed to analyze the signaling pathways of the predicted targets of UA. The bioinformatic data showed that there were 611 molecular proteins possibly interacting with UA and that there were over 49 functional clusters responding to UA. The subsequential benchmarking data showed that UA significantly reduced the accumulation of type I collagen in HSCs in rat liver, increased the expression level of MMP-1, but decreased the expression level of TIMP-1 in HSC-T6 cells. UA also remarkably reduced the gene expression level of type I collagen in HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, UA remarkably attenuated oxidative stress via negative regulation of NOX4 activity and expression in HSC-T6 cells. The employment of specific chemical inhibitors, SB203580, LY294002, PD98059, and AG490, demonstrated the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in the regulatory effect of UA on NOX4 activity and expression. Collectively, the antifibrotic effect of UA is partially due to the oxidative stress attenuating effect through manipulating NOX4 activity and expression. The results

  10. Metformin-mediated Bambi expression in hepatic stellate cells induces prosurvival Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Nanthakumar; Sherman, Mara H; Rao, Renuka; Wilson, Caroline; Coulter, Sally; Atkins, Annette R; Evans, Ronald M; Liddle, Christopher; Downes, Michael

    2012-04-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates lipid, cholesterol, and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues, such as muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Agents that activate AMPK, such as metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), have beneficial effects on liver glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, AMPK activation in proliferating hepatic stellate cells (HSC) induces growth arrest and inhibits hepatic fibrosis. As metformin and AICAR act in different ways to achieve their effects, our aim was to examine the effects of AMPK activation in quiescent HSCs with these two agents on HSC function. We found that phospho-AMPK levels were markedly upregulated by both AICAR and metformin in quiescent HSCs. However, although AICAR treatment induced cell death, cells treated with metformin did not differ from untreated controls. AICAR-mediated HSC cell death was paralleled by loss of expression of the TGF-β decoy receptor Bambi, whereas metformin increased Bambi expression. Transfection of siRNA-Bambi into HSCs also induced cell death, mimicking the effects of AICAR, whereas overexpression of Bambi partially rescued AICAR-treated cells. As Bambi has previously been shown to promote cell survival through Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a reporter incorporating binding sites for a downstream target of this pathway was transfected into HSCs and was induced. We conclude that although AICAR and metformin both activate AMPK in quiescent HSCs, AICAR rapidly induced cell death, whereas metformin-treated cells remained viable. The finding that metformin increases Bambi expression and activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling provides a possible mechanistic explanation for this observation. These results suggest that AICAR and metformin may confer disease-specific therapeutic benefits.

  11. Reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes as novel activators of hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Longato, Lisa; Andreola, Fausto; Davies, Sean S; Roberts, Jackson L; Fusai, Giuseppe; Pinzani, Massimo; Moore, Kevin; Rombouts, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Products of lipid oxidation, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), are key activators of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) to a pro-fibrogenic phenotype. Isolevuglandins (IsoLG) are a family of acyclic γ-ketoaldehydes formed through oxidation of arachidonic acid or as by-products of the cyclooxygenase pathway. IsoLGs are highly reactive aldehydes which are efficient at forming protein adducts and cross-links at concentrations 100-fold lower than 4-hydroxynonenal. Since the contribution of IsoLGs to liver injury has not been studied, we synthesized 15-E2-IsoLG and used it to investigate whether IsoLG could induce activation of HSC. Primary human HSC were exposed to 15-E2-IsoLG for up to 48h. Exposure to 5μM 15-E2-IsoLG in HSCs promoted cytotoxicity and apoptosis. At non-cytotoxic doses (50 pM-500nM) 15-E2-IsoLG promoted HSC activation, indicated by increased expression of α-SMA, sustained activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways, and increased mRNA and/or protein expression of cytokines and chemokines, which was blocked by inhibitors of JNK and NF-kB. In addition, IsoLG promoted formation of reactive oxygen species, and induced an early activation of ER stress, followed by autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy partially reduced the pro-inflammatory effects of IsoLG, suggesting that it might serve as a cytoprotective response. This study is the first to describe the biological effects of IsoLG in primary HSC, the main drivers of hepatic fibrosis. IsoLGs represent a newly identified class of activators of HSC in vitro, which are biologically active at concentrations as low as 500 pM, and are particularly effective at promoting a pro-inflammatory response and autophagy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Adiponectin regulates aquaglyceroporin expression in hepatic stellate cells altering their functional state.

    PubMed

    Tardelli, Matteo; Moreno-Viedma, Veronica; Zeyda, Maximilian; Itariu, Bianca K; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for liver fibrosis and tightly associated with low levels of adiponectin. Adiponectin has antifibrogenic activity protecting from liver fibrosis, which is mainly driven by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that allow the movement of water and, in case of aquaglyceroporins (AQPs), of glycerol that is needed in quiescent HSC for lipogenesis. Expression of various AQPs in liver is altered by obesity; however, the mechanisms through which obesity influences HSCs activation and AQPs expression remain unclear. This study aimed to identify obesity-associated factors that are related to HSC AQPs expression activation and lipid storage. Correlations between serum adipokine levels and hepatic AQPs gene expression were analyzed from a cohort of obese patients. AQP and fibrotic gene expression was determined in a HSC line (LX2) and in a hepatocyte cell line (HepG2) after stimulation with adiponectin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that serum adiponectin significantly correlated with liver AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 gene expressions. In vitro, adiponectin induced upregulation of AQP3 gene and AQP3 protein expression in human HSCs, but not in hepatocytes, while AQP7, AQP9 remained undetectable. Accordingly, HSC stimulated with adiponectin increased glycerol uptake, lipogenic gene expression, and lipid storage while downregulating activation/fibrosis markers. These findings demonstrate that adiponectin is a potent inhibitor of HSC activation and induces AQPs expression. Thus, low serum levels of adiponectin could be a mechanism how obesity affects the functional state of HSC, thereby contributing to obesity-associated liver fibrosis. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Copper ions stimulate the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via oxygen stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, San-qing; Zhu, Hui-yun; Lin, Jian-guo; Su, Tang-feng; Liu, Yan; Luo, Xiao-ping

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effect of copper ions on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the role of oxidative stress in this process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis in Wilson's disease. LX-2 cells, a cell line of human HSCs, were cultured in vitro and treated with different agents including copper sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) for different time. The proliferation of LX-2 cells was measured by non-radioactive cell proliferation assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β subunit (PDGFβR), ELISA to determine the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), dichlorofluorescein assay to measure the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid hydroperoxide assay to quantify the level of lipid peroxide (LPO). The results showed that copper sulfate over a certain concentration range could promote the proliferation of LX-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effect was most manifest when LX-2 cells were treated with copper sulfate at a concentration of 100 μmol/L for 24 h. Additionally, copper sulfate could dose-dependently increase the levels of ROS and LPO, and decrease the ratio of GSH/GSSG in LX-2 cells. The copper-induced increase in mRNA and protein expression of PDGFβR was significantly inhibited in LX-2 cells pre-treated with NAC, a precursor of GSH, and this phenomenon could be reversed by the intervention of BSO, an inhibitor of NAC. It was concluded that copper ions may directly stimulate the proliferation of HSCs via oxidative stress. Anti-oxidative stress therapies may help suppress the copper-induced activation and proliferation of HSCs.

  14. NS5ATP13 Promotes Liver Fibrogenesis via Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaru; Liu, Shunai; Han, Ming; Lu, Hongping; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yu; Tursun, Kelbinur; Li, Zhongshu; Feng, Shenghu; Cheng, Jun

    2017-01-29

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to any etiology of chronic hepatic injuries. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the key event in liver fibrogenesis. Generally, persistent activation and proliferation of HSCs results in liver fibrosis progression, while primary mechanisms of liver fibrosis resolution are apoptosis and reversion to a quiescent phenotype of activated HSCs. NS5ATP13 (HCV NS5A-transactivated protein 13) is involved in nucleologenesis and tumorigenesis, but its role in liver fibrosis and HSC activation remains unclear. This study found that NS5ATP13 was upregulated in both fibrotic liver tissues and activated human HSCs induced by TGF-β1. Moreover, NS5ATP13 enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) production and HSC activation, with or without TGF-β1 treatment, likely involving the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Additionally, NS5ATP13 boosted HSC proliferation by inhibiting cell apoptosis. Furthermore, HCV NS5A promoted the profibrogenic effect of NS5ATP13 partly through TGF-β1 and NF-κB p65 (RelA) upregulation. Meanwhile, NS5ATP13 was required for the pro-fibrogenic effect of NF-κB. Moreover, NS5ATP13 and NF-κB phosphorylation as well as HSC activation were reduced by CX-4945, a CK2 specific inhibitor. These findings indicated that NS5ATP13 acts as a profibrogenic factor, providing a potential target for antifibrotic therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Wnt5a participates in hepatic stellate cell activation observed by gene expression profile and functional assays.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu-Jun; Hu, Li-Juan; Jian, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Li-Jing; Jiang, Ming; Li, Wei; He, Yi

    2012-04-21

    To identify differentially expressed genes in quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and explore their functions. HSCs were isolated from the normal Sprague Dawley rats by in suit perfusion of collagenase and pronase and density Nycodenz gradient centrifugation. Total RNA and mRNA of quiescent HSCs, and culture-activated HSCs were extracted, quantified and reversely transcripted into cDNA. The global gene expression profile was analyzed by microarray with Affymetrix rat genechip. Differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and analyzed with Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Microarray data were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The function of Wnt5a on human HSCs line LX-2 was assessed with lentivirus-mediated Wnt5a RNAi. The expression of Wnt5a in fibrotic liver of a carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced fibrosis rat model was also analyzed with Western blotting. Of the 28 700 genes represented on this chip, 2566 genes displayed at least a 2-fold increase or decrease in expression at a P < 0.01 level with a false discovery rate. Of these, 1396 genes were upregulated, while 1170 genes were downregulated in culture-activated HSCs. These differentially expressed transcripts were grouped into 545 GO based on biological process GO terms. The most enriched GO terms included response to wounding, wound healing, regulation of cell growth, vasculature development and actin cytoskeleton organization. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that Wnt5a signaling pathway participated in the activation of HSCs. Wnt5a was significantly increased in culture-activated HSCs as compared with quiescent HSCs. qRT-PCR validated the microarray data. Lentivirus-mediated suppression of Wnt5a expression in activated LX-2 resulted in significantly impaired proliferation, downregulated expressions of type I collagen and

  16. Wnt5a participates in hepatic stellate cell activation observed by gene expression profile and functional assays

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wu-Jun; Hu, Li-Juan; Jian, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Li-Jing; Jiang, Ming; Li, Wei; He, Yi

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify differentially expressed genes in quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and explore their functions. METHODS: HSCs were isolated from the normal Sprague Dawley rats by in suit perfusion of collagenase and pronase and density Nycodenz gradient centrifugation. Total RNA and mRNA of quiescent HSCs, and culture-activated HSCs were extracted, quantified and reversely transcripted into cDNA. The global gene expression profile was analyzed by microarray with Affymetrix rat genechip. Differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and analyzed with Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Microarray data were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The function of Wnt5a on human HSCs line LX-2 was assessed with lentivirus-mediated Wnt5a RNAi. The expression of Wnt5a in fibrotic liver of a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis rat model was also analyzed with Western blotting. RESULTS: Of the 28 700 genes represented on this chip, 2566 genes displayed at least a 2-fold increase or decrease in expression at a P < 0.01 level with a false discovery rate. Of these, 1396 genes were upregulated, while 1170 genes were downregulated in culture-activated HSCs. These differentially expressed transcripts were grouped into 545 GO based on biological process GO terms. The most enriched GO terms included response to wounding, wound healing, regulation of cell growth, vasculature development and actin cytoskeleton organization. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that Wnt5a signaling pathway participated in the activation of HSCs. Wnt5a was significantly increased in culture-activated HSCs as compared with quiescent HSCs. qRT-PCR validated the microarray data. Lentivirus-mediated suppression of Wnt5a expression in activated LX-2 resulted in significantly impaired proliferation, downregulated expressions of

  17. Curcumin inhibits aerobic glycolysis in hepatic stellate cells associated with activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Lian, Naqi; Jin, Huanhuan; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Li; Shao, Jiangjuan; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2016-07-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is characterized by expression of extracellular matrix and loss of adipogenic phenotype during liver fibrogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that HSCs adopt aerobic glycolysis during activation. The present work aimed at investigating whether the anti-fibrogenic effects of curcumin was associated with interfering with glycolysis in HSCs. Primary rat HSCs were cultured in vitro. We demonstrated that inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxyglucose or galloflavin reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and α1(I)procollagen at both mRNA and protein levels, and increased the intracellular lipid contents and upregulated the gene and protein expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPα and PPAR-γ in HSCs. Curcumin at 20 μM produced similar effects. Moreover, curcumin decreased the expression of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK2), and glucose transporter 4 (glut4), three key glycolytic parameters, at both mRNA and protein levels. Curcumin also reduced lactate production concentration-dependently in HSCs. Furthermore, curcumin increased the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but AMPK inhibitor BML-275 significantly abolished the curcumin downregulation of HK, PFK2, and glut4. In addition, curcumin inhibition of α-SMA and α1(I)procollagen was rescued by BML-275, and curcumin upregulation of C/EBPα and PPAR-γ was abrogated by BML-275. These results collectively indicated that curcumin inhibited glycolysis in an AMPK activation-dependent manner in HSCs. We revealed a novel mechanism for curcumin suppression of HSC activation implicated in antifibrotic therapy. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):589-596, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1alpha and MAPK Co-Regulate Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells upon Hypoxia Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fei; Xiao, Yan; Deng, Jing; Chen, Huoying; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Jianrong; Huang, Hanju; Shi, Chunwei

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) plays a key role in pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. During liver injury, hypoxia in local micro-environment is inevitable. Hif-1α is the key transcriptional regulation factor that induces cell’s adaptive responses to hypoxia. Recently, it was reported that MAPK is involved in regulation of Hif-1α activity. Aims To explore whether Hif-1α regulates HSC activation upon hypoxia, and whether MAPK affects Hif-1α-regulated signaling cascades, thus providing new targets for preventing liver fibrosis. Methods Hif-1α expression in livers of Schistosomajaponicum infected BALB/c mice was detected with western blot and immunohistochemistry. A rat cell line of HSC, HSC-T6, was cultured in 1% oxygen. HSC activation, including F-actin reorganization, increase of vimentin and α-SMA, was detected with western blot or immunocytochemistry. Cells were transfected with specific siRNA to Hif-1α, expression of activation markers, transcription of fibrosis-promoting cytokines, secretion of collagen I were detected with western blot, Real Time PCR and ELISA. Lysate from HSC-T6 cells pretreated with PD98059, a specific MEK1 pharmacological inhibitor, was subjected to detect Hif-1α ubiquitination and nuclear translocation with western blot and immunoprecipitation. Results and Conclusions Hif-1α apparently increased in liver tissues of Schistosomajaponicum infected mice. 1% O2 induced F-actin reorganization, increase of Hif-1α, vimentin and α-SMA in HSC-T6 cells. Hif-1α Knockdown inhibited HSC-T6 activation, transcription of IL-6, TGF-β and CTGF and secretion of collagen I from HSC-T6 cells upon hypoxia. Inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation enhanced Hif-1α ubiquitination, and inhibited Hif-1α translocation into nucleus. Conclusively, Hif-1α and MAPK participate in HSC activation upon hypoxia. PMID:24040163

  19. Dose dependent and divergent effects of superoxide anion on cell death, proliferation, and migration of activated human hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Novo, E; Marra, F; Zamara, E; Bonzo, L Valfrè di; Caligiuri, A; Cannito, S; Antonaci, C; Colombatto, S; Pinzani, M; Parola, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and aim Activated myofibroblast‐like cells, originating from hepatic stellate cells (HSC/MFs) or other cellular sources, play a key profibrogenic role in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) that, as suggested by studies in animal models or rat HSC/MFs, may be modulated by reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). In this study, human HSC/MFs, exposed to different levels of superoxide anion (O2•−) and, for comparison, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were analysed in terms of cytotoxicity, proliferative response, and migration. Methods Cultured human HSC/MFs were exposed to controlled O2•− generation by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase systems or to a range of H2O2 concentrations. Induction of cell death, proliferation, and migration were investigated using morphology, molecular biology, and biochemical techniques. Results Human HSC/MFs were shown to be extremely resistant to induction of cell death by O2•− and only high rates of O2•− generation induced either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. Non‐cytotoxic low levels of O2•−, able to upregulate procollagen type I expression (but not tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2), stimulated migration of human HSC/MFs in a Ras/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) dependent, antioxidant sensitive way, without affecting basal or platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated cell proliferation. Non‐cytotoxic levels of H2O2 did not affect Ras/ERK or proliferative response. A high rate of O2•− generation or elevated levels of H2O2 induced cytoskeletal alterations, block in motility, and inhibition of PDGF dependent DNA synthesis. Conclusions Low non‐cytotoxic levels of extracellularly generated O2•− may stimulate selected profibrogenic responses in human HSC/MFs without affecting proliferation. PMID:16041064

  20. Transcriptome-based repurposing of apigenin as a potential anti-fibrotic agent targeting hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Daniel F.; Goossens, Nicolas; Blas-García, Ana; Tsuchida, Takuma; Wooden, Benjamin; Wallace, Michael C.; Nieto, Natalia; Lade, Abigale; Redhead, Benjamin; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Dudley, Joel T.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Lee, Youngmin A.; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L.

    2017-01-01

    We have used a computational approach to identify anti-fibrotic therapies by querying a transcriptome. A transcriptome signature of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the primary collagen-secreting cell in liver, and queried against a transcriptomic database that quantifies changes in gene expression in response to 1,309 FDA-approved drugs and bioactives (CMap). The flavonoid apigenin was among 9 top-ranked compounds predicted to have anti-fibrotic activity; indeed, apigenin dose-dependently reduced collagen I in the human HSC line, TWNT-4. To identify proteins mediating apigenin’s effect, we next overlapped a 122-gene signature unique to HSCs with a list of 160 genes encoding proteins that are known to interact with apigenin, which identified C1QTNF2, encoding for Complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 2, a secreted adipocytokine with metabolic effects in liver. To validate its disease relevance, C1QTNF2 expression is reduced during hepatic stellate cell activation in culture and in a mouse model of alcoholic liver injury in vivo, and its expression correlates with better clinical outcomes in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis (n = 216), suggesting it may have a protective role in cirrhosis progression.These findings reinforce the value of computational approaches to drug discovery for hepatic fibrosis, and identify C1QTNF2 as a potential mediator of apigenin’s anti-fibrotic activity. PMID:28256512

  1. Melatonin protects against lipid-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes and inhibits stellate cell activation during hepatic fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Nabanita; Mandala, Ashok; Naaz, Shamreen; Giri, Suresh; Jain, Mukul; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Reiter, Russel J; Roy, Sib Sankar

    2017-05-01

    Lipid generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in consequence to mitochondrial fission followed by inflammation in propagating hepatic fibrosis. The interaction of SIRT1/Mitofusin2 is critical for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and functioning, which is disrupted upon excess lipid infiltration during the progression of steatohepatitis. The complex interplay between hepatic stellate cells and steatotic hepatocytes is critically regulated by extracellular factors including increased circulating free fatty acids during fibrogenesis. Melatonin, a potent antioxidant, protects against lipid-mediated mitochondrial ROS generation. Lipotoxicity induces disruption of SIRT1 and Mitofusin2 interaction leading to mitochondrial morphological disintegration in hepatocytes. Further, fragmented mitochondria leads to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and melatonin protects against all these lipotoxicity-mediated dysfunctions. These impaired mitochondrial dynamics also enhances the cellular glycolytic flux and reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate that potentiates ROS production. High glycolytic flux generates metabolically unfavorable milieu in hepatocytes leading to inflammation, which is abrogated by melatonin. The melatonin-mediated protection against mitochondrial dysfunction was also observed in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice through restoration of enzymatic activities associated with respiratory chain and TCA cycle. Subsequently, melatonin reduces hepatic fat deposition and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. Thus, melatonin disrupts the interaction between steatotic hepatocyte and stellate cells, leading to the activation of the latter to abrogate collagen deposition. Altogether, the results of the current study document that the pharmacological intervention with low dose of melatonin could abrogate lipotoxicity-mediated hepatic stellate cell activation and prevent the fibrosis progression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A

  2. Celecoxib derivative OSU-03012 inhibits the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells by inducing cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Zuowei; Luo, Zhongguang; Liu, Fei; Liu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Liver fibrosis may lead to portal hypertension, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma, and predominantly results from the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells. OSU‑03012, a non‑cyclooxygenase‑inhibiting celecoxib derivative, has been previously demonstrated to promote apoptosis in certain cell types, however, its function in hepatic fibrosis remains unclear. In the current study, the inhibitory effect of OSU‑03012 on the proliferation of the LX2 human hepatic stellate cell line was evaluated by cell counting kit‑8 assay. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to examine the expression of α‑smooth muscle actin and type I collagen, which are representative of LX2 cell activation. The senescence of LX2 cells was measured by senescence‑associated β‑galactosidase staining, and the cell cycle and apoptosis levels were assessed by flow cytometry. The impact of senescence‑associated signaling on protein expression was assessed by western blot analysis. OSU‑03012 was observed to inhibit cell proliferation and prevent the secretion of profibrotic factors in LX2 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that OSU‑03012 inhibited the proliferation and activation of LX2 via the induction of cell senescence at the G1 phase, rather than via cell apoptosis. The induction of senescence may be via the upregulation of p16, p21 and p27. In conclusion, the current study provided insight into the pharmacological mechanisms of OSU‑03012 in preventing the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells through cell senescence. The current study supports the theory that OSU‑03012 is a novel agent for potential use against liver fibrosis.

  3. Herbal compound “Songyou Yin” attenuates hepatoma cell invasiveness and metastasis through downregulation of cytokines secreted by activated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) play an important role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we determined if cytokines secreted in response to the herbal compound “Songyou Yin” (SYY) treatment of aHSCs could influence invasiveness and metastatic capabilities of hepatoma cells. Methods Primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated, activated, divided into SYY treated and untreated (nSYY) groups, and conditioned media (CM-SYY and CM-nSYY, respectively) were collected. The hepatoma cell line, McA-RH7777 was cultured for 4 weeks with SYY, CM-SYY, and CM-nSYY, designated McA-SYY, McA-SYYCM and McA-nSYYCM. The invasiveness and metastatic capabilities were evaluated using Matrigel invasion assay in vitro and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and vimentin protein levels in McA-SYYCM and McA-nSYYCM were evaluated by Western blot. Cytokine levels in conditioned media were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Matrigel invasion assay indicated that the number of McA-SYYCM cells passing through the basement membrane was less than in McA-nSYYCM cells (P < 0.01). Similar results were also observed in vivo for lung metastasis. McA-SYYCM cells showed less pulmonary metastasis capabilities than McA-nSYYCM cells (P < 0.001). The reduced expression of MMP-2 and reversed epithelial to mesenchymal transition with E-cadherin upregulation, and N-cadherin and vimentin downregulation were also found in McA-SYYCM compared to McA-nSYYCM. Metastasis-promoting cytokines hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were markedly decreased in CM-SYY compared to CM-nSYY. Conclusions SYY attenuates hepatoma cell invasiveness and metastasis capabilities through downregulating cytokines secreted by activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID:23622143

  4. Schistosomajaponicum Eggs Induce a Proinflammatory, Anti-Fibrogenic Phenotype in Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Barrie J.; James, Kylie R.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Ramm, Grant A.; McManus, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis induced by egg deposition is the most serious pathology associated with chronic schistosomiasis, in which the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) plays a central role. While the effect of Schistosoma mansoni eggs on the fibrogenic phenotype of HSCs has been investigated, studies determining the effect of eggs of S. japonicum on HSCs are lacking. Disease caused by S. japonicum is much more severe than that resulting from S. mansoni infection so it is important to compare the pathologies caused by these two parasites, to determine whether this phenotype is due to the species interacting differently with the mammalian host. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of S. japonicum eggs on the human HSC cell line, LX-2, with and without TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor beta) co-treatment, so as to determine the impact on genes associated with fibrogenesis, inflammation and matrix re-organisation. Activation status of HSCs was assessed by αSMA (Alpha Smooth Muscle Actin) immunofluorescence, accumulation of Oil Red O-stained lipid droplets and the relative expression of selected genes associated with activation. The fibrogenic phenotype of HSCs was inhibited by the presence of eggs both with or without TGF-β treatment, as evidenced by a lack of αSMA staining and reduced gene expression of αSMA and Col1A1 (Collagen 1A1). Unlike S. mansoni-treated cells, however, expression of the quiescent HSC marker PPAR-γ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma) was not increased, nor was there accumulation of lipid droplets. In contrast, S. japonicum eggs induced the mRNA expression of MMP-9 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 9), CCL2 (Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2) and IL-6 (Interleukin 6) in HSCs indicating that rather than inducing complete HSC quiescence, the eggs induced a proinflammatory phenotype. These results suggest HSCs in close proximity to S. japonicum eggs in the liver may play a role in the proinflammatory regulation of hepatic granuloma formation. PMID

  5. Metformin reduces hepatic resistance and portal pressure in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Dinesh M; Erice, Eva; Lafoz, Erica; García-Calderó, Héctor; Sarin, Shiv K; Bosch, Jaime; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Increased hepatic vascular resistance is the primary factor in the development of portal hypertension. Metformin ameliorates vascular cells function in several vascular beds. Our study was aimed at evaluating the effects, and the underlying mechanisms, of metformin on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhotic rats and its possible interaction with the effects of propranolol (Prop), the current standard treatment for portal hypertension. CCl4-cirrhotic rats received by gavage metformin 300 mg/kg or its vehicle once a day for 1 wk, before mean arterial pressure (MAP), portal pressure (PP), portal blood flow (PBF), hepatic vascular resistance, and putative molecular/cellular mechanisms were measured. In a subgroup of cirrhotic rats, the hemodynamic response to acute Prop (5 mg/kg iv) was assessed. Effects of metformin ± Prop on PP and MAP were validated in common bile duct ligated-cirrhotic rats. Metformin-treated CCl4-cirrhotic rats had lower PP and hepatic vascular resistance than vehicle-treated rats, without significant changes in MAP or PBF. Metformin caused a significant reduction in liver fibrosis (Sirius red), hepatic stellate cell activation (α-smooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β polypeptide, transforming growth factor-βR1, and Rho kinase), hepatic inflammation (CD68 and CD163), superoxide (dihydroethidium staining), and nitric oxide scavenging (protein nitrotyrosination). Prop, by decreasing PBF, further reduced PP. Similar findings were observed in common bile duct ligated-cirrhotic rats. Metformin administration reduces PP by decreasing the structural and functional components of the elevated hepatic resistance of cirrhosis. This effect is additive to that of Prop. The potential impact of this pharmacological combination, otherwise commonly used in patients with cirrhosis and diabetes, needs clinical evaluation.

  6. Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Induce Tumor Progression of Neoplastic Hepatocytes in a TGF-β Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    MIKULA, M.; PROELL, V.; FISCHER, A.N.M.; MIKULITS, W.

    2010-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinomas from malignant hepatocytes is frequently associated with intra- and peritumoral accumulation of connective tissue arising from activated hepatic stellate cells. For both tumorigenesis and hepatic fibrogenesis, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling executes key roles and therefore is considered as a hallmark of these pathological events. By employing cellular transplantation we show that the interaction of neoplastic MIM-R hepatocytes with the tumor microenvironment, containing either activated hepatic stellate cells (M1-4HSCs) or myofibroblasts derived thereof (M-HTs), induces progression in malignancy. Cotransplantation of MIM-R hepatocytes with M-HTs yielded strongest MIM-R generated tumor formation accompanied by nuclear localization of Smad2/3 as well as of β-catenin. Genetic interference with TGF-β signaling by gain of antagonistic Smad7 in MIM-R hepatocytes diminished epithelial dedifferentiation and tumor progression upon interaction with M1-4HSCs or M-HTs. Further analysis showed that tumors harboring disrupted Smad signaling are devoid of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, indicating a crosstalk between TGF-β and β-catenin signaling. Together, these data demonstrate that activated HSCs and myofibroblasts directly govern hepatocarcinogenesis in a TGF-β dependent fashion by inducing autocrine TGF-β signaling and nuclear β-catenin accumulation in neoplastic hepatocytes. These results indicate that intervention with TGF-β signaling is highly promising in liver cancer therapy. PMID:16883581

  7. Exosome Adherence and Internalization by Hepatic Stellate Cells Triggers Sphingosine 1-Phosphate-dependent Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruisi; Ding, Qian; Yaqoob, Usman; de Assuncao, Thiago M.; Verma, Vikas K.; Hirsova, Petra; Cao, Sheng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Huebert, Robert C.; Shah, Vijay H.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are cell-derived extracellular vesicles thought to promote intercellular communication by delivering specific content to target cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether endothelial cell (EC)-derived exosomes could regulate the phenotype of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Initial microarray studies showed that fibroblast growth factor 2 induced a 2.4-fold increase in mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1). Exosomes derived from an SK1-overexpressing EC line increased HSC migration 3.2-fold. Migration was not conferred by the dominant negative SK1 exosome. Incubation of HSCs with exosomes was also associated with an 8.3-fold increase in phosphorylation of AKT and 2.5-fold increase in migration. Exosomes were found to express the matrix protein and integrin ligand fibronectin (FN) by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Blockade of the FN-integrin interaction with a CD29 neutralizing antibody or the RGD peptide attenuated exosome-induced HSC AKT phosphorylation and migration. Inhibition of endocytosis with transfection of dynamin siRNA, the dominant negative dynamin GTPase construct Dyn2K44A, or the pharmacological inhibitor Dynasore significantly attenuated exosome-induced AKT phosphorylation. SK1 levels were increased in serum exosomes derived from mice with experimental liver fibrosis, and SK1 mRNA levels were up-regulated 2.5-fold in human liver cirrhosis patient samples. Finally, S1PR2 inhibition protected mice from CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Therefore, EC-derived SK1-containing exosomes regulate HSC signaling and migration through FN-integrin-dependent exosome adherence and dynamin-dependent exosome internalization. These findings advance our understanding of EC/HSC cross-talk and identify exosomes as a potential target to attenuate pathobiology signals. PMID:26534962

  8. The biphasic nature of hypoxia-induced directional migration of activated human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Novo, Erica; Povero, Davide; Busletta, Chiara; Paternostro, Claudia; di Bonzo, Lorenzo Valfrè; Cannito, Stefania; Compagnone, Alessandra; Bandino, Andrea; Marra, Fabio; Colombatto, Sebastiano; David, Ezio; Pinzani, Massimo; Parola, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Liver fibrogenesis is sustained by pro-fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells (MFs), mainly originating from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC/MFs) or portal (myo)fibroblasts, and is favoured by hypoxia-dependent angiogenesis. Human HSC/MFs were reported to express vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-receptor type 2 and to migrate under hypoxic conditions. This study was designed to investigate early and delayed signalling mechanisms involved in hypoxia-induced migration of human HSC/MFs. Signal transduction pathways and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by integrating morphological, cell, and molecular biology techniques. Non-oriented and oriented migration were evaluated by using wound healing assay and the modified Boyden's chamber assay, respectively. The data indicate that hypoxia-induced migration of HSC/MFs is a biphasic process characterized by the following sequence of events: (a) an early (15 min) and mitochondria-related increased generation of intracellular ROS which (b) was sufficient to switch on activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 that were responsible for the early phase of oriented migration; (c) a delayed and HIF-1α-dependent increase in VEGF expression (facilitated by ROS) and its progressive, time-dependent release in the extracellular medium that (d) was mainly responsible for sustained migration of HSC/MFs. Finally, immunohistochemistry performed on HCV-related fibrotic/cirrhotic livers revealed HIF-2α and haem-oxygenase-1 positivity in hepatocytes and α-SMA-positive MFs, indicating that MFs were likely to be exposed in vivo to both hypoxia and oxidative stress. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced migration of HSC/MFs involves an early, mitochondrial-dependent ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK, followed by a delayed- and HIF-1α-dependent up-regulation and release of VEGF.

  9. GATA binding protein 3 is correlated with leptin regulation of PPARγ1 in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Cheng, Fangyun; Wu, Hao; Cao, Qing; Zhu, Xiaofei; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Huixia; Zhou, Yajun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that hormone leptin, mainly produced by adipocyte, plays a unique role in promotion of liver fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is a key step in liver fibrosis and peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) exerts a crucial role in inhibition of HSC activation. Our previous researches demonstrated that leptin reduced PPARγ1 (a major subtype of PPARγ in HSCs) expression through GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) binding to a site around -2323 in PPARγ1 promoter. The present researches aimed to examine the effect of GATA3 on leptin-induced inhibition of PPARγ1 and elucidate the relationship between GATA3 and GATA2. Gene expressions were analysed by real-time PCR, western blot, luciferase assay and immunostaining. C57BL/6J ob/ob mouse model of thioacetamide-induced liver injury was used in vivo. Results demonstrate that leptin significantly induces GATA3 expression in HSCs by multiple signalling pathways including NADPH oxidase pathway. There exist crosstalks between NADPH oxidase pathway and the other pathways. GATA3 can bind to GATA2-binding site in PPARγ1 promoter and interacts with GATA2, contributing to leptin inhibition of PPARγ1 expression in HSCs. These data demonstrated novel molecular events for leptin inhibition of PPARγ1 expression in HSCs and thus might have potential implications for clarifying the detailed mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis in diseases in which circulating leptin levels are elevated such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in obese patients. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Integrative miRNA and Gene Expression Profiling Analysis of Human Quiescent Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Coll, Mar; El Taghdouini, Adil; Perea, Luis; Mannaerts, Inge; Vila-Casadesús, Maria; Blaya, Delia; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Graupera, Isabel; Lozano, Juan José; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Lambrecht, Joeri; Ginès, Pere; van Grunsven, Leo A; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-06-22

    Unveiling the regulatory pathways maintaining hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in a quiescent (q) phenotype is essential to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat fibrogenic diseases. To uncover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory interactions in qHSCs, HSCs were FACS-sorted from healthy livers and activated HSCs (aHSCs) were generated in vitro. MiRNA Taqman array analysis showed HSCs expressed a low number of miRNAs (n = 259), from which 47 were down-regulated and 212 up-regulated upon activation. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed that 66% of qHSC-associated miRNAs correlated with more than 6 altered target mRNAs (17,28 ± 10,7 targets/miRNA) whereas aHSC-associated miRNAs had an average of 1,49 targeted genes. Interestingly, interaction networks generated by miRNA-targeted genes in qHSCs were associated with key HSC activation processes. Next, selected miRNAs were validated in healthy and cirrhotic human livers and miR-192 was chosen for functional analysis. Down-regulation of miR-192 in HSCs was found to be an early event during fibrosis progression in mouse models of liver injury. Moreover, mimic assays for miR-192 in HSCs revealed its role in HSC activation, proliferation and migration. Together, these results uncover the importance of miRNAs in the maintenance of the qHSC phenotype and form the basis for understanding the regulatory networks in HSCs.

  11. Integrative miRNA and Gene Expression Profiling Analysis of Human Quiescent Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Mar; Taghdouini, Adil El; Perea, Luis; Mannaerts, Inge; Vila-Casadesús, Maria; Blaya, Delia; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Graupera, Isabel; Lozano, Juan José; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Lambrecht, Joeri; Ginès, Pere; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Unveiling the regulatory pathways maintaining hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in a quiescent (q) phenotype is essential to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat fibrogenic diseases. To uncover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory interactions in qHSCs, HSCs were FACS-sorted from healthy livers and activated HSCs (aHSCs) were generated in vitro. MiRNA Taqman array analysis showed HSCs expressed a low number of miRNAs (n = 259), from which 47 were down-regulated and 212 up-regulated upon activation. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed that 66% of qHSC-associated miRNAs correlated with more than 6 altered target mRNAs (17,28 ± 10,7 targets/miRNA) whereas aHSC-associated miRNAs had an average of 1,49 targeted genes. Interestingly, interaction networks generated by miRNA-targeted genes in qHSCs were associated with key HSC activation processes. Next, selected miRNAs were validated in healthy and cirrhotic human livers and miR-192 was chosen for functional analysis. Down-regulation of miR-192 in HSCs was found to be an early event during fibrosis progression in mouse models of liver injury. Moreover, mimic assays for miR-192 in HSCs revealed its role in HSC activation, proliferation and migration. Together, these results uncover the importance of miRNAs in the maintenance of the qHSC phenotype and form the basis for understanding the regulatory networks in HSCs. PMID:26096707

  12. CCN1/CYR61 overexpression in hepatic stellate cells induces ER stress-related apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Steffen, Bettina T; Van de Leur, Eddy; Haas, Ute; Tihaa, Lidia; Friedman, Scott L; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    CCN1/CYR61 is a matricellular protein of the CCN family, comprising six secreted proteins specifically associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM). CCN1 acts as an enhancer of the cutaneous wound healing process by preventing hypertrophic scar formation through induction of myofibroblast senescence. In liver fibrosis, the senescent cells are primarily derived from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) that initially proliferate in response to liver damage and are the major source of ECM. We investigate here the possible use of CCN1 as a senescence inducer to attenuate liver fibrogenesis by means of adenoviral gene transfer in primary HSC, myofibroblasts (MFB) and immortalized HSC lines (i.e. LX-2, CFSC-2G). Infection with Ad5-CMV-CCN1 induced large amounts of CCN1 protein in all these cells, resulting in an overload of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in a compensatory unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR resulted in upregulation of ER chaperones including BIP/Grp78, Grp94 and led to an activation of IRE1α as evidenced by spliced XBP1 mRNA with IRE1α-induced JNK phosphorylation. The UPR arm PERK and eIF2a was phosphorylated, combined with significant CHOP upregulation. Ad5-CMV-CCN1 induced HSC apoptosis that was evident by proteolytic cleavage of caspase-12, caspase-9 and the executor caspase-3 and positive TUNEL stain. Remarkably, Ad5-CMV-CCN1 effectively reduced collagen type I mRNA expression and protein. We conclude that the matricellular protein CCN1 gene transfer induces HSC apoptosis through ER stress and UPR.

  13. MARCKS actin-binding capacity mediates actin filament assembly during mitosis in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Krista; Mello, Tommaso; Liotta, Francesco; Galli, Andrea; Caligiuri, Alessandra; Annunziato, Francesco; Pinzani, Massimo

    2012-08-15

    Cross-linking between the actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane actin-binding proteins is a key interaction responsible for the mechanical properties of the mitotic cell. Little is known about the identity, the localization, and the function of actin filament-binding proteins during mitosis in human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC). The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze the cross talk between actin and myristoylated alanine-rich kinase C substrate (MARCKS), an important PKC substrate and actin filament-binding protein, during mitosis in primary hHSC. Confocal analysis and chromosomal fraction analysis of mitotic hHSC demonstrated that phosphorylated (P)-MARCKS displays distinct phase-dependent localizations, accumulates at the perichromosomal layer, and is a centrosomal protein belonging to the chromosomal cytosolic fraction. Aurora B kinase (AUBK), an important mitotic regulator, β-actin, and P-MARCKS concentrate at the cytokinetic midbody during cleavage furrow formation. This localization is critical since MARCKS-depletion in hHSC is characterized by a significant loss in cytosolic actin filaments and cortical β-actin that induces cell cycle inhibition and dislocation of AUBK. A depletion of AUBK in hHSC affects cell cycle, resulting in multinucleation. Quantitative live cell imaging demonstrates that the actin filament-binding capacity of MARCKS is key to regulate mitosis since the cell cycle inhibitory effect in MARCKS-depleted cells caused abnormal cell morphology and an aberrant cytokinesis, resulting in a significant increase in cell cycle time. These findings implicate that MARCKS, an important PKC substrate, is essential for proper cytokinesis and that MARCKS and its partner actin are key mitotic regulators during cell cycle in hHSC.

  14. The role of miRNAs in stress-responsive hepatic stellate cells during liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Joeri; Mannaerts, Inge; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    The progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is associated with the persistence of an injury causing agent, leading to changes in the extracellular environment and a disruption of the cellular homeostasis of liver resident cells. Recruitment of inflammatory cells, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and changes in liver microvasculature are some examples of changing cellular environment that lead to the induction of stress responses in nearby cells. During liver fibrosis, the major stresses include hypoxia, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. When hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are subjected to such stress, they modulate fibrosis progression by induction of their activation toward a myofibroblastic phenotype, or by undergoing apoptosis, and thus helping fibrosis resolution. It is widely accepted that microRNAs are import regulators of gene expression, both during normal cellular homeostasis, as well as in pathologic conditions. MicroRNAs are short RNA sequences that regulate the gene expression by mRNA destabilization and inhibition of mRNA translation. Specific microRNAs have been identified to play a role in the activation process of HSCs on the one hand and in stress-responsive pathways on the other hand in other cell types (Table 2). However, so far there are no reports for the involvement of miRNAs in the different stress responses linked to HSC activation. Here, we review briefly the major stress response pathways and propose several miRNAs to be regulated by these stress responsive pathways in activating HSCs, and discuss their potential specific pro-or anti-fibrotic characteristics. PMID:26283969

  15. Exosome Adherence and Internalization by Hepatic Stellate Cells Triggers Sphingosine 1-Phosphate-dependent Migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruisi; Ding, Qian; Yaqoob, Usman; de Assuncao, Thiago M; Verma, Vikas K; Hirsova, Petra; Cao, Sheng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Huebert, Robert C; Shah, Vijay H

    2015-12-25

    Exosomes are cell-derived extracellular vesicles thought to promote intercellular communication by delivering specific content to target cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether endothelial cell (EC)-derived exosomes could regulate the phenotype of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Initial microarray studies showed that fibroblast growth factor 2 induced a 2.4-fold increase in mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1). Exosomes derived from an SK1-overexpressing EC line increased HSC migration 3.2-fold. Migration was not conferred by the dominant negative SK1 exosome. Incubation of HSCs with exosomes was also associated with an 8.3-fold increase in phosphorylation of AKT and 2.5-fold increase in migration. Exosomes were found to express the matrix protein and integrin ligand fibronectin (FN) by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Blockade of the FN-integrin interaction with a CD29 neutralizing antibody or the RGD peptide attenuated exosome-induced HSC AKT phosphorylation and migration. Inhibition of endocytosis with transfection of dynamin siRNA, the dominant negative dynamin GTPase construct Dyn2K44A, or the pharmacological inhibitor Dynasore significantly attenuated exosome-induced AKT phosphorylation. SK1 levels were increased in serum exosomes derived from mice with experimental liver fibrosis, and SK1 mRNA levels were up-regulated 2.5-fold in human liver cirrhosis patient samples. Finally, S1PR2 inhibition protected mice from CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Therefore, EC-derived SK1-containing exosomes regulate HSC signaling and migration through FN-integrin-dependent exosome adherence and dynamin-dependent exosome internalization. These findings advance our understanding of EC/HSC cross-talk and identify exosomes as a potential target to attenuate pathobiology signals.

  16. Connective tissue growth factor hammerhead ribozyme attenuates human hepatic stellate cell function

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Run-Ping; Brigstock, David R

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of hammerhead ribozyme targeting connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) on human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) function. METHODS: CCN2 hammerhead ribozyme cDNA plus two self-cleaving sequences were inserted into pTriEx2 to produce pTriCCN2-Rz. Each vector was individually transfected into cultured LX-2 human HSCs, which were then stimulated by addition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to the culture medium. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels for CCN2 or collagen I, while protein levels of each molecule in cell lysates and conditioned medium were measured by ELISA. Cell-cycle progression of the transfected cells was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In pTriEx2-transfected LX-2 cells, TGF-β1 treatment caused an increase in the mRNA level for CCN2 or collagen I, and an increase in produced and secreted CCN2 or extracellular collagen I protein levels. pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells showed decreased basal CCN2 or collagen mRNA levels, as well as produced and secreted CCN2 or collagen I protein. Furthermore, the TGF-β1-induced increase in mRNA or protein for CCN2 or collagen I was inhibited partially in pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells. Inhibition of CCN2 using hammerhead ribozyme cDNA resulted in fewer of the cells transitioning into S phase. CONCLUSION: Endogenous CCN2 is a mediator of basal or TGF-β1-induced collagen I production in human HSCs and regulates entry of the cells into S phase. PMID:19673024

  17. Hepatic stellate cells express thymosin Beta 4 in chronically damaged liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Wang, Sihyung; Hyun, Jeongeun; Choi, Steve S; Cha, Heejae; Ock, Meesun; Jung, Youngmi

    2015-01-01

    Although the various biological roles of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) have been studied widely, the effect of Tβ4 and Tβ4-expressing cells in the liver remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the expression and function of Tβ4 in chronically damaged livers. CCl4 was injected into male mice to induce a model of chronic liver disease. Mice were sacrificed at 6 and 10 weeks after CCl4 treatment, and the livers were collected for biochemical analysis. The activated LX-2, human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line, were transfected with Tβ4-specific siRNA and activation markers of HSCs were examined. Compared to HepG2, higher expression of Tβ4 in RNA and protein levels was detected in the activated LX-2. In addition, Tβ4 was up-regulated in human liver with advanced liver fibrosis. The expression of Tβ4 increased during mouse HSC activation. Tβ4 was also up-regulated and Tβ4-positive cells were co-localized with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the livers of CCl4-treated mice, whereas such cells were rarely detected in the livers of corn-oil treated mice. The suppression of Tβ4 in LX-2 cells by siRNA induced the down-regulation of HSC activation-related genes, tgf-β, α-sma, collagen, and vimentin, and up-regulation of HSC inactivation markers, ppar-γ and gfap. Immunofluorescent staining detected rare co-expressing cells with Tβ4 and α-SMA in Tβ4 siRNA-transfected cells. In addition, cytoplasmic lipid droplets were observed in Tβ4 siRNA-treated cells. These results demonstrate that activated HSCs expressed Tβ4 in chronically damaged livers, and this endogenous expression of Tβ4 influenced HSC activation, indicating that Tβ4 might contribute to liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation.

  18. HuR contributes to Hepatic Stellate Cell activation and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Woodhoo, A.; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, M.; Beraza, N.; García-Rodríguez, J.L.; Embade, N.; Fernández-Ramos, D.; Matinez-Lopez, N.; Gutiérrez, Virginia; Arteta, B.; Caballeria, J.; Lu, S.C.; Mato, J.M.; Varela-Rey, M.; Martinez-Chantar, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a major role in control of mRNA turnover and translation rates. We examined the role of the RBP human antigen R (HuR) during cholestatic liver injury and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation. HuR silencing attenuated fibrosis development in vivo after BDL, reducing liver damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and collagen and α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin) expression. HuR expression increased in activated HSC from BDL mice and during HSC activation in vitro, and HuR silencing markedly reduced HSC activation. HuR regulated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration, and controlled expression of several mRNAs involved in these processes (Actin, MMP9, Cyclin D1 and B1). These functions of HuR were linked to its abundance and cytoplasmic localisation, controlled by PDGF, via ERK and PI3K activation, and ERK-LKB1 activation respectively. More importantly, we identified the tumor suppressor LKB1 as a novel downstream target of PDGF-induced ERK activation in HSC. HuR also controlled transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β-induced profibrogenic actions by regulating expression of TGF-β, α-SMA, and p21. This was likely due to an increased cytoplasmic localisation of HuR, controlled by TGF-β-induced p38 MAPK activation. Finally, we found that HuR and LKB1 (Ser428) levels were highly expressed in activated HSC in human cirrhotic samples. Conclusion: Our results show that HuR is important for pathogenesis of liver fibrosis development in the cholestatic injury model, for HSC activation, and for the response of activated HSC to PDGF and TGF-β. PMID:22576182

  19. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 from hepatic stellate cells requires interactions with hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Théret, N.; Musso, O.; L'Helgoualc'h, A.; Clément, B.

    1997-01-01

    Activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, the 72-kd collagenase IV/gelatinase A, is involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. It has been suggested that a membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP-1) and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 are involved in MMP-2 processing, but the exact mechanism(s) of its activation remains unclear. We have investigated the role of cell-cell cooperation in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the liver, using pure cultures and co-cultures of hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization showed that, in both pure and co-cultures, HSCs, but not hepatocytes, expressed MMP-2, TIMP-2, and MT-MMP-1 mRNA. Zymography analyses revealed the latent form of MMP-2 in medium from 2-day-old pure HSC cultures with higher amounts in medium from hepatocyte/HSC co-cultures. When hepatocytes were added to 10-day-old HSC cultures, the activated form of MMP-2 was detected, concomitantly with the deposition of an abundant extracellular matrix. Incubation of plasma membrane-enriched fractions from hepatocytes with conditioned medium from pure HSC cultures generated the activated species of MMP-2 (62 and 59 kd). Activation of pro-MMP-2 by hepatocyte membranes was inhibited by EDTA, heat, and trypsin but not by serine proteinase inhibitors. These data show that the co-expression of TIMP-2, MMP-2, and MT-MMP-1 by HSCs does not lead to secretion of the activated form of MMP-2. Hepatocytes, which do not express MMP-2, TIMP-2, or MT-MMP-1, induce MMP-2 activation through a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism(s), thus suggesting that cell-cell interactions are involved in this process in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9006321

  20. Prevention of cultured rat stellate cell transformation and endothelin-B receptor upregulation by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xuedong; Anselmi, Kristin; Watkins, Simon; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2003-06-01

    1 Physiologically, perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are quiescent and store retinoids. During liver injury and in cell culture, HSC transform into proliferating myofibroblast-like cells that express alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) and produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix. During transformation (also known as activation), HSC are depleted of the retinoid stores, and their expression of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system is increased. ET-1 causes contraction of transformed HSC and is implicated in their proliferation and fibrogenic activity. In order to understand the association between retinoids, ET-1 and the activation of HSC, we investigated the effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid on the transformation of cultured HSC and the expression of ET-1 system. 2 HSC derived from normal rat liver were maintained for 10-12 days in a medium supplemented with 5% serum and containing 2.5 micro M retinoic acid without or with 50 nM ET-1 (ETA+ETB agonist) or sarafotoxin S6c (ETB agonist). In another set of experiments, cells treated for 10-12 days with vehicle (ethanol) or retinoic acid were challenged with ET-1 or sarafotoxin S6c, and various determinations were made at 24 h. 3 Retinoic acid inhibited transformation and proliferation of HSC as assessed by morphological characteristics, expression of alpha-sma, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cell count. Retinoic acid also prevented upregulation of ETB receptors without affecting ET-1 or ETA expression. Total protein synthesis ([(3)H]leucine incorporation), collagen alpha types I mRNA expression and collagen synthesis ([(3)H]proline incorporation) were lower in retinoic acid-treated cells. Although ET-1-treated cells were morphologically similar to the control cells, their expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin was significantly inhibited. The presence of retinoic acid in the medium during treatment with ET-1 caused further reduction in the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. ET-1 and sarafotoxin

  1. Chrysin attenuates liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell activation through TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Balta, Cornel; Herman, Hildegard; Boldura, Oana Maria; Gasca, Ionela; Rosu, Marcel; Ardelean, Aurel; Hermenean, Anca

    2015-10-05

    We investigated the protective effect of chrysin on chronic liver fibrosis in mice and the potential mechanism underlying TGF-β1-mediated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation on fibrogenesis. Experimental fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of mice with 20% v/v, 2 ml/kg CCl4 twice a week, for 7 weeks. Mice were orally treated with 3 doses of chrysin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) or with vehicle as control. For the assessment of the spontaneous reversion of fibrosis, CCl4 treated animals were investigated after two weeks of recovery time. Silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective flavonoid. Histopathological investigations showed that hepatic fibrosis grade was markedly reduced in the chrysin groups compared to the fibrotic one. Moreover, CCl4 activated HSCs induced an upregulation of smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), an increased number of TGF-β1 immunopositive cells and marked up-regulation of TGF-β1. α-SMA and TGF-β1 levels were significantly reduced in all chrysin treated groups in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the level of spontaneous reversal of fibrosis was lower compared to all flavonoid treated groups. Liver mRNA levels of Smad 2 in the 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg chrysin treated groups were significantly reduced by about 88.54%, 92.15% and 95.56% of the corresponding levels in the fibrosis mice group. The results were similar for mRNA levels of Smad 3. The protective response to silymarin was almost similar to that seen with the highest doses of chrysin. In this study, we have shown that chrysin has the efficacy to reverse CCl4-stimulated liver fibrosis by inhibition of HSCs activation and proliferation through TGF-β1/Smad pathway. These results suggest that chrysin may be useful in stopping or reversing the progression of liver fibrosis and might offer the possibility to develop a new therapeutic drug, useful in treatment of chronic liver diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Inhibits Collagen I and IV Synthesis in Hepatic Stellate Cells by miRNA-29 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Trebicka, Jonel; Schievenbusch, Stephanie; Strack, Ingo; Molnar, Levente; von Brandenstein, Melanie; Töx, Ulrich; Nischt, Roswitha; Coutelle, Oliver; Dienes, Hans Peter; Odenthal, Margarete

    2011-01-01

    Background In chronic liver disease, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts, promoting extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and deposition. Stimulation of HSC by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a crucial event in liver fibrogenesis due to its impact on myofibroblastic transition and ECM induction. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), exerts antifibrotic activities. Recently, miR-29 has been reported to be involved in ECM synthesis. We therefore studied the influence of HGF and TGF-β on the miR-29 collagen axis in HSC. Methodology HSC, isolated from rats, were characterized for HGF and Met receptor expression by Real-Time PCR and Western blotting during culture induced myofibroblastic transition. Then, the levels of TGF-β, HGF, collagen-I and -IV mRNA, in addition to miR-29a and miR-29b were determined after HGF and TGF-β stimulation of HSC or after experimental fibrosis induced by bile-duct obstruction in rats. The interaction of miR-29 with 3′-untranslated mRNA regions (UTR) was analyzed by reporter assays. The repressive effect of miR-29 on collagen synthesis was studied in HSC treated with miR-29-mimicks by Real-Time PCR and immunoblotting. Principal Findings The 3′-UTR of the collagen-1 and −4 subtypes were identified to bind miR-29. Hence, miR-29a/b overexpression in HSC resulted in a marked reduction of collagen-I and -IV synthesis. Conversely, a decrease in miR-29 levels is observed during collagen accumulation upon experimental fibrosis, in vivo, and after TGF-β stimulation of HSC, in vitro. Finally, we show that during myofibroblastic transition and TGF-β exposure the HGF-receptor, Met, is upregulated in HSC. Thus, whereas TGF-β stimulation leads to a reduction in miR-29 expression and de-repression of collagen synthesis, stimulation with HGF was definitely associated with highly elevated miR-29 levels and markedly repressed collagen-I and -IV synthesis. Conclusions Upregulation of miRNA-29 by HGF

  3. Modulation of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia by treadmill exercise of stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovic, Ljubica; Spasojevic, Natasa; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2012-03-01

    The sympatho-adrenal system represents one of the main systems involved in the response to stressful events because its stress-induced activation results in an increased release of catecholamines. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenal system, adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia being two components of this system. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20-min treadmill exercise for 12 weeks, using TaqMan RT-PCR assay. Chronic psychosocial stress decreased gene expression of the examined enzymes in the adrenal medulla and treadmill exercise did not lead to further modulation of the corresponding gene expression. On the other hand, chronic psychosocial stress produced a significant increase of TH (about 51%) and DBH (about 103%) gene expression in stellate ganglia, while treadmill exercise decreased gene expression of these enzymes to control levels in psychosocially stressed rats. Our data indicate that treadmill exercise leads to a decreased gene transcription of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in stellate ganglia and attenuation of cardiac noradrenaline production in stressful situations. Reduction of catecholamine synthesis in stellate ganglia may be linked to the beneficial effects of treadmill exercise on cardiovascular system in stressed animals.

  4. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid suppresses hepatic stellate cells activation by HMGB1 dependent reduction of NF-κB1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Yan, Min; Ji, Qiuhong; Lu, Jinbiao; Ji, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation is essential to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Exploring drugs targeting HSC activation is a promising anti-fibrotic strategy. In the present study, we found suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, prominently suppressed the activation phenotype of a human hepatic stellate cell line—LX2. The production of collagen type I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) as well as the proliferation and migration of LX2 cells were significantly reduced by SAHA treatment. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying this suppression, genome wild gene regulation by SAHA was determined by Affymetrix 1.0 human cDNA array. Upon SAHA treatment, the abundance of 331 genes was up-regulated and 173 genes was down-regulated in LX2 cells. Bioinformatic analyses of these altered genes highlighted the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) pathway was one of the most relevant pathways that contributed to SAHA induced suppression of HSCs activation. Further studies demonstrated the increased acetylation of intracellular HMGB1 in SAHA treated HSCs, and this increasing is most likely to be responsible for SAHA induced down-regulation of nuclear factor kappa B1 (NF-κB1) and is one of the main underlying mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of SAHA for liver fibrosis. PMID:26557438

  5. Aucubin and its hydrolytic derivative attenuate activation of hepatic stellate cells via modulation of TGF-β stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Pei-Yu; Feng, Han; Huang, Wei-Hua; Tian, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ya-Qin; Qin, Yu-Hua; Li, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Kai; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Eucommia ulmoides is an important traditional Chinese medicine and has been used as a tonic with a long history. Aucubin is an active component extracted from Eucommia ulmoides, which has liver-protection effects. However the mechanisms are still unclear. To investigate the inhibitory effects and the underlying mechanisms of aucubin on TGF-β1-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells and ECM deposition, Human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2 cells) were incubated with TGF-β1 to evaluate the anti-fibrotic effect of aucubin. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of α-SMA, Col I, Col III, MMP-2 and TIMP-1. ROS production was monitored using DCFH-DA probe, and NOX4 expression was detected by Real-time PCR. Results indicated that TGF-β1 stimulated the activation and ECM deposition of LX-2 cells. Compared with the control group, aucubin and aucubigenin both reduced the protein expression of α-SMA, Col I, Col III and MMP-2 in LX-2 cells. Aucubin and aucubigenin also suppressed the generation of ROS and down-regulated the NOX4 mRNA expression. Taken together, aucubin and aucubigenin both inhibit the activation and ECM deposition of LX-2 cells activated by TGF-β1. Aucubin and aucubigenin are potential therapeutic candidate drugs for liver fibrosis.

  6. Identification of cromolyn sodium as an anti-fibrotic agent targeting both hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Kim, Jun Ki; Yang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yeseul; Kim, Pilhan; Park, Sang Gyu; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Dae Ho; Choi, Jin Woo

    2015-12-01

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, the late stage of fibrosis, are threatening diseases that lead to liver failure and patient death. Although aberrantly activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main cause of disease initiation, the symptoms are primarily related to damaged hepatocytes. Thus, damaged hepatocytes, as well as HSCs, need to be simultaneously considered as therapeutic targets to develop more efficient treatments. Here, we suggest cromolyn sodium as an anti-fibrotic agent to commonly modulate hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. The differentially expressed genes from 6 normal and 40 cirrhotic liver tissues which were collected from GEO data were assessed by pharmacokinetic analysis using a connectivity map to identify agents that commonly revert abnormal hepatocytes and HSCs to normal conditions. Based on a series of analyses, a few candidates were selected. Candidates were tested in vitro to determine their anti-fibrotic efficacy on HSCs and hepatocytes. Cromolyn, which was originally developed as a mast cell stabilizer, showed the potential to ameliorate activated HSCs in vitro. The activation and collagen accumulation for HSC cell lines LX2 and HSC-T6 were reduced by 50% after cromolyn treatment at a low concentration without apoptosis. Furthermore, cromolyn treatment compromised the TGF-β-induced epithelial mesenchyme transition and replicative senescence rate of hepatocytes, which are generally associated with fibrogenesis. Taken together, cromolyn may be the basis for an effective cure for fibrosis and cirrhosis because it targets both HSCs and hepatocytes.

  7. Liver Fibrosis and Protection Mechanisms Action of Medicinal Plants Targeting Apoptosis of Hepatocytes and Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.; González-Garza, Maria Teresa; Rodríguez-Montalvo, Carlos; Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva

    2014-01-01

    Following chronic liver injury, hepatocytes undergo apoptosis leading to activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Consequently, activated HSC proliferate and produce excessive extracellular matrix, responsible for the scar formation. The pandemic trend of obesity, combined with the high incidence of alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infections, highlights the urgent need to find accessible antifibrotic therapies. Treatment strategies should take into account the versatility of its pathogenesis and act on all the cell lines involved to reduce liver fibrosis. Medicinal plants are achieving popularity as antifibrotic agents, supported by their safety, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. This review will describe the role of hepatocytes and HSC in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and detail the mechanisms of modulation of apoptosis of both cell lines by twelve known hepatoprotective plants in order to reduce liver fibrosis. PMID:25505905

  8. Hepatic stellate cells promote upregulation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Teruya; Shiraha, Hidenori; Sawahara, Hiroaki; Uchida, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Iwamuro, Masaya; Kataoka, Junro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Kuwaki, Takeshi; Onishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takaki, Akinobu; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-09-01

    Microenvironment plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness of cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is known as a tumor stemness marker of HCC. To investigate the relationship between microenvironment and stemness, we performed an in vitro co-culture assay. Four HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) were co-cultured with the TWNT-1 immortalized hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which create a microenvironment with HCC. Cell proliferation ability was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while migration ability was assessed by a wound healing assay. Expression of EpCAM was analyzed by immunoblotting and FCM. HCC cell lines were co-cultured with TWNT-1 treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for TGF-β and HB-EGF; we then analyzed proliferation, migration ability and protein expression using the methods described above. Proliferation ability was unchanged in HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Migration ability was increased in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) directly (216.2±67.0, 61.0±22.0, 124.0±66.2 and 51.5±40.3%) and indirectly (102.5±22.0, 84.6±30.9, 86.1±25.7 and 73.9±29.7%) co-cultured with TWNT-1 compared with the HCC uni-culture. Immunoblot analysis revealed increased EpCAM expression in the HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Flow cytometry revealed that the population of E-cadherin-/N-cadherin+ and EpCAM-positive cells increased and accordingly, EMT and stemness in the HCC cell line were activated. These results were similar in the directly and indirectly co-cultured samples, indicating that humoral factors were at play. Conversely, HCC cell lines co-cultured with siRNA‑treated TWNT-1 showed decreased migration ability, a decreased population of EpCAM-positive and E-cadherin-/N-cadherin+ cells. Taken together, humoral factors secreted from TWNT-1

  9. Relevance of activated hepatic stellate cells in predicting the development of pediatric liver allograft fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Carla; Reding, Raymond; Quinones, Jorge Abarca; Sokal, Etienne; Rahier, Jacques; Bueno, Javier; Sempoux, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main collagen-producing cells in liver fibrogenesis. With the purpose of analyzing their presence and relevance in predicting liver allograft fibrosis development, 162 liver biopsies of 54 pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients were assessed at 6 months, 3 years, and 7 years after LT. The proportion of activated HSCs, identified by α-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunostaining, and the amount of fibrosis, identified by picrosirius red (PSR%) staining, were determined by computer-based morphometric analysis. Fibrosis was also staged by using the semiquantitative liver allograft fibrosis score (LAFSc), specifically designed to score fibrosis in the pediatric LT population. Liver allograft fibrosis displayed progression over time by PSR% (P < 0.001) and by LAFSc (P < 0.001). The ASMA expression decreased in the long term, with inverse evolution with respect to fibrosis (P < 0.01). Patients with ASMA-positive HSCs area ≥ 8% at 6 months (n = 20) developed a higher fibrosis proportion compared to those with ASMA-positive HSCs area ≤ 8% (n = 34) at the same period of time and in the long term (P = 0.03 and P < 0.01, respectively), but not at 3 years (P = 0.8). ASMA expression ≥ 8% at 6 months was found to be an independent risk factor for 7-year fibrosis development by PSR% (r(2) = 0.5; P < 0.01) and by LAFSc (r(2) = 0.3; P = 0.03). Furthermore, ASMA expression ≥ 8% at 3 years showed an association with the development of fibrosis at 7 years (P = 0.02). In conclusion, there is a high proportion of activated HSCs in pediatric LT recipients. ASMA ≥ 8% at 6 months seems to be a risk factor for early and longterm fibrosis development. In addition, activated HSCs showed inverse evolution with respect to fibrosis in the long term. Liver Transplantation 22 822-829 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Posttranscriptional regulation of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, B; Hellerbrand, C; Holcik, M; Briendl, M; Aliebhaber, S; Brenner, D A

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the primary cell responsible for the dramatic increase in the synthesis of type I collagen in the cirrhotic liver. Quiescent HSCs contain a low level of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA, while activated HSCs contain about 60- to 70-fold more of this mRNA. The transcription rate of the collagen alpha1(I) gene is only two fold higher in activated HSCs than in quiescent HSCs. In assays using actinomycin D or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside collagen alpha1(I) mRNA has estimated half-lives of 1.5 h in quiescent HSCs and 24 h in activated HSCs. Thus, this 16-fold change in mRNA stability is primarily responsible for the increase in collagen alpha1(I) mRNA steady-state level in activated HSCs. We have identified a novel RNA-protein interaction targeted to the C-rich sequence in the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR). This sequence is localized 24 nucleotides 3' to the stop codon. In transient transfection experiments, mutation of this sequence diminished accumulation of an mRNA transcribed from a collagen alpha1(I) minigene and in stable transfections decreased the half-life of collagen alpha1(I) minigene mRNA. Binding to the collagen alpha1(I) 3' UTR is present in cytoplasmic extracts of activated but not quiescent HSCs. It contains as a subunit alphaCP, which is also found in the complex involved in stabilization of alpha-globin mRNA. The auxiliary factors necessary to promote binding of alphaCP to the collagen 3' UTR are distinct from the factors necessary for binding to the alpha-globin sequence. Since alphaCP is expressed in both quiescent and activated HSCs, these auxiliary factors are responsible for the differentially expressed RNA-protein interaction at the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' UTR. PMID:9271398

  11. [Effects of cordyceps acid and cordycepin on the inflammatory and fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Zhe; Cao, Yi-Rong; Zhang, Yuan-Qing; Tao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Xu, Lie-Ming; Guo, Jin-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of cordyceps acid and cordycepin on the inflammatory phenotype and fibrogenic property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). An immortalized mouse HSC line (JS1) was stimulated with lippolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/ml) to induce an inflammatory response with or without co-administration of cordyceps acid or cordycepin in various concentrations (10, 50, or 200 mumol/L). Effects of the treatments on the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression in the cells and the protein secretion in the cell culture supernatants were determined by reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. In addition, JS1 cells were treated with transforming growth factor-b1 (TGFb1; 10 ng/ml) to induce a fibrogenic response with or without co-administration of cordyceps acid or cordycepin in various concentrations (10, 50, or 200 mumol/L). Effects on the expression of fibrogenic proteins including collagen type I and a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA), were investigated by Western blot. High-concentration (200 mumol/L) treatments of both cordyceps acid and cordycepin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced up-regulation of MCP-1 transcription and secretion (mRNA: 2.07 +/- 0.29 vs. 3.35 +/- 0.26, t = 15.90 and 1.15 +/- 0.23 vs. 4.17 +/- 0.61, t = 8.93; protein: 1.88 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.33 +/- 0.06, t = 10.39 and 1.47 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.97 +/- 0.04, t = 4.60; all P less than 0.05). All concentrations of cordyceps acid and cordycepin inhibited the TGFb1-induced up-regulation of collagen type I and a-SMA protein expression. However, the effects were more robust with the 200 mumol/L concentrations (P less than 0.05). Cordyceps acid and cordycepin ameliorate the LPS-induced inflammatory phenotype and TGFb1-induced fibrogenic response of cultured HSCs. These effects may contribute significantly to the drugs' therapeutic mechanisms to inhibit and resolve liver fibrosis.

  12. Association of interleukin-15-induced peripheral immune activation with hepatic stellate cell activation in persons coinfected with hepatitis C virus and HIV.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert D; Katsounas, Antonios; Koziol, Deloris E; Kleiner, David E; Alter, Harvey J; Lempicki, Richard A; Wood, Brad; Yang, Jun; Fullmer, Brandie; Cortez, Karoll J; Polis, Michael A; Kottilil, Shyam

    2009-08-15

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) mediate hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver fibrosis, and increased HSC activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV coinfection may be associated with accelerated fibrosis. We examined the level of HSC activation in HIV/HCV-coinfected and HCV-monoinfected subjects and its relationship to the level of activation and gene expression of peripheral immune cells in coinfected subjects. HSC activation levels positively correlated with peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune activation and were associated with enhanced interleukin-15 (IL-15) gene expression, suggesting a pathogenic role for IL-15-driven immunomediated hepatic fibrosis. Future strategies that reduce immune activation and HSC activation may delay progression of liver fibrosis.

  13. EZH2-mediated repression of Dkk1 promotes hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Li, Wan-Xia; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Cheng; Xie, Juan; Zhao, Yu-Xin; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Li, Jun

    2017-03-23

    EZH2, a histone H3 lysine-27-specific methyltransferase, is involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of EZH2 in liver fibrosis is largely unknown. In this study, it was identified that EZH2 promoted Wnt pathway-stimulated fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo by repressing Dkk-1, which is a Wnt pathway antagonist. The expression of EZH2 was increased in CCl4 -induced rat liver and primary HSCs as well as TGF-β1-treated HSC-T6, whereas the expression of Dkk1 was reduced. Silencing of EZH2 prevented TGF-β1-induced proliferation of HSC-T6 cells and the expression of α-SMA. In addition, knockdown of Dkk1 promoted TGF-β1-induced activation of HSCs. Moreover, silencing of EZH2 could restore the repression of Dkk-1 through trimethylation of H3K27me3 in TGF-β1-treated HSC-T6 cells. Interestingly, inhibition of EZH2 had almost no effect on the activation of HSC when Dkk1 was silenced. Collectively, EZH2-mediated repression of Dkk1 promotes the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is an essential event for HSC activation.

  14. Oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cell activation are key events in arsenic induced liver fibrosis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, Subhadip; Biswas, Ayan; Dhali, Gopal Krishna; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Boyer, James L.; Santra, Amal

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxicant and carcinogen. Exposure to arsenic is associated with development of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension through ill defined mechanisms. We evaluated hepatic fibrogenesis after long term arsenic exposure in a murine model. BALB/c mice were exposed to arsenic by daily gavages of 6 {mu}g/gm body weight for 1 year and were evaluated for markers of hepatic oxidative stress and fibrosis, as well as pro-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and pro-fibrogenic factors at 9 and 12 months. Hepatic NADPH oxidase activity progressively increased in arsenic exposure with concomitant development of hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic steatosis with occasional collection of mononuclear inflammatory cells and mild portal fibrosis were the predominant liver lesion observed after 9 months of arsenic exposure, while at 12 months, the changes included mild hepatic steatosis, inflammation, necrosis and significant fibrosis in periportal areas. The pathologic changes in the liver were associated with markers of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, matrix reorganization and fibrosis including {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, PDGF-R{beta}, pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and pro({alpha}) collagen type I. Moreover, pro-apoptotic protein Bax was dominantly expressed and Bcl-2 was down-regulated along with increased number of TUNEL positive hepatocytes in liver of arsenic exposed mice. Furthermore, HSCs activation due to increased hepatic oxidative stress observed after in vivo arsenic exposure was recapitulated in co-culture model of isolated HSCs and hepatocytes exposed to arsenic. These findings have implications not only for the understanding of the pathology of arsenic related liver fibrosis but also for the design of preventive strategies in chronic arsenicosis.

  15. Resveratrol inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sil; Shin, Mi-Ok; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2010-06-01

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes and red wines, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of resveratrol on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Oral administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) remarkably prevented the DMN-induced loss in body and liver weight, and inhibited the elevation of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels. Resveratrol also increased serum albumin and hepatic glutathione levels and reduced the hepatic level of malondialdehyde due to its antioxidant effect. Furthermore, DMN-induced elevation of hydroxyproline content was reduced in the resveratrol treated rats, the result of which was consistent with the reduction in type I collagen mRNA expression and the histological analysis of liver tissue stained with Sirius red. The reduction in hepatic stellate cell activation, as assessed by alpha-smooth muscle actin staining, and the reduction in transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA expression were associated with resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, resveratrol exhibited in vivo hepatoprotective and antifibrogenic effects against DMN-induced liver injury, suggesting that resveratrol may be useful in the prevention of the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  16. Neuropilin-1 promotes cirrhosis of the rodent and human liver by enhancing PDGF/TGF-β signaling in hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Sheng; Yaqoob, Usman; Das, Amitava; Shergill, Uday; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Huebert, Robert C.; Routray, Chittaranjan; Abdelmoneim, Soha; Vasdev, Meher; Leof, Edward; Charlton, Michael; Watts, Ryan J.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Shah, Vijay H.

    2010-01-01

    PDGF-dependent hepatic stellate cell (HSC) recruitment is an essential step in liver fibrosis and the sinusoidal vascular changes that accompany this process. However, the mechanisms that regulate PDGF signaling remain incompletely defined. Here, we found that in two rat models of liver fibrosis, the axonal guidance molecule neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was upregulated in activated HSCs, which exhibit the highly motile myofibroblast phenotype. Additionally, NRP-1 colocalized with PDGF-receptor β (PDGFRβ) in HSCs both in the injury models and in human and rat HSC cell lines. In human HSCs, siRNA-mediated knockdown of NRP-1 attenuated PDGF-induced chemotaxis, while NRP-1 overexpression increased cell motility and TGF-β–dependent collagen production. Similarly, mouse HSCs genetically modified to lack NRP-1 displayed reduced motility in response to PDGF treatment. Immunoprecipitation and biochemical binding studies revealed that NRP-1 increased PDGF binding affinity for PDGFRβ-expressing cells and promoted downstream signaling. An NRP-1 neutralizing Ab ameliorated recruitment of HSCs, blocked liver fibrosis in a rat model of liver injury, and also attenuated VEGF responses in cultured liver endothelial cells. In addition, NRP-1 overexpression was observed in human specimens of liver cirrhosis caused by both hepatitis C and steatohepatitis. These studies reveal a role for NRP-1 as a modulator of multiple growth factor targets that regulate liver fibrosis and the vascular changes that accompany it and may have broad implications for liver cirrhosis and myofibroblast biology in a variety of other organ systems and disease conditions. PMID:20577048

  17. The Effect of Nitric Oxide on Ammonia Decomposition in Co-cultures of Hepatocytes and Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Sumii, Tateki; Nakano, Yohei; Abe, Takuma; Nakashima, Kazuhiro; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic functions, such as albumin secretion and ammonia metabolism, are upregulated in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) produced by hepatic stellate cells (HSC), as well as nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells under shear stress. However, the simultaneous effect of HSC and NO has not been previously investigated in a tri-co-culture model containing hepatocytes with HSC and endothelial cells under shear stress. We hypothesized that NO inhibits HGF production from HSC. To test this idea, we constructed a mono-culture model of hepatocytes and a co-culture model of hepatocytes and HSC and measured ammonia decomposition and HGF production in each model under NO load. Ammonia decomposition was significantly higher in the co-culture model under 0 ppm NO load, but no significant increase was observed under NO load. In the co-culture model, HGF was produced at 1.0 ng/mL under 0 ppm NO load and 0.3 ng/mL under NO load. Ammonia decomposition was increased by 1.0 ng/mL HGF, but not by 0.3 ng/mL HGF. These results indicated that NO inhibits HGF production from HSC; consequently, the effects of NO and co-culture with HSC cannot improve hepatic function simultaneously. Instead, the simultaneous effect of 1.0 ng/mL HGF and NO may further enhance hepatic function in vitro.

  18. Superoxide anion radicals activate hepatic stellate cells after entry through chloride channels: a new target in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Qi, Shufan; van Tilburg, Jonathan H O; Koek, Ger H; Bast, Aalt

    2014-02-05

    It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. ROS, however, constitute a group of species with varying properties making it likely that their contribution to the pathological mechanism varies. LX-2 hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were exposed to superoxide anion radicals (O2(·-)) generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase. To rule out that the activation of HSCs is due to hydrogen peroxide derived from O2(·-), control incubations with copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase and tempol were studied as well. Influx of O2(·-) activated HSCs, evidenced by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and the secretion of transforming growth factor β1 and collagen. We further found that blockade of chloride channels with 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid (NPPB) or indanyloxyacetic acid (IAA-94) prevented the increase of intracellular O2(·-) levels as well as the activation of HSCs. These findings suggest that O2(·-) is involved in the development of liver fibrosis and that entry of O2(·-), through chloride channels, in stellate cells is critical for their activation. This study provides new insight into the mechanism by which ROS induce liver fibrosis. Furthermore, our data suggest that chloride channels constitute a potential target for new anti-fibrotic drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppressive effects of leflunomide on leptin-induced TIMP-1 production involves on hepatic stellate cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Si, H F; Lü, Xiongwen; Guo, Anping; Jiang, Hui

    2008-02-02

    This manuscript revealed that following a fibrogenic stimulus of leptin in vitro, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) underwent a complex activation process characterized by increased proliferation and excessive tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production. Studies with special chemical inhibitors demonstrated that this process involved Janus protein tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signal pathways. Pretreatment with A771726 (alpha,alpha,alpha-Trifluoro-5-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxy-p-toluidide), leflunomide's metabolite, fully prevented leptin-induced TIMP-1 production in HSCs. This effect was associated with its suppression on HSC proliferation and induction of HSC apoptosis.

  20. RNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis Implicate the Regulatory Role of a Long Noncoding RNA-mRNA Network in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can-Jie; Xiao, Xiao; Sheng, Li; Chen, Lili; Zhong, Wei; Li, Hai; Hua, Jing; Ma, Xiong

    2017-08-11

    To analyze the long noncoding (lncRNA)-mRNA expression network and potential roles in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during activation. LncRNA expression was analyzed in quiescent and culture-activated HSCs by RNA sequencing, and differentially expressed lncRNAs verified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. In vivo analyses of differential lncRNA-mRNA expression were performed on a rat model of liver fibrosis. We identified upregulation of 12 lncRNAs and 155 mRNAs and downregulation of 12 lncRNAs and 374 mRNAs in activated HSCs. Additionally, we identified the differential expression of upregulated lncRNAs (NONRATT012636.2, NONRATT016788.2, and NONRATT021402.2) and downregulated lncRNAs (NONRATT007863.2, NONRATT019720.2, and NONRATT024061.2) in activated HSCs relative to levels observed in quiescent HSCs, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses showed that changes in lncRNAs associated with HSC activation revealed 11 significantly enriched pathways according to their predicted targets. Moreover, based on the predicted co-expression network, the relative dynamic levels of NONRATT013819.2 and lysyl oxidase (Lox) were compared during HSC activation both in vitro and in vivo. Our results confirmed the upregulation of lncRNA NONRATT013819.2 and Lox mRNA associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM)-related signaling pathway in HSCs and fibrotic livers. Our results detailing a dysregulated lncRNA-mRNA network might provide new treatment strategies for hepatic fibrosis based on findings indicating potentially critical roles for NONRATT013819.2 and Lox in ECM remodeling during HSC activation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Clonorchis sinensis ferritin heavy chain triggers free radicals and mediates inflammation signaling in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qiang; Xie, Zhizhi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Ren, Mengyu; Shang, Mei; Lei, Huali; Tian, Yanli; Li, Shan; Liang, Pei; Chen, Tingjin; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-02-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct and continuous contact with Clonorchis sinensis, is associated with hepatobiliary damage, inflammation, periductal fibrosis, and the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells respond to liver injury through production of proinflammatory mediators which drive fibrogenesis; however, their endogenous sources and pathophysiological roles in host cells were not determined. C. sinensis ferritin heavy chain (CsFHC) was previously confirmed as a component of excretory/secretory products and exhibited a number of extrahepatic immunomodulatory properties in various diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and biological role of CsFHC in C. sinensis. CsFHC was expressed throughout life stages of C. sinensis. More importantly, we found that treatment of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 with CsFHC triggered the production of free radicals via time-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The increase in free radicals substantially promoted the degradation of cytosolic IκBα and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits (p65 and p50). CsFHC-induced NF-κB activation was markedly attenuated by preincubation with specific inhibitors of corresponding free radical-producing enzyme or the antioxidant. In addition, CsFHC induced an increased expression level of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, in NF-κB-dependent manner. Our results indicate that CsFHC-triggered free radical-mediated NF-κB signaling is an important factor in the chronic inflammation caused by C. sinensis infection.

  2. The pattern of IL-24/mda-7 and its cognate receptors expression following activation of human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Jamhiri, Iman; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Mehrabani, Davood; Khodabandeh, Zahra; Yaghobi, Ramin; Dowran, Razieh; Zahri, Saber

    2017-08-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrosis. Interleukin (IL)-24/melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7) has attracted attention in the pathophysiology of some diseases, while its role in activation/suppression of human HSCs is still unclear. It is important to elucidate whether the expression levels of the IL-24/mda-7 protein and its receptors in HSC cells are changed following activation. LX-2 cells, a human hepatic stellate cell line were activated by a combination of leptin and serum starvation. The activation state was evaluated through measuring the mRNA expression of profibrotic molecules, collagen-I, TIMP metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 and transforming growth factor-β. The expression of IL-24/mda-7 was assessed in mRNA and protein levels by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ELISA methods, respectively. Hence, the amount of IL-22R1 and IL-20R2 subunit expression was also compared in activated and normal LX-2 cells by RT-qPCR. The expression level of IL-24/mda-7 and its cognate receptors was detectable both in the normal and activated LX-2 cell line. Furthermore, in activated LX-2, a significant increase of IL24 expression either on IL-22R1 and IL-20R2 subunits was also noticeable in comparison to normal cells. The activation state of LX-2 cells caused significant changes of IL-24/mda-7 and its receptors expression. In addition, the elevation in IL-24/mda-7 during LX-2 cell activation, suggested that IL-24/mda-7 and its cognate receptors serve a possible role in the development of the fibrosis process. Therefore, IL-24/mda-7 and relevant signaling pathways may be employed as a target for fibrosis treatment.

  3. The pattern of IL-24/mda-7 and its cognate receptors expression following activation of human hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Jamhiri, Iman; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Mehrabani, Davood; Khodabandeh, Zahra ; Yaghobi, Ramin; Dowran, Razieh; Zahri, Saber

    2017-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrosis. Interleukin (IL)-24/melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7) has attracted attention in the pathophysiology of some diseases, while its role in activation/suppression of human HSCs is still unclear. It is important to elucidate whether the expression levels of the IL-24/mda-7 protein and its receptors in HSC cells are changed following activation. LX-2 cells, a human hepatic stellate cell line were activated by a combination of leptin and serum starvation. The activation state was evaluated through measuring the mRNA expression of profibrotic molecules, collagen-I, TIMP metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 and transforming growth factor-β. The expression of IL-24/mda-7 was assessed in mRNA and protein levels by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ELISA methods, respectively. Hence, the amount of IL-22R1 and IL-20R2 subunit expression was also compared in activated and normal LX-2 cells by RT-qPCR. The expression level of IL-24/mda-7 and its cognate receptors was detectable both in the normal and activated LX-2 cell line. Furthermore, in activated LX-2, a significant increase of IL24 expression either on IL-22R1 and IL-20R2 subunits was also noticeable in comparison to normal cells. The activation state of LX-2 cells caused significant changes of IL-24/mda-7 and its receptors expression. In addition, the elevation in IL-24/mda-7 during LX-2 cell activation, suggested that IL-24/mda-7 and its cognate receptors serve a possible role in the development of the fibrosis process. Therefore, IL-24/mda-7 and relevant signaling pathways may be employed as a target for fibrosis treatment. PMID:28804632

  4. Loss of expression of miR-335 is implicated in hepatic stellate cell migration and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chao; Wu, Chao-Qun; Zhang, Zong-Qi; Yao, Ding-Kang; Zhu, Liang

    2011-07-15

    Activation and migration of resident stellate cells (HSCs) within the hepatic space of Disse play an important role in hepatic fibrosis, which accounts for the increased numbers of activated HSCs in areas of inflammation during hepatic fibrosis. Currently, microRNAs have been found to play essential roles in HSC differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, fat accumulation and collagen production. However, little is known about microRNA mediated HSC activation and migration. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of quiescent HSCs, partially activated HSCs and fully activated HSCs were compared in pairs. Gene ontology (GO) and GO-Map network analysis indicated that the activation of HSCs was regulated by microRNAs. Among them miR-335 was confirmed to be significantly reduced during HSC activation by qRT-PCR, and restoring expression of miR-335 inhibited HSC migration and reduced {alpha}-SMA and collagen type I. Previous study revealed that tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein involved in cell migration, might be a target of miR-335. Therefore, we further studied the TNC expression in miR-335 over-expressed HSCs. Our data showed that exogenous TNC could enhance HSC migration in vitro and miR-335 restoration resulted in a significant inhibition of TNC expression. These results demonstrated that miR-335 restoration inhibited HSC migration, at least in part, via downregulating the TNC expression.

  5. A TLR4/MD2 fusion protein inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabl, Bernd Brandl, Katharina; Fink, Marina; Gross, Philipp; Taura, Kojiro; Gaebele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Falk, Werner

    2008-10-17

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis. In injured liver they are the main extracellular matrix protein producing cell type and further perpetuate hepatic injury by secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. Since LPS-mediated signaling through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as key fibrogenic signal in HSCs we aimed to test TLR4 as potential target of therapy via ligand-binding soluble receptors. Incubation of human HSCs with a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of TLR4 and MD2 which binds LPS inhibited LPS-induced NF{kappa}B and JNK activation. TLR4/MD2 abolished LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, and RANTES in HSCs. In addition, TLR4/MD2 fused to human IgG-Fc neutralized LPS activity. Since TLR4 mutant mice are resistant to liver fibrosis, the TLR4/MD2 soluble receptor might represent a new therapeutic molecule for liver fibrogenesis in vivo.

  6. Molecular interplays in hepatic stellate cells: apoptosis, senescence, and phenotype reversion as cellular connections that modulate liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira da Silva, Brenda; Ramos, Letícia Ferrreira; Moraes, Karen C M

    2017-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is a pathophysiological process correlated with intense repair and cicatrization mechanisms in injured liver, and over the past few years, the characterization of the fine-tuning of molecular interconnections that support the development of liver fibrosis has been investigated. In this cellular process, the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) support the organ fibrogenesis. The HSCs are found in two distinct morpho-physiological states: quiescent and activated. In normal liver, most HSCs are found in quiescent state, presenting a considerable amount of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, while in injured liver, the activated phenotype of HSCs is a myofibroblast, that secrete extracellular matrix elements and contribute to the establishment of the fibrotic process. Studies on the molecular mechanisms by which HSCs try to restore their quiescent state have been performed; however, no effective treatment to reverse fibrosis has been so far prescribed. Therefore, the elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, senescence, and the cell reversion phenotype process from activate to quiescent state will certainly contribute to the development of effective therapies to treat hepatic fibrosis. In this context, this review aimed to address central elements of apoptosis, senescence, and reversal of HSC phenotype in the control of hepatic fibrogenesis, as a guide to future development of therapeutic strategies. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. MicroRNA-378 limits activation of hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis by suppressing Gli3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jeongeun; Wang, Sihyung; Kim, Jieun; Rao, Kummara Madhusudana; Park, Soo Yong; Chung, Ildoo; Ha, Chang-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yun, Yang H.; Jung, Youngmi

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signalling regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate various cellular processes; however, their role in liver fibrosis is unclear. Here we investigate regulation of miRNAs in chronically damaged fibrotic liver. MiRNA profiling shows that expression of miR-378 family members (miR-378a-3p, miR-378b and miR-378d) declines in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated compared with corn-oil-treated mice. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p, directly targeting Gli3 in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), reduces expression of Gli3 and profibrotic genes but induces gfap, the inactivation marker of HSCs, in CCl4-treated liver. Smo blocks transcriptional expression of miR-378a-3p by activating the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The hepatic level of miR-378a-3p is inversely correlated with the expression of Gli3 in tumour and non-tumour tissues in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results demonstrate that miR-378a-3p suppresses activation of HSCs by targeting Gli3 and its expression is regulated by Smo-dependent NF-κB signalling, suggesting miR-378a-3p has therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis. PMID:27001906

  8. TGF-β1-elevated TRPM7 channel regulates collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β1/Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ling; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhu, Qian; Zhan, Shuxiang; Li, Jun

    2014-10-15

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis, since myofibroblasts are the key cells responsible for excessive deposition of ECM proteins. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel with protein serine/threonine kinase activity, has been demonstrated to function in the proliferation of activated HSCs. Here, we investigated the functional role of TRPM7 in collagen deposition in activated HSC-T6 cells (a rat hepatic stellate cell line). TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot in TGF-β1-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that TRPM7 protein was dramatically increased in fibrotic human livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with TGF-β1 increased TRPM7 mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-elicited upregulation of TRPM7 in HSC-T6 cells was abrogated by SB431542 (TGF-β1 receptor blocker) or SIS3 (inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation). Additionally, blockade of TRPM7 channels with non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-APB or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7 attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers, as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Silencing TRPM7 also increased the ratio of MMPs/TIMPs by increasing MMP-13 expression and decreasing TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels. Strikingly, phosphorylation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, associated with collagen production, was decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TGF-β1 elevates TRPM7 expression in HSCs via Smad3-dependant mechanisms, which in turn contributes Smad protein phosphorylation, and subsequently increases fibrous collagen expression. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 protein in human fibrotic livers • Upregulation of TRPM7 by TGF-β1 elicited Smad signaling in HSC-T6 cells

  9. Low-intensity treadmill exercise-related changes in the rat stellate ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Renato Albuquerque de Oliveira; da Pureza, Demilto Yamaguchi; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Tang, Helen; Loesch, Andrzej; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2009-05-01

    Stellate ganglion (SG) represents the main sympathetic input to the heart. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in the quantitative aspects of SG neurons in treadmill-exercised Wistar rats. By applying state-of-the-art design-based stereology, the SG volume, total number of SG neurons, mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons, and the total volume of neurons in the whole SG have been examined. Arterial pressure and heart rate were also measured at the end of the exercise period. The present study showed that a low-intensity exercise training program caused a 12% decrease in the heart rate of trained rats. In contrast, there were no effects on systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or mean arterial pressure. As to quantitative changes related to physical exercise, the main findings were a 21% increase in the fractional volume occupied by neurons in the SG, and an 83% increase in the mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons in treadmill-trained rats, which shows a remarkable neuron hypertrophy. It seems reasonable to infer that neuron hypertrophy may have been the result of a functional overload imposed on the SG neurons by initial posttraining sympathetic activation. From the novel stereological data we provide, further investigations are needed to shed light on the mechanistic aspect of neuron hypertrophy: what role does neuron hypertrophy play? Could neuron hypertrophy be assigned to the functional overload induced by physical exercise?

  10. [Effects of desmopressin acetate and pituitrin on proliferation, contraction, and secretion of hepatic stellate cells].

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, X T; Zhang, M Y; Wang, G C; Feng, H; Zhang, C Q

    Objective: To investigate the effects of desmopressin acetate and pituitrin on the proliferation, contraction, and secretion of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods: The human HSC cell line LX-2 was selected as the research model. And three groups were designed: blank control group, desmopressin acetate group (three subgroups: 1×10(-10)mol/L, 1×10(-9)mol/L, and 1×10(-8)mol/L desmopressin acetate), and pituitrin group (three subgroups: 0.1 U/L, 1.0 U/L, and 10.0 U/L pituitrin). Water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST)-1 assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation; collagen gel contraction assay was used to assess cell contraction; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to identify cell secretion. The data was subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Results: (1) The results of WST-1 assay showed that the values of A450in three desmopressin acetate subgroups (1×10(-10)mol/L, 1×10(-9)mol/L, and 1×10(-8)mol/L) were 0.459±0.017, 0.467±0.024, and 0.436±0.015, respectively. And the values of A450 in three pituitrin subgroups (0.1 U/L, 1.0 U/L, and 10.0 U/L) were 0.495±0.011, 0.507±0.015, and 0.501±0.009, respectively. Compared with the control group, the desmopressin acetate at high concentration significantly inhibited the cell proliferation (P< 0.05), but the pituitrin at three different concentrations significantly promoted the cell proliferation (P< 0.05). (2) The collagen gel area ratios in three desmopressin acetate subgroups (1×10(-10)mol/L, 1×10(-9)mol/L, and 1×10(-8)mol/L) were 77.07±4.42, 75.85±3.70, and 72.74±3.92, respectively. And the collagen gel area ratios in three pituitrin subgroups (0.1 U/L, 1.0 U/L, and 10.0 U/L) were 57.83±3.96, 50.28±6.69, and 43.56±7.68, respectively. Compared with the control group, the pituitrin at three different concentrations significantly reduced the collagen gel area (P< 0.01). (3) The matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2 concentrations in three desmopressin acetate subgroups (1×10(-10)mol/L, 1

  11. Adenoviral overexpression of Lhx2 attenuates cell viability but does not preserve the stem cell like phenotype of hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Genz, Berit; Thomas, Maria; Pützer, Brigitte M.; Siatkowski, Marcin; Fuellen, Georg; Vollmar, Brigitte; Abshagen, Kerstin

    2014-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are well known initiators of hepatic fibrosis. After liver cell damage, HSC transdifferentiate into proliferative myofibroblasts, representing the major source of extracellular matrix in the fibrotic organ. Recent studies also demonstrate a role of HSC as progenitor or stem cell like cells in liver regeneration. Lhx2 is described as stem cell maintaining factor in different organs and as an inhibitory transcription factor in HSC activation. Here we examined whether a continuous expression of Lhx2 in HSC could attenuate their activation and whether Lhx2 could serve as a potential target for antifibrotic gene therapy. Therefore, we evaluated an adenoviral mediated overexpression of Lhx2 in primary HSC and investigated mRNA expression patterns by qRT-PCR as well as the activation status by different in vitro assays. HSC revealed a marked increase in activation markers like smooth muscle actin alpha (αSMA) and collagen 1α independent from adenoviral transduction. Lhx2 overexpression resulted in attenuated cell viability as shown by a slightly hampered migratory and contractile phenotype of HSC. Expression of stem cell factors or signaling components was also unaffected by Lhx2. Summarizing these results, we found no antifibrotic or stem cell maintaining effect of Lhx2 overexpression in primary HSC. - Highlights: • We performed adenoviral overexpression of Lhx2 in primary hepatic stellate cells. • Hepatic stellate cells expressed stem cell markers during cultivation. • Cell migration and contractility was slightly hampered upon Lhx2 overexpression. • Lhx2 overexpression did not affect stem cell character of hepatic stellate cells.

  12. Reconstruction of hepatic stellate cell-incorporated liver capillary structures in small hepatocyte tri-culture using microporous membranes.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Junichi; Sudo, Ryo; Masuda, Genta; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Mariko; Tanishita, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    In liver sinusoids, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) locate the outer surface of microvessels to form a functional unit with endothelia and hepatocytes. To reconstruct functional liver tissue in vitro, formation of the HSC-incorporated sinusoidal structure is essential. We previously demonstrated capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in tri-culture, where a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microporous membrane was intercalated between the ECs and hepatic organoids composed of small hepatocytes (SHs), i.e. hepatic progenitor cells, and HSCs. However, the high thickness and low porosity of the membranes limited heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which are essential to form HSC-EC hybrid structures. Here, we focused on the effective use of the thin and highly porous poly( d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microporous membranes in SH-HSC-EC tri-culture to reconstruct the HSC-incorporated liver capillary structures in vitro. First, the formation of EC capillary-like structures was induced on Matrigel-coated PLGA microporous membranes. Next, the membranes were stacked on hepatic organoids composed of small SHs and HSCs. When the pore size and porosity of the membranes were optimized, HSCs selectively migrated to the EC capillary-like structures. This process was mediated in part by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling. In addition, the HSCs were located along the outer surface of the EC capillary-like structures with their long cytoplasmic processes. In the HSC-incorporated capillary tissues, SHs acquired high levels of differentiated functions, compared to those without ECs. This model will provide a basis for the construction of functional, thick, vascularized liver tissues in vitro.

  13. Hepatic stellate cells undermine the allostimulatory function of liver myeloid dendritic cells via STAT3-dependent induction of IDO.

    PubMed

    Sumpter, Tina L; Dangi, Anil; Matta, Benjamin M; Huang, Chao; Stolz, Donna B; Vodovotz, Yoram; Thomson, Angus W; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2012-10-15

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are critical for hepatic wound repair and tissue remodeling. They also produce cytokines and chemokines that may contribute to the maintenance of hepatic immune homeostasis and the inherent tolerogenicity of the liver. The functional relationship between HSCs and the professional migratory APCs in the liver, that is, dendritic cells (DCs), has not been evaluated. In this article, we report that murine liver DCs colocalize with HSCs in vivo under normal, steady-state conditions, and cluster with HSCs in vitro. In vitro, HSCs secrete high levels of DC chemoattractants, such as MΙP-1α and MCP-1, as well as cytokines that modulate DC activation, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Culture of HSCs with conventional liver myeloid (m) DCs resulted in increased IL-6 and IL-10 secretion compared with that of either cell population alone. Coculture also resulted in enhanced expression of costimulatory (CD80, CD86) and coinhibitory (B7-H1) molecules on mDCs. HSC-induced mDC maturation required cell-cell contact and could be blocked, in part, by neutralizing MΙP-1α or MCP-1. HSC-induced mDC maturation was dependent on activation of STAT3 in mDCs and, in part, on HSC-secreted IL-6. Despite upregulation of costimulatory molecules, mDCs conditioned by HSCs demonstrated impaired ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation, which was independent of B7-H1, but dependent upon HSC-induced STAT3 activation and subsequent upregulation of IDO. In conclusion, by promoting IDO expression, HSCs may act as potent regulators of liver mDCs and function to maintain hepatic homeostasis and tolerogenicity.

  14. IGF-I induces senescence of hepatic stellate cells and limits fibrosis in a p53-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Genzo; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Takahashi, Michiko; Suda, Kentaro; Bando, Hironori; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Yoshida, Kenichi; Odake, Yukiko; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis determines patient prognosis; however, effective treatment for fibrosis has not been established. Oxidative stress and inflammation activate hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and promote fibrosis. In contrast, cellular senescence inhibits HSCs’ activity and limits fibrosis. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of IGF-I on NASH and cirrhotic models and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrate that IGF-I significantly ameliorated steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in a NASH model, methionine-choline-deficient diet-fed db/db mice and ameliorated fibrosis in cirrhotic model, dimethylnitrosamine-treated mice. As the underlying mechanisms, IGF-I improved oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the liver. In addition, IGF-I receptor was strongly expressed in HSCs and IGF-I induced cellular senescence in HSCs in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, in mice lacking the key senescence regulator p53, IGF-I did not induce cellular senescence in HSCs or show any effects on fibrosis. Taken together, these results indicate that IGF-I induces senescence of HSCs, inactivates these cells and limits fibrosis in a p53-dependent manner and that IGF-I may be applied to treat NASH and cirrhosis. PMID:27721459

  15. The hop constituent xanthohumol exhibits hepatoprotective effects and inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells at different levels

    PubMed Central

    Weiskirchen, Ralf; Mahli, Abdo; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant. In recent years, various beneficial xanthohumol effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic activities, and anticancer effects have been revealed. This review summarizes present studies indicating that xanthohumol also inhibits several critical pathophysiological steps during the development and course of chronic liver disease, including the activation and pro-fibrogenic genotype of hepatic stellate cells. Also the various mechanism of action and molecular targets of the beneficial xanthohumol effects will be described. Furthermore, the potential use of xanthohumol or a xanthohumol-enriched hop extract as therapeutic agent to combat the progression of chronic liver disease will be discussed. It is notable that in addition to its hepatoprotective effects, xanthohumol also holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treating obesity, dysregulation of glucose metabolism and other components of the metabolic syndrome including hepatic steatosis. Thus, therapeutic xanthohumol application appears as a promising strategy, particularly in obese patients, to inhibit the development as well as the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25999863

  16. Expression and function of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 in hepatic stellate cells and its role in toxic liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, Marianne; Wirz, Werner; Tag, Carmen G.; Gressner, Axel M.; Marvituna, Meltem; Wycislo, Mathias; Hellerbrand, Claus; Kiefer, Paul . E-mail: paul.kiefer@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-09-21

    Hepatic injury and regeneration of the liver are associated with activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are important regulators of repair in various tissues. HSC express FGFR3IIIc as well as FGFGR4 and different spliced FGFR1IIIc and FGFR2IIIc isoforms which differ in the presence or absence of the acid box and of the first Ig-like domain. Expression of FGF9, known to be capable to activate the HSC FGFR2/3-isoforms, was increased in HSC in liver slice cultures after exposition to carbon tetrachloride, as an acute liver injury model. FGF9 significantly stimulated 3-H thymidine incorporation of hepatocytes, but failed to induce DNA synthesis in HSC despite the fact that FGF9 induced a sustained activation of extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) 1/2. FGF9 induced an increased phosphorylation of Tyr436 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate (FRS) 2, while phosphorylation of Tyr196 which is required for efficient Grb2 recruitment remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that HSC FGF9 provide a paracrine mitogenic signal to hepatocytes during acute liver injury, while the autocrine FGF9 signaling appears to be not sufficient to induce cell proliferation.

  17. The hop constituent xanthohumol exhibits hepatoprotective effects and inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells at different levels.

    PubMed

    Weiskirchen, Ralf; Mahli, Abdo; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant. In recent years, various beneficial xanthohumol effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic activities, and anticancer effects have been revealed. This review summarizes present studies indicating that xanthohumol also inhibits several critical pathophysiological steps during the development and course of chronic liver disease, including the activation and pro-fibrogenic genotype of hepatic stellate cells. Also the various mechanism of action and molecular targets of the beneficial xanthohumol effects will be described. Furthermore, the potential use of xanthohumol or a xanthohumol-enriched hop extract as therapeutic agent to combat the progression of chronic liver disease will be discussed. It is notable that in addition to its hepatoprotective effects, xanthohumol also holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treating obesity, dysregulation of glucose metabolism and other components of the metabolic syndrome including hepatic steatosis. Thus, therapeutic xanthohumol application appears as a promising strategy, particularly in obese patients, to inhibit the development as well as the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green-tea polyphenol, suppresses Rho signaling in TWNT-4 human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Nobuhiko; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Fukushima, Marie; Ohta, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Enjoji, Munechika; Kobayashi, Naoya; Nakamuta, Makoto

    2005-06-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of the polyphenoids in green tea, has been reported to possess a wide range of biologic activities, including antifibrogenesis. Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are central to hepatic fibrosis, and Rho (a small GTPase)-signaling pathways have been implicated in the activation and proliferation of HSCs. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGCG on Rho-signaling pathways in activated human HSC-derived TWNT-4 cells. EGCG inhibited stress-fiber formation, an indicator of Rho activation, and changed the distribution of alpha-smooth-muscle actin. These inhibitory effects of EGCG were restored by overexpression of constitutively active Rho. A pull-down assay revealed that activated Rho (GTP-bound state) was strongly inhibited by ECGC and accompanied by suppressed phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, which is a regulator of Rho-signaling pathways. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine incorporation demonstrated that ECGC (100 micromol/L suppressed cell growth by 80%, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase viotin-deoxyruidine triphosphate nick end-labeling revealed that EGCG (100 micromol/L) caused apoptosis in half of the total cells. EGCG also strongly inhibited lysophoaphatidic acid (an activator of Rho) and induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk1/2, c-jun kinase, and p38). These findings demonstrate that EGCG regulates the structure and growth of HSCs by way of Rho-signaling pathways and suggest that EGCG has therapeutic potential in the setting of liver fibrosis.

  19. Microarray data and pathway analyses for primary human activated hepatic stellate cells compared to HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Alexandra M; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Borradaile, Nica M

    2017-02-01

    As nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progresses to end-stage diseases, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrotic activated hepatic stellate cells and cancerous epithelial cells can become abundant, changing the cellular composition of this organ. Despite potentially residing within the same diseased tissue, direct comparisons of global gene expression between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells are lacking. Here we provide data collected using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to identify differential gene expression in cultured primary human activated hepatic stellate cells compared to HepG2 human hepatoma cells. The dataset includes many genes involved in intermediary metabolism which were investigated in greater depth in our associated article (A.M. Hetherington, C.G. Sawyez, E. Zilberman, A.M. Stoianov, D.L. Robson, J.M. Hughes-Large, et al., 2016) [1]. Pathway analyses of known protein coding genes down-regulated or up-regulated by greater than 2.0-fold are also provided.

  20. The Effector Protein BPE005 from Brucella abortus Induces Collagen Deposition and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Downmodulation via Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Rey Serantes, Diego; Herrmann, Claudia Karina; Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Comerci, Diego José; Delpino, María Victoria

    2015-12-14

    The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. In the present study, we identified a virulence factor involved in the modulation of hepatic stellate cell function and consequent fibrosis during Brucella abortus infection. This study assessed the role of BPE005 protein from B. abortus in the fibrotic phenotype induced on hepatic stellate cells during B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the fibrotic phenotype induced by B. abortus on hepatic stellate (LX-2) cells was dependent on BPE005, a protein associated with the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB from B. abortus. Our results indicated that B. abortus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion through the activity of the BPE005-secreted protein and induces concomitant collagen deposition by LX-2 cells. BPE005 is a small protein containing a cyclic nucleotide monophosphate binding domain (cNMP) that modulates the LX-2 cell phenotype through a mechanism that is dependent on the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that B. abortus tilts LX-2 cells to a profibrogenic phenotype employing a functional T4SS and the secreted BPE005 protein through a mechanism that involves the cAMP and PKA signaling pathway.

  1. The Effector Protein BPE005 from Brucella abortus Induces Collagen Deposition and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Downmodulation via Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Rey Serantes, Diego; Herrmann, Claudia Karina; Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Comerci, Diego José

    2015-01-01

    The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. In the present study, we identified a virulence factor involved in the modulation of hepatic stellate cell function and consequent fibrosis during Brucella abortus infection. This study assessed the role of BPE005 protein from B. abortus in the fibrotic phenotype induced on hepatic stellate cells during B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the fibrotic phenotype induced by B. abortus on hepatic stellate (LX-2) cells was dependent on BPE005, a protein associated with the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB from B. abortus. Our results indicated that B. abortus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion through the activity of the BPE005-secreted protein and induces concomitant collagen deposition by LX-2 cells. BPE005 is a small protein containing a cyclic nucleotide monophosphate binding domain (cNMP) that modulates the LX-2 cell phenotype through a mechanism that is dependent on the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that B. abortus tilts LX-2 cells to a profibrogenic phenotype employing a functional T4SS and the secreted BPE005 protein through a mechanism that involves the cAMP and PKA signaling pathway. PMID:26667834

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Hepatic Stellate Cells Promotes Liver Fibrosis via PERK-Mediated Degradation of HNRNPA1 and Up-regulation of SMAD2.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja Hyun; Lee, Hyo Ju; Kim, Won; Kim, Sang Geon

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in a variety of diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contribute to the development of liver fibrosis. Information on the link between ER stress and HSC activation is scarce. We investigated the effects of ER stress in HSCs on the progression of liver fibrosis and the regulation of this process in cells and mice. Proteins and messenger RNAs were measured in 2 sets of liver samples (n = 25 and n = 44) collected from patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and/or fibrosis. ER stress was induced in cells and mice using chemical agents. Lentiviral vectors were constructed to express glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78; also known as HSPA5) or heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1) from the α-smooth muscle actin promoter and injected into C57BL/6 mice for HSC-specific gene expression. Liver tissues and HSCs were collected from mice or rats and analyzed using immunoblottings and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. LX-2 cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs, microRNA mimics, or overexpression vectors. Hepatic ER stress was much higher in liver tissues from patients with severe vs mild fibrosis. ER stress induced fibrogenic genes in HSCs. Targeted lentiviral delivery of glucose-regulated protein 78 to HSCs in mice reduced fiber accumulation in liver. Levels of SMAD2, but not SMAD3, were increased in fibrotic liver tissues from patients or mice exposed to ER stress; small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SMAD2 reduced ER stress-mediated activation of HSCs. In rat HSCs, ER stress increased levels of SMAD2 messenger RNA by decreasing levels of microRNA 18a (MIR18A), an inhibitor of SMAD2 expression, rather than transactivating the SMAD2 gene. ER stress-activated PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, also known as EIF2AK3 (PERK) phosphorylated HNRNPA1, a protein required for the maturational processing of primary MIR18A, at Thr51, accelerating its

  3. Morin, a dietary flavonoid, exhibits anti-fibrotic effect and induces apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells by suppressing canonical NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    MadanKumar, Perumal; NaveenKumar, Perumal; Devaraj, Halagowder; NiranjaliDevaraj, Sivasithamparam

    2015-03-01

    In experimental liver fibrosis, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a central role and thus, induction of apoptosis of activated HSCs is a promising therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis. The present study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the pro-apoptotic effects of morin, a dietary flavonoid, in vitro and in vivo. Culture-activated human HSCs (LX-2 cells) were treated with morin (50 μM) for 24 and 48 h, and the mechanism of cell death induced by morin was evaluated. Also, the anti-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic effect of morin in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced fibrotic rats were determined. Morin induced apoptosis in cultured LX-2 cells by preventing the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κBp65 (NF-κBp65) by inhibiting NF-κB activation via inhibition of IκBα degradation and thereby suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins and activating caspases. In fibrotic rats, morin treatment resulted in inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling and induction of apoptosis, mainly by downregulating Bcl-2, upregulating Bax and cyt c and by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane, altered nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation confirmed the induction of apoptosis by morin. Overall, morin treatment ameliorated experimental liver fibrosis, most likely through induction of apoptosis by inhibiting canonical NF-κB signaling in activated HSCs. It is therefore postulated that morin is a potential therapeutic candidate for liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. Loss of discoidin domain receptor 2 promotes hepatic fibrosis after chronic carbon tetrachloride through altered paracrine interactions between hepatic stellate cells and liver-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Olaso, Elvira; Arteta, Beatriz; Benedicto, Aitor; Crende, Olatz; Friedman, Scott L

    2011-12-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) interact with fibrillar collagen through the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) in acute hepatic injury, generating increased fibrosis. However, the contribution of DDR2 signaling to chronic liver fibrosis in vivo is unclear, despite its relevance to chronic human liver disease. We administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) to DDR2(+/+) and DDR2(-/-) mice twice weekly, and liver tissues and isolated HSCs were analyzed. In contrast to changes seen in acute injury, after chronic CCl(4) administration, DDR2(-/-) livers had increased collagen deposition, gelatinolytic activity, and HSC density. Increased basal gene expression of osteopontin, transforming growth factor-β1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 and reduced basal gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13, and collagen type I in quiescent DDR2(-/-) HSCs were amplified further after chronic CCl(4). In concordance, DDR2(-/-) HSCs isolated from chronically injured livers had enhanced in vitro migration and proliferation, but less extracellular matrix degradative activity. Macrophages from chronic CCl(4)-treated DDR2(-/-) livers showed stronger chemoattractive activity toward DDR2(-/-) HSCs than DDR2(+/+) macrophages, increased extracellular matrix degradation, and higher cytokine mRNA expression. In conclusion, loss of DDR2 promotes chronic liver fibrosis after CCl(4) injury. The fibrogenic sinusoidal milieu generated in chronic DDR2(-/-) livers recruits more HSCs to injured regions, which enhances fibrosis. Together, these findings suggest that DDR2 normally orchestrates gene programs and paracrine interactions between HSCs and macrophages that together attenuate chronic hepatic fibrosis.

  5. Quercetin prevents hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation and reducing autophagy via the TGF-β1/Smads and PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liwei; Zhang, Qinghui; Mo, Wenhui; Feng, Jiao; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Xu, Shizan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on hepatic fibrosis, a characteristic response to acute or chronic liver injury. Mice were randomized to bile duct ligation (BDL) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) cirrhosis models. Quercetin (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg daily) was administered by gavage for 2 or 4 weeks. Liver tissue and blood samples were collected for histological and molecular analysis. The results of our experiments showed that quercetin reduced BDL or CCl4 liver fibrosis, inhibited extracellular matrix formation, and regulated matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Quercetin attenuated liver damage by suppressing the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway and activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to inhibit autophagy in BDL- or CCl4- induced liver fibrosis. Quercetin prevented hepatic fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation and reducing autophagy through regulating crosstalk between the TGF-β1/Smads and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Jia-Peng; Zheng, Yong-Chao; Chen, Wei; Sun, Yong-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Luo, Meng

    2011-02-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a necessary step in the development of hepatic cirrhosis. In this study we used lentiviral vector-mediated transfection technology to evaluate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) on rat hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by CCl4 for 2 weeks (early fibrosis) and 8 weeks (sustained fibrosis). The rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, fibrosis, blank vector, and PPAR-gamma. They were infected with the recombinant lentiviral expression vector carrying the rat PPAR-gamma gene by portal vein injection. The liver of the rats was examined histologically and hydroxyproline was assessed. In vitro primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were infected with the recombinant lentiviral expression vector carrying the rat PPAR-gamma gene. The status of HSC proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. The protein levels of PPAR-gamma, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and type I collagen expression were evaluated by the Western blotting method. In vitro studies revealed that expression of PPAR-gamma inhibited expression of alpha-SMA and type I collagen in activated HSCs (P<0.01) as well as HSC proliferation (P<0.01). In vivo experiments indicated that in the early hepatic fibrosis group, the hydroxyproline content and the level of collagen I protein in the liver in the PPAR-gamma transfected group were not significantly different compared to the hepatic fibrosis group and the blank vector group; whereas the expressions of PPAR-gamma and alpha-SMA were different compared to the hepatic fibrosis group (P<0.01). In the sustained hepatic fibrosis group, there were significant differences in the hydroxyproline content and the expression of PPAR-gamma, alpha-SMA, and type I collagen between each group. PPAR-gamma can inhibit HSC proliferation and hepatic fibrosis, and suppress alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression.

  7. The herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth and improves survival in models of chronic fibrosis via paracrine inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Zhang, Ke-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang-Bo; You, Yang; Tian, Hui; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Tang, Zhao-You

    2015-01-01

    Chronic fibrosis is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis has been linked to cellular processes that promote tumor growth and metastasis. Several recent studies have highlighted the cross-talk between tumor cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) in HCC. The herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) is known to attenuate hepatoma cell invasion and metastasis via down-regulation of cytokine secretion by aHSCs. However the underlying mechanism of SYY treatment in reversal of hepatic fibrosis and metastasis of liver cancers is not known. In the current study, a nude mouse model with liver fibrosis bearing orthotopic xenograft was established and we found that SYY could reduce associated fibrosis, inhibit tumor growth and improve survival. In the subcutaneous tumor model with fibrosis, we found that SYY could inhibit liver cancer. In vitro, hepatoma cells incubated with conditioned media (CM) from SYY treated aHSCs showed reduced proliferation, decrease in colony formation and invasive potential. SYY treated group showed altered gene expression, with 1205 genes up-regulated and 1323 genes down-regulated. Gene cluster analysis indicated that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) was one of the key genes altered in the expression profiles. PI3K related markers were all significantly down-regulated. ELISA also indicated decreased secretion of cytokines which were regulated by PI3K/AKT signaling after SYY treatment in the hepatic stellate cell line, LX2. These data clearly demonstrate that SYY therapy inhibits HCC invasive and metastatic potential and improves survival in nude mice models with chronic fibrosis background via inhibition of cytokine secretion by activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID:26517671

  8. Activated hepatic stellate cells play pivotal roles in hepatocellular carcinoma cell chemoresistance and migration in multicellular tumor spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeonhwa; Kim, Se-hyuk; Kim, Kang Mo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Joon; Seo, Haeng Ran

    2016-01-01

    Most Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and remain an unmet medical need. Recently, multiple studies on the crosstalk between HCC and their tumor microenvironment have been conducted to overcome chemoresistance in HCC. In this study, we formed multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) to elucidate the mechanisms of environment-mediated chemoresistance in HCC. We observed that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in MCTS significantly increased the compactness of spheroids and exhibited strong resistance to sorafenib and cisplatin relative to other types of stromal cells. Increased collagen 1A1 (COL1A1) expression was apparent in activated HSCs but not in fibroblasts or vascular endothelial cells in MCTS. Additionally, COL1A1 deficiency, which was increased by co-culture with HSCs, decreased the cell-cell interactions and thereby increased the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer therapies in MCTS. Furthermore, losartan, which can inhibit collagen I synthesis, attenuated the compactness of spheroids and increased the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer therapies in MCTS. Meanwhile, activated HSCs facilitated HCC migration by upregulating matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) in MCTS. Collectively, crosstalk between HCC cells and HSCs promoted HCC chemoresistance and migration by increasing the expression of COL1A1 and MMP9 in MCTS. Hence, targeting HSCs might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for liver cancer therapy. PMID:27853186

  9. Long non-coding RNA PVT1 activates hepatic stellate cells through competitively binding microRNA-152

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jianjian; Yu, Fujun; Dong, Peihong; Wu, Limei; Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Yanwei; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process is considered as a key event in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is known to be required for EMT process. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological processes. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), a novel lncRNA, is often up-regulated in various human cancers. However, the role of PVT1 in liver fibrosis remains undefined. In this study, PVT1 was increased in fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs. Depletion of PVT1 attenuated collagen deposits in vivo. In vitro, PVT1 down-regulation inhibited HSC activation including the reduction of HSC proliferation, α-SMA and type I collagen. Further studies showed that PVT1 knockdown suppressed HSC activation was through inhibiting EMT process and Hh pathway. Patched1 (PTCH1), a negative regulator factor of Hh pathway, was enhanced by PVT1 knockdown. PTCH1 demethylation caused by miR-152 was responsible for the effects of PVT1 knockdown on PTCH1 expression. Notably, miR-152 inhibitor reversed the effects of PVT1 knockdown on HSC activation. Luciferase reporter assays and pull-down assays showed a direct interaction between miR-152 and PVT1. Collectively, we demonstrate that PVT1 epigenetically down-regulates PTCH1 expression via competitively binding miR-152, contributing to EMT process in liver fibrosis. PMID:27588491

  10. Hepcidin inhibits Smad3 phosphorylation in hepatic stellate cells by impeding ferroportin-mediated regulation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang Yeob; Koo, Ja Hyun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Strnad, Pavel; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation on liver injury facilitates fibrosis. Hepatokines affecting HSCs are largely unknown. Here we show that hepcidin inhibits HSC activation and ameliorates liver fibrosis. We observe that hepcidin levels are inversely correlated with exacerbation of fibrosis in patients, and also confirm the relationship in animal models. Adenoviral delivery of hepcidin to mice attenuates liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 treatment or bile duct ligation. In cell-based assays, either hepcidin from hepatocytes or exogenous hepcidin suppresses HSC activation by inhibiting TGFβ1-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation via Akt. In activated HSCs, ferroportin is upregulated, which can be prevented by hepcidin treatment. Similarly, ferroportin knockdown in HSCs prohibits TGFβ1-inducible Smad3 phosphorylation and increases Akt phosphorylation, whereas ferroportin over-expression has the opposite effect. HSC-specific ferroportin deletion also ameliorates liver fibrosis. In summary, hepcidin suppresses liver fibrosis by impeding TGFβ1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation in HSCs, which depends on Akt activated by a deficiency of ferroportin. PMID:28004654

  11. Long non-coding RNA APTR promotes the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the progression of liver fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Fujun; Zheng, Jianjian; Mao, Yuqing; Dong, Peihong; Li, Guojun; Lu, Zhongqiu; Guo, Chuanyong; Liu, Zhanju; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-08-07

    In this study, we aimed at assessing a role of Alu-mediated p21 transcriptional regulator (APTR) in hepatofibrogenesis. APTR was upregulated in fibrotic liver samples and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Knockdown of APTR inhibited the activation of HSCs in vitro and mitigated the accumulation of collagen in vivo. Importantly, APTR silencing could abrogate TGF-β{sub 1}-induced upregulation of α-SMA in HSCs. In addition, inhibition of cell cycle and cell proliferation by APTR knockdown was attenuated by p21 siRNA1 in primary HSCs. Finally, serum APTR levels were increased in patients with liver cirrhosis, indicating a potential biomarker for liver cirrhosis. Collectively, evidence is proposed for a new biological role of APTR in hepatofibrogenesis. - Highlights: • APTR is upregulated in fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs. • APTR silencing inhibits HSC activation and the progression of liver fibrosis. • Antifibrotic effect of APTR silencing is achieved by increasing p21.

  12. ω-3 PUFAs ameliorate liver fibrosis and inhibit hepatic stellate cells proliferation and activation by promoting YAP/TAZ degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Chang, Yanan; Shi, Zhemin; Han, Xiaohui; Han, Yawei; Yao, Qingbin; Hu, Zhimei; Cui, Hongmei; Zheng, Lina; Han, Tao; Hong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of the transcriptional regulators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivators with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), key effectors of the Hippo pathway, have been shown to play essential roles in controlling liver cell fate and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been positively associated with a number of health benefits including prevention and reduction of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation and cancers. However, little is known about the impact of ω-3 PUFAs on liver fibrosis. In this study, we used CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model and found that YAP/TAZ is over-expressed in the fibrotic liver and activated HSCs. Fish oil administration to the model mouse attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Further study revealed that ω-3 PUFAs down-regulate the expression of pro-fibrogenic genes in activated HSCs and fibrotic liver, and the down-regulation is mediated via YAP, thus identifying YAP as a target of ω-3 PUFAs. Moreover, ω-3 PUFAs promote YAP/TAZ degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Our data have identified a mechanism of ω-3 PUFAs in ameliorating liver fibrosis. PMID:27435808

  13. Embryonic liver fordin is involved in glucose glycolysis of hepatic stellate cell by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei; Ye, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-10-14

    To investigate the role of embryonic liver fordin (ELF) in liver fibrosis by regulating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) glucose glycolysis. The expression of ELF and the glucose glycolysis-related proteins were evaluated in activated HSCs. siRNA was used to silence ELF expression in activated HSCs in vitro and the subsequent changes in PI3K/Akt signaling and glucose glycolysis-related proteins were observed. The expression of ELF increased remarkably in HSCs of the fibrosis mouse model and HSCs that were cultured for 3 wk in vitro. Glucose glycolysis-related proteins showed an obvious increase in the activated HSCs, such as phosphofructokinase, platelet and glucose transporter 1. ELF-siRNA, which perfectly silenced the expression of ELF in activated HSCs, led to the induction of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Moreover, pAkt, which is an important downstream factor in PI3K/Akt signaling, showed a significant change in response to the ELF silencing. The expression of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and ECM components decreased remarkably when the PI3K/Akt signaling was blocked by Ly294002 in the activated HSCs. ELF is involved in HSC glucose glycolysis by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling.

  14. Embryonic liver fordin is involved in glucose glycolysis of hepatic stellate cell by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wei; Ye, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of embryonic liver fordin (ELF) in liver fibrosis by regulating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) glucose glycolysis. METHODS The expression of ELF and the glucose glycolysis-related proteins were evaluated in activated HSCs. siRNA was used to silence ELF expression in activated HSCs in vitro and the subsequent changes in PI3K/Akt signaling and glucose glycolysis-related proteins were observed. RESULTS The expression of ELF increased remarkably in HSCs of the fibrosis mouse model and HSCs that were cultured for 3 wk in vitro. Glucose glycolysis-related proteins showed an obvious increase in the activated HSCs, such as phosphofructokinase, platelet and glucose transporter 1. ELF-siRNA, which perfectly silenced the expression of ELF in activated HSCs, led to the induction of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Moreover, pAkt, which is an important downstream factor in PI3K/Akt signaling, showed a significant change in response to the ELF silencing. The expression of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and ECM components decreased remarkably when the PI3K/Akt signaling was blocked by Ly294002 in the activated HSCs. CONCLUSION ELF is involved in HSC glucose glycolysis by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:27784964

  15. Angiogenin Secretion From Hepatoma Cells Activates Hepatic Stellate Cells To Amplify A Self-Sustained Cycle Promoting Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Cristina; Stefanovic, Milica; Tutusaus, Anna; Martinez-Nieto, Guillermo A.; Martinez, Laura; García-Ruiz, Carmen; de Mingo, Alvaro; Caballeria, Juan; Fernandez-Checa, José C.; Marí, Montserrat; Morales, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently develops in a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic environment with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remodeling the extracellular matrix composition. Molecules secreted by liver tumors contributing to HSC activation and peritumoral stromal transformation remain to be fully identified. Here we show that conditioned medium from HCC cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, induced primary mouse HSCs transdifferentiation, characterized by profibrotic properties and collagen modification, with similar results seen in the human HSC cell line LX2. Moreover, tumor growth was enhanced by coinjection of HepG2/LX2 cells in a xenograft murine model, supporting a HCC-HSC crosstalk in liver tumor progression. Protein microarray secretome analyses revealed angiogenin as the most robust and selective protein released by HCC compared to LX2 secreted molecules. In fact, recombinant angiogenin induced in vitro HSC activation requiring its nuclear translocation and rRNA transcriptional stimulation. Moreover, angiogenin antagonism by blocking antibodies or angiogenin inhibitor neomycin decreased in vitro HSC activation by conditioned media or recombinant angiogenin. Finally, neomycin administration reduced tumor growth of HepG2-LX2 cells coinjected in mice. In conclusion, angiogenin secretion by HCCs favors tumor development by inducing HSC activation and ECM remodeling. These findings indicate that targeting angiogenin signaling may be of potential relevance in HCC management. PMID:25604905

  16. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 inhibits hepatic stellate cell proliferation through MAPK pathway in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengguo; Li, Jie; Huo, Yan; Lu, Jin; Wan, Lili; Li, Bin; Gan, Run; Guo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in liver fibrosis, which is a pathological process characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation. NR4A2 is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR4A subfamily and vital in regulating cell growth, metabolism, inflammation and other biological functions. However, its role in HSCs is unclear. We analyzed NR4A2 expression in fibrotic liver and stimulated HSCs compared with control group and studied the influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and MAPK pathway after NR4A2 knockdown. NR4A2 expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. NR4A2 expression was significantly lower in fibrotic liver tissues and PDGF BB or TGF-β stimulated HSCs compared with control group. After NR4A2 knockdown α-smooth muscle actin and Col1 expression increased. In addition, NR4A2 silencing led to the promotion of cell proliferation, increase of cell percentage in S phase and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38 and JNK in HSCs. These results indicate that NR4A2 can inhibit HSC proliferation through MAPK pathway and decrease extracellular matrix in liver fibrogenesis. NR4A2 may be a promising therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.

  17. The XBP1 Arm of the Unfolded Protein Response Induces Fibrogenic Activity in Hepatic Stellate Cells Through Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rosa S.; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Goossens, Nicolas; Tsuchida, Takuma; Athwal, Varinder; Sun, Xiaochen; Robinson, Christopher L.; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Chou, Hsin-I; Zhang, David Y.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Lee, Youngmin; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) both promote activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), however the link between the two stimuli remains unclear. Here we have explored the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), one of three UPR effector pathways and sought to establish the interdependence between autophagy and the UPR during HSC activation. XBP1 induction accompanied both culture-based HSC activation and ER stress induced by tunicamycin. Ectopic overexpression of XBP1 induced collagen 1-alpha expression in HSCs, which was inhibited by knockdown of ATG7, a critical autophagy mediator. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling indicated an upregulation of collagen synthesis pathways, but not of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-b pathway, a canonical fibrogenic driver, suggesting that XBP1 activates a specific subset of fibrogenesis pathways independent of TGF-β1. XBP1 target gene signatures were significantly induced in rodent liver fibrosis models (n = 3–5) and in human samples of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 72–135). Thus, XBP1-mediated UPR contributes to fibrogenic HSC activation and is functionally linked to cellular autophagy. PMID:27996033

  18. Adipose triglyceride lipase is involved in the mobilization of triglyceride and retinoid stores of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Taschler, Ulrike; Schreiber, Renate; Chitraju, Chandramohan; Grabner, Gernot F.; Romauch, Matthias; Wolinski, Heimo; Haemmerle, Guenter; Breinbauer, Rolf; Zechner, Rudolf; Lass, Achim; Zimmermann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) store triglycerides (TGs) and retinyl ester (RE) in cytosolic lipid droplets. RE stores are degraded following retinoid starvation or in response to pathogenic stimuli resulting in HSC activation. At present, the major enzymes catalyzing lipid degradation in HSCs are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is involved in RE catabolism of HSCs. Additionally, we compared the effects of ATGL deficiency and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiency, a known RE hydrolase (REH), on RE stores in liver and adipose tissue. We show that ATGL degrades RE even in the presence of TGs, implicating that these substrates compete for ATGL binding. REH activity was stimulated and inhibited by comparative gene identification-58 and G0/G1 switch gene-2, respectively, the physiological regulators of ATGL activity. In cultured primary murine HSCs, pharmacological inhibition of ATGL, but not HSL, increased RE accumulation. In mice globally lacking ATGL or HSL, RE contents in white adipose tissue were decreased or increased, respectively, while plasma retinol and liver RE levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our study shows that ATGL acts as REH in HSCs promoting the degradation of RE stores in addition to its established function as TG lipase. HSL is the predominant REH in adipocytes but does not affect lipid mobilization in HSCs. PMID:25732851

  19. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-08

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 μg/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-α. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-β1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-α, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade.

  20. Substance P promotes hepatic stellate cell proliferation and activation via the TGF-β1/Smad-3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lei; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Jianjian; Cui, Ruibing; Yan, Ming

    2017-08-15

    Prolonged activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) usually results in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis following injury. Recent studies have shown that Substance P (SP) participates in the development of fibrosis. However, whether SP is involved in liver fibrosis, especially in the activation and proliferation of HSCs, is largely unknown. In the present study, we measured the effects of a series of concentrations of SP on the cell viability and activation of HSC-T6 cells and LX2 cells. The underlying mechanism was also investigated. We found that SP effectively increased cell viability, both in an MTT assay (p<0.05) and in a lactate dehydrogenase activity assay (LDH) (p<0.05). Moreover, SP upregulated the protein expression of α-SMA and Collagen I (both p<0.05) and decreased the release of lipid droplets (LDs) (p<0.05), all of which are associated with HSC activation. Apoptosis analysis revealed that SP can attenuate the increase of cell apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal (p<0.05). Furthermore, these effects were all blocked by an SP receptor antagonist, L732138. More importantly, L732138 decreased the activation of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway, which is highly associated with liver fibrosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SP can promote HSC proliferation and induce HSC activation via the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatic stellate cell promoted hepatoma cell invasion via the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway regulated by p53.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Ting; Jing, Ying-Ying; Yu, Guo-feng; Chen, Hong; Han, Zhi-peng; Yu, Dan-Dan; Fan, Qing-Min; Ye, Fei; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wei, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are complex mainly due to heterogeneity of progressive genetic and epigenetic mutations as well as tumor environment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling pathway is regarded to be a prototypical example for stromal-epithelial interactions during developmental morphogenesis, wound healing, organ regeneration and cancer progression. And p53 plays as an important regulator of Met-dependent cell motility and invasion. Present study showed that 2 HCC cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, displayed different invasive capacity when treated with HGF which was secreted by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We found that HGF promoted Hep3B cells invasion and migration as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurrence because Hep3B was p53 deficient, which leaded to the c-Met over-expression. Then we found that HGF/c-Met promoted Hep3B cells invasion and migration by upregulating Snail expression. In conclusion, HGF/c-Met signaling is enhanced by loss of p53 expression, resulting in increased ability of invasion and migration by upregulating the expression of Snail.

  2. FXR agonist obeticholic acid reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of toxic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Len; Mannaerts, Inge; Schierwagen, Robert; Govaere, Olivier; Klein, Sabine; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Farre, Ricard; Wenes, Mathias; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Nevens, Frederik; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Trebicka, Jonel; Laleman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation drives hepatic stellate cells (HSC), resulting in liver fibrosis. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes inflammation through NF-κB inhibition. We investigated preventive and therapeutic effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in toxic cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. OCA was given during or after intoxication with vehicle-treated rats as controls. At sacrifice, fibrosis, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were assessed. HSC activation, cell turn-over, hepatic NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were determined. The effect of OCA was further evaluated in isolated HSC, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). OCA decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during TAA-administration and reversed fibrosis in established cirrhosis. Portal pressure decreased through reduced intrahepatic vascular resistance. This was paralleled by decreased expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines (transforming growth-factor β, connective tissue growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor) as well as markers of hepatic cell turn-over, by blunting effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1). In vitro, OCA inhibited both LSEC and Kupffer cell activation; while HSC remained unaffected. This related to NF-κB inhibition via up-regulated IκBα. In conclusion, OCA inhibits hepatic inflammation in toxic cirrhotic rats resulting in decreased HSC activation and fibrosis. PMID:27634375

  3. Gas6/Axl pathway is activated in chronic liver disease and its targeting reduces fibrosis via hepatic stellate cell inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Cristina; Stefanovic, Milica; Tutusaus, Anna; Joannas, Leonel; Menéndez, Anghara; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Marí, Montserrat; Caballeria, Joan; Rothlin, Carla V.; Fernández-Checa, José C.; de Frutos, Pablo García; Morales, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver fibrosis, an important health concern associated to chronic liver injury that provides a permissive environment for cancer development, is characterized by accumulation of extracellular matrix components mainly derived from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, and its ligand Gas6 are involved in cell differentiation, immune response and carcinogenesis. Methods HSCs were obtained from wild type and Axl−/− mice, treated with recombinant Gas6 protein (rGas6), Axl siRNAs or the Axl inhibitor BGB324, and analyzed by western blot and real-time PCR. Experimental fibrosis was studied in CCl4-treated wild type and Axl−/− mice, and in combination with Axl inhibitor. Gas6 and Axl serum levels were measured in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Results In primary mouse HSCs, Gas6 and Axl levels paralleled HSC activation. rGas6 phosphorylated Axl and AKT prior to HSC phenotypic changes, while Axl siRNA silencing reduced HSC activation. Moreover, BGB324 blocked Axl/AKT phosphorylation and diminished HSC activation. In addition, Axl KO mice displayed decreased HSC activation in vitro and liver fibrogenesis after chronic damage by CCl4 administration. Similarly, BGB324 reduced collagen deposition and CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Importantly, Gas6 and Axl serum levels increased in ALD and HCV patients, inversely correlating with liver functionality. Conclusions: The Gas6/Axl axis is required for full HSC activation. Gas6 and Axl serum levels increase in parallel to chronic liver disease progression. Axl targeting may be a therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis management. PMID:25908269

  4. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases human hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Wendy A; Jurgensen, Kimberly; Pu, Xinzhu; Lamb, Cheri L; Cornell, Kenneth A; Clark, Reilly J; Klocke, Carolyn; Mitchell, Kristen A

    2016-02-17

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon that elicits toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the liver, gross markers of TCDD toxicity are attributed to AhR activation in parenchymal hepatocytes. However, less is known regarding the consequences of TCDD treatment on non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are non-parenchymal cells that store vitamin A when quiescent. Upon liver injury, activated HSCs lose this storage ability and instead function in the development and maintenance of inflammation and fibrosis through the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and collagen type I. Reports that TCDD exposure disrupts hepatic retinoid homeostasis and dysregulates extracellular matrix remodeling in the liver led us to speculate that TCDD treatment may disrupt HSC activity. The human HSC line LX-2 was used to test the hypothesis that TCDD treatment directly activates HSCs. Results indicate that exposure to 10nM TCDD almost completely inhibited lipid droplet storage in LX-2 cells cultured with retinol and palmitic acid. TCDD treatment also increased LX-2 cell proliferation, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), all of which are characteristics of activated HSCs. However, TCDD treatment had no effect on Col1a1 mRNA levels in LX-2 cells stimulated with the potent profibrogenic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. The TCDD-mediated increase in LX-2 cell proliferation, but not MCP-1 production, was abolished when phosphoinositide 3-kinase was inhibited. These results indicate that HSCs are susceptible to direct modulation by TCDD and that TCDD likely increases HSC activation through a multi-faceted mechanism.

  5. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases human hepatic stellate cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Wendy A.; Jurgensen, Kimberly; Pu, Xinzhu; Lamb, Cheri L.; Cornell, Kenneth A.; Clark, Reilly J.; Klocke, Carolyn; Mitchell, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon that elicits toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the liver, gross markers of TCDD toxicity are attributed to AhR activation in parenchymal hepatocytes. However, less is known regarding the consequences of TCDD treatment on non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are non-parenchymal cells that store vitamin A when quiescent. Upon liver injury, activated HSCs lose this storage ability and instead function in the development and maintenance of inflammation and fibrosis through the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and collagen type I. Reports that TCDD exposure disrupts hepatic retinoid homeostasis and dysregulates extracellular matrix remodeling in the liver led us to speculate that TCDD treatment may disrupt HSC activity. The human HSC line LX-2 was used to test the hypothesis that TCDD treatment directly activates HSCs. Results indicate that exposure to 10 nM TCDD almost completely inhibited lipid droplet storage in LX-2 cells cultured with retinol and palmitic acid. TCDD treatment also increased LX-2 cell proliferation, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), all of which are characteristics of activated HSCs. However, TCDD treatment had no effect on Col1a1 mRNA levels in LX-2 cells stimulated with the potent profibrogenic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. The TCDD-mediated increase in LX-2 cell proliferation, but not MCP-1 production, was abolished when phosphoinositide 3-kinase was inhibited. These results indicate that HSCs are susceptible to direct modulation by TCDD and that TCDD likely increases HSC activation through a multifaceted mechanism. PMID:26860701

  6. Beta-carotene storage, conversion to retinoic acid, and induction of the lipocyte phenotype in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Renata B; Ziulkoski, Ana L; Fortuna, Vitor A; Guaragna, Regina M; Guma, Fátima C R; Trugo, Luiz C; Borojevic, Radovan

    2004-05-15

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major site of retinol (ROH) metabolism and storage. GRX is a permanent murine myofibroblastic cell line, derived from HSCs, which can be induced to display the fat-storing phenotype by treatment with retinoids. Little is known about hepatic or serum homeostasis of beta-carotene and retinoic acid (RA), although the direct biogenesis of RA from beta-carotene has been described in enterocytes. The aim of this study was to identify the uptake, metabolism, storage, and release of beta-carotene in HSCs. GRX cells were plated in 25 cm(2) tissue culture flasks, treated during 10 days with 3 micromol/L beta-carotene and subsequently transferred into the standard culture medium. beta-Carotene induced a full cell conversion into the fat-storing phenotype after 10 days. The total cell extracts, cell fractions, and culture medium were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for beta-carotene and retinoids. Cells accumulated 27.48 +/- 6.5 pmol/L beta-carotene/10(6) cells, but could not convert it to ROH nor produced retinyl esters (RE). beta-Carotene was directly converted to RA, which was found in total cell extracts and in the nuclear fraction (10.15 +/- 1.23 pmol/L/10(6) cells), promoting the phenotype conversion. After 24-h chase, cells contained 20.15 +/- 1.12 pmol/L beta-carotene/10(6) cells and steadily released beta-carotene into the medium (6.69 +/- 1.75 pmol/ml). We conclude that HSC are the site of the liver beta-carotene storage and release, which can be used for RA production as well as for maintenance of the homeostasis of circulating carotenoids in periods of low dietary uptake.

  7. The Role of Lipin-1 in the Regulation of Fibrogenesis and TGF-β Signaling in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chang Ho; Kim, Kyu Min; Yang, Ji Hye; Cho, Sam Seok; Kim, Seung Jung; Shin, Sang Mi; Cho, Il Je; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2016-09-01

    The adipogenic transcriptional regulation was reported to inhibit transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which constitute the main fibrogenic cell type in the liver. Lipin-1 exhibits a dual function: an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol and a transcriptional regulator. However, the involvement of Lipin-1 in the regulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and fibrogenesis in HSCs is not fully understood. Here, we showed that Lipin-1 was downregulated in activated primary HSCs and TGF-β-treated LX-2 cells, immortalized human HSC cell lines. The downregulation of Lipin-1 by TGF-β was not dependent on altered mRNA stability but rather on protein stability. Treatment of LX-2 cells with the proteasome inhibitor led to the accumulation of Lipin-1. Moreover, we observed a significant increase in Lipin-1 polyubiquitination. Overexpression of Lipin-1 attenuated TGF-β-induced fibrogenic gene expression. In addition, Lipin-1 inhibited TGF-β-mediated activation of Sma and Mad-related family (SMAD), a major transcription factor that transduces intracellular signals from TGF-β. Resveratrol, a well-known natural polyphenolic antioxidant, is known to inhibit liver fibrosis, although its mechanism of action remains unknown. Our data showed that resveratrol significantly increased the levels of Lipin-1 protein and mRNA in HSCs. Further investigation revealed that resveratrol blocked the polyubiquitination of Lipin-1. Resveratrol inhibited TGF-β-induced fibrogenic gene expression. TGF-β-induced SMAD binding element-luciferase reporter activity was significantly diminished by resveratrol with a simultaneous decrease in SMAD3 phosphorylation. Consistently, knockdown of the Lipin-1 gene using siRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of resveratrol. We conclude that Lipin-1 can antagonize HSC activation through the inhibition of TGF-β/SMAD signaling and that resveratrol may affect Lipin-1 gene induction and

  8. Protective effects of L-carnosine on CCl4 -induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alsheblak, Mehyar Mohammad; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; El-Karef, Amro; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring. In addition, CAR treatment significantly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of liver-injury parameters in serum. CAR treatment also combatted oxidative stress; possibly by restoring hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) levels. Moreover, CAR treatment prevented the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as indicated by reduced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver, and decreased hepatic inflammation as demonstrated by a reduction in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. In conclusion, CCl4-induced hepatic injury was alleviated by CAR treatment. The results suggest that these beneficial, protective effects are due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.

  9. Thrombospondin 1 acts as a strong promoter of transforming growth factor β effects via two distinct mechanisms in hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Breitkopf, K; Sawitza, I; Westhoff, J H; Wickert, L; Dooley, S; Gressner, A M

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is an important activator of latent transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) but little is known of the expression patterns and functions of TSP-1 in liver cells. We therefore analysed if and how TSP-1 acts on TGF-β during fibrogenesis. Methods and results: Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we demonstrated that hepatocytes from normal liver expressed no TSP-1 mRNA whereas Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells did. TSP-1 mRNA and protein were detected in quiescent and activated cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and TSP-1 expression was highly inducible by platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and, to a lesser extent, by tumour necrosis factor α in activated HSC. Furthermore, addition of PDGF-BB directly led to enhanced TGF-β mRNA expression and a TSP-1 dependent increase in TGF-β/Smad signalling. Using either a peptide specifically blocking the interaction of TSP-1 with latent TGF-β or antibodies against TSP-1 not only abrogated activation of latent TGF-β but also reduced the effects of the active dimer itself. Conclusions: Our data suggest that TSP-1 expression is important for TGF-β effects and that it is regulated by the profibrogenic mediator PDGF-BB in HSC. Furthermore, the presence of TSP-1 seems to be a prerequisite for effective signal transduction by active TGF-β not only in rat HSC but also in other cell types such as human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:15831915

  10. Pigment epithelium-derived factor 34-mer peptide prevents liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell activation through down-regulation of the PDGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tung-Han; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Chen, Show-Li; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been shown previously to prevent liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. By investigating the functional domains in PEDF, we identified a 34-mer peptide (residues Asp44-Asn77) that harbors the same function as the full-length PEDF protein. Not only did the 34-mer suppress the development of fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mouse liver but it also upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) expression in HSCs in vivo. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a crucial role on the process of HSC activation in response to liver damage. The 34-mer suppressed PDGF-induced cell proliferation and expression of myofibroblastic marker proteins in primary rat HSC culture, increased the levels of PPARγ mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner and markedly reduced the level of active β-catenin protein, an HSC activating factor, in HSC-T6 cells. Similarly, IWR-1, an inhibitor of the Wnt response, displayed the same effect as the 34-mer in preventing HSC-T6 activation. The Wnt signaling-mediated PPARγ suppression was abolished by both the IWR-1 inhibitor and a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting β-catenin and the Wnt coreceptor, LRP6. Both PEDF and the 34-mer down-regulated PDGF receptor-α/β expression and blocked the PDGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. Moreover, the inhibitory effect on PDGF receptor expression was abolished by PPARγ antagonists and PPARγ siRNA. Our observations indicate that the PEDF-derived 34-mer peptide can mimic PEDF in attenuating HSC activation. Investigation of this 34-mer peptide led to the identification of a signaling mechanism involving PPARγ induction, suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and down-regulation of the PDGF receptor-α/β.

  11. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary gland: X. Immunohistocytochemistry of S-100 and connexin 43 of folliculo-stellate cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Mabuchi, Yoshio; Sakuma, Eisuke; Horiuchi, Osamu; Yashiro, Takashi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuo; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    Since Rinehart and Farquhar reported the presence of agranulated cells in the anterior pituitary gland in 1953, the functions of the folliculo-stellate cell remain to be clarified. Intercellular junctions have been described in the monkey, rat, and teleost anterior pituitary glands, indicating the existence of cell-to-cell communication within the organ. We pointed to their possible role in the rapid dissemination of information through a complex interconnecting system of follicles involving gap junctions. The gap junctional/folliculo-stellate cellular network was essential in the maturation and regulation of the pituitary gland system such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It has been was shown that a network participated in the conduction of electrophysiological information over a long distance using the ion Ca(++), which propagates to other folliculo-stellate cells by signaling through gap junctions. Sixty-day-old male rats were used in this study for light microscopic immunohistochemistry of S-100 protein, type I collagen, and connexin 43, and for electron microscopy to observe the morphological relationships between the cellular networks of folliculo-stellate cells and granulated pituitary cells. Clusters of anti-S-100 protein-positive cells were clearly observed in a region of the hypophysis tentatively named the transition zone. Anti-S-100 protein-positive cells and their cytoplasmic processes were also present in the anterior lobe and assembled together to form follicular lumina. Type I collagen was clearly shown outlining the incomplete lobular or ductule-like structure making cell cords in the anterior pituitary gland. Numerous microvilli were present within the follicular lumen while around the lumina, junctional specializations including gap junctions were positive for the connexin 43 protein. A nonuniform distribution of the connexin 43-positive sites were observed. Small or dot-shaped positive sites were noted where two clusters of cells

  12. Interleukin-22 ameliorates liver fibrogenesis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation and downregulating the levels of inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dong-Hong; Guo, Xiao-Yun; Qin, Shan-Yu; Luo, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Mei; Wang, Jia-Xu; Ma, Shi-Jia; Yang, Xian-Wen; Jiang, Hai-Xing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of interleukin (IL)-22 on hepatic fibrosis in mice and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male BALB/c mice by CCl4. Recombinant IL-22 (rmIL-22) was administered intraperitoneally in CCl4-treated mice. Fibrosis was assessed by histology and Masson staining. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was investigated by analysis of α-smooth muscle actin expression. The frequencies of T helper (Th) 22 cells, Th17 cells and Th1 cells, the expression of inflammatory cytokines [IL-22, IL-17A, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β] and transcription factors [aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), RAR-related orphan receptor (RORγt), T-bet] mRNA in the liver were investigated. In addition, the plasma levels of IL-22, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were evaluated. RESULTS: Significant elevations in circulating Th22 cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, IL-22, IL-17A, and IFN-γ were observed in the hepatic fibrosis group compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Treatment with rmIL-22 in mice with hepatic fibrosis ameliorated the severity of hepatic fibrosis, which was confirmed by lower hepatic fibrosis pathological scores (P < 0.01). RmIL-22 decreased the frequencies of Th22 cells (6.71% ± 0.97% vs 8.09% ± 0.74%, P < 0.01), Th17 cells (4.34% ± 0.37% vs 5.71% ± 0.24%, P < 0.01), Th1 cells (3.09% ± 0.49% vs 4.91% ± 0.73%, P < 0.01), and the levels of IL-22 (56.23 ± 3.08 vs 70.29 ± 3.01, P < 0.01), IL-17A (30.74 ± 2.77 vs 45.68 ± 2.71, P < 0.01), and IFN-γ (74.78 ± 2.61 vs 124.89 ± 2.82, P < 0.01). Down-regulation of IL-22, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, AHR RORγt, and T-bet gene expression in the liver was observed in the rmIL-22 group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The frequencies of Th22, Th17 and Th1 cells are elevated in hepatic fibrosis. RmIL-22 can attenuate HSC activation and down-regulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines, thereby ameliorating

  13. Exposure to human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus in hepatic and stellate cell lines reveals cooperative profibrotic transcriptional activation between viruses and cell types.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Shadi; Holmes, Jacinta A; Jindal, Rohit; Bale, Shyam S; Brisac, Cynthia; Alatrakchi, Nadia; Lidofsky, Anna; Kruger, Annie J; Fusco, Dahlene N; Luther, Jay; Schaefer, Esperance A; Lin, Wenyu; Yarmush, Martin L; Chung, Raymond T

    2016-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection accelerates progressive liver fibrosis; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. HCV and HIV independently induce profibrogenic markers transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) (mediated by reactive oxygen species [ROS]) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) in hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells in monoculture; however, they do not account for cellular crosstalk that naturally occurs. We created an in vitro coculture model and investigated the contributions of HIV and HCV to hepatic fibrogenesis. Green fluorescent protein reporter cell lines driven by functional ROS (antioxidant response elements), NFκB, and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) promoters were created in Huh7.5.1 and LX2 cells, using a transwell to generate cocultures. Reporter cell lines were exposed to HIV, HCV, or HIV/HCV. Activation of the 3 pathways was measured and compared according to infection status. Extracellular matrix products (collagen type 1 alpha 1 (CoL1A1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1)) were also measured. Both HCV and HIV independently activated TGFβ1 signaling through ROS (antioxidant response elements), NFκB, and SMAD3 in both cell lines in coculture. Activation of these profibrotic pathways was additive following HIV/HCV coexposure. This was confirmed when examining CoL1A1 and TIMP1, where messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly higher in LX2 cells in coculture following HIV/HCV coexposure compared with either virus alone. In addition, expression of these profibrotic genes was significantly higher in the coculture model compared to either cell type in monoculture, suggesting an interaction and feedback mechanism between Huh7.5.1 and LX2 cells.

  14. Ammonia produces pathological changes in human hepatic stellate cells and is a target for therapy of portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Rajiv; De Chiara, Francesco; Balasubramaniyan, Vairappan; Andreola, Fausto; Khetan, Varun; Malago, Massimo; Pinzani, Massimo; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P; Rombouts, Krista

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are vital to hepatocellular function and the liver response to injury. They share a phenotypic homology with astrocytes that are central in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, a condition in which hyperammonemia plays a pathogenic role. This study tested the hypothesis that ammonia modulates human HSC activation in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated whether ammonia lowering, by using l-ornithine phenylacetate (OP), modifies HSC activation in vivo and reduces portal pressure in a bile duct ligation (BDL) model. Primary human HSCs were isolated and cultured. Proliferation (BrdU), metabolic activity (MTS), morphology (transmission electron, light and immunofluorescence microscopy), HSC activation markers, ability to contract, changes in oxidative status (ROS) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were evaluated to identify effects of ammonia challenge (50 μM, 100 μM, 300 μM) over 24-72 h. Changes in plasma ammonia levels, markers of HSC activation, portal pressure and hepatic eNOS activity were quantified in hyperammonemic BDL animals, and after OP treatment. Pathophysiological ammonia concentrations caused significant and reversible changes in cell proliferation, metabolic activity and activation markers of hHSC in vitro. Ammonia also induced significant alterations in cellular morphology, characterised by cytoplasmic vacuolisation, ER enlargement, ROS production, hHSC contraction and changes in pro-inflammatory gene expression together with HSC-related activation markers such as α-SMA, myosin IIa, IIb, and PDGF-Rβ. Treatment with OP significantly reduced plasma ammonia (BDL 199.1 μmol/L±43.65 vs. BDL+OP 149.27 μmol/L±51.1, p<0.05) and portal pressure (BDL 14±0.6 vs. BDL+OP 11±0.3 mmHg, p<0.01), which was associated with increased eNOS activity and abrogation of HSC activation markers. The results show for the first time that ammonia produces deleterious morphological and functional effects on HSCs in vitro. Targeting ammonia

  15. CREB3L2-mediated expression of Sec23A/Sec24D is involved in hepatic stellate cell activation through ER-Golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Tomoishi, Shotaro; Fukushima, Shinichi; Shinohara, Kentaro; Katada, Toshiaki; Saito, Kota

    2017-08-11

    Hepatic fibrosis is caused by exaggerated wound healing response to chronic injury, which eventually leads to hepatic cirrhosis. Differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to myofibroblast-like cells by inflammatory cytokines is the critical step in fibrosis. This step is accompanied by enlargement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus, suggesting that protein synthesis and secretion are augmented in the activated HSCs. However, the process of rearrangement of secretory organelles and their functions remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we revealed that differentiation alters early secretory gene expression. We observed significant isoform-specific upregulation of the inner coat protein complex II (COPII) components, Sec23A and Sec24D, via the transmembrane bZIP transcription factor, CREB3L2/BBF2H7, during HSC activation. Moreover, knockdown of these components abrogated the activation, suggesting that Sec23A/Sec24D-mediated ER to Golgi trafficking is required for HSC activation.

  16. A Novel Murine Model to Deplete Hepatic Stellate Cells Uncovers Their Role In Amplifying Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Puche, Juan E.; Lee, Youngmin A.; Jiao, Jingjing; Aloman, Costica; Fiel, Maria I.; Muñoz, Ursula; Kraus, Thomas; Lee, Tingfang; Yee, Hal F.; Friedman, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel model for depleting mouse HSCs that has allowed us to clarify their contributions to hepatic injury and fibrosis. Transgenic mice (TG) expressing the herpes simplex virus-Thymidine kinase gene (HSV-Tk) driven by the mouse GFAP promoter were used to render proliferating HSCs susceptible to killing in response to ganciclovir (GCV). Effects of GCV were explored in primary HSCs and in vivo. Panlobular damage was provoked to maximize HSC depletion by combining carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (centrilobular injury) with allyl alcohol (AA) (periportal injury), as well as in a bile duct ligation (BDL) model. Cell depletion in situ was quantified using dual-immunofluorescence (IF) for desmin and GFAP. In primary HSCs isolated from both untreated wild type (WT) and TG mice, GCV induced cell death in ~50% of HSCs from TG but not WT mice. In TG mice treated with CCl4+AA+GCV, there was a significant decrease in GFAP & desmin positive cells compared to WT mice (~65% reduction, p<0.01), which was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of HSC activation markers (α-SMA, β-PDGFR and collagen I). Similar results were seen following BDL. Associated with HSC depletion in both fibrosis models, there was marked attenuation of fibrosis and liver injury, as indicated by Sirius Red/Fast Green, H&E quantification and serum ALT/AST. Hepatic expression of IL-10 and IFN-γ was increased following HSC depletion. No toxicity of GCV in either WT or TG mice accounted for the differences in injury. Conclusion Activated HSCs significantly amplify the hepatic response to liver injury, further expanding this cell type's repertoire in orchestrating hepatic injury and repair. PMID:22961591

  17. [Effect of interleukin-22 on proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells induced by acetaldehyde and related mechanism].

    PubMed

    Ni, Y H; Huo, L J; Li, T T

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of interleukin-22 (IL-22) on the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induced by acetaldehyde, as well as the role of the antioxidant axis Nrf2-keap1-ARE. Methods: Hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) cells were cultured in vitro, and after 24 and 48 hours of acetaldehyde stimulation at various concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μmol/L), MTT assay was used to measure cell proliferation rate to screen out the optimal conditions for model establishment. HSC-T6 cells were treated first with the optimal concentration of acetaldehyde (200 μmol/L) for 24 hours and then with different concentrations of IL-22 (10, 20, and 50 ng/ml) for 24 hours. MTT assay was used to measure cell proliferation, Western blot and cell immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and spectrophotometry was used to measure the changes in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in culture supernatant. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis and data were expressed as mean±SD. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of means between any two groups. Results: HSCs had significantly enhanced proliferation and activation after being treated with acetaldehyde, especially at 200 μmol/L for 48 hours. After the intervention with gradient concentrations of IL-22, the proliferation and activation of HSCs were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the proliferation and migration rates in the 10, 20, and 50 ng/ml IL-22 groups were 14%, 25%, and 35%, respectively (all P < 0.05). The results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed that there was no significant difference in the expression of Nrf2 total protein in HSCs between groups, while there was extremely low expression of Nrf2 nucleoprotein in the blank control group. There was

  18. Dietary Flavonoid Hyperoside Induces Apoptosis of Activated Human LX-2 Hepatic Stellate Cell by Suppressing Canonical NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Liang; Tao, Yongqing; Wang, Suying; Zhi, Dexian

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoside, an active compound found in plants of the genera Hypericum and Crataegus, is reported to exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis is recognized as a promising strategy for attenuation of hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether hyperoside treatment can exert antifibrotic effects in human LX-2 hepatic stellate cells. We found that hyperoside induced apoptosis in LX-2 cells and decreased levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type I collagen, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, hyperoside also inhibited the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor NF-κB and altered expression levels of NF-κB-regulated genes related to apoptosis, including proapoptotic genes Bcl-Xs, DR4, Fas, and FasL and anti-apoptotic genes A20, c-IAP1, Bcl-XL, and RIP1. Our results suggest that hyperoside may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27110557

  19. Dietary Flavonoid Hyperoside Induces Apoptosis of Activated Human LX-2 Hepatic Stellate Cell by Suppressing Canonical NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwen; Yue, Zhiwei; Guo, Mengzheng; Fang, Lianying; Bai, Liang; Li, Xinyu; Tao, Yongqing; Wang, Suying; Liu, Qiang; Zhi, Dexian; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoside, an active compound found in plants of the genera Hypericum and Crataegus, is reported to exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis is recognized as a promising strategy for attenuation of hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether hyperoside treatment can exert antifibrotic effects in human LX-2 hepatic stellate cells. We found that hyperoside induced apoptosis in LX-2 cells and decreased levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type I collagen, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, hyperoside also inhibited the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor NF-κB and altered expression levels of NF-κB-regulated genes related to apoptosis, including proapoptotic genes Bcl-Xs, DR4, Fas, and FasL and anti-apoptotic genes A20, c-IAP1, Bcl-X L , and RIP1. Our results suggest that hyperoside may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  20. ROLE OF METHIONINE ADENOSYLTRANSFERASE α2 AND β PHOSPHORYLATION AND STABILIZATION IN HUMAN HEPATIC STELLATE CELL TRANS-DIFFERENTIATION

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Komal; Donoyan, Shant; Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Park, Sunhee

    2016-01-01

    Myofibroblastic trans-differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is an essential event in the development of liver fibrogenesis. These changes involve modulation of key regulators of the genome and the proteome. Methionine adenosyltransferases (MAT) catalyze the biosynthesis of the methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) from methionine. We have previously shown that two MAT genes, MAT2A and MAT2B (encoding MATα2 and MATβ proteins respectively), are required for HSC activation and loss of MAT2A transcriptional control favors its up-regulation during trans-differentiation. Hence MAT genes are intrinsically linked to the HSC machinery during activation. In the current study, we have identified for the first time, post-translational modifications in the MATα2 and MATβ proteins that stabilize them and favor human HSC trans-differentiation. Culture-activation of human HSCs induced the MATα2 and MATβ proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we identified phosphorylation sites in MATα2 and MATβ predicted to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members [ERK1/2, V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1 (B-Raf), MEK]. Phosphorylation of both proteins was enhanced during HSC activation. Blocking MEK activation lowered the phosphorylation and stability of MAT proteins without influencing their mRNA levels. Silencing ERK1/2 or B-Raf lowered the phosphorylation and stability of MATβ but not MATα2. Reversal of the activated human HSC cell line, LX2 to quiescence lowered phosphorylation and destabilized MAT proteins. Mutagenesis of MATα2 and MATβ phospho-sites destabilized them and prevented HSC trans-differentiation. The data reveal that phosphorylation of MAT proteins during HSC activation stabilizes them thereby positively regulating trans-differentiation. PMID:25294683

  1. Characterization and sub-cellular localization of GalNAc-binding proteins isolated from human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yaogang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Hanjie; Zhang, Jiaxu; Sun, Xiu-Xuan; Chen, Wentian; Bian, Huijie; Li, Zheng

    2015-12-25

    Although the expression levels of total GalNAc-binding proteins (GNBPs) were up-regulated significantly in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activated with transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), yet little is known about the precise types, distribution and sub-cellular localization of the GNBPs in HSCs. Here, 264 GNBPs from the activated HSCs and 257 GNBPs from the quiescent HSCs were identified and annotated. A total of 46 GNBPs were estimated to be significantly up-regulated and 40 GNBPs were estimated to be significantly down-regulated in the activated HSCs. For example, the GNBPs (i.e. BTF3, COX17, and ATP5A1) responsible for the regulation of protein binding were up-regulated, and those (i.e. FAM114A1, ENO3, and TKT) responsible for the regulation of protein binding were down-regulated in the activated HSCs. The motifs of the isolated GNBPs showed that Proline residue had the maximum preference in consensus sequences. The western blotting showed the expression levels of COX17, and PRMT1 were significantly up-regulated, while, the expression level of CLIC1(B5) was down-regulated in the activated HSCs and liver cirrhosis tissues. Moreover, the GNBPs were sub-localized in the Golgi apparatus of HSCs. In conclusion, the precision alteration of the GNBPs referred to pathological changes in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis may provide useful information to find new molecular mechanism of HSC activation and discover the biomarkers for diagnosis of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis as well as development of new anti-fibrotic strategies.

  2. Autophagy induced by purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract triggered a cooperative effect on inducing the hepatic stellate cell death.

    PubMed

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Martins, Leo A M; Parisi, Mariana M; Vieira, Moema Queiroz; Terra, Silvia R; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling. We previously found that purple pitanga extract induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle arrest, and death by apoptosis and necrosis in GRX cells, a well-established activated HSC line. We evaluated the effects of 72-h treatment with crescent concentrations of purple pitanga extract (5 to 100 μg/mL) on triggering autophagy in GRX cells, as this is an important mechanism to cells under cytotoxic conditions. We found that all treated cells presented an increase in the mRNA expression of autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7). Concomitantly, flow cytometry and ultrastructural analysis of treated cells revealed an increase of autophagosomes/autolysosomes that consequentially led to an increased mitophagy. As purple pitanga extract was previously found to be broadly cytotoxic to GRX cells, we postulated that autophagy contributes to this scenario, where cell death seems to be an inevitable fate. Altogether, the effectiveness on inducing activated HSC death can make purple pitanga extract a good candidate on treating liver fibrosis.

  3. Differential Regulation of TGF-β/Smad Signaling in Hepatic Stellate Cells between Acute and Chronic Liver Injuries.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Katsunori; Matsuzaki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation by fibrogenic transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signals involves different mechanisms in acute and chronic liver injuries, even though hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the principal effecter in both cases. As a result of chronic liver damage, HSC undergo progressive activation to become myofibroblasts (MFB)-like cells. Our current review will discuss the differential regulation of TGF-β signaling between HSC and MFB in vitro and in vivo. Smad proteins, which convey signals from TGF-β receptors to the nucleus, have intermediate linker regions between conserved Mad-homology (MH) 1 and MH2 domains. TGF-β type I receptor and Ras-associated kinases differentially phosphorylate Smad2 and Smad3 to create COOH-terminally (C), linker (L), or dually (L/C) phosphorylated (p) isoforms. After acute liver injury, TGF-β and PDGF synergistically promote collagen synthesis in the activated HSC via pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C pathways. To avoid unlimited ECM deposition, Smad7 induced by TGF-β negatively regulates the fibrogenic TGF-β signaling. In contrast, TGF-β and PDGF can transmit the fibrogenic pSmad2L/C and mitogenic pSmad3L signals in MFB throughout chronic liver injury, because Smad7 cannot be induced by the pSmad3L pathway. This lack of Smad7 induction might lead to constitutive fibrogenesis in MFB, which eventually develop into accelerated liver fibrosis.

  4. Fasting inhibits hepatic stellate cells activation and potentiates anti-cancer activity of Sorafenib in hepatocellular cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lo Re, Oriana; Panebianco, Concetta; Porto, Stefania; Cervi, Carlo; Rappa, Francesca; Di Biase, Stefano; Caraglia, Michele; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2017-05-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor outcome. Most HCCs develop in the context of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by chronic inflammation. Short-term fasting approaches enhance the activity of chemotherapy in preclinical cancer models, other than HCC. Multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sorafenib is the mainstay of treatment in HCC. However, its benefit is frequently short-lived. Whether fasting can alleviate liver fibrosis and whether combining fasting with Sorafenib is beneficial remains unknown. A 24 hr fasting (2% serum, 0.1% glucose)-induced changes on human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) LX-2 proliferation/viability/cell cycle were assessed by MTT and flow cytometry. Expression of lypolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation markers (vimentin, αSMA) was evaluated by qPCR and immunoblotting. Liver fibrosis and inflammation were evaluated in a mouse model of steatohepatitis exposed to cycles of fasting, by histological and biochemical analyses. A 24 hr fasting-induced changes were also analyzed on the proliferation/viability/glucose uptake of human HCC cells exposed to Sorafenib. An expression panel of genes involved in survival, inflammation, and metabolism was examined by qPCR in HCC cells exposed to fasting and/or Sorafenib. Fasting decreased the proliferation and the activation of HSC. Repeated cycles of short term starvation were safe in mice but did not improve fibrosis. Fasting synergized with Sorafenib in hampering HCC cell growth and glucose uptake. Finally, fasting normalized the expression levels of genes which are commonly altered by Sorafenib in HCC cells. Fasting or fasting-mimicking diet diets should be evaluated in preclinical studies as a mean to potentiate the activity of Sorafenib in clinical use. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Activation of TGF-β1-CD147 positive feedback loop in hepatic stellate cells promotes liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Ju, Di; Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Hao; Kong, Ling-Min; Guo, Yanhai; Li, Can; Wang, Xi-Long; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2015-11-12

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) initiates HBV-associated fibrogenesis. The mechanism of TGF-β1 modulating HSC activation is not fully uncovered. We hypothesized a positive feedback signaling loop of TGF-β1-CD147 promoting liver fibrogenesis by activation of HSCs. Human HSC cell line LX-2 and spontaneous liver fibrosis model derived from HBV transgenic mice were used to evaluate the activation of molecules in the signaling loop. Wound healing and cell contraction assay were performed to detect the CD147-overexpressed HSC migration and contraction. The transcriptional regulation of CD147 by TGF-β1/Smad4 was determined using dual-luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. We found that a positive reciprocal regulation between TGF-β1 and CD147 mediated HSC activation. CD147 over-expression promoted HSC migration and accelerated TGF-β1-induced cell contraction. Phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in cooperation with Smad4 mediated the TGF-β1-regulated CD147 expression. Smad4 activated the transcription by direct interaction with CD147 promoter. Meanwhile, CD147 modulated the activated phenotype of HSCs through the ERK1/2 and Sp1 which up-regulated α-SMA, collagen I, and TGF-β1 synthesis. These findings indicate that TGF-β1-CD147 loop plays a key role in regulating the HSC activation and combination of TGF-β receptor inhibitor and anti-CD147 antibody might be promised to reverse fibrogenesis.

  6. Niemann-Pick Type C2 Protein Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cells Activation by Regulating Free Cholesterol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Twu, Yuh-Ching; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lin, Yun-Lian; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wang, Yuan-Hsi; Liao, Chia-Yu; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Liang, Yu-Chih; Liao, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In chronic liver diseases, regardless of their etiology, the development of fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main profibrogenic cells that promote the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, and so it is important to identify the molecules that regulate HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by directly binding with free cholesterol. However, the roles of NPC2 in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis have not been explored in detail. Since a high-cholesterol diet exacerbates liver fibrosis progression in both rodents and humans, we propose that the expression of NPC2 affects free cholesterol metabolism and regulates HSCs activation. In this study, we found that NPC2 is decreased in both thioacetamide- and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis tissues. In addition, NPC2 is expressed in quiescent HSCs, but its activation status is down-regulated. Knockdown of NPC2 in HSC-T6 cells resulted in marked increases in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen type 1 α1 (Col1a1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, and Smad2 phosphorylation. In contrast, NPC2 overexpression decreased TGF-β1-induced HSCs activation. We further demonstrated that NPC2 deficiency significantly increased the accumulation of free cholesterol in HSCs, increasing Col1a1 and α-SMA expression and activating Smad2, and leading to sensitization of HSCs to TGF-β1 activation. In contrast, overexpression of NPC2 decreased U18666A-induced free cholesterol accumulation and inhibited the subsequent HSCs activation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated that NPC2 plays an important role in HSCs activation by regulating the accumulation of free cholesterol. NPC2 overexpression may thus represent a new treatment strategy for liver fibrosis. PMID:27420058

  7. Niemann-Pick Type C2 Protein Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cells Activation by Regulating Free Cholesterol Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Twu, Yuh-Ching; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lin, Yun-Lian; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wang, Yuan-Hsi; Liao, Chia-Yu; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Liang, Yu-Chih; Liao, Yi-Jen

    2016-07-13

    In chronic liver diseases, regardless of their etiology, the development of fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main profibrogenic cells that promote the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, and so it is important to identify the molecules that regulate HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by directly binding with free cholesterol. However, the roles of NPC2 in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis have not been explored in detail. Since a high-cholesterol diet exacerbates liver fibrosis progression in both rodents and humans, we propose that the expression of NPC2 affects free cholesterol metabolism and regulates HSCs activation. In this study, we found that NPC2 is decreased in both thioacetamide- and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis tissues. In addition, NPC2 is expressed in quiescent HSCs, but its activation status is down-regulated. Knockdown of NPC2 in HSC-T6 cells resulted in marked increases in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen type 1 α1 (Col1a1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, and Smad2 phosphorylation. In contrast, NPC2 overexpression decreased TGF-β1-induced HSCs activation. We further demonstrated that NPC2 deficiency significantly increased the accumulation of free cholesterol in HSCs, increasing Col1a1 and α-SMA expression and activating Smad2, and leading to sensitization of HSCs to TGF-β1 activation. In contrast, overexpression of NPC2 decreased U18666A-induced free cholesterol accumulation and inhibited the subsequent HSCs activation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated that NPC2 plays an important role in HSCs activation by regulating the accumulation of free cholesterol. NPC2 overexpression may thus represent a new treatment strategy for liver fibrosis.

  8. MicroRNA-155 attenuates activation of hepatic stellate cell by simultaneously preventing EMT process and ERK1 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiping; Zhao, Juan; Tang, Nan; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Kaiming; Ye, Changhong; Shi, Jian; Lu, Cuihua; Ning, Beifang; Zhang, Junping; Lin, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) signalling pathway play pivotal roles in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, which is associated with the altered expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-155 is considered a typical multifunctional miRNA to regulate many biological processes. However, little attention has been given to the contributions of miR-155 to simultaneous regulation of EMT process and ERK1 pathway during HSC activation. Differential expression of miR-155 was assessed in activated HSC, sera and liver tissues from cirrhotic patients. Whether miR-155 could directly interact with 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of T cell factor 4 (TCF4) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) respectively was detected by luciferase reporter assay. The effects of enhanced miR-155 on EMT process and ERK1 pathway, cell apoptosis in HSC activation were also evaluated. A significant decrease in miR-155 expression was observed in activated HSC, sera or liver tissues of cirrhotic patients. MiR-155 was found to simultaneously interact with 3'-UTR of TCF4 and AGTR1 mRNAs, which are known as important regulators associated with EMT and ERK1 pathway repectively. Inhibiting miR-155 expression could stimulate the EMT state and ERK1 pathway activity, thus contributing to HSC activation. Forced miR-155 expression markedly decreased the mesenchymal markers and phosphorylated ERK1 level, and enhanced E-cadherin expression, leading to the synchronous inhibitory effect on EMT and ERK1 pathway and inducing HSC apoptosis. Our results implicate that miR-155 plays an important role in regulating the pathological network involving EMT process and ERK1 pathway during HSC activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Alteration of N-glycoproteins/N-glycosites in human hepatic stellate cells activated with transforming growth factor-β1.

    PubMed

    Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Zhong, Y; Zhao, F; Wu, F; Wang, Y; Ma, T; Liu, C; Bian, H; Li, Z

    2016-03-20

    Proteins N-glycosylation is significantly increased in the activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) compared to the quiescent HSCs according to our previous study. However, little is known about the alteration of N-glycoprotein profiles in the activated HSCs. Profiles of N-glycopeptides / N-glycoproteins / N-glycosites in LX-2 cells, with and without activation by TGF-β1, were identified and compared using hydrazide chemistry enrichment coupled with liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were further used for validation. A total of 103 non-redundant N-glycopeptides, with 107 glycosylation sites from 86 N-glycoproteins, were identified in activated and quiescent LX-2 cells respectively. Among these, 23 proteins were known N-glycoproteins, and 58 were newly identified N-glycoproteins. In addition, 43 proteins (e.g., pigment epithelium-derived factor and clathrin heavy chain 1) were solely identified or up-regulated in the activated LX-2 cells, which participated in focal adhesion and glycosaminoglycan degradation pathways and were involved in interaction clusters of cytoskeletal proteins (e.g., myosin light chains and keratins). The increased expression of glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase and phospholipase C beta 2 and the decreased expression of zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 1 were validated in the activated compared to the quiescent LX-2 cells. In conclusion, increased expression of N-glycoproteins and N-glycosites play important roles in cellular contractility, signal transduction, and responses to stimuli in the activated HSCs, which might provide useful information for discovering novel molecular mechanism of HSC activation and therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

  10. Role of methionine adenosyltransferase α2 and β phosphorylation and stabilization in human hepatic stellate cell trans-differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Komal; Donoyan, Shant; Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Park, Sunhee

    2015-05-01

    Myofibroblastic trans-differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is an essential event in the development of liver fibrogenesis. These changes involve modulation of key regulators of the genome and the proteome. Methionine adenosyltransferases (MAT) catalyze the biosynthesis of the methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) from methionine. We have previously shown that two MAT genes, MAT2A and MAT2B (encoding MATα2 and MATβ proteins respectively), are required for HSC activation and loss of MAT2A transcriptional control favors its up-regulation during trans-differentiation. Hence MAT genes are intrinsically linked to the HSC machinery during activation. In the current study, we have identified for the first time, post-translational modifications in the MATα2 and MATβ proteins that stabilize them and favor human HSC trans-differentiation. Culture-activation of human HSCs induced the MATα2 and MATβ proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we identified phosphorylation sites in MATα2 and MATβ predicted to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members (ERK1/2, V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1 [B-Raf], MEK). Phosphorylation of both proteins was enhanced during HSC activation. Blocking MEK activation lowered the phosphorylation and stability of MAT proteins without influencing their mRNA levels. Silencing ERK1/2 or B-Raf lowered the phosphorylation and stability of MATβ but not MATα2. Reversal of the activated human HSC cell line, LX2 to quiescence lowered phosphorylation and destabilized MAT proteins. Mutagenesis of MATα2 and MATβ phospho-sites destabilized them and prevented HSC trans-differentiation. The data reveal that phosphorylation of MAT proteins during HSC activation stabilizes them thereby positively regulating trans-differentiation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hepatic Stellate Cells Improve Engraftment of Human Primary Hepatocytes: A Preclinical Transplantation Study in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Dusabineza, Ange-Clarisse; Najimi, Mustapha; van Hul, Noémi; Legry, Vanessa; Khuu, Dung Ngoc; van Grunsven, Leo A; Sokal, Etienne; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    Human hepatocytes are used for liver cell therapy, but the small number of engrafting cells limits the benefit of cell transplantation. We tested whether cotransplantation of hepatocytes with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) could improve hepatocyte engraftment in vivo. Human primary hepatocytes were transplanted into SCID mice either alone or in a mixture with HSCs (quiescent or after culture activation) or LX-2 cells (ratio 20:1). Four weeks after transplantation into mouse livers, human albumin-positive (huAlb(+)) hepatocytes were found scattered. When cotransplanted in a mixture with HSCs or LX-2 cells, huAlb(+) hepatocytes formed clusters and were more numerous occupying 2- to 5.9-fold more surface on the tissue section than in livers transplanted with hepatocytes alone. Increased huAlb mRNA expression in livers transplanted with the cell mixtures confirmed those results. The presence of HSCs increased the number of hepatocytes entrapped in the host liver at an early time point posttransplantation but not their proliferation in situ as assessed by cumulative incorporation of BrdU. Importantly, 4 weeks posttransplantation, we found no accumulation of αSMA(+)-activated HSCs or collagen deposition. To follow the fate of transplanted HSCs, HSCs derived from GFP(+) mice were injected into GFP(-) littermates: 17 h posttransplant, GFP(+) HSCs were found in the sinusoids, without proliferating or actively producing ECM; they were undetectable at later time points. Coculture with HSCs improved the number of adherent hepatocytes, with best attachment obtained when hepatocytes were seeded in contact with activated HSCs. In vivo, cotransplantation of hepatocytes with HSCs into a healthy liver recipient does not generate fibrosis, but significantly improves the engraftment of hepatocytes, probably by ameliorating cell homing.

  12. Ephrin B2/EphB4 pathway in hepatic stellate cells stimulates Erk-dependent VEGF production and sinusoidal endothelial cell recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amitava; Shergill, Uday; Thakur, Lokendra; Sinha, Sutapa; Urrutia, Raul; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Chemotaxis signals between hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) maintain hepatic vascular homeostasis and integrity and also regulate changes in sinusoidal structure in response to liver injury. Our prior studies have demonstrated that the bidirectional chemotactic signaling molecules EphrinB2 and EphB4 are expressed in HSC. The aim of our present study was to explore whether and how the EphrinB2/EphB4 system in HSC could promote SEC recruitment, which is essential for sinusoidal structure and remodeling. Stimulation of human HSC (hHSC) with chimeric agonists (2 μg/ml) of either EphrinB2 or EphB4 (EphrinB2 Fc or EphB4 Fc, respectively) significantly increased VEGF mRNA levels in hHSC as assessed by quantitative PCR, with respective small interfering RNAs for EphrinB2 and EphB4 inhibiting this increase (P < 0.05, n = 3). EphrinB2 agonist-induced increase in VEGF mRNA levels in hHSC was associated with increased phosphorylation of Erk and was significantly blocked by U0126 (20 μM), an inhibitor of MEK, which is a kinase upstream from Erk (P < 0.05, n = 3). The EphB4 agonist also significantly increased human VEGF promoter activity (P < 0.05, n = 3) as assessed by promoter reporter luciferase assay in transfected LX2-HSC. This was associated with upregulation of the vasculoprotective transcription factor, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). In Boyden chamber assays, conditioned media from hHSC stimulated with agonists of EphrinB2 or EphB4 increased SEC chemotaxis in a VEGF-dependent manner, compared with control groups that included basal media with agonists of EphrinB2, EphB4, or HSC-conditioned media from HSC in absence of agonist stimulation (P < 0.05, n = 3). EphB4 expression was detected in situ within liver sinusoidal vessels of rats after carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. In summary, activation of the EphrinB2/EphB4 signaling pathway in HSC promotes chemotaxis of SEC through a pathway that involves Erk, KLF2, and VEGF. These

  13. Anti-fibrotic effects of a methylenedioxybenzene compound, CW209292 on dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Woong; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Ha, Jong-Ryul; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2009-08-01

    A series of methylenedioxybenzene compounds were synthesized and found to have hepatoprotective effects in chemical-induced hepatotoxicity models. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of a synthetic methylenedioxybenzene compound, CW209292, using the dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury model in rats. Liver injuries were induced in Sprague Dawley rats by injection of DMN (intraperitoneally, 10 microl/kg) 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The rats were treated with CW209292 (per os, 25 or 75 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks. Treatment of rats with DMN for 4 weeks resulted in significant decreases in serum albumin levels, whereas concomitant treatment with CW209292 prevented these decreases. CW209292 treatment also shortened prothrombin time prolonged by DMN, providing evidence that the agent was active in preserving liver function against DMN insult. DMN treatment caused marked increases in plasma bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and hyaluronic acid levels; CW209292 treatment reversed these increases. CW209292 also significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content as well as hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in histological examination. Additionally, immunochemically detectable hepatic collagen type IV and alpha-smooth muscle actin levels were decreased by CW209292 treatment. Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells isolated from DMN-treated rats was inhibited by CW209292. Furthermore, tumor growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNA expression was increased in DMN-treated rats, whereas CW209292 treatment prevented these increases. These results suggest that CW209292 exhibits anti-fibrotic effects in Sprague Dawley rats with DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis by blocking the mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 and subsequent inhibition of the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells.

  14. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside Purified from Black Rice Protects Mice against Hepatic Fibrosis Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride via Inhibiting Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinwei; Guo, Honghui; Shen, Tianran; Tang, Xilan; Yang, Yan; Ling, Wenhua

    2015-07-15

    This study investigated whether cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G), a predominant anthocyanin, could exert a protective role on liver injury and its further mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis actions in mice. The results demonstrated that the treatment of Cy-3-G (800 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks significantly attenuated hepatotoxicity and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administered mice. Cy-3-G strongly down-regulated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), which showed its suppression effect on the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, Cy-3-G favorably regulated oxidative stress and apoptosis in liver. Furthermore, Cy-3-G ameliorated the infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and leukocytes and meanwhile suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. In conclusion, daily intake of Cy-3-G could prevent liver fibrosis progression in mice induced by CCl4 through inhibiting HSC activation, which provides a basis for clinical practice of liver fibrosis prevention.

  15. Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation by modulating transforming growth factor-β/smad pathway

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, WEIJUAN; LI, LIN; TIAN, XIAOPENG; YAN, JINJIN; YANG, XINZHENG; WANG, XINLONG; LIAO, GUOZHEN; QIU, GENQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) is capable of protecting against liver fibrosis in rats. The hypothesis of the present study was that APE exerts its anti-fibrotic effect by mediating the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a series of assays were designed to detect the effects of APE on cell proliferation, cell invasion and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, the effects of APE on the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were explored, with the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanisms. HSCs were initially isolated from normal rat liver. A number of assays were then employed in order to evaluate the effects of APE on the function of these cells. Cell proliferation was investigated using an MTT assay and cell invasion was observed with the use of transwell invasion chambers. Collagen synthesis was measured with a 3H-proline incorporation assay and expression of α-smooth muscle actin was used to determine the extent of HSC activation. Protein expression induced by TGF-β1 in HSCs was investigated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type1 (PAI-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) transcriptional activity was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that APE (5–80 μg/ml) significantly inhibited fetal bovine serum-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and activation of HSCs induced by TGF-β1 were disrupted by treatment with APE in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 was observed to increase the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, while APE administered at higher doses produced inhibitory effects on Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In addition, administration of APE abrogated the TGF-β1-induced reduction in Smad-7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results further indicated that APE treatment not only

  16. The expression of HIV-1 Vpu in monocytes causes increased secretion of TGF-β that activates profibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Paresh; Khan, Nabab; Rani, Manjusha; Gupta, Deepti; Jameel, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    There is faster progression to fibrosis in persons with liver injury who are also infected with HIV. Other reports have suggested that HIV can directly infect and activate stellate cells, and the viral Tat and gp160 proteins also induce profibrogenic factors from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We tested the role of HIV-1 Vpu accessory protein in promoting profibrogenic activation of hepatic stellate cells. Human stellate LX2 cells were cocultured with human monocytic U937 cells stably expressing the Vpu protein or latently infected U1 cells knocked down for Vpu expression, LX2 cells were also cultured with the supernatants from these cells. The expression of profibrogenic markers was evaluated in LX2 cells usingquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR),western blotting, immunofluorescence,flow cytometry and ELISA were used to confirm and quantitate protein expression. Monocytic cells expressing Vpu increased the expression of profibrogenic markers in LX2 cells. The culture supernatants of these cells contained increased levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which correlated with increased activity of the AP-1 transcription factor. Antibodies against TGF-β or a TGF-β receptor inhibitor (SB431452) reversed Vpu-mediated profibrogenic activation of LX2 cells, suggesting that TGF-β mediated these effects. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) attenuated Vpu-mediated TGF-β secretion and profibrogenic effects on LX2 cells. Besides its other roles in pathogenesis, Vpu is likely to contribute to hepatic fibrosis through this hitherto unknown mechanism.

  17. Activated hepatic stellate cells impair NK cell anti-fibrosis capacity through a TGF-β-dependent emperipolesis in HBV cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jijing; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Yongqian; Hu, Jinhua; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xin; Shang, Qinghua; Sun, Yanling; Tu, Bo; Shi, Lei; Gao, Bin; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can induce liver fibrosis remission by killing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and producing interferon (IFN)-γ in a mouse model; however, their anti-fibrotic immune-characteristics and regulatory mechanisms by HSCs remain to be determined, especially in livers from HBV-infected liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. We analyzed frequency, phenotype and anti-fibrotic function of hepatic and peripheral NK subsets in 43 HBV-LC patients. We found that hepatic NK subsets from LC patients displayed a decreased frequency, activation status and anti-fibrotic activity compared with those from chronic hepatitis B patients, which were mainly mediated by increased intrahepatic tumour-growth factor (TGF)-β because blockade of TGF-β significantly reversed NK anti-fibrotic function in vitro. In vivo, hepatic NK cells were enriched in proximity to the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA+) area within mild fibrosis regions; while in severe fibrotic areas, they were either directly attached to or separated from the α-SMA+ region. NK cells from LC patients could enter HSCs to form emperipolesis (a cell-in-cell structure) and become apoptotic; anti-TGF-β treatment ameliorated this emperipolesis. This finding suggested a novel mechanism by which activated HSCs impair NK cells’ anti-fibrosis capacity through a TGF-β-dependent emperipolesis in LC patients, providing an anti-fibrotic rational by enhancing NK cell activity. PMID:28291251

  18. Activated hepatic stellate cells impair NK cell anti-fibrosis capacity through a TGF-β-dependent emperipolesis in HBV cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jijing; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Yongqian; Hu, Jinhua; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xin; Shang, Qinghua; Sun, Yanling; Tu, Bo; Shi, Lei; Gao, Bin; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Zheng

    2017-03-14

    Natural killer (NK) cells can induce liver fibrosis remission by killing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and producing interferon (IFN)-γ in a mouse model; however, their anti-fibrotic immune-characteristics and regulatory mechanisms by HSCs remain to be determined, especially in livers from HBV-infected liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. We analyzed frequency, phenotype and anti-fibrotic function of hepatic and peripheral NK subsets in 43 HBV-LC patients. We found that hepatic NK subsets from LC patients displayed a decreased frequency, activation status and anti-fibrotic activity compared with those from chronic hepatitis B patients, which were mainly mediated by increased intrahepatic tumour-growth factor (TGF)-β because blockade of TGF-β significantly reversed NK anti-fibrotic function in vitro. In vivo, hepatic NK cells were enriched in proximity to the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA+) area within mild fibrosis regions; while in severe fibrotic areas, they were either directly attached to or separated from the α-SMA+ region. NK cells from LC patients could enter HSCs to form emperipolesis (a cell-in-cell structure) and become apoptotic; anti-TGF-β treatment ameliorated this emperipolesis. This finding suggested a novel mechanism by which activated HSCs impair NK cells' anti-fibrosis capacity through a TGF-β-dependent emperipolesis in LC patients, providing an anti-fibrotic rational by enhancing NK cell activity.

  19. Xiayuxue Decoction ([symbols; see text]) attenuates hepatic stellate cell activation and sinusoidal endothelium defenestration in CCl4-induced fibrotic liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-jun; Sun, Ming-yu; Ning, Bing-bing; Zhang, Wen-meng; Chen, Gao-feng; Mu, Yong-ping; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Jia; Bian, Yan-qin; Liu, Ping

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of ancient Chinese medical formula Xiayuxue Decoction ([symbols; see text], XYXD) on activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and defenestration of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) in CCl4-induced fibrotic liver of mice. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify the main components of XYXD and control the quality of extraction. C57BL/6 mice were induced liver fibrosis by CCl4 exposure and administered with XYXD for 6 weeks simultaneously. Liver tissue was investigated by hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius-red staining. Sinusoidal fenestrations were observed by scanning electronic microscopy and fluorescent immunohistochemistry of PECAM-1 (CD31). Whole liver lysates were detected of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type-I collagen by Western blot. Primary rat HSCs-T6 cells were analyzed by detecting α-SMA, F-actin, DNA fragmentation through confocal microscopy, Western blot, terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and cellomics arrayscan, respectively. Amygdalin and emodin in XYXD were identified. XYXD (993 mg/kg) inhibited Sirius red positive area up to 70.1% (P<0.01), as well as protein levels of α-SMA and type-I collagen by 42.0% and 18.5% (P<0.05) respectively. In vitro, XYXD (12.5 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL) suppressed the activation of HSCs and reversed the myofibroblastic HSCs into quiescent, demonstrated as inhibition of fluorescent F-actin by 32.3% and 46.6% (P<0.05). Besides, XYXD induced the apoptosis of HSC-T6 cells by 20.0% (P<0.05) and 49.5% (P<0.01), evidenced by enhanced TUNEL positivity. Moreover, ultrastructural observation suggested XYXD inhibited defenestration of SECs, which was confirmed by 31.1% reduction of protein level of CD31 (P<0.05). XYXD inhibited both HSCs activation and SECs defenestration which accompany chronic liver injuries. These data may help to understand the underlying mechanisms of XYXD for prevetion of chronic liver diseases.

  20. Lentiviral vector-mediated down-regulation of IL-17A receptor in hepatic stellate cells results in decreased secretion of IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng-Chu; Zheng, Yi-Hu; Yu, Pan-Pan; Min, Tan Hooi; Yu, Fu-Xiang; Ye, Chao; Xie, Yuan-Kang; Zhang, Qi-Yu

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of interleukin (IL)-6 secretion through blocking the IL-17A/IL-17A receptor (IL-17RA) signaling pathway with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. METHODS: HSCs were derived from the livers of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. IL-6 expression was evaluated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The phosphorylation activity of p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2 upon induction by IL-17A and suppression by IL-17RA shRNA were examined using Western blotting. RESULTS: IL-6 expression induced by IL-17A was significantly increased compared to control in HSCs (P < 0.01 in a dose-dependent manner). Suppression of IL-17RA using lentiviral-mediated shRNA inhibited IL-6 expression induced by IL-17A compared to group with only IL-17A treatment (1.44 ± 0.17 vs 4.07 ± 0.43, P < 0.01). IL-17A induced rapid phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 after 5 min exposure, and showed the strongest levels of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 at 15 min in IL-17A-treated HSCs. IL-6 mRNA expression induced by IL-17A (100 ng/mL) for 3 h exposure was inhibited by preincubation with specific inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB-203580) and ERK1/2 (PD-98059) compared to groups without inhibitors preincubation (1.67 ± 0.24, 2.01 ± 0.10 vs 4.08 ± 0.59, P < 0.01). Moreover, Lentiviral-mediated IL-17RA shRNA 1 inhibited IL-17A-induced IL-6 mRNA expression compared to random shRNA in HSCs (1.44 ± 0.17 vs 3.98 ± 0.68, P < 0.01). Lentiviral-mediated IL-17RA shRNA 1 inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 induced by 15 min IL-17A (100 ng/mL) exposure. CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of the IL-17RA receptor by shRNA decreased IL-6 expression induced by IL-17A via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSCs. Suppression of IL-17RA expression may be a strategy to reduce the inflammatory response induced by IL-17A in

  1. MiR-29b inhibits collagen maturation in hepatic stellate cells through down-regulating the expression of HSP47 and lysyl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yifei; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Li, Jiang; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B.; He, Fengtian; Fan, Jie; Xie, Wen; Li, Song

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Enhanced HSP47 and LOX expression is associated with decreased miR-29b level in liver fibrosis. • miR-29b down-regulates HSP47 and LOX expression. • The suppression of HSP47 and LOX by miR-29b is mediated by putative sites at their 3′-UTRs. • miR-29b inhibits extracellular LOX activity and collagen maturation. - Abstract: Altered expression of miR-29b is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of liver fibrosis. We and others previously demonstrated that miR-29b down-regulates the expression of several extracellular-matrix (ECM) genes including Col 1A1, Col 3A1 and Elastin via directly targeting their 3′-UTRs. However, whether or not miR-29b plays a role in the post-translational regulation of ECM biosynthesis has not been reported. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) are known to be essential for ECM maturation. In this study we have demonstrated that expression of HSP47 and LOX was significantly up-regulated in culture-activated primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), TGF-β stimulated LX-2 cells and liver tissue of CCl{sub 4}-treated mice, which was accompanied by a decrease of miR-29b level. In addition, over-expression of miR-29b in LX-2 cells resulted in significant inhibition on HSP47 and LOX expression. Mechanistically, miR-29b inhibited the expression of a reporter gene that contains the respective full-length 3′-UTR from HSP47 and LOX gene, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by the deletion of a putative miR-29b targeting sequence from the 3′-UTRs. Transfection of LX-2 cells with miR-29b led to abnormal collagen structure as shown by electron-microscopy, presumably through down-regulation of the expression of molecules involved in ECM maturation including HSP47 and LOX. These results demonstrated that miR-29b is involved in regulating the post-translational processing of ECM and fibril formation.

  2. [Inhibitory effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonist on the contraction and growth of hepatic stellate cells].

    PubMed

    Baik, Soon Koo; Jo, Ho Sung; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Byong Jun; Choi, Yeun Jong; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Dong Ki; Kwon, Sang Ok; Lee, Keon Il; Cha, Seung Kyu; Park, Kyu Sang; Kong, In Deok

    2003-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) and its receptor antagonist (losartan) on the contraction and growth of HSCs. HSCs were isolated from Sprague Dawley rat and cultured at various conditions as follows: control, pretreatment of 10(-5) M ANG II, pretreatment of 10(-5) M endothelin, and pretreatment of 10(-5) M ANG II and 10(-6) M losartan. We conducted morphologic analysis with cellular area and length by image analysis system to estimate cell growth in each group. In addition, we measured the change of intracellular calcium currents via electrophysiological methods to evaluate the contractile effect of ANG II and losartan on HSCs. At the fifth day of incubation, the mean cellular area of ANG II-pretreated group and ANG II with losartan-pretreated group were 704.68+/-22.6 micro m2 and 332.90+/-32.6 micro m2, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). ANG II induced an increase in the intracellular calcium current by 22.0+/-3.0% compared with basal current level (p<0.05). However, when losartan was pretreated, ANG II did not cause a significant increase in calcium current (3.1+/-0.8%, p>0.05). ANG II accelerates the contraction and growth of HSCs, while its receptor blocker, losartan, inhibits the contraction and growth of HSCs.

  3. [Effects of wild-type PTEN overexpression and its mutation on F-actin in activated hepatic stellate cells].

    PubMed

    Hao, L S; Liu, Y L; Zhang, G L; Chen, J; Song, X J; Wang, Y L; Wang, J; Jin, L M

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of overexpression of wild-type phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted on chromosome 10 and its mutant G129E (exhibiting the activity of protein phosphatase and losing the activity of lipid phosphatase) on F-actin in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) cultured in vitro. Methods: The activated hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) cells were cultured in vitro, and activated HSCs were transfected with adenovirus that carried wild-type PTEN gene and G129E gene using transient transfection. The HSCs were divided into the following groups: control group, which was transfected with DMEM medium instead of virus solution; Ad-GFP group, which was transfected with the empty adenovirus vector with the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP); Ad-PTEN group, which was transfected with the recombinant adenovirus with wild-type PTEN gene and GFP expression; Ad-G129E group, which was transfected with the recombinant adenovirus with G129E gene and GFP expression. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR were used to measure the protein and mRNA expression of PTEN in activated HSCs; under a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), phalloidine labeled with the fluorescein tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) was used to observe the morphology of HSCs, distribution and fluorescence intensity of F-actin, and changes in pseudopodia and stress fibers, and a calcium fluorescence probe (Rhod-2/AM) was used to measure the changes in Ca(2+) concentration in HSCs. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference test was used for comparison between two groups. Results: Wild-type PTEN and G129E genes were highly expressed in activated HSCs. In the control group and the Ad-GFP group, HSCs had a starlike or polygonal shape, F-actin was reconfigured and formed a large number of stress fibers which stretched across the whole cell, and layered pseudopodia were seen

  4. Hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts are the major cellular sources of collagens and lysyl oxidases in normal liver and early after injury

    PubMed Central

    Perepelyuk, Maryna; Terajima, Masahiko; Wang, Andrew Y.; Georges, Penelope C.; Janmey, Paul A.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by myofibroblasts derived from hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts. Activation of these precursors to myofibroblasts requires matrix stiffness, which results in part from increased collagen cross-linking mediated by lysyl oxidase (LOX) family proteins. The aims of this study were to characterize the mechanical changes of early fibrosis, to identify the cells responsible for LOX production in early injury, and to determine which cells in normal liver produce collagens and elastins, which serve as substrates for LOXs early after injury. Hepatocytes and liver nonparenchymal cells were isolated from normal and early-injured liver and examined immediately for expression of LOXs and matrix proteins. We found that stellate cells and portal fibroblasts were the major cellular sources of fibrillar collagens and LOXs in normal liver and early after injury (1 day after bile duct ligation and 2 and 7 days after CCl4 injury). Activity assays using stellate cells and portal fibroblasts in culture demonstrated significant increases in LOX family enzymatic activity as cells became myofibroblastic. LOX family-mediated deoxypyridinoline and pyridinoline cross-links increased after CCl4-mediated injury. There was a significant association between liver stiffness (as quantified by the shear storage modulus G′) and deoxypyridinoline levels; increased deoxypyridinoline levels were also coincident with significantly increased elastic resistance to large strain deformations, consistent with increased cross-linking of the extracellular matrix. These data suggest a model in which the liver is primed to respond quickly to injury, activating potential mechanical feed-forward mechanisms. PMID:23328207

  5. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Rat Hepatic Fibrosis via Downregulating Angiotensin II Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Wang, Lina; Yan, Xiuchuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Li, Junxia; Peng, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Liu, Chenghai

    2012-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), one of the water-soluble components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been used to treat hepatic fibrosis, but it is still not clear whether the effect of Sal B is related to angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling pathway. In the present study, we studied Sal B effect on rat liver fibrosis and Ang-II related signaling mediators in dimethylnitrosamine-(DMN-) induced rat fibrotic model in vivo and Ang-II stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro, with perindopril or losartan as control drug, respectively. The results showed that Sal B and perindopril inhibited rat hepatic fibrosis and reduced expression of Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and ERK activation in fibrotic liver. Sal B and losartan also inhibited Ang II-stimulated HSC activation including cell proliferation and expression of type I collagen I (Col-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production in vitro, reduced the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and downregulated AT1R expression and ERK and c-Jun phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results indicate that Sal B may exert an antihepatic fibrosis effect via downregulating Ang II signaling in HSC activation. PMID:23243430

  6. HIV and HCV Co-Culture Promotes Profibrogenic Gene Expression through an Epimorphin-Mediated ERK Signaling Pathway in Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Qin, Enqiang; Zhou, Junnian; Zhao, Juanjuan; Nie, Weimin; Jiang, Tianjun; Chen, Weiwei; Wu, Dan; Huang, Lei; Liu, Liying; Lv, Liping; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated fibrosis in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been a major cause of mortality in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. However, the role of co-infection in accelerating the progression of liver fibrosis, particularly with regard to the effects of co-infection on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), remains unclear. We hypothesized that HIV and HCV induce liver fibrosis synergistically by altering the regulation of epimorphin production, and thereby indirectly alter HSC function. Here, we examined the effects of epimorphin on HSC proliferation and invasion, and the changes in fibrogenesis-related gene activity in HSCs (LX2) in the presence of inactivated CXCR4-tropic HIV and HCV (JFH1). The combination of HIV and HCV significantly increased epimorphin expression, which increased the proliferation and invasion capabilities of HSCs. Epimorphin also induced the expression of profibrogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent manner. These data indicated that the effects of HIV/HCV co-infection on hepatic fibrosis might be mediated in part by EPM. Strategies to limit the expression of EPM might represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent the progression of hepatic fibrosis during HIV/HCV co-infection. PMID:27362846

  7. Senescence in hepatic stellate cells as a mechanism of liver fibrosis reversal: a putative synergy between retinoic acid and PPAR-gamma signalings.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Concetta; Oben, Jude A; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Pazienza, Valerio

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), also known as perisinusoidal cells, are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space of the liver. HSCs are the major cell type involved in liver fibrosis, which is the formation of scar tissue in response to liver damage. When the liver is damaged, stellate cells can shift into an activated state, characterized by proliferation, contractility and chemotaxis. The activated HSCs secrete collagen scar tissue, which can lead to cirrhosis. Recent studies have shown that in vivo activation of HSCs by fibrogenic agents can eventually lead to senescence of these cells, which would contribute to reversal of fibrosis although it may also favor the insurgence of liver cancer. HSCs in their non-active form store huge amounts of retinoic acid derivatives in lipid droplets, which are progressively depleted upon cell activation in injured liver. Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A, generally required for growth and development. The precise function of retinoic acid and its alterations in HSCs has yet to be elucidated, and nonetheless in various cell types retinoic acid and its receptors (RAR and RXR) are known to act synergistically with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) signaling through the activity of transcriptional heterodimers. Here, we review the recent advancements in the understanding of how retinoic acid signaling modulates the fibrogenic potential of HSCs and proposes a synergistic combined action with PPAR-gamma in the reversal of liver fibrosis.

  8. Ethanol Augments PDGF-Induced NADPH Oxidase Activity and Proliferation in Rat Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Richard; Wang, Yan-Ling; Edderkaoui, Mouad; Lugea, Aurelia; Apte, Minoti V.; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aims Activated stellate cells are considered the principal mediators of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis/fibrosis. However the mechanisms of alcohol action on pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to determine the presence and role of the NADPH oxidase system in mediating alcohol effects on PaSCs with specific emphasis on proliferation. Methods PaSC NADPH oxidase components mRNA and protein were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. The NADPH oxidase activity was measured by detecting the production of reactive oxygen species using lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence assay. PaSC DNA synthesis, a measure of proliferation, was performed by determining the [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA. Results mRNA for NADPH oxidase components Nox1, gp91phox, Nox4, p22phox, p47phox and p67phox and protein for NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox and p67phox are present in PaSCs. Treatment with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) significantly increased the NADPH oxidase activity and DNA synthesis in cultured PaSCs. Alcohol treatment markedly augmented both the NADPH oxidase activity and the DNA synthesis caused by PDGF, which was prevented by antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ROS scavenger tiron, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodium. The effects of PDGF on NADPH oxidase activity and DNA synthesis were prevented in PaSCs isolated from the pancreas of mice with a genetic deficiency of p47phox. Conclusions Ethanol causes proliferation of stellate cells by augmenting the activation of the cell's NADPH oxidase system stimulated by PDGF. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of alcohol-induced fibrosing disorders. PMID:17627098

  9. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced reactive oxidative species protects human hepatic stellate cells from apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Li, Shu-Jie; Xin, Yong-Ning; Ji, Shu-Sheng; Xie, Rui-Jin; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS)-induced apoptosis of human hepatic stellate (HSC) is one of the treatments for liver fibrosis. However, how ROS (reactive oxygen species) affect HSC apoptosis and liver fibrosis is still unknown. In our study, ROS in human HSC cell line LX-2 was induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) and assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level. We found that in LX2 cells Fe-NTA induced notable ROS, which played a protective role in HSCs cells apoptosis by inhibiting Caspase-3 activation. Fe-NTA-induced ROS increased mRNA and protein level of anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 and decreased mRNA protein level of pro-apoptosis gene Bax, As a result, maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential of HSCs. Fe-NTA-induced ROS play a protective role in human HSCs by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:26770403

  10. The changes of gap junctions between pituitary folliculo-stellate cells during the postnatal development of Zucker fatty and lean rats.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Soji, Tsuyoshi; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Herbert, Damon C

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leptin on the postnatal development of gap junctions between folliculo-stellate cells by using Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats that have defects of the functional leptin receptor. Male Zucker fatty rats (fa/fa) and male Zucker lean rats (+/+) were used at each of the following postnatal ages: 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 days, and 1 year. On one of the aforementioned dates, the anterior pituitary glands were prepared for observation by transmission electron microscopy. We quantified the number of follicles and gap junctions, and calculated the rate of occurrence as the ratio of the number of gap junctions existing between folliculo-stellate cells per intersected follicular profile. In Zucker lean male rats, the number of gap junctions remained relatively constant from days 50 to 90 (0.44 ± 0.02 to 0.49 ± 0.03), and was similar in 1 year old rats (0.47 ± 0.03). These data were statistically higher compared to Zucker fatty male rats. In Zucker fatty male rats, very few gap junctions were observed in 30-day-old rats (0.04 ± 0.01: mean ± SE). This disruption of gap junction formation persisted, and the number of gap junctions remained constant and showed a low level from days 40 to 90 (0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.17 ± 0.02); this finding was similar in 1-year-old rats (0.17 ± 0.02). These observations indicate that the effect of leptin over the gap junction formation within the anterior pituitary glands was directly mediated by interaction with the functional leptin receptor present on the folliculo-stellate cells.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 induction by diethyldithiocarbamate is regulated via Akt and ERK/miR222/ETS-1 pathways in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Cong, Min; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Lin; Li, Hongyi; Zhai, Qingling; Li, Zhuo; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) plays an important role in fibrolysis by degrading excessively deposited collagen I and III. We previously demonstrated that diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) up-regulates MMP-1 in hepatic stellate cells via the ERK1/2 and Akt signalling pathways. In the current study, we attempted to further explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of MMP-1. We treated a co-cultured system that included hepatocytes (C3A) and hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) with DDC. The data revealed that the transcriptional factor ETS-1, which is an important regulator of MMP-1, was up-regulated in LX-2 cells following DDC treatment. Furthermore, the up-regulation of MMP-1 by DDC has been abrogated through employing si-ETS-1 to block expression of ETS-1. We found that DDC significantly inhibited the expression of miR-222 in LX-2 cells. We transfected miR-222 mimic into LX-2 cells and then co-cultured the cells with C3A. The up-regulation of ETS-1 and MMP-1 in LX-2 cells treated with DDC were inhibited after miR-222 mimic transfection. These data indicate that DDC up-regulated MMP-1 in LX-2 cells through the miR-222/ETS-1 pathway. Finally, we treated the co-cultured system with an Akt inhibitor (T3830) and an ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126). Both T3830 and U0126 blocked the suppression of miR-222 by DDC in LX-2. Collectively, these data indicate that DDC up-regulated MMP-1 in LX-2 cells through the Akt and ERK/miR-222/ETS-1 pathways. Our study provides experimental data that will aid the control of the process of fibrolysis in liver fibrosis prevention and treatment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Soluble Egg Antigens of Schistosoma japonicum Induce Senescence of Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells by Activation of the FoxO3a/SKP2/P27 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinling; Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Jianxin; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Liuting; Wu, Liting

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis was viewed as a reversible process. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event in the process of liver fibrosis. The induction of senescence of HSCs would accelerate the clearance of the activated HSCs. Previously, we demonstrated that soluble egg antigens (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum promoted the senescence of HSCs via STAT3/P53/P21 pathway. In this paper, our study was aimed to explore whether there are other signaling pathways in the process of SEA-induced HSCs aging and the underlying effect of SKP2/P27 signal on senescent HSCs. Methodology/Principal findings Human hepatic stellate cell line, LX-2 cells, were cultured and stimulated with SEA. Western blot and cellular immunofluorescence analysis were performed to determine the expression of senescence-associated protein, such as P27, SKP2 and FoxO3a. Besides, RNA interfering was applied to knockdown the expression of related protein. The senescence of HSCs was determined by senescence-associated β-gal staining. We found that SEA increased the expression of P27 protein, whereas it inhibited the expression of SKP2 and FoxO3a. Knockdown of P27 as well as overexpression of SKP2 both suppressed the SEA-induced senescence of HSCs. In addition, the nuclear translocation of FoxO3a from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was induced by SEA stimulation. Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrates that SEA promotes HSCs senescence through the FoxO3a/SKP2/P27 pathway. PMID:28036393

  13. Antihepatofibrotic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Prunella vulgaris on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Xiang; Yu, Chen-Huan; Wu, Fang; Yu, Wen-Ying; Zhong, Yu-Sen; Ying, Hua-Zhong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris has been widely used in the folk medicine of Northeastern Asian countries for the treatment of acute liver injury and infectious hepatitis. In the present study, the protective effect of aqueous extract from P. vulgaris was investigated on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in vivo. Our data showed that the administration of aqueous extract from P. vulgaris at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, type III precollagen, and hyaluronic acid in rats with hepatic fibrosis. In addition, aqueous extract from P. vulgaris also reduced the incidence of liver lesions and the formation of fibrous septa, and remarkably decreased the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, platelet derived growth factor, interleukin-4, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Furthermore, aqueous extract from P. vulgaris significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells by regulating the expression of α smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β 1, and smad2 and also decreased the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins via regulating the expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2,-13. Real-time polymerase chain reaction further revealed that post-treatment with aqueous extract from P. vulgaris decreased the elevated levels of miR-34a and miR-199a-5p in hepatic fibrosis rats. These results demonstrated that aqueous extract from P. vulgaris alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells, promoting collagenolysis and regulating fibrosis-related microRNAs.

  14. Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation by Escherichia coli RNA induces transforming growth factor beta 1 secretion in hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shu; Wang, Ying; Chang, Bing; Wang, Bingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in alcoholic liver disease. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances gut permeability and causes microbial translocation. The present study explored the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by Escherichia coli RNA in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and the potential role of NLRP3 inflammasome in hepatic fibrosis. E. coli RNA transfection induced HSC-T6 cells to secrete and express mature interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which was abolished by NLRP3 siRNA pretreatment. In addition, E. coli RNA transfection enhanced caspase-1 expression, whereas reduced caspase-1 precursor (pro-caspase-1) expression. E. coli RNA-stimulated transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) overproduction in HSC-T6 cells, which was blocked by recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (rIL-1Ra) or nuclear factor κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. Furthermore, E. coli RNA-induced overexpression of pro-fibrogenic factors was suppressed by rIL-1Ra or TGF-β receptor inhibitor A83-01. These results demonstrate that E. coli RNA can stimulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which leads to excessive production of pro-fibrogenic factors, suggesting that NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HSCs may play a role in hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26773180

  15. Anti-fibrotic effects of the Masson pine pollen aqueous extract on hepatic fibrosis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Tao; Jin, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Long; Li, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Ping; Guo, Chang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the antifibrotic effects of Masson Pine Pollen aqueous extract. Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CG), hepatic fibrosis model (MG), MPPAE low dose (LG), MPPAE high dose (HG), and MPP original powder (MPPOP; OG) groups. Each group was treated with specific protocols and sacrificed 8 weeks later. Multiple indicators such as serum transaminase, HE staining of the liver tissue, and relevant indexes to fibrosis were determined. Results: Severe hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissues was observed in livers of the MG group rats, while aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels and collagen content obviously increased, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and MMPs expression decreased, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine concentrations increased, while mRNA expressions of hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-related cytokines such as transforming growth factor-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB p65, and signaling protein α-smooth muscle actin were all increased significantly. Conclusions: MPPAE effectively inhibited the fibrotic process in this CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis rat model. It may be associated with synergic functions of antioxidant activity, inhibitory activity on HSC proliferation, collagen synthesis, and MMPs expression induction. PMID:26191155

  16. [Effects of acupuncture intervention on hepatic platelet-derived growth factor signaling pathway in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis rats].

    PubMed

    Kong, De-Song; Ma, Jin; Lu, Yin; Ni, Guang-Xia; Ni, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Jiao; Wang, Ai-Yun; Chen, Wen-Xing; Zheng, Shi-Zhong

    2012-04-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture stimulation of "Taichong" (LR 3), "Qimen" (LR 14), etc. on hepatic platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signal pathway activity at the protein and mRNA levels in hepatic fibrosis rats. Forty-six SD rats were randomly divided into control (10 rats), model (12 rats), acupuncture (12 rats) and non-acupoint (12 rats) groups. Hepatic fibrosis model was established by intraperitoneal injection of mixture solution of 50% CCl4 and olive oil [1:1, 3 times on the 1st week (W), twice/W thereafter for 5 more weeks]. During modeling, acupuncture stimulation of "Taichong" (LR 3), "Qimen" (LR 14), "Ganshu" (BL 18) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) was conducted simultaneously. At the end of the experiments, all the rats were sacrificed for collecting their liver and blood samples, followed by separation of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ELISA, Western blot and Real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to detect the content of serum PDGF and expression levels of PDGF-beta receptor (PDGF-beta R), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P 38 genes and proteins of HSCs, respectively. Compared to the control group, serum PDGF content, and expression levels of PDGF-beta R mRNA and protein, ERK mRNA and protein and P 38 protein of HSCs in the model group were upregulated significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). In comparison with the model group, serum PDGF content, and the expression levels of PDGF-beta R mRNA and protein, ERK mRNA and protein of HSCs in the acupuncture group were down-regulated apparently (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between the acupuncture and non-acupoint groups in serum PDGF content and between the model group and non-acupoint group in the expression levels of PDGF-beta R mRNA and protein, ERK mRNA and protein, JNK protein and P 38 protein of HSCs, as well as between the model group and acupuncture group in the expression levels of JNK protein and P 38 protein of

  17. Glycyrrhizinate reduces portal hypertension in isolated perfused rat livers with chronic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Deng, Bo; Xu, Xue-Yan; Yang, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Song, Yi-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Yue-Qi; Cai, Da-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (Gly) on portal hypertension (PHT) in isolated portal perfused rat liver (IPPRL) with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatitis. METHODS: PHT model was replicated with CCl4 in rats for 84 d. Model was identified by measuring the ascetic amounts, hepatic function, portal pressure in vivo, splenic index, and pathological alterations. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IPPRLs were performed at d0, d28, d56, and d84. After phenylephrine-induced constriction, Gly was geometrically used to reduce PHT. Gly action was expressed as median effective concentration (EC50) and area under the curve (AUC). Underlying mechanism was exploited by linear correlation between AUC values of Gly and existed iNOS in portal triads. RESULTS: PHT model was confirmed with ascites, splenomegaly, serum biomarkers of hepatic injury, and elevated portal pressure. Pathological findings had shown normal hepatic structure at d0, degenerations at d28, fibrosis at d56, cirrhosis at d84 in PHT rats. Pseudo lobule ratios decreased and collagen ratios increased progressively along with PHT development. Gly does dose-dependently reduce PHT in IPPRLs with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. Gly potencies were increased gradually along with PHT development, characterized with its EC50 at 2.80 × 10-10, 3.03 × 10-11, 3.77 × 10-11 and 4.65×10-11 mol/L at d0, d28, d56 and d84, respectively. Existed iNOS was located at hepatocyte at d0, stellate cells at d28, stellate cells and macrophages at d56, and macrophages in portal triads at d84. Macrophages infiltrated more into portal triads and expressed more iNOS along with PHT development. AUC values of Gly were positively correlated with existed iNOS levels in portal triads. CONCLUSION: Gly reduces indirectly PHT in IPPRL with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. The underlying mechanisms may relate to rescue NO bioavailability from macrophage

  18. Silencing tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) with short interfering RNA reveals a role for TIMP-1 in hepatic stellate cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Fowell, Andrew J.; Collins, Jane E.; Duncombe, Dale R.; Pickering, Judith A.; Rosenberg, William M.C.; Benyon, R. Christopher

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Myofibroblastic, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis. {yields} We used short interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the effects of autocrine TIMP-1 and -2 on HSC proliferation. {yields} Specific silencing of TIMP-1, but not TIMP-2, significantly reduces HSC proliferation and is associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation. {yields} TIMP-1 is localised in part to the HSC nucleus. {yields} TIMP-1 might promote liver fibrosis by means other than its previously described anti-apoptotic effect on HSC. -- Abstract: Myofibroblastic, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis through the secretion of fibrillar collagens and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2. TIMPs are believed to promote hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting both matrix degradation and apoptosis of HSC. In other cell types, there is evidence that TIMP-1 has effects on proliferation, however the role of TIMPs in the regulation of HSC proliferation remains unexplored. Therefore, we have used short interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the effects of autocrine TIMP-1 and -2 on HSC proliferation. TIMP-1 and -2 siRNA were highly effective, producing peak target protein knockdown compared to negative control siRNA of 92% and 63%, respectively. Specific silencing of TIMP-1, using siRNA, significantly reduced HSC proliferation. TIMP-1 was localised in part to the HSC nucleus and TIMP-1 siRNA resulted in loss of both cytoplasmic and nuclear TIMP-1. Attenuated proliferation was associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation and was partially rescued by addition of recombinant TIMP-1. We have revealed a novel autocrine mitogenic effect of TIMP-1 on HSC, which may involve Akt-dependent and specific nuclear mechanisms of action. We suggest that TIMP-1 might promote liver fibrosis by means other than its previously described anti-apoptotic effect on HSC. Moreover

  19. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in purified, uncultured human liver cells and activated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Andrew H.; Coll, Mar; Verhulst, Stefaan; Mannaerts, Inge; Øie, Cristina I.; Smedsrød, Bård; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Luttun, Aernout; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Collas, Philippe; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver fibrogenesis – scarring of the liver that can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer – is characterized by hepatocyte impairment, capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. To date, the molecular determinants of a healthy human liver cell phenotype remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we assess the transcriptome and the genome-wide promoter methylome specific for purified, non-cultured human hepatocytes, LSECs and HSCs, and investigate the nature of epigenetic changes accompanying transcriptional changes associated with activation of HSCs. Material and methods Gene expression profile and promoter methylome of purified, uncultured human liver cells and culture-activated HSCs were respectively determined using Affymetrix HG-U219 genechips and by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled to promoter array hybridization. Histone modification patterns were assessed at the single-gene level by chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR. Results We unveil a DNA-methylation-based epigenetic relationship between hepatocytes, LSECs and HSCs despite their distinct ontogeny. We show that liver cell type-specific DNA methylation targets early developmental and differentiation-associated functions. Integrative analysis of promoter methylome and transcriptome reveals partial concordance between DNA methylation and transcriptional changes associated with human HSC activation. Further, we identify concordant histone methylation and acetylation changes in the promoter and putative novel enhancer elements of genes involved in liver fibrosis. Conclusions Our study provides the first epigenetic blueprint of three distinct freshly isolated, human hepatic cell types and of epigenetic changes elicited upon HSC activation. PMID:26353929

  20. Quercetin attenuates the activation of hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis in mice through modulation of HMGB1-TLR2/4-NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Jin, Qianwen; Yao, Qunyan; Xu, Beili; Li, Zheng; Tu, Chuantao

    2016-11-02

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of quercetin on liver fibrogenesis in mice and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mice were administered with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for eight weeks to induce liver fibrosis and concomitantly orally treated with quercetin (50mgkg(-1)day(-1)). Here, we demonstrated that quercetin dramatically ameliorated liver injury, inflammation, and hepatic fibrogenesis induced by CCl4. Quercetin also inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vivo and in vitro, as evaluated by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, which is a specific marker of HSC activation. Moreover, reduced fibrosis was associated with decreased high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 genes, and protein expression. Quercetin also inhibited the cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 in hepatocytes of fibrotic livers. Further investigation demonstrated that quercetin treatment significantly attenuated CCl4-induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibited degradation of IκBα (an inhibitor of NF-κB) expression in the liver compared with vehicle-treated fibrotic mice. Considered together, our data indicate that quercetin has hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects in animal models of liver fibrosis, the mechanism of which may be involved in modulating the HMGB1-TLR2/4-NF-κB signaling pathways.

  1. Deletion of the collagen-specific molecular chaperone Hsp47 causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kunito; Ushioda, Ryo; Ito, Shinya; Ikeda, Kazuo; Masago, Yusaku; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-06

    Chronic liver injury, often caused by alcoholism and viral hepatitis, causes liver fibrosis via the induction of collagen production. In liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are activated and transform into myofibroblasts, which actively produce and secrete collagen into the extracellular matrix. Hsp47 (heat shock protein 47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that is essential for the maturation and secretion of collagen. Here, we used the Cre-LoxP system to disrupt the Hsp47 gene in isolated HSCs from Hsp47 floxed mice. Immature type I procollagen accumulated and partially aggregated in Hsp47-KO HSCs. This accumulation was augmented when autophagy was inhibited, which induced expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible proteins BiP (immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) and Grp94 (94-kDa glucose-regulated protein). The inhibition of autophagy in Hsp47-KO HSCs also induced CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein), which is an ER stress-induced transcription factor responsible for apoptosis. These data suggest that apoptosis is induced through ER stress by procollagen accumulation in Hsp47-KO HSCs when autophagy is inhibited. Thus, Hsp47 could be a promising therapeutic target in liver fibrosis.

  2. Starring stellate cells in liver immunology.

    PubMed

    Winau, Florian; Quack, Christian; Darmoise, Alexandre; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2008-02-01

    Stellate cells are star-shaped cells located in the liver and mediate a multitude of primarily non-immunological functions. They play a pivotal role in the metabolism of vitamin A and store 80% of total body retinol. Upon activation, stellate cells differentiate to myofibroblasts for production of extracellular matrix, leading to liver fibrosis. Moreover, activated stellate cells regulate liver blood flow through vasoconstriction implicated in portal hypertension. Earlier work demonstrated stellate cell derived secretion of chemokines and cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), suggesting an association with immunological processes. Indeed, recent evidence indicated that hepatic stellate cells perform potent APC function for stimulation of NKT cells as well as CD8 and CD4 T cells. Additionally, stellate cell mediated antigen presentation induced protective immunity against bacterial infection. Current experiments reveal that the presenting ability of stellate cells is the key to antigen-dependent T cell instruction by vitamin A derived retinoic acid. Finally, future studies will show whether in the firmament of immunology stellate cells will represent fixed or falling stars.

  3. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Niraj; Verbeken, Erik; Ramaekers, Kaat; Dallmeier, Kai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans). As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains). Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies. PMID:27483350

  4. Proteomic Analysis of a Rat Pancreatic Stellate Cell Line using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Urrutia, Raul; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin L.; Steen, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PaSC) are emerging as key mediators in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. Proteins regulating the biomolecular pathways involved in the conversion of quiescent to activated PaSC may have a significant influence in the development of chronic pancreatitis. We aim to compare differentially expressed proteins in activated and serum-starved non-proliferating PaSC using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy. We cultured an immortalized rat PaSC cell line in media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and in serum-free media. Using gel-based mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS), we identified nearly 1500 proteins. Qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis revealed several hundred proteins as differentially abundant between the two cell states. Proteins of greater abundance in activated PaSC included isoforms of actin (e.g., smooth muscle actin) and ribosomal proteins. Conversely, proteins more abundant in non-proliferating PaSC than in activated PaSC included signaling proteins MAP kinase 3 and Ras-related proteins. In addition, we have determined the molecular functions and biological pathways for these proteins. We are confident that the application of mass spectrometry-based strategies, such as that described herein, to investigate specific proteins in PaSC may lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic diseases, such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:21968429

  5. Effect of sinapic acid against dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Su; Kim, Kung Wook; Chung, Hae Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Sinapic acid is a member of the phenylpropanoid family and is abundant in cereals, nuts, oil seeds, and berries. It exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of sinapic acid on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury in rats. Sinapic acid remarkably prevented DMN-induced loss of body weight. This was accompanied by a significant increase in levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and liver malondialdehyde content. Furthermore, sinapic acid reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, which correlated with a reduction in the expression of type I collagen mRNA and histological analysis of collagen in liver tissue. Additionally, the expression of hepatic fibrosis-related factors such as α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), were reduced in rats treated with sinapic acid. Sinapic acid exhibited strong scavenging activity. In conclusion, we find that sinapic acid exhibits hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced liver injury, most likely due to its antioxidant activities of scavenging radicals, its capacity to suppress TGF-β1 and its ability to attenuate activation of hepatic stellate cells. This suggests that sinapic acid is a potentially useful agent for the protection against liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  6. Derivation, characterization, and phenotypic variation of hepatic progenitor cell lines isolated from adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Sun, Mingzeng; Ilic, Zoran; Leffert, Hyam L; Sell, Stewart

    2002-02-01

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) cloned from adult rat livers following allyl alcohol injury express hematopoietic stem cell and early hepatic lineage markers when cultured on feeder layers; under these conditions, neither mature hepatocyte nor bile duct, Ito, stellate, Kupffer cell, or macrophage markers are detected. These phenotypes have remained stable without aneuploidy or morphological transformation after more than 100 population doublings. When cultured without feeder layers, the early lineage markers disappear, and mature hepatocyte markers are expressed; mature hepatocytic differentiation and cell size are also augmented by polypeptide and steroidal growth factors. In contrast to hepatocytic potential, duct-like structures and biliary epithelial markers are expressed on Matrigel. Because they were derived without carcinogens or mutagens, these bipotential LPC lines provide novel tools for models of cellular plasticity and hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as lines for use in cellular transplantation, gene therapy, and bioreactor construction.

  7. Plumbagin Ameliorates CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Chen, Bi; Cai, Yi-jing; Zou, Zhuo-lin; Wang, Jin-guo; Lin, Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-dong; Fu, Li-yun; Hu, Yao-ren; Chen, Yong-ping; Chen, Da-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its signaling molecules, EGFreceptor (EGFR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), have been considered to play a role in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Plumbagin (PL) is an extracted component from the plant and has been used to treat different kinds of cancer. However, its role in regulation of EGFR and STAT3 during liver fibrosis has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of PL on the regulation of EGFR and STAT3 were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). PL significantly attenuated liver injury and fibrosis in CCl4 treated rats. At concentrations of 2 to 6 μM, PL did not induce significant cytotoxicity of HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, PL reduced phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) treated HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, PL reduced the expression of α-SMA, EGFR, and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and HB-EGF treated HSC-T6 cells. In conclusion, plumbagin could ameliorate the development of hepatic fibrosis through its downregulation of EGFR and STAT3 in the liver, especially in hepatic stellate cells. PMID:26550019

  8. Targeted blockade of JAK/STAT3 signaling inhibits proliferation, migration and collagen production as well as inducing the apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan-Jing; Sun, Wu-Yi; Zhang, Sen; Li, Xin-Ran; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases belonging to the Janus kinase (JAK) family are associated with many cytokine receptors, which, on ligand binding, regulate important cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. The protective effects of JAK inhibitors on fibrotic diseases such as myelofibrosis and bone marrow fibrosis have been demonstrated in previous studies. The JAK inhibitor SHR0302 is a synthetic molecule that potently inhibits all members of the JAK family, particularly JAK1. However, its effect on hepatic fibrosis has not been investigated to date, to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, the effects of SHR0302 on the activation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) as well as HSC collagen production were investigated. Our data demonstrated that treatment with SHR0302 (10-9-10-5 mol/l) exerted an inhibitory effect on the activation, proliferation and migration of HSCs. In addition, the expression of collagen I and collagen III were significantly decreased following treatment with SHR0302. Furthermore, SHR0302 induced the apoptosis of HSCs, which was demonstrated by Annexin V/PI staining. SHR0302 significantly increased the activation of caspase-3 and Bax in HSCs whereas it decreased the expression of Bcl-2. SHR0302 also inhibited the activation of Akt signaling pathway. The pharmacological inhibition of the JAK1/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 pathway led to the disruption of functions essential for HSC growth. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that SHR0302 may have the potential to alleviate hepatic fibrosis by targeting HSC functions.

  9. Potentiation of hepatic stellate cell activation by extracellular ATP is dependent on P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Zhang, Yu; Zheng, Jin-Hua; Li, Xia; Yao, You-Li; Wu, Yan-Ling; Song, Shun-Zong; Sun, Peng; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lian, Li-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Purinergic receptor P2x7 (P2x7R) is a key modulator of liver inflammation and fibrosis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of P2x7R in hepatic stellate cells activation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the conditioned medium (CM) from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was supplemented to human hepatic stellate cells, LX-2 for 24h and P2x7R selective antagonist A438079 (10μM) was supplemented to LX-2 cells 1h before LPS or CM stimulation. In addition LX-2 cells were primed with LPS for 4h and subsequently stimulated for 30min with 3mM of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). A438079 was supplemented to LX-2 cells 10min prior to ATP. Directly treated with LPS on LX-2 cells, mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and IL-6 were increased, as well as mRNA expressions of P2x7R, caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. LPS also increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen mRNA expressions, as well as collagen deposition. Interestingly treatment of LX-2 cells with LPS-activated CM exhibited the greater increase of above factors than those in LX-2 cells directly treated with LPS. Pretreatment of A438079 on LX-2 cells stimulated by LPS or LPS-activated CM both suppressed IL-1β mRNA expression. LPS combined with ATP dramatically increased protein synthesis and cleavage of IL-1β and its mRNA level than those in HSC treated with LPS or ATP alone. Additionally LX-2 cells primed with LPS and subsequently stimulated for 30min with ATP greatly increased mRNA and protein expression of caspase-1, NLRP3 and P2x7R, as well as liver fibrosis markers, α-SMA and type I collagen. These events were remarkably suppressed by A438079 pretreatment. siRNA against P2x7R reduced protein expression of NLRP3 and α-SMA, and suppressed deposition and secretion of type I collagen. The involvement of P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in IL-1

  10. Ontogeny of the rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)-prazosin, (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine and (/sup 125/I)-pindolol binding to washed particle membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor number occur shortly before birth and at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors which falls 10-20 fold at birth. The number of hepatic beta adrenoceptors decreases 30-50% during the third week after birth increases slightly at weaning, then decreases gradually in the adult. Hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor number increases 3-5 fold at weaning to become the predominant adrenoceptor in the adult rat liver. The basis for the fall in alpha-2 number at birth remains unclear. The fall in beta receptor number at the end of the second week post-natally appears dependent on increased insulin and corticosterone secretion as well as increased NE release form nerve terminals. The basis for the increase in beta number at weaning and the sex-dependent loss of beta function but not receptor number in the adult rat remains unknown. The dramatic increases in alpha-1 number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function. These findings suggest that hepatic adrenoceptor number adapts from the low carbohydrate diet of the suckling rat to the high carbohydrate diet of the adult at weaning.

  11. The distribution of stellate cell descending axons in the rat cerebellum: a Golgi and a combined Golgi-electron microscopical study.

    PubMed Central

    Paula-Barbosa, M M; Tavares, M A; Ruela, C; Barroca, H

    1983-01-01

    Axonal descending branches of stellate cells in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex of the rat were studied by means of Golgi and combined Golgi-ultrastructural methods. Special attention was paid to those branches from more superficially located cell bodies. With the Golgi method, it was observed that the number of axons from stellate cells forming pericellular baskets and 'pinceaux' increases as their cell bodies come to lie deeper in the layer. With the combined Golgi-ultrastructural method, it was verified that the synaptic contacts established by these axons are identical to those of axons from basket cells, either contacting Purkinje cell bodies or lying around the axon initial segments, where they establish septate-like junctions. This overlapping of axonal territories between stellate and basket cells is in accordance with the hypothesis that these interneurons, although situated at different levels of the cerebellar molecular layer, may be genetically identical cells. Their diversity of form would depend on the cellular microenvironment present at the time of differentiation. Images Figs. 1-4 Figs. 5-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6668252

  12. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester up-regulates antioxidant levels in hepatic stellate cell line T6 via an Nrf2-mediated mitogen activated protein kinases pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning; Shi, Juan-Juan; Wu, Feng-Ping; Li, Mei; Zhang, Xin; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhai, Song; Jia, Xiao-Li; Dang, Shuang-Suo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the antioxidant effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) cells cultured in vitro and the potential mechanisms. METHODS HSC-T6 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of CAPE for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Cell proliferation was investigated using the MTT assay, and cell ultrastructural alterations were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was employed to investigate the effects of CAPE on apoptosis and the levels of reactive oxygen species in HSC-T6 cells cultured in vitro. An enzyme immunoassay instrument was used to evaluate antioxidant enzyme expression. The effect on α-smooth muscle actin was shown using immunofluorescence. Gene and protein levels of Nrf2, related factors, and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), in HSC-T6 cells were detected using RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS CAPE inhibited the proliferation and activation of HSC-T6 cells cultured in vitro. CAPE increased the antioxidant levels and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in cells decreased in response to CAPE. Interestingly, CAPE-induced oxidative stress in the cells was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with MAPKs inhibitors. CONCLUSION CAPE inhibits cell proliferation and up-regulates the antioxidant levels in HSC-T6 cells partly through the Nrf2-MAPKs signaling pathway. PMID:28275300

  13. Tetramethylpyrazine reduces glucose and insulin-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by inhibiting insulin receptor-mediated PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zili; Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Li; Zhu, Xiaojing; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2014-01-25

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is the central event during liver fibrogenesis. Metabolic syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia contributes to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-associated liver fibrosis. This study was to investigate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on HSC activation induced by glucose and insulin (Glu/Ins) and the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that Glu/Ins significantly stimulated proliferation, invasion, adhesion, and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in HSCs. TMP inhibited HSC proliferation, invasion and adhesion, and reduced the expression of marker genes related to HSC activation in Glu/Ins-activated HSCs. Mechanistic evidence revealed that TMP reduced insulin receptor (InsR) expression and blocked the downstream phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascades, which was required for TMP attenuation of HSC activation. Moreover, TMP modulated the genes relevant to ECM homeostasis favoring ECM degradation. It could be concluded that TMP inhibited Glu/Ins-stimulated HSC activation and ECM production by inhibiting InsR-mediated PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soluble egg antigens of Schistosoma japonicum induce senescence in activated hepatic stellate cells by activation of the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinling; Pan, Jing; Wang, Jianxin; Song, Ke; Zhu, Dandan; Huang, Caiqun; Duan, Yinong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Recent findings suggest that senescence of activated HSCs might limit the development of liver fibrosis. Based on previously observed anti-fibrotic effects of soluble egg antigens from Schistosoma japonicum in vitro, we hypothesized that SEA might play a crucial role in alleviating liver fibrosis through promoting senescence of activated HSCs. We show here that SEA inhibited expression of α-SMA and pro-collagen I and promoted senescence of activated HSCs in vitro. In addition, SEA induced an increased expression of P-p53 and p21. Knockdown of p53 inhibited the expression of p21 and failed to induce senescence of activated-HSCs. Phosphorylated STAT3 was elevated upon SEA stimulation, while loss of STAT3 decreased the level of p53 and senescence of HSCs. Results from immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that SOCS3 might be involved in the SEA-induced senescence in HSCs through its interaction with p53. This study demonstrates the potential capacity of SEA in restricting liver fibrosis through promoting senescence in HSCs. Furthermore, a novel STAT3-p53-p21 pathway might participate in the observed SEA-mediated senescence of HSCs. Our results suggest that SEA might carry potential therapeutic effects of restraining liver fibrosis through promoting senescence. PMID:27489164

  15. Disruption of intermolecular disulfide bonds in PDGF-BB dimers by N-acetyl-L-cysteine does not prevent PDGF signaling in cultured hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Meurer, Steffen K.; Gressner, Axel M.; Weiskirchen, Ralf . E-mail: rweiskirchen@ukaachen.de

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis through its induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and enhancement of collagen synthesis. Reactive oxygen species have been found to be essential second messengers in the signaling of both major fibrotic growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), in cultured HSC and liver fibrosis. The non-toxic aminothiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits cellular activation and attenuates experimental fibrosis in liver. Prior reports show that NAC is capable of reducing the effects of TGF-{beta} in biological systems, in cultured endothelial cells, and HSC through its direct reducing activity upon TGF-{beta} molecules. We here analyzed the effects of NAC on PDGF integrity, receptor binding, and downstream signaling in culture-activated HSC. We found that NAC dose-dependently induces disintegration of PDGF in vitro. However, even high doses (>20 mM) were not sufficient to prevent the phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor type {beta}, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, or protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Therefore, we conclude that the PDGF monomer is still active. The described antifibrotic effects are therefore mainly attributable to the structural impairment of TGF-{beta} signaling components reported previously.

  16. S-Adenosylmethionine suppresses the expression of Smad3/4 in activated human hepatic stellate cells via Rac1 promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    BIAN, KANGQI; ZHANG, FENG; WANG, TINGTING; ZOU, XIAOPING; DUAN, XUHONG; CHEN, GUANGXIA; ZHUGE, YUZHENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was able to suppress activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Human LX-2 HSCs were cultured with SAM or NSC23766, and were transfected with plasmids encoding ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) protein or an empty expression vector. Cell proliferation was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8. Cell migration and invasion were determined using the Transwell assay. The expression levels of Rac1 and Smad3/4 were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or western blotting. The methylation status of Rac1 promoters was measured by methylation-specific PCR. The results demonstrated that SAM and NSC23766 suppressed the expression of Smad3/4 in LX-2 cells. The overexpression of Rac1 enhanced the proliferation, migration and invasion of LX-2 cells. In addition, compared with the control groups, a marked increase was observed in the protein expression levels of Smad3/4 in the LX-2 cells transfected with Rac1 plasmids. The methylation-specific PCR findings showed that SAM increased the methylation of Rac1 promoters. The results of the present study suggested that Rac1 enhanced the expression of Smad3/4 in activated HSCs; however, this increase may be suppressed by SAM-induced methylation of Rac1 promoters. PMID:26986629

  17. Regulator of G-Protein Signaling-5 Is a Marker of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Expression Mediates Response to Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Arya J.; Gunaje, Jagadambika J.; Hayes, Brian J.; Riehle, Kimberly J.; Kenerson, Heidi L.; Yeung, Raymond S.; Stempien-Otero, April S.; Campbell, Jean S.; Mahoney, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is mediated by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which respond to a variety of cytokine and growth factors to moderate the response to injury and create extracellular matrix at the site of injury. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling, via endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (AngII), increases HSC contraction, migration and fibrogenesis. Regulator of G-protein signaling-5 (RGS5), an inhibitor of vasoactive GPCR agonists, functions to control GPCR-mediated contraction and hypertrophy in pericytes and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Therefore we hypothesized that RGS5 controls GPCR signaling in activated HSCs in the context of liver injury. In this study, we localize RGS5 to the HSCs and demonstrate that Rgs5 expression is regulated during carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute and chronic liver injury in Rgs5LacZ/LacZ reporter mice. Furthermore, CCl4 treated RGS5-null mice develop increased hepatocyte damage and fibrosis in response to CCl4 and have increased expression of markers of HSC activation. Knockdown of Rgs5 enhances ET-1-mediated signaling in HSCs in vitro. Taken together, we demonstrate that RGS5 is a critical regulator of GPCR signaling in HSCs and regulates HSC activation and fibrogenesis in liver injury. PMID:25290689

  18. Contact-dependent depletion of hydrogen peroxide by catalase is a novel mechanism of myeloid-derived suppressor cell induction operating in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Resheq, Yazid J; Li, Ka-Kit; Ward, Stephen T; Wilhelm, Annika; Garg, Abhilok; Curbishley, Stuart M; Blahova, Miroslava; Zimmermann, Henning W; Jitschin, Regina; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Mackensen, Andreas; Weston, Chris J; Adams, David H

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) represent a unique cell population with distinct immunosuppressive properties that have been demonstrated to shape the outcome of malignant diseases. Recently, human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) have been reported to induce monocytic-MDSC from mature CD14(+) monocytes in a contact-dependent manner. We now report a novel and unexpected mechanism by which CD14(+)HLADR(low/-) suppressive cells are induced by catalase-mediated depletion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Incubation of CD14(+) monocytes with catalase led to a significant induction of functional MDSC compared with media alone, and H2O2 levels inversely correlated with MDSC frequency (r = -0.6555, p < 0.05). Catalase was detected in primary HSC and a stromal cell line, and addition of the competitive catalase inhibitor hydroxylamine resulted in a dose-dependent impairment of MDSC induction and concomitant increase of H2O2 levels. The NADPH-oxidase subunit gp91 was significantly increased in catalase-induced MDSC as determined by quantitative PCR outlining the importance of oxidative burst for the induction of MDSC. These findings represent a so far unrecognized link between immunosuppression by MDSC and metabolism. Moreover, this mechanism potentially explains how stromal cells can induce a favorable immunological microenvironment in the context of tissue oxidative stress such as occurs during cancer therapy.

  19. Prevention of TGF-β-induced early liver fibrosis by a maleic acid derivative anti-oxidant through suppression of ROS, inflammation and hepatic stellate cells activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun-Lin; Chang, Wen-Teng; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Kuo-Chen; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Current anti-fibrotic effect of antioxidants in vivo is disappointing due probably to the fact that once liver fibrogenesis is established it is too advanced to be reversed by anti-oxidation mechanism. We consider antioxidant may only act on the early phase of fibrogenesis. Thus, we had previously established an early liver fibrosis animal model using an inducible expression vector (pPK9a), which contains TGF-β gene and was hydro-dynamically transferred into mice to induce a transient liver fibrosis. TGF-β1 has been well documented to up-regulate the expression of α2(1) collagen (Col 1A2) gene in the liver via the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the process triggers inflammation, leading to hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation and liver fibrogenesis. Using our animal model and ROS, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Col 1A2 promoter assays as screening targets, we report here that a maleic acid derivative isolated from the Antrodia camphorata mycelium strongly decreases ROS production, promoter activity of Cox-2 and Col 1A2, intracellular calcium, expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Smad4-p-Smad2/3 co-localization in cell nucleus and the DNA binding activity of Sp1. Our results suggest that the maleic acid derivative prevents liver fibrosis at an early phase both in vitro and in vivo through the inhibition of ROS, inflammation and the activation of HSC. PMID:28384213

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity at a posttranslational level in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chin K; She, Hongyun; Xiong, Shigang; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2004-05-01

    Diminished activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is implicated in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), a critical event in the development of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated PPARgamma regulation by TNF-alpha in an HSC line designated as BSC. In BSC, TNF-alpha decreased both basal and ligand (GW1929)-induced PPARgamma mRNA levels without changing its protein expression. Nuclear extracts from BSC treated with TNF-alpha showed decreased binding of PPARgamma to PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In BSC transiently transfected with a PPARgamma1 expression vector and a PPRE-luciferase reporter gene, TNF-alpha decreased both basal and GW1929-induced transactivation of the PPRE promoter. TNF-alpha increased activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, previously implicated in phosphorylation of Ser(82) of PPARgamma1 and resultant negative regulation of PPARgamma transactivity. In fact, TNF-alpha failed to inhibit transactivity of a Ser(82)Ala PPARgamma1 mutant in BSC. TNF-alpha-mediated inhibition of PPARgamma transactivity was not blocked with a Ser(32)Ala/Ser(36)Ala mutant of inhibitory NF-kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha). These results suggest that TNF-alpha inhibits PPARgamma transactivity in cultured HSC, at least in part, by diminished PPARgamma-PPRE (DNA) binding and ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of Ser(82) of PPARgamma1, but not via the NF-kappaB pathway.

  1. Dynamic expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat liver tissue during hepatic fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chang-Chun; Zheng, Yi-Lin; Liu, Li; Wang, Zhan-Kui; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) is activated and associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation in fibrotic rat liver tissue. METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson’s trichrome method. ERK1 mRNA in rat liver tissue was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, while the distribution of ERK1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ERK1 protein was detected by Western blotting analysis. The number of activated HSCs was quantified after alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining. RESULTS: With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive staining cells of α-SMA increased obviously, and mainly resided in the portal ducts. Fiber septa and perisinuses were accompanied with proliferating bile ducts. The positive staining areas of the rat livers in model groups 1-4 wk after ligation of common bile duct (12.88% ± 2.63%, 22.65% ± 2.16%, 27.45% ± 1.86%, 35.25% ± 2.34%, respectively) were significantly larger than those in the control group (5.88% ± 1.46%, P < 0.01). With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive cells of ERK1 increased a lot, and were mainly distributed in portal ducts, fiber septa around the bile ducts, vascular endothelial cells and perisinusoidal cells. Western blotting analysis displayed that the expression of ERK1 and ERK2 protein was up-regulated during the model course, and its level was the highest 4 wk after operation, being 3.9-fold and 7.2-fold higher in fibrotic rat liver than in controls. ERK1 mRNA was expressed in normal rat livers as well, which was up-regulated two days after BDL and reached the highest 4 wk after BDL. The expression of ERK1 was positively correlated with α-SMA expression (r = 0.958,P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of ERK1 protein and mRNA is greatly increased in fibrotic rat liver tissues, which may play a

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 4-Independent Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Fibrosis and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice: Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Wang, Jiang; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2017-06-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in acute and chronic liver injury; its effects are mediated predominantly via the membrane receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, TLR4-independent effects of LPS may play important role in hepatic pathophysiology. We investigated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis and LPS-induced acute liver injury in wild-type (WT) and B6.B10ScN-Tlr4(lps-del)/JthJ [TLR4-knockout (KO)] mice. Effects of LPS on fibrogenic hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from WT and TLR4-KO mice were assessed in vitro. CCl4 produced similar fibrosis and necroinflammation and increased the mRNA and protein expression of cytokines and chemokines in WT and TLR4-KO mice. However, circulating LPS concentration did not increase in CCl4-treated mice. Interestingly, LPS down-modulated α-smooth muscle actin (activated HSC marker) and collagen 1 in both WT and TLR4-KO HSCs. LPS induced similar activation of NF-κB, and stimulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines in WT and TLR4-KO HSCs. Finally, LPS caused similar inflammation and injury in previously untreated WT and TLR4-KO mice. The results provide evidence of the TLR4/LPS-independent mechanisms of liver fibrosis and also indicate that TLR4 is not entirely critical to LPS-induced acute liver injury. The results further indicate that LPS signaling in activated HSCs might be a mechanism of limiting liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sympathetic nervous system catecholamines and neuropeptide Y neurotransmitters are upregulated in human NAFLD and modulate the fibrogenic function of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Sigala, Barbara; McKee, Chad; Soeda, Junpei; Pazienza, Valerio; Morgan, Maelle; Lin, Ching-I; Selden, Clare; Vander Borght, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Roskams, Tania; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) signalling regulates murine hepatic fibrogenesis through effects on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and obesity-related hypertension with SNS activation accelerates progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. NAFLD may lead to cirrhosis. The effects of the SNS neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on human primary HSC (hHSC) function and in NAFLD pathogenesis are poorly understood. to determine the mechanistic effects of NE/EPI/NPY on phenotypic changes in cultured hHSC, and to study SNS signalling in human NAFLD livers. Freshly isolated hHSC were assessed for expression of cathecholamine/neuropeptide Y receptors and for the synthesis of NE/EPI. The effects of NE/EPI/NPY and adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin (PRZ)/propranolol (PRL) on hHSC fibrogenic functions and the involved kinases and interleukin pathways were examined. Human livers with proven NAFLD were then assessed for upregulation of SNS signalling components. Activated hHSC express functional α/β-adrenoceptors and NPY receptors, which are upregulated in the livers of patients with cirrhotic NAFLD. hHSC in culture synthesize and release NE/EPI, required for their optimal basal growth and survival. Exogenous NE/EPI and NPY dose-dependently induced hHSC proliferation, mediated via p38 MAP, PI3K and MEK signalling. NE and EPI but not NPY increased expression of collagen-1α2 via TGF-β without involvement of the pro-fibrogenic cytokines leptin, IL-4 and IL-13 or the anti-fibrotic cytokine IL-10. hHSC synthesize and require cathecholamines for optimal survival and fibrogenic functionality. Activated hHSC express directly fibrogenic α/β-adrenoceptors and NPY receptors, upregulated in human cirrhotic NAFLD. Adrenoceptor and NPY antagonists may be novel anti-fibrotic agents in human NAFLD.

  4. The endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) selectively induces oxidative stress-mediated cell death in hepatic stellate cells but not in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wojtalla, Alexandra; Herweck, Frank; Granzow, Michaela; Klein, Sabine; Trebicka, Jonel; Huss, Sebastian; Lerner, Raissa; Lutz, Beat; Schildberg, Frank Alexander; Knolle, Percy Alexander; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Singer, Manfred Vincenz; Zimmer, Andreas; Siegmund, Sören Volker

    2012-04-15

    The endocannabinoid system is a crucial regulator of hepatic fibrogenesis. We have previously shown that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is a lipid mediator that blocks proliferation and induces death in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type in the liver, but not in hepatocytes. However, the effects of other endocannabinoids such as N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) have not yet been investigated. The NADA-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase was mainly expressed in sympathetic neurons in portal tracts. Its expression pattern stayed unchanged in normal or fibrotic liver. NADA dose dependently induced cell death in culture-activated primary murine or human HSCs after 2-4 h, starting from 5 μM. Despite caspase 3 cleavage, NADA-mediated cell death showed typical features of necrosis, including ATP depletion. Although the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, or transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1 were expressed in HSCs, their pharmacological or genetic blockade failed to inhibit NADA-mediated death, indicating a cannabinoid-receptor-independent mechanism. Interestingly, membrane cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited AEA- but not NADA-induced death. NADA significantly induced reactive oxygen species formation in HSCs. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased NADA-induced cell death. Similar to AEA, primary hepatocytes were highly resistant against NADA-induced death. Resistance to NADA in hepatocytes was due to high levels of GSH, since GSH depletion significantly increased NADA-induced death. Moreover, high expression of the AEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in hepatocytes also conferred resistance towards NADA-induced death, since pharmacological or genetic FAAH inhibition significantly augmented hepatocyte death. Thus the selective induction of cell death in HSCs proposes NADA as a novel antifibrogenic mediator.

  5. TWEAK/Fn14 promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in hepatic stellate cells via NF-κB/STAT3 pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aixiu; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hui; Xu, Mingcui; Cao, Yu; Wang, Chen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Su, Min; Zhang, Ming; Zhuge, Yuzheng

    2017-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) have been associated with liver disease. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a critical role in the hepatic wound-healing response after liver injury, but there is little information available on the role of the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human HSCs. In this study, we explored the role of TWEAK/Fn14 in activated human HSCs. The LX-2 cells were treated with TWEAK, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the expression of Fn14 after TWEAK stimulation. Total and phosphorylated of inhibitor-κB (I-κB), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) were examined by western blotting after TWEAK stimulation and small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. The result showed that TWEAK upregulated the expression of Fn14 and pro-inflammatory factors interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). In LX-2 cells, the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was closely related to the activation of the NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Furthermore, our research showed that STAT3 and NF-κB could interact with each other, which resulted in a significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signalling-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine expression may be responsible for such a novel principle and new therapeutic targets in chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. PPAR{gamma} agonists prevent TGF{beta}1/Smad3-signaling in human hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Caiyan; Chen, Wei; Yang Liu; Chen Lihong; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Diehl, Anna Mae . E-mail: annamae.diehl@duke.edu

    2006-11-17

    PPAR{gamma} agonists inhibit liver fibrosis, but the mechanisms involved are uncertain. We hypothesized that PPAR{gamma} agonists inhibit transforming growth factor (TGF){beta}1-activation of TGF{beta} receptor (TGF{beta}R)-1 signaling in quiescent stellate cells, thereby abrogating Smad3-dependent induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, such as PAI-1 and collagen-1{alpha}I. To test this, human HSC were cultured to induce a quiescent phenotype, characterized by lipid accumulation and PPAR{gamma} expression and transcriptional activity. These adipocytic HSC were then treated with TGF{beta}1 {+-} a TGF{beta}R-1 kinase inhibitor (SB431542) or a PPAR{gamma} agonist (GW7845). TGF{beta}1 caused dose- and time-dependent increases in Smad3 phosphorylation, followed by induction of collagen and PAI-1 expression. Like the TGF{beta}R-1 kinase inhibitor, the PPAR{gamma} agonist caused dose-dependent inhibition of all of these responses without effecting HSC proliferation or viability. Thus, the anti-fibrotic actions of PPAR{gamma} agonists reflect their ability to inhibit TGF{beta}1-TGF{beta}R1 signaling that initiates ECM gene expression in quiescent HSC.

  7. No evidence of rat hepatitis E virus excretion into urine of rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Johne, Reimar; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-08-31

    To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted into the urine of rats, we infected three Wistar and six nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat HEV RNA in serum, fecal and urine samples. We detected rat HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all rats but not in the urine. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.

  8. Calcium channel blockers ameliorate iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis by altering iron transport and stellate cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xin; Chang, Yanzhong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chu, Xi; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Na; Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2016-06-15

    Liver fibrosis is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with iron overload. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can antagonize divalent cation entry into renal and myocardial cells and inhibit fibrogenic gene expression. We investigated the potential of CCBs to resolve iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis. Kunming mice were assigned to nine groups (n=8 per group): control, iron overload, deferoxamine, high and low dose verapamil, high and low dose nimodipine, and high and low dose diltiazem. Iron deposition and hepatic fibrosis were measured in mouse livers. Expression levels of molecules associated with transmembrane iron transport were determined by molecular biology approaches. In vitro HSC-T6 cells were randomized into nine groups (the same groups as the mice). Changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and metalloproteinase expression in cells were detected to assess the anti-fibrotic effects of CCBs during iron overload conditions. We found that CCBs reduced hepatic iron content, intracellular iron deposition, the number of hepatic fibrotic areas, collagen expression levels, and hydroxyproline content. CCBs rescued abnormal expression of α1C protein in L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and down-regulated divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) expression in mouse livers. In iron-overloaded HSC-T6 cells, CCBs reduced iron deposition, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). CCBs are potential therapeutic agents that can be used to address hepatic fibrosis during iron overload. They resolve hepatic fibrosis probably correlated with regulating transmembrane iron transport and inhibiting HSC growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene profile of chemokines on hepatic stellate cells of schistosome-infected mice and antifibrotic roles of CXCL9/10 on liver non-parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yue-jin; Luo, Jie; Lu, Qiao; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Hai-wei; Zheng, Dan; Ren, Yong-ya; Sun, Ke-yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhao-song

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the development of liver fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis. Chemokines were widely expressed and involved in cellular activation, proliferation and migration in inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, little is known about the expressions of chemokines on HSCs in the schistosoma infection. In addition, the roles of chemokines in pathogenesis of liver fibrosis are not totally clear. In our study, we used microarray to analyze the temporal gene expressions of primary HSCs isolated from mice with both acute and chronic schistosomiasis. Our microarray data showed that most of the chemokines expressed on HSCs were upregulated at 3 weeks post-infection (p.i) when the egg granulomatous response was not obviously evoked in the liver. However, some of them like CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were subsequently decreased at 6 weeks p.i when the granulomatous response reached the peak. In the chronic stage, most of the differentially expressed chemokines maintained persistent high-abundances. Furthermore, several chemokines including CCR2, CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCL2, CCL5, CCL21, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were expressed by HCSs and the abundances of them were changed following the praziquantel treatment in the chronic stage, indicating that chemokines were possibly necessary for the persistence of the chronic stage. In vitro experiments, hepatic non-parenchymal cells, primary HSCs and human HSCs line LX-2 were stimulated by chemokines. The results showed that CXCL9 and CXCL10, but not CXCL11 or CXCL4, significantly inhibited the gene expressions of Col1α1, Col3α1 and α-SMA, indicating the potential anti-fibrosis effect of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in schistosomiasis. More interestingly, soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum was able to inhibit transcriptional expressions of some chemokines by LX-2 cells, suggesting that SEA was capable of regulating the expression pattern of chemokine family and modulating the hepatic immune

  10. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ni, Chunyan; Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2012-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 μM significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-βR. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-βR and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ► Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation.

  11. Expression of E-selectin ligand-1 (CFR/ESL-1) on hepatic stellate cells: implications for leukocyte extravasation and liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Marianne; Tag, Carmen G; Gressner, Axel M; Hellerbrand, Claus; Kiefer, Paul

    2009-02-01

    Leukocytes and tumor cells use E-selectin binding ligands to attach to activated endothelial cells expressing E-selectin during inflammation or metastasis. The cysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor (CFR) represents the main E-selectin ligand (ESL-1) on granulocytes and its expression is exclusively modified by alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferases IV or VII (FucT4 and FucT7). Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are pericytes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. The activation of HSC and transdifferentiation into a myofibroblastic phenotype is involved in the repair of liver tissue injury, liver regeneration and angiogenesis of liver metastases. In the present study, we demonstrated that HSC expressed CFR together with FucT7 and exhibited a functional E-selectin binding activity on their cell surface. Since HSC appear to be oxygen-sensing cells, the expression of E-selectin binding activity was analyzed in HSC under a hypoxic atmosphere. While the expression of the glycoprotein CFR was unaffected by hypoxia, the cell-associated E-selectin binding activity decreased. However, under the same conditions, mRNA expression of the modifying enzyme FucT7 increased. The loss of E-selectin binding activity, therefore, appears to be neither the result of a reduced expression of the modifying transferase nor the expression of the backbone glycoprotein. After the transient transfection of HSC with CFR cDNA, the E-selectin binding activity (ESL-1) was efficiently released into the supernatant. Therefore, we hypothesize that under hypoxia, ESL-1 is shed from activated HSC. Our findings provide a novel perspective on the function of HSC in liver metastasis and inflammatory liver diseases.

  12. Hepatic stellate cells increase the immunosuppressive function of natural Foxp3+ regulatory T cells via IDO-induced AhR activation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Wang, Jiang; Thomson, Angus W; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2017-02-01

    Immunosuppressive, naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box p3(+) (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (nTregs) offer potential for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. However, potential instability of ex vivo-expanded nTregs following their adoptive transfer may be a significant limitation. LPS-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce expansion and enhance the suppressive function and stability of allogeneic nTregs We aimed to delineate mechanisms underlying HSC-induced expansion and increased potency of nTregs HSCs and nTregs were isolated from mouse livers and spleens, respectively. Following coculture with LPS-pretreated allogeneic HSCs (LPS/HSCs), proliferation of nTregs was measured by CFSE dilution, and Foxp3 expression and acetylation were determined by immunoprecipitation (IP) and Western blotting analysis. Expression of various genes associated with immunologic tolerance was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). LPS stimulation increased the expression and activity of the immunoregulatory enzyme IDO1 in HSCs, and LPS/HSCs stimulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling in cocultured nTregs Reciprocally, Tregs increased IDO1 expression in HSCs. IDO1(-/-) LPS/HSCs were inferior to WT LPS/HSCs in stimulating nTreg expansion. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO1 in HSCs by 1-methyltryptophan (1MT) inhibited LPS/HSC-induced AhR signaling in nTregs, which was responsible for their expansion, Foxp3 expression, and stabilization of Foxp3 by increasing acetylation of lysine residues. Finally, HSCs cryopreserved, following 2-3 passages, were as potent as primary-cultured HSCs in expanding nTregs In conclusion, LPS/HSCs expand allogeneic nTregs through an IDO-dependent, AhR-mediated mechanism and increase their stability through lysine-acetylation of Foxp3. nTregs expanded by cryopreserved HSCs may have potential for clinical use.

  13. Dioscin alleviates alcoholic liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Yanyan; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the activities and underlying mechanisms of dioscin against alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF). In vivo liver fibrosis in mice was induced by an alcoholic liquid diet, and in vitro studies were performed on activated HSC-T6 and LX2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. Our results showed that dioscin significantly attenuated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, improved collagen accumulation, and attenuated inflammation through down-regulating the levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α by decreasing Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. TLR4 overexpression was also decreased by dioscin, leading to the markedly down-regulated levels of MyD88, NF-κB, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen (COL1A1) in cultured HSCs. Suppression of cellular MyD88 by ST2825 or abrogation of NF-κB by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate eliminated the inhibitory effects of dioscin on the levels of TGF-β1, α-SMA and COL1A1. In a word, dioscin exhibited potent effects against ALF via altering TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provided novel insights into the mechanisms of this compound as an antifibrogenic candidate for the treatment of ALF in the future. PMID:26655640

  14. Construction of Gpm6a/ReelinGFPCreERT2 by BAC recombination using a specific gene in hepatic mesothelial or stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Lou, Jin-Li; Shi, Hong-Lin; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhong-Ping

    2017-01-01

    AIM To prepare a Gpm6a/ReelinGFPCreERT2 construct with a rapid and reliable strategy using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). METHODS Gpm6a and Reelin BACs were purified and transformed into SW102 E. coli by electroporation. The GFPCreERT2 fragment was prepared from a shuttle vector and transformed into SW102 E. coli carrying a BAC. Homologous recombination was induced in SW102 E. coli. Recombinant clones were screened and confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Recombinant clones were transformed into SW102 E. coli to remove the kanamycin unit. RESULTS A complete BAC was successfully transformed into SW102 E. coli by electroporation because BAC purified from SW102 E. coli showed the same pattern as the original BAC with BamHI digestion. The GFPCreERT2 fragment was deemed to have been prepared successfully because we obtained the same size fragment as expected. Homologous recombination was induced, and GFPCreERT2 was deemed to have been inserted into the correct site of the BAC because we found the band change was the same as the expected pattern after restriction enzyme digestion. The kanamycin unit was deemed to have been removed successfully because we obtained different sizes of bands that were consistent with the results expected by PCR with different primers. CONCLUSION The construct of Gpm6aGFPCreERT2 or ReelinGFPCreERT2 was prepared successfully, which will establish a foundation for tracing the hepatic stellate cell lineage and studying its function. PMID:28127196

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced hepatic stellate cell apoptosis through calcium-mediated JNK/P38 MAPK and Calpain/Caspase-12 pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yarui; Wang, Huan; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Recent reports considered that it was the disturbance of calcium homeostasis and the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) apoptosis and promoted fibrosis resolution. However, the signal-transducing events that are activated by ER stress after HSCs activation were incompletely understood. In this study, we induced ER stress with thapsigargin (TG), and determined the activation of calpain and the cleavage of caspase by analyzing the protein levels and the correspondingly increased intracellular calcium levels and the induction of the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. Moreover, the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK were followed by the activation of the executioner caspases, caspase-3. As expected, preventing an increase in intracellular calcium levels using intracellular calcium chelators, EGTA, and BAPTA/AM, could substantially inhibit the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, abolish the activation of calpains, namely caspase-12, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and provide significant protection for TG-treated activated HSCs. Interestingly, pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190, JNK inhibitor SP600125, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK, or calpain inhibitors calpeptin, significantly reduced the cell apoptosis and the cleavage of caspase-12 and caspase-3. However, pretreatment with z-VAD-FMK failed to reduce the activation of calpain. Additionally, pretreatment with SB202190 and SP600125 also decreased the expression of CHOP. Importantly, PDGF-induced collagen Col1α1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), markers for the perpetuation phase of HSCs activation, were inhibited in TG-treated activated HSCs. These findings showed that the Calpain/Caspase-12 activation induced by ER stress and the JNK/p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by the increase of intracellular calcium concentration releasing from ER are the novel signaling pathway underlying the molecular mechanism of fibrosis

  16. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits ERK and p38 MAPK Signaling in TGF-β1-Stimulated Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line (LX-2) via Distinct Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhigang; Xu, Lieming

    2012-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SA-B) is water-soluble component of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza. The previous work indicated that SA-B can inhibit MAPK and Smad signaling in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to perform anti-fibrotic activity Lv et al. 2010. However, some studies have shown that there is cross-talk between MAPK and Smad in certain cell types. Thus, the anti-fibrotic action of SA-B may be through the cross-talk. In order to clarify the mechanism of SA-B further, we knocked down Smad in LX-2 cells (SRV4) via RNAi, and then added TGF-β1, and PD98059 or SB203580 and SA-B. The levels of p-MEK and p-p38 were inhibited by SA-B in SRV4 independent of TGF-β1. The expression of Col I and α-SMA in SRV4 could be reduced by SA-B independent TGF-β1. SB203580 had not significant effect on p-MEK in SRV4 stimulated by TGF-β1. The levels of p-MEK in SRV4 were not increased significantly after TGF-β1 stimulation. PD98059 had no effect on the levels of p-p38 in SRV4 irrespective of TGF-β1. In conclusion, SA-B inhibits the synthesis of Col I in LX-2 cells independent of TGF-β1 stimulation, and the anti-fibrotic effect of SA-B is due to direct inhibition of p38 signaling and inhibition the cross-talk of Smad to ERK signaling. PMID:21860657

  17. Deficiency of NOX1 or NOX4 Prevents Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tian; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) play a key role in liver injury and fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that GKT137831, a dual NOX1/4 inhibitor, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice as well as pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) as well as hepatocyte apoptosis. The effect of NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency in liver fibrosis is unclear, and has never been directly compared. HSCs are the primary myofibroblasts in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of NOX1 and NOX4 in liver fibrosis, and investigated whether NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation. Mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis. Deficiency of either NOX1 or NOX4 attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after CCl4 compared to wild-type mice. NOX1 or NOX4 deficiency reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS production in mice with liver fibrosis. NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency are approximately equally effective in preventing liver injury in the mice. The NOX1/4 dual inhibitor GKT137831 suppressed ROS production as well as inflammatory and proliferative genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), or sonic hedgehog (Shh) in primary mouse HSCs. Furthermore, the mRNAs of proliferative and pro-fibrotic genes were downregulated in NOX1 and NOX4 knock-out activated HSCs (cultured on plastic for 5 days). Finally, NOX1 and NOX4 protein levels were increased in human livers with cirrhosis compared with normal controls. Thus, NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, including the direct activation of HSC. PMID:26222337

  18. The HIV Matrix Protein p17 Promotes the Activation of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells through Interactions with CXCR2 and Syndecan-2

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Carino, Adriana; Cipriani, Sabrina; D'Amore, Claudio; Sidoni, Angelo; Sordo, Rachele Del; Ferri, Ivana; Lucattelli, Monica; Lunghi, Benedetta; Baldelli, Franco; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p17 is a matrix protein involved in virus life's cycle. CXCR2 and Syndecan-2, the two major coreceptors for the p17 protein, are expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a key cell type involved in matrix deposition in liver fibrotic disorders. Aim In this report we have investigated the in vitro impact of p17 on HSCs transdifferentiation and function and underlying signaling pathways involved in these processes. Methods LX-2 cells, a human HSC line, and primary HSC were challenged with p17 and expressions of fibrogenic markers and of p17 receptors were assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Downstream intracellular signaling pathways were evaluated with qRT-PCR and Western blot as well as after pre-treatment with specific pathway inhibitors. Results Exposure of LX2 cells to p17 increases their contractile force, reshapes the cytoskeleton fibers and upregulates the expression of transdifferentiation markers including αSMA, COL1α1 and endothelin-1 through the activation of Jak/STAT and Rho signaling pathways. These effects are lost in HSCs pre-incubated with a serum from HIV positive person who underwent a vaccination with a p17 peptide. Confocal laser microscopy studies demonstrates that CXCR2 and syndecan-2 co-associate at the plasma membrane after exposure to p17. Immunostaining of HIV/HCV liver biopsies from co-infected patients reveals that the progression of liver fibrosis correlates with a reduced expression of CXCR2. Conclusions The HIV matrix protein p17 is pro-fibrogenic through its interactions both with CXCR2 and syndecan-2 on activated HSCs. PMID:24736615

  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Promotes Hepatic Stellate Cells Migration via Canonical NF-κB/MMP9 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aixiu; Wang, Chen; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Mingming; Su, Min; Zou, Xiaoping; Xu, Guifang; Zhuge, Yuzheng

    2016-01-01

    In the liver, the signal and function of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) have mainly been assessed in association with liver regeneration. However, the effects of TWEAK on liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of TWEAK on human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore the relevant potential mechanisms, human HSCs line—LX-2 were cultured with TWEAK. Cell migration was detected by transwell assay; cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8; the expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP10, MMP11, MMP12, MMP13 gene was identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay; small interfering RNA transfection was applied for depletion of MMP9 and p65. The result of transwell assay revealed that TWEAK promoted LX-2 migration. Subsequently, our data testified that the expression and activity of MMP9 was induced by TWEAK in LX-2 cells, which enhanced the migration. Furthermore, our findings showed that TWEAK upregulated the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 protein to increase MMP9 expression in LX-2 cells. Meanwhile, the alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin expression were upregulated following TWEAK treatment. The results in the present study revealed that TWEAK promotes HSCs migration via canonical NF-κB/MMP9 pathway, which possibly provides a molecular basis targeting TWEAK for the therapy of liver fibrosis. PMID:27907201

  20. Curcumin regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α expression by AMPK pathway in hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xuguang; Qiao, Haowen; Guan, Wei; Li, Ziqiang; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Jia, Xin; Zhou, Yajun

    2015-01-05

    Curcumin exerts an inhibitory effect on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, a key step for liver fibrogenesis, and on liver fibrosis by up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression. PPARγ plays a crucial role in suppression of HSC activation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) functions as a co-activator for PPARγ. Therefore, researches on the effect of curcumin on PGC-1α might contribute to understanding of the mechanisms underlying curcumin inhibition of HSC activation and liver fibrosis through PPARγ. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on PGC-1α expression in HSCs in vitro and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms by western blot, reat-time PCR, and transfection. Our results showed that curcumin stimulation increased PGC-1α expression and the effects of curcumin on PGC-1α expression were correlated with the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Curcumin increased superoxide dimutase-2 (SOD2) transcription and activity by AMPK/PGC-1α axis. Moreover, PGC-1α was demonstrated to inhibit α1(I) collagen (a marker for liver fibrosis) transcription in cultured HSCs. These results demonstrated the promotion effect of curcumin on PGC-1α expression through AMPK pathway, which led to the increases in PPARγ activity and in SOD-2 transcription and activity. These data might suggest a possible new explanation for the inhibitory effect of curcumin on HSC activation and on liver fibrogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Standardized Salvia miltiorrhiza extract suppresses hepatic stellate cell activation and attenuates steatohepatitis induced by a methionine-choline deficient diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak Sung; Son, Woo-Chan; Ryu, Jae-Eun; Koo, Bon Am; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2014-06-17

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SME) on gene and protein expression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related factors in activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and in mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an MCD or control diet for 8 weeks and SME (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally every other day for 4 or 6 weeks. HSCs from the LX-2 cell line were treated with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or TGF-β1 plus SME (0.1-10 μg/mL). To investigate the effect of SME on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced condition, LX-2 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2 plus SME (0.1-100 μg/mL). MCD administration for 12 weeks increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), TGF-β1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cells exhibited similar gene expression patterns. SME treatment significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of NASH-related factors in the mouse model and HSCs. Histopathological liver analysis showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity and fibrosis score in SME-treated mice. The in vivo studies showed that SME had a significant effect at low doses. These results suggest that SME might be a potential therapeutic candidate for NAFLD treatment.

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Infects Human Hepatic Stellate Cells and Promotes Collagen I and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression: Implications for the Pathogenesis of HIV/Hepatitis C Virus–Induced Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuyama, Ana C.; Hong, Feng; Saiman, Yedidya; Wang, Chuansheng; Ozkok, Derya; Mosoian, Arevik; Chen, Ping; Chen, Benjamin K.; Klotman, Mary E.; Bansal, Meena B.

    2010-01-01

    Patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) develop more rapid fibrosis than those infected with HCV only. In HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, fibrosis progression correlates with HIV RNA levels, suggesting a direct role of HIV in liver fibrogenesis. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) and cysteine-X-cysteine receptor 4 (CXCR4), the two major coreceptors required for HIV entry into cells, are expressed on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the principle fibrogenic cell type in the liver. We therefore examined whether HIV can infect HSCs, explored the potential mechanisms of viral entry, and assessed the impact of infection as reflected by the ability of HSCs to transfer virus to T lymphocytes and elicit a proinflammatory and profibrogenic response. We report that the laboratory-adapted viruses HIV-IIIB (CXCR4-tropic or X4) and HIV-BaL (CCR5-tropic or R5) and primary HIV isolates can infect both a human stellate cell line, LX-2, and primary human HSCs. HIV entry and gene expression in HSCs was confirmed using HIV–green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression viral constructs in the presence or absence of the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine. CD4 expression on a subset of primary HSCs was demonstrated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence staining. Blocking experiments in the presence of anti-CD4, anti-CXCR4, and anti-CCR5 revealed that HIV entry into HSCs is predominantly CD4/chemokine coreceptor-independent. HIV infection promoted HSC collagen I expression and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Furthermore, infected LX-2 cells were capable of transferring GFP-expressing virus to T lymphocytes in a coculture system. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest a potential role of HIV in liver fibrosis/inflammation mediated through effects on HSCs. The role of early highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation in patients with HIV

  3. The antifibrotic effects of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA on hepatic fibrosis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Qing; Liu, Qi; Xu, Ning; Qian, Ke-Li; Qi, Jing-Hu; Sun, Yin-Chun; Xiao, Lang; Shi, Xiao-Feng

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We constructed CCL4 induced liver fibrosis model successfully. {yields} We proofed that the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had a definite therapy effect to CCL4 induced liver fibrosis. {yields} The therapy effect of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had dose-dependent. -- Abstract: Background/aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from the excessive secretion of matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which proliferate during fibrotic liver injury. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1 is the dominant stimulus for extracellular matrix (ECM) production by stellate cells. Our study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of using short interference RNA (siRNA) to target TGF-{beta}1 in hepatic fibrosis and its mechanism in rats exposed to a high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Methods: A total of 40 healthy, male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five even groups containing of eight rats each: normal group, model group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group and TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group (0.25 mg/kg). CCL4 and a high-fat diet were used for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. All the rats were then sacrificed to collect liver tissue samples. A portion of the liver samples were soaked in formalin for Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, classifying the degree of liver fibrosis, and detecting the expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1; the remaining liver samples were stored in liquid nitrogen to be used for detecting TGF-{beta}1 by Western blotting and for measuring the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Comparing the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group to the model group, the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group and the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group showed significantly reduced levels of pathological changes, protein expression and the m

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activators monascin and rosiglitazone attenuate carboxymethyllysine-induced fibrosis in hepatic stellate cells through regulating the oxidative stress pathway but independent of the receptor for advanced glycation end products signaling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-07-17

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) signaling through its receptors (RAGE) results in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is thought to contribute to hepatic fibrosis via hyperglycemia. Carboxymethyllysine (CML) is a key AGE, with highly reactive dicarbonyl metabolites. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Monascus -fermented metabolite monascin and rosiglitazone on CML-induced RAGE signaling in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and its resulting antihepatic fibrosis activity. We found that monascin and rosiglitazone upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) to attenuate α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and ROS generation in CML-treated HSCs in a RAGE activation-independent pathway. Therefore, monascin may delay or inhibit the progression of liver fibrosis through the activation of PPAR-γ and might prove to be a major antifibrotic mechanism to prevent liver disease.

  5. Effects of salvianolic acids on oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.-K.; Lin, Y.-L.; Huang, Y.-T.

    2010-01-15

    Enhanced oxidative stress is associated with hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acids A (Sal A) and B (Sal B) have been reported to be strong polyphenolic antioxidants and free radical scavengers. The present study is to investigate if Sal A and B could attenuate oxidative stress and liver fibrosis in rats. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, 10 ng/ml). The inhibitory effects of Sal A and B on intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels were measured with dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) dye assay. alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits were measured by Western blotting. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg) twice per week for 6 weeks. Sal A (10 mg/kg), Sal B (50 mg/kg) or S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe, 10 mg/kg), was given by gavage twice per day consecutively for 4 weeks starting 2 weeks after TAA injection. In vitro, PDGF increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in HSCs, which was attenuated by Sal A (10 muM) and Sal B (200 muM). Sal A and B attenuated the PDGF-stimulated expressions of alpha-SMA and NADPH oxidase subunits gp91{sup phox} and p47{sup phox} in membrane fractions. In vivo studies showed that the hepatic levels of collagen, malondialdehyde, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta, fibrosis scores and protein expressions of alpha-SMA, heme-oxygenase-1, iNOS, and gp91{sup phox}, and serum levels of ALT, AST, IL-6, and IL-1beta were increased in TAA-intoxicated rats, all of which were attenuated by 4-week treatment of Sal A or Sal B. Our results showed that Sal A and B attenuated PDGF-induced ROS formation in HSCs, possibly through inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Sal A and B treatments were also effective against hepatic fibrosis in TAA-intoxicated rats.

  6. Magnolol Attenuates Concanavalin A-induced Hepatic Fibrosis, Inhibits CD4(+) T Helper 17 (Th17) Cell Differentiation and Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation: Blockade of Smad3/Smad4 Signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjun; Ju, Baoling; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanfei; Nie, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Lei, Qiuxia

    2016-12-29

    Magnolol is a pharmacological biphenolic compound extracted from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, which displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was aimed at exploring the potential effect of magnolol on immune-related liver fibrosis. Herein, BALB/c mice were injected with concanavalin A (ConA, 8 mg/kg/week) up to 6 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis, and magnolol (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) was given to these mice orally throughout the whole experiment. We found that magnolol preserved liver function and attenuated liver fibrotic injury in vivo. In response to ConA stimulation, the CD4(+) T cells preferred to polarizing towards CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells in liver. Magnolol was observed to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation in ConA-treated liver in addition to suppressing interleukin (IL)-17A generation. Hepatic stellate cells were activated in fibrotic liver as demonstrated by increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. More transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and activin A were secreted into the serum. Magnolol suppressed this abnormal HSC activation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Smad3 in its linker area (Thr179, Ser 204/208/213) was inhibited by magnolol. In vitro, the recombinant IL-17A plus TGF-β1 or activin A induced activation of human LX2 HSCs and promoted their collagen production. Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway was activated in LX2 cells exposed to the fibrotic stimuli, as illustrated by the up-regulated phospho-Smad3 and the enhanced interaction between Smad3 and Smad4. These alterations were suppressed by magnolol. Collectively, our study reveals a novel antifibrotic effect of magnolol on Th17 cell-mediated fibrosis.

  7. Hepatic radiation injury in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Mariano, M.S.; Jackson, K.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The whole livers of rats were exposed intraoperatively to graded doses (0 to 75 Gy) of {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation. At various times (0 to 155 days) after liver irradiation, minimally invasive, nondestructive tests (rose bengal retention and plasma alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) were performed on at least half the surviving animals in each dose group to assess developing liver injury. Liver histology was done on animals sacrificed 96 to 100 days after irradiation. Radiation damage to the stomach killed approximately 50% of the animals 30 to 60 days after exposure to doses of 25 Gy or higher. These deaths were significantly reduced when care was taken to shield the stomach during irradiation. Stomach injury did not, however, appreciably affect liver function as measured by rose bengal retention. Whole-liver irradiation to 15 Gy resulted in reduced liver size and minimal histological changes, but did not result in increased rose bengal retention or plasma alkaline phosphatase concentration. The next highest dose group studied (25 Gy) showed significant histological abnormalities and liver injury as measured by increased rose bengal retention and liver enzymes. The latent period for development of hepatic injury, as measured by increased rose bengal retention, was 35 to 42 days and was relatively invariant over the 25- to 75-Gy dose range. Hepatic vein lesions and cellular necrosis were the most prominent histological lesions observed in 25-Gy-irradiated liver.

  8. Inhibition of the SphK1/S1P signaling pathway by melatonin in mice with liver fibrosis and human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Bárbara; Sánchez, Diana I; Crespo, Irene; San-Miguel, Beatriz; Álvarez, Marcelino; Tuñón, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2017-03-01

    The sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) system is involved in different pathological processes, including fibrogenesis. Melatonin abrogates activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and attenuates different profibrogenic pathways in animal models of fibrosis, but it is unknown if protection associates with its inhibitory effect on the SphK1/S1P axis. Mice in treatment groups received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) 5 μL g(-1) body wt i.p. twice a week for 4 or 6 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) i.p, beginning 2 weeks after the start of CCl4 administration. At both 4 and 6 weeks following CCl4 treatment, liver mRNA levels, protein concentration and immunohistochemical labelling for SphK1 increased significantly. S1P production, and expression of S1P receptor (S1PR)1, S1PR3 and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) were significantly elevated. However, there was a decreased expression of S1PR2 and S1P lyase (S1PL). Melatonin attenuated liver fibrosis, as shown by a significant inhibition of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and collagen (Col) Ι. Furthermore, melatonin inhibited S1P production, lowered expression of SphK1, S1PR1, SP1R3, and ASMase, and increased expression of S1PL. Melatonin induced a reversal of activated human HSCs cell line LX2, as evidenced by a reduction in α-SMA, TGF-β, and Col I expression. Melatonin-treated cells also exhibited an inhibition of the SphK1/S1P axis. Antifibrogenic effect of SphK1 inhibition was confirmed by treatment of LX2 cells with PF543. Abrogation of the lipid signaling pathway by the indole reveals novel molecular pathways that may account for the protective effect of melatonin in liver fibrogenesis. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):272-282, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Characterization of the MMP/TIMP Imbalance and Collagen Production Induced by IL-1β or TNF-α Release from Human Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Robert, Sacha; Gicquel, Thomas; Bodin, Aude; Lagente, Vincent; Boichot, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation has an important role in the development of liver fibrosis in general and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in particular. It is known that HSCs are themselves able to produce cytokines and chemokines, and that this production may be a key event in the initiation of fibrogenesis. However, the direct involvement of cytokines and chemokines in HSC (self-)activation remains uncertain. In this study, the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and β, TNF-α, and IL-8 on the activation state of HSCs were examined, in comparison to the pro-fibrogenic mediator TGF-β1. LX-2 cells were stimulated for 24 or 48 hours with recombinant human form of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and β, TNF-α, and IL-8, and also the pro-fibrogenic mediator TGF-β1. Two drugs were also evaluated, the anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody infliximab and the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, regarding their inhibitory effects. In LX-2 human HSC, treatment with TGF-β1 are associated with downregulation of the metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3, with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, collagen type I α1, collagen type IV α1, α-SMA, endothelin-1 and PDGF-BB. Cytokines and chemokines expression were found to be downregulated, excepting IL-6. In contrast, we observed that LX-2 exposure to IL-1, TNF-α and IL-8 can reverse the phenotype of pro-fibrogenic activated cells. Indeed, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were found elevated, associated with downregulation of α-SMA and/or PDGF-BB, and a greater expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1 and CCL2. Lastly, we found that infliximab and anakinra successfully inhibits effects of TNF-α and IL-1 respectively in LX-2 cells. Infliximab and anakinra may be of value in preclinical trials in chronic liver disease. Overall, our results suggest that (i) pro-inflammatory mediators exert complex effects in HSCs via an MMP/TIMP imbalance, and (ii) targeting IL-1 signaling may be a potentially valuable

  10. Fibrogenic actions of acetaldehyde are β-catenin dependent but Wingless independent: a critical role of nucleoredoxin and reactive oxygen species in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Arellanes-Robledo, Jaime; Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Domínguez-Rosales, José Alfredo; Hernández-Nazara, Zamira Helena; Ramirez, Francesco; Rojkind, Marcos; Lakshman, M Raj

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether the fibrogenic actions of acetaldehyde, the immediate oxidation product of ethanol, are mediated via Wingless (WNT) and/or β-catenin pathways in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC). First, we show that both β-catenin small inhibitory RNA and a dominant negative-MYC expression vector markedly down-regulated the expressions of fibrogenic genes in freshly isolated HSC. We further show that acetaldehyde up-regulated platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta mRNA and protein expressions ranging from 4.0- to 7.2-fold (P<0.001). Acetaldehyde induced MYC and collagen type-1 alpha-2 mRNA and protein expressions were WNT independent because DKK1, an antagonist of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway, completely failed to block these inductions. Acetaldehyde increased phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3B) protein by 31% (P<0.01), whereas phospho-β-catenin protein decreased by 50% (P ≤ 0.01). Significantly, in contrast to 43% (P<0.01) inhibition of β-catenin nuclear translocation in nucleoredoxin (NXN)-overexpressed HSC, acetaldehyde profoundly stimulated β-catenin nuclear translocation by 51%, (P<0.01). Acetaldehyde also increased the cellular reactive oxygen species level 2-fold (P<0.001) with a concomitant 2-fold (P<0.001) increase in 4-hydroxynonenal adducts. Conversely, there was a 44% decrease (P<0.001) in glutathione levels with a concomitant 76% (P<0.001) decrease in the level of NXN/ disheveled (DVL) complex. Based on these findings, we conclude that actions of acetaldehyde are mediated by a mechanism that inactivates NXN by releasing DVL, leading to the inactivation of GSK3B, and thereby blocks β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation. Thus, the stabilized β-catenin translocates to the nucleus where it up-regulates the fibrogenic pathway genes. This novel mechanism of action of acetaldehyde has the potential for therapeutic interventions in liver fibrosis induced by alcohol.

  11. miR-181b Promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yuqin; Fan, Jiangao

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181a and miR-181b, especially, miR-181b could be induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) in hepatic stellate cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by directly targeting the negative cell regulator-p27 in HSC-T6 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b was identified as potential serum diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis patients. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-{beta}1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-{beta}1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.

  12. Effects of combined alcohol and anti-HIV drugs on cellular stress responses in primary hepatocytes and hepatic stellate and kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Lau, Mo Yin; Lee, Harrison; MacVeigh-Aloni, Michelle; Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Certain anti-HIV drugs alone or in combination are often associated with liver damages, which are frequently worsened by alcohol consumption. We previously found an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mechanism for the drug- and alcohol-induced hepatic injuries in animal models and in vitro hepatocytes. However, it is unknown whether anti-HIV drugs and alcohol induce similar cellular stress responses and injuries in liver nonparenchymal cells. Primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH), kupffer cells (KC), and hepatocellular stellate cells (HSC) were freshly isolated from mouse liver and treated with DMSO, stress-inducing pharmaceutical agents, alcohol alone, or in combination with antiviral ritonavir (RIT), lopinavir (LOP), or efavirenz (EFV). Expression of cellular stress markers, protein colocalization, and cell death were analyzed with immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and positive double staining with Sytox green and Hoechst blue, respectively. Expression of the ER stress markers of BiP, CHOP, and SERCA and the autophagy marker LC3 was significantly changed in PMH in response to combined alcohol, RIT, and LOP, which was companied by increased cell death compared with control. In contrast, although pharmaceutical agents induced ER stress and cell death, no significant ER stress or cell death was found in KC treated with alcohol, RIT, LOP, and EFV singly or in combination. In HSC, alcohol, RIT, LOP, or EFV induced BiP, but not CHOP, SERCA, or cell death compared with vehicle control. Further in PMH, RIT and LOP or in combination with alcohol-induced dose-dependent inhibition of β-actin. Inhibition of β-actin by RIT and LOP was companied with an inhibited nuclear expression of the antioxidant response regulator Nrf2 and reduced GST downstream of Nrf2. Ascorbic acid treatment reduced the alcohol-, RIT-, and LOP-induced cell death. The data suggest for the first time that sensitivities of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to alcohol and anti-HIV drugs in vitro are

  13. Establishment and Characterization of an Immortalized Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line for Applications in Co-Culturing with Immortalized Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, XiaoPing; Wang, Yini; Yu, XiaoPeng; Li, JianZhou; Zhou, Ning; Du, WeiBo; Zhang, YanHong; Cao, HongCui; Zhu, DanHua; Chen, Yu; Li, LanJuan

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective. The liver-specific functions of hepatocytes are improved by co-culturing hepatocytes with primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC). However, primary HSC have a short lifespan in vitro, which is considered a major limitation for their use in various applications. This study aimed to establish immortalized human HSC using the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40LT) for applications in co-culturing with hepatocytes and HSC in vitro. Methods. Primary human HSC were transfected with a recombinant retrovirus containing SV40LT. The immortalized human HSC were characterized by analyzing their gene expression and functional characteristics. The liver-specific functions of hepatocytes were evaluated in a co-culture system incorporating immortalized human hepatocytes with HSC-Li cells. Results. The immortalized HSC line, HSC-Li, was obtained after infection with a recombinant retrovirus containing SV40LT. The HSC-Li cells were longitudinally spindle-like and had numerous fat droplets in their cytoplasm as shown using electron microscopy. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), VEGF Receptor 1(Flt-1), collagen type Iα1 and Iα2 mRNA expression levels were observed in the HSC-Li cells by RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the HSC-Li cells were positive for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β), vimentin, and SV40LT protein expression. The HSC-Li cells produced both HGF and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in a time-dependent manner. Real-time PCR showed that albumin, CYP3A5, CYP2E1, and UGT2B7 mRNA expression generally increased in the co-culture system. The enzymatic activity of CYP1A2 under the co-culture conditions also generally increased as compared to the monoculture of immortalized human hepatocytes. Conclusions. We successfully established the immortalized human HSC cell line HSC-Li. It has the specific phenotypic and functional characteristics of primary human HSC, which would be

  14. Characterization of the MMP/TIMP Imbalance and Collagen Production Induced by IL-1β or TNF-α Release from Human Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Sacha; Gicquel, Thomas; Bodin, Aude; Lagente, Vincent; Boichot, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation has an important role in the development of liver fibrosis in general and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in particular. It is known that HSCs are themselves able to produce cytokines and chemokines, and that this production may be a key event in the initiation of fibrogenesis. However, the direct involvement of cytokines and chemokines in HSC (self-)activation remains uncertain. In this study, the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and β, TNF-α, and IL-8 on the activation state of HSCs were examined, in comparison to the pro-fibrogenic mediator TGF-β1. LX-2 cells were stimulated for 24 or 48 hours with recombinant human form of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and β, TNF-α, and IL-8, and also the pro-fibrogenic mediator TGF-β1. Two drugs were also evaluated, the anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody infliximab and the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, regarding their inhibitory effects. In LX-2 human HSC, treatment with TGF-β1 are associated with downregulation of the metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3, with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, collagen type I α1, collagen type IV α1, α-SMA, endothelin-1 and PDGF-BB. Cytokines and chemokines expression were found to be downregulated, excepting IL-6. In contrast, we observed that LX-2 exposure to IL-1, TNF-α and IL-8 can reverse the phenotype of pro-fibrogenic activated cells. Indeed, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were found elevated, associated with downregulation of α-SMA and/or PDGF-BB, and a greater expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1 and CCL2. Lastly, we found that infliximab and anakinra successfully inhibits effects of TNF-α and IL-1 respectively in LX-2 cells. Infliximab and anakinra may be of value in preclinical trials in chronic liver disease. Overall, our results suggest that (i) pro-inflammatory mediators exert complex effects in HSCs via an MMP/TIMP imbalance, and (ii) targeting IL-1 signaling may be a potentially valuable

  15. Suppressive effect of microRNA-29b on hepatic stellate cell activation and its crosstalk with TGF-β1/Smad3.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chunli; Bu, Shurui; Fan, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    The microRNA (miR)-29 family is closely associated with fibrotic processes by virtue of its low expression in many tissues during organ fibrosis. The present study investigated whether miR-29b overexpression suppressed hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and its interactions with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3), a classical signal transduction pathway contributing to the activation of HSCs. The results showed that transfection of LX-2 (human HSC) cells with miR-29b mimic or pSUPER-Smad3 silencing (si)RNA resulted in significantly increased expression of miR-29b and decreased expression of Smad3. miR-29b overexpression inhibited proliferation of LX-2 cells 24 h after transfection. Both miR-29b overexpression and Smad3 silencing antagonized the effects of TGF-β1 on the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen type I (col-1). Furthermore, infection with miR-29b mimics suppressed Smad3 and TGF-β1 expression, suggesting that miR-29b inhibited LX-2 activation mediated by both Smad3 and TGF-β1. Nevertheless, primary miR-29a/b1, miR-29b2/c and mature miR-29b were downregulated by TGF-β1 and stimulated by Smad3 silencing, suggesting that TGF-β1/Smad3 signalling pathway regulate not just mature miR-29b but also its transcription. In summary, our results show overwhelming evidence corroborating the suppressive effect of miR-29b on TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cell activation. The results also revealed the existence of crosstalk between miR-29b and TGF-β1/Smad3 during LX-2 activation, suggesting a feedback loop between miR-29b and TGF-β1/Smad3 signalling that promotes liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Cell Biochemistry and Function published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Hepatic stellate cells induce hepatocellular carcinoma cell resistance to sorafenib through the laminin-332/α3 integrin axis recovery of focal adhesion kinase ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Azzariti, Amalia; Mancarella, Serena; Porcelli, Letizia; Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Caligiuri, Alessandra; Lupo, Luigi; Dituri, Francesco; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2016-12-01

    In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib, drug resistance is common. HCC develops in a microenvironment enriched with extracellular matrix proteins including laminin (Ln)-332, produced by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Ln-332 is the ligand of α3β1 and α6β4 integrins, differently expressed on the HCC cell surface, that deliver intracellular pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ln-332 on sorafenib's effectiveness. HCC cells were challenged with sorafenib in the presence of Ln-332 and of HSC conditioned medium (CM). Sorafenib impaired HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. HSC-CM or Ln-332 inhibited sorafenib's effectiveness in HCC cells expressing both α3β1 and α6β4. Inhibiting α3 but not α6 integrin subunit using blocking antibodies or small interfering RNA abrogated the protection induced by Ln-332 and HSC-CM. Hep3B cells expressing α6β4 but lacking the α3 integrin were insensitive to Ln-332 and HSC-CM protective effects. Hep3B α3-positive, but not wild-type and scramble transfected, cells acquired protection by sorafenib when plated on Ln-332-CM or HSCs. Sorafenib dephosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, whereas Ln-332 and HSC-CM partially restored the pathways. Silencing FAK, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, abrogated the protection induced by Ln-332 and HSC-CM, suggesting a specific role for FAK. Sorafenib down-regulated total FAK, inducing its proteasomal degradation, while Ln-332 and HSC-CM promoted the escape of FAK from ubiquitination, probably inducing a preferential membrane localization. This study unveils a novel mechanism of sorafenib resistance depending on the α3β1/Ln-332 axis and requiring FAK ubiquitination, providing new insights into personalizing therapy for patients with HCC. (Hepatology 2016;64:2103-2117). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Johne, Reimar; Heckel, Gerald; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Kindler, Eveline; Maresch, Christina; Reetz, Jochen; Schielke, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus infections may be caused by zoonotic transmission of virus genotypes 3 and 4. To determine whether rodents are a reservoir, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E–like virus from 2 Norway rats in Germany. The sequence suggests a separate genotype for this hepatotropic virus. PMID:20735931

  18. Hepatic Fibrosis Inhibitory Effect of Peptides Isolated from Navicula incerta on TGF-β1 Induced Activation of LX-2 Human Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Ryu, BoMi; Karadeniz, Fatih; Kim, Daekyung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, novel peptides (NIPP-1, NIPP-2) derived from Navicula incerta (microalgae) protein hydrolysate were explored for their inhibitory effects on collagen release in hepatic fibrosis with the investigation of its underlying mechanism of action. TGF-β1 activated fibrosis in LX-2 cells was examined in the presence or absence of purified peptides NIPP-1 and NIPP-2. Besides the mechanisms of liver cell injury, protective effects of NIPP-1 and NIPP-2 were studied to show the protective mechanism against TGF-β1 stimulated fibrogenesis. Our results showed that the core protein of NIPP-1 peptide prevented fibril formation of type I collagen, elevated the MMP level and inhibited TIMP production in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of NIPP-1 and NIPP-2 on TGF-β1 induced LX-2 cells alleviated hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, α-SMA, TIMPs, collagen and PDGF in the NIPP-1 treated groups were significantly decreased. Therefore, it could be suggested that NIPP-1 has potential to be used in anti-fibrosis treatment. PMID:24471121

  19. Role of interleukin-1 and its antagonism of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and liver fibrosis in the Abcb4-/- mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Florian P; Wimmer, Ralf; Wottke, Lena; Artmann, Renate; Nagel, Jutta M; Carranza, Manuel O; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Fickert, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Gerbes, Alexander L; Hohenester, Simon; Denk, Gerald U

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway as a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis in vitro and in vivo using the ATP-binding cassette transporter b4-/- (Abcb4-/-) mouse model. METHODS: Female and male Abcb4-/- mice from 6 to 13 mo of age were analysed for the degree of cholestasis (liver serum tests), extent of liver fibrosis (hydroxyproline content and Sirius red staining) and tissue-specific activation of signalling pathways such as the IL-1 pathway [quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]. For in vivo experiments, murine hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated via pronase-collagenase perfusion followed by density gradient centrifugation using female mice. Murine HSCs were stimulated with up to 1 ng/mL IL-1β with or without 2.5 μg/mL Anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, respectively. The proliferation of murine HSCs was assessed via the BrdU assay. The toxicity of Anakinra was evaluated via the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDH) assay. In vivo 8-wk-old Abcb4-/- mice with an already fully established hepatic phenotype were treated with Anakinra (1 mg/kg body-weight daily intraperitoneally) or vehicle and liver injury and liver fibrosis were evaluated via serum tests, qPCR, hydroxyproline content and Sirius red staining. RESULTS: Liver fibrosis was less pronounced in males than in female Abcb4-/- animals as defined by a lower hydroxyproline content (274 ± 64 μg/g vs 436 ± 80 μg/g liver, respectively; n = 13-15; P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U-test) and lower mRNA expression of the profibrogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP) (1 ± 0.41 vs 0.66 ± 0.33 fold, respectively; n = 13-15; P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). Reduced liver fibrosis was associated with significantly lower levels of F4/80 mRNA expression (1 ± 0.28 vs 0.71 ± 0.41 fold, respectively; n = 12-15; P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test) and significantly lower IL-1β mRNA expression levels (1 ± 0.38 vs 0.44 ± 0.26 fold, respectively; n = 13-15; P < 0.001; Mann

  20. Male susceptibility to hepatic damage in acute uremia in rats.

    PubMed

    Golab, Fereshteh; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Xu, Jie; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the role of gender in hepatic oxidative stress response and production of inflammatory cytokines in acute uremia after bilateral nephrectomy. Published studies indicate that the severity of tissue damage in kidney, brain, or heart injury may differ according to gender. We recently demonstrated that acute renal failure after kidney injury or bilateral nephrectomy activates oxidative stress and causes damage to the liver. Male and female rats were subjected to bilateral nephrectomy and euthanized four hours later. Serum and liver tissues were collected and analyzed. To ascertain the role of testosterone and estrogen in hepatic oxidative stress, castration was carried out 15 days before bilateral nephrectomy. In some groups, animals were administrated 17-β-estradiol or vehicle for 2 weeks before bilateral nephrectomy. Hepatic oxidative stress was significantly pronounced in male rats as determined by increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decrease in total glutathione (GSH) contents. An increase in proinflammatory cytokine concentration was seen in male rats, whereas the antiinflammatory cytokine level was more elevated in females. Castration reduced hepatic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine concentration, whereas exogenous estradiol after castration did not have an additional effect on these parameters. There is a gender difference with regard to the severity of hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory response in acute uremia after bilateral nephrectomy, with female rats displaying significant protection relative to male rats. We suggest that sex hormones could play an important role in the severity of remote tissue damage in acute kidney failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Haiyan; Yamamoto, Naoki; Uchida, Koichi; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2007-12-28

    Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Telmisartan (Tel) is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro. In vivo study, we used the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet induced rat NASH model. The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel prevented liver fibrogenesis and pre-neoplastic lesions by down-regulating TGF{beta}1 and TIMP-1, 2 and increasing MMP-13 expression. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. These results suggested that Tel could be a promising drug for NASH related liver fibrosis.

  2. Foetal programming by methyl donor deficiency produces steato-hepatitis in rats exposed to high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Bison, Anaïs; Marchal-Bressenot, Aude; Li, Zhen; Elamouri, Ilef; Feigerlova, Eva; Peng, Lu; Houlgatte, Remi; Beck, Bernard; Pourié, Gregory; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Umoret, Remy; Conroy, Guillaume; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria

    2016-11-17

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which emerges as a major public health problem. Deficiency in methyl donors (folate and vitamin B12) during gestation and lactation is frequent in humans and produces foetal programming effects of metabolic syndrome, with small birth weight and liver steatosis at day 21 (d21), in rat pups. We investigated the effects of fetal programming on liver of rats born from deficient mothers (iMDD) and subsequently subjected to normal diet after d21 and high fat diet (HF) after d50. We observed increased abdominal fat, ASAT/ALAT ratio and angiotensin blood level, but no histological liver abnormality in d50 iMDD rats. In contrast, d185 iMDD/HF animals had hallmarks of steato-hepatitis, with increased markers of inflammation and fibrosis (caspase1, cleaved IL-1β, α1(I) and α2(I) collagens and α-SMA), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and Glut 2) and expression of genes involved in stellate cell stimulation and remodelling and key genes triggering NASH pathomechanisms (transforming growth factor beta super family, angiotensin and angiotensin receptor type 1). Our data showed a foetal programming effect of MDD on liver inflammation and fibrosis, which suggests investigating whether MDD during pregnancy is a risk factor of NASH in populations subsequently exposed to HF diet.

  3. Foetal programming by methyl donor deficiency produces steato-hepatitis in rats exposed to high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Bison, Anaïs; Marchal-Bressenot, Aude; Li, Zhen; Elamouri, Ilef; Feigerlova, Eva; Peng, Lu; Houlgatte, Remi; Beck, Bernard; Pourié, Gregory; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Umoret, Remy; Conroy, Guillaume; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which emerges as a major public health problem. Deficiency in methyl donors (folate and vitamin B12) during gestation and lactation is frequent in humans and produces foetal programming effects of metabolic syndrome, with small birth weight and liver steatosis at day 21 (d21), in rat pups. We investigated the effects of fetal programming on liver of rats born from deficient mothers (iMDD) and subsequently subjected to normal diet after d21 and high fat diet (HF) after d50. We observed increased abdominal fat, ASAT/ALAT ratio and angiotensin blood level, but no histological liver abnormality in d50 iMDD rats. In contrast, d185 iMDD/HF animals had hallmarks of steato-hepatitis, with increased markers of inflammation and fibrosis (caspase1, cleaved IL-1β, α1(I) and α2(I) collagens and α-SMA), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and Glut 2) and expression of genes involved in stellate cell stimulation and remodelling and key genes triggering NASH pathomechanisms (transforming growth factor beta super family, angiotensin and angiotensin receptor type 1). Our data showed a foetal programming effect of MDD on liver inflammation and fibrosis, which suggests investigating whether MDD during pregnancy is a risk factor of NASH in populations subsequently exposed to HF diet. PMID:27853271

  4. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in wild rats, United States.

    PubMed

    Lack, Justin B; Volk, Kylie; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A

    2012-08-01

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been a subject of considerable debate. Seroprevalence studies suggest widespread HEV infection in commensal Rattus spp. rats, but experimental transmission has been largely unsuccessful and recovery of zoonotic genotype 3 HEV RNA from wild Rattus spp. rats has never been confirmed. We surveyed R. rattus and R. norvegicus rats from across the United States and several international populations by using a hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR approach. We isolated HEV RNA in liver tissues from 35 of 446 rats examined. All but 1 of these isolates was relegated to the zoonotic HEV genotype 3, and the remaining sequence represented the recently discovered rat genotype from the United States and Germany. HEV-positive rats were detected in urban and remote localities. Genetic analyses suggest all HEV genotype 3 isolates obtained from wild Rattus spp. rats were closely related.

  5. Vitamin D ameliorates hepatic ischemic/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Seif, Ansam Aly; Abdelwahed, Doaa Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin D, most commonly associated with the growth and remodeling of bone, has been shown to ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in some tissues, yet its underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the protective effect of vitamin D, if any, against hepatic IRI in rats and the underlying mechanism involved. Adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, sham-operated (sham), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and ischemic-reperfused vitamin D-treated (vit D) groups. Rats in the I/R and vit D groups were subjected to partial (70%) hepatic ischemia for 45 min, followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Vitamin D was given to rats orally in a dose of 500 IU/kg daily for 2 weeks before being subjected to I/R. Markers of liver damage, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were evaluated. Hepatic morphology was also examined. Vit D-treated rats had significantly lower serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ glutamyl transferase compared to rats in the I/R group. Also, vit D-treated rats showed a significant decrease in malondialdehyde, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor κB, B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2-associated X protein, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 levels, with higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and B cell lymphoma 2 protein levels in liver tissues compared to I/R rats. Histological examination showed less damaged liver tissues with amelioration of apoptotic signs in the vit D group compared to the I/R group. In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation ameliorates hepatic IRI mostly by alleviating the inflammatory-apoptotic response mediated by the oxidative reperfusion injury insult.

  6. Nrf2 pathway activation contributes to anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in a rat model of alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ping; Gao, Yan; Chu, Shi-feng; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Cong-yuan; Mou, Zheng; Song, Xiu-yun; He, Wen-bin; Guo, Xiao-feng; Chen, Nai-hong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and to explore the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Rats were given 6% alcohol in water and injected with CCl4 (2 mL/kg, sc) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rg1 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, po) was administered in the last 2 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was determined by measuring serum biochemical parameters, HE staining, Masson's trichromic staining, and hydroxyproline and α-SMA immunohistochemical staining of liver tissues. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, Ho-1 and Nqo1) in liver tissues were analyzed. Cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of rats were prepared for in vitro studies. Results: In the alcohol- and CCl4-treated rats, Rg1 administration dose-dependently suppressed the marked increases of serum ALT, AST, LDH and ALP levels, inhibited liver inflammation and HSC activation and reduced liver fibrosis scores. Rg1 significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) and reduced MDA levels in liver tissues. Furthermore, Rg1 significantly increased the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 that regulated the expression of many antioxidant enzymes. Treatment of the cultured HSCs with Rg1 (1 μmol/L) induced Nrf2 translocation, and suppressed CCl4-induced cell proliferation, reversed CCl4- induced changes in MDA, GPX, PCIII and HA contents in the supernatant fluid and α-SMA expression in the cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 gene diminished these actions of Rg1 in CCl4-treated HSCs in vitro. Conclusion: Rg1 exerts protective effects in a rat model of alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis via promoting the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and expression of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24976156

  7. Immunohistochemistry of connexin 43 throughout anterior pituitary gland in a transgenic rat with green fluorescent protein-expressing folliculo-stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kouki, Tom; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2008-12-01

    Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland have been speculated to possess multifunctional properties. Because gap junctions (GJ) have been identified between FS cells, FS cells may be interconnected electrophysiologically by GJ and serve as signal transmission networks to modulate hormone release in the anterior pituitary gland. But whether GJ are localized among FS cells from the pars tuberalis through the pars distalis is unclear. The S100b-GFP transgenic rat has recently been generated, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary. This model is expected to be a powerful tool for studies of FS cells. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to examine the localization of GJ on connexin 43 immunohistochemistry throughout the anterior pituitary gland of S100b-GFP rats under confocal laser microscopy. The localization patterns of FS cells was also observed in primary culture of anterior pituitary cells and the question of whether GJ between FS cells are reconstructed in vitro was investigated. In vivo studies showed that GJ were present specifically between FS cells from the pars tuberalis to the pars distalis in the anterior pituitary gland. The appearance of FS cells was distinguished into two types, with localization of GJ differing between types. In vitro, it was observed for the first time that FS cells in primary culture could be categorized into two types. In vivo localization of GJ between FS cells was reconstructed in vitro. These morphological observations are consistent with the hypothesis that FS cells form an electrophysiological network throughout the anterior pituitary for signal transmission.

  8. Thrombopoietin is a growth factor for rat hepatic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Eva; Deiwick, Andrea; Bruns, Helge; Fiegel, Henning C; Bader, Augustinus

    2008-03-01

    The liver is the primary site of hematopoiesis during fetal development; it has been shown that thrombopoietin (TPO) produced by the liver during fetal development is a major regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis. As maximum liver growth and hematopoiesis occur simultaneously, we hypothesized that TPO may act as a growth factor fo