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Sample records for rat lung tumours

  1. Radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours

    PubMed Central

    Goh, PYT

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established local therapy for hepatic malignancies. It is rapidly emerging as an effective treatment modality for small lesions elsewhere in the body, in particular, the kidney and the lung. It is a relatively safe and minimally invasive treatment for small lung malignancies, both primary and secondary. In particular, it is the preferred form of treatment for non-surgical candidates. This paper describes the technique employed for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours, as well as the protocol established, at the Mount Elizabeth Hospital, Singapore. PMID:21614247

  2. Cartilage-containing tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Eric M.

    1967-01-01

    An unusual case is reported of a woman aged 27 years who presented with four intrapulmonary cartilage-containing tumours which were resected from the left lung. The appearance of two new shadows in the chest several years later suggested that two of the resected tumours had recurred. Three of the four resected tumours consisted entirely of cartilage and bone and other connective tissues. The fourth tumour, although consisting almost entirely of cartilage and connective tissue, also contained epithelial tissue in the form of two small clefts, one in the periphery and the other in a connective tissue septum between the lobules of cartilage of the tumour. These tumours are regarded as a variation of the more typical cartilage-containing tumour of the lung which contains many spaces lined by respiratory epithelium and is regarded as a neoplasm arising in the connective tissue beneath the mucosa of a small bronchus with subsequent expansion into its lumen and enclosing spaces lined by the mucosal epithelium during its eccentric growth. The tumours consisting almost entirely of cartilage without spaces lined by epithelial cells are thought to expand into the adjacent lung tissue and not into the bronchial lumen. Therefore there is no inclusion of respiratory epithelium from the mucosa of the bronchus of origin. Images PMID:6033393

  3. Aerosolised 5-azacytidine suppresses tumour growth and reprogrammes the epigenome in an orthotopic lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M D; Tellez, C S; Grimes, M J; Picchi, M A; Tessema, M; Cheng, Y S; March, T H; Kuehl, P J; Belinsky, S A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epigenetic silencing by promoter methylation and chromatin remodelling affects hundreds of genes and is a causal event for lung cancer. Treatment of patients with low doses of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat has yielded clinical responses. The subcutaneous dosing route for consecutive days and reduced bioavailability of 5-azacytidine because of inactivation by cytidine deaminase may limit the expansion of epigenetic therapy into Phase III trials. To mitigate these barriers, an aerosol of 5-azacytidine was generated and characterised. Methods: The effect of aerosol vs systemic delivery of 5-azacytidine on tumour burden and molecular response of engrafted lung tumours in the nude rat was compared. Results: Pharmacokinetics revealed major improvement in the half-life of 5-azacytidine in lung tissue with aerosol delivery. Aerosolised 5-azacytidine significantly reduced lung tumour burden and induced global demethylation of the epigenome at one-third of the comparable effective systemic dose. High commonality for demethylation of genes was seen in tumours sampled throughout lung lobes and across treated animals receiving the aerosolised drug. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings show that aerosolised 5-azacytidine targets the lung, effectively reprogrammes the epigenome of tumours, and is a promising approach to combine with other drugs for treating lung cancer. PMID:24045660

  4. Disseminated solitary fibrous tumour of the lung and pleura.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjit Kumar; Thangakunam, Balamugesh; Isaac, Barney Thomas Jesudason; Gupta, Ashumi

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are a heterogeneous group of rare spindle-cell tumours. Classically they presented as a solitary pleural-based mass. Pulmonary parenchymal SFT is rare and multiple bilateral lesions are extremely rare. We present the clinical, imaging and histological features of SFT which are presented as multiple nodular lesions of the lung and pleura with probable distant metastasis.

  5. Pharmacological inhibition of caspase-8 limits lung tumour outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Terlizzi, Michela; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo Giuseppe; Perillo, Giuseppe; Galderisi, Antonio; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Rosalinda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Despite advances in therapy, conventional therapy is still the main treatment and has a high risk of chemotherapy resistance. Caspase-8 is involved in cell death and is a recognized marker for poor patient prognosis. Experimental Approach To elucidate the role of caspase-8 in lung carcinoma, we used human samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a mouse model of carcinogen-induced lung cancer. Key Results Healthy and cancerous NSCLC samples had similar levels of the active form of caspase-8. Similarly, lung tumour-bearing mice had high levels of the active form of caspase-8. Pharmacological inhibition of caspase-8 by z-IETD-FMK robustly reduced tumour outgrowth and this was closely associated with a reduction in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, IL-1α, IL-33, but not IL-1β. Furthermore, inhibition of caspase-8 reduced the recruitment of innate suppressive cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, but not of regulatory T cells to lungs of tumour-bearing mice. However, despite the well-known role of caspase-8 in cell death, the apoptotic cascade (caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bcl-2 dependent) was not active in lungs of z-IETD-treated tumour-bearing mice, but instead higher levels of the short segment of c-FLIP (c-FLIPs) were detected. Similarly, human healthy lung samples had higher levels of c-FLIPs than cancerous samples. Conclusions and Implications Our data suggest that caspase-8 is an important orchestrator of cancer-associated inflammation and the presence of short segment of c-FLIP determines whether caspase-8 induces tumour proliferation or tumour arrest/regression in the lung. PMID:25917370

  6. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  7. Interobserver delineation variation in lung tumour stereotactic body radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Persson, G F; Nygaard, D E; Hollensen, C; Munck af Rosenschöld, P; Mouritsen, L S; Due, A K; Berthelsen, A K; Nyman, J; Markova, E; Roed, A P; Roed, H; Korreman, S; Specht, L

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In radiotherapy, delineation uncertainties are important as they contribute to systematic errors and can lead to geographical miss of the target. For margin computation, standard deviations (SDs) of all uncertainties must be included as SDs. The aim of this study was to quantify the interobserver delineation variation for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of peripheral lung tumours using a cross-sectional study design. Methods 22 consecutive patients with 26 tumours were included. Positron emission tomography/CT scans were acquired for planning of SBRT. Three oncologists and three radiologists independently delineated the gross tumour volume. The interobserver variation was calculated as a mean of multiple SDs of distances to a reference contour, and calculated for the transversal plane (SDtrans) and craniocaudal (CC) direction (SDcc) separately. Concordance indexes and volume deviations were also calculated. Results Median tumour volume was 13.0 cm3, ranging from 0.3 to 60.4 cm3. The mean SDtrans was 0.15 cm (SD 0.08 cm) and the overall mean SDcc was 0.26 cm (SD 0.15 cm). Tumours with pleural contact had a significantly larger SDtrans than tumours surrounded by lung tissue. Conclusions The interobserver delineation variation was very small in this systematic cross-sectional analysis, although significantly larger in the CC direction than in the transversal plane, stressing that anisotropic margins should be applied. This study is the first to make a systematic cross-sectional analysis of delineation variation for peripheral lung tumours referred for SBRT, establishing the evidence that interobserver variation is very small for these tumours. PMID:22919015

  8. Human Peripheral Lung Tumours: Light and Electron Microscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Franco; Canese, Maria G.; Campobasso, Onofrio

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen human peripheral lung tumours have been studied in both light and electron microscopy. They were classified as epidermoid carcinoma, mucus-secreting cell adenocarcinoma, and alveolar cell adenocarcinoma, the latter made up of granular pneumocytes. Alveolar cell cancer, as defined by ultrastructural features, could assume different gross histological patterns in light microscopy, and therefore electron microscopy is required for its identification. Since neither squamous nor mucous metaplasia was observed in any alveolar cell tumour, it is tentatively suggested that all peripheral lung tumours which lack these features may be derived from granular pneumocytes, irrespective of whether they appear to be adenocarcinomata or large cell carcinomata when examined by light microscopy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:4348471

  9. Towards fluoroscopic respiratory gating for lung tumours without radiopaque markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbeco, Ross I.; Mostafavi, Hassan; Sharp, Gregory C.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2005-10-01

    Due to the risk of pneumothorax, many clinicians are reluctant to implant radiopaque markers within patients' lungs for the purpose of radiographic or fluoroscopic tumour localization. We propose a method of gated therapy using fluoroscopic information without the implantation of radiopaque markers. The method presented here does not rely on any external motion signal either. Breathing phase information is found by analysing the fluoroscopic intensity fluctuations in the lung. As the lungs fill/empty, the radiological pathlength through them shortens/lengthens, giving brighter/darker fluoroscopic intensities. The phase information is combined with motion-enhanced template matching to turn the beam on when the tumour is in the desired location. A study based on patient data is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this procedure. The resulting beam-on pattern is similar to that produced by an external gating system. The only discrepancies occur briefly and at the gate edges.

  10. Albumin Metabolism in Rabbits and Rats with Transplanted Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wraight, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Albumin distributions and turnover rates have been studied using 131I labelled tracer material in rabbits with Vx2 carcinoma and rats bearing SP7 fibrosarcoma in comparison with control animals. Albumin concentrations were reduced in the tumour bearing animals but plasma volumes increased as the tumours developed. Relative increases were seen in the extravascular distribution of albumin, due partly to albumin pooling in and around the tumours and possibly also to general increases in capillary permeability. In the rats there was a considerable increase in the catabolic rate of albumin which was not related to urinary protein loss. The tumour bearing rabbits showed evidence both of increased catabolism and of decreased synthesis and the combination of the two effects resulted in a greater lowering of albumin concentration than was seen in the rats. Possible mechanisms for these findings and their significance in human malignant disease are discussed. PMID:5115834

  11. Low p53 protein expression in salivary gland tumours compared with lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Kamel, D; Nuorva, K; Lane, D P; Vähäkangas, K; Pääkkö, P

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-one salivary gland tumours (23 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 Warthin's tumours, 12 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 7 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 3 undifferentiated carcinomas and 1 acinic cell tumour) and 27 lung carcinomas (18 squamous cell carcinomas) were analysed immunohistochemically for the expression of p53 nuclear phosphoprotein. Eight out of 51 (16%) salivary gland tumours were p53 positive. Three of these were benign and 5 malignant. All 3 benign salivary gland tumours were pleomorphic adenomas and expressed only occasional nuclear positivity with less than 1% of tumour cells positive. Of the 5 p53-positive malignant tumours, 3 were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 2 undifferentiated carcinomas. The malignant salivary gland tumours expressed more than 1% of positive nuclei in every case. Seventeen lung carcinomas were p53 positive (63%). Thirteen of these were squamous cell carcinomas, 3 were adenocarcinomas and 1 small cell lung carcinoma. The results show that mutations of the p53 gene may be infrequent in salivary gland tumours when compared with lung carcinomas. The relatively indolent course of some histological types of malignant salivary gland tumours could be associated with the preservation of the non-mutated p53 gene in most of these tumours. The presence of p53 positivity in some pleomorphic adenomas might, on one hand, suggest that p53 gene alterations are also present in these tumours; on the other hand, the accumulation of the p53 protein in these tumours might also be due to some unknown mechanism, not necessarily related to p53 gene mutation.

  12. Spectral and lifetime domain measurements of rat brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abi Haidar, D.; Leh, B.; Allaoua, K.; Genoux, A.; Siebert, R.; Steffenhagen, M.; Peyrot, D.; Sandeau, N.; Vever-Bizet, C.; Bourg-Heckly, G.; Chebbi, I.; Collado-Hilly, M.

    2012-02-01

    During glioblastoma surgery, delineation of the brain tumour margins remains difficult especially since infiltrated and normal tissues have the same visual appearance. This problematic constitutes our research interest. We developed a fibre-optical fluorescence probe for spectroscopic and time domain measurements. First measurements of endogenous tissue fluorescence were performed on fresh and fixed rat tumour brain slices. Spectral characteristics, fluorescence redox ratios and fluorescence lifetime measurements were analysed. Fluorescence information collected from both, lifetime and spectroscopic experiments, appeared promising for tumour tissue discrimination. Two photon measurements were performed on the same fixed tissue. Different wavelengths are used to acquire two-photon excitation-fluorescence of tumorous and healthy sites.

  13. Endogenous pacemaker activity of rat tumour somatotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecien, Renata; Robert, Christophe; Cannon, Robert; Vigues, Stephan; Arnoux, Annie; Kordon, Claude; Hammond, Constance

    1998-01-01

    Cells derived from a rat pituitary tumour (GC cell line) that continuously release growth hormone behave as endogenous pacemakers. In simultaneous patch clamp recordings and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) imaging, they displayed rhythmic action potentials (44.7 ± 2.7 mV, 178 ± 40 ms, 0.30 ± 0.04 Hz) and concomitant [Ca2+]i transients (374 ± 57 nM, 1.0 ± 0.2 s, 0.27 ± 0.03 Hz). Action potentials and [Ca2+]i transients were reversibly blocked by removal of external Ca2+, addition of nifedipine (1 μM) or Ni2+ (40 μM), but were insensitive to TTX (1 μM). An L-type Ca2+ current activated at -33.6 ± 0.4 mV (holding potential (Vh), −40 mV), peaked at -1.8 ± 1.3 mV, was reduced by nifedipine and enhanced by S-(+)-SDZ 202 791. A T/R-type Ca2+ current activated at -41.7 ± 2.7 mV (Vh, -80 or -60 mV), peaked at -9.2 ± 3.0 mV, was reduced by low concentrations of Ni2+ (40 μM) or Cd2+ (10 μM) and was toxin resistant. Parallel experiments revealed the expression of the class E calcium channel α1-subunit mRNA. The K+ channel blockers TEA (25 mM) and charybdotoxin (10–100 nM) enhanced spike amplitude and/or duration. Apamin (100 nM) also strongly reduced the after-spike hyperpolarization. The outward K+ tail current evoked by a depolarizing step that mimicked an action potential reversed at −69.8 ± 0.3 mV, presented two components, lasted 2–3 s and was totally blocked by Cd2+ (400 μM). The slow pacemaker depolarization (3.5 ± 0.4 s) that separated consecutive spikes corresponded to a 2- to 3-fold increase in membrane resistance, was strongly Na+ sensitive but TTX insensitive. Computer simulations showed that pacemaker activity can be reproduced by a minimum of six currents: an L-type Ca2+ current underlies the rising phase of action potentials that are repolarized by a delayed rectifier and Ca2+-activated K+ currents. In between spikes, the decay of Ca2+-activated K+ currents and a persistent inward cationic current depolarize the membrane

  14. TMEM196 acts as a novel functional tumour suppressor inactivated by DNA methylation and is a potential prognostic biomarker in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-bin; Han, Fei; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Hong-qiang; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Yong; Li, Yong-hong; Huang, Chuanshu; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jin-yi

    2015-08-28

    Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressors contributes to the development and progression of lung cancer. We recently found that TMEM196 was hypermethylated in lung cancer. This study aimed to clarify its epigenetic regulation, possible roles and clinical significance. TMEM196 methylation correlated with loss of protein expression in chemical-induced rat lung pathologic lesions and human lung cancer tissues and cell lines. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored TMEM196 expression. Moreover, TMEM196 hypermethylation was detected in 61.2% of primary lung tumours and found to be associated with poor differentiation and pathological stage of lung cancer. Functional studies showed that ectopic re-expression of TMEM196 in lung cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity, cell motility and tumour formation. However, TMEM196 knockdown increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. These effects were associated with upregulation of p21 and Bax, and downregulation of cyclin D1, c-myc, CD44 and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that TMEM196 downregulation was significantly associated with shortened survival in lung cancer patients. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with TMEM196 expression had a better overall survival. Our results revealed for the first time that TMEM196 acts as a novel functional tumour suppressor inactivated by DNA methylation and is an independent prognostic factor of lung cancer. PMID:26056045

  15. A soft agar colony assay for Lewis lung tumour and B16 melanoma taken directly from the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Courtenay, V. D.

    1976-01-01

    A soft agar colony assay has been developed for the B16 mouse melanoma and the Lewis lung tumour. The special features of the technique are the use of a gas phase with 5% O2 instead of air and the addition of rat red blood cells. Single cell suspensions are prepared by trypsinization from the solid tumour and the cells are plated out in 0-3% agar over a layer of 0-5% agar in 30-mm Petri dishes. After 8 to 15 days' incubation in 5% O2, colonies of more than 50 cells are produced. Plating efficiencies of between 30 and 50% are usually obtained. The addition of up to 10(4) heavily irradiated tumour cells gives some further improvement in plating efficiency for the B16 melanoma but not for the Lewis lung tumour. Applications of the technique to measure cell survival in the two tumours after treatment with cytotoxic drugs and radiation are reported. The scatter of experimental points is relatively small, and in comparative experiments good agreement has been obtained with results using in vivo assay techniques. PMID:782495

  16. Pharmacological interference with tissue hypercatabolism in tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, L; Costelli, P; Baccino, F M

    1994-01-01

    Marked loss of body weight and profound waste of both skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue occur in rats into which the ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 has been transplanted, associated with marked perturbations in the hormonal homoeostasis and the presence of circulating tumour necrosis factor and high plasma levels of prostaglandin E2 [Tessitore, Costelli and Baccino (1993) Br. J. Cancer 67, 15-23]. On the basis of previous findings, the present study examined whether the development of cachexia in this model system could be significantly affected by adrenalectomy or by pharmacological treatments that may interfere with proximal or distal mediators of tissue hypercatabolism. In no instance was tumour growth modified. Medroxyprogesterone acetate, an anabolic-hormone-like drug, was completely ineffective. In adrenalectomized animals, although changes such as the elevation of plasma triacylglycerols and corticosterone were corrected, the general course of cachexia was not modified. A partial prevention of muscle waste was observed with acetylsalicylic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or with leupeptin, a proteinase inhibitor. Insulin afforded the most significant preservation of muscle protein and adipose-tissue mass, which were maintained close to control values even 10 days after transplantation. The effects of insulin on gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein content were exerted by slowing down protein turnover, mainly enhancing synthesis. Consistently, the total free amino acid concentration in the gastrocnemius of insulin-treated rats 10 days after tumour transplantation was close to that of controls. Although treatment with insulin decreased plasma corticosterone to normal values, it did not modify the circulating level of tumour necrosis factor. On the whole these data show that it seems possible to prevent, at least in part, the tissue waste that characterizes cancer cachexia by purely pharmacological means. PMID:8166661

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumours with the Patient Under Thoracic Epidural Anaesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pouliquen, Cassiopee; Kabbani, Youssef Saignac, Pierre; Gekiere, Jean-Pierre; Palussiere, Jean

    2011-02-15

    Radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours is a curative technique that is newly considered being offered to nonsurgical patients. It is of major interest because it enables local destruction of the tumour without surgery and spares healthy parenchyma. However, some patients have previous serious respiratory failure, thus ruling out mechanical ventilation. To operate with the patient under thoracic epidural is an answer to this problem. Our experience shows that the procedure is able to be performed completely without converting to general anaesthesia.

  18. Tumour volume changes assessed with high-quality KVCT in lung cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y H; Lee, H C; Lee, S W; Kang, Y N; Kang, J H; Hong, S H; Kim, S J; Ahn, M I; Han, D H; Yoo, I R; Park, J G; Sung, S W; Lee, K Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated tumour volume changes in patients with lung cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy using image-guided radiotherapy (RT). Methods: The kilovoltage image was obtained using CT on rail at every five fractions. The gross tumour volumes (GTVs), including the primary tumour and lymph nodes (LNs), were contoured to analyse the time and degree of tumour regression. Results: 46 patients [32, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 14, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC)] were included in this study. In total, 281 CT scans and 82 sites of GTVs were evaluated. Significant volume changes occurred in both the NSCLC and SCLC groups (p < 0.001 and 0.002), and the average GTV change compared with baseline was 49.85 ± 3.65 [standard error (SE)]% and 65.95 ± 4.60 (SE)% for the NSCLC and SCLC groups, respectively. A significant difference in the degree of volume reduction between the primary tumour and LNs was observed in only the NSCLC group (p < 0.0001) but not in the SCLC group (p = 0.735). The greatest volume regression compared with the volume before the five fractions occurred between the 15 and 20 fractions in the NSCLC group and between the 5 and 10 fractions in the SCLC group. Conclusion: Both primary tumour and LNs were well defined using CT on rail. Significant volume changes occurred during RT, and there was a difference in volume reduction between the NSCLC and SCLC groups, regarding the degree and timing of the tumour reduction in the primary tumour and LNs. Advances in knowledge: NSCLC and SCLC groups showed differences in the degree and timing of volume reduction. The primary tumour and LNs in NSCLC regressed differently. PMID:26055505

  19. Correlation between size and external temperature in four rat tumours after treatment with cytostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Nickers, P; Oosters, L; Brasseur, F; Kunkler, I; Maisin, H; Deckers, C

    1988-01-01

    The reduction in size of four experimental tumours (ISIS 130 and ISIS 208 immunocytomas, S 437 mammary adenocarcinoma, S 447 colon adenocarcinoma) was investigated in LOU rats under the influence of cytostatic agents belonging to different classes (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, vinblastine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide). External tumour and rectal temperatures were measured at the same time, twice daily, during the whole experiment. With the rectal temperature of the rats kept constant, the reduction in tumour dimensions following chemotherapy correlated via a linear relationship with the duration and degree of tumour hypothermia for the three tumours S 437, ISIS 208, ISIS 130. However, for the same reduction in tumour volume following chemotherapy, the duration and degree of transient tumour hypothermia varied according to the type of tumour and cytostatic agent studied. There was not correlation between the decrease in size of S 447 and external tumour hypothermia. Even when the reduction in tumour size was statistically significant, the hypothermic tumour phase after drug administration was not sufficient to be significant, except for vinblastine. However, the temperature of this slowly growing tumour before chemotherapy was particularly low. The measurement of the degree and duration of external tumour hypothermia of tumours following chemotherapy would represent a new physiological technique for measuring the efficacy and duration of action of cytostatic agents.

  20. Intra-tumour signalling entropy determines clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Christopher R S; Severini, Simone; Caldas, Carlos; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2015-03-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample's genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers.

  1. Intra-Tumour Signalling Entropy Determines Clinical Outcome in Breast and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Severini, Simone; Caldas, Carlos; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample’s genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers. PMID:25793737

  2. Circulating tumour cells and lung microvascular tumour cell retention in patients with metastatic breast and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Dieter J E; Brouwer, Anja; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Rutten, Annemie; Onstenk, Wendy; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Van Laere, Steven J; Huget, Philippe; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Vermeulen, Peter B; Dirix, Luc Y

    2015-01-28

    We have shown that in up to half of the patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), higher numbers of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are present in the central venous blood (CVB) compared to the peripheral venous blood (PVB), suggesting that the lungs might retain a substantial number of CTCs. Here we report the presence of tumour cell emboli (TCE) in the microvasculature of the lungs in three out of eight patients with MBC and one patient with metastatic cervical carcinoma who had markedly elevated numbers of CTCs in the blood. All these patients suffered from symptomatic dyspnoea not easily attributable to other causes. No TCE were observed in five patients with MBC and elevated CTC counts and three patients with MBC who had low CTC counts (<5/7.5 ml). To investigate whether CTCs derived from CVB or PVB exhibit different transcriptional characteristics that might explain selective CTC retention, paired CTC samples from CVB and PVB of 12 patients with advanced breast cancer were subjected to gene expression analysis of 105 genes. No significant differences in CTC gene expression were observed. Together, these data suggest that potentially clinically relevant CTC retention in the microvasculature of the lung can occur in a subset of patients with advanced metastatic breast and cervical cancer, which seems to be transcriptionally non-selectively.

  3. DT-diaphorase and cytochrome B5 reductase in human lung and breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Marín, A.; López de Cerain, A.; Hamilton, E.; Lewis, A. D.; Martinez-Peñuela, J. M.; Idoate, M. A.; Bello, J.

    1997-01-01

    The level of expression of enzymes that can activate or detoxify bioreductive agents within tumours has emerged as an important feature in the development of these anti-tumour compounds. The levels of two such reductase enzymes have been determined in 19 human non-small-cell lung tumours and 20 human breast tumours, together with the corresponding normal tissue. DT-diaphorase (DTD) enzyme levels (both expression and activity) were determined in these samples. Cytochrome b5 reductase (Cytb5R) activity was also assessed. With the exception of six patients, the levels of DTD activity were below 45 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) in the normal tissues assayed. DTD tumour activity was extremely variable, distinguishing two different groups of patients, one with DTD activity above 79 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) and the other with levels that were in the same range as found for the normal tissues. In 53% of the lung tumour samples, DTD activity was increased with respect to the normal tissue by a factor of 2.4-90.3 (range 79-965 nmol min[-1] mg[-1]). In 70% of the breast tumour samples, DTD activity was over 80 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) (range 83-267 nmol min[-1] mg[-1]). DTD expression measured by Western blot correlated well with the enzyme activity measured in both tumour and normal tissues. The levels of the other reductase enzyme, Cytb5R, were not as variable as those for DTD, being in the same range in both tumour and normal tissue or slightly higher in the normal tissues. The heterogeneous nature of DTD activity and expression reinforces the need to measure enzyme levels in individual patients before therapy with DTD-activated bioreductive drugs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9328153

  4. Frequent loss of Fas expression and function in human lung tumours with overexpression of FasL in small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viard-Leveugle, Isabelle; Veyrenc, Sylvie; French, Lars E; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth

    2003-10-01

    Fas (CD95) and its ligand FasL signal apoptosis and are involved in tissue homeostasis and the elimination of target cells by cytotoxic T cells. Corruption of this signalling pathway in tumour cells, for example by reduced Fas expression or increased FasL expression, can participate in tumour development and immune escape. The present study has analysed Fas/FasL expression and Fas death signalling function in vivo in lung tumour tissues [57 non-small cell lung carcinomas and 64 neuroendocrine lung tumours including small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)] in comparison with normal lung tissue, and in vitro in neuroendocrine tumour cell lines in comparison with normal human bronchial epithelial cells. The Fas expression score was markedly decreased compared with normal lung tissue in 90% of the 121 lung tumours and was completely lost in 24%. The Fas staining pattern suggested cytoplasmic Fas expression in tumours, whereas membrane expression was observed in normal lung tissue. Loss of Fas at the cell surface was also shown in vitro by FACS analysis of neuroendocrine tumour cell lines and was concomitant with the resistance of tumour cells to FasL-mediated apoptosis according to in vitro cell viability. The lack of cell surface Fas expression in tumour cell lines resulted from the lack of intracellular Fas protein due to impaired Fas gene transcription. The FasL expression score was also decreased in most non-small cell lung carcinomas compared with normal bronchial cells, whereas 91% of SCLCs had higher expression than normal cells. FasL overexpression was related to advanced tumour stage as well as to a Fas/FasL ratio less than 1. It is concluded that a marked decrease in Fas expression may be part of lung tumourigenesis allowing tumour cells to escape from apoptosis. FasL overexpression in the context of Fas down-regulation in SCLC predicts the ability of SCLC cells to induce paracrine killing of Fas-expressing cytotoxic T cells. In lung tumours, Fas restoration may

  5. Liver tumour-promoting effects of oxfendazole in rats.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, K; Onodera, H; Shoda, T; Uneyama, C; Imazawa, T; Takegawa, K; Yasuhara, K; Watanabe, T; Takahashi, M

    1997-08-01

    To examine whether oxfendazole has tumour-promoting activity, a total of 100 male Fisher 344 rats were initiated with a single ip injection of 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or given saline vehicle alone and starting 1 wk later given diet containing 500, 250, 100, 10 or 0 ppm of oxfendazole for 8 wk. Sub-groups of five rats each from the DEN plus 250 and 0 ppm groups were killed after wk 1 of oxfendazole treatment and the remaining animals at wk 8. At the termination relative liver weights were significantly increased in the DEN-initiated and non-initiated groups treated with 250 ppm and 100 ppm or more, respectively, compared with the corresponding controls values. Light microscopical examination showed centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy in all animals receiving 100 ppm or more. Electron microscopy also revealed marked increases in smooth endoplasmic reticulum in hepatocytes of the DEN plus 500 ppm group. Furthermore, induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1/2, 2B1/2 or 4A1 was observed in the DEN plus 100 ppm group, that of CYP 1A1/2 being most marked. A similar change in CYP 1A1/2 was seen in the DEN plus 10 ppm group. The numbers and areas of connexin 32 (Cx32)-positive spots per hepatocyte were also significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Similar changes in liver weights, P-450 isozymes and Cx32 immunohistochemistry were already evident in the DEN plus 250 ppm group at wk 1. The number of placental form glutathione S-transferase positive single cells was significantly increased in the DEN-initiated groups treated with 250 ppm or more. The results therefore strongly suggest that oxfendazole exerts liver tumour promotion potential.

  6. Beneficial role of overexpression of TFPI-2 on tumour progression in human small cell lung cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Marion; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Blechet, Claire; Guyetant, Serge; Pape, Alain Le; Heuze-Vourc’h, Nathalie; Courty, Yves; Lerondel, Stephanie; Sobilo, Julien; Iochmann, Sophie; Reverdiau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a potent inhibitor of plasmin, a protease which is involved in tumour progression by activating (MMPs). This therefore makes TFPI-2 a potential inhibitor of invasiveness and the development of metastases. In this study, low levels of TFPI-2 expression were found in 65% of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive type of lung cancer. To study the impact of TFPI-2 in tumour progression, TFPI-2 was overexpressed in NCI-H209 SCLC cells which were orthotopically implanted in nude mice. Investigations showed that TFPI-2 inhibited lung tumour growth. Such inhibition could be explained in vitro by a decrease in tumour cell viability, blockade of G1/S phase cell cycle transition and an increase in apoptosis shown in NCI-H209 cells expressing TFPI-2. We also demonstrated that TFPI-2 upregulation in NCI-H209 cells decreased MMP expression, particularly by downregulating MMP-1 and MMP-3. Moreover, TFPI-2 inhibited phosphorylation of the MAPK signalling pathway proteins involved in the induction of MMP transcripts, among which MMP-1 was predominant in SCLC tissues and was inversely expressed with TFPI-2 in 35% of cases. These results suggest that downregulation of TFPI-2 expression could favour the development of SCLC. PMID:23905012

  7. Bronchopleural Fistula After Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumours

    SciTech Connect

    Cannella, Mathieu; Cornelis, Francois; Descat, Edouard; Ferron, Stephane; Carteret, Thibault; Castagnede, Hugues; Palussiere, Jean

    2011-02-15

    The present article describes two cases of bronchopleural fistula (BPF) occurring after radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors. Both procedures were carried out using expandable multitined electrodes, with no coagulation of the needle track. After both ablations, ground-glass opacities encompassed the nodules and abutted the visceral pleura. The first patient had a delayed pneumothorax, and the second had a recurrent pneumothorax. Both cases of BPF were diagnosed on follow-up computed tomography chest scans (i.e., visibility of a distinct channel between the lung or a peripheral bronchus and the pleura) and were successfully treated with chest tubes alone. Our goal is to highlight the fact that BPF can occur without needle-track coagulation and to suggest that minimally invasive treatment is sufficient to cure BPFs of this specific origin.

  8. Circulating tumour cells in patients with lung cancer undergoing endobronchial cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Dimple; Rice, Alexandra; Soppa, Gopal; Anikin, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer still poses a major issue, with a large proportion of patients diagnosed at late stages. Therapeutic options and treatment remain limited in these patients. In most cases only palliative therapies are available to alleviate any severe symptoms. Endobronchial cryotherapy (EC) is one form of palliative treatment offered to patients with obstructive airway tumours. Although successful, the impact on circulating tumour cell (CTCs) spread has not been investigated in detail. This study recruited 20 patients awaiting EC treatment. Baseline and post EC blood samples were analysed for presence of CTCs. Results showed an increase in CTCs following EC in 75% of patients. Significant increases were noticeable in some cases. Although EC is a well-accepted modality of treatment to alleviate symptoms, it may lead to an increase in CTCs, which in turn may have implications for tumour dissemination and metastatic spread.

  9. Establishing tumour tracking accuracy in free-breathing respiratory gated SBRT of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chuan-Dong; Wong, C.; Ackerly, T.; Ruben, J.; Millar, J.

    2014-03-01

    Free-breathing respiratory gated SBRT of surgically inoperable lung cancer has been clinically commissioned. This study was to establish the tumour tracking accuracy under clinical conditions based on an implanted fiducial marker. A VisicoilTM marker embedded in tissue-equivalent material mounted in a phantom (ET Gating PhantomTM Brainlab) driven by a patient's breathing data was treated with the ExacTracTM system. This one-dimensional moving marker represented a tumour motion in superior-inferior (S-I) direction measured through 4DCT study of the same patient. Both GafchromicTM films and the stereoscopic kV images were used for tracking the position of the marker. For tumour motion at magnitudes of 10, 20 and 29 mm and treated with corresponding gate widths of 50%, 33% and 20% of free breathing amplitude, the implanted marker was able to be tracked with a deviation <=1.53 mm to its planned position.

  10. Investigation of the potential carcinogenicity of a range of chromium containing materials on rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, L S; Martin, P A; Bidstrup, P L

    1986-01-01

    Twenty one chromium containing materials were examined for carcinogenic activity in a two year study using an intrabronchial pellet implantation system whereby pellets loaded with test material were surgically implanted into the lower left bronchus of rats. The principal aim of the study was to extend our knowledge of the carcinogenic potential of chromium compounds and, in particular, chromates (Cr6+). A statistically significant incidence of treatment related lung tumours was found with some sparingly soluble chromate materials. All tumours were large keratinizing squamous carcinomas of the left lung, except for a single left lung adenocarcinoma and two left lung anaplastic carcinomas. No bronchial carcinomas (0/100) were seen in the negative control group (blank pellet loaded with cholesterol), whereas bronchial carcinomas (22/48 and 25/100) occurred in the two positive control groups which received pellets loaded with 20-methylcholanthrene and calcium chromate respectively. Among the 20 test materials, only three groups gave statistically significant numbers of bronchial carcinomas. Two of these were groups receiving different samples of strontium chromate which gave 43/99 and 62/99 tumours. The third group, zinc chromate (low solubility), gave 5/100 bronchial carcinomas. A further zinc chromate group (Norge composition) produced 3/100 bronchial carcinomas which was not statistically significant. A few lung tumours were observed in other test groups. Images PMID:3964573

  11. LungTech, an EORTC Phase II trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy for centrally located lung tumours: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adebahr, S; Collette, S; Shash, E; Lambrecht, M; Le Pechoux, C; Faivre-Finn, C; De Ruysscher, D; Peulen, H; Belderbos, J; Dziadziuszko, R; Fink, C; Guckenberger, M; Hurkmans, C

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a curative treatment option for inoperable early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resulting in high rates of tumour control and low risk of toxicity. However, promising results are mainly derived from SBRT of peripheral pulmonary lesions, whereas SBRT for the central tumours can lead to severe radiation sequelae owing to the spatial proximity to the serial organs at risk. Robust data on the tolerance of mediastinal structures to high-dose hypofractionated radiation are limited; furthermore, there are many open questions regarding the efficiency, safety and response assessment of SBRT in inoperable, centrally located early stage NSCLC, which are addressed in a prospective multicentre study [sponsored by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC 22113-08113—LungTech)]. In this review, we summarize the current status regarding SBRT for centrally located early stage NSCLC that leads to the rationale of the LungTech trial. Outline and some essential features of the study with focus on a summary of current experiences in dose/fraction-toxicity coherences after SBRT to the mediastinal structures that lead to LungTech normal tissue constraints are provided. PMID:25873481

  12. Hyperthermia-enhanced effectiveness of mitoxantrone in an experimental rat tumour.

    PubMed

    Schopman, E M; Van Bree, C; Bakker, P J; Kipp, J B; Barendsen, G W

    1996-01-01

    The influence of local hyperthermia (HT) on Mitoxantrone (MITOX) effectiveness was studied in an experimental rat tumour. R-1 rhabdomyosarcomas were treated with MITOX (5 mg/kg ip), HT (43 degrees C for 1 h) or combinations applied at various time intervals up to 24 h. Tumour growth delay and tumour cell clonogenicity were assessed in correlation with the pharmacokinetics in blood plasma and with MITOX-concentrations in tumour tissue. Combined treatments were more effective than expected on the basis of simple addition of effects of single treatments. With increasing time intervals between treatments up to 8 h, an increase in effectiveness was observed. Unfortunately, treatment with an 8-h interval resulted in a high mortality: 80% of the rats died with 5-10 days after treatment. Treatment with a 3-h interval between MITOX and HT was the most effective combination resulting in the highest therapeutic ratio. Even local tumour controls (14/18 rats) were observed. These enhanced effects were associated with a higher MITOX-concentration in the fraction of intact cells recovered from tumours. However, no differences were observed in MITOX-concentration in total tumour tissue nor in plasma concentrations. In conclusion, timing between MITOX and HT is important for drug availability, for interaction of the two modalities to increase damage in tumour cells and for limiting the toxicity to normal tissues. PMID:8926392

  13. The carcinogenic effect of localized fission fragment irradiation of rat lung.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, A L; Buckley, P; Gore, D J; Jenner, T J; Major, I R; Bailey, M R

    1980-03-01

    In a preliminary investigation of 'hot particle' carcinogenesis uranium oxide particles were introduced into the lungs of rats either by intubation of a liquid suspension of the particles or by inhalation of an aerosol. Subsequently the animals were briefly exposed to slow neutrons in a nuclear reactor, resulting in localized irradiation of the lung by fission fragments emitted from 235U atoms in the oxide particles. The uranium used in the intubation experiments was either enriched or depleted in 235U. Squamous cell carcinomas developed at the site of deposition of the enriched uranium oxide in many cases but no lung tumours occurred in the rats with the depleted uranium oxide, in which the lung tissue was exposed to very few fission fragments. Only enriched uranium oxide was used in the inhalation experiments. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas occurred after the fission fragment irradiation but were fewer than in the intubation experiments. Adenocarcinomas of the lung were seen in rats exposed to uranium oxide without subsequent irradiation by neutrons in the reactor and in rats irradiated with neutrons but not previously exposed to uranium oxide. It is concluded that (i) fission fragments were possibly implicated in the genesis of the squamous cell carcinomas, which only developed in those animals exposed to enriched uranium oxide and neutrons and (ii) the adenocarcinomas in the rats inhaling enriched uranium oxide only were likely to have been caused by protracted irradiation of the lung with alpha-rays emitted from the enriched uranium.

  14. Characterization of a novel transplantable orthotopic rat bladder transitional cell tumour model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z; McCallum, T J; Brown, K M; Miller, G G; Halls, S B; Parney, I; Moore, R B

    1999-10-01

    An animal tumour model that mimics the human counterpart is essential for preclinical evaluation of new treatment modalities. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize such a model. To accomplish this, the established AY-27 rat bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell line was transplanted orthotopically into Fischer CDF344 female rats. AY-27 TCC cells were grown in monolayer cell culture and instilled intravesically as single cell suspensions into bladders that had been conditioned with mild acid washing. Tumour growth was assessed weekly by subjecting the rats to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At intervals following implantation and MRI tumour detection, the animals were sacrificed for necropsy, histological examination and immunocytochemical studies. Flow cytometry was also performed for detection of Fas or Fas-ligand expression on AY-27 cells. The overall tumour establishment was 95% (97/102 rats) at 12-50 days, while in a subgroup of animals sacrificed at 16 days, 80 out of 82 animals (97%) developed TCC, the majority of which was superficial. Tumour stage was assessed by gross pathology and light microscopy. Histological examination of the tumour specimens confirmed the presence of grade II-III TCC. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that the tumour model maintained the features of TCC. The changes seen on MRI correlated well with the extent of tumour invasion identified histologically. Patchy carcinoma in situ could be detected histologically 12-13 days post-inoculation, and progressed to papillary tumour or invasive disease thereafter. Neither Fas nor Fas-ligand was expressed on AY-27 cells. The orthotopic AY-27 TCC model is highly reproducible and is ideal for preclinical studies on experimental intravesical therapies.

  15. Human Lung Cancer Cells Grown on Acellular Rat Lung Matrix Create Perfusable Tumor Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Dhruva K.; Thrall, Michael J.; Baird, Brandi N.; Ott, Harald C.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Kim, Min P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix allows lung cancer to form its shape and grow. Recent studies on organ reengineering for orthotopic transplantation have provided a new avenue for isolating purified native matrix to use for growing cells. Whether human lung cancer cells grown in a decellularized rat lung matrix would create perfusable human lung cancer nodules was tested. Methods Rat lungs were harvested and native cells were removed using sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100 in a decellularization chamber to create a decellularized rat lung matrix. Human A549, H460, or H1299 lung cancer cells were placed into the decellularized rat lung matrix and grown in a customized bioreactor with perfusion of oxygenated media for 7 to 14 days. Results Decellularized rat lung matrix showed preservation of matrix architecture devoid of all rat cells. All three human lung cancer cell lines grown in the bioreactor developed tumor nodules with intact vasculature. Moreover, the lung cancer cells developed a pattern of growth similar to the original human lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, this study shows that human lung cancer cells form perfusable tumor nodules in a customized bioreactor on a decellularized rat lung matrix created by a customized decellularization chamber. The lung cancer cells grown in the matrix had features similar to the original human lung cancer. This ex vivo model can be used potentially to gain a deeper understanding of the biologic processes involved in human lung cancer. PMID:22385822

  16. Prevention of spontaneous tumours in female rats by fadrozole hydrochloride, an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Gunson, D. E.; Steele, R. E.; Chau, R. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Mammary tumours are oestrogen dependent in female Sprague-Dawley rats and in a significant proportion of women, so pharmacological treatment to inhibit oestrogen production is a valuable therapeutic measure to prevent or slow the progression of disease. Here we show that a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, which competitively inhibits the conversion of androstenedione to oestrone, prevents the development of both benign and malignant spontaneous mammary neoplasms in female Sprague-Dawley ats. It also slows the spontaneous development of pituitary pars distalis adenomas in female rats, and reduces the incidence of spontaneous hepatocellular tumours in male and female rats. PMID:7639848

  17. Transient dehydration of lungs in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The fluid balance in the lungs of rats exposed to head-down tilt is examined. Six Munich-Wister rats were suspended for 7 days and 10 Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days using the technique of Morey (1979). The water contents of the lungs of the suspended and a control group are calculated and compared. The data reveal that the two-days suspended rats had dehydrated lungs; however, the lungs of the 14-day suspended and control group rats were similar. It is noted that the dehydration in the 2-day suspended rats is caused by general dehydration not the head-tilt position.

  18. Treatment of transplanted rat tumours with double-stranded RNA(BRL 5907). II. Treatment of pleural and peritoneal growths.

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, M. V.; Baldwin, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Intrapleural growth of transplanted rat tumours was prevented or retarded by intrapleural administration of double-stranded RNA. A similar suppression of growth was achieved with peitoneal tumours by the intraperitoneal injection of the compound. These studies indicate the possible potential of this form of treatment of thoracic and peritoneal tumours for clinical application in the treatment of mesothelioma. PMID:177036

  19. Circulating tumour DNA profiling reveals heterogeneity of EGFR inhibitor resistance mechanisms in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chabon, Jacob J; Simmons, Andrew D; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Esfahani, Mohammad S; Newman, Aaron M; Haringsma, Henry J; Kurtz, David M; Stehr, Henning; Scherer, Florian; Karlovich, Chris A; Harding, Thomas C; Durkin, Kathleen A; Otterson, Gregory A; Purcell, W Thomas; Camidge, D Ross; Goldman, Jonathan W; Sequist, Lecia V; Piotrowska, Zofia; Wakelee, Heather A; Neal, Joel W; Alizadeh, Ash A; Diehn, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) analysis facilitates studies of tumour heterogeneity. Here we employ CAPP-Seq ctDNA analysis to study resistance mechanisms in 43 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with the third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor rociletinib. We observe multiple resistance mechanisms in 46% of patients after treatment with first-line inhibitors, indicating frequent intra-patient heterogeneity. Rociletinib resistance recurrently involves MET, EGFR, PIK3CA, ERRB2, KRAS and RB1. We describe a novel EGFR L798I mutation and find that EGFR C797S, which arises in ∼33% of patients after osimertinib treatment, occurs in <3% after rociletinib. Increased MET copy number is the most frequent rociletinib resistance mechanism in this cohort and patients with multiple pre-existing mechanisms (T790M and MET) experience inferior responses. Similarly, rociletinib-resistant xenografts develop MET amplification that can be overcome with the MET inhibitor crizotinib. These results underscore the importance of tumour heterogeneity in NSCLC and the utility of ctDNA-based resistance mechanism assessment. PMID:27283993

  20. Circulating tumour DNA profiling reveals heterogeneity of EGFR inhibitor resistance mechanisms in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chabon, Jacob J.; Simmons, Andrew D.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Esfahani, Mohammad S.; Newman, Aaron M.; Haringsma, Henry J.; Kurtz, David M.; Stehr, Henning; Scherer, Florian; Karlovich, Chris A.; Harding, Thomas C.; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Purcell, W. Thomas; Camidge, D. Ross; Goldman, Jonathan W.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Piotrowska, Zofia; Wakelee, Heather A.; Neal, Joel W.; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Diehn, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) analysis facilitates studies of tumour heterogeneity. Here we employ CAPP-Seq ctDNA analysis to study resistance mechanisms in 43 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with the third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor rociletinib. We observe multiple resistance mechanisms in 46% of patients after treatment with first-line inhibitors, indicating frequent intra-patient heterogeneity. Rociletinib resistance recurrently involves MET, EGFR, PIK3CA, ERRB2, KRAS and RB1. We describe a novel EGFR L798I mutation and find that EGFR C797S, which arises in ∼33% of patients after osimertinib treatment, occurs in <3% after rociletinib. Increased MET copy number is the most frequent rociletinib resistance mechanism in this cohort and patients with multiple pre-existing mechanisms (T790M and MET) experience inferior responses. Similarly, rociletinib-resistant xenografts develop MET amplification that can be overcome with the MET inhibitor crizotinib. These results underscore the importance of tumour heterogeneity in NSCLC and the utility of ctDNA-based resistance mechanism assessment. PMID:27283993

  1. Toll-like receptor and tumour necrosis factor dependent endotoxin-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Togbe, Dieudonnée; Schnyder-Candrian, Silvia; Schnyder, Bruno; Doz, Emilie; Noulin, Nicolas; Janot, Laure; Secher, Thomas; Gasse, Pamela; Lima, Carla; Coelho, Fernando Rodrigues; Vasseur, Virginie; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernhard; Couillin, Isabelle; Moser, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammatory response in the lung are reviewed. The acute airway inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin is mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 signalling as mice deficient for TLR4 or CD14 are unresponsive to endotoxin. Acute bronchoconstriction, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-12 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production, protein leak and neutrophil recruitment in the lung are abrogated in mice deficient for the adaptor molecules myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), but independent of TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF). In particular, LPS-induced TNF is required for bronchoconstriction, but dispensable for inflammatory cell recruitment. Lipopolysaccharide induces activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of pulmonary MAPK activity abrogates LPS-induced TNF production, bronchoconstriction, neutrophil recruitment into the lungs and broncho-alveolar space. In conclusion, TLR4-mediated, bronchoconstriction and acute inflammatory lung pathology to inhaled endotoxin are dependent on TLR4/CD14/MD2 expression using the adapter proteins TIRAP and MyD88, while TRIF, IL-1R1 or IL-18R signalling pathways are dispensable. Further downstream in this axis of signalling, TNF blockade reduces only acute bronchoconstriction, while MAPK inhibition abrogates completely endotoxin-induced inflammation. PMID:18039275

  2. Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumour oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hull, E L; Conover, D L; Foster, T H

    1999-01-01

    We have evaluated the ability of steady-state, radially-resolved, broad-band near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to measure carbogen-induced changes in haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration in a rat R3230 mammary adenocarcinoma model in vivo. Detectable shifts toward higher saturations were evident in all tumours (n = 16) immediately after the onset of carbogen breathing. The SO2 reached a new equilibrium within 1 min and remained approximately constant during 200–300 s of administration. The return to baseline saturation was more gradual when carbogen delivery was stopped. The degree to which carbogen increased SO2 was variable among tumours, with a tendency for tumours with lower initial SO2 to exhibit larger changes. Tumour haemoglobin concentrations at the time of peak enhancement were also variable. In the majority of cases, haemoglobin concentration decreased in response to carbogen, indicating that increased tumour blood volume was not responsible for the observed elevation in SO2. We observed no apparent relationship between the extent of the change in tumour haemoglobin concentration and the magnitude of the change in the saturation. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a rapid, non-invasive means of monitoring spatially averaged changes in tumour haemoglobin oxygen saturation induced by oxygen modifiers. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10206281

  3. Relevance of particle-induced rat lung tumors for assessing lung carcinogenic hazard and human lung cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1997-01-01

    Rats and other rodents are exposed by inhalation to identify agents that might present hazards for lung cancer in humans exposed by inhalation. In some cases, the results are used in attempts to develop quantitative estimates of human lung cancer risk. This report reviews evidence for the usefulness of the rat for evaluation of lung cancer hazards from inhaled particles. With the exception of nickel sulfate, particulate agents thought to be human lung carcinogens cause lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation. The rat is more sensitive to carcinogenesis from nonfibrous particles than mice or Syrian hamsters, which have both produced false negatives. However, rats differ from mice and nonhuman primates in both the pattern of particle retention in the lung and alveolar epithelial hyperplastic responses to chronic particle exposure. Present evidence warrants caution in extrapolation from the lung tumor response of rats to inhaled particles to human lung cancer hazard, and there is considerable uncertainty in estimating unit risks for humans from rat data. It seems appropriate to continue using rats in inhalation carcinogenesis assays of inhaled particles, but the upper limit of exposure concentrations must be set carefully to avoid false-positive results. A positive finding in both rats and mice would give greater confidence that an agent presents a carcinogenic hazard to man, and both rats and mice should be used if the agent is a gas or vapor. There is little justification for including Syrian hamsters in assays of the intrapulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled agents. PMID:9400748

  4. The seventh tumour-node-metastasis staging system for lung cancer: Sequel or prequel?

    PubMed

    van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Janssens, Annelies

    2013-09-01

    Anatomical cancer extent is an important predictor of prognosis and determines treatment choices. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification developed by Pierre Denoix replaced in 1968 the Veterans Administration Lung cancer Group (VALG) classification, which was still in use for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Clifton Mountain suggested several improvements based on a database of mostly surgically treated United States (US) patients from a limited number of centres. This database was pivotal for a uniform reporting of lung cancer extent by the American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union against Cancer (IUCC), but it suffered increasingly from obsolete diagnostic and staging procedures and did not reflect new treatment modalities. Moreover, its findings were not externally validated in large Japanese and European databases, resulting in persisting controversies which could not be solved with the available database. The use of different mediastinal lymph-node maps in Japan, the (US) and Europe facilitated neither the exchange nor the comparison of treatment results. Peter Goldstraw, a United Kingdom (UK) thoracic surgeon, started the process of updating the sixth version in 1996 and brought it to a good end 10 years later. His goals were to improve the TNM system in lung cancer by addressing the ongoing controversies, to validate the modifications and additional descriptors, to validate the TNM for use in staging SCLC and carcinoid tumours, to propose a new uniform lymph-node map and to investigate the prognostic value of non-anatomical factors. A staging committee was formed within the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) - which supervised the collection of the retrospective data from >100,000 patients with lung cancer - treated throughout the world between 1990 and 2000, analyse them with the help of solid statistics and validate externally with the Surveillance

  5. Clinical evaluation of serum tumour marker CA 242 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, J. L.; Cooper, E. H.; Lehmann, M.; Purves, D. A.; Dan-Aouta, M.; Midander, J.; Godard, P.; Michel, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    CA 242, a novel tumour carbohydrate antigen present in serum (upper limit of normal values: 20.0 U ml-1), has been measured in a group of 102 pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer patients. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify any relationship between pre-treatment serum CA 242 level and different features of lung cancer including prognosis. Serum CA 242 was measured using the delayed europium lanthanide fluoroimmunometric assay. Sensitivity and specificity were 28.5% and 95.6% respectively. Its level was significantly lower in squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with non-squamous histologies (adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma). The CA 242 level was higher in metastatic disease (median: 15.3 U ml-1) in comparison with non-metastatic (median: 7.9 U ml-1; Mann Whitney U test; P < 0.003), and increased significantly from stage I to stage IV. In 50 patients who underwent chemotherapy, the serum CA 242 level was higher in non-responder patients when compared with responders (median: 16.8 U ml-1 and 9.5 U ml-1 respectively; Mann Whitney; P < 0.02). Univariate analysis of the entire population showed serum CA 242 levels were not related to survival. However, patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer and elevated CA 242 level proved to have a significantly shorter survival than those with a CA 242 < 20 U ml-1. In Cox's model analysis, stage of the disease and performance status were the only significant determinants of survival. We conclude that a high level of serum CA 242 (1) is significantly related to the stage of disease, (2) predictive of no response to chemotherapy but seems to add weak prognostic information to stage of disease and performance status, the main prognostic determinants of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:8390291

  6. A new tumour associated antigen of non-small cell lung cancer: tumour liberated proteins (TLP)--a possible new tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Garaci, E; Sinibaldi, P; Rasi, G

    1996-01-01

    TLP (Tumour Liberated Proteins) is a 214 kDa protein, isolated from lung cancer tissue and synthetic nonapeptide CSH-275 is a major epitope identified on a 100 kDa TLP fragment and used to create antibodies in rabbit (antiserum termed CSH-419). CSH-419 antiserum, labelled or conjugated as necessary, was used to detect TLP on sera from NSCLC patients by a new ELISA test set up as a 1 step sandwich format test. This ELISA was performed on sera from 534 individuals. TLP was detected in 53.1% of NSCLC patients, with a 0% response in patients with cancers other than NSCLC, 7.6% response in unknown blood donors, and 17.4% response in patients with chronic lung diseases correlated with an elevated risk for lung cancer. TLP was particularly present in early stages of disease: 75% in stage I, 56% in stage II and III and 45% in stage IV. The presence of TLP antigen in sera from NSCLC patients indicates that TLP could represent an useful tumour marker.

  7. Tumour growth results in changes in placental amino acid transport in the rat: a tumour necrosis factor alpha-mediated effect.

    PubMed

    Carbó, N; López-Soriano, F J; Fiers, W; Argilés, J M

    1996-01-01

    The implantation of a fast growing tumour (Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma) to late pregnant rats resulted in no changes in fetal growth, this possibly being associated with an important increase in the fetal uptake of maternal-derived amino acids [Carbó, López-Soriano and Argilés (1995) Endocrinology 136, 3579-3584]. The present investigation was undertaken to see whether the presence of the tumour induced changes in placental transport systems. For alanine transport, although no changes in affinity (Km) were observed, tumour growth resulted in a 192% increase in Vmax in the Na(+)-independent component. Kinetic analysis of the Na(+)-dependent component resulted in two clearly different components: while the low-affinity and high-capacity component was unaffected by tumour growth, the high-affinity, low-capacity component of the tumour-bearing rats showed an important increase in Vmax. (78%). With regard to leucine transport, tumour burden induced important increases in the Na(+)-independent component, not only in Km (262%) but also in Vmax. (189%). Since elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) concentrations have been reported in this kind of tumour model, we performed the same type of transport experiments in rats chronically treated with TNF, the results obtained showing great similarities with those observed with tumour growth. The Vmax. of Na(+)-independent alanine transport was also increased by the cytokine (104%) while no changes were observed in affinity. TNF treatment also induced an increase in the Vmax. (67%) of the Na(+)-dependent (high-affinity, low-capacity) component while no changes in affinity were observed. Concerning leucine kinetics, TNF treatment, as in the case of tumour growth, also increased Km (155%) and Vmax. (72%) associated with Na(+)-independent transport. Interestingly, treatment with the cytokine increased both the Km (43%) and Vmax. (64%) of the Na(+)-dependent component. The inhibition patterns suggest the existence of more

  8. Characterization of (+/-)-methadone uptake by rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, C H; Dixit, B N

    1977-01-01

    1. By use of a sensitive and specific fluorescence assay procedure it was shown that after subcutaneous administration to rats, (+/-)-methadone was concentrated in the lung. Lung to serum ratios ranging from 25 to 60 were obtained indicating that the rat lung tissue was capable of extracting (+/-)-methadone against a concentration gradient. 2. This phenomenon was investigated in vitro with rat lung slices incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The uptake was expressed in terms of tissue to medium concentration ratios (T/M ratio). 3. The principal observations were: (i) Studies on the time-course of the uptake showed that the T/M ratios of (+/-)-methadone increased rapidly during the first 60 min of incubation and then more slowly, with a plateau occurring at 180 min; (ii) The T/M ratio of (+/-)-methadone progressively increased from 9.5 to 17 as the pH of the incubation medium was varied from 6.2 to 7.5; (iii) When the concentration of (+/-)-methadone in the incubation medium was varied from 0.005 to 0.5 mM, the T/M ratio decreased rapidly suggesting self-saturation of the transport process. Beyond the medium concentration of 0.5 mM, the T/M ratio declined very slowly. 4. These results suggested that at low concentrations, (+/-)-methadone was transported predominantly by a self-saturable process while at higher concentrations it was transported by a process of simple diffusion. 5. At low concentrations (0.01 mM) the uptake of (+)-methadone was higher than that of (-)-isomer indicating stereo-specificity of the uptake process. The uptake of (+/-)-methadone at low concentration (0.01 mM) was significantly inhibited by low temperature, lack of O2, lack of glucose, lack of Na+ in the incubation medium, and by exposure of the tissue to high temperature (approximately 100 degrees C). The uptake was also inhibited by relatively high concentration of iodoacetate (1.0 mM) and of naloxone (1.0 mM). 6. Kinetic analysis of data showed that the diffusion constant

  9. HIFU and Chemotherapy Synergistic Inhibitory Effect on Dunning AT2 Tumour-Bearing Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel, Laura; Paparel, Philipe; Chesnais, Sabrina; Gelet, Albert; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2005-03-01

    Since there is no 100% satisfactory treatment for localized prostate cancer in patients presenting symptoms representing a poor prognosis (stage T3, high Gleason score, PSA level greater than 15 ng/ml, etc.), this study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic and synergistic inhibition effects of using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with chemotherapy (Taxane + Estramustine). Forty-one Dunning AT2 tumour-bearing Copenhagen rats receiving HIFU and/or chemotherapy were divided into four groups: control group; chemotherapy group; HIFU group; and HIFU-chemotherapy combined group. Increase in the tumour volume was observed over 3 weeks and the tumour volume doubling time was evaluated. Growth curves for each group were then plotted and statistically evaluated. HIFU treatment combined with Taxane + Estramusine was found to have a significant synergistic effect; on day 30, the distribution of tumour volume relative to the treatment group was significantly different (p = 0.0007). The control group volumes were significantly greater than those of the chemotherapy-only (p = 0.006) or HIFU-only group (p = 0.006). The greatest difference was observed between the chemotherapy plus HIFU combined group and the control group. Additionally, tumour-doubling times were 7.7 days for the control group, 13.2 days for the HIFU-only group, and 31.2 days for the chemotherapy plus HIFU group. The differences in tumour growth rates between the chemotherapy plus HIFU combined group and a chemotherapy-only + HIFU-only grouping was 3.8% (p = 0.0020). Thus, the combined chemotherapy plus HIFU treatment was clearly more effective in reducing the tumour size than HIFU only or chemotherapy only, which indicates a synergy between the two types of treatment. Our results suggest that this combined therapy could be useful for the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer.

  10. Hyperplasia and tumours in lung, breast and other tissues in mice carrying a RAR beta 4-like transgene.

    PubMed

    Bérard, J; Gaboury, L; Landers, M; De Repentigny, Y; Houle, B; Kothary, R; Bradley, W E

    1994-12-01

    Transgenic mice were generated which express a truncated nuclear retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta), closely resembling the natural isoform RAR beta 4, under the control of the MMTV promoter. The transgene was expressed in salivary gland, testis, lung and mammary tissue in two different lines. At approximately 11-14 months virtually all the transgenic mice showed hyperplasia of the lung alveolar epithelium with an excess of type II pneumocytes. Hyperplasia of the mammary alveoli and terminal ducts was also seen in some females. Salivary glands and some sebaceous glands were hyperplastic in most male transgenic mice, but only rarely in females or in non-transgenics. Primary benign and malignant tumours were more numerous in transgenic mice than in controls, with a total of 23 in 43 mice versus two in 33 non-transgenic animals. Treatment with dexamethasone to increase transgene expression resulted in exaggerated versions of the above phenotypes. Overexpression of RAR beta 4 therefore appears to predispose various tissues to hyperplasia and neoplasia, and this by contrast to the RAR beta 2 isoform, which has tumour suppressor activity. A survey of ratios of RAR beta 4:RAR beta 2 expression in human lung tumour cell lines showed an increase compared with normal lung tissue, suggesting that RAR beta 4 may play a similar role in human tumorigenesis.

  11. [Carcinoid tumours of the lung and definition of the medico-legal term "lung cancer" used in the list of occupational disease in Germany--results of the German Mesothelioma Register].

    PubMed

    Neumann, V; Fischer, M; Tannapfel, A

    2008-09-01

    Carcinoid tumours are considered to be malignant epithelial tumours according to the recent WHO classification. This study is based on the examinations of tissue from 108 patients with carcinoid tumours. Our data agree with those of other studies: carcinoid tumours developed mainly in the right lung (40 %) and the lower lobe (30 %), mean age was 56 years, typical carcinoid tumours (74 %) predominated, comparatively high proportion of females (32 %), the mean latency period after asbestos exposure - assuming asbestos as one causal factor - was 35 years. A higher incidence of carcinoid tumours (1.3 %) in the collective of the mesothelioma register compared to the incidence in the collective of all lung carcinomas (1 - 2 %) was not observed. The increased pulmonary asbestos burden analysed in 26 % of patients is explained by the exposure-dependent selection of patients in the register. So far, no association between smoking habits or exposure to other, i. e., occupational pollutions and the development of carcinoid tumours could be established. In the list of occupational diseases (No. 4104) the term "lung cancer" is used without further specification. Thus the following question remains open for discussion: does the term "lung cancer" include carcinoid tumours such as malignant epithelial lung tumours, or is it restricted to the common subtypes such as small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma with regard to occupational disease and compensation?

  12. Role of tumour necrosis factor in the induction of nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Thiemermann, C.; Wu, C. C.; Szabó, C.; Perretti, M.; Vane, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. This study investigates the role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) in a rat model of endotoxin shock. 2. In anaesthetized rats, pretreatment with a monoclonal antibody for TNF (TNFab; 20 mg kg-1, s.c., at 16 h prior to LPS) ameliorated the fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in response to LPS (2 mg kg-1, i.v.). For instance, endotoxaemia for 180 min resulted in a fall in MAP from 114 +/- 6 (control) to 84 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.01; n = 7). In contrast, animals pretreated with TNFab prior to LPS injection maintained significantly higher MAP when compared to LPS-control (MAP at 180 min; 118 +/- 3 mmHg; P < 0.01, n = 5). 3. Three hours of endotoxaemia was also associated with a significant reduction of the contractile effects of noradrenaline (NA) (10(-8)-10(-6) M) on the thoracic aorta ex vivo. This hyporeactivity to NA was partially restored by in vitro treatment of the vessels with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 20 min, 3 x 10(-4) M). Pretreatment of rats with TNFab (20 mg kg-1; at 16 h prior to LPS) significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the LPS-induced hyporeactivity of rat aortic rings ex vivo. L-NAME did not enhance the contractions of aortic rings obtained from TNFab pretreated LPS-rats. 4. At 180 min after LPS there was a significant elevation of the induced NOS activity in the lung (5.14 +/- 0.57 pmol citrulline mg-1 min-1, n = 8).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7693276

  13. Mathematical modelling of tumour volume dynamics in response to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Imran; Humbert-Vidan, Laia; Chen, Tao; South, Christopher P.; Ezhil, Veni; Kirkby, Norman F.; Jena, Rajesh; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports a modelling study of tumour volume dynamics in response to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The main objective was to develop a model that is adequate to describe tumour volume change measured during SABR, and at the same time is not excessively complex as lacking support from clinical data. To this end, various modelling options were explored, and a rigorous statistical method, the Akaike information criterion, was used to help determine a trade-off between model accuracy and complexity. The models were calibrated to the data from 11 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR. The results showed that it is feasible to model the tumour volume dynamics during SABR, opening up the potential for using such models in a clinical environment in the future.

  14. Stochastic rat lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny: a surrogate for the human lung for lung cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler-Heil, R; Hussain, M; Hofmann, W

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory rats are frequently used in inhalation studies as a surrogate for human exposures. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop a stochastic dosimetry model for inhaled radon progeny in the rat lung, to predict bronchial dose distributions and to compare them with corresponding dose distributions in the human lung. The most significant difference between human and rat lungs is the branching structure of the bronchial tree, which is relatively symmetric in the human lung, but monopodial in the rat lung. Radon progeny aerosol characteristics used in the present study encompass conditions typical for PNNL and COGEMA rat inhalation studies, as well as uranium miners and human indoor exposure conditions. It is shown here that depending on exposure conditions and modeling assumptions, average bronchial doses in the rat lung ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 mGy WLM(-1). If plotted as a function of airway generation, bronchial dose distributions exhibit a significant maximum in large bronchial airways. If, however, plotted as a function of airway diameter, then bronchial doses are much more uniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree. Comparisons between human and rat exposures indicate that rat bronchial doses are slightly higher than human bronchial doses by about a factor of 1.3, while lung doses, averaged over the bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) regions, are higher by about a factor of about 1.6. This supports the current view that the rat lung is indeed an appropriate surrogate for the human lung in case of radon-induced lung cancers. Furthermore, airway diameter seems to be a more appropriate morphometric parameter than airway generations to relate bronchial doses to bronchial carcinomas.

  15. A calcified lung tumour and microcytic anaemia in a young woman: partial expression of the Carney triad.

    PubMed

    Alberto, V O; Kelleher, D; Denholm, R B; Nutt, M; Carney, J A

    2008-08-01

    The Carney triad is the non-familial addociation of gastric stromal tumours (GISTs), pulmonar chondromas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Fewer than 100 cases of the disorder have been reported since its description in 1977. The condition has a predeliction for young women. Most patients exhibit only two of the three components. The tumours tend to be multifocal in the affected organ or system. Herein, we describe the case of a 27-year-old woman with multiple gastric GISTs and a pulmonary chondroma, partial expression of the Carney triad. It is important to be aware of the Carney triad when one of its constituent tumours is found, particularly if the patient is a young woman, so that a search can be made for and surveillance instituted for the other components. Treatment for the gastric tumours (sarcomas) and the paragangliomas (potentially malignant) is surgical. The lung chondromas are benign neoplasms and ordinarily not symptomatic. If a diagnosis of the tumour can be established by biopsy, surgical resection may not be necessary.

  16. Local hyperthermic treatment does not enhance mitoxantrone effectiveness for responses of a rat solid tumour regrowing after irradiation.

    PubMed

    van Bree, C; Schopman, E M; Bakker, P J; Kipp, J B; Barendsen, G W

    1996-01-01

    Tumours regrowing after irradiation may respond differently to chemo-hyperthermia as compared to non- irradiated tumours. In this study, the efficacy of combined treatment of previously irradiated tumors with mitoxantrone and local hyperthermia (HT) was investigated. Rat R-1 tumours were irradiated with dose fractions of 5Gy X-rays applied on 4 consecutive days. Animals were retreated with mitoxantrone (5mg/kg i.p.), HT (1 h at 43 degrees C) or mitoxantrone + HT (3-h interval) on day 9 after the start of irradiation when tumour volumes were decreasing, or on day 16 when tumour volumes were increasing again. Pharmacokinetics were studied in relation to tumor cell survival and tumour growth delay. No Ht=induced changes in the pharmacokinetics of mitoxantrone were observed. The data on clonogenic survival correlated well with these findings and combined treatment were not more effective than mitoxantrone alone. In the treatment schedule applied, HT did not induce pharmacokinetic changes in irradiated tumours leading to an enhanced cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone. The HT- enhanced effectiveness of the drug observed in non- irradiated tumours is much less in pre-irradiated tumours. Responses of regrowing tumours to combined chemo- hyperthermia depend in a complex way on the stage of regrowth and on the treatment schedule. PMID:8601562

  17. Melatonin potentiates the anti-tumour effect of pravastatin in rat mammary gland carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Orendáš, Peter; Kubatka, Peter; Bojková, Bianka; Kassayová, Monika; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Kružliak, Peter; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kapinová, Andrea; Adamicová, Katarína; Sadloňová, Vladimíra; Chmelová, Martina; Stollárová, Nadežda

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies in the field of cancer research have suggested a possible role for statins in the reduction of risk in certain malignancies. The purpose of these studies was to examine the chemopreventive effects of pravastatin alone and in combination with pineal hormone melatonin in the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis model. Pravastatin was given orally (1 00 mg/kg) and melatonin was added to the water (20 μg/ml). Chemoprevention began seven days prior to carcinogen administration and subsequently continued for 15 weeks until autopsy. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Parameters of experimental carcinogenesis, mechanism of action (biomarkers of apoptosis, angiogenesis and proliferation) and side effects after long-term treatment in animals were assessed. Pravastatin alone suppressed tumour frequency by 20.5% and average tumour volume by 15% compared with controls. Combined administration of the drugs decreased tumour frequency by 69% and lengthened tumour latency by nine days compared with control animals. The ration between high and low grade carcinomas was apparently reduced in both treated groups. The analysis of carcinoma cells showed significant expression increase in caspase-3 and caspase-7 after pravastatin treatment; however, combined treatment even more pronounced increase in the expression of both caspases. Regarding VEGFR-2 expression, a small effect in carcinomas of both treated groups was found. In plasma metabolism evaluation, pravastatin alone significantly decreased levels of glucose and triacylglycerols. Our results suggest a mild anti-neoplastic effect of pravastatin in this rat mammary gland carcinoma model. Statins co-administered with other suitable drug (e.g. melatonin) should be further evaluated for tumour-preventive properties. PMID:25270735

  18. Phase I trial and tumour localisation of the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody ICR62 in head and neck or lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Modjtahedi, H.; Hickish, T.; Nicolson, M.; Moore, J.; Styles, J.; Eccles, S.; Jackson, E.; Salter, J.; Sloane, J.; Spencer, L.; Priest, K.; Smith, I.; Dean, C.; Gore, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the first rat monoclonal antibody (MAb ICR62) to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a phase I clinical trial in patients with unresectable squamous cell carcinomas. This antibody effectively blocks the binding of EGF, transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and HB-EGF to the EGFR, inhibits the growth in vitro of tumour cell lines which overexpress the EGFR and eradicates such tumours when grown as xenografts in athymic mice. Eleven patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, whose tumours expressed EGFR, were recruited. Groups of three patients were treated with 2.5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of ICR62 and a further eight patients received 100 mg. All patients were evaluated for toxicity using WHO criteria. Patients' sera were tested for the clearance of MAb ICR62 and the development of human anti-rat antibodies (HARA). No serious (WHO Grade III-IV) toxicity was observed in patients treated with up to 100 mg of antibody ICR62. Antibody ICR62 could be detected at 4 h and 24 h in the sera of patients treated with 40 mg or 100 mg of ICR62. Only 4/20 patients showed HARA responses (one at 20 mg, one at 40 mg and two at 100 mg doses) and of these only the former two were anti-idiotypic responses. In four patients receiving doses of ICR62 at 40 mg or greater, biopsies were obtained from metastatic lesions 24 h later and examined for the localisation of ICR62 using anti-rat antibody reagent. In these patients we showed the localisation of MAb ICR62 to the membranes of tumour cells; this appeared to be more prominent at the higher dose of 100 mg. On the basis of these data we conclude that MAb ICR62 can be administered safely to patients with squamous cell carcinomas and that it can localise efficiently to metastases even at relatively low doses. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8546911

  19. The cholesterol-binding protein NPC2 restrains recruitment of stromal macrophage-lineage cells to early-stage lung tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Jin, Hong; Giblett, Susan; Patel, Bipin; Patel, Falguni; Foster, Charles; Pritchard, Catrin

    2015-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment is known to play an integral role in facilitating cancer progression at advanced stages, but its function in some pre-cancerous lesions remains elusive. We have used the V600EBRAF-driven mouse lung model that develop premalignant lesions to understand stroma–tumour interactions during pre-cancerous development. In this model, we have found that immature macrophage-lineage cells (IMCs) producing PDGFA, TGFβ and CC chemokines are recruited to the stroma of premalignant lung adenomas through CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-dependent mechanisms. Stromal IMCs promote proliferation and transcriptional alterations suggestive of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in isolated premalignant lung tumour cells ex vivo, and are required for the maintenance of early-stage lung tumours in vivo. Furthermore, we have found that IMC recruitment to the microenvironment is restrained by the cholesterol-binding protein, Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2). Studies on isolated cells ex vivo confirm that NPC2 is secreted from tumour cells and is taken up by IMCs wherein it suppresses secretion of the CCR1 ligand CC chemokine 6 (CCL6), at least in part by facilitating its lysosomal degradation. Together, these findings show that NPC2 secreted by premalignant lung tumours suppresses IMC recruitment to the microenvironment in a paracrine manner, thus identifying a novel target for the development of chemopreventive strategies in lung cancer. PMID:26183450

  20. The cholesterol-binding protein NPC2 restrains recruitment of stromal macrophage-lineage cells to early-stage lung tumours.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Jin, Hong; Giblett, Susan; Patel, Bipin; Patel, Falguni; Foster, Charles; Pritchard, Catrin

    2015-07-16

    The tumour microenvironment is known to play an integral role in facilitating cancer progression at advanced stages, but its function in some pre-cancerous lesions remains elusive. We have used the (V600) (E)BRAF-driven mouse lung model that develop premalignant lesions to understand stroma-tumour interactions during pre-cancerous development. In this model, we have found that immature macrophage-lineage cells (IMCs) producing PDGFA, TGFβ and CC chemokines are recruited to the stroma of premalignant lung adenomas through CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-dependent mechanisms. Stromal IMCs promote proliferation and transcriptional alterations suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in isolated premalignant lung tumour cells ex vivo, and are required for the maintenance of early-stage lung tumours in vivo. Furthermore, we have found that IMC recruitment to the microenvironment is restrained by the cholesterol-binding protein, Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2). Studies on isolated cells ex vivo confirm that NPC2 is secreted from tumour cells and is taken up by IMCs wherein it suppresses secretion of the CCR1 ligand CC chemokine 6 (CCL6), at least in part by facilitating its lysosomal degradation. Together, these findings show that NPC2 secreted by premalignant lung tumours suppresses IMC recruitment to the microenvironment in a paracrine manner, thus identifying a novel target for the development of chemopreventive strategies in lung cancer.

  1. Prilocaine elimination by isolated perfused rat lung and liver.

    PubMed

    Geng, W P; Ebke, M; Foth, H

    1995-01-01

    Prilocaine is assumed to undergo significant elimination by extrahepatic organs and to differ in this respect from other commonly used local anaesthetics. In order to clarify whether the lung may play an important role as a site of elimination of prilocaine, the kinetic parameters were studied in isolated perfused rat lungs and were compared to those of isolated livers. Furthermore, the structurally related compounds bupivacaine and mepivacaine were also investigated in this system. Prilocaine was dispersed into a relatively large apparent distribution volume in perfused rat lung (139 ml versus 97 ml in controls). In single-pass perfused lungs the observed maximum of concentration was decreased by about 60% compared to controls. The mean residence time was prolonged by about 40%. These observations suggest that prilocaine is substantially retained by rat lung and that this effect occurs particularly during first-pass. However, the ability of rat lung to degrade prilocaine was relatively low. The clearance values were about 0.3 ml/min equal to about 20% of the hepatic capacity calculated per g of tissue. Thus it must be assumed that prilocaine is only transiently retained by the lung and will gain systemic availability later on. In rat lungs the kinetics of prilocaine elimination were not substantially different from those of bupivacaine and mepivacaine (16 and 12%). These observations do not support the assumption that especially prilocaine undergoes extrahepatic elimination.

  2. Danaparoid sodium inhibits systemic inflammation and prevents endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Hidaka, Seigo; Hishiyama, Sohei; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Systemic inflammatory mediators, including high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), play an important role in the development of sepsis. Anticoagulants, such as danaparoid sodium (DA), may be able to inhibit sepsis-induced inflammation, but the mechanism of action is not well understood. We hypothesised that DA would act as an inhibitor of systemic inflammation and prevent endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in a rat model. Methods We used male Wistar rats. Animals in the intervention arm received a bolus of 50 U/kg of DA or saline injected into the tail vein after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. We measured cytokine (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10) and HMGB1 levels in serum and lung tissue at regular intervals for 12 h following LPS injection. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was assessed following stimulation with LPS alone or concurrently with DA with identification of HMGB1 and other cytokines in the supernatant. Results Survival was significantly higher and lung histopathology significantly improved among the DA (50 U/kg) animals compared to the control rats. The serum and lung HMGB1 levels were lower over time among DA-treated animals. In the in vitro study, administration of DA was associated with decreased production of HMGB1. In the cell signalling studies, DA administration inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB. Conclusion DA decreases cytokine and HMGB1 levels during LPS-induced inflammation. As a result, DA ameliorated lung pathology and reduces mortality in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation in a rat model. This effect may be mediated through the inhibition of cytokines and HMGB1. PMID:18380908

  3. Promotion of Growth of Tumour Cells in Acutely Inflamed Tissues

    PubMed Central

    van den Brenk, H. A. S.; Stone, M.; Kelly, H.; Orton, C.; Sharpington, C.

    1974-01-01

    Acute inflammatory reactions were induced in rats by the intravenous injection of cellulose sulphate (CS) or an extract of normal rat lung homogenate (LH), or by intraperitoneal injections of Compound 48/80. These treatments greatly increased survival and clonogenic growth in the lungs of rats of intravenously injected allogeneic W-256 and Y-P388 tumour cells. Increase in the dose of intravenously injected CS caused a logarithmic increase in colony forming efficiency (CFE) of tumour cells in the lungs. CFE was not stimulated by the intravenous injection of rats with pharmacological mediators of inflammation (histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and prostaglandins PGE1 and PGF2α) which are released from tissues by agents which induce inflammation. Stimulation of CFE by CS occurred in adrenalectomized rats but was inhibited by treatment of rats with an anti-inflammatory steroid, dexamethasone. CFE was stimulated by CS in tumour immunized rats; the inflammatory state did not prevent the expression of immunity but “rescued” a proportion (approximately 20%) of the injected tumour cells from immunodestruction in the lungs. A higher proportion of tumours grew in the paws of rats when a small number of W-256 cells were injected interdigitally into the acute inflammatory swellings produced by the local injection of paws with LH or CS. CS is a “synthetic heparin” which causes marked prolongation of blood clotting time and also increases fibrinolytic activity of the blood. Anticoagulant treatment of rats with heparin did not affect CFE. Thus, there was no direct correlation between blood clotting time and CFE of blood borne tumour cells in the rat. The mechanisms which may be responsible for the nonspecific growth promoting effects of inflammatory reactions induced by various types of tissue injury on tumour induction and growth are discussed. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4451630

  4. Study of the cytotoxicity of asiaticoside on rats and tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer chemoprevention is considered one of the most promising areas in current cancer research, and asiaticoside, which is derived from the plant Centella asiatica, has a relative lack of systemic toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether asiaticoside is effective against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenicity in vitro (MCF-7 and other cells) and in vivo (DMBA-induced rat cancer). Methods An MTT assay was performed involving the treatment of MCF-7 cells for 48 h with H2O2 alone and H2O2 + different asiaticoside concentrations. Flow cytometry was performed, and the level of caspase 3, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) were quantified. Adult female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups designated I (control), II (DMBA-induced cancer), III (pre- and post-treatment with asiaticoside (200 μg/animal) in DMBA-induced cancer), IV (post-treatment with asiaticoside in DMBA-induced cancer), and V (treated with asiaticoside alone, drug control). Twelve weeks post-DMBA, rats developed mammary tumours. Rats either were sacrificed or imaged with MIBI. Histological examination of tumour tissues was performed. Tumour MIBI uptake ratios were determined. The data are expressed as the means ± standard deviation. Appropriate t-test and ANOVA statistical methods were used to compare data. Results The IC50 of asiaticoside for MCF-7 cells was determined to be 40 μM. Asiaticoside has potential for hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity, and the caspase-3 activity increased with increasing asiaticoside dose in MCF-7 cells treated for 48 h. The expression of the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly decreased and correlated with MIBI uptake ratios in vitro and in vivo after asiaticoside administration. Conclusion This study demonstrates that asiaticoside is effective in vitro and in vivo in inducing apoptosis and enhancing anti-tumour activity. PMID:24667059

  5. In vivo isolated kidney perfusion with tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in tumour-bearing rats

    PubMed Central

    Veen, A H van der; Seynhaeve, A L B; Breurs, J; Nooijen, P T G A; Marquet, R L; Eggermont, A M M

    1999-01-01

    Isolated perfusion of the extremities with high-dose tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plus melphalan leads to dramatic tumour response in patients with irresectable soft tissue sarcoma or multiple melanoma in transit metastases. We developed in vivo isolated organ perfusion models to determine whether similar tumour responses in solid organ tumours can be obtained with this regimen. Here, we describe the technique of isolated kidney perfusion. We studied the feasibility of a perfusion with TNF-α and assessed its anti-tumour effects in tumour models differing in tumour vasculature. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) proved to be only 1 μg TNF-α. Higher doses appeared to induce renal failure and a secondary cytokine release with fatal respiratory and septic shock-like symptoms. In vitro, the combination of TNF-α and melphalan did not result in a synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on CC 531 colon adenocarcinoma cells, whereas an additive effect was observed on osteosarcoma ROS-1 cells. In vivo isolated kidney perfusion, with TNF-α alone or in combination with melphalan, did not result in a significant anti-tumour response in either tumour model in a subrenal capsule assay. We conclude that, because of the susceptibility of the kidney to perfusion with TNF-α, the minimal threshold concentration of TNF-α to exert its anti-tumour effects was not reached. The applicability of TNF-α in isolated kidney perfusion for human tumours seems, therefore, questionable. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027309

  6. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

  7. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model.

  8. The role of autophagy in lung ischemia/reperfusion injury after lung transplantation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Bentong; Huang, Lei; Dai, Bin; Liu, Jichun; Tang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in the cold I/R injury following lung transplantation. Methods: The rat orthotopic lung transplantation model was established to perform the level of autophagy in the cold I/R injury in this study. The pretreatment of inhibitor (3-Methyladenine [3-MA]) and activator (rapamycin [RAPA]) of autophagy were performed to assess the role of autophagy in the cold I/R injury following lung transplantation in rats. Results: After lung transplantation, the autophagy, lung cell apoptosis and lung injury were aggravated and peaked at 6 h following the transplantation. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA induced downregulated of autophagy, decreased cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, the lung injury, which was indicated by calculating the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), pulmonary vein blood gas analysis (PO2) and ratio of wet to dry in lung (W/D), was ameliorated after treatment with 3-MA. The activation of autophagy by RAPA causing the upregulated of autophagy and apoptosis of lung cells, and enhanced the lung injury. Conclusion: All the results suggested that the autophagy was involved in the cold I/R injury in lung transplantation model, and played a potential role on the regulation of I/R injury after lung transplantation. PMID:27648150

  9. The role of autophagy in lung ischemia/reperfusion injury after lung transplantation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Bentong; Huang, Lei; Dai, Bin; Liu, Jichun; Tang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in the cold I/R injury following lung transplantation. Methods: The rat orthotopic lung transplantation model was established to perform the level of autophagy in the cold I/R injury in this study. The pretreatment of inhibitor (3-Methyladenine [3-MA]) and activator (rapamycin [RAPA]) of autophagy were performed to assess the role of autophagy in the cold I/R injury following lung transplantation in rats. Results: After lung transplantation, the autophagy, lung cell apoptosis and lung injury were aggravated and peaked at 6 h following the transplantation. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA induced downregulated of autophagy, decreased cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, the lung injury, which was indicated by calculating the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), pulmonary vein blood gas analysis (PO2) and ratio of wet to dry in lung (W/D), was ameliorated after treatment with 3-MA. The activation of autophagy by RAPA causing the upregulated of autophagy and apoptosis of lung cells, and enhanced the lung injury. Conclusion: All the results suggested that the autophagy was involved in the cold I/R injury in lung transplantation model, and played a potential role on the regulation of I/R injury after lung transplantation.

  10. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornblower, V. D. M.; Yu, E.; Fenster, A.; Battista, J. J.; Malthaner, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  11. Diagnostic Role of Tumour Markers CEA, CA15-3, CA19-9 and CA125 in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indranath; Bhattacharjee, Debojyoti; Das, Anjan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Goutam; Dasgupta, Anindya; Dey, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 15-3, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carbohydrate antigen 125, in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a group of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected in a group of 90 patients with benign or malignant pulmonary diseases. After appropriate processing, tumour markers were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The diagnostic yields (sensitivity, specificity and predictive values) in each environment (serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were obtained by using "Receivers operating characteristic" curve. Determined individually, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carbohydrate antigen 125, showed the greatest diagnostic accuracy in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Carbohydrate antigen 15-3 did so in serum. Carcinoembryonic antigen was the most relevant marker in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. For the factors evaluated in this study, determination of carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carbohydrate antigen 125 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were clinically more useful markers in comparison with serum, although the latter may also be helpful in certain situations. Although there is no specific tumour marker for lung cancer, the combination of several can be used to diagnose most patients with lung cancer and also to rule out false positive and negative cases.

  12. High mitomycin C concentration in tumour tissue can be achieved by isolated liver perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, A; Pons, D H; Vreeken, J A; Nagesser, S K; Kuppen, P J; Tjaden, U R; van de Velde, C J

    1991-01-01

    To enable the treatment of hepatic metastasis with higher, theoretically more effective, doses of systemically toxic anticancer drugs, an isolated liver perfusion (ILP) technique was developed in WAG/Ola rats. First, in a toxicity study the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of mitomycin C (MMC) was determined for a 25-min ILP and for hepatic artery infusion (HAI) after the administration of a bolus dose. The MTD in the ILP setting (4.8 mg/kg) was 4 times that using HAI (1.2 mg/kg). Subsequently, in a rat colorectal hepatic-metastasis model, concentrations of MMC in tumour, liver, plasma and perfusate were measured during a 25-min ILP to investigate the expected pharmacokinetic advantage of ILP. The mean plasma level determined after ILP (1.2 as well as 4.8 mg/kg MMC) was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than that obtained following HAI. This may explain both the absence of severe systemic toxicity and the higher MTD in ILP-treated groups. No significant difference in mean tumour and liver tissue concentrations of MMC were found when the groups treated with 1.2 mg/kg drug via HAI vs ILP were compared. The mean MMC concentration in tumour tissue was significantly higher (almost 5 times; P less than 0.05) in rats treated by ILP with the MTD (4.8 mg/kg) than in those treated via HAI with the MTD (1.2 mg/kg). ILP of MMC can be safely performed using a dose 4 times higher than the MTD in the HAI setting, leading to an almost 5-fold concentration of MMC in hepatic metastasis. ILP of MMC may therefore represent a promising therapy for metastasis confined to the liver. PMID:1905590

  13. No tumour-initiating risk associated with scAAV transduction in newborn rat liver.

    PubMed

    Gauttier, V; Pichard, V; Aubert, D; Kaeppel, C; Schmidt, M; Ferry, N; Conchon, S

    2013-07-01

    Delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors to the newborn liver is followed by a rapid loss of episomal vector copies because of hepatocyte proliferation. In selected hepatocytes, integration of rAAV genomes can lead to a sustained expression of the transgene. The safety of in vivo gene therapy with single-stranded AAV vectors has been questioned in a study reporting a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, associated with provirus integration events in mice that receive an single-stranded AAV injection at birth. To investigate the tumour-initiating potential of the newly established self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors in the liver, groups of newborn rats received intravenous injection of a scAAV vector encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP), or were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a well-known liver tumour initiator. The rats were fed on a diet containing 2-acetylaminofluorene, a potent liver tumour-promoting agent to accelerate the carcinogenic process. After 2 months, the animals were killed and their livers analysed. Preneoplastic nodules were identified by glutathion S-transferase-p (GSTp) staining, and GFP expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Vector genome integration events were analysed. The numbers of GSTp-positive foci were comparable in the PBS and the scAAV-GFP groups and significantly higher in the DEN group. The proportion of GSTp-positive foci that also expressed GFP was low and in the range expected for random occurrence. No specific integration hot spots were detected by linear amplification-mediated-PCR in transduced liver. In conclusion, scAAV transduction of newborn rat liver does not trigger preneoplastic lesions suggesting an absence of liver tumourigenesis.

  14. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Fossati, F.; Vittor, K.; Nano, R.; Facoetti, A.; Chiari, P.; Bakeine, J.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Salvucci, O.

    2006-05-01

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher 10B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of 10B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  15. The cardiodepressant and vasodepressant effects of tumour necrosis factor in rat isolated atrial and aortic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, R.; Shaw, S.

    1992-01-01

    1. The ability of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rec huTNF) to elicit cardiodepressor and vasodepressor effects in rat isolated tissues was investigated. 2. rec huTNF (3 x 10(-11)-3 x 10(-8) M) administered directly to the organ bath, caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the isoprenaline-induced inotropic response in electrically stimulated rat left atria. This occurred within 20 min of administration. In contrast, rec huTNF was without effect on the chronotropic response to isoprenaline in isolated spontaneously beating atria. 3. rec huTNF (1 microgram kg-1) was also given systemically to rats and the atria studied in vitro. Only 60 min of rec huTNF pretreatment was sufficient to cause a marked attenuation of the isoprenaline-induced inotropic response. This effect was not further augmented when rats were pretreated with rec huTNF for 24 h. 4. In isolated aortic rings taken from rats 60 min after rec huTNF (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) administration, there was no effect seen on the constriction induced by phenylephrine in either endothelium-intact or denuded tissues. In addition, any responses to L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration were unaffected by rec huTNF pretreatment. 5. In aortic rings taken from rats 24 h after rec huTNF administration, the phenylephrine-induced constriction was significantly attenuated in tissues with an intact endothelium. Furthermore, the relaxation to subsequent L-arginine administration was greater in these tissues than in those saline-treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1382789

  16. In patients with a tumour invading the phrenic nerve does prophylactic diaphragm plication improve postoperative lung function?

    PubMed

    Beattie, Gwyn W; Dunn, William G; Asif, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'In patients with tumours involving the phrenic nerve, does prophylactic diaphragm plication improve lung function following tumour resection?' Using the reported search, 258 papers were found of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Three case reports and one case series represent 37 patients in the literature along with two relevant animal studies. Patients treated with prophylactic plication at the time of injury or sacrifice of the phrenic nerve had reduced radiological evidence of diaphragm paralysis, lower reported shortness of breath and reduced requirement for ventilatory support. In patients with prophylactic diaphragm plication and a concurrent pulmonary resection, the predicted postoperative lung function correlated closely with the postoperative measured FEV1, FVC and gas transfer. The postoperative measured FEV1 was reported as 86-98%, the FVC 82-89% and gas transfer 97% of the predicted values. Two animal models investigate the mechanics of respiration, spirometry and gas exchange following diaphragmatic plication. A randomized control study in four dogs measured a 50% reduction in tidal volume and respiratory rate, a 40% decrease in arterial PO2 and a 43% increase in arterial CO2 when the phrenic nerve was crushed in animals with a pneumonectomy but without prophylactic diaphragm plication. A further randomized control animal study with 28 dogs found that plicating the diaphragm after unilateral phrenic nerve transection resulted in a significant increase in tidal volume and lung compliance and a significant decrease in respiratory frequency and the work of breathing. Prophylactic diaphragm plication may preserve lung function, reduce the risk of

  17. Circadian variations in 32P uptake of DMBA-induced mammary tumour and Walker carcinosarcoma in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Møoller, U.; Bojsen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The 32P uptake in a mammary tumour induced by DMBA and in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma was measured by external GM -tubes. The uptake was significantly higher than in the skin. During exposure to a synchronized light regime a circadian variation was present in the 32P uptake of the hormone-dependent DMBA-induced tumour. The maximal 32P uptake was in the dark period, in which the highest temperature in the tumour has also been found (Møoller and Bojsen, 1975). In the hormone-independent Walker 256 carcinosarcoma there was no periodicity in 32P uptake. No variation in 32P uptake was registered in the skin of normal controls or in tumour-bearing rats. PMID:820364

  18. Trophoblast Deportation to the Lungs of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    PubMed Central

    Perle, Krista M D La; Green, M Gia; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) have been used to study a variety of infectious agents, particularly human respiratory viral pathogens. During the course of comprehensive pathologic evaluations of aging breeders from our breeding colony, 6 of 22 (27%) female cotton rats had histologic evidence, limited to the lungs, of embolized cells that were confirmed to be trophoblastic in origin by HSD3B1 immunoreactivity. When pulmonary trophoblast emboli were numerous, they usually were associated with additional histologic findings in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, endothelial hypertrophy, fibrinoid vascular necrosis, and abundant alveolar macrophages containing fresh fibrin and hemolyzing erythrocytes. Of the 6 cotton rats with pulmonary trophoblast emboli, 5 (83%) were at 8 to 18 d of the 27-d gestation period, with the greatest number of emboli per lung present between days 10 through 14. The remaining cotton rat had a focal pulmonary trophoblast embolus and was not pregnant but had delivered a litter 3 mo previously. Three other cotton rats in either the early or late stages of gestation showed no histologic evidence of pulmonary trophoblast deportation. This report is the first to document pulmonary trophoblast emboli in cotton rats. This finding suggests that cotton rats may be an alternative animal model for the study of normal and aberrant trophoblast deportation in routine pregnancies and gestational pathologic conditions in women. PMID:25527025

  19. Efficacy and safety of cryobiopsy versus forceps biopsy for interstitial lung diseases and lung tumours: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganganah, Oormila; Guo, Shu Liang; Chiniah, Manu; Li, Yi Shi

    2016-07-01

    Forceps biopsy (FB) is the most commonly used diagnostic tool for lung pathologies. FB is associated with a high diagnostic failure rate. Cryobiopsy (CB) is a novel technique providing a larger specimen size, few artefacts, more alveolar parts and superior diagnostic yield. CB, however, has drawbacks such as higher bleeding and pneumothorax rate. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the specimen area, diagnostic rate and bleeding severity in CB versus FB in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and lung tumours. A systematic literature search of PUBMED, BIOSIS PREVIEW and OVID databases was conducted using specific search terms. Eligible studies including RCTs and non-RCTs comparing cryobiopsy/cryotransbronchial biopsy (CB/CTBB) and forceps biopsy/forceps transbronchial biopsy (FB/FTBB) for specimen area, diagnostic rate and bleeding rate in ILDs and lung tumours were analysed. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies. Eight studies involving 916 patients were analysed. Specimen area (mm(2) ) was significantly larger in CB/CTBB than FB/FTBB (standard mean difference = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (0.94, 1.48), P < 0.00001). The diagnostic rate was significantly higher in CB/CTBB than FB/FTBB (Risk ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval (1.16, 1.59), P = 0.0002). Three studies compared the bleeding severity with only one showing significantly more bleeding in CB. Cryobiopsy/cryotransbronchial shows superiority to FB/FTBB for specimen area and diagnostic rate. CB/CTBB has better efficacy over FB/FTBB.

  20. Lung function and ventilation inhomogeneity in rat lungs after allergen challenge.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cifuentes, M V; Rubio, M L; Ortega, M; Peces-Barba, G; Paiva, M; Verbanck, S; Mangado, N G

    2000-03-01

    We studied the early response to ovalbumin challenge in sensitized Brown-Norway rats through its effect on N(2), He, and SF(6) phase III slopes of the single-breath washout and on indexes of lung function. Sensitized rats showed varying degrees of response in terms of pulmonary pressure (PL), with increases ranging between 125 and 225% of baseline. The sensitized rats presented decreased quasistatic compliance, forced vital capacity, and end-expiratory flow, with all three lung function indexes showing a significant negative correlation with corresponding PL values. They also showed significant positive correlations of PL with the N(2), He, and SF(6) phase III slopes, reflecting diffusion-convection-dependent inhomogeneities generated by conformation changes throughout the entire rat lung. In addition, the rats showing the most marked PL increases (>150% baseline PL) also revealed a reversal of the SF(6)-He slope difference because of a more marked SF(6) than He slope increase. This latter finding suggests that the degree of structural heterogeneity during early response is even more marked in the most peripheral rat lung generations.

  1. A proposed framework for consensus-based lung tumour volume auto-segmentation in 4D computed tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Spencer; Brophy, Mark; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V.; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Barron, John L.; Beauchemin, Steven S.; Rodrigues, George; Gaede, Stewart

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to propose and validate a framework for tumour volume auto-segmentation based on ground-truth estimates derived from multi-physician input contours to expedite 4D-CT based lung tumour volume delineation. 4D-CT datasets of ten non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were manually segmented by 6 physicians. Multi-expert ground truth (GT) estimates were constructed using the STAPLE algorithm for the gross tumour volume (GTV) on all respiratory phases. Next, using a deformable model-based method, multi-expert GT on each individual phase of the 4D-CT dataset was propagated to all other phases providing auto-segmented GTVs and motion encompassing internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) based on GT estimates (STAPLE) from each respiratory phase of the 4D-CT dataset. Accuracy assessment of auto-segmentation employed graph cuts for 3D-shape reconstruction and point-set registration-based analysis yielding volumetric and distance-based measures. STAPLE-based auto-segmented GTV accuracy ranged from (81.51  ±  1.92) to (97.27  ±  0.28)% volumetric overlap of the estimated ground truth. IGTV auto-segmentation showed significantly improved accuracies with reduced variance for all patients ranging from 90.87 to 98.57% volumetric overlap of the ground truth volume. Additional metrics supported these observations with statistical significance. Accuracy of auto-segmentation was shown to be largely independent of selection of the initial propagation phase. IGTV construction based on auto-segmented GTVs within the 4D-CT dataset provided accurate and reliable target volumes compared to manual segmentation-based GT estimates. While inter-/intra-observer effects were largely mitigated, the proposed segmentation workflow is more complex than that of current clinical practice and requires further development.

  2. Lung injury in mice and rats acutely exposed to beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Sendelbach, L.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lung injury, in rats and mice, exposed to an aerosol of beryllium sulfate (BE) for one hour, through nose-only inhalation, was evaluated by the methods of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung cell kinetics. The BAL in rats, sacrificed over a 21 day period following exposure, showed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (Alk Pase) activities as the most sensitive indicators of lung damage. LDH activity peaked at day 8 while Alk Pase activity peaked at day 5, both being 30 times greater than comparable control values. Acid phosphatase activity and albumin levels were also increased, but not to the same extent as LDH and Alk Pase. The BAL of mice showed LDH activity as the most sensitive indicator of lung damage, with a maximum response 3 times greater than controls at day 5. In another series of experiments, animals were treated with three agents capable of inducing fibrosis: beryllium sulfate, bleomycin, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Cy A completely inhibited the fibrogenic effects of BHT in mice, as measured through total lung hydroxyproline content. Bleomycin-induced fibrosis was significantly reduced by Cy A treatment in rats, but showed no effect in mice. Additionally, the effect of iron salt administration to rats decreased the intravenous LD/sub 50/ dose, and significantly reduced the inhalation toxicity, of beryllium sulfate. The protective mechanism of iron salt administration, through the induction of ferritin synthesis, is postulated.

  3. Tumour-promoting phorbol esters increase basal and inhibit insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in rat adipocytes without decreasing insulin binding.

    PubMed Central

    van de Werve, G; Proietto, J; Jeanrenaud, B

    1985-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, tumour-promoting phorbol esters caused (1) dose-dependent stimulation of lipogenesis in the absence of insulin and (2) inhibition of the lipogenic effect of submaximal concentrations of insulin, but without affecting insulin binding. The possible involvement of protein kinase C in insulin action is discussed. PMID:3883992

  4. Epithelial-myoepithelial tumour of the lung: a case report referring to its molecular histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Guillermo; Felipo, Francesc; Marquina, Isabel; Del Agua, Celia

    2011-07-28

    Tracheobronchial submucous glands can be considered the pulmonary equivalent of minor salivary glands and therefore they can develop most of the tumours originated in these. Nevertheless, in spite of the wide distribution of this kind of glands along the tracheobronchial tree, pulmonary salivary gland-like neoplasms are not very frequent. Among them, the most frequent are mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas. On the contrary, pulmonary neoplasms showing a mixture of epithelial and myoepithelial elements are extraordinary infrequent, with only 11 cases collected from literature.We present the case of a 76 year-old woman with no interesting pathological history, to whom a pulmonary nodule is detected during a study of unknown origin neutropenia. An upper right lobectomy is performed.After macro and microscopic study, the diagnosis of pulmonary epithelial-myoepithelial tumour is made. It is a low malignant potential tumour with capacity to locally recur and less frequently to metastasize. Our case has the peculiarity of not being connected neither to visceral pleura nor to bronchial tree; we have not found this characteristic in any literature reviewed case.These tumours have been named in a lot of different ways, including adenomyoepithelioma, epithelial-myoepithelial tumour, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma or epithelial-myoepithelial tumour of uncertain malignant potential.The p27/kip-1 protein plays a fundamental role in the development of these neoplasms. As we have verified in our case, its aberrant cytoplasmic location, besides its proved oncogenic function, would favour the proliferation of stem cells, which would explain both dual phenotype with presence of myoepithelial cells without connection with the bronchial tree, and TTF-1 immunostaining in epithelial cells.

  5. Epithelial-myoepithelial tumour of the lung: a case report referring to its molecular histogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tracheobronchial submucous glands can be considered the pulmonary equivalent of minor salivary glands and therefore they can develop most of the tumours originated in these. Nevertheless, in spite of the wide distribution of this kind of glands along the tracheobronchial tree, pulmonary salivary gland-like neoplasms are not very frequent. Among them, the most frequent are mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas. On the contrary, pulmonary neoplasms showing a mixture of epithelial and myoepithelial elements are extraordinary infrequent, with only 11 cases collected from literature. We present the case of a 76 year-old woman with no interesting pathological history, to whom a pulmonary nodule is detected during a study of unknown origin neutropenia. An upper right lobectomy is performed. After macro and microscopic study, the diagnosis of pulmonary epithelial-myoepithelial tumour is made. It is a low malignant potential tumour with capacity to locally recur and less frequently to metastasize. Our case has the peculiarity of not being connected neither to visceral pleura nor to bronchial tree; we have not found this characteristic in any literature reviewed case. These tumours have been named in a lot of different ways, including adenomyoepithelioma, epithelial-myoepithelial tumour, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma or epithelial-myoepithelial tumour of uncertain malignant potential. The p27/kip-1 protein plays a fundamental role in the development of these neoplasms. As we have verified in our case, its aberrant cytoplasmic location, besides its proved oncogenic function, would favour the proliferation of stem cells, which would explain both dual phenotype with presence of myoepithelial cells without connection with the bronchial tree, and TTF-1 immunostaining in epithelial cells. PMID:21798017

  6. Perinatal rat lung retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Zachman, R D; Kakkad, B; Chytil, F

    1984-12-01

    The potential role for retinol (vitamin A alcohol) in the differentiation of the developing lung prompted this study in the perinatal rat. High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate, detect, and quantitate retinol and retinyl palmitate in lipid extracts of tissue and serum. Fetal and maternal blood showed the presence of retinol, whereas no retinyl palmitate was detected. On the other hand, fetal and postnatal lungs contained retinyl palmitate as well as retinol. Considerable changes in the content of lung retinyl palmitate were found during lung development. Fetal lungs (17-21 days of gestation) contained 2.3 +/- 0.36 micrograms/g wet weight (mean +/- SD) of retinyl palmitate and 0.14 +/- 0.05 micrograms/g of retinol. Lungs of pups (1-10 days old) contained much less retinyl palmitate, 0.63 +/- 0.20 micrograms/g, whereas the amount of retinol was the same as in fetal lungs. The surprisingly high content of retinyl palmitate in fetal lung and its depletion after birth may be functionally related to retinol action in the developing lung. PMID:6522144

  7. 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) synthesis in rats hosting the R3230AC mammary tumour.

    PubMed

    Ong, M L; Kellen, J A; Malkin, D G; Malkin, A

    1986-01-01

    Generation of T3 and rT3 from T4 was studied in R3230AC mammary tumours grown in Fischer 344 rats as well as in the liver and kidney of these tumour-bearing hosts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if reversion of T3 to rT3 synthesis occurs in this experimental tumour model and in organs remote from the tumour site. Tumours, hepatic and renal homogenates were analyzed 14-16 days following tumour implantation for 5- and 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activity using thyroxine as substrate. It was observed that similar to the liver and kidney, the mammary tumour was capable of generating both T3 and rT3 from T4; renal synthesis of T3 was significantly greater than that of rT3 in tumour hosts and controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference between T3 and rT3 synthesis in the tumour itself and the livers of normal and tumour-bearing animals. Hepatic and renal T3 synthesis were greater in the tumour-bearing than in the normal rats; no difference in the hepatic and renal rT3 synthesis was observed between the tumour-bearing and the normal animals. Despite the fact that serum T3 was significantly lower in the tumour-bearing than in the normal rats, no difference in the serum rT3 level was observed between the two groups of animals. Our data demonstrate that in this particular animal model there is no evidence of dedifferentiation of iodothyronine deiodinase activity either within the tumour or in remote tissues.

  8. Metabolism of nitrofluoranthenes by rat lung subcellular fractions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C E; Bechtold, W E; Belinsky, S A

    1993-06-01

    The nitrofluoranthene (NF) family of compounds includes the potent pulmonary carcinogen 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene (3,9-DNF) and the weak carcinogen 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF). Although the specific molecular mechanisms involved in this difference in sensitivity for the induction of lung tumors in rats by 3,9-DNF and 3-NF have not been defined, these compounds most likely induce carcinogenesis by metabolic activation to electrophilic metabolites that bind DNA. The purpose of these investigations was to determine the activation pathways in the rat lung for the metabolism of the di-(3,9-DNF) and mono-nitroisomers (3-NF, 8-NF, 2-NF) of NFs. The metabolic rates of NFs were compared for lung subcellular fractions of pristine rats as well as rats previously treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) or phenobarbital at levels that would induce cytochrome P450 enzymes. One major metabolite, the amino derivative, was detected by high pressure liquid chromatography following anaerobic incubation of rat lung cytosol with 3-NF, 8-NF, 2-NF or 3,9-DNF. 3,9-DNF was metabolized to its amino derivative, aminonitrofluoranthene, at a higher rate than 3-NF, 8-NF or 2-NF. Pretreatment of the rats with 3-MC or phenobarbital did not affect the metabolic rates of cytosolic reduction. Both 3-NF and 3,9-DNF were metabolized anaerobically to their amino derivatives by microsomal reductas(s). 3,9-DNF was metabolized twice as fast as 3-NF. The formation of the aminonitrofluoranthene metabolite was increased approximately 2 times with microsomes from 3-MC-induced rats, but was unaffected by microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats. This suggests that the cytochrome P450 isozymes and reductase, which are induced by 3-MC, may be involved in the metabolism of 3-NF and 3,9-DNF. The metabolic products of 3-NF, formed aerobically, consisted of one major and three minor compounds. The major metabolite, tentatively identified as 3-NF-8-ol, was increased approximately 6 times using microsomes from 3-MC

  9. Tumour-initiating cell-specific miR-1246 and miR-1290 expression converge to promote non-small cell lung cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen Cai; Chin, Tan Min; Yang, Henry; Nga, Min En; Lunny, Declan Patrick; Lim, Edwin Kok Hao; Sun, Li Li; Pang, Yin Huei; Leow, Yi Ning; Malusay, Shanneen Rossellini Y; Lim, Priscilla Xin Hui; Lee, Jeravan Zili; Tan, Benedict Jian Wei; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Lim, Elaine Hsuen; Lim, Wan Teck; Tan, Daniel Shao Weng; Tan, Eng Huat; Tai, Bee Choo; Soo, Ross Andrew; Tam, Wai Leong; Lim, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The tumour-initiating cell (TIC) model accounts for phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among tumour cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules frequently aberrantly expressed in cancers, and may contribute towards tumour heterogeneity and TIC behaviour. More recent efforts have focused on miRNAs as diagnostic or therapeutic targets. Here, we identified the TIC-specific miRNAs, miR-1246 and miR-1290, as crucial drivers for tumour initiation and cancer progression in human non-small cell lung cancer. The loss of either miRNA impacted the tumour-initiating potential of TICs and their ability to metastasize. Longitudinal analyses of serum miR-1246 and miR-1290 levels across time correlate their circulating levels to the clinical response of lung cancer patients who were receiving ongoing anti-neoplastic therapies. Functionally, direct inhibition of either miRNA with locked nucleic acid administered systemically, can arrest the growth of established patient-derived xenograft tumours, thus indicating that these miRNAs are clinically useful as biomarkers for tracking disease progression and as therapeutic targets. PMID:27325363

  10. Tumour-initiating cell-specific miR-1246 and miR-1290 expression converge to promote non-small cell lung cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen Cai; Chin, Tan Min; Yang, Henry; Nga, Min En; Lunny, Declan Patrick; Lim, Edwin Kok Hao; Sun, Li Li; Pang, Yin Huei; Leow, Yi Ning; Malusay, Shanneen Rossellini Y; Lim, Priscilla Xin Hui; Lee, Jeravan Zili; Tan, Benedict Jian Wei; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Lim, Elaine Hsuen; Lim, Wan Teck; Tan, Daniel Shao Weng; Tan, Eng Huat; Tai, Bee Choo; Soo, Ross Andrew; Tam, Wai Leong; Lim, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The tumour-initiating cell (TIC) model accounts for phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among tumour cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules frequently aberrantly expressed in cancers, and may contribute towards tumour heterogeneity and TIC behaviour. More recent efforts have focused on miRNAs as diagnostic or therapeutic targets. Here, we identified the TIC-specific miRNAs, miR-1246 and miR-1290, as crucial drivers for tumour initiation and cancer progression in human non-small cell lung cancer. The loss of either miRNA impacted the tumour-initiating potential of TICs and their ability to metastasize. Longitudinal analyses of serum miR-1246 and miR-1290 levels across time correlate their circulating levels to the clinical response of lung cancer patients who were receiving ongoing anti-neoplastic therapies. Functionally, direct inhibition of either miRNA with locked nucleic acid administered systemically, can arrest the growth of established patient-derived xenograft tumours, thus indicating that these miRNAs are clinically useful as biomarkers for tracking disease progression and as therapeutic targets. PMID:27325363

  11. The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-α and chemokines by human lung macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Buenestado, A; Delyle, S Grassin; Arnould, I; Besnard, F; Naline, E; Blouquit-Laye, S; Chapelier, A; Bellamy, JF; Devillier, P

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Adenosine is a major endogenous regulator of macrophage function, and activates four specific adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3). Here, we have assessed in human lung macrophages the modulation of the expression of adenosine receptor mRNA by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the relative contributions of the different adenosine receptors to LPS-induced production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and chemokines. Experimental approach: Lung macrophages isolated from resected lungs were stimulated with LPS and treated with adenosine receptor agonists or/and antagonists. Adenosine receptor expression was assessed with qRT-PCR. Cytokines were measured in lung macrophage supernatants with elisa. Key results: LPS increased (about 400-fold) mRNA for A2A adenosine receptors, decreased mRNA for A1 and A2B, but had no effect on A3 adenosine receptor mRNA. The adenosine receptor agonist NECA inhibited TNF-α production concentration dependently, whereas the A1 receptor agonist, CCPA, and the A3 receptor agonist, AB-MECA, inhibited TNF-α production only at concentrations affecting A2A receptors. NECA also inhibited the production of CCL chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5) and CXCL chemokines (CXCL9 and CXCL10), but not that of CXCL1, CXCL8 and CXCL5. Reversal of NECA-induced inhibition of TNF-α and chemokine production by the selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist ZM 241385, but not the A2B receptor antagonist, MRS 1754, or the A3 receptor antagonist, MRS 1220, indicated involvement of A2A receptors. Conclusions and implications: LPS up-regulated A2A adenosine receptor gene transcription, and this receptor subtype mediated inhibition of the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and of a subset of chemokines in human lung macrophages. PMID:20136829

  12. Prostaglandin synthesis by chicken and rat lung microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Craig-Schmidt, M.C.; Faircloth, S.A.; Wu-Wang, C.Y.

    1986-03-01

    A comparison between chicken and rat lung was made for microsomal prostaglandin (PG) synthesis from 1-/sup 14/C-arachidonic acid. Microsomal protein (2.0 mg) from chicken or rat lung was incubated in the presence of 20 ..mu..g of 1-/sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (specific activity = 3 x 10/sup 6/ dpm/..mu..mol for chicken; 6 x 10/sup 6/ dpm/..mu..mol for rat), 0.05 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 8.0), 0.5 mM epinephrine, and 1 mM reduced glutathione in a total volume of 0.5 ml in a 37/sup 0/C water bath with shaking for 15 min. After acidification with 1 M HCl to pH 3, prostaglandins were extracted with ethyl acetate. The products of the reactions were separated by reversed phase chromatography, and the radioactivity of each prostanoid fraction was determined. The predominant prostanoid synthesized by chicken lung microsomes was PGE/sub 2/, followed by much lower amounts of thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TXB/sub 2/), PGF/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../ and PGD/sub 2/. In at lung, 6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was the predominant product formed, with minor amounts of 6-keto-PGE/sub 1/, TXB/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../ and PGD/sub 2/. In rat lung, 6-keto-FGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was the predominant product formed, with minor amounts of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was the predominant product formed, with minor amounts of 6-keto-PGE/sub 1/, TXB/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, PGE/sub 2/ and PGD/sub 2/ being formed. Enzyme specific activity (pmol of PG produced per mg microsomal protein per min) was 11.9 for PGE/sub 2/ produced by chicken lung and 16. 7 for 6-keto-P/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ produced by rat lung. Thus, there appears to be a species variation in chicken compared to rat for the lung prostanoids which are known to cause bronchial dilation.

  13. Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase-Like Enzymes Has Tumour-Promoting and Tumour-Suppressing Roles in Experimental Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria; Adamo, Hanibal; Bergh, Anders; Halin Bergström, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like (LOXL) enzymes are key players in extracellular matrix deposition and maturation. LOX promote tumour progression and metastasis, but it may also have tumour-inhibitory effects. Here we show that orthotopic implantation of rat prostate AT-1 tumour cells increased LOX and LOXLs mRNA expressions in the tumour and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue. Inhibition of LOX enzymes, using Beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), initiated before implantation of AT-1 cells, reduced tumour growth. Conversely, treatment that was started after the tumours were established resulted in unaffected or increased tumour growth. Moreover, treatment with BAPN did not suppress the formation of spontaneous lymph node metastases, or lung tumour burden, when tumour cells were injected intravenously. A temporal decrease in collagen fibre content, which is a target for LOX, was observed in tumours and in the tumour-adjacent prostate tissue. This may explain why early BAPN treatment is more effective in inhibiting tumour growth compared to treatment initiated later. Our data suggest that the enzymatic function of the LOX family is context-dependent, with both tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting properties in prostate cancer. Further investigations are needed to understand the circumstances under which LOX inhibition may be used as a therapeutic target for cancer patients. PMID:26804196

  14. Fluorometry of ischemia reperfusion injury in rat lungs in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, R.; Staniszewski, K.; Jacobs, E. R.; Audi, S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated the utility of optical fluorometry to evaluate lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rats lungs under various chemically-induced respiratory states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute ischemia on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in vivo using optical fluorometry. Under ischemic conditions, insufficient oxygen supply to the mitochondrial chain should reduce the mitochondrial redox state calculated from the ratio of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavoprotein Adenine Dinucleotide). The chest of anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rat was opened to induce acute ischemia by clamping the left hilum to block both blood flow and ventilation to one lung for approximately 10 minutes. NADH and FAD fluorescent signals were recorded continuously in a dark room via a fluorometer probe placed on the pleural surface of the left lung. Acute ischemia caused a decrease in FAD and an increase in NADH, which resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial redox ratio (RR=NADH/FAD). Restoration of blood flow and ventilation by unclamping the left hilum returned the RR back to its baseline. These results (increase in RR under ischemia) show promise for the fluorometer to be used in a clinical setting for evaluating the effect of pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in real time.

  15. Automatic classification of lung tumour heterogeneity according to a visual-based score system in dynamic contrast enhanced CT sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Baiocco, Serena

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) technologies have been considered for a long time as one of the most effective medical imaging tools for morphological analysis of body parts. Contrast Enhanced CT (CE-CT) also allows emphasising details of tissue structures whose heterogeneity, inspected through visual analysis, conveys crucial information regarding diagnosis and prognosis in several clinical pathologies. Recently, Dynamic CE-CT (DCE-CT) has emerged as a promising technique to perform also functional hemodynamic studies, with wide applications in the oncologic field. DCE-CT is based on repeated scans over time performed after intravenous administration of contrast agent, in order to study the temporal evolution of the tracer in 3D tumour tissue. DCE-CT pushes towards an intensive use of computers to provide automatically quantitative information to be used directly in clinical practice. This requires that visual analysis, representing the gold-standard for CT image interpretation, gains objectivity. This work presents the first automatic approach to quantify and classify the lung tumour heterogeneities based on DCE-CT image sequences, so as it is performed through visual analysis by experts. The approach developed relies on the spatio-temporal indices we devised, which also allow exploiting temporal data that enrich the knowledge of the tissue heterogeneity by providing information regarding the lesion status.

  16. Effects on rat lung immunity by acute lung exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Schnizlein, C.T.; Bice, D.E.; Mitchell, C.E.; Hahn, F.F.

    1982-07-01

    This study describes the effects of intratracheal instillation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on immunological responses in the lung-associated lymph nodes, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen after deposition of 10/sup 8/ sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in the lung or peritoneal cavity of rats. An increased number of anti-SRBC antibody-forming cells was observed in the lung-associated lymph nodes when rats were immunized simultaneously with BaP instillation. A suppression in the number of anti-SRBC antibody-forming cells occurred when SRBC were given intratracheally 4 or 7 days after BaP. The effects of the BaP appeared to be on the function of the cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes rather than due to changes in the exposed lung. BaP-induced changes in antigen handling or in regulatory populations of immune cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes may be responsible for the immune alterations observed.

  17. Effects on rat lung immunity by acute lung exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Schnizlein, C.T.; Bice, D.E.; Mitchell, C.E.; Hahn, F.F.

    1982-07-01

    This study describes the effect of intratracheal instillation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on immunological responses in the lung-associated lymph nodes, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen after deposition of 10/sup 8/ sheep red blood cells (SRCB) in the lung or peritoneal cavity of rats. An increased number of anti-SRBC antibody-forming cells was observed in the lung-assoicated lymph nodes when rats were immunized simultaneously with BaP instillation. A suppression in the number of anti-SRBC antibody-forming cells occurred when SRBC were given intratracheally 4 or 7 days after BaP. The effects of the BaP appeared to be on the function of the cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes rather than due to changes in the exposed lung. BaP-induced changes in antigen handling or in regulatory populations of immune cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes may be responsible for the immune alterations observed.

  18. Nilotinib ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    El-Agamy, Dina S.

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given nilotinib (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage twice daily for 1 week prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS. At 24 h after LPS exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissue were collected. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein level and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF were determined. Optical microscopy was performed to examine the pathological changes in lungs. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities as well as nitrite/nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -}) levels were measured in lung tissues. The expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), transforming growth factor-{beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined in lung tissues. Treatment with nilotinib prior to LPS exposure significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pulmonary edema, as it significantly decreased lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the BALF. This was supported by the histopathological examination which revealed marked attenuation of LPS-induced ALI in nilotinib treated rats. In addition, nilotinib significantly increased SOD and GSH activities with significant decrease in MDA content in the lung. Nilotinib also reduced LPS mediated overproduction of pulmonary NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} levels. Importantly, nilotinib caused down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, TGF-{beta}{sub 1} and iNOS levels in the lung. Taken together, these results demonstrate the protective effects of nilotinib against the LPS-induced ALI. This effect can be attributed to nilotinib ability to counteract the inflammatory cells

  19. Eotaxin Expression in Sephadex-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ren-Feng; Ward, Peter A.; Jordan, Jacqueline A.; Huber-Lang, Markus; Warner, Roscoe L.; Shi, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    The CC chemokine eotaxin is a potent and specific eosinophil chemoattractant. Eosinophil-dependent tissue injury has been shown to contribute to airway inflammation such as that in asthma. In the present study, We investigated eotaxin expression in a rat model of pulmonary inflammation (featuring accumulation of eosinophils) induced by intratracheal instillation of cross-linked dextran beads (Sephadex G200). Intratracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg Sephadex caused a time-dependent eosinophil infiltration into the lung, reaching a peak at 24 hours. Eotaxin mRNA in the lung paralleled the eosinophil influx. Eotaxin protein in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluids and lung homogenates was shown by Western blot and immunostaining to be maximally expressed by 24 hours. Sephadex-induced lung injury, as measured by 125I-labeled albumin leakage from the pulmonary vasculature, developed in a time-dependent manner. Intravenous injection of blocking antibody to eotaxin significantly decreased eosinophil infiltration and lung permeability. These data suggest that, in the Sephadex model of lung inflammation, eotaxin up-regulation mediates intrapulmonary accumulation of eosinophils and the development of lung injury. PMID:10595930

  20. A dosimetric phantom study of dose accuracy and build-up effects using IMRT and RapidArc in stereotactic irradiation of lung tumours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Stereotactic lung radiotherapy (SLRT) has emerged as a curative treatment for medically inoperable patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc treatments (VMAT) have been proposed as the best practical approaches for the delivery of SLRT. However, a large number of narrow field shapes are needed in the dose delivery of intensity-modulated techniques and the probability of underdosing the tumour periphery increases as the effective field size is decreased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate small lung tumour doses irradiated by intensity-modulated techniques to understand the risk for dose calculation errors in precision radiotherapy such as SLRT. Materials and methods The study was executed with two heterogeneous phantoms with targets of Ø1.5 and Ø4.0 cm. Dose distributions in the simulated tumours delivered by small sliding window apertures (SWAs), IMRT and RapidArc treatment plans were measured with radiochromic film. Calculation algorithms of pencil beam convolution (PBC) and anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) were used to calculate the corresponding dose distributions. Results Peripheral doses of the tumours were decreased as SWA decreased, which was not modelled by the calculation algorithms. The smallest SWA studied was 2 mm, which reduced the 90% isodose line width by 4.2 mm with the Ø4.0 cm tumour as compared to open field irradiation. PBC was not able to predict the dose accurately as the gamma evaluation failed to meet the criteria of ±3%/±1 mm on average in 61% of the defined volume with the smaller tumour. With AAA the corresponding value was 16%. The dosimetric inaccuracy of AAA was within ±3% with the optimized treatment plans of IMRT and RapidArc. The exception was the clinical RapidArc plan with dose overestimation of 4%. Conclusions Overall, the peripheral doses of the simulated lung tumours were

  1. Target cell toxicity of inhaled spermidine in rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J. R.; Smith, L. L.; Hext, P. M.; Brammer, A.; Soames, A. R.; Wyatt, I.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were exposed for a single 6-h period to varying concentrations of aerosols of the polyamine, spermidine trihydrochloride. They were subsequently killed at 6 h, 1, 2, 5, 9 and 14 days after the start of exposure. The lungs were examined for histopathological alterations at both light and electron microscopic level and assays of lung spermidine burdens performed. In rats killed at the 6-h termination period, lung spermidine levels had increased approximately 1.5-fold although concentrations in animals killed on days 1 and 2 showed only marginal increases. Concentrations peaked again on day 5 and henceforth decreased until control spermidine levels were again achieved on day 14. Exposure of rat lungs to spermidine resulted in a specific dose-dependent necrosis of Clara cells of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar Type II cells. At the lowest dose used (6 mg/m3) specific necrosis of the Clara cells was seen at the earliest time interval studied, i.e. 6 h, but these cells were rapidly lost and subsequently replaced without evidence of significant cell proliferation by the 2-day sacrifice period. At all higher dose levels additional necrosis of the alveolar Type II cells occurred which was not reversible but which progressed through alveolitis to a fully developed subchronic pneumonitis by 14 days. Images Fig. 4 p624-a Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2206983

  2. Lung cancer in rats exposed to fibrogenic dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Tillery, M.I.; Smith, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fischer-344 rats were exposed to quartz dusts and to quartz-bearing oil shale dusts in long-term inhalation studies. Aerosol concentrations of 12 mg/m/sup 3/ and 152-176 mg/m/sup 3/ for quartz and shale dusts, respectively, were used in exposure regimens lasting up to two years. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed in most animals surviving beyond 400 days. Adenocarcinomas and epidermoid carcinomas of the lung were observed in animals from all exposure groups, including those exposed to quartz alone. The pulmonary tumors were a late effect, with the earliest lung tumor being observed after 651 days. 13 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Interleukin-15 is able to suppress the increased DNA fragmentation associated with muscle wasting in tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Maite; Busquets, Sílvia; Carbó, Neus; Barreiro, Esther; Almendro, Vanessa; Argilés, Josep M; López-Soriano, Francisco J

    2004-07-01

    Administration of interleukin-15 (IL-15) to rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma (a tumour that induces an important cachectic response) resulted in a significant reduction of muscle wasting, both measured as muscle weight and as protein content of different types of skeletal muscle. In addition, the administration of the cytokine completely reversed the increased DNA fragmentation observed in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing animals. Concerning the mechanism(s) involved in the anti-apoptotic effects of IL-15 on skeletal muscle, the administration of the cytokine resulted in a considerable decrease in both R1 (43%) and R2 (64%) TNF-alpha receptors (TNFRs), and therefore it may be suggested that IL-15 decreases apoptosis by affecting TNF-alpha signalling. Formation of NO could be the signalling event associated with the activation of apoptosis in muscle of tumour-bearing rats; indeed, administration of IL-15 decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein levels by 73%, suggesting that NO formation and muscle apoptosis during tumour growth are related. In conclusion, IL-15 seems to be able to reduce/suppress protein loss and apoptosis related to muscle wasting during cancer cachexia in experimental animals.

  4. 4D radiobiological modelling of the interplay effect in conventionally and hypofractionated lung tumour IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, J; Baker, C; Nahum, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of the interplay between respiration-induced tumour motion and multileaf collimator leaf movements in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as a function of number of fractions, dose rate on population mean tumour control probability () using an in-house developed dose model. Methods: Delivered dose was accumulated in a voxel-by-voxel basis inclusive of tumour motion over the course of treatment. The effect of interplay on dose and was studied for conventionally and hypofractionated treatments using digital imaging and communications in medicine data sets. Moreover, the effect of dose rate on interplay was also studied for single-fraction treatments. Simulations were repeated several times to obtain for each plan. Results: The average variation observed in mean dose to the target volumes were −0.76% ± 0.36% for the 20-fraction treatment and −0.26% ± 0.68% and −1.05% ± 0.98% for the three- and single-fraction treatments, respectively. For the 20-fraction treatment, the drop in was −1.05% ± 0.39%, whereas for the three- and single-fraction treatments, it was −2.80% ± 1.68% and −4.00% ± 2.84%, respectively. By reducing the dose rate from 600 to 300 MU min−1 for the single-fraction treatments, the drop in was reduced by approximately 1.5%. Conclusion: The effect of interplay on is negligible for conventionally fractionated treatments, whereas considerable drop in is observed for the three- and single-fraction treatments. Reduced dose rate could be used in hypofractionated treatments to reduce the interplay effect. Advances in knowledge: A novel in silico dose model is presented to determine the impact of interplay effect in IMRT treatments on . PMID:25251400

  5. Quantitative x ray microanalysis of pulmonary mineral particles in a patient with pneumoconiosis and two primary lung tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, S; Sutinen, S; Pääkkö, P; Alapieti, T; Peura, R; Sivonen, S J

    1984-01-01

    The right upper lung lobe of a 74 year old man was resected for a central tumour. Two primary cancers were found; a central small cell carcinoma and a peripheral squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the peripheral lung tissue showed generalised peribronchiolar fibrosis extending from the non-respiratory bronchioles to the level of the alveolar ducts. Abundant asbestos bodies and large amounts of black dust were seen around the bronchioles. Pulmonary mineral particles were studied by quantitative energy dispersive x ray microanalysis (EDS) using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The x ray spectra for mineral particles were measured in thin sections, and the characteristic peak intensities of the elements were converted to weight fractions (in oxides). The results enabled the minerals present to be identified and their presence confirmed by calculating the mineral formula. These originated from nine natural minerals, anthophyllite and chrysotile asbestos, talc, and quartz, feldspars, and muscovite, which are components of sand, and also from two artificial mullites used in fire clay. The exposure history of the patient explained the most likely origins of the minerals detected. The patient had been a mason for 23 years, repairing and demolishing stoves and fireplaces and using asbestos for insulation work. Images PMID:6093848

  6. Lung inflation with hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase decreases lung graft injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongfang; Fang, Xianhai; Meng, Chao; Xing, Jingchun; Liu, Jinfeng; Yang, Wanchao; Li, Wenzhi; Zhou, Huacheng

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury when it is inhaled by donor or/and recipient. This study examined the effects of lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase on lung graft function in rats. The donor lung was inflated with 3% hydrogen, 40% oxygen, and 57% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg, and the gas was replaced every 20 min during the cold ischemia phase for 2 h. In the control group, the donor lung was inflated with 40% oxygen and 60% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg. The recipient was euthanized 2 h after orthotropic lung transplantation. The hydrogen concentration in the donor lung during the cold ischemia phase was 1.99-3%. The oxygenation indices in the arterial blood and pulmonary vein blood were improved in the hydrogen group. The inflammation response indices, including lung W/D ratio, the myeloperoxidase activity in the grafts, and the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α in serum, were significantly lower in the hydrogen group (5.2 ± 0.8, 0.76 ± 0.32 U/g, 340 ± 84 pg/mL, and 405 ± 115 pg/mL, respectively) than those in the control group (6.5 ± 0.7, 1.1 ± 0.5 U/g, 443 ± 94 pg/mL, and 657 ± 96 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05), and the oxidative stress indices, including the superoxide dismutase activity and the level of malonaldehyde in lung grafts were improved after hydrogen application. Furthermore, the lung injury score determined by histopathology, the cell apoptotic index, and the caspase-3 protein expression in lung grafts were decreased after hydrogen treatment, and the static pressure-volume curve of lung graft was improved by hydrogen inflation. In conclusion, lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase alleviated lung graft injury and improved graft function.

  7. Lung inflation with hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase decreases lung graft injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rongfang; Fang, Xianhai; Meng, Chao; Xing, Jingchun; Liu, Jinfeng; Yang, Wanchao

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on lung ischemia–reperfusion injury when it is inhaled by donor or/and recipient. This study examined the effects of lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase on lung graft function in rats. The donor lung was inflated with 3% hydrogen, 40% oxygen, and 57% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg, and the gas was replaced every 20 min during the cold ischemia phase for 2 h. In the control group, the donor lung was inflated with 40% oxygen and 60% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg. The recipient was euthanized 2 h after orthotropic lung transplantation. The hydrogen concentration in the donor lung during the cold ischemia phase was 1.99–3%. The oxygenation indices in the arterial blood and pulmonary vein blood were improved in the hydrogen group. The inflammation response indices, including lung W/D ratio, the myeloperoxidase activity in the grafts, and the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α in serum, were significantly lower in the hydrogen group (5.2 ± 0.8, 0.76 ± 0.32 U/g, 340 ± 84 pg/mL, and 405 ± 115 pg/mL, respectively) than those in the control group (6.5 ± 0.7, 1.1 ± 0.5 U/g, 443 ± 94 pg/mL, and 657 ± 96 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05), and the oxidative stress indices, including the superoxide dismutase activity and the level of malonaldehyde in lung grafts were improved after hydrogen application. Furthermore, the lung injury score determined by histopathology, the cell apoptotic index, and the caspase-3 protein expression in lung grafts were decreased after hydrogen treatment, and the static pressure–volume curve of lung graft was improved by hydrogen inflation. In conclusion, lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase alleviated lung graft injury and improved graft function. PMID:25662956

  8. Primary renal carcinoid tumour with lung metastasis misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Daboul, Nour; Monga, Dulabh; Bunker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with a history of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosed 10 years prior, status post right nephrectomy, presented for evaluation of pulmonary nodules. A year after the nephrectomy, he had undergone cutaneous metastasectomy in the right flank area, and a further 2 years later he had had his second cutaneous metastasectomy in the right chest wall. Both cutaneous pathologies had, at the time, shown metastatic neoplasm with histological features compatible with those of the previous renal tumour. He was treated with sorafenib. 3 years later he developed asymptomatic pulmonary nodules, which gradually doubled in size over the next 2.5 years. He underwent bronchoscopy and left lower lobe biopsy. Pathology revealed a metastatic renal carcinoid/neuroendocrine tumour. Second review of the previous renal neoplasm and the cutaneous metastatic pathology showed trabecular architecture, consistent with carcinoid, but mimicking the long parallel arrays that have been described in some cases of papillary RCC. PMID:26951438

  9. Patient characteristics, treatment and survival in pulmonary carcinoid tumours: an analysis from the UK National Lung Cancer Audit

    PubMed Central

    Hobbins, Stephanie; West, Doug; Peake, Michael; Beckett, Paul; Woolhouse, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) is a rare tumour with good prognosis following surgical resection. However, little is known regarding patient characteristics and use of other treatments modalities. Our objective was to review patient characteristics, treatment and survival for patients with PC and contrast these results with other forms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Setting Audit data from UK National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) 2008–2013. Participants 184 906 lung cancer cases were submitted to the NLCA. Outcome measures Primary outcome—survival rates between PC and NSCLC. Secondary outcome—differences in performance status, lung function and treatment modality between PC and NSCLC. Results PC histology was recorded in 1341 (0.73%) patients and non-carcinoid NSCLC histology in 162 959 (87.4%) cases. 91% of patients with PC had good performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0–1), compared with only 53% of NSCLC. 66% of PC had localised disease. Of all PC cases, 77% were treated with surgery, 6.2% received chemotherapy and 3.6% received radiotherapy, with the remainder treated with best supportive care. Overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates for PC were 92% and 84.7%, respectively. In contrast, 1-year and 3-year survival rates for NSCLC were 36.2% and 15.6%, However, 3-year survival for PC markedly decreased with worsening performance status and advanced disease to 23.8% for performance status ECOG 3–4 and 33.6% for stage IV disease. Conclusions In contrast to other forms of NSCLC, the majority of patients with PC present with good performance status, preserved lung function and early stage disease amenable to surgical resection. However, 1 in 5 patients with PC has metastatic disease which is associated with poor prognosis, as is poor performance status at presentation. We believe these data will help clinicians provide accurate prognostic predictions stratified according to patient characteristics at presentation, as

  10. [Liposome phospholipid substitution and lung function in surfactant deprived rats].

    PubMed

    Obladen, M

    1985-01-01

    In vivo activity of an artificial surfactant was studied in surfactant depleted rats. After tenfold alveolar lavage, PaO2, tidal volume, and compliance of the respiratory system fell to one third of initial value. Substitution of large unilamellar vesicles containing 90% Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 10% unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol largely restored oxygenation and lung mechanics in most animals. Complete normalization with weaning from the ventilator, however, was achieved neither with liposomes nor with natural surfactant concentrate.

  11. Endotoxin suppresses surfactant synthesis in cultured rat lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Pulmonary complications secondary to postburn sepsis are a major cause of death in burned patients. Using an in vitro organotypic culture system, we examined the effect of E. coli endotoxin (LPS) on lung cell surfactant synthesis. Our results showed that E. coli endotoxin (1.0, 2.5, 10 micrograms LPS/ml) was capable of suppressing the incorporation of /sup 3/H-choline into de novo synthesized surfactant, lamellar bodies (LB), and common myelin figures (CMF) at 50%, 68%, and 64%, respectively. In a similar study, we were able to show that LPS also inhibited /sup 3/H-palmitate incorporation by cultured lung cells. LPS-induced suppression of surfactant synthesis was reversed by hydrocortisone. Our results suggest that LPS may play a significant role in reducing surfactant synthesis by rat lung cells, and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis-related respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in burn injury.

  12. Immunotherapy of human tumour xenografts overexpressing the EGF receptor with rat antibodies that block growth factor-receptor interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Modjtahedi, H.; Eccles, S.; Box, G.; Styles, J.; Dean, C.

    1993-01-01

    Athymic mice bearing xenografts of human tumours that overexpress the receptor (EGFR) for EGF and TGF alpha have been used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of three new rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against two distinct epitopes on the extracellular domain of the human EGFR. The antibodies, ICR16 (IgG2a), ICR62 (IgG2b) and ICR64 (IgG1), have been shown (Modjtahedi et al., 1993) to be potent inhibitors of the growth in vitro of a number of human squamous cell carcinomas because they block receptor-ligand interaction. When given i.p. at 200 micrograms dose, the three antibodies were found to induce complete regression of xenografts of the HN5 tumour if treatment with antibody commenced at the time of tumour implantation (total doses: ICR16, 3.0 mg; ICR62, 1.2 mg; ICR64, 2.2 mg). More importantly when treatment was delayed until the tumours were established (mean diam. 0.5 cm) both ICR16 and ICR62 induced complete or almost complete regression of the tumours. Furthermore, treatment with a total dose of only 0.44 mg of ICR62 was found to induce complete remission of xenografts of the breast carcinoma MDA-MB 468, but ICR16 was less effective at this dose of antibody and only 4/8 tumours regressed completely. ICR16 and ICR62 were poor inhibitors of the growth in vitro of the vulval carcinoma A431, but both induced a substantial delay in the growth of xenografts of this tumour and 4/8 tumours regressed completely in the mice treated with ICR62 (total dose 2.2 mg). Although ICR16 and ICR64 were more effective than ICR62 as growth inhibitors in vitro, ICR62 was found to be substantially better at inducing regression of the tumour xenografts due perhaps to additional activation of host immune effector functions by the IgG2b antibody. We conclude that these antibodies may be useful therapeutic agents that can be used alone without conjugation to other cytotoxic moieties. PMID:7679281

  13. Degradation of bradykinin by isolated perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.; Orawski, A.T.; AchutaMurthy, P.N.; Simmons, W.H.

    1986-03-01

    Several studies have suggested that the essentially complete degradation of circulating bradykinin (BK) in lung is mediated in part by peptidase(s) other than the well-characterized angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The authors report here that the isolated perfused rat lung can inactivate BK by sequential N-terminal cleavage. (/sup 3/H-2, 3-Pro) BK was perfused through the lung and the products in the perfusate identified by HPLC. In the absence of inhibitors, BK was 89-100% degraded with /sup 3/H-Pro/sup 2/-Pro/sup 3/ and /sup 3/H-Pro as the major products. The dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV (DAP IV) inhibitor, diprotein A (Ile-Pro-Ile), greatly reduced the Pro-Pro and Pro peaks and produced a prominent BK/sub 2-7/ peak (or BK/sub 2-9/ peak if the ACE inhibitor, captopril, was also present). 2-Mercapto-ethanol, a rather specific inhibitor of aminopeptidase P (AP-P), prevented the release of Arg/sup 1/, producing major BK and/or BK/sub 1-7/ peaks. The neutral metalloendopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, had no effect on the pattern of degradation of BK by the perfused rat lung by the release of Arg/sup 1/ by AP-P followed by release of Pro/sup 2/-Pro/sup 3/ by DAP IV.

  14. Relationship of jute dust to interstitial fibrosis in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiaobin; Lou, Jiezhi; Liu, Zhenlin

    2003-03-01

    The relationship between jute dust and lung interstitial fibrosis was studied by instilling groups of rats, via trachea, with jute dust and comparing the results with those for positive (quartz) and negative (saline) controls. The rats were sacrificed at regular intervals and their lungs and hilar lymph nodes were analyzed for collagen content and morphologic changes. The earliest changes consisted of alveolar edema, increased numbers of intraalveolar macrophages, and marked thickening of the interalveolar septa, with mixed cellular infiltrates. Moderate thickening of the alveolar walls and the zones around the peribronchioles was seen in the test groups at 6 mo. After 12 mo, some fibrosis of the alveoli walls and peribronchiole zones occurred. Interstitial cellular nodules were observed occasionally, composed mainly of dust particles, fibroblasts, reticular fibers, and collagen fibers. The collagen content in the lungs of the jute dust groups was significantly higher than for the saline control group for all test periods. The authors conclude that jute dust may induce lung interstitial fibrosis.

  15. Measurement of the acute metabolic response to hypoxia in rat tumours in vivo using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and hyperpolarised pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Bluff, Joanne E.; Reynolds, Steven; Metcalf, Stephen; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Bucur, Adriana; Wholey, Emily G.; Bibby, Becky A.S.; Williams, Leigh; Paley, Martyn N.; Tozer, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate constant for pyruvate to lactate conversion in tumours in response to a hypoxic challenge, using hyperpolarised 13C1-pyruvate and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods and materials Hypoxic inspired gas was used to manipulate rat P22 fibrosarcoma oxygen tension (pO2), confirmed by luminescence decay of oxygen-sensitive probes. Hyperpolarised 13C1-pyruvate was injected into the femoral vein of anaesthetised rats and slice-localised 13C magnetic resonance (MR) spectra acquired. Spectral integral versus time curves for pyruvate and lactate were fitted to a precursor-product model to estimate the rate constant for tumour conversion of pyruvate to lactate (kpl). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and oxygen tension (ArtpO2) were monitored. Pyruvate and lactate concentrations were measured in freeze-clamped tumours. Results MABP, ArtpO2 and tumour pO2 decreased significantly during hypoxia. kpl increased significantly (p < 0.01) from 0.029 ± 0.002 s−1 to 0.049 ± 0.006 s−1 (mean ± SEM) when animals breathing air were switched to hypoxic conditions, whereas pyruvate and lactate concentrations were minimally affected by hypoxia. Both ArtpO2 and MABP influenced the estimate of kpl, with a strong negative correlation between kpl and the product of ArtpO2 and MABP under hypoxia. Conclusion The rate constant for pyruvate to lactate conversion, kpl, responds significantly to a rapid reduction in tumour oxygenation. PMID:25824978

  16. Classifying geometric variability by dominant eigenmodes of deformation in regressing tumours during active breath-hold lung cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Ahmed M; Weiss, Elisabeth; Sleeman, William C; Hugo, Geoffrey D

    2012-01-21

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a lung tumour interfraction geometric variability classification scheme as a means to guide adaptive radiotherapy and improve measurement of treatment response. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to generate statistical shape models of the gross tumour volume (GTV) for 12 patients with weekly breath hold CT scans. Each eigenmode of the PCA model was classified as 'trending' or 'non-trending' depending on whether its contribution to the overall GTV variability included a time trend over the treatment course. Trending eigenmodes were used to reconstruct the original semi-automatically delineated GTVs into a reduced model containing only time trends. Reduced models were compared to the original GTVs by analyzing the reconstruction error in the GTV and position. Both retrospective (all weekly images) and prospective (only the first four weekly images) were evaluated. The average volume difference from the original GTV was 4.3% ± 2.4% for the trending model. The positional variability of the GTV over the treatment course, as measured by the standard deviation of the GTV centroid, was 1.9 ± 1.4 mm for the original GTVs, which was reduced to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm for the trending-only model. In 3/13 cases, the dominant eigenmode changed class between the prospective and retrospective models. The trending-only model preserved GTV and shape relative to the original GTVs, while reducing spurious positional variability. The classification scheme appears feasible for separating types of geometric variability by time trend.

  17. Classifying geometric variability by dominant eigenmodes of deformation in regressing tumours during active breath-hold lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Ahmed M.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Sleeman, William C., IV; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a lung tumour interfraction geometric variability classification scheme as a means to guide adaptive radiotherapy and improve measurement of treatment response. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to generate statistical shape models of the gross tumour volume (GTV) for 12 patients with weekly breath hold CT scans. Each eigenmode of the PCA model was classified as ‘trending’ or ‘non-trending’ depending on whether its contribution to the overall GTV variability included a time trend over the treatment course. Trending eigenmodes were used to reconstruct the original semi-automatically delineated GTVs into a reduced model containing only time trends. Reduced models were compared to the original GTVs by analyzing the reconstruction error in the GTV and position. Both retrospective (all weekly images) and prospective (only the first four weekly images) were evaluated. The average volume difference from the original GTV was 4.3% ± 2.4% for the trending model. The positional variability of the GTV over the treatment course, as measured by the standard deviation of the GTV centroid, was 1.9 ± 1.4 mm for the original GTVs, which was reduced to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm for the trending-only model. In 3/13 cases, the dominant eigenmode changed class between the prospective and retrospective models. The trending-only model preserved GTV and shape relative to the original GTVs, while reducing spurious positional variability. The classification scheme appears feasible for separating types of geometric variability by time trend.

  18. Classifying geometric variability by dominant eigenmodes of deformation in regressing tumours during active breath hold lung cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Ahmed M.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Sleeman, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a lung tumour interfraction geometric variability classification scheme as a means to guide adaptive radiotherapy and improve measurement of treatment response. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to generate statistical shape models of the gross tumour volume (GTV) for 12 patients with weekly breath hold CT scans. Each eigenmode of the PCA model was classified as ‘trending’ or ‘non-trending’ depending on whether its contribution to the overall GTV variability included a time trend over the treatment course. Trending eigenmodes were used to reconstruct the original semi-automatically delineated GTVs into a reduced model containing only time trends. Reduced models were compared to the original GTVs by analyzing reconstruction error in the GTV volume and position. Both retrospective (all weekly images) and prospective (only the first four weekly images) were evaluated. Average volume difference from the original GTV was 4.3% ± 2.4% for the trending model. The positional variability of the GTV over the treatment course, as measured by the standard deviation of the GTV centroid, was 1.9 ± 1.4 mm for the original GTVs, which was reduced to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm for the trending only model. In 3/13 cases the dominant eigenmode changed class between the prospective and retrospective models. The trending only model preserved GTV volume and shape relative to the original GTVs, while reducing spurious positional variability. The classification scheme appears feasible for separating types of geometric variability by time trend. PMID:22172998

  19. Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Q.; Jirasek, A.; Lum, J. J.; Brolo, A. G.

    2011-11-01

    This work applies noninvasive single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze and correlate radiation-induced biochemical changes in a panel of human tumour cell lines that vary by tissue of origin, p53 status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Six human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro with single fractions (15, 30 or 50 Gy) of 6 MV photons. Remaining live cells were harvested for RS analysis at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-irradiation, along with unirradiated controls. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 cells per sample utilizing a 785 nm excitation laser. All spectra (200 per cell line) were individually post-processed using established methods and the total data set for each cell line was analyzed with PCA using standard algorithms. One radiation-induced PCA component was detected for each cell line by identification of statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24-72 h post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation-induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation-induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three distinct RS response categories: R1 (H460 and MCF7), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3) and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity, as the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant (SF2 > 0.6) and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (SF2 < 0.5). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Potential radiation-induced biochemical response mechanisms underlying our RS observations are proposed, such as (1) the regulated

  20. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccini, Teresa; Fabbri, Marco; Roda, Elisa; Grazia Sacco, Maria; Manzo, Luigi; Gribaldo, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl2 (400 μg/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil™ T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m2/g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4×44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  1. D- and L-[123I]-2-I-phenylalanine show a long tumour retention compared with D- and L-[123I]-2-I-tyrosine in R1M rhabdomyosarcoma tumour-bearing Wag/Rij rats.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Lahoutte, Tony; Kersemans, Ken; Caveliers, Vicky; Bossuyt, Axel; Mertens, John

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of the tumour uptake and the long-term retention of [(123)I]-2-I-L-phenylalanine and [(123)I]-2-I-D-phenylalanine with those of [(123)I]-2-I-L-tyrosine and [(123)I]-2-I-D-tyrosine in R1M rhabdomyosarcoma tumour-bearing rats. The biodistribution of the radioactivity as a function of time in R1M tumour-bearing rats was measured by planar gamma camera imaging (dynamic and static). If dissection was applied, the activity in the tumours and tissues of interest was measured by gamma counting. [(123)I]-2-iodo-L-phenylalanine, [(123)I]-2-iodo-D-phenylalaine, [(123)I]-2-I-L-tyrosine showed a considerable tumour uptake reaching a maximum between 10 and 30 min. At 30 min p.i. the differential uptake ratio values of this uptake were, respectively, 2.1, 2.3, 2.5 and 1.7. The activity in the tumour was shown to be related to a tumour cell uptake and not to an increased blood pool activity. All the tracers showed a clearance from the blood to the bladder without renal retention. At longer times both L- and D- [(123)I]-2-I-tyrosine were cleared for a large part from the tumours and the body. [(123)I]-2-I-L-Phe and [(123)I]-2-I-D-Phe showed a considerable and equal retention in the tumours: as compared with 0.5 h, 91% at 24 h and 80% at 48 h. This was related to the longer retention of activity in the blood pool noticed for these compounds (81% at 24 h and 65% at 48 h). The tumour-to-background ratio increased with 25% at those longer times. At short times all the tracers were taken up to a considerable extent in the tumours. In the R1M-bearing Wag/Rij rat model only [(123)I]-2-I-L-phenylalanine and [(123)I]-2-I-D-phenylalanine showed an especially high retention at long times without any significant difference between the enantiomers. PMID:17683118

  2. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury in rats is greater after acid instillation than after sepsis-induced acute lung injury, but does not increase systemic inflammation: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Methods Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV) with either a low tidal volume (Vt) of 6 mL/kg and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; LVt acid, LVt sepsis) or with a high Vt of 15 mL/kg and no PEEP (HVt acid, HVt sepsis). Rats sacrificed immediately after acid instillation and non-ventilated septic animals served as controls. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were monitored. After 4 h, lung wet to dry (W/D) weight ratios, histological lung injury and plasma mediator concentrations were measured. Results Oxygenation and lung compliance decreased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. Additionally, W/D weight ratios and histological lung injury scores increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. MV increased W/D weight ratio and lung injury score, however this effect was mainly attributable to HVt ventilation after acid instillation. Similarly, effects of HVt on oxygenation were only observed after acid instillation. HVt during sepsis did not further affect oxygenation, compliance, W/D weight ratio or lung injury score. Plasma interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α concentrations were increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis, but plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentration increased during sepsis only. In contrast to lung injury parameters, no additional effects of HVt MV after acid instillation on plasma mediator concentrations were observed. Conclusions During MV more severe lung injury develops after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. HVt causes VILI after acid instillation, but not during sepsis. However, this differential effect was not observed in the systemic release of mediators. PMID:22204611

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 65: A dosimetric comparison of isocentric and non-isocentric coplanar SBRT VMAT plans for peripheral lung tumours

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, L; Liu, HW; Lau, H; Smith, WL

    2014-08-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers lung sterotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in shorter treatment time and less monitor units with comparable coverage and organ at risk sparing compared to conventional SBRT treatments. Isocentric VMAT treatment of peripheral lung tumours occasionally requires couch shifts that can inhibit 360° gantry rotation, resulting in additional imaging shifts for each treatment session, and increased potential for involuntary in-fraction motion. Here, we investigate whether non-isocentric VMAT plans can achieve comparable plan quality to isocentric plans for peripheral lung tumours. Three patient plans were selected with targets displaced > 8.5 cm (range: 8.8 – 9.9 cm) laterally from patient midline. For each patient, a plan with isocentre placed within the target volume (isocentric plan) was created and optimized. The same optimization parameters were then used to create a plan with the isocentre at patient midline (non-isocentric plan). Plan quality was evaluated and compared based on planning target volume (PTV) coverage, high dose spillage, dose homogeneity, intermediate dose spillage, dose fall-off gradient, and organ at risk contraints. Non-isocentric plans of equivalent plan quality to isocentric plans were achieved for all patients by optimizing collimator rotations. Field isocentres can be placed at patient midline, as opposed to inside the target volume, with no significant degradation in VMAT plan quality for lateral tumour displacements up to 10 cm. Non-isocentric treatment of peripheral lung tumours could result in decreased overall treatment session time and eliminate the need for imaging shifts prior to VMAT treatment.

  4. Analysis of lung tumor risks in rats exposed to radon.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Cross, F T; Dagle, G E

    1996-03-01

    Using data on 3117 rats exposed by inhalation to radon, radon progeny and uranium ore dust, the hazard function (or age-specific risk) for lung tumor incidence was modeled as a function of exposure, exposure rate and other factors. The overall estimate of lifetime risk was 237 cases per 10(6) rats per WLM (237 per 10(6) WLM), reasonably comparable to estimates obtained from data for humans. The data below 1000 WLM (20-640 WLM) were consistent with linearity with positive excess risks at all levels; however, evidence of statistically significant excess risk was limited to exposures of 80 WLM or greater. Evidence for an inverse exposure-rate effect was limited primarily to cumulative exposures exceeding 1000 WLM (1280-10,240 WLM) and to comparison of results at 100 and 1000 WL. Even at these levels, the possibility that the effect might be explained by time since last exposure or by heterogeneity across experiments could not be entirely excluded. The inverse exposure-rate effect was strongest for epidermoid and adenosquamous tumors, and the only indication of such an effect at exposures below 1000 WLM was modest evidence (P=0.024) in analyses limited to these tumors. When all lung tumors, or all malignant lung tumors, were included, there was no evidence of such an effect below 1000 WLM. These data support the viewpoint that the inverse exposure-rate effect is primarily a high-dose phenomenon. PMID:8927704

  5. Experimental lung injury promotes alterations in energy metabolism and respiratory mechanics in the lungs of rats: prevention by exercise.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Maira J; da Cunha, Aline A; Scherer, Emilene B S; Machado, Fernanda Rossato; Loureiro, Samanta O; Jaenisch, Rodrigo B; Guma, Fátima; Lago, Pedro Dal; Wyse, Angela T S

    2014-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of lung injury on energy metabolism (succinate dehydrogenase, complex II, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATP levels), respiratory mechanics (dynamic and static compliance, elastance and respiratory system resistance) in the lungs of rats, as well as on phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The protective effect of physical exercise on the alterations caused by lung injury, including lung edema was also evaluated. Wistar rats were submitted to 2 months of physical exercise. After this period the lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide. Adult Wistar rats were submitted to 2 months of physical exercise and after this period the lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide in dose 100 μg/100 g body weight. The sham group received isotonic saline instillation. Twelve hours after the injury was performed the respiratory mechanical and after the rats were decapitated and samples were collected. The rats subjected to lung injury presented a decrease in activities of the enzymes of the electron transport chain and ATP levels in lung, as well as the formation of pulmonary edema. A decreased lung dynamic and static compliance, as well as an increase in respiratory system resistance, and a decrease in phospholipids content were observed. Physical exercise was able to totally prevent the decrease in succinate dehydrogenase and complex II activities and the formation of pulmonary edema. It also partially prevented the increase in respiratory system resistance, but did not prevent the decrease in dynamic and static compliance, as well as in phospholipids content. These findings suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may be one of the important contributors to lung damage and that physical exercise may be beneficial in this pathology, although it did not prevent all changes present in lung injury.

  6. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Gate, Laurent . E-mail: laurent.gate@inrs.fr; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Herve; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stephane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 {sup o}C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  7. Ultrastructural alterations during embryonic rats' lung development caused by ozone.

    PubMed

    López, Irma; Sánchez, Ivonne; Bizarro, Patricia; Acevedo, Sandra; Ustarroz, Martha; Fortoul, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an oxidizing agent that acts on phospholipids, proteins and sugars of cellular membranes producing free radicals, which cause oxidative damages. The O3 exposure has been used as a model to study oxidative stress, in which the respiratory airways represent the entrance to the organism. In this study, ultrastructural alterations were identified at the bronchiolar level during the intra-uterine lung development, using an O3 exposure model in pregnant rats during 18, 20 and 21 days of gestation. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats, six controls and six exposed to 1 ppm O3 inhalation during 12 h per day, were used. The rats were sacrificed at gestational days 18, 20 and 21; the fetuses were obtained and their lungs dissected. The ultrastructural analysis evidenced swollen mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial cells and structural disorder caused by the oxidative stress. At gestation day 20, flake-off epithelial cells and laminar bodies in the bronchiolar lumen were observed. In the 21-gestation-day group, the mitochondria were edematous and their cristae were disrupted by the damage caused in mitochondrial membranes. PMID:18083976

  8. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Gate, Laurent; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Hervé; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 degrees C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  9. Proteomic profiling of rat lung epithelial cells induced by acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Poonam; Hayes, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Acrolein is a highly toxic unsaturated aldehyde and is also an endogenous byproduct produced from lipid peroxidation. It can be formed from the breakdown of certain pollutants in outdoor air or from burning tobacco or gasoline. Inhalation and dermal exposure to acrolein are extremely toxic to human tissue. Although it is known that acrolein is toxic to lung tissue, no studies have attempted to address the changes induced by acrolein on a global scale. Main methods In the present study we have attempted to address the changes in global protein expression induced by acrolein using proteomics analysis in rat lung epithelial cells. Key findings Our analysis reveals a comprehensive profiling of the proteins that includes a heterogeneous class of proteins and this compels one to consider that the toxic response to acrolein is very complex. There were 34 proteins that showed changes between the control cells and after acrolein treatment. The expression of 18 proteins was increased and the expression of 16 proteins was decreased following exposure to acrolein. We have further validated two differentially expressed proteins namely annexin II (ANXII) and prohibitin (PHB) in lung epithelial cells treated with acrolein. Significance Based on the results of the overall proteomic analysis, acrolein appears to induce changes in a diverse range of proteins suggesting a complex mechanism of acrolein-induced toxicity in lung epithelial cells. PMID:19490921

  10. The ultrastructure of rat lung following acute primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, R F; Cooper, G J; Maynard, R L

    1993-04-01

    While a number of workers have described the effects of blast waves upon the lung at both the macroscopic and light microscopic level, studies involving the use of the electron microscope have not been reported. In the experiments reported here the ultrastructural changes seen in lungs from rats exposed to a blast wave impacting on the right side of the chest are described. Considerable damage to the right lower lobe was observed which took the form of tearing of the inter-alveolar septa with capillary rupture and intra-alveolar haemorrhage. Changes to the alveolar epithelium and type II pneumocytes were also noted. Lesions were also identified in the left lung; these included intra-alveolar oedema with a minimal amount of interstitial oedema together with increased pinocytosis and isolated rupture of the alveolar epithelium. 'Ballooning' of the endothelium into the lumen of the capillary was also observed. There was an indication that lesions noted in the left lung at the electron microscopic level may be progressive in the first 24 hours following injury. PMID:8499315

  11. Vascular response to radiation injury in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L M; Evans, M L; Graham, M M; Eary, J F; Dahlen, D D

    1992-02-01

    Changes in relative left-to-right lung blood flow ratios were followed as an index of vascular radiation injury in left-hemithorax-irradiated Sprague-Dawley rats. Single doses of 11 to 21 Gy gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in relative blood flow to the irradiated lung from 3 to 5 weeks after exposure during the development of pneumonitis. Blood flow returned to near normal by 5 weeks after lower doses (11-13.5 Gy). After a single dose of 15 Gy the left-to-right blood flow ratio recovered to 75% of normal at 12 weeks and leveled off. Following 18 Gy irradiation a second period of reduced flow began 16 weeks after exposure. After 21 Gy irradiation flow to the irradiated side remained low for 1 year after exposure. Rats that received a single dose of 18 Gy to the left hemithorax were also treated with one or two of the following drugs: captopril, cyproheptadine, dexamethasone, diethylcarbamazine, penicillamine, or theophylline. Dexamethasone was most effective at preventing the decrease in blood flow to the irradiated lung when treatment was continued through the pneumonitis period and dose was not tapered until 8 weeks after radiation exposure. All other drugs and drug combinations were, for the most part, virtually ineffective after the pneumonitis period. There was a relatively poor correlation with earlier vascular permeability surface area product studies. This suggests that endothelial damage, as well as damage to other cell types, contributes to the development of post-irradiation fibrosis in the lung. PMID:1734443

  12. Morphology of nasal-cavity tumours in rats after chronic inhalation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, G.; Reznik-Schüller, H.; Ward, J. M.; Stinson, S. F.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of 50 F344 rats of each sex sere exposed to 0.6 or 3.0 pts/10(6) of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 103 weeks. Fifty rats of each sex inhaling filtered air were used as unexposed controls. All survivors were killed at 104 weeks. Up to 93% of the male and female rats developed neoplasms of the nasal cavity. Most of the tumours were adenomas, squamous-cell papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas. In the low-dose group 78% of the tumours in males and 66% in females were benign, whereas in the high-dose groups 89% in males and 76% in females were malignant. Invasion through the cribriform plate into the cerebrum or metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was found in 73% of the carcinomas in males and 51% in females. Electron-microscopic examination suggested that the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium were the site of origin of the poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7459212

  13. Canadian consensus: inhibition of ALK-positive tumours in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Agulnik, J.; Albadine, R.; Banerji, S.; Bebb, D.G.; Bethune, D.; Blais, N.; Butts, C.; Cheema, P.; Cheung, P.; Cohen, V.; Deschenes, J.; Ionescu, D.N.; Juergens, R.; Kamel-Reid, S.; Laurie, S.A.; Liu, G.; Morzycki, W.; Tsao, M.S.; Xu, Z.; Hirsh, V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (alk) is an oncogenic driver in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ALK gene occur in up to 4% of nonsquamous nsclc patients and lead to constitutive activation of the alk signalling pathway. ALK-positive nsclc is found in relatively young patients, with a median age of 50 years. Patients frequently have brain metastasis. Targeted inhibition of the alk pathway prolongs progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive advanced nsclc. The results of several recent clinical trials confirm the efficacy and safety benefit of crizotinib and ceritinib in this population. Canadian oncologists support the following consensus statement: All patients with advanced nonsquamous nsclc (excluding pure neuroendocrine carcinoma) should be tested for the presence of an ALK rearrangement. If an ALK rearrangement is present, treatment with a targeted alk inhibitor in the first-line setting is recommended. As patients become resistant to first-generation alk inhibitors, other treatments, including second-generation alk inhibitors can be considered. PMID:27330348

  14. Primary epithelial tumour in the right atrium of the heart and inferior vena cava in NZR/gd inbred rats; pathology of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Goodall, C M; Christie, G S; Hurley, J V

    1975-08-01

    In NZR/Gd inbred albino rats, tumours occurred in the right atrium or inferior vena cava of approximately 20 per cent. of untreated animals, of both sexes, over the age of 1 yr. The tumours were centred in the wall of the right atrium in 15 cases, and in the inferior vena cava in another three cases; they appeared to be primary in these sites. The tumours were slowly growing, but eventually malignant. Light- and electron-microscopic study showed the tumours were composed of epithelial alveoli imbedded in a collagenous connective tissue containing spindle cells and thin-walled blood capillaries. The epithelium varied from flat to low columnar, and often secreted mucoid material into the lumina, or sometimes into surrounding tissue. This tumour, for which the name atrio-caval epithelial mesothelioma is suggested, very closely resembles a rare epithelial tumour of the right atrium previously described in humans under a variety of names. An underlying embryological anomaly had been postulated in these tumours in humans, and the occurrence of pathologically similar lesions in high incidence in hearts of NZR/Gd inbred rats should help test the hypothesis of genetic and developmental causes in the genesis of this rare cardiac neoplasm.

  15. Nonrespiratory metabolic function and morphology of lung following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls in rats

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, K.M.; Roth, R.A.; Wallace, K.B.; Ross, L.M.; Hook, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) resulted in increased activity of microsomal arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase in rat lung. Clearance of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and angiotensin I by perfused lungs was decreased by PBBs. However, PBBs had no effect on the activity of epoxide hydrolase, monoamine oxidase, or angiotensin-converting enzyme in lung. The only hisotpathlogic change detected in lungs from PBB-treated rats was an increase in alveolar type II cell lamellar bodies. Selective accumulation of certain PBB congeners by lung was not observed in this investigation.

  16. CO2 relaxation of the rat lung parenchymal strip.

    PubMed

    Emery, Michael J; Eveland, Randy L; Min, Jin-Hye; Hildebrandt, Jacob; Swenson, Erik R

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from liquid-filled rat lungs supported the presence of CO2-dependent, active relaxation of parenchyma under normoxia by unknown mechanisms (Emery et al., 2007). This response may improve matching of alveolar ventilation (V˙A) to perfusion (Q˙) by increasing compliance and V˙A in overperfused (high CO2) regions, and decrease V˙A in underperfused regions. Here, we have more directly studied CO2-dependent parenchymal relaxation and tested a hypothesized role for actin-myosin interaction in this effect. Lung parenchymal strips (∼1.5mm×1.5mm×15mm) from 16 rats were alternately exposed to normoxic hypocapnia ( [Formula: see text] ) or hypercapnia ( [Formula: see text] ). Seven specimens were used to construct length-tension curves, and nine were tested with and without the myosin blocker 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM). The results demonstrate substantial, reversible CO2-dependent changes in parenchyma strip recoil (up to 23%) and BDM eliminates this effect, supporting a potentially important role for parenchymal myosin in V˙A/Q˙ matching. PMID:23305910

  17. Bronchial mucous gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H

    1979-07-27

    Tumours arising in the bronchial mucous glands closely resemble tumours arising in the mixed salivary glands. Bronchial mucous gland tumours account for less than 0.5 per cent of all lung tumours. Twenty six tumours are reviewed and they have been divided into five types, (a) adenoidcystic carcinomas, (b) muco-epidermoid tumors, (c) mixed (pleomorphic) tumors, (d) cystadenomas and (f) oxyphilic adenoma. The clinical features, and postoperative course of the patients are reviewed. Adenocystic carcinomas, arising in the bronchus frequently involve the neighbouring trachea and spread mainly by direct infiltration. Most muco-epidermoid bronchial tumours were confined to young persons, and the only malignant muco-epidermoid tumour occurred in an elderly person. The prognosis in young persons is good provided the tumours are completely excised. The two mixed bronchial tumours resembled their salivary counterparts and one subsequently behaved as a carcinoma and metastasised. Bronchial cystadenomas all proved to be benign tumours but in two cases were associated with surface papillary proliferation. The only example of an oxyphil cell adenoma was discovered at post mortem examination. The histogenesis of the tumours is considered.

  18. Lung endothelial dipeptidyl peptidase IV is an adhesion molecule for lung-metastatic rat breast and prostate carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Attachment of circulating tumor cells to endothelial cell adhesion molecules restricted to select vascular compartments is thought to be responsible for site-specific metastasis. Lung-metastatic rat R3230AC- MET breast and RPC-2 prostate carcinoma cells bound outside-out endothelial cell membrane vesicles, prepared by perfusion of the rat lung vasculature with a low-strength formaldehyde solution, in significantly higher numbers than their nonmetastatic counterparts R3230AC-LR and RPC-LR. In contrast, vesicles derived from the vasculature of a nonmetastasized organ (e.g., hind leg muscle) showed no binding preference for either of the four tumor cell lines. Lung- derived endothelial vesicles were used here to generate mAbs against lung endothelial cell adhesion molecules. The first group of mice were actively immunized against lung endothelial vesicles, whereas the second group was injected with syngeneic mouse antiserum against leg endothelial vesicles before active immunization with lung endothelial vesicles. 17 hybridoma supernatants obtained from the two fusions bound lung vesicles with at least a 10-fold higher affinity than leg vesicles. Seven (four obtained by a passive/active immunization protocol) stained rat capillary endothelia. One mAb, mAb 8.6A3, inhibited specific adhesion of lung-derived vesicles to lung-metastatic breast and prostate carcinoma cells. Purification of the antigen (endothelial cell adhesion molecule) from rat lung extracts revealed a protein with a 110-kD mol wt. NH2-terminal sequencing established identity with dipeptidyl peptidase IV which had been reported to serve as a fibronectin-binding protein. These results indicate that vesicles obtained from in situ perfused organs are a convenient immunogen for the production of antibodies to compartment-specific endothelial cell surface molecules, and reinforce the concept that endothelial cell surface components are selectively recognized by circulating cancer cells during metastasis

  19. Inhibition of Neutrophil Exocytosis Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Silvia M.; Rane, Madhavi J.; Merchant, Michael L.; Jin, Shunying; Lentsch, Alex B.; Ward, Richard A.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Exocytosis of neutrophil granules contributes to acute lung injury (ALI) induced by infection or inflammation, suggesting that inhibition of neutrophil exocytosis in vivo could be a viable therapeutic strategy. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a cell-permeable fusion protein that inhibits neutrophil exocytosis (TAT-SNAP-23) on ALI using an immune complex deposition model in rats. The effect of inhibition of neutrophil exocytosis by intravenous administration of TAT-SNAP-23 on ALI was assessed by albumin leakage, neutrophil infiltration, lung histology, and proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf). Administration of TAT-SNAP-23, but not TAT-Control, significantly reduced albumin leakage, total protein levels in the BALf, and intra-alveolar edema and hemorrhage. Evidence that TAT-SNAP-23 inhibits neutrophil exocytosis included a reduction in plasma membrane CD18 expression by BALf neutrophils and a decrease in neutrophil granule proteins in BALf. Similar degree of neutrophil accumulation in the lungs and/or BALf suggests that TAT-SNAP-23 did not alter vascular endothelial cell function. Proteomic analysis of BALf revealed that components of the complement and coagulation pathways were significantly reduced in BALf from TAT-SNAP-23-treated animals. Our results indicate that administration of a TAT-fusion protein that inhibits neutrophil exocytosis reduces in vivo ALI. Targeting neutrophil exocytosis is a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate ALI. PMID:23364427

  20. Arctigenin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianbao; Sun, Hongzhi; Zhou, Dun; Xi, Huanjiu; Shan, Lina

    2015-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-1 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, ATG downregulated the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, promoted the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB-α (IκBα) and activated the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) in the lung tissues. Our results suggested that ATG attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via activation of AMPK and suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway.

  1. Arctigenin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianbao; Sun, Hongzhi; Zhou, Dun; Xi, Huanjiu; Shan, Lina

    2015-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-1 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, ATG downregulated the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, promoted the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB-α (IκBα) and activated the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) in the lung tissues. Our results suggested that ATG attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via activation of AMPK and suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25008149

  2. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Cervelli, Jessica; Anderson, Dana R.; Holmes, Wesley W.; Conti, Michele L.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2010-10-15

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7-1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNF{alpha} and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant.

  3. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    PubMed Central

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Cervelli, Jessica; Anderson, Dana R.; Holmes, Wesley W.; Conti, Michele L.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7–1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNFα and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant. PMID:20659490

  4. Rat lung phospholipid fatty acid composition in prepregnant, pregnant, and lactating rats: relationship to ozone-induced pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gunnison, A F; Finkelstein, I

    1997-01-01

    Our laboratory has demonstrated recently that pulmonary inflammation induced by acute ozone exposure is much more severe in late stage pregnant and lactating rats than in postlactating rats or age-matched virgin females. It is currently widely believed that such pulmonary damage results, at least in part, from the reaction of ozone at sites of unsaturation in phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) molecules located in the epithelial fluid layer lining the lung surfaces and/or the plasma membranes of epithelial cells underlying this fluid layer. The objective of this study was to compare the PLFA composition of lung tissue and surfactant from ozone-sensitive late stage pregnant and lactating rats with comparable tissue from relatively ozone-insensitive age-matched prepregnant (virgin female) rats to explore the possibility that changes in lung PLFA composition during pregnancy and/or lactation contribute to the enhanced sensitivity of these physiologic states to ozone. In addition, the correlation of changes in plasma PLFA composition with those in lung was investigated. There were minor differences in the composition of lung tissue and surfactant PLFAs between prepregnant rats and pregnant rats at day 17 of gestation and only slightly greater differences between prepregnant and lactating rats. Changes from the prepregnant state in the PLFA composition of lung tissue, but not surfactant, correlated with changes in the plasma only in lactating rats and not in pregnant rats. Overall, the double bond index of PLFAs in surfactant and lung tissue was decreased in pregnant and lactating rats compared with prepregnant rats. Thus, the increased sensitivity of pregnant and lactating rats to ozone-induced lung injury cannot be attributed to an increased availability of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the arachidonic acid composition of phospholipids did not appear to explain differences between prepregnant rats and pregnant or lactating rats in their inflammatory response to

  5. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  6. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  7. Population and patient-specific target margins for 4D adaptive radiotherapy to account for intra- and inter-fraction variation in lung tumour position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Yan, Di; Liang, Jian

    2007-01-01

    In this work, five 4D image-guidance strategies (two population, an offline adaptive and two online strategies) were evaluated that compensated for both inter- and intra-fraction variability such as changes to the baseline tumour position and respiratory pattern. None of the strategies required active motion compensation such as gating or tracking; all strategies simulated a free-breathing-based treatment technique. Online kilovoltage fluoroscopy was acquired for eight patients with lung tumours, and used to construct inter- and intra-fraction tumour position variability models. Planning was performed on a mid-ventilation image acquired from a respiration-correlated CT scan. The blurring effect of tumour position variability was included in the dose calculation by convolution. CTV to PTV margins were calculated for variability in the cranio-caudal direction. A population margin of 9.0 ± 0.7 mm was required to account for setup error and respiration in the study population without the use of image-guidance. The greatest mean margin reduction was introduced by the offline adaptive strategy. A daily online correction strategy produced a small reduction (1.6 mm) in the mean margin from the offline strategy. Adaptively correcting for an inter-fraction change in the respiratory pattern had little effect on margin size due to most patients having only small daily changes in the respiratory pattern. A daily online correction strategy would be useful for patients who exhibit large variations in the daily mean tumour position, while an offline adaptive strategy is more applicable to patients with less variation.

  8. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  9. Different patterns of stromal and cancer cell thymidine phosphorylase reactivity in non-small-cell lung cancer: impact on tumour neoangiogenesis and survival.

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, M. I.; Giatromanolaki, A.; Kakolyris, S.; O'Byrne, K. J.; Apostolikas, N.; Skarlatos, J.; Gatter, K. C.; Harris, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is recognized as an important step in tumour pathogenesis that is related to invasion and metastatic spread and which consequently results in poor clinical outcome. In this study, we have examined the role of tumour stroma-activated fibroblasts and macrophage infiltration in the development of the angiogenic and metastatic phenotype in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 141 cases of early stage I-II NSCLC treated with surgery alone were analysed. The JC-70 (anti-CD31) MAb was used for the assessment of vascular grade. The P-GF.44C MAb was used to assess thymidine phosphorylase (TP) reactivity in cancer cells, stromal fibroblasts and macrophages. Cancer cell TP overexpression related to high vascular grade and to advanced T stage (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.02). Expression of TP in stromal fibroblasts also correlated with high angiogenesis (P = 0.01), but was independent of cancer cell expression. Fibroblast TP overexpression was related to abundant stroma (P = 0.003), suggesting that TP may be a marker of active stroma. Moreover, intense macrophage infiltration was associated with fibroblast TP reactivity, regardless of the amount of stroma, suggesting that macrophages may be a major contributor to TP expression in stroma. Survival analysis showed that cancer cell TP overexpression was related to poor prognosis (P = 0.005). Although stroma TP is related to angiogenesis, in the low vascular grade group it defined a group of patients with better prognosis (P = 0.02). It may be that fibroblast TP reactivity is an indirect marker of tumour infiltration by functional macrophages, which have an antitumour effect. We conclude that stromal macrophage and fibroblast TP reactivity may have an important role in non-small-cell lung cancer behaviour. Understanding the role of stromal fibroblasts and inflammatory cells and their interaction with oncoprotein expression is essential for the elucidation of lung cancer pathogenesis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9635852

  10. Rat lung inflammatory responses after in vivo and in vitro exposure to various stone particles.

    PubMed

    Becher, R; Hetland, R B; Refsnes, M; Dahl, J E; Dahlman, H J; Schwarze, P E

    2001-09-01

    Rat lung alveolar macrophages and type 2 cells were exposed for 20 h in vitro to various stone particles with differing contents of metals and minerals (a type of mylonite, gabbro, feldspar, and quartz). The capability to induce the release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) was investigated. We found marked differences in potency between the various particles, with mylonite being most potent overall, followed by gabbro, and with feldspar and quartz having an approximately similar order of lower potency. The results also demonstrated differences in cytokine release pattern between the two cell types. For all particle types including quartz, type 2 cells showed the most marked increase in MIP-2 and IL-6 secretion, whereas the largest increase in TNF-alpha release was observed in macrophages. To investigate possible correlations between in vitro and in vivo inflammatory responses, rats were instilled with the same types of particles and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected after 20 h. The results demonstrated a correlation between the in vitro cytokine responses and the number of neutrophilic cells in the BAL fluid. The BAL fluid also showed a strong MIP-2 response to mylonite. However, this was the only particle type to give a significant cytokine response in the BAL fluid. We further examined whether a similar graded inflammatory response would be continued in type 2 cells and alveolar macrophages isolated from the exposed animals. Again a differential cytokine release pattern was observed between type 2 cells and macrophages, although the order of potency between particle types was altered. In conclusion, various stone particles caused differential inflammatory responses after both in vitro and in vivo exposure, with mylonite being the most potent stone particle. The results suggest the alveolar type 2 cell to be an important participant in the

  11. Rat lung inflammatory responses after in vivo and in vitro exposure to various stone particles.

    PubMed

    Becher, R; Hetland, R B; Refsnes, M; Dahl, J E; Dahlman, H J; Schwarze, P E

    2001-09-01

    Rat lung alveolar macrophages and type 2 cells were exposed for 20 h in vitro to various stone particles with differing contents of metals and minerals (a type of mylonite, gabbro, feldspar, and quartz). The capability to induce the release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) was investigated. We found marked differences in potency between the various particles, with mylonite being most potent overall, followed by gabbro, and with feldspar and quartz having an approximately similar order of lower potency. The results also demonstrated differences in cytokine release pattern between the two cell types. For all particle types including quartz, type 2 cells showed the most marked increase in MIP-2 and IL-6 secretion, whereas the largest increase in TNF-alpha release was observed in macrophages. To investigate possible correlations between in vitro and in vivo inflammatory responses, rats were instilled with the same types of particles and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected after 20 h. The results demonstrated a correlation between the in vitro cytokine responses and the number of neutrophilic cells in the BAL fluid. The BAL fluid also showed a strong MIP-2 response to mylonite. However, this was the only particle type to give a significant cytokine response in the BAL fluid. We further examined whether a similar graded inflammatory response would be continued in type 2 cells and alveolar macrophages isolated from the exposed animals. Again a differential cytokine release pattern was observed between type 2 cells and macrophages, although the order of potency between particle types was altered. In conclusion, various stone particles caused differential inflammatory responses after both in vitro and in vivo exposure, with mylonite being the most potent stone particle. The results suggest the alveolar type 2 cell to be an important participant in the

  12. Isolation of CD146+ Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Rat Lungs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer J P; Möbius, Marius A; Thébaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly recognized for their therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, including lung diseases. Besides the use of bone marrow and umbilical cord MSCs for exogenous cell therapy, there is also increasing interest in the repair and regenerative potential of resident tissue MSCs. Moreover, they likely have a role in normal organ development, and have been attributed roles in disease, particularly those with a fibrotic nature. The main hurdle for the study of these resident tissue MSCs is the lack of a clear marker for the isolation and identification of these cells. The isolation technique described here applies multiple characteristics of lung resident MSCs (L-MSCs). Upon sacrifice of the rats, lungs are removed and rinsed multiple times to remove blood. Following mechanical dissociation by scalpel, the lungs are digested for 2-3 hr using a mix of collagenase type I, neutral protease and DNase type I. The obtained single cell suspension is subsequently washed and layered over density gradient medium (density 1.073 g/ml). After centrifugation, cells from the interphase are washed and plated in culture-treated flasks. Cells are cultured for 4-7 days in physiological 5% O2, 5% CO2 conditions. To deplete fibroblasts (CD146(-)) and to ensure a population of only L-MSCs (CD146(+)), positive selection for CD146(+) cells is performed through magnetic bead selection. In summary, this procedure reliably produces a population of primary L-MSCs for further in vitro study and manipulation. Because of the nature of the protocol, it can easily be translated to other experimental animal models. PMID:27340891

  13. Effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors on protein and energy metabolism in tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, F M; Chandler, C S; Coyle, P; Bourgeois, C S; Burgoyne, J L; Rofe, A M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), and a more potent variant LR3-IGF-I, which binds poorly to IGF-binding proteins, were investigated in rats bearing a mammary adenocarcinoma. The effect of insulin, either alone or in combination with LR3-IGF-I, was also investigated. Peptides were infused via osmotic minipumps for 6-7 days after tumour size reached 5% of body weight. Infusion of IGFs alone at either 200 or 500 microgram/day significantly decreased food intakes as well as circulating levels of insulin and glucose, and consequently failed to promote muscle protein accretion in the host. Tumour growth was increased by the IGFs, especially by LR3-IGF-I, even though these peptides did not promote growth of the adenocarcinoma in cell culture. Infusion of LR3-IGF-I, and to a lesser extent IGF-I, led to decreased rates of muscle protein synthesis and increased muscle protein breakdown, but each of these measures was closely related to the final tumour burden (r2 = 0.454 and 0.810 respectively; P < 0.01) and possibly resulted from a decrease in substrate supply to the host tissues. Insulin infusion (100 micrograms/day) increased food consumption by more than 50% and significantly decreased tumour growth. Insulin and LR3-IGF-I had a synergistic effect on host weight, which increased by 19.1 +/- 1.9, -1.1 +/- 4.7 and 37.9 +/- 1.5 g for insulin, LR3-IGF-I and combined treatments respectively. Carcass protein was increased by more than 10% with insulin treatment, due to increased rates of synthesis and decreased rates of muscle protein breakdown, but LR3-IGF-I had no positive effect on carcass protein accretion, either alone or in combination with insulin. Similarly, the amount of carcass fat was increased almost 2-fold by insulin treatment, whereas it was decreased by 30% by LR3-IGF-I. These changes may have arisen either from direct hormone effects on metabolism or from the indirect effects of food intake, or both. Our results suggest that IGF

  14. Method of Isolated Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in a Rat Model: Lessons Learned from Developing a Rat EVLP Program

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kevin; Bobba, Christopher; Eren, Emre; Spata, Tyler; Tadres, Malak; Hayes,, Don; Black, Sylvester M.

    2015-01-01

    The number of acceptable donor lungs available for lung transplantation is severely limited due to poor quality. Ex-Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP) has allowed lung transplantation in humans to become more readily available by enabling the ability to assess organs and expand the donor pool. As this technology expands and improves, the ability to potentially evaluate and improve the quality of substandard lungs prior to transplant is a critical need. In order to more rigorously evaluate these approaches, a reproducible animal model needs to be established that would allow for testing of improved techniques and management of the donated lungs as well as to the lung-transplant recipient. In addition, an EVLP animal model of associated pathologies, e.g., ventilation induced lung injury (VILI), would provide a novel method to evaluate treatments for these pathologies. Here, we describe the development of a rat EVLP lung program and refinements to this method that allow for a reproducible model for future expansion. We also describe the application of this EVLP system to model VILI in rat lungs. The goal is to provide the research community with key information and “pearls of wisdom”/techniques that arose from trial and error and are critical to establishing an EVLP system that is robust and reproducible. PMID:25741794

  15. Influence of vitamin E on polyamine metabolism in ozone-exposed rat lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, N.M.

    1987-06-01

    The influence of vitamin E (E) on lung polyamine metabolism of rats exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) was examined. Rats fed diets either E-deficient or supplemented with 1000 IU E/kg were exposed to 0.5 +/- 0.05 ppm O/sub 3/ or filtered room air continuously for 5 days. They were then sacrificed and their lungs were analyzed for biochemical changes. Lung E content was strongly associated with the dietary level, and increased (36%, P less than 0.05) after O/sub 3/ exposure only in E-supplemented rats. Lung polyamine metabolism was not affected in the air-control rats by E level, but increased after O/sub 3/ exposure in both dietary groups. The activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were elevated above air controls. However, the increases were significant only for E-deficient rats when compared to E-supplemented rats. After O/sub 3/ exposure, putrescine increased significantly in both dietary groups; spermidine increased but was significantly higher only in the E-deficient group; and spermine remained unchanged in both dietary groups. Elevated E content of supplemented rat lungs after O/sub 3/ exposure may represent its mobilization under oxidant stress. Increased polyamine metabolism of E-deficient rats suggests either a greater sensitivity to injury by O/sub 3/ or a possible antioxidant function for polyamines compensating for E deficiency.

  16. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Protein Kinase Activity Is Frequently Elevated in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Supports Tumour Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    O′Flaherty, Linda; Pardo, Olivier E.; Dzien, Piotr; Phillips, Lois; Morgan, Carys; Pawade, Joya; May, Margaret T.; Sohail, Muhammad; Hetzel, Martin R.; Seckl, Michael J.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a central regulator of cellular metabolism, development and growth. GSK3 activity was thought to oppose tumourigenesis, yet recent studies indicate that it may support tumour growth in some cancer types including in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We examined the undefined role of GSK3 protein kinase activity in tissue from human NSCLC. Methods The expression and protein kinase activity of GSK3 was determined in 29 fresh frozen samples of human NSCLC and patient-matched normal lung tissue by quantitative immunoassay and western blotting for the phosphorylation of three distinct GSK3 substrates in situ (glycogen synthase, RelA and CRMP-2). The proliferation and sensitivity to the small-molecule GSK3 inhibitor; CHIR99021, of NSCLC cell lines (Hcc193, H1975, PC9 and A549) and non-neoplastic type II pneumocytes was further assessed in adherent culture. Results Expression and protein kinase activity of GSK3 was elevated in 41% of human NSCLC samples when compared to patient-matched control tissue. Phosphorylation of GSK3α/β at the inhibitory S21/9 residue was a poor biomarker for activity in tumour samples. The GSK3 inhibitor, CHIR99021 dose-dependently reduced the proliferation of three NSCLC cell lines yet was ineffective against type II pneumocytes. Conclusion NSCLC tumours with elevated GSK3 protein kinase activity may have evolved dependence on the kinase for sustained growth. Our results provide further important rationale for exploring the use of GSK3 inhibitors in treating NSCLC. PMID:25486534

  17. Warthin's tumour in Jamaica. Incidence, electron microscopy and immunoenzyme studies.

    PubMed

    Shah, D; Williams, E; Brooks, S E

    1990-12-01

    Warthin's tumour has traditionally had a strong male association, and has been said to be rare in Blacks. Current studies describe a new trend; a rise in females, strongly linked to cigarette smoking. The tumour has eosinophilic epithelial cells packed with distinctive mitochondria, and a lymphoid stroma. Immunological investigations have demonstrated polyclonal B cells, T cells and macrophages. Views differ as to whether B or T cells predominate. Between 1958 and 1989, the Jamaica Cancer Registry recorded 491 benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. There were 18 cases of Warthin's tumour (3.7%), with a male: female ratio of 5:1. The low proportion of females is similar to the trend for female lung cancer in Kingston & St. Andrew. A case of Warthin's tumour was studied by light and electron microscopy and immunoenzyme methods. The epithelial cells contained numerous mitochondria with stacked cristae, as previously described. Similar morphology occurs in oncocytic tumours; riboflavin-deficient rats and mice; rats given non-lethal doses of hypoglycin; dogs treated with annatto extracts; and hibernating or starving frogs. The mitochondrial changes may be an adaptive response. The immunoenzyme studies utilized newly available monoclonal antibodies: UCHL1, L26, 4KB5, MT1 and LN2. The reaction patterns indicate a distribution of B and T cells in a manner expected in a lymph node. The interaction between mitochondrial changes, adaptive metabolic pathways, the immune cells and tobacco raises some interesting questions.

  18. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

    1986-03-05

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with (/sup 14/C(U))glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N/sub 2/ followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism.

  19. An ontogenic study of adrenomedullin gene expression in the rat lung, adrenal, kidney, and heart.

    PubMed

    Wong, P F; O, W S; Tang, F

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the gene expression of adrenomedullin (Adm) in the peripheral tissues which include lung, adrenal, kidney, and heart during development was investigated in the rat. The preproadrenomedullin (preproAdm) mRNA and mRNAs of its related receptor components, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Crlr), and receptor activity-modifying proteins (Ramp1, 2 and 3) of the lung, adrenal, kidney, and heart were measured by real-time RT-PCR and the ADM peptide measured by radioimmunoassay in 1-, 7-, 21-day-old rats and the adult rats. From day 1 to 21, preproAdm mRNA levels increased with age in the lung, the kidney, and the heart but decreased with age in the adrenal. ADM levels, however, increased with age in the lung but decreased with age in the kidney, the adrenal, and the heart. The preproAdm levels in the lung, in the kidney, and in the adrenal all increased in the adult rat. ADM peptide levels, however, decreased in the adult rat. Crlr and Ramp2 gene expression increased with age in the lung, in the kidney, and in the heart but decreased with age in the adrenal in the prepubertal rats. The results indicate that the levels of preproAdm mRNA, ADM peptide and its receptor component mRNAs in different tissues followed different patterns of changes during development.

  20. Skeletal muscle choristoma in the lung of a female Sprague-Dawley rat: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wijnands, Marcel; van Esch, Eric

    2012-03-01

    In this report we describe a choristoma in the lung of a female placebo rat. The lesion was observed microscopically in the central part of the left lung lobe and was characterized by a nodule consisting of well-differentiated skeletal muscle cells. The muscle fibers were haphazardly organized giving the nodule a poorly demarcated border. Choristoma is a very rare lesion.

  1. CXCR4 Blockade Attenuates Hyperoxia Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Shelley; Ramachandran, Shalini; Torres, Eneida; Huang, Jian; Hehre, Dorothy; Suguihara, Cleide; Young, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) modulate the inflammatory response. Whether antagonism of CXCR4 will alleviate lung inflammation in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury is unknown. Objective To determine whether CXCR4 antagonism would attenuate lung injury in rodents with experimental BPD by decreasing pulmonary inflammation. Methods Newborn rats exposed to normoxia (RA) or hyperoxia (FiO2=0.9) from postnatal day 2 (P2)-P16 were randomized to receive the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 or placebo (PL) from P5 to P15. Lung alveolarization, angiogenesis, and inflammation were evaluated at P16. Results As compared to RA, hyperoxic-PL pups had a decrease in alveolarization, reduced lung vascular density and increased lung inflammation. In contrast, AMD3100-treated hyperoxic pups had improved alveolarization and increased angiogenesis. This improvement in lung structure was accompanied by a decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophage and neutrophil count and reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion CXCR4 antagonism decreases lung inflammation and improves alveolar as well as vascular structure in neonatal rats with experimental BPD. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate lung injury in preterm infants with BPD. PMID:25825119

  2. Febuxostat protects rats against lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fahmi, Alaa N A; Shehatou, George S G; Shebl, Abdelhadi M; Salem, Hatem A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate possible protective effects of febuxostat, a highly potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor, against acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, as follows: (i) vehicle control group; (ii) and (iii) febuxostat 10 and febuxostat 15 groups, drug-treated controls; (iv) LPS group, receiving an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (7.5 mg/kg); (v) and (vi) febuxostat 10-LPS and febuxostat 15-LPS groups, receiving oral treatment of febuxostat (10 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 7 days before LPS. After 18 h administration of LPS, blood was collected for C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was examined for leukocyte infiltration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, protein content, and total nitrate/nitrite. Lung weight gain was determined, and lung tissue homogenate was prepared and evaluated for oxidative stress. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was assessed in BALF and lung homogenate. Moreover, histological changes of lung tissues were evaluated. LPS elicited lung injury characterized by increased lung water content (by 1.2 fold), leukocyte infiltration (by 13 fold), inflammation and oxidative stress (indicated by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), by 3.4 fold), and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (by 34 %). Febuxostat dose-dependently decreased LPS-induced lung edema and elevations in BALF protein content, infiltration of leukocytes, and LDH activity. Moreover, the elevated levels of TNF-α in BALF and lung tissue of LPS-treated rats were attenuated by febuxostat pretreatment. Febuxostat also displayed a potent antioxidant activity by decreasing lung tissue levels of MDA and enhancing SOD activity. Histological analysis of lung tissue further demonstrated that febuxostat dose-dependently reversed LPS-induced histopathological changes. These findings demonstrate a significant dose

  3. Exaggerated Acute Lung Injury and Impaired Antibacterial Defenses During Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Rats with the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaomei; Maze, Mervyn; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Hellman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Rats with Metabolic Syndrome (MetaS) have a dysregulated immune response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. We hypothesized that rats with MetaS would have dysregulated inflammation, increased lung injury, and less effective antibacterial defenses during Staphylococcus (S.) aureus sepsis as compared to rats without MetaS. Low capacity runner (LCR; a model of MetaS) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were challenged intravenously with S. aureus bacteria. After 48 h, inflammatory mediators and bacteria were quantified in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung homogenates. Lungs were analyzed histologically. BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios were quantified to assess for vascular leak. Endpoints were compared in infected LCR vs HCR rats. LCR rats had higher blood and lung S. aureus counts, as well as higher levels of IL-6 in plasma, lungs and BALF, MIP-2 in plasma and lung, and IL-17A in lungs. Conversely, LCR rats had lower levels of IL-10 in plasma and lungs. Although lactate levels, and liver and renal function tests were similar between groups, LCR rats had higher BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios, and more pronounced acute lung injury histologically. During S. aureus bacteremia, as compared with HCR rats, LCR (MetaS) rats have heightened pro-inflammatory responses, accompanied by increased acute lung injury and vascular leak. Notably, despite an augmented pro-inflammatory phenotype, LCR rats have higher bacterial levels in their blood and lungs. The MetaS state may exacerbate lung injury and vascular leak by attenuating the inflammation-resolving response, and by weakening antimicrobial defenses. PMID:25978669

  4. Exaggerated Acute Lung Injury and Impaired Antibacterial Defenses During Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Rats with the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomei; Maze, Mervyn; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hellman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Rats with Metabolic Syndrome (MetaS) have a dysregulated immune response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. We hypothesized that rats with MetaS would have dysregulated inflammation, increased lung injury, and less effective antibacterial defenses during Staphylococcus (S.) aureus sepsis as compared to rats without MetaS. Low capacity runner (LCR; a model of MetaS) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were challenged intravenously with S. aureus bacteria. After 48 h, inflammatory mediators and bacteria were quantified in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung homogenates. Lungs were analyzed histologically. BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios were quantified to assess for vascular leak. Endpoints were compared in infected LCR vs HCR rats. LCR rats had higher blood and lung S. aureus counts, as well as higher levels of IL-6 in plasma, lungs and BALF, MIP-2 in plasma and lung, and IL-17A in lungs. Conversely, LCR rats had lower levels of IL-10 in plasma and lungs. Although lactate levels, and liver and renal function tests were similar between groups, LCR rats had higher BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios, and more pronounced acute lung injury histologically. During S. aureus bacteremia, as compared with HCR rats, LCR (MetaS) rats have heightened pro-inflammatory responses, accompanied by increased acute lung injury and vascular leak. Notably, despite an augmented pro-inflammatory phenotype, LCR rats have higher bacterial levels in their blood and lungs. The MetaS state may exacerbate lung injury and vascular leak by attenuating the inflammation-resolving response, and by weakening antimicrobial defenses.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 12: Implementation of a Clinical Lung Tumour High Dose Containment Verification Procedure using Respiratory Cone-Beam CT (4DCBCT) on a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J.; Bergman, A.

    2014-08-15

    Lung tumours move due to respiratory motion. This is managed during planning by acquiring a 4DCT and capturing the excursion of the GTV (gross tumour volume) throughout the breathing cycle within an IGTV (Internal Gross Tumour Volume) contour. Patients undergo a verification cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan immediately prior to treatment. 3D reconstructed images do not consider tumour motion, resulting in image artefacts, such as blurring. This may lead to difficulty in identifying the tumour on reconstructed images. It would be valuable to create a 4DCBCT reconstruction of the tumour motion to confirm that does indeed remain within the planned IGTV. CBCT projections of a Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom are acquired in Treatment mode (half-fan scan) on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. This phantom contains a mobile, low-density lung insert with an embedded 3cm diameter tumour object. It is programmed to create a 15s periodic, 2cm (sup/inf) displacement. A Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) tracking-box is placed on the phantom breathing platform. Breathing phase information is automatically integrated into the projection image files. Using in-house Matlab programs and RTK (Reconstruction Tool Kit) open-source toolboxes, the projections are re-binned into 10 phases and a 4DCBCT scan reconstructed. The planning IGTV is registered to the 4DCBCT and the tumour excursion is verified to remain within the planned contour. This technique successfully reconstructs 4DCBCT images using clinical modes for a breathing phantom. UBC-BCCA ethics approval has been obtained to perform 4DCBCT reconstructions on lung patients (REB#H12-00192). Clinical images will be accrued starting April 2014.

  6. Effects of simvastatin on the expression of inducible NOS in acute lung injury in septic rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Chao; Zou, Zi-Jun; Zhou, Ming-Gen; Chen, Liang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Yu-Kai; He, Zhi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The available evidence suggests that simvastatin plays a beneficial role in lung injury. In addition, statins have been shown to inhibit the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin on iNOS expression based on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic rat model. Methods: Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (control group, sepsis group and simvastatin group). A rat model of sepsis was established with LPS. The simvastatin group was pre-treated with simvastatin, whereas the control and sepsis groups were treated with saline before LPS treatment. LPS was injected into the rats in the simvastatin and sepsis groups, while as a negative control, the control group received saline alone. The oxygenation index, expression levels of iNOS and IL-6, and pathological integral of lung injury were analyzed to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on septic rats. Results: Compared with the septic group, significant decreases in the oxygenation index and expression level of iNOS were observed in the simvastatin group. Furthermore, simvastatin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in iNOS levels and the pathological integral of lung injury score in septic rats. Conclusion: Simvastatin can relieve acute lung injury induced by sepsis in rats. Decreasing iNOS levels may contribute to the protective role of simvastatin in lung injury. PMID:26823851

  7. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Audi, Said; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-04-01

    Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O(2) (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O(2)) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs.

  8. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Audi, Said; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-04-01

    Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O2 (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs.

  9. Radioimmunotherapy of micrometastases in lung with vascular targeted213Bi

    PubMed Central

    Kennel, S J; Boll, R; Stabin, M; Schuller, H M; Mirzadeh, S

    1999-01-01

    A model system has been used to test the efficacy of vascular targeting of α-particle emitter213Bi for therapy of small, ‘artificial’ metastases in mouse lung. Specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 201B was used to deliver greater than 30% of the injected dose to lung where tumours had developed due to intravenous injection of cells. Specific213Bi-mAb 201B treatment of BALB/c mammary carcinoma EMT-6 tumours in lung resulted in a dose-dependent destruction of tumours and an extended lifespan of treated animals relative to controls. Significant reduction of lung tumour burden was noted in animals treated with 0.93 MBq injected dose or as little as 14 Gy absorbed dose to the lung. Animals treated with higher doses (2.6–6.7 MBq) had nearly complete cure of lung tumours but eventually died of lung fibrosis induced by the treatment. Four other tumour cell types were studied: murine Line 1 lung carcinomas in syngeneic BALB/c mice, rat IC-12 tracheal carcinoma growing in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice, and two human tumours – epidermoid carcinoma A431 and lung carcinoma A549 – growing in SCID mice. In all cases, the number of lung tumour colonies was reduced in animals treated with specific, labelled mAb relative to those in animals treated with control213Bi MAb or EDTA complexed213Bi. Tumours treated in immunodeficient SCID mice were partially destroyed or at least retarded in growth, but ultimately regrew and proved fatal, indicating that an intact immune function is necessary for complete cure. The data show that the short-lived α-particle emitter213Bi can be effectively targeted to lung blood vessels and that tumour cells growing in the lung are killed. The mechanism may involve direct killing of tumour cells from α-particle irradiation, killing through destruction of blood supply to the tumour, or a combination of the two. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10389994

  10. Content of bioelements in the lungs and liver in rats with alimentary obesity.

    PubMed

    Trunova, V A; Sidorina, A V; Zvereva, V V; Churin, B V; Starkova, E V; Sorokoletov, D S

    2016-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF) was applied to the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and Sr concentrations in the liver and lungs in Wistar rats. The animals in the experiment included (1) healthy rats, (2) rats with alimentary obesity (AO), and (3) rats with alimentary obesity that were being given zinc sulphate with water for a long time (АО+Zn). Each group was divided into two subgroups. The experiment with the first subgroup was terminated with the animals in the state of physiological hunger and subsequent retrieval of liver and lung tissue, while the animals of the second subgroup were sacrificed two hours after ingestion of lard. The rats in physiological hunger manifested intergroup differences in the content of the bioelements (BEs) neither in the liver nor in the lungs. The rats with AO, as compared with the healthy animals, demonstrated in physiological hunger redistribution of inter-element correlations (IECs), which is an indirect reflection of sustained metabolic disorder. Additional zinc in the rats' ration did not affect their body weight and the concentration of the BEs (including zinc) in the liver and the lungs. However, the IECs in the tissues of these animals in physiological hunger also changed. This redistribution differed from that in the rats with AO. The IECs soon after ingestion of lard also changed, which also reflects sustained changes in the metabolism in the animals. PMID:26653749

  11. Effect of chronic hyperoxic exposure on duroquinone reduction in adult rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Audi, Said H; Bongard, Robert D; Krenz, Gary S; Rickaby, David A; Haworth, Steven T; Eisenhauer, Jessica; Roerig, David L; Merker, Marilyn P

    2005-11-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) plays a dominant role in the reduction of the quinone compound 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (duroquinone, DQ) to durohydroquinone (DQH2) on passage through the rat lung. Exposure of adult rats to 85% O2 for > or =7 days stimulates adaptation to the otherwise lethal effects of >95% O2. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposure of adult rats to hyperoxia affected lung NQO1 activity as measured by the rate of DQ reduction on passage through the lung. We measured DQH2 appearance in the venous effluent during DQ infusion at different concentrations into the pulmonary artery of isolated perfused lungs from rats exposed to room air or to 85% O2. We also evaluated the effect of hyperoxia on vascular transit time distribution and measured NQO1 activity and protein in lung homogenate. The results demonstrate that exposure to 85% O2 for 21 days increases lung capacity to reduce DQ to DQH2 and that NQO1 is the dominant DQ reductase in normoxic and hyperoxic lungs. Kinetic analysis revealed that 21-day hyperoxia exposure increased the maximum rate of pulmonary DQ reduction, Vmax, and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for DQ reduction, Kma. The increase in Vmax suggests a hyperoxia-induced increase in NQO1 activity of lung cells accessible to DQ from the vascular region, consistent qualitatively but not quantitatively with an increase in lung homogenate NQO1 activity in 21-day hyperoxic lungs. The increase in Kma could be accounted for by approximately 40% increase in vascular transit time heterogeneity in 21-day hyperoxic lungs.

  12. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induce development of pleural malignant mesothelioma and lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzui, Masumi; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Numano, Takamasa; Abdelgied, Mohamed; Takahashi, Satoru; Ohnishi, Makoto; Omori, Toyonori; Tsuruoka, Shuji; Hirose, Akihiko; Kanno, Jun; Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Alexander, David B; Alexander, William T; Jiegou, Xu; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have a fibrous structure and physical properties similar to asbestos and have been shown to induce malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum after injection into the scrotum or peritoneal cavity in rats and mice. For human cancer risk assessment, however, data after administration of MWCNT via the airway, the exposure route that is most relevant to humans, is required. The present study was undertaken to investigate the carcinogenicity of MWCNT-N (NIKKISO) after administration to the rat lung. MWCNT-N was fractionated by passing it through a sieve with a pore size of 25 μm. The average lengths of the MWCNT were 4.2 μm before filtration and 2.6 μm in the flow-through fraction; the length of the retained MWCNT could not be determined. For the present study, 10-week-old F344/Crj male rats were divided into five groups: no treatment, vehicle control, MWCNT-N before filtration, MWCNT-N flow-through and MWCNT-N retained groups. Administration was by the trans-tracheal intrapulmonary spraying (TIPS) method. Rats were administered a total of 1 mg/rat during the initial 2 weeks of the experiment and then observed up to 109 weeks. The incidences of malignant mesothelioma and lung tumors (bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas) were 6/38 and 14/38, respectively, in the three groups administered MWCNT and 0/28 and 0/28, respectively, in the control groups. All malignant mesotheliomas were localized in the pericardial pleural cavity. The sieve fractions did not have a significant effect on tumor incidence. In conclusion, administration of MWCNT to the lung in the rat induces malignant mesothelioma and lung tumors. PMID:27098557

  13. Fluorescence spectroscopy and cryoimaging of rat lung tissue mitochondrial redox state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, R.; Audi, S.; Staniszewski, K.; Maleki, S.; Ranji, M.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the utility of optical cryoimaging and fluorometry to evaluate tissue redox state of the mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) in intact rat lungs. The ratio (NADH/FAD), referred to as mitochondrial redox ratio (RR), is a measure of the lung tissue mitochondrial redox state. Isolated rat lungs were connected to a ventilation-perfused system. Surface NADH and FAD fluorescence signals were acquired before and after lung perfusion in the absence (control perfusate) or presence of potassium cyanide (KCN, complex IV inhibitor) to reduce the mitochondrial respiratory chain (state 5 respiration). Another group of lungs were perfused with control perfusate or KCN-containing perfusate as above, after which the lungs were deflated and frozen rapidly for subsequent 3D cryoimaging. Results demonstrate that lung treatment with KCN increased lung surface NADH signal by 22%, decreased FAD signal by 8%, and as result increased RR by 31% as compared to control perfusate (baseline) values. Cryoimaging results also show that KCN increased mean lung tissue NADH signal by 37%, decreased mean FAD signal by 4%, and increased mean RR by 47%. These results demonstrate the utility of these optical techniques to evaluate the effect of pulmonary oxidative stress on tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact lungs.

  14. Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha synthesis inhibitors on rat trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Bobin-Dubigeon, C; Collin, X; Grimaud, N; Robert, J M; Le Baut, G; Petit, J Y

    2001-11-01

    The fact that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is clearly involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal bowel disease, especially Crohn's disease, suggests that TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitors could be beneficial for treatment. The present study assessed the effect of chronic oral gavage of two in vitro TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitors, JM 34 maleate or [N-(4,6-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)-furane-2-carboxamide)] maleate and XC 21 or (N-betapicolyl-tetrafluorophtalimide), on colonic inflammation in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rats received JM 34 maleate (100 mg/kg) and XC 21 (50 mg/kg) 1 h before colitis induction and then daily for 8 days by oral gavage. The colon was removed on day 8 and processed for clinical score, myeloperoxidase activity, and soluble TNF-alpha release. Treatment with XC 21, as well as dexamethasone and sulphasalazine, reduced colonic damage and decreased (except with dexamethasone) the incidence of diarrhoea. JM 34 maleate failed to improve the clinical signs of chronic colitis. After trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis, myeloperoxidase activity and TNF-alpha colonic mucosal production were substantially increased compared to the control (saline instillation). Both of these inflammatory indicators were then significantly decreased (P< or =0.05) after the four chronic treatments (JM 34 maleate, XC 21, sulphasalazine, and dexamethasone). XC 21 appeared to be as efficient as sulphasalazine in improving colonic inflammation. PMID:11716848

  15. Effect of chronic excess of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on contractile proteins in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cheema, I R; Hermann, C; Postell, S; Barnes, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of chronic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) treatment on the synthesis of specific myofibrillar proteins such as heavy chain myosin, light chain myosin and G-actin in rat diaphragm were evaluated. Muscles (diaphragm) from control and experimental groups (TNF-alpha i.v. at 50 microg/kg body wt for 5 days) were incubated in the presence of 35S-methionine for 2 h. Myofibrillar protein extracts were prepared and protein was electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels. Heavy chain myosin, light chain myosin and G-actin were identified by Western blot analysis using specific monoclonal antibodies. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by Western blot analysis revealed two types of heavy chain myosin (206 and 212 kD), all four types of light chain myosin (15, 16.5, 18 and 20 kD) and a single type of G-actin (42 kD). Chronic TNF-alpha treatment produced a significant decline in the synthesis of all types of myofibrillar proteins, namely heavy chain myosin, light chain myosin and G-actin. TNF-alpha impaired peptide-chain initiation in diaphragm muscle which was reversed by the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) therapy of TNF-alpha treated rats. These findings indicate a significant role for TNF-alpha in the translational regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

  16. Effect of ulinastatin on HMGB1 expression in rats with acute lung injury induced by sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Li, Z J; Wang, X; Li, W F; Lin, Z F

    2015-04-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ulinastatin (UTI) on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 expression in acute lung injury (ALI) rats with sepsis caused by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery, as well as to examine the underlying biological mechanism. Thirty rats were randomly and evenly divided into sham (control), CLP, and CLP + UTI groups. Thirty minutes after the surgery, the rats in the CLP + UTI group received UTI via the caudal vein, while normal saline was administered to rats in the other groups. Blood, lung tissues, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at different time points (6, 12, 24, and 48 h) after surgery for determination of related indicators. Compared with the CLP group, rats in the CLP + UTI group exhibited higher seven day survival rates, less lung injury, and decreased HMGB1 expression in the lung tissue, serum, and BALF. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 at 24 h in the CLP + UTI group were markedly lower than those in the CLP group. These results suggest that by deregulation, UTI might decrease the lung injury and increase the survival time of ALI rats by downregulating HMGB1 expression as well as by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-6 levels in serum and BALF.

  17. Curcumin protects against cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of quartz particles but causes oxidative DNA damage in a rat lung epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui; Berlo, Damien van; Shi Tingming; Speit, Guenter; Knaapen, Ad M.; Borm, Paul J.A.; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P.F.

    2008-02-15

    Chronic inhalation of high concentrations of respirable quartz particles has been implicated in various lung diseases including lung fibrosis and cancer. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism of quartz toxicity. Curcumin, a yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, has been considered as nutraceutical because of its strong anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant properties. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether curcumin can protect lung epithelial cells from the cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory effects associated with quartz (DQ12) exposure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements using the spin-trap DMPO demonstrated that curcumin reduces hydrogen peroxide-dependent hydroxyl-radical formation by quartz. Curcumin was also found to reduce quartz-induced cytotoxicity and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in RLE-6TN rat lung epithelial cells (RLE). Curcumin also inhibited the release of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) from RLE cells as observed upon treatment with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1{beta}) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF{alpha}). However, curcumin failed to protect the RLE cells from oxidative DNA damage induced by quartz, as shown by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)-modified comet assay and by immunocytochemistry for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. In contrast, curcumin was found to be a strong inducer of oxidative DNA damage itself at non-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory concentrations. In line with this, curcumin also enhanced the mRNA expression of the oxidative stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1). Curcumin also caused oxidative DNA damage in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages and A549 human lung epithelial cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that one should be cautious in considering the potential use of curcumin in the prevention or treatment of lung diseases associated with quartz exposure.

  18. Binding of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists to rat and rabbit lung: special reference to levobunolol.

    PubMed

    Quast, U; Vollmer, K O

    1984-01-01

    Binding of 3H-dihydroalprenolol (3H-DHA) to beta-adrenoceptors in homogenates from rat and rabbit lung was homogeneous and of high affinity (KD = 0.6 and 1.1 nmol/l at 20 degrees C; 1.1 and 2.2 nmol/l at 37 degrees C). The beta 1-selective antagonists betaxolol, metoprolol, bevantolol and acebutolol displaced 3H-DHA in a biphasic manner. From these data, the beta-adrenoceptor subtype distribution in rat lung homogenates was estimated to be 80% beta 2 (at 20 and 37 degrees C) as compared to 25% beta 2 in rabbit lung homogenates. In general, binding of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (selective and nonselective) was slightly (less than 2 X) weaker in rabbit than in rat lung homogenates. In rat lung, binding of cardioselective beta-blockers to beta 1-receptors seemed to be more temperature-sensitive than binding to beta 2-receptors or binding of nonselective beta-blockers. Levobunolol, a potent non-cardioselective beta-blocker in pharmacological experiments, displaced 3H-DHA in a homogeneous manner (indicative of non-selectivity). In rat lung homogenates KD values were 0.8 nmol/l at 20 degrees C and 2.1 nmol/l at 37 degrees C. Similar values were found for the metabolites dihydrolevobunolol and hydroxylevobunolol. Surprisingly, d-bunolol, the dextrarotatory enantiomer of bunolol, showed a biphasic displacement curve, the fraction of high affinity sites being 83% in rat lung homogenates and 23% in rabbit lung. This ratio of sites is expected for a beta 2-adrenoceptor preferring ligand. High affinity binding (i.e. supposedly binding to beta 2-receptors) was about 50 times weaker than binding of levobunolol, in agreement with known stereospecificity of beta-adrenoceptor binding.

  19. Loss of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-3 enhances cell migration in rat lung tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mai; Okabe, Kyoko; Yamawaki, Yasuna; Teranishi, Miki; Honoki, Kanya; Mori, Toshio; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of the Lpar3 expression due to aberrant DNA methylation occurred in rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 inhibited cell migration of rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 may act as a negative regulator of rat lung tumor cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) indicates several biological effects, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. LPA interacts with G protein-coupled transmembrane LPA receptors. In our previous report, we detected that loss of the LPA receptor-1 (Lpar1) expression is due to its aberrant DNA methylation in rat tumor cell lines. In this study, to assess an involvement of the other LPA receptor, Lpar3, in the pathogenesis of rat lung tumor cells, we measured the expression levels of the Lpar3 gene and its DNA methylation status by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing analyses, respectively. RLCNR lung adenocarcinoma cells showed reduced expression of the Lpar3, compared with normal lung tissues. In the 5' upstream region of the Lpar3, normal lung tissues were unmethylated. By contrast, RLCNR cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expressions of the Lpar3. Based on these results, we generated the Lpar3-expressing RLCNR-a3 cells and measured the cell migration ability. Interestingly, the cell migration of RLCNR-a3 cells was significantly lower than that of RLCNR cells. This study suggests that loss of the Lpar3 due to aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the progression of rat lung tumor cells.

  20. The Effects of Dexamethasone and L-NAME on Acute Lung Injury in Rats with Lung Contusion.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Ahmet; Kilic, Nermin; Alacam, Hasan; Guzel, Ahmet; Guvenc, Tolga; Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of an anti-inflammatory agent, dexamethasone (DXM), and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), in lung tissue injury after lung contusion was investigated. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), YKL-40, an inflammatory peptide, inducible NOS (iNOS), and Clara cell protein 16 (CC-16) were evaluated. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed, and the lung tissue was examined histopathologically. The study consisted of eight groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group), weighing 250-300 g: (1) control, (2) contusion, (3) control + DXM, (4) contusion + DXM, (5) control + L-NAME (6) contusion + L-NAME, (7) control + DXM + L-NAME, and (8) contusion + DXM + L-NAME. A previously developed lung contusion model was used, in addition to the control group. The rats were administered DXM and L-NAME intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 15 and 60 mg/kg/day, respectively. DXM and L-NAME administration decreased the iNOS level in the contusion groups. DXM increased the levels of YKL-40 and IL-10 in both the control and contusion groups, with higher levels in the contusion groups. L-NAME increased the serum level of IL-10 in the lung contusion groups. DXM increased the synthesis of CC-16 in the control and contusion groups. The combined use of a high-dose steroid and NOS inhibitor resulted in the death of the rats. Steroids can increase the level of cytokines, such as YKL-40 and IL-10, and the synthesis of CC-16 and prevent pneumonia, ALI/ARDS, and sepsis in lung contusion.

  1. Chemotherapy of non-small cell lung carcinoma guided by an in vitro drug resistance assay measuring total tumour cell kill.

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. W.; Camacho, E. S.; Hilliard, D. A.; Dill, P. L.; Weisenthal, L. M.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens from 45 patients with previously-untreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were tested for in vitro chemosensitivity to ten drugs utilising the DiSC assay, which measures cell kill in the total (largely non-dividing) tumour cell population. Thirty-five assays were successful and 25 patients with advanced disease subsequently received chemotherapy with the 'best' three drugs selected by the assay. Six patients were Karnofsky performance status 60 or less and the median pretreatment weight loss was 8.5%. Nine patients had a partial response (response rate = 36%; 95% confidence interval = 17-55%) and the median survival of all patients was 202 days. Specimens from responding patients were significantly more sensitive in the assay to drugs in general (especially to etoposide and to 'natural product' drugs) and to the drugs used in treatment than were specimens from non-responding patients. In vitro drug resistance differences between responding and non-responding patients were of greater significance than were differences between other clinical and laboratory measurements. Assay results classified patients into two cohorts, having relatively high and low probabilities of responding to chemotherapy. Assay results also identified patient cohorts with above average and below average durations of survival. Five patients (20%) were found to have tumours with extreme drug resistance (EDR), defined as assay results for the average of all ten tested drugs falling greater than one standard deviation more resistant than the median for all tumours assayed, and none of these patients with EDR responded to chemotherapy. PMID:1310250

  2. The mechanism of rapamycin in the intervention of paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Jiao, Guangyu; Ma, Tao; Liu, Xiaowei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    1. Paraquat (PQ) is an organic nitrogen heterocyclic herbicide that is widely used in agriculture throughout the world. Numerous studies have reported PQ intoxication on humans. 2. In this study, we established a rat lung injury model induced by PQ and evaluated the intervention effect of rapamycin on the model, exploring the pathogenesis of PQ on lung injury as well as therapeutic effects of rapamycin on PQ-induced lung injury. 3. A rat lung injury model was established by gavage of PQ, and rapamycin was used to treat the model animals with PQ-induced lung injury. Different physiological indices were measured through Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the effect of rapamycin on the PQ-induced lung injury. 4. The analyses showed that application of rapamycin could significantly reduce the lung injury damage caused by PQ, with lung tissue wet-dry weight ratio, pathological features, compositions in serum, protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and other indices being significantly improved after the injection of rapamycin. 5. It was inferred that the use of rapamycin could improve the PQ-induced lung injury through inhibiting the activity of mTOR. And we expected the use of rapamycin to be a potential treatment method for the PQ intoxication in future. PMID:25523308

  3. Detection of circulating tumour cells with a hybrid (epithelial/mesenchymal) phenotype in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lecharpentier, A; Vielh, P; Perez-Moreno, P; Planchard, D; Soria, J C; Farace, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Circulating tumour cells (CTC) have a crucial role in metastasis formation and can consistently provide information on patient prognosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered as an essential process in the metastatic cascade, but there is currently very few data demonstrating directly the existence of the EMT process in CTCs. Methods: CTCs were enriched by blood filtration using ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells), triply labelled with fluorescent anti-vimentin, anti-pan-keratin antibodies and SYTOX orange nuclear dye, and examined by confocal microscopy in six patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In parallel, CTCs were morphocytologically identified by an experienced cytopathologist. Results: Isolated or clusters of dual CTCs strongly co-expressing vimentin and keratin were evidenced in all patients (range 5–88/5 ml). CTCs expressing only vimentin were detected in three patients, but were less frequent (range 3–15/5 ml). No CTC expressing only keratin was detected. Conclusion: We showed for the first time the existence of hybrid CTCs with an epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype in patients with NSCLC. Their characterisation should provide further insight on the significance of EMT in CTCs and on the mechanism of metastasis in patients with NSCLC. PMID:21970878

  4. 3D cine magnetic resonance imaging of rat lung ARDS using gradient-modulated SWIFT with retrospective respiratory gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Lei, Jianxun; Utecht, Lynn; Garwood, Michael; Ingbar, David H.; Bhargava, Maneesh

    2015-03-01

    SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (SWIFT) with gradient modulation and DC navigator retrospective gating is introduced as a 3D cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for the lung. In anesthetized normal rats, the quasi-simultaneous excitation and acquisition in SWIFT enabled extremely high sensitivity to the fast-decaying parenchymal signals (TE=~4 μs), which are invisible with conventional MRI techniques. Respiratory motion information was extracted from DC navigator signals and the SWIFT data were reconstructed to 3D cine images with 16 respiratory phases. To test this technique's capabilities, rats exposed to > 95% O2 for 60 hours for induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), were imaged and compared with normal rat lungs (N=7 and 5 for ARDS and normal groups, respectively). SWIFT images showed lung tissue density differences along the gravity direction. In the cine SWIFT images, a parenchymal signal drop at the inhalation phase was consistently observed for both normal and ARDS rats due to lung inflation (i.e. decrease of the proton density), but the drop was less for ARDS rats. Depending on the respiratory phase and lung region, the lungs from the ARDS rats showed 1-24% higher parenchymal signal intensities relative to the normal rat lungs, likely due to accumulated extravascular water (EVLW). Those results demonstrate that SWIFT has high enough sensitivity for detecting the lung proton density changes due to gravity, different phases of respiration and accumulation of EVLW in the rat ARDS lungs.

  5. Identification of rat lung – prominent genes by a parallel DNA microarray hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongming; Chen, Jiwang; Weng, Tingting; Jin, Nili; Liu, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Background The comparison of organ transcriptomes is an important strategy for understanding gene functions. In the present study, we attempted to identify lung-prominent genes by comparing the normal transcriptomes of rat lung, heart, kidney, liver, spleen, and brain. To increase the efficiency and reproducibility, we first developed a novel parallel hybridization system, in which 6 samples could be hybridized onto a single slide at the same time. Results We identified the genes prominently expressed in the lung (147) or co-expressed in lung-heart (23), lung-liver (37), lung-spleen (203), and lung-kidney (98). The known functions of the lung-prominent genes mainly fell into 5 categories: ligand binding, signal transducer, cell communication, development, and metabolism. Real-time PCR confirmed 13 lung-prominent genes, including 5 genes that have not been investigated in the lung, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein (Calb3), mitogen activated protein kinase 13 (Mapk13), solute carrier family 29 transporters, member 1 (Slc29a1), corticotropin releasing hormone receptor (Crhr1), and lipocalin 2 (Lcn2). Conclusion The lung-prominent genes identified in this study may provide an important clue for further investigation of pulmonary functions. PMID:16533406

  6. Role of glutathione in lung retention of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in two unique rat models of hyperoxic lung injury.

    PubMed

    Audi, Said H; Roerig, David L; Haworth, Steven T; Clough, Anne V

    2012-08-15

    Rat exposure to 60% oxygen (O(2)) for 7 days (hyper-60) or to >95% O(2) for 2 days followed by 24 h in room air (hyper-95R) confers susceptibility or tolerance, respectively, of the otherwise lethal effects of subsequent exposure to 100% O(2). The objective of this study was to determine if lung retention of the radiopharmaceutical agent technetium-labeled-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is differentially altered in hyper-60 and hyper-95R rats. Tissue retention of HMPAO is dependent on intracellular content of the antioxidant GSH and mitochondrial function. HMPAO was injected intravenously in anesthetized rats, and planar images were acquired. We investigated the role of GSH in the lung retention of HMPAO by pretreating rats with the GSH-depleting agent diethyl maleate (DEM) prior to imaging. We also measured GSH content and activities of mitochondrial complexes I and IV in lung homogenate. The lung retention of HMPAO increased by ≈ 50% and ≈ 250% in hyper-60 and hyper-95R rats, respectively, compared with retention in rats exposed to room air (normoxic). DEM decreased retention in normoxic (≈ 26%) and hyper-95R (≈ 56%) rats compared with retention in the absence of DEM. GSH content increased by 19% and 40% in hyper-60 and hyper-95R lung homogenate compared with normoxic lung homogenate. Complex I activity decreased by ≈ 50% in hyper-60 and hyper-95R lung homogenate compared with activity in normoxic lung homogenate. However, complex IV activity was increased by 32% in hyper-95R lung homogenate only. Furthermore, we identified correlations between the GSH content in lung homogenate and the DEM-sensitive fraction of HMPAO retention and between the complex IV/complex I activity ratio and the DEM-insensitive fraction of HMPAO retention. These results suggest that an increase in the GSH-dependent component of the lung retention of HMPAO may be a marker of tolerance to sustained exposure to hyperoxia.

  7. Involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.C.; Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-12-31

    In this paper we examine the role of growth factors (GF) and their receptors (GFR) in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters induced lung tumors in rats, but the molecule/cellular mechanisms are not known. Recent evidence suggests that GF/GFR play a critical role in the growth and development of lung cancer in humans and animals. We have developed immunocytochemical methods for identifying sites of production and action of GF/GFR at the cellular level; for example, the avidin-biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. In radon-induced rat epidermoid carcinomas, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-receptors (EGF-R), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}), and bombesin were found to be abnormally expressed. These abnormal expressions, mainly associated with epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, were not found in any other lung tumor types. Our data suggest that EGF, EGF-R, TGF-{alpha}, and bombesin are involved in radon oncogenesis in rat lungs, especially in epidermoid carcinomas, possibly through the autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  8. Natural Antioxidant Betanin Protects Rats from Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Deshun; Zhang, Miao; Yang, Xuelian; Tan, Dehong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of betanin on a rat paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered 3 days before and 2 days after paraquat administration. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last betanin dosage, and lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. In rats treated only with paraquat, extensive lung injury characteristic of ALI was observed, including histological changes, elevation of lung : body weight ratio, increased lung permeability, increased lung neutrophilia infiltration, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced claudin-4 and zonula occluden-1 protein levels, increased BALF interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, reduced BALF IL-10 levels, and increased lung nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activity. In rats treated with betanin, paraquat-induced ALI was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that betanin attenuates paraquat-induced ALI possibly via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the potential for using betanin as an auxilliary therapy for ALI should be explored further. PMID:25861636

  9. Natural antioxidant betanin protects rats from paraquat-induced acute lung injury interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Han, Junyan; Ma, Deshun; Zhang, Miao; Yang, Xuelian; Tan, Dehong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of betanin on a rat paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered 3 days before and 2 days after paraquat administration. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last betanin dosage, and lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. In rats treated only with paraquat, extensive lung injury characteristic of ALI was observed, including histological changes, elevation of lung : body weight ratio, increased lung permeability, increased lung neutrophilia infiltration, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced claudin-4 and zonula occluden-1 protein levels, increased BALF interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, reduced BALF IL-10 levels, and increased lung nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activity. In rats treated with betanin, paraquat-induced ALI was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that betanin attenuates paraquat-induced ALI possibly via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the potential for using betanin as an auxilliary therapy for ALI should be explored further.

  10. Absorbed doses of lungs from radon retained in airway lumens of mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides absorbed doses arising from radon gas in air retained in lung airway lumens. Because radon gas exposure experiments often use small animals, the calculation was performed for mice and rats. For reference, the corresponding computations were also done for humans. Assuming that radon concentration in airway lumens is the same as that in the environment, its progeny's production in and clearance from airways were simulated. Absorbed dose rates were obtained for three lung regions and the whole lung, considering that secretory and basal cells are sensitive to radiation. The results showed that absorbed dose rates for all lung regions and whole lung generally increase from mice to rats to humans. For example, the dose rates for the whole lung were 25.4 in mice, 41.7 in rats, and 59.9 pGy (Bq m⁻³)⁻¹ h⁻¹ in humans. Furthermore, these values were also compared with lung dose rates from two other types of exposures, that is, due to inhalation of radon or its progeny, which were already reported. It was confirmed that the direct inhalation of radon progeny in the natural environment, which is known as a cause of lung cancer, results in the highest dose rates for all species. Based on the present calculations, absorbed dose rates of the whole lung from radon gas were lower by a factor of about 550 (mice), 200 (rats), or 70 (humans) than those from radon progeny inhalation. The calculated dose rate values are comparatively small. Nevertheless, the present study is considered to contribute to our understanding of doses from inhalation of radon and its progeny.

  11. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  12. Clearance of Free Silica in Rat Lungs by Spraying with Chinese Herbal Kombucha

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

  13. Respiratory tract lung geometry and dosimetry model for male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2014-08-26

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague- Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  14. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  15. Differential responses of targeted lung redox enzymes to rat exposure to 60 or 85% oxygen.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhuohui; Roerig, David L; Clough, Anne V; Audi, Said H

    2011-07-01

    Rat exposure to 60% O(2) (hyper-60) or 85% O(2) (hyper-85) for 7 days confers susceptibility or tolerance, respectively, of the otherwise lethal effects of exposure to 100% O(2). The objective of this study was to determine whether activities of the antioxidant cytosolic enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and mitochondrial complex III are differentially altered in hyper-60 and hyper-85 lungs. Duroquinone (DQ), an NQO1 substrate, or its hydroquinone (DQH(2)), a complex III substrate, was infused into the arterial inflow of isolated, perfused lungs, and the venous efflux rates of DQH(2) and DQ were measured. Based on inhibitor effects and kinetic modeling, capacities of NQO1-mediated DQ reduction (V(max1)) and complex III-mediated DQH(2) oxidation (V(max2)) increased by ∼140 and ∼180% in hyper-85 lungs, respectively, compared with rates in lungs of rats exposed to room air (normoxic). In hyper-60 lungs, V(max1) increased by ∼80%, with no effect on V(max2). Additional studies revealed that mitochondrial complex I activity in hyper-60 and hyper-85 lung tissue homogenates was ∼50% lower than in normoxic lung homogenates, whereas mitochondrial complex IV activity was ∼90% higher in only hyper-85 lung tissue homogenates. Thus NQO1 activity increased in both hyper-60 and hyper-85 lungs, whereas complex III activity increased in hyper-85 lungs only. This increase, along with the increase in complex IV activity, may counter the effects the depression in complex I activity might have on tissue mitochondrial function and/or reactive oxygen species production and may be important to the tolerance of 100% O(2) observed in hyper-85 rats.

  16. Comparative Microscopic Study of Human and Rat Lungs After Overexposure to Welding Fume

    PubMed Central

    ANTONINI, JAMES M.; ROBERTS, JENNY R.; SCHWEGLER-BERRY, DIANE; MERCER, ROBERT R.

    2015-01-01

    Welding is a common industrial process used to join metals and generates complex aerosols of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Most long-time welders experience some type of respiratory disorder during their time of employment. The use of animal models and the ability to control the welding fume exposure in toxicology studies have been helpful in developing a better understanding of how welding fumes affect health. There are no studies that have performed a side-by-side comparison of the pulmonary responses from an animal toxicology welding fume study with the lung responses associated with chronic exposure to welding fume by a career welder. In this study, post-mortem lung tissue was donated from a long-time welder with a well-characterized work background and a history of extensive welding fume exposure. To simulate a long-term welding exposure in an animal model, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a week for 28 weeks by intratracheal instillation with 2 mg of a stainless steel, hard-surfacing welding fume. Lung tissues from the welder and the welding fume-treated rats were examined by light and electron microscopy. Pathological analysis of lung tissue collected from the welder demonstrated inflammatory cell influx and significant pulmonary injury. The poor and deteriorating lung condition observed in the welder examined in this study was likely due to exposure to very high levels of potentially toxic metal fumes and gases for a significant number of years due to work in confined spaces. The lung toxicity profile for the rats treated with welding fume was similar. For tissue samples from both the welder and treated rats, welding particle accumulations deposited and persisted in lung structures and were easily visualized using light microscopic techniques. Agglomerates of deposited welding particles mostly were observed within lung cells, particularly alveolar macrophages. Analysis of individual particles within the agglomerates showed that these

  17. Comparative microscopic study of human and rat lungs after overexposure to welding fume.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Mercer, Robert R

    2013-11-01

    Welding is a common industrial process used to join metals and generates complex aerosols of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Most long-time welders experience some type of respiratory disorder during their time of employment. The use of animal models and the ability to control the welding fume exposure in toxicology studies have been helpful in developing a better understanding of how welding fumes affect health. There are no studies that have performed a side-by-side comparison of the pulmonary responses from an animal toxicology welding fume study with the lung responses associated with chronic exposure to welding fume by a career welder. In this study, post-mortem lung tissue was donated from a long-time welder with a well-characterized work background and a history of extensive welding fume exposure. To simulate a long-term welding exposure in an animal model, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a week for 28 weeks by intratracheal instillation with 2mg of a stainless steel, hard-surfacing welding fume. Lung tissues from the welder and the welding fume-treated rats were examined by light and electron microscopy. Pathological analysis of lung tissue collected from the welder demonstrated inflammatory cell influx and significant pulmonary injury. The poor and deteriorating lung condition observed in the welder examined in this study was likely due to exposure to very high levels of potentially toxic metal fumes and gases for a significant number of years due to work in confined spaces. The lung toxicity profile for the rats treated with welding fume was similar. For tissue samples from both the welder and treated rats, welding particle accumulations deposited and persisted in lung structures and were easily visualized using light microscopic techniques. Agglomerates of deposited welding particles mostly were observed within lung cells, particularly alveolar macrophages. Analysis of individual particles within the agglomerates showed that these

  18. Rat lung response to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghe; Zhao, Jinzhuo; Jiang, Rongfang; Song, Weimin

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to different ambient pollutants maybe more toxic to lung than exposure to a single pollutant. In this study, we discussed the inflammation and oxidative stress responses of rat lung caused by ozone and PM2.5 versus that of rats exposed to saline, ozone, or single PM2.5 . Wistar rats inhaled 0.8 ppm ozone or air for 4 h and then placed in air for 3 h following intratracheal instillation with 0, 0.2 (low dose), 0.8 (medium dose), 3.2 (high dose) mg/rat PM2.5 dissolved in sterile saline (0.25 mL/rat), repeated twice per week for 3 weeks, the cumulative doses of PM2.5 in animals were 1.2, 4.8, and 19.2 mg. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last (sixth) exposure. The collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for inflammatory cells and cytokines. Lung tissues were processed for light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examinations. Results showed that total cell number in BALF of PM2.5 -exposed groups were higher than control (p < 0.05). PM2.5 instillation caused dose-trend increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase, and total protein of BALF. Exposure to ozone alone only caused TNF-α significant change in above-mentioned indicators of lung injury. On the other hand, ozone could enhance PM2.5-induced inflammatory changes and pathological characters in rat lungs. SOD and GSH-Px activities in lung were reduced in PM2.5-exposed rats with and without prior ozone exposure compared to control. To determine whether the PM2.5 and ozone affect endothelium system, iNOS, eNOS, and ICAM-1 mRNA levels in lung were analyzed by real-time PCR. These data demonstrated that inflammation and oxidative stress were involved in toxicology mechanisms of PM2.5 in rat lung and ozone potentiated these effects induced by PM2.5. These results have implications for understanding the pulmonary effects induced by ozone and PM2.5.

  19. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on hyperbaric hyperoxia-induced lung injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwu; Liu, Kehuan; Ma, Chunqing; Yu, Jiangang; Peng, Zhaoyun; Huang, Guoyang; Cai, Zhiyu; Li, Runping; Xu, Weigang; Sun, Xuejun; Liu, Kan; Zheng, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is one of the most widely used clinical interventions to counteract insufficient pulmonary oxygen delivery in patients with severe lung injury. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to inflammation and acute lung injury. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on hyperbaric hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) at 28 μmol/kg immediately before hyperoxia exposure and then exposed to pure oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (atm abs) with continuous ventilation for six hours, Immediately after hyperoxia exposure, rats were sacrificed via anesthesia. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was harvested for the detection of protein concentration and IL-1 content, and the lungs were collected for HE staining, TUNEL staining and detection of wet/dry weight ratio. Our results showed hyperbaric hyperoixa exposure could significantly damage the lung (HE staining), increase the protein and IL-13 in the BALF, elevate the wet/dry Weight ratio and raise the TUNEL positive cells. However, pre-treatment with hydrogen sulfide improved the lung morphology, reduced the TUNEL positive cells and attenuated the lung inflammation (reduction in IL-13 of BALF and HE staining). Taken together, our findings indicate that hydrogen sulfide pretreatment may exert protective effects on hyperbaric hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  20. Quantifying single microvessel permeability in isolated blood-perfused rat lung preparation.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Parthasarathi, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The isolated blood-perfused lung preparation is widely used to visualize and define signaling in single microvessels. By coupling this preparation with real time imaging, it becomes feasible to determine permeability changes in individual pulmonary microvessels. Herein we describe steps to isolate rat lungs and perfuse them with autologous blood. Then, we outline steps to infuse fluorophores or agents via a microcatheter into a small lung region. Using these procedures described, we determined permeability increases in rat lung microvessels in response to infusions of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The data revealed that lipopolysaccharide increased fluid leak across both venular and capillary microvessel segments. Thus, this method makes it possible to compare permeability responses among vascular segments and thus, define any heterogeneity in the response. While commonly used methods to define lung permeability require postprocessing of lung tissue samples, the use of real time imaging obviates this requirement as evident from the present method. Thus, the isolated lung preparation combined with real time imaging offers several advantages over traditional methods to determine lung microvascular permeability, yet is a straightforward method to develop and implement.

  1. Hypothalamic energy metabolism is impaired by doxorubicin independently of inflammation in non-tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Barbara M M; Lira, Fabio Santos; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa Neto, José Cesar; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Rodrigues, Bruno; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2015-08-01

    We sought to explore the effects of doxorubicin on inflammatory profiles and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats. To investigate these effects, we formed two groups: a control (C) group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control (C) or DOXO groups. The hypothalamus was collected. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and energy metabolism (malate dehydrogenase, complex I and III activities) were analysed in the hypothalamus. The DOXO group exhibited a decreased body weight (p < 0.01). Hypothalamic malate dehydrogenase activity was reduced when compared with control (p < 0.05). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were unchanged. Therefore, our results demonstrate that doxorubicin leads to an impairment of \\hypothalamic energy metabolism, but do not affect the inflammatory pathway. SIGNIFICANCE PARAGRAPH: The hypothalamus is a central organ that regulates a great number of functions, such as food intake, temperature and energy expenditure, among others. Doxorubicin can lead to deep anorexia and metabolic chaos; thus, we observed the effect of this chemotherapeutic drug on the inflammation and metabolism in rats after the administration of doxorubicin in order to understand the central effect in the hypothalamus. Drug treatment by doxorubicin is used as a cancer therapy; however the use of this drug may cause harmful alterations to the metabolism. Thus, further investigations are needed on the impact of drug therapy over the long term.

  2. Cyclin D expression in plutonium-induced lung tumors in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.

    1995-12-01

    The genetic mechanisms responsible for {alpha}-radiation-induced lung cancer in rats following inhalation of {sup 239}Pu is an ongoing area of research in our laboratory. Previous studies have examined the status of the p53 gene by immunohistochemistry. Only two tumors (2/26 squamous cell carcinomas) exhibited detectable levels of p53 products. Both were the result of mutations in codons 280 and 283. More recent studies of X-ray-induced lung tumors in rats showed a similar lack of involvement of p53. In conclusion, we found that {alpha}-radiation-induced rat lung tumors have a high incidence (31 of 39) of cyclin D{sub 1} overexpression.

  3. Isolation and Localization of Type IIb Na/Pi Cotransporter in the Developing Rat Lung

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Wang, Dong-Yu; Kamo, Takaharu; Zhu, Yue; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Konishi, Yoichi; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2000-01-01

    Differential display analysis of rat lung at different developmental stages identified a fragment, HG80, which appeared on embryonic day 16.5 and thereafter. A full-length cDNA derived from a cDNA library of newborn rat lung probed with HG80 was the rat counterpart of sodium-dependent phosphate transporter type IIb and was designated rNaPi IIb. In situ hybridization showed that rNaPi IIb was expressed in type II alveolar cells, suggesting a role in the synthesis of surfactant in the alveoli. The time-dependent changes in localization of this gene in the developing lung and its possible use as a type II pneumocyte marker are discussed. PMID:10880371

  4. Prognostic Significance of Clinical/Pathological Stage IA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Showing Partially Solid or Solid Tumours on Radiological Exam

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yosuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Mun, Mingyon; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although curative resection is expected to be effective in patients with clinical (c-) stage IA/pathological (p-) stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers, recurrence is often observed. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify predictors of recurrence. Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, 138 patients with c-stage IA/p-stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers underwent resection. Recurrence and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were compared with clinical, radiographic and pathological findings. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 97% and the RFS rate was 89% at a median follow-up time of 91 months. Recurrence was observed in 10 patients (7.2%). Significant differences were observed in RFS according to tumour dimensions on the mediastinal window image (>1.5 cm), serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (>5.0 ng/mL), maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax >2.5) and angiolymphatic invasion. Patients were grouped according to the number of risk factors for poor RFS. Patients with 0–1 of the identified risk factors had an RFS of 97%, where those with 2–4 factors had an RFS of 68% (p <0.001). Conclusion: Prognosis of patients exhibiting more than two of these risk factors is considerably poor. Thus, close observation and individualised adjuvant therapy may be beneficial to these patients. PMID:25740451

  5. Peracute toxic effects of inhaled hydrogen sulfide and injected sodium hydrosulfide on the lungs of rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Prior, M G; Reiffenstein, R J; Goodwin, L R

    1989-02-01

    This study was designed to test whether intraperitoneally injected sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) would mimic the pulmonary alterations induced by lethal peracute exposure to an atmosphere containing hydrogen sulfide. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to an atmosphere of either 2317.6 +/- 547.3 mg m-3 H2S (H2S group) or no H2S (air group), or were injected intraperitoneally with a solution containing 30 mg kg-1 sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS group) or saline solution (vehicle control). Rats of the air and saline groups were killed by cervical dislocation. All rats exposed to H2S or injected with NaHS died within 3 min; however, only rats exposed to H2S showed severe respiratory distress in the agonic phase preceding death. In addition, rats in the H2S group had a notable discharge of serous fluid from the mouth and nostrils. At necropsy, all rats in the H2S group had gross and histologic evidence of pulmonary edema characterized by massive extravasation of eosinophilic fluid into the bronchoalveolar space. In contrast, the lungs of rats injected with NaHS or saline or exposed to air were unaffected. It was concluded that the edematogenic effect of H2S in the lungs cannot be reproduced by injection of NaHS. The severity of lung edema induced by a peracute exposure to H2S was extensive enough to account for death.

  6. Lung response to ultrafine Kevlar aramid synthetic fibrils following 2-year inhalation exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, K P; Kelly, D P; O'Neal, F O; Stadler, J C; Kennedy, G L

    1988-07-01

    Four groups of 100 male and 100 female rats were exposed to ultrafine Kevlar fibrils at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 25, and 100 fibrils/cc for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. One group was exposed to 400 fibrils/cc for 1 year and allowed to recover for 1 year. At 2.5 fibrils/cc, the lungs had normal alveolar architecture with a few dust-laden macrophages (dust cell response) in the alveolar airspaces. At 25 fibrils/cc, the lungs showed a dust cell response, slight Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar bronchiolarization, and a negligible amount of collagenized fibrosis in the alveolar duct region. At 100 fibrils/cc, the same pulmonary responses were seen as at 25 fibrils/cc. In addition, cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (CKSCC) was found in 4 female rats, but not in male rats. Female rats had more prominent foamy alveolar macrophages, cholesterol granulomas, and alveolar bronchiolarization. These pulmonary lesions were related to the development of CKSCC. The lung tumors were derived from metaplastic squamous cells in areas of alveolar bronchiolarization. At 400 fibrils/cc following 1 year of recovery, the lung dust content, average fiber length, and the pulmonary lesions were markedly reduced, but slight centriacinar emphysema and minimal collagenized fibrosis were found in the alveolar duct region. One male and 6 female rats developed CKSCC. The lung tumors were a unique type of experimentally induced tumors in the rats and have not been seen as spontaneous tumors in man or animals. Therefore, the relevance of this type of lung tumor to the human situation is minimal.

  7. Relation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and 2α in operable non-small cell lung cancer to angiogenic/molecular profile of tumours and survival

    PubMed Central

    Giatromanolaki, A; Koukourakis, M I; Sivridis, E; Turley, H; Talks, K; Pezzella, F; Gatter, K C; Harris, A L

    2001-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors HIF1α and HIF2α are important proteins involved in the regulation of the transcription of a variety of genes related to erythropoiesis, glycolysis and angiogenesis. Hypoxic stimulation results in rapid increase of the HIF1α and 2α protein levels, as a consequence of a redox-sensitive stabilization. The HIFαs enter the nucleus, heterodimerize with the HIF1β protein, and bind to DNA at the hypoxia response elements (HREs) of target genes. In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 108 tissue samples from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in normal lung tissues. Both proteins showed a mixed cytoplasmic/nuclear pattern of expression in cancer cells, tumoural vessels and tumour-infiltrating macrophages, as well as in areas of metaplasia, while normal lung components showed negative or very weak cytoplasmic staining. Positive HIF1α and HIF2α expression was noted in 68/108 (62%) and in 54/108 (50%) of cases respectively. Correlation analysis of HIF2α expression with HIF1α expression showed a significant association (P < 0.0001, r = 0.44). A strong association of the expression of both proteins with the angiogenic factors VEGF (P < 0.004), PD-ECGF (P < 0.003) and bFGF (P < 0.04) was noted. HIF1α correlated with the expression of bek-bFGF receptor expression (P = 0.01), while HIF2α was associated with intense VEGF/KDR-activated vascularization (P = 0.002). HIF2α protein was less frequently expressed in cases with a medium microvessel density (MVD); a high rate of expression was noted in cases with both low and high MVD (P = 0.006). Analysis of overall survival showed that HIF2α expression was related to poor outcome (P = 0.008), even in the group of patients with low MVD (P = 0.009). HIF1α expression was marginally associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.08). In multivariate analysis HIF2α expression was an independent prognostic indicator (P = 0.006, t-ratio 2.7). We conclude that HIF1

  8. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  9. Intrapulmonary Castleman’s Disease Pretending to Be a Lung Cancer—Work Up of an Intrapulmonary Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Gian; Schmid, Severin; Passlick, Bernward; Wiesemann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    A 24 year old male presented with a history of recurrent bronchopulmonal infections. Chest computed tomography was performed, revealing a right central mass. In the following bronchoscopy and ultrasound guided needle aspiration of the tumour no specific diagnosis could be obtained. Due to the central location of the tumour thoracotomy and middle lobe resection was performed. Histopathological analysis revealed an intrapulmonary, subpleural located Morbus Castleman of the hyaline-vascular type. Castleman’s disease is a very rare disorder of the lymphatic tissue that is differentiated into two clinical subtypes. The localized type presents histologically almost always as the hyaline-vascular form. Findings have been reported in mediastinal lymph nodes, the abdomen and peripheral lymphnodes. Intrapulmonary development is very rare and only 9 cases have previously been described in literature. On the other hand the multicentric type accounts for approximately 10%–15% of cases and histologically usually presents as the plasma cell variant. It is accompanied by fatigue and general weakness and often requires systemic steroid or chemotherapy. The localized type develops less clinical symptoms and is curable by complete surgical resection. PMID:26581496

  10. Extraction and Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Biological Matrices with Application to Rat Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Doudrick, Kyle; Corson, Nancy; Oberdörster, Günter; Elder, Alison; Herckes, Pierre; Halden, Rolf U.; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from biological matrices such as rat lung tissue is integral to developing a quantification method for evaluating the environmental and human health exposure and toxicity of CNTs. The ability of various chemical treatment methods, including Solvable (2.5% sodium hydroxide/surfactant mixture), ammonium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and proteinase K, to extract CNTs from rat lung tissue was evaluated. CNTs were quantified using programmed thermal analysis (PTA). Two CNTs were used to represent the lower (500°C) and upper (800°C) PTA limit of CNT thermal stability. The recovery efficiency of each of the eight chemical reagents evaluated was found to depend on the ability to (1) minimize oxidation of CNTs, (2) remove interfering background carbon from the rat lung tissue, and (3) separate the solid-phase CNTs from the liquid-phase dissolved tissue via centrifugation. A two-step extraction method using Solvable and proteinase K emerged as the optimal approach, enabling a recovery of 98 ± 15% of a 2.9 ± 0.19 µg CNT loading that was spiked into whole rat lungs. Due to its high yield and applicability to low organ burdens of nanomaterials, this extraction method is particularly well suited for in vivo studies to quantify clearance rates and retained CNTs in lungs and other organs. PMID:23992048

  11. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  12. Measles virus replication in lungs of hispid cotton rats after intranasal inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wyde, P R; Ambrose, M W; Voss, T G; Meyer, H L; Gilbert, B E

    1992-10-01

    Hispid cotton rats were inoculated intranasally with either measles virus (MV) Edmonston, a multipassaged, tissue culture-adapted strain of MV, or with one of three clinical MV isolates that had limited passages (three to five times) in tissue culture cells. MV Edmonston was recovered from the lungs of every (n = 37) hispid cotton rat inoculated with this virus for at least 7 days after virus inoculation. Peak pulmonary titers occurred on Day +4 (3.3-4.4 log10/g lung). Scattered areas of inflammation were observed interstitially in lung sections from infected animals stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and a similar pattern of diffuse fluorescence was seen in cryostat sections stained with an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure specific for virus antigens. Fluorescent antibody and virus isolation studies on lung lavage cells both suggested that lung leukocytes were a primary target of the virus. In contrast to these findings, virus was isolated only sporadically from hispid cotton rats inoculated with any of the clinical measles virus isolates. Despite the restricted growth of MV in these animals, cotton rats may be useful for studying certain aspects of measles virus pathogenesis and for screening potential antiviral compounds in vivo.

  13. Consumption of hydrogen water reduces paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shulin; Liu, Kan; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Wenwu; Xu, Weigang; Denoble, Petar; Tao, Hengyi; Sun, Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to paraquat leads to acute lung injury and oxidative stress is widely accepted as a contributor to paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Recent studies have reported that consumption of water with dissolved molecular hydrogen to a saturated level (hydrogen water) prevents oxidative stress-induced diseases. Here, we investigated whether consumption of saturated hydrogen saline protects rats against paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group; hydrogen water-only group (HW group); paraquat-only group (PQ group); paraquat and hydrogen water group (PQ + HW group). The rats in control group and HW group drank pure water or hydrogen water; the rats in PQ group and PQ + HW group were intraperitonealy injected with paraquat (35 mg/kg) and then provided pure water or hydrogen water. Both biochemical and histological lung alterations were measured. The results showed that hydrogen water ameliorated these alterations, demonstrating that hydrogen water alleviated paraquat-induced acute lung injury possibly by inhibition of oxidative damage. PMID:21318114

  14. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bakkal, B H; Gultekin, F A; Guven, B; Turkcu, U O; Bektas, S; Can, M

    2013-09-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  15. Inverse relationship of tumors and mononuclear cell leukemia infiltration in the lungs of F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, D.L.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    In 1970 and F344 rat, along with the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse, were selected as the standard rodents for the National Cancer Institute Carcinogenic Bioassay program for studies of potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The F344 rat has also been used in a variety of other carcinogenesis studies, including numerous studies at ITRI. A major concern to be considered in evaluating carcinogenic bioassay studies using the F344 rat is the relatively high background incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia (MCL) (also referred to as large granular lymphocytic leukemia, Fischer rat leukemia, or monocytic leukemia). Incidences of MCL ranging from 10 to 72% in male F344 rats to 6 to 31% in female F344 rats have been reported. Gaining the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the negative correlations noted should enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of lung cancer.

  16. Protective effect of magnesium chloride on sodium fluoride induced alterations in various hydroxyproline fractions in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, N J

    2011-02-12

    Frequent absorption of the fluoride causes tooth decay, damage of kidneys, bones, nerves and muscles. The present study was carried out to study the reported protective effect of magnesium chloride on sodium fluoride (NaF) induced alterations in rat lung hydroxyproline/ collagen content. To study the dose response of NaF following groups were studied: (i) normal rats (ii) placebo group, (iii) rats treated with two different doses of NaF. To study the protective effect of MgCl2 the following groups of rats were studied (i) normal rats (ii) rats injected with MgCl2 (iii) rats injected with NaF (iv) rats injected with MgCl2 followed by NaF. Sodium fluoride doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of rats caused a significant increase (p < 0. 001) increase in peptide- bound and total Hyp content in rat lungs. Administration of MgCl2 alone to rats also caused significant increase in peptide- bound, protein- bound and total Hyp fractions in rat lungs (p < 0. 001). Administration of MgCl2 thirty minutes before NaF restored the altered protein bound Hyp fraction to almost normal levels. The present study concludes that although MgCl2 has been reported to be protective against toxic effects of NaF, it exerts an independent effect on hydroxyproline and collagen content in rat lungs.

  17. Effects of hydrogen sulfide exposure on lung mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Schuler, M M; Prior, M G; Yong, S; Coppock, R W; Florence, L Z; Lillie, L E

    1990-05-01

    Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 4 hr to various concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas and killed either immediately or at 1, 24, or 48 hr after exposure. Mitochondrial fractions from lung tissues were assayed for the activities of respiratory chain enzymes. Exposure of rats to a low concentration (10 ppm) of H2S caused no significant changes in the activities of lung mitochondrial enzymes. However, exposure to sublethal concentrations of H2S (50-400 ppm) produced marked and highly significant depressions in the activities of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate oxidase complexes of the respiratory chain. The inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity in lungs was most severe (greater than 90%) in rats that died from acute exposure to greater than 500 ppm H2S. In rats exposed to 200 and 400 ppm H2S, a marked recovery in cytochrome c oxidase activity of lungs was observed at 24 and 48 hr postexposure. Studies in vitro with rat lung mitochondria showed that low concentrations of sulfide also caused a similar and selective inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity. This effect was reversed upon removal of sulfide either by washing or by oxidation with methemoglobin. The nature of sulfide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase was noncompetitive with respect to ferrocytochrome c. Because the activities of NADH-cytochrome c reductase and succinate-cytochrome c reductase were not significantly altered by H2S exposure and in vitro treatments with low concentrations of sulfide, it is concluded that under physiological conditions H2S would block the respiratory chain primarily by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Such a biochemical impairment would lead to functional (histotoxic) hypoxia in the lung tissues.

  18. Carvacrol and Pomegranate Extract in Treating Methotrexate-Induced Lung Oxidative Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Şen, Velat; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Türkçü, Gül; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Özlem; Kaplan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carvacrol (CRV) and pomegranate extract (PE) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced lung injury in rats. Material/Methods A total of 32 male rats were subdivided into 4 groups: control (group I), MTX treated (group II), MTX+CRV treated (group III), and MTX+PE treated (group IV). A single dose of 73 mg/kg CRV was administered intraperitoneally to rats in group III on Day 1 of the investigation. To group IV, a dose of 225 mg/kg of PE was administered via orogastric gavage once daily over 7 days. A single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX was given intraperitoneally to groups II, III, and IV on Day 2. The total duration of experiment was 8 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured from rat lung tissues and cardiac blood samples. Results Serum and lung specimen analyses demonstrated that MDA, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly greater in group II relative to controls. Conversely, the TAC level was significantly reduced in group II when compared to the control group. Pre-administering either CRV or PE was associated with decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAC levels compared to rats treated with MTX alone. Histopathological examination revealed that lung injury was less severe in group III and IV relative to group II. Conclusions MTX treatment results in rat lung oxidative damage that is partially counteracted by pretreatment with either CRV or PE. PMID:25326861

  19. Dual hit lipopolysaccharide & oleic acid combination induced rat model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hagawane, T.N.; Gaikwad, R.V.; Kshirsagar, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite advances in therapy and overall medical care, acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management remains a problem. Hence the objective of this study was to develop a rat model that mimics human ALI/ARDS. Methods: Four groups of Wistar rats, 48 per group were treated with (i) intratracheal (IT) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) dissolved in normal saline (NS), (ii) intravenous (iv) oleic acid (OA) (250 μl/kg) suspension in bovine serum albumin (BSA), (iii) dual hit: IT LPS (2 mg/kg) dissolved in NS and iv OA (100 μl/kg) and (iv) control group: IT NS and iv BSA. From each group at set periods of time various investigations like chest X-rays, respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), total cell count, differential cell count, total protein count and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung wet/dry weight ratio and histopathological examination were done. Results: It was noted that the respiratory rate, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were significantly higher at 4 h in the dual hit group as compared to LPS, OA and control groups. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher in the dual hit group as compared to LPS at 8 and 24 h, OA at 8 h and control (at all time intervals) group. IL-1β levels were significantly higher in LPS and dual hit groups at all time intervals, but not in OA and control groups. The injury induced in dual hit group was earlier and more sustained as compared to LPS and OA alone. Interpretation & conclusions: The lung pathology and changes in respiration functions produced by the dual hit model were closer to the diagnostic criteria of ALI/ARDS in terms of clinical manifestations and pulmonary injury and the injury persisted longer as compared to LPS and OA single hit model. Therefore, the ARDS model produced by the dual hit method was closer to the diagnostic criteria of ARDS in terms of clinical manifestations and pulmonary injury. PMID

  20. Phosphatidylcholine kinetics in neonatal rat lungs and the effects of rhuKGF and betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Gesche, Jens; Raith, Marco; Poets, Christian F

    2016-05-15

    Surfactant, synthesized by type II pneumocytes (PN-II), mainly comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) and is essential to prevent neonatal respiratory distress. Furthermore, PC is essential to lung tissue growth and maintenance as a membrane component. Recent findings suggest that the lung contributes to systemic lipid homeostasis via PC export through ABC-A1 transporter expression. Hence it is important to consider pharmacological interventions in neonatal lung PC metabolism with respect to such export. Five-day-old rats were treated with carrier (control), intraperitoneal betamethasone, subcutaneous recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rhuKGF), or their combination for 48 h. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg [D9-methyl]choline chloride 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 h before death at day 7, and lung lavage fluid (LLF) and tissue were harvested. Endogenous PC, D9-labeled PC species, and their water-soluble precursors (D9-)choline and (D9-)phosphocholine were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Treatment increased secreted and tissue PC pools but did not change equilibrium composition of PC species in LLF. However, all treatments increased specific surfactant components in tissue. In control rats, peak D9-PC in lavaged lung was reached after 3 h and was decreased at 6 h. Only 13% of this net loss in lavaged lung was found in LLF. Such decrease was not present in lungs treated with betamethasone and/or with rhuKGF. D9-PC loss at 3-6 h and PC synthesis calculated from D9 enrichment of phosphocholine indicated that daily synthesis rate is higher than total pool size. We conclude that lung tissue contributes to systemic PC homeostasis in neonatal rats, which is altered by glucocorticoid and rhuKGF treatment. PMID:26944086

  1. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir; Richardson, Jason R.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-08-15

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage.

  2. Active Oxygen Metabolites and Thromboxane in Phorbol Myristate Acetate Toxicity to the Isolated, Perfused Rat Lung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Laurie Jean

    When administered intravenously or intratracheally to rats, rabbits and sheep, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) produces changes in lung morphology and function are similar to those seen in humans with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, it is thought that information about the mechanism of ARDS development can be gained from experiments using PMA-treated animals. Currently, the mechanisms by which PMA causes pneumotoxicity are unknown. Results from other studies in rabbits and in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs suggest that PMA-induced lung injury is mediated by active oxygen species from neutrophils (PMN), whereas studies in sheep and rats suggest that PMN are not required for the toxic response. The role of PMN, active oxygen metabolites and thromboxane (TxA_2) in PMA-induced injury to isolated, perfused rat lungs (IPLs) was examined in this thesis. To determine whether PMN were required for PMA to produce toxicity to the IPL, lungs were perfused for 30 min with buffer containing various concentrations of PMA (in the presence or absence of PMN). When concentrations >=q57 ng/ml were added to medium devoid of added PMN, perfusion pressure and lung weight increased. When a concentration of PMA (14-28 ng/ml) that did not by itself cause lungs to accumulate fluid was added to the perfusion medium containing PMN (1 x 10 ^8), perfusion pressure increased, and lungs accumulated fluid. These results indicate that high concentrations of PMA produce lung injury which is independent of PMN, whereas injury induced by lower concentrations is PMN-dependent. To examine whether active oxygen species were involved in mediating lung injury induced by PMA and PMN, lungs were coperfused with the oxygen radical scavengers SOD and/or catalase. Coperfusion with either or both of these enzymes totally protected lungs against injury caused by PMN and PMA. These results suggest that active oxygen species (the hydroxyl radical in particular), mediate lung injury in

  3. Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Angelos; Rodriguez, I; Nin, N; Izquierdo-Garcia, J L; Lorente, J A; Perez-Sanchez, J M; Pesic, J; Olsson, L E; Ruiz-Cabello, J

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases are known to be largely inhomogeneous. To evaluate such inhomogeneities, we are testing an image-based method to measure gas flow in the lung regionally. Dynamic, spin-density-weighted hyperpolarized (3)He MR images performed during slow inhalation of this gas were analyzed to quantify regional inflation rate. This parameter was measured in regions of interest (ROIs) that were defined by a rectangular grid that covered the entire rat lung and grew dynamically with it during its inflation. We used regional inflation rate to quantify elastase-induced emphysema and to differentiate healthy (n = 8) from elastase-treated (n = 9) rat lungs as well as healthy from elastase-treated areas of one rat unilaterally treated with elastase in the left lung. Emphysema was also assessed by gold standard morphological and well-established hyperpolarized (3)He MRI diffusion measurements. Mean values of regional inflation rates were significantly different for healthy and elastase-treated animals and correlated well with the apparent diffusion coefficient of (3)He and morphological measurements. The image-based biomarker inflation rate may be useful for the assessment of regional lung ventilation.

  4. MRI of lung parenchyma in rats and mice using a gradient-echo sequence.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, N; Tigani, B; Mazzoni, L; Fozard, J R

    2001-08-01

    Signal of lung parenchymal tissue from the living rat and mouse lung was detected at 4.7 T with a good signal-to-noise ratio and motion-suppressed artifacts using a short TE gradient-echo sequence. Neither cardiac nor respiratory gating were applied, and animals respired freely during data collection. Mean T(2)* relaxation times of parenchyma in the anterior, middle and posterior regions of both lungs ranged between 403 and 657 micros and 397 and 751 micros, respectively for the rat and mouse. For the rat in the prone position, there was a gradient in T(2)* values, from the posterior to the anterior regions of both lungs. In the supine position, however, T(2)* values were larger in the posterior and in the anterior portions. For the mouse in both prone and supine positions, there was a tendential gradient in T(2)* from the anterior to the posterior portions. The robustness of the approach renders it well suited for routine applications, e.g. in pharmacological studies concerning asthma models in small rodents. The method was applied to lung inflammation models involving challenge with ovalbumin or lipopolysaccharide.

  5. TYLOXAPOL CONFERS DURABLE PROTECTION AGAINST HYPEROXIC LUNG INJURY IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested the hypothesis that the non-lipid components of ExosurfR, tyloxapol (TY) and cetyl alcohol (CA), protect against hyperoxic lung injury by either 1) direct radical scavenging activity or 2) induction of the animals? endogenous anti-oxidant defenses. Adult rats were in...

  6. Neuroendocrine (NE) cells in rat neonatal lungs. A histochemical and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pascual, A; Martin-Lacave, I; Moreno, A M; Fernandez, A; Galera, H

    1990-06-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the presence of NE cells in the newborn rat lung. The localization of these cell was achieved by an argyrophil method. Both single NE and NEB, were found. Immunoperoxidase techniques were performed to determine NSE, serotonin and calcitonin production in these NE formations.

  7. Antioxidant effects of selenium on lung injury in paraquat intoxicated rats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, K.S.; Suh, G.J.; Kwon, W.Y.; Kwak, Y.H.; Lee, Kenneth; Lee, H.J.; Jeong, K.Y.; Lee, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Paraquat (PQ) causes lethal intoxication by inducing oxidant injury to the lung. Selenium is a cofactor for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is one of the major endogenous antioxidant enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether selenium post-treatment activates GPx, decreases lung injury, and improves survival in PQ intoxicated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Spraque-Dawley rats were categorized into three groups: sham (n = 6), PQ (n = 12), and PQ + Se (n = 12). In the PQ and PQ + Se groups, 50 mg/kg of PQ was administered intraperitoneally. After 10 minutes, 60 μg/kg of Se (PQ + Se) or saline (PQ) was administered via the tail vein. Six rats per group were euthanized 6 hours or 24 hours later. Lung tissues were harvested for the measurement of GPx activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and for histological analysis. Using separated set of rats, survival of PQ (n = 10) and PQ + Se (n = 10) were observed for 72 hours. RESULTS: GPx activity in the PQ group at the 6-hour and 24-hour time points was lower than in the sham group (p CONCLUSION: Single dose of selenium post-treatment activates GPx and attenuates lipid peroxidation and lung injury early after paraquat intoxication, but does not improve 72 hours of survival.

  8. Ambroxol reduces LPS toxicity mediated by induction of alkaline phosphatases in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Iwao; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Kikuno, Akira; Hokari, Shigeru; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2004-08-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) have been suggested to detoxify lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by dephosphorylation. Ambroxol, a bronchial expectorant, is known to accelerate the secretion of pulmonary surfactant particles including AP molecules as a pharmacological action. In the present study, some beneficial effects of ambroxol on LPS toxicity in the rat lung were investigated. In an experiment using the rat lung organ culture, AP activities were enhanced in a time-dependent manner by incubation with 25 microM of ambroxol in both the tissue and the medium. Western blot analysis indicated that AP activity was elevated by the treatment with ambroxol, due to the induction of surfactant proteins (SPs) and AP molecules. In the in vivo experiment, the serum LPS content was markedly increased after LPS administration to rats by intratracheal instillation of 20 mg/kg. However, when the rats were pretreated with oral ambroxol (1.0 mg/kg) at 1 h before LPS challenge, the area under the concentration--time curve (AUC) of serum LPS was significantly decreased. These results suggest that ambroxol inhibits the translocation of LPS from the lung into the circulation as well as its detoxification effect via the elevation of AP activity. Bromhexine, another expectorant, is less effective than ambroxol as an LPS detoxificant. Maintenance of high AP activity level in the lung suggests APs to have physiological significant effects against the inflammatory events induced by LPS.

  9. Lung inflammatory responses and hyperinflation induced by an intratracheal exposure to lipopolysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Anne-Helene; Eriksson, Christina; Wang, Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of the respiratory tract to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute local inflammation and tissue injury associated with the various deliveries of LPS. To determine potential association of local inflammatory responses with respiratory tract dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells, production of inflammatory mediators, lung hyperinflation and edema were measured in Wister rats 2, 4, and 24 h after an intratracheal administration of LPS at different doses (5, 50, 500 and 5000 microg/ml/kg). Lung hyperinflation determined by an increased excised lung gas volume was significantly increased 2 and 4 h after LPS instillation and lung edema occurred from 2 h onward. Peak BAL levels of TNFalpha appeared at 2 h, MCP-1 at 4 h, and IL-6 at 2 and 4 h, while BAL levels of IL-1beta were increased during 24 h after the intratracheal instillation of LPS. Neutrophilia in BAL fluid was noted from 2 h post-challenge. Our results demonstrate a clear dose-related change in the lung weight at 4 and 24 h, in the BAL levels of MCP-1 at 4 h, and IL-6 and IL-1beta at 2 and 4 h. It seems important to understand polymorphisms of LPS-induced lung hyperinflation and inflammation. Lung hyperinflation and inflammation may be independent during the development of acute lung injury.

  10. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  11. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; EL-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  12. Immunofluorescent characterization of lymphocytes in lungs of rats infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J K; Maddox, P A; Thorp, R B; Cassell, G H

    1980-01-01

    Immunofluorescence was used to determine the relative percentages of T and B lymphocytes found in the lungs of normal and Mycoplasma pulmonis-infected F344 rats. Lymphocytes recovered from controls were approximately 25% T, 25% B, and 50% unclassified mononuclear cells. Infected animals had a 2.6-fold greater number of T cells and IgA-bearing cells, and a 1.6-fold greater number of unclassified mononuclear cells. These studies show that M. pulmonis infection significantly alters lung lymphocyte populations both quantitatively and in subpopulation distribution. Therefore, future studies of rat lung lymphocytes should utilize animals known to be free of this ubiquitous respiratory pathogen. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7358429

  13. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Moser, C; Høiby, N

    1996-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of two kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs, Isatis tinctoria L (ITL) and Daphne giraldii Nitsche (DGN), on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF). Compared to the control group, both drugs were able to reduce the incidence of lung abscess (p < 0.05) and to decrease the severity of the macroscopic pathology in lungs (p < 0.05). In the great majority of the rats, the herbs altered the inflammatory response in the lungs from an acute type inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), to a chronic type inflammation, dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (MN). DGN also improved the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs (p < 0.03) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the two herbal groups with regard to serum IgG and IgA anti-P. aeruginosa sonicate antibodies. However, the IgM concentration in the ITL group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.03). These results suggest that the two medicinal herbs might be helpful to CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection, DGN being the most favorable. PMID:8703440

  14. Effects of budesonide and N-acetylcysteine on acute lung hyperinflation, inflammation and injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Anne-Helene; Eriksson, Christina; Wang, Xiangdong

    2005-08-01

    Leukocyte activation and production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species are important in the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. The present study investigated acute lung hyperinflation, edema, and lung inflammation 4 h after an intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 microg/ml/kg). Effects of budesonide, an inhaled anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, were evaluated in Wistar rats receiving either low (2.5 microg/ml/kg) or high (50 microg/ml/kg) concentrations of LPS. This study demonstrates that LPS in a concentration-dependent pattern induces acute lung hyperinflation measured by excised lung gas volume (25-45% above control), lung injury indicated by increased lung weight (10-60%), and lung inflammation characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes (40-14000%) and neutrophils (80-17000%) and the production of cytokines (up to 2700%) and chemokines (up to 350%) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pretreatment with NAC partially prevented tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production induced by the low concentration of LPS, while pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the increased production of TNFalpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractive protein (MCP)-1 after LPS challenge at both low and high concentrations. Budesonide failed to prevent BALF levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (GRO/CINC-1) as well as lung hyperinflation induced by both low and high concentrations of LPS. Pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the formation of lung edema at the low concentration of LPS and had partial effects on acute lung injury and leukocyte influx at the high concentrations. Thus, our data indicate that therapeutic effects of budesonide and NAC are dependent upon the severity of the disease.

  15. Dexamethasone pretreatment attenuates lung and kidney injury in cholestatic rats induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liangyi; Yao, Xiangqing; Chen, Yanling

    2012-02-01

    Hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) results in mild to severe organ injury, in which tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) seem to be involved. Thus, we aim to assess the influence of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury on remote organs in addition to cholestasis and consider the possible efficacy of steroid pretreatment in reducing the injury. A common bile duct ligation model was done on 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 7 days, the rats were divided randomly into control group, IR group, and dexamethasone (DEX) group. The IR group showed significant increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine levels compared with the control and DEX groups. By ELISA techniques, higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in lung and kidney tissues were measured in the IR group than in the control and DEX groups, these were verified by immunohistochemistry. The lung histology of the IR group rats showed neutrophil infiltration, interstitial edema, and alveolar wall thickening. Kidney histology of the IR group rats showed vacuolization of the proximal tubular epithelial cells and tubular dilatation with granular eosinophilic casts. Better morphological aspects were observed in the DEX-pretreated animals. Minimal lesions were observed in the control. The results suggest that hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in cholestatic rats induced lung and kidney injuries. Pretreatment with dexamethasone reduced the IR-induced injury in addition to cholestasis.

  16. Clearance of polonium-210-enriched cigarette smoke from the rat trachea and lung

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Tso, T.C.

    1985-06-30

    The distribution and clearance of alpha radioactivity in the lungs of rats were measured after inhalation of smoke from cigarettes highly enriched in /sup 210/Po. Female Fischer rats were exposed daily for 6 months to smoke from cigarettes with 500 times the normal content of /sup 210/Po. Control rats were exposed to standard cigarette smoke. Animals were serially withdrawn and killed. After necropsy the trachea, major bronchi, larynx, and nasopharynx were examined for surface alpha activity by an etched track technique utilizing cellulose nitrate detectors. Areas of accumulated activity were seen on samples of larynx from rats exposed to the /sup 210/Po-enriched cigarettes. No other local accumulations were seen on the airways. The lower lungs were analyzed radiochemically for /sup 210/Po. Both radiochemical analysis and track measurements showed highly elevated activity concentrations in rats exposed to the /sup 210/Po-enriched cigarettes. Following withdrawal from smoking, both short- and long-term clearance components were seen. The parameters which fit the postexposure data for clearance of the lung burden cannot fit the buildup during the exposure period.

  17. Lung dosimetry and risk assessment of nanoparticles: Evaluating and extending current models in rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Kuempel, E.D.; Tran, C.L.; Castranova, V.; Bailer, A.J.

    2006-09-15

    Risk assessment of occupational exposure to nanomaterials is needed. Human data are limited, but quantitative data are available from rodent studies. To use these data in risk assessment, a scientifically reasonable approach for extrapolating the rodent data to humans is required. One approach is allometric adjustment for species differences in the relationship between airborne exposure and internal dose. Another approach is lung dosimetry modeling, which provides a biologically-based, mechanistic method to extrapolate doses from animals to humans. However, current mass-based lung dosimetry models may not fully account for differences in the clearance and translocation of nanoparticles. In this article, key steps in quantitative risk assessment are illustrated, using dose-response data in rats chronically exposed to either fine or ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), or diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). The rat-based estimates of the working lifetime airborne concentrations associated with 0.1% excess risk of lung cancer are approximately 0.07 to 0.3 mg/m{sup 3} for ultrafine TiO{sub 2}, CB, or DEP, and 0.7 to 1.3 mg/m{sup 3} for fine TiO{sub 2}. Comparison of observed versus model-predicted lung burdens in rats shows that the dosimetry models predict reasonably well the retained mass lung burdens of fine or ultrafine poorly soluble particles in rats exposed by chronic inhalation. Additional model validation is needed for nanoparticles of varying characteristics, as well as extension of these models to include particle translocation to organs beyond the lungs. Such analyses would provide improved prediction of nanoparticle dose for risk assessment.

  18. The influence of high iron diet on rat lung manganese absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Khristy; Molina, Ramon; Donaghey, Thomas; Brain, Joseph D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne . E-mail: wessling@hsph.harvard.edu

    2006-01-15

    Individuals chronically exposed to manganese are at high risk for neurotoxic effects of this metal. A primary route of exposure is through respiration, although little is known about pulmonary uptake of metals or factors that modify this process. High dietary iron levels inversely affect intestinal uptake of manganese, and a major goal of this study was to determine if dietary iron loading could increase lung non-heme iron levels and alter manganese absorption. Rats were fed a high iron (1% carbonyl iron) or control diet for 4 weeks. Lung non-heme iron levels increased {approx}2-fold in rats fed the high iron diet. To determine if iron-loading affected manganese uptake, {sup 54}Mn was administered by intratracheal (it) instillation or intravenous (iv) injection for pharmacokinetic studies. {sup 54}Mn absorption from the lungs to the blood was lower in it-instilled rats fed the 1% carbonyl iron diet. Pharmacokinetics of iv-injected {sup 54}Mn revealed that the isotope was cleared more rapidly from the blood of iron-loaded rats. In situ analysis of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in lung detected mRNA in airway epithelium and bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT). Staining of the latter was significantly reduced in rats fed the high iron diet. In situ analysis of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA showed staining in BALT alone. These data demonstrate that manganese absorption from the lungs to the blood can be modified by iron status and the route of administration.

  19. The protective role of endogenous estrogens in carrageenan-induced lung injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Sautebin, L.; Serraino, I.; Dugo, L.; Calabró, G.; Caputi, A. P.; Maggi, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have recently demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) inhibits the increase of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) activity in selected model systems such as macrophages, microglia, smooth muscle cells, and proposed that this effect might be associated with an anti-inflammatory activity of this hormone. Here we investigate the effects of endogenous estrogens in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female rats were ovariectomized 3 weeks before the experiments to deplete circulating estrogens. Selected inflammatory markers, landmarks of the delayed phase of carrageenan-induced pleurisy, were measured in intact (N-OVX), and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. In addition, the effect of hormone replacement was evaluated in ovariectomized rats with intraperitoneal injection of 17beta-estradiol (E2; 50 microg/kg) 1 hr before carrageenan treatment (OVX + E2). RESULTS: Ovariectomy enhanced the carrageenan-induced degree of pleural exudation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in estrogens-deprived rats. The iNOS in lung samples was significantly increased by the surgery. The increase of iNOS activity was correlated with a marked enhancement in the production of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Immunohistochemical analysis for P-selectin and ICAM-I, as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) revealed a positive staining in lungs from carrageenan-treated rats, which was markedly enhanced in ovariectomized rats when compared to cycling rats, particularly in the estrous phase of the cycle. Estrogen replacement counteracted the effect of surgery on all of the above indicators of lung inflammation, suggesting that in the cycling rat this hormone plays a key role in the increased sensitivity to inflammatory injury observed in the OVX rat. CONCLUSION: This study

  20. Evaluation of quartz crystals in rat lungs by X-ray diffractometry.

    PubMed

    Kam, J K

    1981-10-01

    The NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health)-recommended procedure of determining quartz through X-ray diffractometry was applied to rat lungs. Using a compressed air nebulizer inside a closed chamber, 150 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to monodisperse particles of quartz for varying time intervals. The rats were subsequently sacrifice by cervical dislocation and their lungs were removed for ashing inside a muffle furnace at 600 degrees C for 4 hr. The ashed materials were then filtered onto silver membranes and scanned by an /-ray diffractometer. The results, expressed in MG SiO2 were compared to standard values derived from PVC filters. The values suggested that the NIOSH method could be used by biochemists to quantify minerals and crystalline structures in organic materials. PMID:6270784

  1. Quantification of DNA adducts formed in liver, lungs, and isolated lung cells of rats and mice exposed to (14)C-styrene by nose-only inhalation.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; de Kloe, K P; Wong, B A; Sumner, S C; Watson, W P; van Sittert, N J

    2000-10-01

    Bronchiolo-alveolar tumors were observed in mice exposed chronically to 160 ppm styrene, whereas no tumors were seen in rats up to concentrations of 1000 ppm. Clara cells, which are predominant in the bronchiolo-alveolar region in mouse lungs but less numerous in rat and human lung, contain various cytochrome P450s, which may oxidize styrene to the rodent carcinogen styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) and other reactive metabolites. Reactive metabolites may form specific DNA adducts and induce the tumors observed in mice. To determine DNA adducts in specific tissues and cell types, rats and mice were exposed to 160 ppm [ring-U-(14)C]styrene by nose-only inhalation for 6 h in a recirculating exposure system. Liver and lungs were isolated 0 and 42 h after exposure. Fractions enriched in Type II cells and Clara cells were isolated from rat and mouse lung, respectively. DNA adduct profiles differed quantitatively and qualitatively in liver, total lung, and enriched lung cell fractions. At 0 and 42 h after exposure, the two isomeric N:7-guanine adducts of SO (measured together, HPEG) were present in liver at 3.0 +/- 0.2 and 1.9 +/- 0.3 (rat) and 1.2 +/- 0.2 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (mouse) per 10(8) bases. Several other, unidentified adducts were present at two to three times higher concentrations in mouse, but not in rat liver. In both rat and mouse lung, HPEG was the major adduct at approximately 1 per 10(8) bases at 0 h, and these levels halved at 42 h. In both rat Type II and non-Type II cells, HPEG was the major adduct and was about three times higher in Type II cells than in total lung. For mice, DNA adduct levels in Clara cells and non-Clara cells were similar to total lung. The hepatic covalent binding index (CBI) at 0 and 42 h was 0.19 +/- 0.06 and 0.14 +/- 0.03 (rat) and 0. 25 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.23 (mouse), respectively. The pulmonary CBIs, based on tissues combined for 0 and 42 h, were 0.17 +/- 0.04 (rat) and 0.24 +/- 0.04 (mouse). Compared with CBIs for other genotoxicants

  2. Strong correlation between lung ultrasound and chest computerized tomography imaging for the detection of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huan; Huang, Daozheng; Guo, Liheng; Chen, Quanfu; Zhong, Wenzhao

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a clinical imaging technique for diagnosing acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In humans and several large animals, LUS demonstrates similar specificity and sensitivity to computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Current study evaluated the degree of agreement between LUS and CT imaging in characterizing ALI/ARDS in rats. Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were imaged by LUS before randomization into three groups to receive intratracheal saline, 3 or 6 mg/kg LPS respectively (n=10). LUS and CT imaging was conducted 2 hours after instillation. Cross table analyses and kappa statistics were used to determine agreement levels between LUS and CT assessments of lung condition. Results Before instillation, rats presented with a largely A-pattern in LUS images, however, a significantly increase B-lines were observed in all groups after instillation and showed dose response to LPS or to saline. One rat treated with 6 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) presented with lung consolidation. The agreement between the LUS and the CT in detecting the main characteristics of ALI/ARDS in rat was strong (r=0.758, P<0.01, k=0.737). Conclusions In conclusion, LUS detects ALI/ARDS with high agreement with micro PET/CT scanning in a rat model, suggesting that LUS represents a positive refinement in rat ALI/ARDS disease models. PMID:27499930

  3. The relevance of the rat lung response to particle overload for human risk assessment: a workshop consensus report.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    On 23-24 March 1998, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Risk Science Institute convened a workshop entitled "Relevance of the Rat Lung Response to Particle Overload for Human Risk Assessment." The workshop addressed the numerous study reports of lung tumors in rats resulting from chronic inhalation exposures to poorly soluble, nonfibrous particles of low acute toxicity and not directly genotoxic. These poorly soluble particles, indicated by the acronym PSPs (e.g., carbon black, coal dust, diesel soot, nonasbestiform talc, and titanium dioxide), elicit tumors in rats when deposition overwhelms the clearance mechanisms of the lung resulting in a condition referred to as "overload." These PSPs have been shown not to induce tumors in mice and hamsters, and the available data in humans are consistently negative. The objectives were twofold: (1) to provide guidance for risk assessment on the interpretation of neoplastic and nonneoplastic responses of the rat lung to PSPs; and (2) to identify important data gaps in our understanding of the lung responses of rats and other species to PSPs. Utilizing the five critical reviews of relevant literature that follow herein and the combined expertise and experience of the 30 workshop participants, a number of questions were addressed. The consensus views of the workshop participants are presented in this report. Because it is still not known with certainty whether high lung burdens of PSPs can lead to lung cancer in humans via mechanisms similar to those of the rat, in the absence of mechanistic data to the contrary it must be assumed that the rat model can identify potential carcinogenic hazards to humans. Since the apparent responsiveness of the rat model at overload is dependent on coexistent chronic active inflammation and cell proliferation, at lower lung doses where chronic active inflammation and cell proliferation are not present, no lung cancer hazard is anticipated.

  4. Effect of premature delivery on rat lung retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl ester stores.

    PubMed

    Zachman, R D; Valceschini, G

    1988-01-01

    Low plasma retinol (vitamin A) in premature infants has been associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Also, retinol (vitamin A) deficiency is characterized by loss of cilia and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory tract, similar to the histological lesions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia of the premature infant. Recent work showed that the fetal rat lung retinyl palmitate stores were high preterm, but fell abruptly between 21 days of gestation and postpartum. This report extends this observation by showing that lung retinyl palmitate also decreases after cesarean section delivery preterm. Lung retinol and retinyl palmitate in the lungs of 21-day gestation fetuses delivered by cesarean section and stimulated to breath were compared to their in utero littermates. In utero lungs contained 2.2 +/- 0.14 micrograms/g dry weight retinol and 14.9 +/- 0.8 micrograms/g dry weight retinyl palmitate. Lungs from littermates that had been removed from the uterus and breathed on their own for 4 h had lower retinol (1.6 +/- 0.08 micrograms/g) and retinyl palmitate (11.3 +/- 0.4 micrograms/g; p less than 0.01). Fetal lung contains retinyl palmitate stores that are readily mobilized with delivery at term or preterm. PMID:3203123

  5. Quantitative characteristics of calcitonin-producing cells in the thyroid and lungs of uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Uremia leads to a number of metabolic and hormonal disorders induced by renal failure with definite biological and clinical sequels. For this reason and the absence of reports on influence of CRF on calcitonin (CT)-producing cells of the thyroid glands and airways, the author decided to investigate the behavior of neuroendocrine cells in experimental uremia, taking CT-producing cells as an example. The aim of the present study was to examine the number and distribution of CT-producing cells in the thyroid glands and lungs of uremic rats. Fragments of the thyroids and lungs were collected one week after nephrectomy. Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with H+E and by silver impregnation. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against calcitonin. It was revealed that the number of CT-immunoreactive cells decrease in the thyroid and considerable increase in the lungs of rats, when compared to the value in the control animals. The results can be regarded as the morphological manifestation of calcitonin-producing endocrine cells in the rat thyroid and lungs to disorders in the internal environment of the body induced by the impairment of renal parenchyma functioning. PMID:19141408

  6. Distribution of capillary transit times in isolated lungs of oxygen-tolerant rats.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Madhavi; Gan, Zhuohui; Clough, Anne V; Molthen, Robert C; Roerig, David L; Audi, Said H

    2010-11-01

    Rats pre-exposed to 85% O₂ for 5-7 days tolerate the otherwise lethal effects of 100% O₂. The objective was to evaluate the effect of rat exposure to 85% O₂ for 7 days on lung capillary mean transit time t(c) and distribution of capillary transit times (h(c)(t)). This information is important for subsequent evaluation of the effect of this hyperoxia model on the redox metabolic functions of the pulmonary capillary endothelium. The venous concentration vs. time outflow curves of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-dex), an intravascular indicator, and coenzyme Q₁ hydroquinone (CoQ₁H₂), a compound which rapidly equilibrates between blood and tissue on passage through the pulmonary circulation, were measured following their bolus injection into the pulmonary artery of isolated perfused lungs from rats exposed to room air (normoxic) or 85% O₂ for 7 days (hyperoxic). The moments (mean transit time and variance) of the measured FITC-dex and CoQ₁H₂ outflow curves were determined for each lung, and were then used in a mathematical model [Audi et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 77: 332-351, 1994] to estimate t(c) and the relative dispersion (RD(c)) of h (c)(t). Data analysis reveals that exposure to hyperoxia decreases lung t(c) by 42% and increases RD(c), a measure h(c)(t) heterogeneity, by 40%.

  7. Metformin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats by reducing the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueyu; Walther, Frans J.; Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Laghmani, El Houari; Salam, Asma; Folkerts, Gert; Pera, Tonio

    2015-01-01

    Because therapeutic options are lacking for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), there is an urgent medical need to discover novel targets/drugs to treat this neonatal chronic lung disease. Metformin, a drug commonly used to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and improving vascularization. We investigated the therapeutic potential of daily treatment with 25 and 100 mg/kg metformin, injected subcutaneously in neonatal Wistar rats with severe experimental BPD, induced by continuous exposure to 100% oxygen for 10 days. Parameters investigated included survival, lung and heart histopathology, pulmonary fibrin and collagen deposition, vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in the lungs of key genes involved in BPD pathogenesis, including inflammation, coagulation, and alveolar development. After daily metformin treatment rat pups with experimental BPD had reduced mortality, alveolar septum thickness, lung inflammation, and fibrosis, demonstrated by a reduced influx of macrophages and neutrophils and hyperoxia-induced collagen III and fibrin deposition (25 mg/kg), as well as improved vascularization (100 mg/kg) compared with control treatment. However, metformin did not ameliorate alveolar enlargement, small arteriole wall thickening, vascular alveolar leakage, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In conclusion metformin prolongs survival and attenuates pulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation, coagulation, and fibrosis but does not affect alveolar development or prevent pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal rats with severe hyperoxia-induced experimental BPD. PMID:26047641

  8. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Oesterle, D; Wolff, T; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    In order to get more insight into the mechanism of asbestos-related lung cancer, the mutagenic potential of asbestos was examined in vivo in rat lung. Groups of five transgenic lambda-lacI (Big Blue) rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 or 2mg, or with four weekly doses of 2mg, per animal of the amosite asbestos. Sixteen weeks after instillation, the mutation frequency was found to be increased in lung DNA by 2-fold at doses of 2 mg (P = 0.035) and of 4 x 2 mg (P = 0.007) amosite. No significant changes were observed after 4 weeks of exposure. In separate experiments, wild-type F344 rats were treated by the same regimen as described above and markers of inflammation, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and lung tissue damage were analysed. Our results indicate a weak but persistent inflammation and cell proliferation which possibly plays a major role in the observed mutagenic effect. PMID:15288534

  9. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Oesterle, D; Wolff, T; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    In order to get more insight into the mechanism of asbestos-related lung cancer, the mutagenic potential of asbestos was examined in vivo in rat lung. Groups of five transgenic lambda-lacI (Big Blue) rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 or 2mg, or with four weekly doses of 2mg, per animal of the amosite asbestos. Sixteen weeks after instillation, the mutation frequency was found to be increased in lung DNA by 2-fold at doses of 2 mg (P = 0.035) and of 4 x 2 mg (P = 0.007) amosite. No significant changes were observed after 4 weeks of exposure. In separate experiments, wild-type F344 rats were treated by the same regimen as described above and markers of inflammation, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and lung tissue damage were analysed. Our results indicate a weak but persistent inflammation and cell proliferation which possibly plays a major role in the observed mutagenic effect.

  10. Effect of dexamethasone and oxygen exposure on neonatal rat lung retinoic acid receptor proteins.

    PubMed

    McMenamy, K R; Anderson, M J; Zachman, R D

    1994-10-01

    Retinol deficiency in animal models results in histopathologic airway changes that appear similar to those found in human premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Dexamethasone (DEX), a steroid now often used in the treatment of BPD, might potentially affect lung vitamin A homeostasis since it alters serum and liver retinoid stores in certain models. Our objective was to determine the effect of DEX on neonatal rat lung retinoid status and the binding of retinoic acid (RA) to cytosolic and nuclear receptor proteins. We examined this effect both in room air and when the animals breathed 95% oxygen (O2). Twenty-four 1-day-old rat pups received either 1 microgram/g DEX subcutaneously, an equal volume of normal saline (NS) subcutaneously at 0 (start experiment time), 24, and 48 hours, or no injection at all, and were sacrificed at 72 hours. Twelve rats in each treatment group were housed in room air and 12 in each group were exposed to > 95% O2 for the 3 day period. Lung and liver were analyzed for retinyl palmitate (RP). Nuclear retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) were measured by specific binding assays. DEX decreased liver RP by 33-55% and rat pup lung RP by over 60%; it also decreased lung RAR binding (mean dpm/microgram protein +/- SEM) in both room air and oxygen groups: Air (11.2 +/- 1.0) vs. Air/DEX (4.6 +/- 1.3, n = 6; P < 0.01), and O2 (18.2 +/- 0.6) vs. O2/DEX (3.2 +/- 0.6, n = 6; P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7838622

  11. Protective effect and mechanism of hydrogen treatment on lung epithelial barrier dysfunction in rats with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, L-D; Wu, X-Y; Tao, B-D; Wang, N; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the protective effect of hydrogen and to investigate the underlying mechanism of its preliminary effect on the alveolar epithelial barrier function in septic rats. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups (N = 15): control [saline injection (intraperitoneal, ip), air drawing; SA], acute lung injury group [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (ip, 15 mg/kg), air drawing; LA], and acute lung injury combined with hydrogen drawing group [LPS injection (ip, 15 mg/kg), 2% hydrogen drawing; LH]. The rats were euthanized after 6 h of treatment, and the extravascular lung water (EVLW), pulmonary alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure (A-aDO2), and respiratory index (RI) of each group were measured. The aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) protein expression in the lung tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and the correlation between the EVLW and AQP-1 was analyzed. The lung morphology was observed with light and electron microscopy. In the LA group, EVLW (0.87 ± 0.17), A-aDO2 (113.21 ± 13.92), RI (0.65 ± 0.26), and AQP-1 expression increased. Additionally, thickened alveolar walls, significant invasion of inflammatory cells around the vessels, capillary ectasia, hyperemia/hemorrhage in the alveolar space, significantly swollen mitochondria, and increased vacuolar degeneration were observed. A significant negative correlation between AQP-1 expression and EVLW was observed (R2 = 0.8806). Compared with the LA group, EVLW (0.71 ± 0.19), A-aDO2 (132.42 ± 17.39), RI (0.75 ± 0.24), and inflammatory reaction decreased and AQP-1 expression increased in the LH group. The damage to pulmonary epithelial cells improved after hydrogen treatment in rats with sepsis; hydrogen could protect the pulmonary epithelial barrier function by acting on AQP-1. PMID:26909920

  12. 17β-Estradiol administration attenuates seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qixin; Zhao, Pengtao; Li, Jiahuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Xu, Min; Zhang, Yong; Mu, Deguang; Li, Wangping; Sun, Ruilin; Liu, Wei; Nan, Yandong; Zhang, Bo; Jin, Faguang; Li, Zhichao

    2011-12-01

    There is very little evidence on the value of administering estrogen in cases of seawater drowning which can induce acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment can attenuate seawater aspiration-induced ALI in rats. In the experiment, ALI was induced by endotracheal instillation of seawater (4mL/kg) and the rats were then given intraperitoneal injection of E2 (5mg/kg) 20min after seawater instillation. Finally, the changes of arterial blood gases which contained hydrogen ion concentration (pH), arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) were measured and the measurement of extravascular lung water (EVLW) was observed. The pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain. The expression of aquaporins (AQPs) 1, AQP5, and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) was measured by western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that compared with normal saline water, seawater aspiration induced more serious ALI in rats which was markedly alleviated by E2 treatment. Meanwhile, the ERβ in lung tissues was activated after E2 administration. The seawater aspiration group also presented with severe pulmonary edema which was paralleled with over expressed AQP1 and AQP5. However, the up-regulation of AQP1 and AQP5 was suppressed by the administration of E2, resulting in an attenuation of lung edema. In conclusion, E2 treatment could effectively attenuate seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury in rats by the down-regulation of AQP1 and AQP5.

  13. Distribution of aerosolized particles in healthy and emphysematous rat lungs: comparison between experimental and numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Jessica M; Marsden, Alison L; Grandmont, Céline; Darquenne, Chantal; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2015-04-13

    In silico models of airflow and particle deposition in the lungs are increasingly used to determine the therapeutic or toxic effects of inhaled aerosols. While computational methods have advanced significantly, relatively few studies have directly compared model predictions to experimental data. Furthermore, few prior studies have examined the influence of emphysema on particle deposition. In this work we performed airflow and particle simulations to compare numerical predictions to data from our previous aerosol exposure experiments. Employing an image-based 3D rat airway geometry, we first compared steady flow simulations to coupled 3D-0D unsteady simulations in the healthy rat lung. Then, in 3D-0D simulations, the influence of emphysema was investigated by matching disease location to the experimental study. In both the healthy unsteady and steady simulations, good agreement was found between numerical predictions of aerosol delivery and experimental deposition data. However, deposition patterns in the 3D geometry differed between the unsteady and steady cases. On the contrary, satisfactory agreement was not found between the numerical predictions and experimental data for the emphysematous lungs. This indicates that the deposition rate downstream of the 3D geometry is likely proportional to airflow delivery in the healthy lungs, but not in the emphysematous lungs. Including small airway collapse, variations in downstream airway size and tissue properties, and tracking particles throughout expiration may result in a more favorable agreement in future studies.

  14. Inhaled tobacco sterols: uptake by the lungs and disposition to selected organs of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Liebler, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1988-08-01

    Tobacco sterols (cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) are present in tobacco smoke and appear in plasma of mammals exposed to cigarette smoke. Because tobacco sterols may be important in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced lung and vascular diseases, we studied the pattern of deposition of cigarette sterols in the lungs and appearance of cigarette sterols in plasma and body organs of rats. After exposure to twenty 5 ml puffs of smoke from tobacco labeled with (4-/sup 14/C)cholesterol or beta-(4-/sup 14/C)sitosterol, rats were killed just after exposure (day 0) and on days 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, and 30, and the lungs and selected body organs analyzed for activity. We found that cigarette sterols are associated with particulates in cigarette smoke, deposited mostly in distal airspaces and parenchyma of the lungs, and appear in plasma and several body organs for more than 30 days after this single exposure to cigarette smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contained relatively small amounts of radiolabel for only the first few days, suggesting that most of the sterols were rapidly incorporated in lung parenchyma. Because disorders of sterol metabolism have been implicated in a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer, the significance of tobacco sterols to human smoking-induced diseases deserves further study.

  15. Cigarette smoke ventilation decreases prostaglandin inactivation in rat and hamster lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Maennistoe, J.; Uotila, P.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke on the metabolism of exogenous PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were investigated in isolated rat and hamster lungs. When isolated lungs from animals were ventilated with cigarette smoke during pulmonary infusion of 100 nmol of PGE2 or PGF2 alpha, the amounts of the 15-keto-metabolites in the perfusion effluent were decreased. Pre-exposure of animals to cigarette smoke daily for 3 weeks did not change the metabolism of PGE2 when the lungs were ventilated with air. Cigarette smoke ventilation of lungs from pre-exposed animals caused, however, a similar decrease in the metabolism of PGE2 as in animals not previously exposed to smoke. After pulmonary injection of 10 nmol of /sup 14/C-PGE2 the radioactivity appeared more rapidly in the effluent during cigarette smoke ventilation suggesting inhibition of the PGE2 uptake mechanism. In rat lungs pulmonary vascular pressor responses to PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were inhibited by smoke ventilation.

  16. Comparative investigations of the biodurability of mineral fibers in the rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Muhle, H; Bellmann, B; Pott, F

    1994-01-01

    The biodurability of various glass fibers, rockwool, and ceramic fibers was examined in rat lungs and compared with natural mineral fibers. Experiments were based on studies that have shown that the biodurability of fibers is one of the essential factors of the carcinogenic potency of these materials. Sized fractions of fibers were instilled intratracheally into Wistar rats. The evenness of distribution of fibers in the lung was checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or careful examination of the fiber suspension before treatment. After serial sacrifices up to 24 months after treatment, the fibers were analyzed by SEM following low temperature ashing of the lungs. Parameters measured included number of fibers, diameter, and length distribution at the various sacrifice dates, so that analyses could be made of the elimination kinetics of fibers from the lung in relation to fiber length (FL). Size selective plots of the fiber elimination correlated with fiber diameters enables the mechanism of the fiber elimination (dissolution, fiber breakage, physical clearance) to be interpreted. The half-time of fiber elimination from the lung ranges from about 10 days for wollastonite to more than 300 days for crocidolite. The biodurability of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) is between these values and is dependent on the chemical composition of the fibers and the diameter and length distribution. Results indicate that the in vivo durability of glass fibers is considerably longer than expected from extrapolation of published data on their in vitro dissolution rates. PMID:7882923

  17. Quantitative changes in glycosaminoglycans in the lungs of rats exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Onose, J; Toyoda, H; Toida, T; Imanari, T; Sagai, M; Nishimura, N; Aoki, Y

    2001-09-25

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) induces lesions in lung epithelium by generation of reactive oxygen species. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG), components of extracellar matrix, are thought to play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in the repair process of injured tissue. We investigated how GAG are related to the recovery of lung tissue from injury. Using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we determined the amounts of GAG, such as chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and hyaluronan (HA) in the lungs of rats exposed to DE for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0.3 or 3 mg/m(3) as suspended particulate matter, or to filtered air. The contents of CS and HA in the surroundings of the bronchi were significantly increased after exposure to DE. In addition, immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-positive cells as a marker of cell damage, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells also increased in the same areas in which the levels of GAG were elevated in the lungs of rats exposed to 3 mg/m(3) DE. These results suggest that CS and HA in the lung contribute to cell proliferation and remodeling in the process of recovery from injury caused by exposure to DE. PMID:11543908

  18. Imbalance of Th17/Tregs in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Mian-yang; Lan, Ya-ting; Wang, Cheng-bin

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are supposed to be critically involved in regulating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the Th17/Treg pattern in rats with gunpowder smog-induced acute lung injury. Wistar rats were equally randomized to three groups: normal control group, ALI 6 h group (smoke inhalation for 6 h) and ALI 24 h group (smoke inhalation for 24 h). We observed changes in cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lung tissue pathology. Moreover, rats in ALI 6 h and ALI 24 h group showed increased expression of Th17 cell and related cytokines (IL-17 A, IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23). Meanwhile, Treg prevalence and related cytokines (IL-10, IL-2 and IL-35) were decreased. Consequently, the ratio of Th17/Treg was higher after smoke inhalation. Additionally, Th1 cell decreased while Th2 cell increased at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation. In conclusion, Th17/Treg imbalance exists in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26884314

  19. Imbalance of Th17/Tregs in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Mian-yang; Lan, Ya-ting; Wang, Cheng-bin

    2016-02-17

    T helper (Th) 17 cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are supposed to be critically involved in regulating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the Th17/Treg pattern in rats with gunpowder smog-induced acute lung injury. Wistar rats were equally randomized to three groups: normal control group, ALI 6 h group (smoke inhalation for 6 h) and ALI 24 h group (smoke inhalation for 24 h). We observed changes in cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lung tissue pathology. Moreover, rats in ALI 6 h and ALI 24 h group showed increased expression of Th17 cell and related cytokines (IL-17 A, IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23). Meanwhile, Treg prevalence and related cytokines (IL-10, IL-2 and IL-35) were decreased. Consequently, the ratio of Th17/Treg was higher after smoke inhalation. Additionally, Th1 cell decreased while Th2 cell increased at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation. In conclusion, Th17/Treg imbalance exists in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  20. Imbalance of Th17/Tregs in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Mian-yang; Lan, Ya-ting; Wang, Cheng-bin

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are supposed to be critically involved in regulating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the Th17/Treg pattern in rats with gunpowder smog-induced acute lung injury. Wistar rats were equally randomized to three groups: normal control group, ALI 6 h group (smoke inhalation for 6 h) and ALI 24 h group (smoke inhalation for 24 h). We observed changes in cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lung tissue pathology. Moreover, rats in ALI 6 h and ALI 24 h group showed increased expression of Th17 cell and related cytokines (IL-17 A, IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23). Meanwhile, Treg prevalence and related cytokines (IL-10, IL-2 and IL-35) were decreased. Consequently, the ratio of Th17/Treg was higher after smoke inhalation. Additionally, Th1 cell decreased while Th2 cell increased at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation. In conclusion, Th17/Treg imbalance exists in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26884314

  1. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dyuti; Subayi Nkembi, Armande; Aubry, Estelle; Houeijeh, Ali; Butruille, Laura; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Besson, Rémi; Deruelle, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14) were fed a control diet (n = 2), a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6), or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6), starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female) were exposed to hyperoxia (O2, n = 70) or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70). Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30), PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/O2 (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30), control/O2 (n = 10), and control/air (n = 10). After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20) and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60). Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30) compared to PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30) or to the control/O2 (n = 10), but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth. PMID:26389878

  2. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dyuti; Nkembi, Armande Subayi; Aubry, Estelle; Houeijeh, Ali; Butruille, Laura; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Besson, Rémi; Deruelle, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14) were fed a control diet (n = 2), a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6), or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6), starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female) were exposed to hyperoxia (O₂, n = 70) or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70). Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O₂ (n = 30), PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/O₂ (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30), control/O₂ (n = 10), and control/air (n = 10). After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20) and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60). Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30) compared to PUFA ω-6/O₂ (n = 30) or to the control/O₂ (n = 10), but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth. PMID:26389878

  3. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dyuti; Nkembi, Armande Subayi; Aubry, Estelle; Houeijeh, Ali; Butruille, Laura; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Besson, Rémi; Deruelle, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2015-09-14

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14) were fed a control diet (n = 2), a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6), or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6), starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female) were exposed to hyperoxia (O₂, n = 70) or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70). Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O₂ (n = 30), PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/O₂ (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30), control/O₂ (n = 10), and control/air (n = 10). After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20) and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60). Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30) compared to PUFA ω-6/O₂ (n = 30) or to the control/O₂ (n = 10), but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth.

  4. Dexmedetomidine protects from post-myocardial ischaemia reperfusion lung damage in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kip, Gülay; Çelik, Ali; Bilge, Mustafa; Alkan, Metin; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Özer, Abdullah; Şıvgın, Volkan; Erdem, Özlem; Arslan, Mustafa; Kavutçu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetic complications and lipid peroxidation are known to have a close association. Lipid peroxidation commonly occurs at sites exposed to ischaemia, but distant organs and tissues also get damaged during ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Some of these targets are vital organs, such as the lung, liver, and kidney; the lung is the most frequently affected. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on I/R damage in lung tissue and on the oxidant/anti-oxidant system in diabetic rats. Material and methods Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) in 18 Wistar Albino rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups (diabetes control (DC), diabetes plus ischaemia-reperfusion (DIR), and diabetes plus dexmedetomidine-ischaemia/reperfusion (DIRD)) after the effects of diabetes were clearly evident. The rats underwent a left thoracotomy and then ischaemia was produced in the myocardium muscle by a left anterior descending artery ligation for 30 min in the DIR and DIRD groups. I/R was performed for 120 min. The DIRD group received a single intraperitoneal dose of dexmedetomidine (100 µg/kg); the DIR group received no dexmedetomidine. Group DC was evaluated as the diabetic control group and also included six rats (C group) in which diabetes was not induced. These mice underwent only left thoracotomy and were closed without undergoing myocardial ischaemia. Histopathological changes, activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase anti-oxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated in the lung tissues of all rats. Results Neutrophil infiltration/aggregation was higher in the DIR group than in the C, DC, and DIRD groups (p=0.001, p=0.013, and p=0.042, respectively). The lung injury score was significantly higher in the DIR group than in the C and DC groups (p<0.0001 and p=0.024, respectively). The levels of MDA were significantly higher in the DIR group than in the C and DIRD groups. CAT activity

  5. Rat lung recovery from 3 days of continuous exposure to 0. 75 ppm ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, D.J.; Bowen-Kelly, E.; Elbon, C.L.; Reichenbaugh, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present study investigated the inflammatory responses and enzyme levels in lungs isolated from male Wistar rats after 3 d of continuous exposure to 0.75 ppm ozone and following 4 d of recovery in air. These times are associated with maximal proliferation of the alveolar type II epithelium and their subsequent transformation to new type I cells. Immediately following ozone exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated neutrophil accumulation that was no longer present 4 d later. The number of lavaged macrophages was also found to be increased immediately following ozone exposure, and remained elevated at 4 d postexposure. Whole-lung determinations of key enzymes involved in energy generation (succinate oxidase) and maintenance of lung NADPH and reduced glutathione were corrected for changes in cell number, by use of lung DNA measurements. Immediately following ozone exposure succinate oxidase (SOX), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD), and 6-phosphogluconate (6PGD) dehydrogenase activities per milligram DNA were significantly enhanced by 76%, 48%, and 21%, respectively. These data suggested that ozone-exposed lungs had cells with increased mitochondria and NADPH-generating capability consistent with the increased metabolic needs of a proliferating epithelium. At 4 d postexposure, only G6PD activity per milligram DNA remained higher by 22% than air-exposed controls. Although both glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) and peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities per lung were elevated in lungs immediately following exposure and 4 d later, when corrected for DNA only GSH-Px activity was significantly increased by 29% in lungs after the postexposure period. Lungs 4 d postexposure therefore had cells relatively enriched in G6PD and GSH-Px that might account for the increased ozone tolerance that has previously been associated with the formation of new type I epithelium.

  6. Effect of D-penicillamine on rat lung elastin cross-linking during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Koçtürk, Semra; Oktay, Gülgün; Güner, Gül; Pekçetin, Cetin; Güre, Ataman

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify the effects of D-penicillamine (DPA), a drug used for treatment of various pathological events, on lung elastin formation and maturation of the newborn in the perinatal period. The investigation was conducted on 20 newborn rats bred from 40 female and six male rats. DPA doses 400 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and physiological saline were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to experimental and control groups. To assess newborn maturation, their body and lung weights were determined. Serum Cu levels were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ceruloplasmin (Cp) activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Newborn lung tissue elastin, desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDES) levels were measured by HPLC. The results showed that DPA treatment caused loss of skin elasticity and reduction in body and lung weight in newborns of the experimental group. The serum Cu levels and Cp activity were found to be significantly lower in both maternal and newborn of the experimental groups compared with the control group. The lung DES, IDES and elastin values of newborns in the experimental group were decreased compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results indicate that 400 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DPA, a dose that is used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and cystinuria, caused the retardation of newborn maturation, a decrease in DES-IDES cross-links and levels of lung elastin of offspring in the perinatal period. Another conclusion to be drawn from this study is that even low levels of Cu depletion due to DPA administration induces a change in cross-linking in lung elastin during the perinatal period.

  7. Ulinastatin reduces pathogenesis of phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Gan, Zhengyi; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming; Xu, Guoxiong

    2014-10-01

    Phosgene (CG) is an industrial chemical used to make plastics, rubbers, dyestuff, and pesticides. Although the inhalation of CG is relatively uncommon, its accidental exposure can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). Ulinastatin, a urinary trypsin inhibitor, has been emerged to use for the treatment of acute inflammatory state of a number of organs including the lung. In this study, we examined the pathogenic changes in the lungs after the inhalation of CG gas and also examined the effect of ulinastatin treatment in reversing these changes in rats. We found that the rats exposed to CG gas at a dose of 5.0 g/m(3) for 5 min led to ALI after 6 h. The signs of lung injury include pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and cellular infiltration in pulmonary alveoli. In addition, interleukin-15 (IL-15) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were significantly increased in CG-inhaled animals. Ulinastatin administration at 1 h postexposure significantly reduced the intensity of all the pathological changes in the lungs of these CG-exposed animals. Ulinastatin at a dose of 400 U/g was shown to decrease the total number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the levels of IL-15 and ICAM-1 in the serum. We also found that the structure of the lung was protected by ulinastatin treatment. Thus, our data suggest that ulinastatin can be used as an effective drug for the treatment of CG-induced ALI. The serum levels of IL-15 and ICAM-1 can be used as the markers of lung injury after exposure to CG and may also serve as useful therapeutic targets at an early stage. The effects of long-term treatment of ulinastatin and the mechanisms by which ulinastatin decreases the infiltration of blood cells and reduces cytokines need further investigation.

  8. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  9. The effects of the inhalation of asbestos in rats.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J C; Berry, G; Skidmore, J W; Timbrell, V

    1974-03-01

    Two experiments in which SPF Wistar rats were exposed by inhalation to dust clouds of the UICC standard reference samples for periods of between one day and 2 years are described. All the samples of asbestos produced asbestosis which continued to progress after removal from exposure but only a little fibrosis was observed in control rats. Lung tumours, ranging in severity from adenomata to squamous carcinomata, were produced by all samples but in the controls there were only a few adenomata and none of the more serious tumours. Of the 20 tumours which metastasized, 16 occurred after exposure to one or other of the 2 chrysotile samples. In addition, a total of 11 mesotheliomata occurred, 4 of which were with crocidolite and 4 with Canadian chrysotile. Two of the mesotheliomata occurred with only one day's exposure to asbestos. There was a positive association between asbestosis and lung tumours.

  10. Radon dosimetry based on the depth distribution of nuclei in human and rat lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, R.R.; Russell, M.L.; Crapo, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Calculation of the absorbed dose by different lung cells is necessary for predicting the critical cells that are subject to injury from inhaled Rn and other alpha-particle sources. The absorbed dose was determined for cells in the airways of human and rat lungs, based on airway epithelial thickness and on cell cytoplasm and nuclear volume density as a function of depth from the luminal surface of the airway epithelium. The thickness of the stratified columnar epithelium of human airways varied from 57.8 micron in bronchi to 9.8 microns in bronchioles. The cell populations of all bronchi in human lungs were comparable. The cell populations of trachea and intrapulmonary airways in rats, however, were significantly different. Basal cell populations in rat trachea and human bronchi were similar and formed a nearly continuous layer. In rat bronchi, basal cells were not present in significant numbers. Measurements of epithelial thickness and volume density were used to estimate the absorbed dose for an alpha-particle source (214Po or 218Po) distributed uniformly in the mucus with an equivalent activity of 1 dpm per cm2 of epithelial surface. The following model predictions of dose to human bronchial epithelial cell nuclei for a 218Po alpha-particle source are provided in units of nanogray (nGy) for specific cell types: secretory 158, preciliated 114, ciliated 44, goblet 86, basal 78, and indeterminate cell nuclei 73. The absorbed dose to specific types of rat bronchial epithelial cell nuclei was also predicted: secretory 237, precillated 216, ciliated 203, goblet 204, basal 200, and indeterminate cell nuclei 166 nGy. These and other results indicate that human and rat airway dosimetry have significant differences that may contribute to the differences in cancer cell induction between the two species.

  11. Impaired Lung Mitochondrial Respiration Following Perinatal Nicotine Exposure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Daniel T; Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Rossiter, Harry B; Rehan, Virender K

    2016-04-01

    Perinatal smoke/nicotine exposure predisposes to chronic lung disease and morbidity. Mitochondrial abnormalities may contribute as the PPARγ pathway is involved in structural and functional airway deficits after perinatal nicotine exposure. We hypothesized perinatal nicotine exposure results in lung mitochondrial dysfunction that can be rescued by rosiglitazone (RGZ; PPARγ receptor agonist). Sprague-Dawley dams received placebo (CON), nicotine (NIC, 1 mg kg(-1)), or NIC + RGZ (3 mg kg(-1)) daily from embryonic day 6 to postnatal day 21. Parenchymal lung (~10 mg) was taken from adult male offspring for mitochondrial assessment in situ. ADP-stimulated O2 consumption was less in NIC and NIC + RGZ compared to CON (F[2,14] = 17.8; 4.5 ± 0.8 and 4.1 ± 1.4 vs. 8.8 ± 2.5 pmol s mg(-1); p < 0.05). The respiratory control ratio for ADP, an index of mitochondrial coupling, was reduced in NIC and remediated in NIC + RGZ (F[2,14] = 3.8; p < 0.05). Reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and abnormal coupling were evident after perinatal nicotine exposure. RGZ improved mitochondrial function through tighter coupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

  12. Impaired Lung Mitochondrial Respiration Following Perinatal Nicotine Exposure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Daniel T; Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Rossiter, Harry B; Rehan, Virender K

    2016-04-01

    Perinatal smoke/nicotine exposure predisposes to chronic lung disease and morbidity. Mitochondrial abnormalities may contribute as the PPARγ pathway is involved in structural and functional airway deficits after perinatal nicotine exposure. We hypothesized perinatal nicotine exposure results in lung mitochondrial dysfunction that can be rescued by rosiglitazone (RGZ; PPARγ receptor agonist). Sprague-Dawley dams received placebo (CON), nicotine (NIC, 1 mg kg(-1)), or NIC + RGZ (3 mg kg(-1)) daily from embryonic day 6 to postnatal day 21. Parenchymal lung (~10 mg) was taken from adult male offspring for mitochondrial assessment in situ. ADP-stimulated O2 consumption was less in NIC and NIC + RGZ compared to CON (F[2,14] = 17.8; 4.5 ± 0.8 and 4.1 ± 1.4 vs. 8.8 ± 2.5 pmol s mg(-1); p < 0.05). The respiratory control ratio for ADP, an index of mitochondrial coupling, was reduced in NIC and remediated in NIC + RGZ (F[2,14] = 3.8; p < 0.05). Reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and abnormal coupling were evident after perinatal nicotine exposure. RGZ improved mitochondrial function through tighter coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26899624

  13. Ultrastructural changes in rat lung during long-term exposure to oxygen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    The pathogenesis of oxygen toxicity in the lung of rats was studied by electron microscopy. The following long-term effects were established: (1) a progressive destruction of the blood-air barrier beginning with the endothelial cell layer; (2) a profuse edema in the interstitial spaces in the pleural space in the alveoli and in the cytoplasm and organelles; (3) a continuing increase in the quantity and complexity of the alveolar exudate; (4) gradual hemolysis of red blood cells; and (5) eventual subsiding of the interstitial edema in surviving rats with a concomitant development of emphysema.

  14. Alteration in cellular and biochemical markers of pulmonary toxicity in rat lung exposed to carpet dusts.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Mohamed; Musthapa, Syed; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ansari, Furquan Ahmad; Baig, Masroor Alam; Rahman, Qamar

    2003-09-15

    Epidemiological studies of workers in weaving units in carpet industries have shown relationships between the airborne dust concentrations and pulmonary ill health. Therefore, to predict the health risk of carpet weavers, this preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carpet dust (knotted, tufted) on cellular and biochemical mediators considered as potential biological markers of lung injury. Lung cytoplasmic (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), lysosomal (acid phosphatase, ACP), type II (alkaline phoshatase, ALP) and Clara-cell marker enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT) were monitored in rat cell-free lung lavage (BAL) during postexposure days 1, 4, 8, and 16. Furthermore, lung microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) and Clara-cell secretory protein (CC16) content in BAL was also evaluated. These pulmonary marker enzymes were significantly elevated during the postexposure period over the respective untreated control; however, tufted carpet dust shows more responses than knotted carpet dust. Lung CYP450 content was reduced significantly at early days; the pattern shows the reoccurrence of CYP450 content in the later stage of postexposure to carpet dust. Clara-cell secretory protein in BAL shows decline in the carpet-treated group; however, tufted carpet shows more decline than knotted carpet. Thus, reduction in CC16 level may have important implication in the development of chronic lung inflammation and diseases. Present investigation found that modulation of these cellular marker enzymes is clear evidence of pulmonary damage caused by exposure to carpet dust.

  15. Early coagulation events induce acute lung injury in a rat model of blunt traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hideki; Donahue, Deborah L; Walsh, Mark; Castellino, Francis J; Ploplis, Victoria A

    2016-07-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and systemic coagulopathy are serious complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that frequently lead to poor clinical outcomes. Although the release of tissue factor (TF), a potent initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, from the injured brain is thought to play a key role in coagulopathy after TBI, its function in ALI following TBI remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the systemic appearance of TF correlated with the ensuing coagulopathy that follows TBI in ALI using an anesthetized rat blunt trauma TBI model. Blood and lung samples were obtained after TBI. Compared with controls, pulmonary edema and increased pulmonary permeability were observed as early as 5 min after TBI without evidence of norepinephrine involvement. Systemic TF increased at 5 min and then diminished 60 min after TBI. Lung injury and alveolar hemorrhaging were also observed as early as 5 min after TBI. A biphasic elevation of TF was observed in the lungs after TBI, and TF-positive microparticles (MPs) were detected in the alveolar spaces. Fibrin(ogen) deposition was also observed in the lungs within 60 min after TBI. Additionally, preadministration of a direct thrombin inhibitor, Refludan, attenuated lung injuries, thus implicating thrombin as a direct participant in ALI after TBI. The results from this study demonstrated that enhanced systemic TF may be an initiator of coagulation activation that contributes to ALI after TBI. PMID:27190065

  16. Neonatal tumours.

    PubMed

    Moore, S W

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal or perinatal tumours frequently relate to prenatal or developmental events and have a short exposure window which provides an opportunity to study tumours in a selective sensitive period of development. As a result, they display a number of host-specific features which include occasional spontaneous maturational changes with cells still responding to developmental influences. Neonatal tumours (NNT) are studied for a number of important reasons. Firstly, many of the benign tumours arising from soft tissue appear to result from disturbances in growth and development and some are associated with other congenital anomalies. Study of these aspects may open the door for investigation of genetic and epigenetic changes in genes controlling foetal development as well as environmental and drug effects during pregnancy. Secondly, the clinical behaviour of NNT differs from that of similar tumours occurring later in childhood. In addition, certain apparently malignant NNT can 'change course' in infancy leading to the maturation of apparently highly malignant tumours. Thirdly, NNT underline the genetic associations of most tumours but appear to differ in the effects of proto-oncogenes and other oncogenic factors. In this context, there are also connections between the foetal and neonatal period and some "adult" cancers. Fourthly, they appear to arise in a period in which minimal environmental interference has occurred, thus providing a unique potential window of opportunity to study the pathogenesis of tumour behaviour. This study will seek to review what is currently known in each of these areas of study as they apply to NNT. Further study of the provocative differences in tumour behaviour in neonates provides insights into the natural history of cancer in humans and promotes novel cancer therapies.

  17. Application to Rat Lung of the Extended Rorschach-Hazlewood Model of Spin-Lattice Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, Andreas; Ailion, David C.; Ganesan, Krishnamurthy; Goodrich, K. Craig; Chen, Songhua; Laicher, Gernot; Cutillo, Antonio G.

    1996-02-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation timeT1was measured in excised degassed (airless) rat lungs over the frequency range 6.7 to 80.5 MHz. The observed frequency dependence was fitted successfully to the water-biopolymer cross-relaxation theory proposed by H. E. Rorschach and C. F. Hazlewood (RH) [J. Magn. Reson.70,79 (1986)]. The rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation timeT1ρwas also measured in rat lung fragments over the frequency range 0.56 to 5.6 kHz, and the observed frequency dependence was explained with an extension of the RH model. The agreement between the theory and the experimental data in both cases is good.

  18. Effects of paving asphalt fume exposure on genotoxic and mutagenic activities in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Yin, X J; Frazer, D; Barger, M W; Siegel, P D; Millecchia, L; Zhong, B Z; Tomblyn, S; Stone, S; Ma, J K H; Castranova, V; Ma, J Y C

    2004-02-14

    Asphalt fumes are complex mixtures of aerosols and vapors containing various organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Previously, we have demonstrated that inhalation exposure of rats to asphalt fumes resulted in dose-dependent induction of CYP1A1 with concomitant down-regulation of CYP2B1 and increased phase II enzyme quinone reductase activity in the rat lung. In the present study, the potential genotoxic effects of asphalt fume exposure due to altered lung microsomal enzymes were studied. Rats were exposed to air or asphalt fume generated under road paving conditions at various concentrations and sacrificed the next day. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and examined for DNA damage using the comet assay. To evaluate the systemic genotoxic effect of asphalt fume, micronuclei formation in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) was monitored. Lung S9 from various exposure groups was isolated from tissue homogenates and characterized for metabolic activity in activating 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) mutagenicity using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 and YG1029. This study showed that the paving asphalt fumes significantly induced DNA damage in AM, as revealed by DNA migration in the comet assay, in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the micronuclei formation in bone marrow PCEs was not detected even at a very high exposure level (1733 mg h/m3). The conversion of 2-AA to mutagens in the Ames test required lung S9-mediated metabolic activation in a dose-dependent manner. In comparison to the controls, lung S9 from rats exposed to asphalt fume at a total exposure level of 479+/-33 mg h/m3 did not significantly enhance 2-AA mutagenicity with either S. typhimurium YG1024 or YG1029. At a higher total asphalt fume exposure level (1150+/-63 mg h/m3), S9 significantly increased the mutagenicity of 2-AA as compared to the control. However, S9 from asphalt fume-exposed rats

  19. Mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J b; Loli, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    The potential of two asbestos substitute mineral fibres--rock (stone) wool RW1 and glass wool MMVF10--to induce gene mutations, DNA strand breaks, inflammation and oxidative stress has been studied in rats. Male homozygous lamda-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 and 2 mg/animal of fibres or with multiple doses of 2 mg/animal administered weekly on four consecutive weeks (8 mg in total). Exposure to RW1 fibres for 16 weeks significantly increased mutant frequency (MF) in the lung in a dose-dependent manner, while MMVF10 fibres did not exhibit any increase of MF at any dose. RW1 fibres gave a significant increase of MF at a dose of 1 mg. Four weeks after instillation, neither the single nor the multiple doses significantly increased MF for both fibre types. To investigate mechanisms for induction of mutations, other genotoxicity markers and parameters of inflammatory and oxidative damage were determined in relation to MF. A weak correlation of mutagenicity data with other genotoxicity parameters studied was observed. DNA strand breaks as measured by comet assay were increased in alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells of RW1 and MMVF10 treated rats. RWl fibres caused more extensive lung inflammation as measured by release of neutrophils into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid than MMVF10 fibres. The effects were observed 16 weeks post-exposure, indicating a persistence of the pathogenic process during the exposure period. Only minor differences in the extent of inflammatory processes were observed between the doses of 2 mg and 4 x 2 mg, suggesting that any threshold for inflammation lies below the dose of 2 mg. With the exception of the highest dose of MMVF10 fibres after 16 weeks of exposure, no significant increase of oxidative damage as measured by levels of malondialdehyde in lung tissue was observed. MMVF10 fibres caused weaker inflammation in the lung of rats and did not exhibit any mutagenic effect. We conclude

  20. Mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J b; Loli, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    The potential of two asbestos substitute mineral fibres--rock (stone) wool RW1 and glass wool MMVF10--to induce gene mutations, DNA strand breaks, inflammation and oxidative stress has been studied in rats. Male homozygous lamda-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 and 2 mg/animal of fibres or with multiple doses of 2 mg/animal administered weekly on four consecutive weeks (8 mg in total). Exposure to RW1 fibres for 16 weeks significantly increased mutant frequency (MF) in the lung in a dose-dependent manner, while MMVF10 fibres did not exhibit any increase of MF at any dose. RW1 fibres gave a significant increase of MF at a dose of 1 mg. Four weeks after instillation, neither the single nor the multiple doses significantly increased MF for both fibre types. To investigate mechanisms for induction of mutations, other genotoxicity markers and parameters of inflammatory and oxidative damage were determined in relation to MF. A weak correlation of mutagenicity data with other genotoxicity parameters studied was observed. DNA strand breaks as measured by comet assay were increased in alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells of RW1 and MMVF10 treated rats. RWl fibres caused more extensive lung inflammation as measured by release of neutrophils into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid than MMVF10 fibres. The effects were observed 16 weeks post-exposure, indicating a persistence of the pathogenic process during the exposure period. Only minor differences in the extent of inflammatory processes were observed between the doses of 2 mg and 4 x 2 mg, suggesting that any threshold for inflammation lies below the dose of 2 mg. With the exception of the highest dose of MMVF10 fibres after 16 weeks of exposure, no significant increase of oxidative damage as measured by levels of malondialdehyde in lung tissue was observed. MMVF10 fibres caused weaker inflammation in the lung of rats and did not exhibit any mutagenic effect. We conclude

  1. Endobronchial Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gochhait, Debasis; Kumar, Balla Nagamalli; Narayanasami, Suryakala

    2016-01-01

    Lung malignancies are on the rise and sadly present at an advanced stage. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is used for staging as well as in diagnosis of lung malignancies. However, not all endobronchial growth are malignant. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour (IMT) is one of the rare tumours of the lung. A controversy regarding the benign versus malignant nature of the tumour is still ongoing. The management of these tumours can be challenging because there are no established treatment protocols. Although IMT most commonly arises from lung, endobronchial presentation is very rare. We report a case of endobronchial presentation of IMT and discuss about its aetiology and treatment options. PMID:27656490

  2. Endobronchial Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Vishnukanth; Gochhait, Debasis; Kumar, Balla Nagamalli; Narayanasami, Suryakala

    2016-08-01

    Lung malignancies are on the rise and sadly present at an advanced stage. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is used for staging as well as in diagnosis of lung malignancies. However, not all endobronchial growth are malignant. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour (IMT) is one of the rare tumours of the lung. A controversy regarding the benign versus malignant nature of the tumour is still ongoing. The management of these tumours can be challenging because there are no established treatment protocols. Although IMT most commonly arises from lung, endobronchial presentation is very rare. We report a case of endobronchial presentation of IMT and discuss about its aetiology and treatment options. PMID:27656490

  3. Suppression in lung defense responses after bacterial infection in rats pretreated with different welding fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Antonini, James M. . E-mail: jga6@cdc.gov; Taylor, Michael D.; Millecchia, Lyndell; Bebout, Alicia R.; Roberts, Jenny R.

    2004-11-01

    Epidemiology suggests that inhalation of welding fumes increases the susceptibility to lung infection. The effects of chemically distinct welding fumes on lung defense responses after bacterial infection were compared. Fume was collected during gas metal arc (GMA) or flux-covered manual metal arc (MMA) welding using two consumable electrodes: stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The fumes were separated into water-soluble and -insoluble fractions. The GMA-SS and GMA-MS fumes were found to be relatively insoluble, whereas the MMA-SS was highly water soluble, with the soluble fraction comprised of 87% Cr and 11% Mn. On day 0, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the different welding fumes (0.1 or 2 mg/rat). At day 3, the rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10{sup 3} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, cultured overnight, and colony-forming units were counted to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on right lungs to recover phagocytes and BAL fluid to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to the GMA-SS, GMA-MS, and saline groups, pretreatment with the highly water soluble MMA-SS fume caused significant body weight loss, extensive lung damage, and a dramatic reduction in pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes after infection. NO concentrations in BAL fluid and lung immunostaining of inducible NO synthase were dramatically increased in rats pretreated with MMA-SS before and after infection. MMA-SS treatment caused a significant decrease in IL-2 and significant increases in TNF-{alpha}, IL-6, and IL-10 after infection. In conclusion, pretreatment with MMA-SS increased production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) after infection, which are likely

  4. Suppression in lung defense responses after bacterial infection in rats pretreated with different welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Taylor, Michael D; Millecchia, Lyndell; Bebout, Alicia R; Roberts, Jenny R

    2004-11-01

    Epidemiology suggests that inhalation of welding fumes increases the susceptibility to lung infection. The effects of chemically distinct welding fumes on lung defense responses after bacterial infection were compared. Fume was collected during gas metal arc (GMA) or flux-covered manual metal arc (MMA) welding using two consumable electrodes: stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The fumes were separated into water-soluble and -insoluble fractions. The GMA-SS and GMA-MS fumes were found to be relatively insoluble, whereas the MMA-SS was highly water soluble, with the soluble fraction comprised of 87% Cr and 11% Mn. On day 0, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the different welding fumes (0.1 or 2 mg/rat). At day 3, the rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(3) Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, cultured overnight, and colony-forming units were counted to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on right lungs to recover phagocytes and BAL fluid to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to the GMA-SS, GMA-MS, and saline groups, pretreatment with the highly water soluble MMA-SS fume caused significant body weight loss, extensive lung damage, and a dramatic reduction in pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes after infection. NO concentrations in BAL fluid and lung immunostaining of inducible NO synthase were dramatically increased in rats pretreated with MMA-SS before and after infection. MMA-SS treatment caused a significant decrease in IL-2 and significant increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 after infection. In conclusion, pretreatment with MMA-SS increased production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) after infection, which are likely responsible for

  5. Sodium hydrosulfide alleviates lung inflammation and cell apoptosis following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dun-quan; Gao, Cao; Niu, Wen; Li, Yan; Wang, Yan-xia; Gao, Chang-jun; Ding, Qian; Yao, Li-nong; Chai, Wei; Li, Zhi-chao

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) against inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in a rat model of resuscitated hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Hemorrhagic shock was induced in adult male SD rats by drawing blood from the femoral artery for 10 min. The mean arterial pressure was maintained at 35–40 mmHg for 1.5 h. After resuscitation the animals were observed for 200 min, and then killed. The lungs were harvested and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was prepared. The levels of relevant proteins were examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. NaHS (28 μmol/kg, ip) was injected before the resuscitation. Results: Resuscitated hemorrhagic shock induced lung inflammatory responses and significantly increased the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and HMGB1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, resuscitated hemorrhagic shock caused marked oxidative stress in lung tissue as shown by significant increases in the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 and ·OH, the translocation of Nrf2, an important regulator of antioxidant expression, into nucleus, and the decrease of thioredoxin 1 expression. Moreover, resuscitated hemorrhagic shock markedly increased the expression of death receptor Fas and Fas-ligand and the number apoptotic cells in lung tissue, as well as the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins FADD, active-caspase 3, active-caspase 8, Bax, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. Injection with NaHS significantly attenuated these pathophysiological abnormalities induced by the resuscitated hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion: NaHS administration protects rat lungs against inflammatory responses induced by resuscitated hemorrhagic shock via suppressing oxidative stress and the Fas/FasL apoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:24122010

  6. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues of Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.

  7. Autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cells ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are a good alternative to multipotent stem cells for regenerative medicine. Low tidal volume (LVT) has proved to be an effective ventilation strategy. However, it is not known if ADSCs and LVT can protect against ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study was aimed to determine the potential of ADSCs and LVT to repair following VILI and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this section. Methods A total of 72 rats were randomly assigned into group I (sham group, n = 18), group II (1 h of high tidal volume-ventilated (HVT) 40 mL/kg to peak airway pressures of approximately 35 cm H2O and 100% oxygen, n = 18), group III (1 h of HVT followed by 6 h LVT 6 mL/kg to peak airway pressures of approximately 6 cm H2O and 100% oxygen, n = 18) and group IV (1 h of HVT followed by intravenous injection of 5 × 106 ADSCs, n = 18). All animals were sacrificed 7 after the experiments lasted for 7 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and lungs were harvested for analysis. Results High tidal volume-ventilated (HVT) rats exhibited typical VILI features compared with sham rats. Lung edema, histological lung injury index, concentrations of total protein, total cell counts, number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 in BALF were significantly increased in HVT rats. Additionally, gene and protein levels of Na+ channel subunits, Na-K-ATPase pump activity and alveolar fluid clearance were significantly decreased in HVT rats. All these indices of VILI were significantly improved in rats treated with ADSCs. However, compared with ADSCs treatment, LVT strategy had little therapeutic effect in the present study. Conclusion These results may provide valuable insights into the effects of ADSCs in acute lung injury. PMID:23890086

  8. Dissolution of stainless steel welding fumes in the rat lung: an x ray microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Anttila, S

    1986-09-01

    The dissolution of stainless steel welding fumes produced by manual metal arc (MMA) and metal inert gas (MIG) techniques was studied by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative x ray microanalysis in the lungs of rats after inhalation exposure. Rats exposed to stainless steel fumes generated by MMA were found to have two particle populations of different behaviour in their lung tissue. The particles of the principal population (size 100-250 nm) dissolved in both alveolar macrophages and type 1 epithelial cells in about two months. Fast and slowly dissolving components of chromium, manganese, and iron were detected within these particles; they obviously represent different chemical compounds. The particles of the minor population (size 5-100 nm) showed no signs of dissolution during three months follow up. Rats exposed to stainless steel fumes generated by MIG had only one particle population in their lung tissue; they were similar to those of the minor population in the MMA/SS fumes and no solubility could be detected within three months.

  9. Dissolution of stainless steel welding fumes in the rat lung: an x ray microanalytical study.

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, S

    1986-01-01

    The dissolution of stainless steel welding fumes produced by manual metal arc (MMA) and metal inert gas (MIG) techniques was studied by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative x ray microanalysis in the lungs of rats after inhalation exposure. Rats exposed to stainless steel fumes generated by MMA were found to have two particle populations of different behaviour in their lung tissue. The particles of the principal population (size 100-250 nm) dissolved in both alveolar macrophages and type 1 epithelial cells in about two months. Fast and slowly dissolving components of chromium, manganese, and iron were detected within these particles; they obviously represent different chemical compounds. The particles of the minor population (size 5-100 nm) showed no signs of dissolution during three months follow up. Rats exposed to stainless steel fumes generated by MIG had only one particle population in their lung tissue; they were similar to those of the minor population in the MMA/SS fumes and no solubility could be detected within three months. Images PMID:3756109

  10. Changes in viscoelastic properties of rat lung parenchymal strips with maturation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, R; Ludwig, M S

    1999-12-01

    The lung extracellular matrix changes rapidly with maturation. To further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying lung tissue mechanics, we studied age-related changes in mechanical properties in lung parenchymal strips from baby (10-15 days old), young ( approximately 3 wk old), and adult ( approximately 8 wk old) rats. Subpleural strips were cut and suspended in a fluid-filled organ bath. One end of the strip was attached to a force transducer and the other to a servo-controlled lever arm. Measurements of force (F) and length (L) were recorded during sinusoidal oscillations of various amplitudes and frequencies. Resistance modulus (R) and elastance modulus (E) were estimated by fitting the equation of motion to changes in stress (T) and stretch ratio (lambda). Hysteresivity (eta) was calculated as follows: eta = (R/E)2pif, where f is frequency. Slow-cycling T-lambda curves were measured by applying a constant slow length change. Finally, quasi-static T-lambda curves were measured as stress was increased from 0 to 6 kPa and back to 0 kPa in stepwise increments. Our results showed that lung tissue from immature rats was stiffer and less hysteretic than tissue from more mature animals. In addition, tissue from baby animals behaved in a manner compatible with an increased vulnerability to plastic change.

  11. The protective effects of glutamine in a rat model of ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Ming; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Li, Chien-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background The mortality rate of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still high despite the use of protective ventilatory strategies. We sought to examine the pharmacological effects of glutamine (GLN) in a two-hit model of endotoxin-induced inflammation followed by ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized that the administration of GLN ameliorates the VILI. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and given lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intratracheally as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, followed 24 h later by a second hit of mechanical ventilation (MV) with either low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) with 5 cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high tidal volume (22 mL/kg) with zero PEEP for 4 h. GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution as the placebo was administered intravenously 15 min prior to MV. Results In the LPS-challenged rats ventilated with high tidal volume, the treatment with GLN improved lung injury indices, lung mechanics and cytokine responses compared with the placebo group. Conclusions The administration of GLN given immediately prior to MV may be beneficial in the context of reducing VILI. PMID:25589963

  12. Attenuation of LPS-induced lung inflammation by glucosamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kun-Han; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chien, Han-Yun; Lu, Meng-Lun; Du, Hsin-I; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2013-12-01

    Acute inflammation is often observed during acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Glucosamine is known to act as an anti-inflammatory molecule. The effects of glucosamine on acute lung inflammation and its associated mechanisms remain unclear. The present study sought to address how glucosamine plays an anti-inflammatory role in acute lung inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Using the LPS intratracheal instillation-elicited rat lung inflammation model, we found that glucosamine attenuated pulmonary edema and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, as well as the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and nitric oxide (NO) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in the cultured medium of BALF cells. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, CINC-1, MIP-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in LPS-inflamed lung tissue was also suppressed by glucosamine. Using the rat alveolar epithelial cell line L2, we noted that the cytokine mixture (cytomix)-regulated production and mRNA expression of CINC-1 and MIP-2, NO production, the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS, iNOS mRNA stability, and iNOS promoter activity were all inhibited by glucosamine. Furthermore, glucosamine reduced LPS-mediated NF-κB signaling by decreasing IκB phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB reporter activity. Overexpression of the p65 subunit restored the inhibitory action of glucosamine on cytomix-regulated NO production and iNOS expression. In conclusion, glucosamine appears to act as an anti-inflammatory molecule in LPS-induced lung inflammation, at least in part by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  13. Design, construction and application of a neutron shield for the treatment of diffuse lung metastases in rats using BNCT.

    PubMed

    Razetti, A; Farías, R O; Thorp, S I; Trivillin, V A; Pozzi, E C C; Curotto, P; Schwint, A E; González, S J

    2014-06-01

    A model of multiple lung metastases in BDIX rats is under study at CNEA (Argentina) to evaluate the feasibility of BNCT for multiple, non-surgically resectable lung metastases. A practical shielding device that comfortably houses a rat, allowing delivery of a therapeutic, uniform dose in lungs while protecting the body from the neutron beam is presented. Based on the final design obtained by numerical simulations, the shield was constructed, experimentally characterized and recently used in the first in vivo experiment at RA-3.

  14. Pulmonary deposition and clearance of glass fiber in rat lungs after long-term inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, I; Oyabu, T; Ishimatsu, S; Hori, H; Higashi, T; Yamato, H

    1994-01-01

    In this study Wistar male rats were exposed to glass fiber obtained by the disintegration of a binderless glass fiber filter, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 12 months. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the fiber, determined with an Andersen sampler, was 2.6 microns. The count median diameter and length of the fibers measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were 0.51 and 5.5 microns, respectively. The daily average exposure fiber concentration was 2.2 +/- 0.6 mg/m3. Some rats were sacrificed 24 hr after removal from the exposure chamber following the 12 months' exposure. Others were sacrificed 12 months after the end of exposure. The wet organ weights were recorded at the time of death and the silicon content of the lungs was determined by absorption spectrophotometry. After 12 months' exposure, the amount of glass fiber retained in the rat lungs was 1.49 mg, and after 12 months' clearance it was 0.61 mg. The biological half-life in a single exponential model was to be 8.7 months, much longer than the predicted value of 1.5 months obtained in a previous experiment in which rats were exposed for 4 weeks to the same glass fiber. PMID:7882935

  15. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (< 3 micron), that is respirable. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  16. Glucocorticoid hormones downregulate histidine decarboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Zahnow, C A; Panula, P; Yamatodani, A; Millhorn, D E

    1998-08-01

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the primary enzyme regulating histamine biosynthesis. Histamine contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma. Because glucocorticoids are effective in the treatment of asthma, we examined the effects of 6 h of exogenously administered dexamethasone (0.5-3,000 microg/kg ip), corticosterone (0.2-200 mg/kg ip), or endogenously elevated corticosterone (via exposure of rats to 10% oxygen) on HDC expression in the rat lung. HDC transcripts were decreased approximately 73% with dexamethasone treatment, 57% with corticosterone treatment, and 50% with exposure to 10% oxygen. Likewise, HDC enzyme activity was decreased 80% by treatment with dexamethasone and corticosterone and 60% by exposure to 10% oxygen. Adrenalectomy prevented the decreases in HDC mRNA and enzyme activity observed in rats exposed to 10% oxygen, suggesting that the adrenal gland is necessary for the mediation of hypoxic effects on HDC gene expression. These results demonstrate that corticosteroids initiate a process that leads to the decrease of HDC mRNA levels and enzyme activity in rat lung. PMID:9700103

  17. Genomic instability in quartz dust exposed rat lungs: Is inflammation responsible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, C.; Knaapen, A. M.; Cakmak Demircigil, G.; Coskun, Erdem; van Schooten, F. J.; Borm, P. J. A.; Schins, R. P. F.

    2009-02-01

    Exposure to quartz dusts has been associated with lung cancer and fibrosis. Although the responsible mechanisms are not completely understood, progressive inflammation with associated induction of persistent oxidative stress has been discussed as a key event for these diseases. Previously we have evaluated the kinetics of pulmonary inflammation in the rat model following a single intratracheal instillation of 2mg DQ12 quartz, either in its native form or upon its surface modification with polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide or aluminium lactate. This model has been applied now to evaluate the role of inflammation in the kinetics of induction of DNA damage and response at 3, 7, 28, and 90 days after treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and differentials as well as BAL fluid myeloperoxidase activity were used as markers of inflammation. Whole lung homogenate was investigated to determine the induction of the oxidative and pre-mutagenic DNA lesion 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) by HPLC/ECD, while mRNA and protein expression of oxidative stress and DNA damage response genes including hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) were evaluated using Western blotting and real time PCR. Isolated lung epithelial cells from the treated rats were used for DNA strand breakage analysis using the alkaline comet assay as well as for micronucleus scoring in May-Gruenwald-Giemsa stained cytospin preparations. In the rats that were treated with quartz, no increased 8-OHdG levels were observed, despite the presence of a marked and persistent inflammation. However, DNA strand breakage in the lung epithelial cells of the quartz treated rats was significantly enhanced at 3 days, but not at 28 days. Moreover, significantly enhanced micronucleus frequencies were observed for all four time points investigated. In the animals that were treated with the PVNO modified quartz, micronuclei scores did not differ from controls, while in those treated with

  18. Effects of sulfur dioxide on apoptosis-related gene expressions in lungs from rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juli; Meng, Ziqiang

    2005-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an air pollutant in densely populated areas as well as in areas polluted by coal-fired power plants, smelters, and sulfuric acid factories. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00+/-1.01, 28.00+/-1.77, and 56.00+/-3.44 mg/m3 SO2 for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control rats were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNA and protein levels of three apoptosis-related genes (p53 and bax are promoters of apoptosis, whereas bcl-2 is apoptotic suppressor) were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemistry method, and caspase-3 activities were detected. The results showed that mRNA levels of p53 and bax were increased in a dose-dependent manner and at the concentrations of 28.00 and 56.00 mg/m3 SO2 the increases were significant (for p53: 1.23-fold at 28 mg/m3 and 1.39-fold at 56 mg/m3; for bax: 1.77-fold at 28 mg/m3 and 2.26-fold at 56 mg/m3, respectively), while mRNA levels of bcl-2 were decreased significantly (0.78-fold at 28 mg/m3 and 0.73-fold at 56 mg/m3) in lungs of rats exposed to SO2. Dose-dependent increase of p53 and bax proteins in the lungs was observed after SO2 inhalation, while decrease of bcl-2 protein levels was obtained using immunohistochemistry method. Caspase-3 activities were increased in lungs of rats after SO2 inhalation. These results lead to a conclusion that SO2 exposure can change the expression of apoptosis-related genes, and it suggests that SO2 can induce apoptosis in lung of rat and may have relations with some apoptosis-related diseases. Elucidating the expression patterns of those factors after SO2 inhalation may be critical to our understanding mechanisms of SO2 toxicity and helpful for the therapeutic intervention.

  19. Rat lung metabolism after 3 days of continuous exposure to 0. 6 ppm ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, D.J.; Bowen-Kelly, E.

    1986-02-01

    Continuous exposure of rats to low concentrations of ozone has previously been associated with enhanced metabolic enzyme activities, when measured in lung homogenates. In this study, metabolic rates were measured in intact perfused lungs with altered pathology brought about by 3 days continuous exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone. Increased metabolism of ozone-exposed lungs was indicated by a twofold enhancement in glucose utilization, associated with a 62% increase in lactate formation and a 166% increase in the rate of 14CO2 production from D-(U-14C)glucose from control values of 5.2 +/- 0.5 mumol lactate and 4.4 +/- 0.6 mumol 14CO2/h per lung (+/- SE, n = 4), respectively. Mitochondrial metabolism was separately assessed by measurements of 14CO2 production from (U-14C)-pyruvate, which was found not to be significantly altered by ozone exposure, although homogenate oxygen uptake in the presence of succinate was significantly enhanced by 57%. These changes in intermediary metabolism could be correlated with increased glucose carbon incorporation into lipid and elevated activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The observed elevated metabolic rates were consistent with the energy and synthetic needs of a lung during repair of ozone-induced damage.

  20. Surface fluorescence studies of tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Staniszewski, Kevin; Audi, Said H; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-04-01

    We designed a fiber-optic-based optoelectronic fluorometer to measure emitted fluorescence from the auto-fluorescent electron carriers NADH and FAD of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The ratio of NADH to FAD is called the redox ratio (RR = NADH/FAD) and is an indicator of the oxidoreductive state of tissue. We evaluated the fluorometer by measuring the fluorescence intensities of NADH and FAD at the surface of isolated, perfused rat lungs. Alterations of lung mitochondrial metabolic state were achieved by the addition of rotenone (complex I inhibitor), potassium cyanide (KCN, complex IV inhibitor) and/or pentachlorophenol (PCP, uncoupler) into the perfusate recirculating through the lung. Rotenone- or KCN-containing perfusate increased RR by 21 and 30%, respectively. In contrast, PCP-containing perfusate decreased RR by 27%. These changes are consistent with the established effects of rotenone, KCN, and PCP on the redox status of the ETC. Addition of blood to perfusate quenched NADH and FAD signal, but had no effect on RR. This study demonstrates the capacity of fluorometry to detect a change in mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused lungs, and suggests the potential of fluorometry for use in in vivo experiments to extract a sensitive measure of lung tissue health in real-time.

  1. The oxidative damage and inflammatory response induced by lead sulfide nanoparticles in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhao; Hu, Xiaoli; Bai, Yuping; Alattar, Mohamed; Ma, Dong; Cao, Yanhua; Hao, Yulan; Wang, Lihua; Jiang, Chunyang

    2013-10-01

    Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are one important nanoparticle materials which is widely used in photoelectric production, but its potential health hazard to respiratory system is not clear. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism of lung injury induced by PbS NPs. Male SD rats were treated with nanoparticles of 60 nm and 30 nm lead sulfide. The main methods were detecting the vigor of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in both blood and lung tissues and observing the pathological changes in lung tissue. PbS NPs suppressed the activity of SOD and T-AOC, and increased serum MDA content (P<0.05); both effects were observed together in lung tissues of 30-nm group (P<0.05) accompanied by an obviously inflammatory response. PbS NPs induced oxidative damage and inflammatory response in lung tissue, which may be an underlying mechanism for its pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, the toxicity of PbS NPs was closely related with the size of nanoparticles.

  2. Incorporation of glucose carbons into rat lung lipids after exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone.

    PubMed

    Bassett, D J; Rabinowitz, J L

    1985-05-01

    Continuous exposure to low concentrations of ozone has previously been associated with proliferation of lung alveolar type II epithelial cells. In this study, 14C incorporation into tissue lipids was determined in isolated rat lungs by perfusion with [U-14C]glucose, at a time of maximal hyperplasia brought about by 3 days continuous exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone. Ozone exposed lungs exhibited increased rates of glycolytic energy production, indicated by an 89% increase in 3H2O generation on perfusion with [5-3H]glucose, from a control value of 17.5 +/- 2.1 mumol X h-1 X g-1 X dry wt-1 (+/- SE, n = 4). Ozone exposure resulted in enhanced 14C incorporations into glyceride-glycerol and fatty acid moieties of lung lipids of 95 and 180%, respectively, with a greater proportion of label being recovered in shorter chain fatty acids. Although increased labeling was observed in both neutral and phospholipids, the pattern of 14C recovery suggested a relative increased glucose carbon incorporation into lung free fatty acids, phosphatidic acid, and such membrane associated lipids as phosphatidylinositol and those containing sphingosine. These results are consistent with the needs of a dividing cell population for enhanced energy production and synthesis of new lipids.

  3. Automated Image Analysis of Lung Branching Morphogenesis from Microscopic Images of Fetal Rat Explants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro L.; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Duque, Duarte; Granja, Sara; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Vilaça, João L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Regulating mechanisms of branching morphogenesis of fetal lung rat explants have been an essential tool for molecular research. This work presents a new methodology to accurately quantify the epithelial, outer contour, and peripheral airway buds of lung explants during cellular development from microscopic images. Methods. The outer contour was defined using an adaptive and multiscale threshold algorithm whose level was automatically calculated based on an entropy maximization criterion. The inner lung epithelium was defined by a clustering procedure that groups small image regions according to the minimum description length principle and local statistical properties. Finally, the number of peripheral buds was counted as the skeleton branched ends from a skeletonized image of the lung inner epithelia. Results. The time for lung branching morphometric analysis was reduced in 98% in contrast to the manual method. Best results were obtained in the first two days of cellular development, with lesser standard deviations. Nonsignificant differences were found between the automatic and manual results in all culture days. Conclusions. The proposed method introduces a series of advantages related to its intuitive use and accuracy, making the technique suitable to images with different lighting characteristics and allowing a reliable comparison between different researchers. PMID:25250057

  4. Effects of laser smoke on the lungs of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Baggish, M.S.; Elbakry, M.

    1987-05-01

    The sequelae of long-term inhalation of carbon dioxide laser smoke on 10 white rats were studied in a three-phase experiment. The fine particulate matter resulting from tissue vaporization was deposited in the animals' alveoli, which produced congestive interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and emphysema. The pathologic findings induced by laser plume are not dissimilar to those resulting from the long-term inhalation of other types of particulate matter. Use of an efficient smoke evacuator should offer substantial protection against these normal effects.

  5. Endotoxin treatment protects rats against ozone-induced lung edema: with evidence for the role of manganese superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, I.; Massaro, D. )

    1992-03-01

    Ozone is a strong oxidizing agent that can cause lung damage and edema. There is evidence that it does so by causing peroxidation of membrane lipids. However, the elevation in lung activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, ZnSOD), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) during exposure to ozone suggests that increased production of superoxide could contribute to lung edema caused by ozone. This latter observation, and preliminary evidence that treatment of rats with endotoxin elevates lung activity of MnSOD without elevation of the activity of Cu, ZnSOD, catalase (CAT), or glutathione peroxidase (GP), led to the present study. We treated rats with endotoxin, exposed them to different concentrations of ozone, measured lung wet weight to dry weight ratio, thiobarbituric acid-reactive material (TBAR), and assayed lung tissue for Cu, ZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GP activity. Our major findings are, (1) a strongly edemogenic concentration of ozone-lowered MnSOD activity; (2) endotoxin treatment of air-breathing rats did not decrease lipid peroxidation as indicated by the lung concentration of TBAR; (3) induction of increased MnSOD activity in lung by treatment with endotoxin was associated with virtually complete protection against an otherwise edemogenic concentration of ozone, with less lipid peroxidation, and with less loss of weight; and (4) this protection occurred without elevated Cu, ZnSOD, CAT, or GP activity.

  6. The influence of collapse of the lung parenchyma on the morphology of pulmonary blood vessels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Buyssens, N; van den Bossche, R; de Meyer, G; Herman, A G

    1996-01-01

    During a search for resident subendothelial smooth muscle cells in pulmonary vessels of the rat we found that in expanded lungs the muscular pads in the veins, considered by some authors as sphincters, were hardly visible whereas in collapsed lungs they were very conspicuous. In a separate study intended to quantify the degree of collapse or expansion the left lung was examined in 5 rats with a collapsed and in 5 rats with an expanded lung: the expansion was produced by filling the airways by gravity with Methacarn fixative. The degree of expansion was determined by morphometry measuring the volume density of the tissue fraction of the pulmonary parenchyma in the microscopic sections: in the expanded lung the mean value was 8.5% (range 6.7-12.6%), in the collapsed lung 20.1% (range 18.7-22.3%), a highly significant difference (p < 0.000). Serial sections generally 60-100, 6-microns-thick, were stained by PAS, Sirius red hematoxylin and Verhoeff's elastic stains. Immunohistochemical staining was done with monoclonal antibody against alpha smooth muscle cell actin and desmin. Graphic reconstructions of representative vessels were performed. It was shown that the muscular media of the veins was interrupted and that the muscular pads corresponded to the contracted smooth muscle cell segments alternating with the noncontracted segments devoid of muscle. In the expanded lungs muscular pads were flattened and often hardly detectable. This indicates that the structures considered as sphincters are postmortem contraction rings in collapsed lungs.

  7. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Shen, Jianliang; Reimer, David; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  8. Acute ozone-induced lung injury in rats: Structural-functional relationships of developing alveolar edema

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.F.; Hammond, M.D.; Montgomery, M.R.; Sharp, J.T.; Farrier, S.E.; Balis, J.U. )

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation and Diagnostic Laboratory System, revealed a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (ml/cmH[sub 2]O/kg) from a control value of 0.84 [plus minus] 0.02 (SEM) to 0.72 [plus minus] 0.04 and 0.57 [plus minus] 0.06 at 4 and 8 hr, respectively. At 2 hr there was a transient increase in PaO[sub 2] to 116 torr (control = 92 torr) followed by a decrease at 4 hr (65 torr) and 8 hr (55 torr). Morphometry of lung tissue, fixed by perfusion of fixative via the pulmonary artery at 12 cm H[sub 2]O airway distending pressure, demonstrated an increase in the area of the intravascular compartment at 8 hr, in association with a 65 and 39% replacement of the alveolar area by fluid in ventral and dorsal lung regions, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.966) between alveolar edema and transudated proteins in lavage fluid. A stepwise multiple regression model, with edema as the dependent variable, suggested that pulmonary vasodilatation, hypoxemia, and depletion of surfactant tubular myelin in lavage fluid were indices for predicting alveolar edema. In a second model, with lavage protein concentration as the dependent variable, decreasing dynamic compliance and hypoxemia were predictors of progressive, intraalveolar transudation of plasma proteins. The above structural-functional relationships support the concept that ozone-induced high-protein alveolar edema is pathogenetically linked to pulmonary hyperemia, deficiency of surfactant tubular myelin, and associated lung dysfunctions.

  9. Persistence of Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung: Influence of Dose, Size and Chemical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald S; Silva, Rona M; Lee, Danielle; Edwards, Patricia C.; Sharmah, Arjun; Guo, Ting; Pinkerton, Kent E; Van Winkle, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    Increasing silver nanoparticle (AgNP) use in sprays, consumer products and medical devices has raised concerns about potential health effects. While previous studies have investigated AgNPs, most were limited to a single particle size or surface coating. In this study, we investigated the effect of size, surface coating and dose on the persistence of silver in the lung following exposure to AgNP. Adult male rats were intratracheally instilled with four different AgNPs: 20 or 110nm in size and coated with either citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg doses. Silver retention was assessed in the lung at 1, 7 and 21 days post exposure. ICP-MS quantification demonstrated that citrate coated AgNPs persisted in the lung to 21 days with greater than 90% retention, while PVP coated AgNP had less than 30% retention. Localization of silver in lung tissue at one day post exposure demonstrated decreased silver in proximal airways exposed to 110nm particles compared with 20nm AgNPs. In terminal bronchioles one day post exposure, silver was localized to surface epithelium but was more prominent in the basement membrane at 7 days. Silver positive macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid decreased more quickly after exposure to particles coated with PVP. We conclude that PVP coated AgNPs had less retention in the lung tissue over time and larger particles were more rapidly cleared from large airways than smaller particles. The 20nm citrate particles the greatest effect; increasing lung macrophages even 21days after exposure and resulted in the greatest silver retention in lung tissue. PMID:25231189

  10. Maternal molecular hydrogen treatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced rat fetal lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Y; Kotani, T; Tsuda, H; Mano, Y; Tu, L; Li, H; Hirako, S; Ushida, T; Imai, K; Nakano, T; Sato, Y; Miki, R; Sumigama, S; Iwase, A; Toyokuni, S; Kikkawa, F

    2015-01-01

    Maternal inflammation is associated with spontaneous preterm birth and respiratory impairment among premature infants. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been reported to have a suppressive effect on oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of H2 on fetal lung injury caused by maternal inflammation. Cell viability and the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contained in ordinal or H2-rich medium (HM) using a human lung epithelial cell line, A549. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Control, LPS, and HW + LPS groups. Rats were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (Control) or LPS intraperitoneally (LPS) on gestational day 19 and provided H2 water (HW) ad libitum for 24 h before LPS injection (HW + LPS). Fetal lung samples were collected on day 20, and the levels of apoptosis, oxidative damage, IL-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The number of apoptotic cells, and levels of ROS and IL-6 were significantly increased by LPS treatment, and repressed following cultured with HM in A549 cells. In the rat models, the population positive for cleaved caspase-3, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, IL-6, and VEGF was significantly increased in the LPS group compared with that observed in the Control group and significantly decreased in the HW + LPS group. In this study, LPS administration induced apoptosis and oxidative damage in fetal lung cells that was ameliorated by maternal H2 intake. Antenatal H2 administration may decrease the pulmonary mobility associated with inflammation in premature infants.

  11. Mitigation of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury with EUK-207 and Genistein: Effects in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of civilian populations to radiation due to accident, war or terrorist act is an increasing concern. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs that may be affected in people receiving partial-body irradiation and radiation injury in lung is thought to be associated with the development of a prolonged inflammatory response. Here we examined how effectively damage to the lung can be mitigated by administration of drugs initiated at different times after radiation exposure and examined response in adolescent animals for comparison with the young adult animals that we had studied previously. We studied the mitigation efficacy of the isoflavone genistein (50 mg/kg) and the salen-Mn superoxide dismutase-catalase mimetic EUK-207 (8 mg/kg), both of which have been reported to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce activity of the NFkB pathway. The drugs were given by subcutaneous injection to 6- to 7-week-old Fisher rats daily starting either immediately or 2 weeks after irradiation with 12 Gy to the whole thorax. The treatment was stopped at 28 weeks post irradiation and the animals were assessed for levels of inflammatory cytokines, activated macrophages, oxidative damage and fibrosis at 48 weeks post irradiation. We demonstrated that both genistein and EUK-207 delayed and suppressed the increased breathing rate associated with pneumonitis. These agents also reduced levels of oxidative damage (50–100%), levels of TGF-β1 expression (75–100%), activated macrophages (20–60%) and fibrosis (60–80%). The adolescent rats developed pneumonitis earlier following irradiation of the lung than did the adult rats leading to greater severe morbidity requiring euthanasia (~37% in adolescents vs. ~10% in young adults) but the extent of the mitigation of the damage was similar or slightly greater. PMID:23237541

  12. Comparative acute toxicity of four nickel compounds to F344 rat lung.

    PubMed

    Benson, J M; Henderson, R F; McClellan, R O; Hanson, R L; Rebar, A H

    1986-08-01

    Nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2), nickel chloride (NiCl2), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), and nickel oxide (NiO) are compounds of widely differing solubility encountered in the nickel-refining and electroplating industries. Inhalation is a common route of exposure and toxicity to the respiratory tract is possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biochemical, cytological, and morphological changes in lung following administration of these compounds by intratracheal instillation. F344/Crl rats were administered a single dose of nickel compound containing 0.0, 0.01, 0.10, or 1.0 mumol Ni by intratracheal instillation. Rats were sacrificed at 1 or 7 days after compound administration, with half the animals in each exposure group taken for determination of nickel lung burden and the remaining half used for evaluation of biochemical, cytological, and histological changes. In the latter group, the right lung was lavaged and the fluid obtained was analyzed for indicators of pulmonary inflammation: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta-glucuronidase (BG), total protein (TP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), and sialic acid (SA). Total and differential cell counts on cells recovered in lavage fluid were also determined. The left lobe was examined for morphological changes. Clearance of nickel from the lung was most rapid for NiCl2 and NiSO4, followed by Ni3S2 and NiO. Minimal changes in all parameters were observed at 1 day after exposure. No significant changes in any parameter occurred in rats exposed to NiO, while Ni3S2, NiSO4, and NiCl2 caused increased in LDH, BG, TP, GR, SA, and total nucleated cells at 7 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3758551

  13. Early and late effects of prenatal corticosteroid treatment on the microRNA profiles of lung tissue in rats

    PubMed Central

    YU, HONG-REN; LI, SUNG-CHOU; TSENG, WAN-NING; TAIN, YOU-LIN; CHEN, CHIH-CHENG; SHEEN, JIUNN-MING; TIAO, MAO-MENG; KUO, HO-CHANG; HUANG, CHAO-CHENG; HSIEH, KAI-SHENG; HUANG, LI-TUNG

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been administered to mothers at risk of premature delivery to induce maturation of preterm fetal lungs and prevent the development of respiratory distress syndrome. Micro (mi)RNAs serve various crucial functions in cell proliferation, differentiation and organ development; however, few studies have demonstrated an association between miRNAs and lung development. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissue following prenatal glucocorticoid therapy for fetal lung development. The differences in miRNA expression profiles were compared between postnatal days 7 (D7) and 120 (D120) rat lung tissues, followed by validation using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues following prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) therapy were also investigated. miRNAs with 2-fold changes were selected for further analysis. At D120, 6 upregulated and 6 downregulated miRNAs were detected, compared with D7. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-101-3p and miR-99b-5p were associated with the lowest and highest expressions of miRNA at D7, respectively. A limited impact on the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues was observed following prenatal DEX treatment, which may help to further clarify the mechanisms underlying normal lung development. However, the results of the present study cannot entirely elucidate the effects of prenatal DEX treatment on the lung development of premature infants, and further studies investigating the impact of prenatal corticosteroids on fetal lung miRNA profiles are required. PMID:26997989

  14. The isolation and culture of endothelial colony-forming cells from human and rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Vadivel, Arul; Zhong, Shumei; Zong, Shumei; McConaghy, Suzanne; Ohls, Robin; Yoder, Mervin C; Thébaud, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Blood vessels are crucial for the normal development, lifelong repair and homeostasis of tissues. Recently, vascular progenitor cell-driven 'postnatal vasculogenesis' has been suggested as an important mechanism that contributes to new blood vessel formation and organ repair. Among several described progenitor cell types that contribute to blood vessel formation, endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) have received widespread attention as lineage-specific 'true' vascular progenitors. Here we describe a protocol for the isolation of pulmonary microvascular ECFCs from human and rat lung tissue. Our technique takes advantage of an earlier protocol for the isolation of circulating ECFCs from the mononuclear cellular fraction of peripheral blood. We adapted the earlier protocol to isolate resident ECFCs from the distal lung tissue. After enzymatic dispersion of rat or human lung samples into a cellular suspension, CD31-expressing cells are positively selected using magnetic-activated cell sorting and plated in endothelial-specific growth conditions. The colonies arising after 1-2 weeks in culture are carefully separated and expanded to yield pure ECFC cultures after a further 2-3 weeks. The resulting cells demonstrate the defining characteristics of ECFCs such as (i) 'cobblestone' morphology of cultured cell monolayers; (ii) acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake and Ulex europaeus lectin binding; (iii) tube-like network formation in Matrigel; (iv) expression of endothelial cell-specific surface markers and the absence of hematopoietic or myeloid surface antigens; (v) self-renewal potential displayed by the most proliferative cells; and (vi) contribution to de novo vessel formation in an in vivo mouse implant model. Assuming typical initial cell adhesion and proliferation rates, the entire procedure can be completed within 4 weeks. Isolation and culture of lung vascular ECFCs will allow assessment of the functional state of these cells in experimental and human

  15. The isolation and culture of endothelial colony-forming cells from human and rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Vadivel, Arul; Zhong, Shumei; Zong, Shumei; McConaghy, Suzanne; Ohls, Robin; Yoder, Mervin C; Thébaud, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Blood vessels are crucial for the normal development, lifelong repair and homeostasis of tissues. Recently, vascular progenitor cell-driven 'postnatal vasculogenesis' has been suggested as an important mechanism that contributes to new blood vessel formation and organ repair. Among several described progenitor cell types that contribute to blood vessel formation, endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) have received widespread attention as lineage-specific 'true' vascular progenitors. Here we describe a protocol for the isolation of pulmonary microvascular ECFCs from human and rat lung tissue. Our technique takes advantage of an earlier protocol for the isolation of circulating ECFCs from the mononuclear cellular fraction of peripheral blood. We adapted the earlier protocol to isolate resident ECFCs from the distal lung tissue. After enzymatic dispersion of rat or human lung samples into a cellular suspension, CD31-expressing cells are positively selected using magnetic-activated cell sorting and plated in endothelial-specific growth conditions. The colonies arising after 1-2 weeks in culture are carefully separated and expanded to yield pure ECFC cultures after a further 2-3 weeks. The resulting cells demonstrate the defining characteristics of ECFCs such as (i) 'cobblestone' morphology of cultured cell monolayers; (ii) acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake and Ulex europaeus lectin binding; (iii) tube-like network formation in Matrigel; (iv) expression of endothelial cell-specific surface markers and the absence of hematopoietic or myeloid surface antigens; (v) self-renewal potential displayed by the most proliferative cells; and (vi) contribution to de novo vessel formation in an in vivo mouse implant model. Assuming typical initial cell adhesion and proliferation rates, the entire procedure can be completed within 4 weeks. Isolation and culture of lung vascular ECFCs will allow assessment of the functional state of these cells in experimental and human

  16. Biochemical responses of rat and mouse lung to inhaled nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Benson, J M; Burt, D G; Cheng, Y S; Hahan, F F; Haley, P J; Henderson, R F; Hobbs, C H; Pickrell, J A; Dunnick, J K

    1989-08-01

    Nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), and nickel oxide (NiO) are encountered occupationally in the nickel refining and electroplating industries, with inhalation being a common route of exposure. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the biochemical responses of lungs of rats and mice exposed for 13 weeks to occupationally relevant aerosol concentrations of Ni3S2, NiSO4, and NiO, to correlate biochemical responses with histopathologic changes, and to rank the compounds by toxicity. Biochemical responses were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) recovered from lungs of exposed animals. Parameters evaluated in BALF were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta-glucuronidase (BG), and total protein (TP). Total and differential cell counts were performed on cells recovered in BALF. All compounds produced an increase in LDH, BG, TP, and total nucleated cells, and an influx of neutrophils, indicating the presence of a cytotoxic and inflammatory response in the lungs of exposed rats and mice. Increases in BG were greater than increases in LDH and TP for both rats and mice. Chronic active inflammation, macrophage hyperplasia, and interstitial phagocytic cell infiltrates were observed histologically in rats and mice exposed to all compounds. Statistically significant increases in BG, TP, neutrophils, and macrophages correlated well with the degree of chronic active inflammation. Results indicated a toxicity ranking of NiSO4 greater than Ni3S2 greater than NiO, based on toxicities of the compounds at equivalent mg Ni/m3 exposure concentrations. PMID:2756527

  17. pH in human tumour xenografts: effect of intravenous administration of glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Volk, T.; Jähde, E.; Fortmeyer, H. P.; Glüsenkamp, K. H.; Rajewsky, M. F.

    1993-01-01

    pH frequency distributions of tumours grown s.c. from 30 human tumour xenograft lines in rnu/rnu rats were analysed with the use of H+ ion-sensitive semi-microelectrodes prior to and following stimulation of tumour cell glycolysis by i.v. infusion of glucose. At normoglycemia, the average pH of the tumours investigated was 6.83 (range, 6.72-7.01; n = 268). Without exception, all xenografts responded to the temporary increase in plasma glucose concentration (PGC) from 6 +/- 1 to 30 +/- 3 mM by an accumulation of acidic metabolites, as indicated by a pH reduction to an average value of 6.43 (range, 6.12-6.78; n = 292). This pH value corresponds to a ten-fold increase in H+ ion activity in tumour tissue as compared to arterial blood. Tumour pH approached minimum values at 2-4 h after the onset of glucose administration and could be maintained at acidic levels for 24 h by controlled glucose infusion. Irrespective of pH variations between tumours grown from individual xenograft lines, there was no major difference in pH response to glucose between the four main histopathological tumour entities investigated, i.e. breast, lung and gastrointestinal carcinomas, and sarcomas. In tumours from several xenograft lines, an increase in blood glucose to only 2.5-times the normal value (14 mM) was sufficient to reduce the mean pH to 6.4. Glucose-induced acidosis was tumour-specific. The pH frequency distributions in liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rnu/rnu rats were only marginally sensitive to hyperglycemia (average pH, 6.97 vs normal value of 7.14). Tumour-selective activation of pH-sensitive anti-cancer agents, e.g. alkylating drugs, acid-labile prodrugs or pH-sensitive immunoconjugates may thus be feasible in a wide variety of human cancers. PMID:8353039

  18. Ethanol gastric lesion aggravated by lung injury in rat. Therapy effect of antiulcer agents.

    PubMed

    Stancic-Rokotov, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Slobodnjak, Z; Aralica, J; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Gjurasin, M; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Jagic, V; Staresinic, M; Boban-Blagaic, A

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in the stomach in the rat induced by an intragastrical application of 1 ml of 50 or 75% ethanol were aggravated by preceding lung damage provoked by an intratracheal instillation of pyrogen-free saline or HCl (pH 1.75) or 50-h exposure to 100% oxygen. Due to the particular preceding aggravating circumstances, these lesions were taken to be of a special kind, rather than ordinary. So far, it is not known whether and how antiulcer agents may influence these lesions. Rats received an intratracheal (i.t.) HCl instillation [1.5 ml/kg HCl (pH 1.75)] (lung-lesion), and an intragastric instillation of 96% ethanol (gastric lesion; 1 ml/rat, 24 h after i.t. HCl instillation), and were sacrificed 1 h after ethanol. Basically, in lung injured rats, the subsequent ethanol-gastric lesion was markedly aggravated. This aggravation, however, in turn, did not affect the severity of the lung lesions in the further period, at least for a 1-h observation. Taking intratracheal HCl-instillation as time 0, a gastric pentadecapeptide, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419, coded BPC 157 (PL-10, PLD-116; 10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), were given [/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] (1) once, only prophylactically [as a pre-treatment (at -1 h), or as a co-treatment (at 0)], or only therapeutically (at +18 h or +24 h); (2) repeatedly, combining prophylactic/therapeutic regimens [(-1 h)+(+24 h) or (0)+(+24 h)], or therapeutic/therapeutic regimens [(+18 h)+(+24 h)]. In general, the antiulcer agents did protect against ethanol gastric lesions regardless of the presence of the severe lung injury, in all of the used regimens. Of note, combining their prophylactic and salutary regimens (at -1 h/+24 h, or at 0/+24 h) may increase the antiulcer potential, and the effect that had been not seen already with single application, became prominent after repeated treatment. PMID:11595452

  19. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12-13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6-11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  20. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mitchell D.; Vaughan, Joshua M.; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12–13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6–11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  1. Withaferin A attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, S; Li, H; Zhou, X-Q; You, J-B; Tu, D-N; Xia, G; Jiang, J-X; Xin, C

    2015-07-31

    Withaferin A (WFA) is an active compound from Withania somnifera and has been reported to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti—inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti—tumor properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective role of WFA on acute lung injury in neonatal rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that WFA significantly attenuated the pathological changes of lungs induced by LPS injection. Administration with WFA obviously decreased pulmonary neutrophil infiltration accompanied with decreased MPO concentrations. WFA also reduced the expression of pro—inflammatory cytokines including MIP—2, TNF—α, IL—1β and IL—6. Meanwhile, the expression levels of anti—inflammatory mediators such as TGF—β1 and IL—10 were significantly increased following WFA administration. Moreover, WFA protected LPS—treated rats from oxidative damage via up—regulation of TBARS and H2O2 concentrations and down—regulation of ROS contents. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that WFA administration attenuated LPS—induced lung injury through inhibition of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

  2. Curcumin ameliorates oxidative stress during nicotine-induced lung toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Chandran; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2004-07-01

    Nicotine, a major toxic component of cigarette smoke has been identified as a major risk factor for lung related diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of curcumin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of nicotine treated Wistar rats. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks) and curcumin (80 mg/kg body weight) was given simultaneously by intragastric intubation for 22 weeks. Measurement of biochemical marker enzymes: alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were used to monitor the antiperoxidative effects of curcumin. The increased biochemical marker enzymes as well as lipid peroxides in BALF and BAL of nicotine treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Administration of curcumin significantly lowered the biochemical marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin exert its protective effect against nicotine-induced lung toxicity by modulating the biochemical marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system. PMID:15646012

  3. Dihydro-Resveratrol Ameliorates Lung Injury in Rats with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ze-Si; Ku, Chuen Fai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Shi, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Hong-Qi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process originated in the pancreas; however, it often leads to systemic complications that affect distant organs. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is indeed the predominant cause of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. In this study, we aimed to delineate the ameliorative effect of dihydro-resveratrol, a prominent analog of trans-resveratrol, against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury and the underlying molecular actions. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with repetitive injections of cerulein (50 µg/kg/h) and a shot of lipopolysaccharide (7.5 mg/kg). By means of histological examination and biochemical assays, the severity of lung injury was assessed in the aspects of tissue damages, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. When treated with dihydro-resveratrol, pulmonary architectural distortion, hemorrhage, interstitial edema, and alveolar thickening were significantly reduced in rats with acute pancreatitis. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activity of myeloperoxidase in pulmonary tissues were notably repressed. Importantly, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation was attenuated. This study is the first to report the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol ameliorated acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury via an inhibitory modulation of pro-inflammatory response, which was associated with a suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  4. Efficient estimation of the total number of acini in adult rat lung

    PubMed Central

    Barré, Sébastien F.; Haberthür, David; Stampanoni, Marco; Schittny, Johannes C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas‐exchanging airways. An acinus is defined as the small tree of gas‐exchanging airways, which is fed by the most distal purely conducting airway. Until now a dissector of five consecutive sections or airway casts were used to count acini. We developed a faster method to estimate the number of acini in young adult rats. Right middle lung lobes were critical point dried or paraffin embedded after heavy metal staining and imaged by X‐ray micro‐CT or synchrotron radiation‐based X‐rays tomographic microscopy. The entrances of the acini were counted in three‐dimensional (3D) stacks of images by scrolling through them and using morphological criteria (airway wall thickness and appearance of alveoli). Segmentation stopper were placed at the acinar entrances for 3D visualizations of the conducting airways. We observed that acinar airways start at various generations and that one transitional bronchiole may serve more than one acinus. A mean of 5612 (±547) acini per lung and a mean airspace volume of 0.907 (±0.108) μL per acinus were estimated. In 60‐day‐old rats neither the number of acini nor the mean acinar volume did correlate with the body weight or the lung volume. PMID:24997068

  5. Lung lesions and anti-ulcer agents beneficial effect: anti-ulcer agents pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, omeprazole and atropine ameliorate lung lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Stancic-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Aralica, J; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Staresinic, M; Gjurasin, M; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Kokic, N; Jagic, V; Boban-Blagaic, A

    2001-01-01

    Anti-ulcer agents may likely attenuate lesions outside the gastrointestinal tract, since they had protected gastrectomized rats (a "direct cytoprotective effect"). Therefore, their therapeutic potential in lung/stomach lesions were shown. Rats received an intratracheal (i.t.) HCl instillation [1.5 ml/kg HCl (pH 1.75)] (lung lesion), and an intragastric (i.g.) instillation of 96% ethanol (gastric lesion; 1 ml/rat, 24 h after i.t. HCl instillation), then sacrificed 1 h after ethanol. Basically, in lung-injured rats, the subsequent ethanol-gastric lesion was markedly aggravated. This aggravation, however, in turn, did not affect the severity of the lung lesions in the further period, at least for 1 h of observation. Taking intratracheal HCl-instillation as time 0, a gastric pentadecapeptide, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419, coded BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), were given [/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] (i) once, only prophylactically [as a pre-treatment (at -1h)], or as a co-treatment [at 0)], or only therapeutically (at +18h or +24 h); (ii) repeatedly, combining prophylactic/therapeutic regimens [(-1 h)+(+24 h)] or [(0)+(+24 h)], or therapeutic/therapeutic regimens [(+18 h)+(+24 h)]. For all agents, combining their prophylactic and salutary regimens (at -1 h/+24 h, or at 0/+24 h) attenuated lung lesions; even if effect had been not seen already with a single application, it became prominent after repeated treatment. In single application studies, relative to controls, a co-treatment (except to omeprazole), a pre-treatment (at -1 h) (pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and atropine, but not ranitidine and omeprazole) regularly attenuated, while therapeutically, atropine (at +18 h), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 highest dose and omeprazole (at +24 h), reversed the otherwise more severe lung lesions. PMID:11595454

  6. Potential role of Saudi red propolis in alleviating lung damage induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus virulence in rats.

    PubMed

    Saddiq, Amna Ali; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective impact of aqueous extract of Saudi red propolis against rat lung damage induced by the pathogenic bacteria namely methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 6538 strain. Infected rats were received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of bacterial suspension at a dose of 1 X 10(6) CFU / 100g body weight. Results showed that oral administration of an aqueous extract of propolis (50mg/100g body weight) daily for two weeks to infected rats simultaneously with bacterial infection, effectively ameliorated the alteration of oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the antioxidant markers, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in lungs of infected rats compared with infected untreated ones. Also, the used propolis extract successfully modulated the alterations in proinflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum. In addition, the propolis extract successfully modulated the oxidative DNA damage and the apoptosis biomarker, caspase 3, in lungs of S aureus infected rats compared with infected untreated animals. The biochemical results were supported by histo-pathological observation of lung tissues. In conclusion, the beneficial prophylactic role of the aqueous extract of Saudi red propolis against lung damage induced by methicillin resistant S aureus may be related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptosis of its active constituents.

  7. Effects of protein deficiency and food restriction on lung ascorbic acid and glutathione in rats exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Dubick, M.A.; Heng, H.; Rucker, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    Weanling (52 +/- 4 g) or adult (259 +/- 16 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum casein-based diets containing 4 or 16% protein. A third group (food restricted) was fed daily the 16% protein diet, but at the food intake level of the 4% protein group. After 3 wk (weanling) or 5 wk (adults), half of the rats in each group were continuously exposed to 0.64 ppm ozone for 7 d. Ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione levels were then measured. In the heart and liver from weanling rats, ascorbic acid concentrations were lower in the protein-deficient group than in either control group. In the liver from weanling rats glutathione concentrations were also reduced in response to protein deficiency. Exposure to ozone produced no additional response. For adult rats the response for liver glutathione was similar to that of the weanlings. The liver ascorbate concentration, however, was consistently lower in adult rats compared to weanlings exposed to ozone. In lungs from adult rats, the ascorbic acid concentration was lower in the protein-deficient group than in either control group. On a whole-organ basis, both ascorbic acid and glutathione were usually higher in lungs from rats exposed to ozone than from those exposed to air. Interestingly, protein deficiency did not appear to compromise the lung's ability to maintain, in relative terms, the ascorbic acid or glutathione concentration in response to ozone.

  8. Viral bronchiolitis in young rats causes small airway lesions that correlate with reduced lung function.

    PubMed

    Sorkness, Ronald L; Szakaly, Renee J; Rosenthal, Louis A; Sullivan, Ruth; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Sun, Xin

    2013-11-01

    Viral illness with wheezing during infancy is associated with the inception of childhood asthma. Small airway dysfunction is a component of childhood asthma, but little is known about how viral illness at an early age may affect the structure and function of small airways. We used a well-characterized rat model of postbronchiolitis chronic airway dysfunction to address how postinfectious small airway lesions affect airway physiological function and if the structure/function correlates persist into maturity. Brown Norway rats were sham- or virus inoculated at 3 to 4 weeks of age and allowed to recover from the acute illness. At 3 to 14 months of age, physiology (respiratory system resistance, Newtonian resistance, tissue damping, and static lung volumes) was assessed in anesthetized, intubated rats. Serial lung sections revealed lesions in the terminal bronchioles that reduced luminal area and interrupted further branching, affecting 26% (range, 13-39%) of the small airways at 3 months of age and 22% (range, 6-40%) at 12 to 14 months of age. At 3 months of age (n = 29 virus; n = 7 sham), small airway lesions correlated with tissue damping (rs = 0.69) but not with Newtonian resistance (rs = 0.23), and Newtonian resistance was not elevated compared with control rats, indicating that distal airways were primarily responsible for the airflow obstruction. Older rats (n = 7 virus; n = 6 sham) had persistent small airway dysfunction and significantly increased Newtonian resistance in the postbronchiolitis group. We conclude that viral airway injury at an early age may induce small airway lesions that are associated quantitatively with small airway physiological dysfunction early on and that these defects persist into maturity.

  9. Airborne particles of the california central valley alter the lungs of healthy adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R; Kim, Seongheon; Recendez, Julian J; Teague, Stephen V; Ménache, Margaret G; Grubbs, David E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that airborne particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10) is associated with an increase in respiratory-related disease. However, there is a growing consensus that particles < 2.5 microm (PM2.5), including many in the ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) size range, may elicit greater adverse effects. PM is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, those components or properties responsible for biologic effects on the respiratory system have yet to be determined. During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in six separate experiments to filtered air or combined fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine portions of ambient PM in Fresno, California, enhanced approximately 20-fold above outdoor levels. The intent of these studies was to determine if concentrated fine/ultrafine fractions of PM are cytotoxic and/or proinflammatory in the lungs of healthy adult rats. Exposures were for 4 hr/day for 3 consecutive days. The mean mass concentration of particles ranged from 190 to 847 microg/m3. PM was enriched primarily with ammonium nitrate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals. Viability of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from rats exposed to concentrated PM was significantly decreased during 4 of 6 weeks, compared with rats exposed to filtered air (p< 0.05). Total numbers of BAL cells were increased during 1 week, and neutrophil numbers were increased during 2 weeks. These observations strongly suggest exposure to enhanced concentrations of ambient fine/ultrafine particles in Fresno is associated with mild, but significant, cellular effects in the lungs of healthy adult rats. PMID:12782490

  10. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human vascular endothelial and lung epithelial cells: modulation by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Burke-Gaffney, A.; Hellewell, P. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) increases the expression of the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells and modulation of this may be important in controlling inflammation. Activation of tyrosine kinase(s) is known to be involved in the signal transduction pathways of many cytokines. In this study we have investigated the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ST638, tyrphostin AG 1288 and genistein, on TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human alveolar epithelial (A549) and vascular endothelial (EAhy926) cell lines and also normal human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). 2. ICAM-1 expression on cultured cells was determined by a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Endothelial or epithelial monolayers were exposed to increasing doses of TNF-alpha (0.01-10 ng ml-1), in the presence or absence of either ST638 (3-100 microM), AG 1288 (3-100 microM) or genistein (100 microM) and ICAM-1 expression was measured at 4 and 24 h. Control experiments examined the effect of ST638 on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 20 ng ml-1, 4 h)-stimulated ICAM-1 and compared it to that of a specific protein kinase C inhibitor, R031-8220 (10 microM). Also, functional consequences of changes in ICAM-1 expression were assessed by measuring adhesion of 111 In-labelled human neutrophils to EAhy926 endothelial and A549 epithelial monolayers treated with TNF alpha, in the presence or absence of ST638. 3. ST638 caused a concentration-dependent reduction in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial (at 4 h) and A549 epithelial monolayers (at 4 and 24 h). In contrast, ST638 caused a concentration-dependent increase in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial cells at 24 h. Similar effects were seen with AG 1288 or genistein. ST638 (100 microM) significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited ICAM-1 expression on HLMVEC endothelial cells induced by

  11. Novel Flurometric Tool to Assess Mitochondrial Redox State of Isolated Perfused Rat Lungs After Exposure to Hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Audi, Said H.; Staniszewski, Kevin S.; Haworth, Steven T.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Ranji, Mahsa; Zablocki, Clement J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the utility of optical fluorometry to detect a change in the redox status of mitochondrial autofluorescent coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized form of flavin adenine dinucleotide \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$({\\rm FADH}_{2})$\\end{document} (FAD), as a measure of mitochondrial function in isolated perfused rat lungs (IPL). The objective of this paper was to utilize optical fluorometry to evaluate the effect of rat exposure to hyperoxia (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${>}{95\\%}~{\\rm O}_{2}$\\end{document} for 48 h) on lung tissue mitochondrial redox status of NADH and FAD in a nondestructive manner in IPL. Surface NADH and FAD signals were measured before and after lung perfusion with perfusate containing rotenone (ROT, complex I inhibitor), potassium cyanide (KCN, complex IV inhibitor), and/or pentachlorophenol (PCP, uncoupler). ROT- or KCN-induced increase in NADH signal is considered a measure of complex I activity, and KCN-induced decrease in FAD signal is considered a measure of complex II activity. The results show that hyperoxia decreased complex I and II activities by 63% and 55%, respectively, when compared to lungs of rats exposed to room air (normoxic rats). Mitochondrial complex I and II activities in lung homogenates were also lower (77% and 63%, respectively) for hyperoxic than for normoxic lungs. These results suggest that the mitochondrial matrix is more reduced in hyperoxic lungs than in normoxic lungs, and demonstrate the ability of optical fluorometry to detect a change

  12. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Gregory, R.E.; Cole, D.J.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1987-04-01

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a /sup 14/C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O/sub 3/ at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/ resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O/sub 3/ exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema.

  13. Electron energy loss spectroscopy for analysis of inhaled ultrafine particles in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Nadine; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Schulz, Holger; Im Hof, Vinzenz; Gehr, Peter; Semmler, Manuela; Geiser, Marianne

    2004-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with ambient particulate air pollution. Particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter (ultrafine particles) are present in the urban atmosphere in very high numbers yet at very low mass concentration. Organs beyond the lungs are considered as targets for inhaled ultrafine particles, whereby the route of particle translocation deeper into the lungs is unclear. Five rats were exposed to aerosols of ultrafine titanium dioxide particles of a count median diameter of 22 nm (geometric standard deviation, GSD 1.7) for 1 hour. The lungs were fixed by intravascular perfusion of fixatives immediately thereafter. TiO(2) particles in probes of the aerosol as well as in systematic tissue samples were analyzed with a LEO 912 transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy filter for elemental microanalysis. The characteristic energy loss spectra were obtained by fast spectrum acquisition. Aerosol particles as well as those in the lung tissue were unambiguously identified by electron energy loss spectroscopy. Particles were mainly found as small clusters with a rounded shape. Seven percent of the particles in the lung tissue had a needle-like shape. The size distribution of the cluster profiles in the tissue had a count median diameter of 29 nm (GSD 1.7), which indicates no severe clustering or reshaping of the originally inhaled particles. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and related analytical methods were found to be suitable to identify and localize ultrafine titanium dioxide particles within chemically fixed and resin-embedded lung tissue. PMID:15170760

  14. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders.

  15. Protective effects of dexamethasone on early acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Dao-Xin; Deng, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Whether alveolar edema could be cleared by alveolar epithelial is a key to the treatment and prognosis of ALI (acute lung injury). In this study, oleic acid(OA)-induced ALI model was established, the expression of α1 Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) and β1 Na+/K+-ATPase were performed in vivo to investigate the mechanism of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ALI and the effect of early low doses of dexamethasone on alveolar fluid clearance. Methods: In this study, Male rats were challenged by OA with or without dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, iv) post-treatment. Lung histopathology, blood gas, pulmonary vascular permeability, BALF IL-6, MPO and NKA activity of lung were examined. α1NKA and β1NKA mRNA and protein expression were detected. Results: The results indicated that compared with sham operated group, NKA activity, mRNA and protein expression of α1NKA and β1NKA were decreased in OA treated group, while wet/dry ratio, lung index, IL-6, and MPO activity were increased significantly. Pulmonary edema was obviously seen under light microscope. Those indexes were improved in dexamethasone treated group compared to OA treated group. Conclusion: The expression of NKA to decline for the lung injury is one important mechanism of pulmonary edema. Early low dose of dexamethasone treatment could suppress the expression of inflammatory mediators, improved lung epithelial-endothelial barrier permeability, increased the expressions of α1 NKA and β1 NKA mRNA, α1 NKA and β1 NKA protein level, stimulated NKA activity and decreased pulmonary edema. In conclusion, these observations suggest that early low dose of dexamethasone treatment has a protective effect on OA induced ALI. PMID:25663967

  16. Metyrapone Alleviates Deleterious Effects of Maternal Food Restriction on Lung Development and Growth of Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Paek, David S.; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

  17. Lung permeability, antioxidant status, and NO2 inhalation: a selenium supplementation study in rats.

    PubMed

    de Burbure, C Y; Heilier, J-F; Nève, J; Becker, A; Albrecht, C; Borm, P J A; Gromadzinska, J; Wasowicz, W; Rydzynski, K; Bernard, A M

    2007-02-01

    Little is known about antioxidant status, selenium status in particular, and lung response to NO2, which acts as a proinflammatory air pollutant. The effects of a low selenium diet (1.3 microg Se/d) with or without selenium supplementation were therefore studied in 128 Wistar rats, 2 mo old, male exposed to either acute (50 ppm, 30 min), intermittent subacute (5 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d), intermittent long-term NO2 (1 ppm, 10 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, 28 d), or normal atmospheric air (controls). Following sacrifice, measurements of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, chemiluminescence), antioxidative protective enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx], superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione S-transferase [GST], ceruloplasmin), lung damage (lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatases), lung permeability (total protein, albumin), and inflammation (cell populations), along with the determination of new biomarkers such as CC16 (Clara-cell protein), were performed in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). While selenium-supplemented animals had increased GPx activity in serum prior to inhalation experiments, they also had decreased BALF CC16, blood SOD, and GST levels. Nevertheless, the protective role of normal selenium status with respect to NO2 lung toxicity was evident both for long-term and acute exposures, as the increase in BALF total proteins and corresponding decrease in serum (indicating increased lung permeability) was significantly more pronounced in selenium-deficient animals. During the various inhalation experiments, serum CC16 demonstrated its key role as an early marker of increased lung permeability. These findings corroborate the important role of selenium status in NO2 oxidative damage modulation, but also indicate, in view of its negative impact on CC16, a natural anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressor, that caution should be used prior to advocating selenium supplementation. PMID:17365591

  18. Expression of antioxidant enzymes in rat lungs after inhalation of asbestos or silica.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Y M; Marsh, J P; Absher, M P; Hemenway, D; Vacek, P M; Leslie, K O; Borm, P J; Mossman, B T

    1992-05-25

    Several studies indicate that active oxygen species play an important role in the development of pulmonary disease (asbestosis and silicosis) after exposure to mineral dust. The present study was conducted to determine if inhaled fibrogenic minerals induced changes in gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes (AOE) in rat lung. Two different fibrogenic minerals were compared, crocidolite, an amphibole asbestos fiber, and cristobalite, a crystalline silicon dioxide particle. Steady-state mRNA levels, immunoreactive protein, and activities of selected AOE were measured in lungs 1-10 days after initiation of exposure and at 14 days after cessation of a 10-day exposure period. Exposure to asbestos resulted in significant increases in steady-state mRNA levels of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) at 3 and 9 days and of glutathione peroxidase at 6 and 9 days. An increase in steady-state mRNA levels of copper, zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), was observed at 6 days. Exposure to asbestos also resulted in overall increased enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase in lung. In contrast, silica caused a dramatic increase in steady-state levels of MnSOD mRNA at all time periods and an increase in glutathione peroxidase mRNA levels at 9 days. Activities of AOE remained unchanged in silica-exposed lungs. In both models, increases in gene expression of MnSOD correlated with increased amounts of MnSOD immunoreactive protein in lung and the pattern and extent of inflammation. These data indicate that the profiles of AOE are dissimilar during the development of experimental asbestosis or silicosis and suggest different mechanisms of lung defense in response to these minerals. PMID:1316905

  19. Airway-parenchymal interdependence after airway contraction in rat lung explants.

    PubMed

    Adler, A; Cowley, E A; Bates, J H; Eidelman, D H

    1998-07-01

    The constriction of pulmonary airways is limited by the tethering effect exerted by parenchymal attachments. To characterize this tethering effect at the scale of intraparenchymal airways, we studied the pattern of parenchymal distortion due to bronchoconstriction in a rat lung explant system. First, we measured the elastic modulus under tension for 2% (wt/vol) agarose alone (37.6 +/- 1.5 kPa) and for agarose-filled lung (5.7 +/- 1.3 kPa). The latter is similar to the elastic modulus of air-filled lung at total lung capacity (4.5-6 kPa) (S. J. Lai-Fook, T. A. Wilson, R. E. Hyatt, and J. R. Rodarte. J. Appl. Physiol. 40: 508-513, 1976), suggesting that explants can be used as a model of lung tissue distortion. Subsequently, confocal microscopic images of fluorescently labeled 0.5-mm-thick explants prepared from agarose-filled rat lungs inflated to total lung capacity (48 ml/kg) were acquired. Images were taken before and after airway constriction was induced by direct application of 10 mM methacholine, and the pattern of parenchymal distortion was measured from the displacement of tissue landmarks identified in each image for 14 explants. The magnitude of the radial component of tissue displacement was calculated as a function of distance from the airway wall and characterized by a parameter, b, describing the rate at which tissue movement decreased with radial distance. The parameter b was 0.994 +/- 0.19 (SE), which is close to the prediction of b = 1 of micromechanical modeling (T. A. Wilson. J. Appl. Physiol. 33: 472-478, 1972). There was significant variability in b, however, which was correlated with the fractional reduction in airway diameter (r = 0.496). Additionally, parenchymal distortion showed significant torsion with respect to the radial direction. This torsion was similar in concentric zones around the airway, suggesting that it originates from inhomogeneity in the parenchyma rather than inhomogeneous airway constriction. Our results demonstrate the

  20. The expression of aquaporins 1 and 5 in rat lung after thoracic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cheng-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Da-Wei; Chen, Yan-Zhi; Qin, Li-Li; Bai, Lu; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT), leading to radiation pneumonia or fibrosis, is a primary problem of radiation therapy. The pathogenesis of RILT remains unclear. In this study, we used a rat model of RILT to examine the expression of aquaporins (AQPs) after radiation injury. Sprague Dawley rats were given a single dose of 17 Gy (dose rate of 3.0 Gy/min) of X-irradiation to the thorax. Rats that survived acute pneumonitis (at 1–4 weeks) were evaluated weekly for the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 in the lung by immunohistochemical and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that AQP1 protein was expressed in the capillary endothelium, and its level was significantly decreased after irradiation. AQP5 protein was expressed in the alveolar epithelium, and its level was increased between Days 7 and 14 after irradiation but decreased at Day 28, compared with the sham group. The RT-PCR results were consistent with the immunohistochemical analysis results. In summary, this study provides the first report of AQP1 and AQP5 expression in a model of radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and edema. Decreased levels of AQP1 and AQP5 after irradiation suggest that these proteins play a role in the pathogenesis of RILT. PMID:24570172

  1. Mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene during progression of lung tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Takanori; Obo, Yumi; Furukawa, Mami; Hotta, Mayuko; Yamasaki, Ayako; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2009-01-16

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. In this study, mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 (LPA1) gene were investigated to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung tumors induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) in rats. Male Wistar rats, 6 weeks of age, were given 2000 ppm BHP in their drinking water for 12 weeks and then maintained without further treatment until sacrifice at 25 weeks. Genomic DNAs were extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and exons 2-4 were examined for mutations, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. No LPA1 mutations were detected in 15 hyperplasias, but 2 out of 12 adenomas (16.7%) and 7 out of 17 adenocarcinomas (41.2%). These results suggest that mutations of LPA1 gene may be involved in the acquisition of growth advantage from adenomas to adenocarcinomas in lung carcinogenesis induced in rats by BHP.

  2. Lung Matrix Metalloproteinase Activation following Partial Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferrigno, Andrea; Rizzo, Vittoria; Tarantola, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute liver I/R does affect the function and/or structure of remote organs such as lung, kidney, and heart via modulation of extracellular matrix remodelling. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min partial hepatic ischemia by clamping the hepatic artery and the portal vein. After a 60 min reperfusion, liver, lung, kidney, and heart biopsies and blood samples were collected. Serum hepatic enzymes, creatinine, urea, Troponin I and TNF-alpha, and tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and morphology were monitored. Results. Serum levels of hepatic enzymes and TNF-alpha were concomitantly increased during hepatic I/R. An increase in hepatic MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities was substantiated by tissue morphology alterations. Notably, acute hepatic I/R affect the lung inasmuch as MMP-9 activity and MPO levels were increased. No difference in MMPs and MPO was observed in kidney and heart. Conclusions. Although the underlying mechanism needs further investigation, this is the first study in which the MMP activation in a distant organ is reported; this event is probably TNF-alpha-mediated and the lung appears as the first remote organ to be involved in hepatic I/R injury. PMID:24592193

  3. A comparative study of lung toxicity in rats induced by three types of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiqing; Ma, Li; X, Zhu-ge; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Bencheng

    2013-12-01

    The public is increasingly exposed to various engineered nanomaterials because of their mass production and wide application. Even when the biological effects of nanomaterials have been assessed, the underlying mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. The present study was designed to seek a simple, effective, and oxidative stress-based biomarker system used for screening toxicity of nanomaterials. Nano-ferroso-ferric oxide (nano-Fe3O4), nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in corn oil and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rats were exposed to the three nanomaterials by intratracheal instillation once every 2 days for 5 weeks. We investigated their lung oxidative and inflammatory damage by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) detection and comparative proteomics by lung tissue. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of proteins isolated from the lung tissue, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was performed. In the present study, we chose to detect lactate dehydrogenase, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde as the biomarker system for screening the oxidative stress of nanomaterials and IL-6 as the inflammatory biomarker in BALF. Proteomics analysis revealed 17 differentially expressed proteins compared with the control group: nine were upregulated and eight were downregulated. Our results indicated that exposure by intratracheal instillation to any of the three typical nanomaterials may cause lung damage through oxidative damage and/or an inflammatory reaction.

  4. Evolution of Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung Investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. We found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period. PMID:25517690

  5. Effects of methylene blue in acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cassiano Silveira, Ana Paula; Vento, Daniella Alves; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Tefé-Silva, Cristiane; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rubens de Nadai, Tales; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute lung injury (ALI), rupture of the alveolar-capillary barrier determines the protein-rich fluid influx into alveolar spaces. Previous studies have reported that methylene blue (MB) attenuates such injuries. This investigation was carried out to study the MB effects in pulmonary capillary permeability. Methods Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (I) Sham: saline bolus; (II) MB, MB infusion for 2 h; (III) oleic acid (OA), OA bolus; (IV) MB/OA, MB infusion for 2 h, and at 5 min after from the beginning, concurrently with an OA bolus; and (V) OA/MB, OA bolus, and after 2 h, MB infusion for 2 h. After 4 h, blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and lung tissue were collected from all groups for analysis of plasma and tissue nitric oxide, calculation of the wet weight to dry weight ratio (WW/DW), and histological examination of lung tissue. Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric test. Results Although favourable trends have been observed for permeability improvement parameters (WW/WD and protein), the results were not statistically significant. However, histological analysis of lung tissue showed reduced lesion areas in both pre- and post-treatment groups. Conclusions The data collected using this experimental model was favourable only through macroscopic and histological analysis. These observations are valid for both MB infusions before or after induction of ALI. PMID:26855944

  6. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P.

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  7. Noninvasive detection of endotoxin-induced mucus hypersecretion in rat lung by MRI.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Nicolau; Tigani, Bruno; Sugar, Rosemary; Jackson, Alan D; Jones, Gareth; Mazzoni, Lazzaro; Fozard, John R

    2002-07-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we detected a signal in the lungs of Brown Norway rats after intratracheal administration of endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]. The signal had two components: one, of diffuse appearance and higher intensity, was particularly prominent up to 48 h after LPS; the second, showing an irregular appearance and weaker intensity, was predominant later. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis indicated that generalized granulocytic (especially neutrophilic) inflammation was a major contributor to the signal at the early time points, with mucus being a major factor contributing at the later time points. The facts that animals can breathe freely during data acquisition and that neither respiration nor cardiac triggering is applied render this MRI approach attractive for the routine testing of anti-inflammatory drugs. In particular, the prospect of noninvasively detecting a sustained mucus hypersecretory phenotype in the lung brings an important new perspective to models of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in animals. PMID:12060557

  8. Alterations in the K-ras and p53 genes in rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Swafford, D.S.; Finch, G.L.; Mitchell, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Activation of the K-ras protooncogene and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are events common to many types of human cancers. Molecular epidemiology studies have associated mutational profiles in these genes with specific exposures. The purpose of this paper is to review investigations that have examined the role of the K-ras and p53 genes in lung tumors induced in the F344 rat by mutagenic and nonmutagenic exposures. Mutation profiles within the K-ras and p53 genes, if present in rat lung tumors, would help to define some of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer induction by various environmental agents. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas were induced by tetranitromethane (TNM), 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), beryllium metal, plutonium-239, X-ray, diesel exhaust, or carbon black. These agents were chosen because the tumors they produced could arise via different types of DNA damage. Mutation of the K-ras gene was determined by approaches that included DNA transfection, direct sequencing, mismatch hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency for mutation of the K-ras gene was exposure dependent. The transition mutations formed could have been derived from deamination of cytosine. Alteration in the p53 gene was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis for p53 protein and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons 4 to 9. None of the 93 adenocarinomas examined was immunoreactive toward the anti-p53 antibody CM1. In contrast, 14 of 71 squamous cell carcinomas exhibited nuclear p53 immunoreactivity with no correlation to type of exposure. However, SSCP analysis only detected mutations in 2 of 14 squamous cell tumors that were immunoreactive, suggesting that protein stabilization did not stem from mutations within the p53 gene. Thus, the p53 gene does not appear to be involved in the genesis of most rat lung tumors. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 48 refs.

  9. Ameliorating effects of CAPE on oxidative damage caused by pneumoperitoneum in rat lung tissue

    PubMed Central

    Davarci, Isil; Alp, Harun; Ozgur, Tumay; Karcioglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasim; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Motor, Sedat; Durgun Yetim, Tulin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the biochemical and histopathological effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against oxidative stress causing lung injury induced by pneumoperitoneum. Twenty-eight rats were selected at random and seven rats were assigned to each of the following groups. The control group (S) was subjected to a sham operation without pneumoperitoneum. The other groups were subjected to CO2 pneumoperitoneum 15 mmHg for 60 min. The laparoscopy group (L) had no additional drugs administered, the laparoscopy + alcohol (LA) group had 1 ml of 70% ethyl alcohol administered 1 h before the desufflation period, and the laparoscopy + CAPE (LC) group had CAPE administered at 10 μmol/kg 1 h before the desufflation period. The total oxidative status levels of lung and plasma were significantly increased in the LA group as compared with the LC and S group. When the LC group was compared with the L group, there was a decrease in the level of total oxidant status and increase in the levels of total antioxidant status and paraoxonase in lung tissue. The level of total antioxidative status in the S group was increased compared with the L group in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. TNF-α and IL-6 were found significantly elevated in the L group compared with the LC and S groups in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There was a similar increase in plasma levels of IL-6. These results were supported by histopathological examination. CAPE was found to considerably reduce oxidative stress and inflammation induced by pneumoperitoneum. PMID:25126167

  10. Influence of particle size on persistence and clearance of aerosolized silver nanoparticles in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald S; Patchin, Esther S; Silva, Rona M; Uyeminami, Dale L; Sharmah, Arjun; Guo, Ting; Das, Gautom K; Brown, Jared M; Shannahan, Jonathan; Gordon, Terry; Chen, Lung Chi; Pinkerton, Kent E; Van Winkle, Laura S

    2015-04-01

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products raises concerns about potential health effects. This study investigated the persistence and clearance of 2 different size AgNPs (20 and 110 nm) delivered to rats by single nose-only aerosol exposures (6 h) of 7.2 and 5.4 mg/m(3), respectively. Rat lung tissue was assessed for silver accumulations using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), autometallography, and enhanced dark field microscopy. Involvement of tissue macrophages was assessed by scoring of silver staining in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Silver was abundant in most macrophages at 1 day post-exposure. The group exposed to 20 nm AgNP had the greatest number of silver positive BALF macrophages at 56 days post-exposure. While there was a significant decrease in the amount of silver in lung tissue at 56 days post-exposure compared with 1 day following exposure, at least 33% of the initial delivered dose was still present for both AgNPs. Regardless of particle size, silver was predominantly localized within the terminal bronchial/alveolar duct junction region of the lung associated with extracellular matrix and within epithelial cells. Inhalation of both 20 and 110 nm AgNPs resulted in a persistence of silver in the lung at 56 days post-exposure and local deposition as well as accumulation of silver at the terminal bronchiole alveolar duct junction. Further the smaller particles, 20 nm AgNP, produced a greater silver burden in BALF macrophages as well as greater persistence of silver positive macrophages at later timepoints (21 and 56 days). PMID:25577195

  11. Influence of Particle Size on Persistence and Clearance of Aerosolized Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald S.; Patchin, Esther S.; Silva, Rona M.; Uyeminami, Dale L.; Sharmah, Arjun; Guo, Ting; Das, Gautom K.; Brown, Jared M.; Shannahan, Jonathan; Gordon, Terry; Chen, Lung Chi; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products raises concerns about potential health effects. This study investigated the persistence and clearance of 2 different size AgNPs (20 and 110 nm) delivered to rats by single nose-only aerosol exposures (6 h) of 7.2 and 5.4 mg/m3, respectively. Rat lung tissue was assessed for silver accumulations using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), autometallography, and enhanced dark field microscopy. Involvement of tissue macrophages was assessed by scoring of silver staining in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Silver was abundant in most macrophages at 1 day post-exposure. The group exposed to 20 nm AgNP had the greatest number of silver positive BALF macrophages at 56 days post-exposure. While there was a significant decrease in the amount of silver in lung tissue at 56 days post-exposure compared with 1 day following exposure, at least 33% of the initial delivered dose was still present for both AgNPs. Regardless of particle size, silver was predominantly localized within the terminal bronchial/alveolar duct junction region of the lung associated with extracellular matrix and within epithelial cells. Inhalation of both 20 and 110 nm AgNPs resulted in a persistence of silver in the lung at 56 days post-exposure and local deposition as well as accumulation of silver at the terminal bronchiole alveolar duct junction. Further the smaller particles, 20 nm AgNP, produced a greater silver burden in BALF macrophages as well as greater persistence of silver positive macrophages at later timepoints (21 and 56 days). PMID:25577195

  12. Lung clearance and retention of toner, utilizing a tracer technique, during chronic inhalation exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, B; Muhle, H; Creutzenberg, O; Dasenbrock, C; Kilpper, R; MacKenzie, J C; Morrow, P; Mermelstein, R

    1991-08-01

    Male and female F-344 rats were exposed to 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months to a special test toner at 0, 1, 4, and 16 mg/m3, TiO2 at 5 mg/m3, or SiO2 at 1 mg/m3 by the inhalation route. 59Fe-labeled iron oxide and 85Sr-labeled polystyrene particles were periodically inhaled by the nose-only route and used to measure alveolar clearance rates during the course of the study. This method was used to describe a maximum functionally tolerated dose (MFTD). Pulmonary retention of toner and control materials (TiO2 and SiO2) was measured after 3, 9, 15, 21, and 24 months of exposure. The quantity of all three materials retained in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes increased with exposure duration and level. The final pulmonary burdens of toner at the three exposure levels were 0.22, 1.73, and 15.6 mg/lung, respectively. Alveolar clearance of both tracers was substantially impaired at the toner high-exposure level, and moderately slowed at the toner middle-exposure level. The excessive quantity of toner retained and the substantially retarded clearance in the toner high-exposure group are indicative of "lung overloading." Alveolar clearance of 85Sr-polystyrene particles was slightly slowed in the TiO2-exposed group and substantially impaired in the SiO2-exposed group. The alveolar clearance of the unexposed rats decreased about 30% during the study, a change ascribed to aging. For a general description of the toxicokinetics of the various dusts, a semiempirical kinetic model was developed, which could generally be useful for the extrapolation of lung retention of insoluble particles from a subchronic to a chronic inhalation study. Both the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the MFTD were exceeded at the toner high-exposure level during the study in rats.

  13. Effect of remote ischemic postconditioning in inflammatory changes of the lung parenchyma of rats submitted to ischemia and reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Dorsa, Rafael Cantero; Pontes, José Carlos Dorsa Vieira; Antoniolli, Andréia Conceição Brochado; da Silva, Guilherme Viotto Rodrigues; Benfatti, Ricardo Adala; dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Marques; Pontes, Elenir Rose Cury; Goldiano, José Anderson Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of postconditioning remote in ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat lungs. Methods Wistar rats (n=24) divided into 3 groups: GA (I/R) n=8, GB (R-Po) n=8, CG (control) n=8, underwent ischemia for 30 minutes artery occlusion abdominal aorta, followed by reperfusion for 60 minutes. Resected lungs and performed histological analysis and classification of morphological findings in accordance with the degree of tissue injury. Statistical analysis of the mean rating of the degree of tissue injury. Results GA (3.6), GB (1.3) and CG (1.0). (GA GB X P<0.05). Conclusion The remote postconditioning was able to minimize the inflammatory lesion of the lung parenchyma of rats undergoing ischemia and reperfusion process. PMID:26313726

  14. Gene Expression Profiling of Lung Tissue of Rats Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Ploutz-Snyder Robert; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zalesak, Selina M.; Scully, Robert R.; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in the lung tissue of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. Multiple pathways and transcription factors were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool, showing the potential networks of these signaling regulations involved in lunar dust-induced prolonged proflammatory response and toxicity. The data presented in this study, for the first time, explores the molecular mechanisms of lunar dust induced toxicity. This work contributes not only to the risk assessment for future space exploration, but also to the understanding of the dust-induced toxicity to humans on earth.

  15. Blocking Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose-mediated Calcium Overload Attenuates Sepsis-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qian-Yi; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Li-Na; Ai, Mei-Lin; Liu, Wei; Ai, Yu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of sepsis that is associated with high mortality. Intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced ALI, and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38)/cADPR pathway has been found to play roles in multiple inflammatory processes but its role in sepsis-induced ALI is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether the CD38/cADPR signaling pathway is activated in sepsis-induced ALI and whether blocking cADPR-mediated calcium overload attenuates ALI. Methods: Septic rat models were established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were divided into the sham group, the CLP group, and the CLP+ 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (8-Br-cADPR) group. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), cADPR, CD38, and intracellular Ca2+ levels in the lung tissues were measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after CLP surgery. Lung histologic injury, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured. Results: NAD+, cADPR, CD38, and intracellular Ca2+ levels in the lungs of septic rats increased significantly at 24 h after CLP surgery. Treatment with 8-Br-cADPR, a specific inhibitor of cADPR, significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels (P = 0.007), attenuated lung histological injury (P = 0.023), reduced TNF-α and MDA levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and recovered SOD activity (P = 0.031) in the lungs of septic rats. Conclusions: The CD38/cADPR pathway is activated in the lungs of septic rats, and blocking cADPR-mediated calcium overload with 8-Br-cADPR protects against sepsis-induced ALI. PMID:27411462

  16. Anti-Tumor Action, Clinical Biochemistry Profile and Phytochemical Constituents of a Pharmacologically Active Fraction of S. crispus in NMU-Induced Rat Mammary Tumour Model

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Yankuzo, Hassan Muhammad; Devaraj, Sutha; Wong, Jimmy Ka Ming; Lai, Choon-Sheen

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients seek alternative remedies such as traditional medicinal plants for safe and effective treatment and help overcome the side effects of conventional therapy. Current knowledge indicates that extracts of Strobilanthes crispus of the Acanthaceae family exhibit potent anticancer properties in vitro and are non-toxic in vivo. S. crispus was also reported to be protective against chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. We previously showed that a bioactive fraction of S. crispus leaves also synergized with tamoxifen to cause apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines without damaging non-malignant epithelial cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effect of S. crispus dichloromethane fraction (F3) using N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea (NMU)-induced rat mammary tumor model. Tumor regression was observed in 75% of the rats following 8-week oral administration of F3 with no secondary tumour formation and no signs of anemia or infection. However, no improvement in the liver and renal function profiles was observed. Major constituents of F3 were identified as lutein, 131-hydroxy-132-oxo-pheophytin a, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, pheophytin a and 132-hydroxy-pheophytin a. These compounds however, may not significantly contribute to the antitumor effect of F3. PMID:26000968

  17. The Impact of Heart Irradiation on Dose-Volume Effects in the Rat Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Luijk, Peter van Faber, Hette; Meertens, Harm; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Robert P. Ph.D.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that heart irradiation increases the risk of a symptomatic radiation-induced loss of lung function (SRILF) and that this can be well-described as a modulation of the functional reserve of the lung. Methods and Materials: Rats were irradiated with 150-MeV protons. Dose-response curves were obtained for a significant increase in breathing frequency after irradiation of 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the total lung volume, either including or excluding the heart from the irradiation field. A significant increase in the mean respiratory rate after 6-12 weeks compared with 0-4 weeks was defined as SRILF, based on biweekly measurements of the respiratory rate. The critical volume (CV) model was used to describe the risk of SRILF. Fits were done using a maximum likelihood method. Consistency between model and data was tested using a previously developed goodness-of-fit test. Results: The CV model could be fitted consistently to the data for lung irradiation only. However, this fitted model failed to predict the data that also included heart irradiation. Even refitting the model to all data resulted in a significant difference between model and data. These results imply that, although the CV model describes the risk of SRILF when the heart is spared, the model needs to be modified to account for the impact of dose to the heart on the risk of SRILF. Finally, a modified CV model is described that is consistent to all data. Conclusions: The detrimental effect of dose to the heart on the incidence of SRILF can be described by a dose dependent decrease in functional reserve of the lung.

  18. Expression of retinoic acid receptor genes in fetal and newborn rat lung.

    PubMed

    Grummer, M A; Thet, L A; Zachman, R D

    1994-04-01

    Lung differentiation and development are affected by vitamin A and its metabolites. One mechanism through which retinoids might exert their effects is through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR). The gene expression profile of the RAR family (alpha, beta, gamma) has previously been determined in both the developing mouse embryo to 14.5 days gestation, and in the adult lung. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of the RAR genes during the period of gestation that results in the formation of the saccular lung stage. Total RNA was extracted from fetal lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats at gestational days 17, 19, 20, 21, and 22, and from 12-hour-old newborns for Northern hybridization. Two transcripts of RAR alpha mRNA (3.7 and 2.7 kb) were found at each time point. At day 17, the 2.7 kb RAR alpha mRNA was increased two-fold or more than at any other time studied. At days 19-22 the levels of the 3.7 kb RAR alpha species were also lower than day 17 and newborn levels. One RAR beta mRNA transcript (3.4 kb), present at all time points, was significantly higher in the newborn than on days 17-22. Expression of RAR gamma mRNA could only be demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We speculate that the higher RAR alpha species at day 17 indicates a role for RAR alpha in the maintenance of the columnar epithelial cells of the glandular phase of lung development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8208594

  19. Cadmium-enriched cigarette smoke-induced cytological and biochemical alterations in rat lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Gairola, C.G. )

    1989-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed daily for 52 wk in a nose-only exposure system to smoke from the University of Kentucky 2R1 reference cigarettes (SM) or from cigarettes made of cadmium-enriched tobacco (Cd-SM). At sacrifice, the animals were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for inflammatory cell response in the lungs, and the cells so obtained were analyzed for phagocytosis of particles (latex and IgG-coated SRBCs) and for their ability to release oxidants upon phagocytic challenge. Additionally, lung tissues were analyzed for Cd levels and lung homogenate fractions were assayed for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) as well as total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. BAL cell counts showed a significant influx of inflammatory cells into the lungs of the Cd-SM group but not the SM group. The proportion of neutrophils in the BAL cells of the Cd-Sm group was elevated to 40 {plus minus} 9%, compared with less than 2% in the SM group. Phagocytosis of both types of particles by macrophages from SM and Cd-SM groups was similar to that of the control groups, except that a greater uptake of latex particles was seen is Cd-SM macrophages. The release of oxidants (superoxides and hydrogen peroxide) by the BAL cells was severely impaired in the Cd-SM group, whereas a slight stimulation was seen in the SM gropu. Pulmonary GSH-Px activity was the same in all groups. A significant induction of the pulmonary AHH activity was observed in the SM group only. The Cd levels in the lungs were approximately 8- and 200-fold greater than controls in SM and Cd-SM groups, respectively. These observation suggest a significant influence of tabacco Cd on the toxicity of cigarette smoke.

  20. Diminution in phase 1 and phase 2 drug metabolizing enzymes of rat lung by asbestos: An in vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.G.; Ali, S.; Rahman, Q. )

    1991-11-01

    In the present paper studies are presented concerning the effect of three varieties of asbestos namely, chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite, and of titanium dioxide, an inert non-asbestos dust, on the enzymes of phase 1 and phase 2 drug metabolism in isolated rat lung microsomes and post-microsomal fraction. Since 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) is known to induce cytochromes P-450 in the IA family and their associated activity, benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase, therefore, the effect of these mineral fibers on cytochrome P-450 and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase in lung microsomes isolated from 3-MC-treated rats was studied.

  1. Proton MRI as a noninvasive tool to assess elastase-induced lung damage in spontaneously breathing rats.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Harry Karmouty; Cannet, Catherine; Zurbruegg, Stefan; Blé, François-Xavier; Fozard, John R; Page, Clive P; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2006-12-01

    Elastase-induced changes in lung morphology and function were detected in spontaneously breathing rats using conventional proton MRI at 4.7 T. A single dose of porcine pancreatic elastase (75 U/100 g body weight) or vehicle (saline) was administered intratracheally (i.t.) to male Brown Norway (BN) rats. MRI fluid signals were detected in the lungs 24 hr after administration of elastase and resolved within 2 weeks. These results correlated with perivascular edema and cellular infiltration observed histologically. Reductions in MRI signal intensity of the lung parenchyma, and increases in lung volume were detected as early as 2 weeks following elastase administration and remained uniform throughout the study, which lasted 8 weeks. Observations were consistent with air trapping resulting from emphysema detected histologically. In a separate experiment, animals were treated daily intraperitoneally (i.p.) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA; 500 microg/kg body weight) or its vehicle (triglyceride oil) starting on day 21 after elastase administration and continuing for 12 days. Under these conditions, ATRA did not elicit a reversal of elastase-induced lung damage as measured by MRI and histology. The present approach complements other validated applications of proton MRI in experimental lung research as a method for assessing drugs in rat models of respiratory diseases. PMID:17029230

  2. Benefits of pre-, pro- and Syn-biotics for lung angiogenesis in malnutritional rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Asma; Cai, Charles L; Kumar, Dharmendra; Cai, Fayme; D’Souza, Antoni; Fordjour, Lawrence; Ahmad, Taimur; Valencia, Gloria B; Aranda, Jacob V; Beharry, Kay D

    2014-01-01

    Extremely low birth weight and reduced caloric intake have significant adverse effects on lung development and are risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly involved in lung microvascular development, and may be affected by nutritional status. To test the hypothesis that suboptimal nutrition decreases VEGF signaling in formula-fed neonatal rats, and to determine whether supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics ameliorate the effects, rat pups at birth (P0) were placed in room air (RA) or intermittent hypoxia (12%) during hyperoxia (50% O2) from birth to P3. The pups were either maternally-fed; or formula-fed with or without supplementation. Formula-fed pups were separated from their mothers at birth and hand-gavaged every 3 hours. Lung VEGF signaling was determined on P3. In RA, all formula-fed groups were significantly growth suppressed with decreased lung weights. Hyperoxia had a less remarkable effect on body weight; and mean lung weight was lower only in the unsupplemented formula-fed group. Lung VEGF was decreased in all formula-fed RA and hyperoxia groups, except the probiotics group. In RA, sVEGFR-1 levels were elevated in all formula-fed groups except the synbiotics group. However in hyperoxia, sVEGFR-1 levels were higher in the unsupplemented formula group. All genes involved in angiogenesis were downregulated in the formula-fed groups compared to maternally-fed. Formula feeding results in significant malnutrition associated with decreased lung size and lung VEGF levels in neonatal rat pups. Probiotic supplementation prevented the adverse effects of combined hyperoxia and suboptimal nutrition on lung VEGF suggesting preservation of angiogenesis. PMID:25360212

  3. Inflation with carbon monoxide in rat donor lung during cold ischemia phase ameliorates graft injury

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Chao; Ma, Liangjuan; Liu, Jinfeng; Cui, Xiaoguang; Liu, Rongfang; Xing, Jingchun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) attenuates lung ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) via inhalation, and as an additive dissolved in flush/preservation solution. This study observed the effects of lung inflation with CO on lung graft function in the setting of cold ischemia. Donor lungs were inflated with 40% oxygen + 60% nitrogen (control group) or with 500 ppm CO + 40% oxygen + nitrogen (CO group) during the cold ischemia phase and were kept at 4℃ for 180 min. Recipients were sacrificed by exsanguinations at 180 min after reperfusion. Rats in the sham group had no transplantation and were performed as the recipients. Compared with the sham group, the oxygenation determined by blood gas analysis and the pressure–volume curves of the lung grafts decreased significantly, while the wet weight/dry weight (W/D) ratio, inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis increased markedly (P < 0.05). However, compared to the control group, CO treatment improved the oxygenation (381 ± 58 vs. 308 ± 78 mm Hg) and the pressure–volume curves (15.8 ± 2.4 vs. 11.6 ± 1.7 mL/kg) (P < 0.05). The W/D ratio (4.6 ± 0.6) and the serum levels of interleukin-8 (279 ± 46 pg/mL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (377 ± 59 pg/mL) in the CO group decreased significantly compared to the control group (5.8 ± 0.8, 456 ± 63 pg/mL, and 520 ± 91 pg/mL) (P < 0.05). In addition, CO inflation also significantly decreased malondialdehyde activity and apoptotic cells in grafts, and increased the superoxide dismutase content. Briefly, CO inflation in donor lungs in the setting of cold ischemia attenuated lung IRI and improved the graft function compared with oxygen. PMID:26290141

  4. Inflation with carbon monoxide in rat donor lung during cold ischemia phase ameliorates graft injury.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chao; Ma, Liangjuan; Liu, Jinfeng; Cui, Xiaoguang; Liu, Rongfang; Xing, Jingchun; Zhou, Huacheng

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) attenuates lung ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) via inhalation, and as an additive dissolved in flush/preservation solution. This study observed the effects of lung inflation with CO on lung graft function in the setting of cold ischemia. Donor lungs were inflated with 40% oxygen + 60% nitrogen (control group) or with 500 ppm CO + 40% oxygen + nitrogen (CO group) during the cold ischemia phase and were kept at 4℃ for 180 min. Recipients were sacrificed by exsanguinations at 180 min after reperfusion. Rats in the sham group had no transplantation and were performed as the recipients. Compared with the sham group, the oxygenation determined by blood gas analysis and the pressure-volume curves of the lung grafts decreased significantly, while the wet weight/dry weight (W/D) ratio, inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis increased markedly (P < 0.05). However, compared to the control group, CO treatment improved the oxygenation (381 ± 58 vs. 308 ± 78 mm Hg) and the pressure-volume curves (15.8 ± 2.4 vs. 11.6 ± 1.7 mL/kg) (P < 0.05). The W/D ratio (4.6 ± 0.6) and the serum levels of interleukin-8 (279 ± 46 pg/mL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (377 ± 59 pg/mL) in the CO group decreased significantly compared to the control group (5.8 ± 0.8, 456 ± 63 pg/mL, and 520 ± 91 pg/mL) (P < 0.05). In addition, CO inflation also significantly decreased malondialdehyde activity and apoptotic cells in grafts, and increased the superoxide dismutase content. Briefly, CO inflation in donor lungs in the setting of cold ischemia attenuated lung IRI and improved the graft function compared with oxygen.

  5. Oxygen toxicity in the perfused rat liver and lung under hyperbaric conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Nishiki, K; Jamieson, D; Oshino, N; Chance, B

    1976-01-01

    1. In the lung and liver of tocopherol-deficient rats, the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased substantially, suggesting an important role for both enzymes in protecting the organ against the deleterious effects of lipid peroxides. 2. Facilitation of the glutathione peroxidase reaction by infusing t-butyl hydroperoxide caused the oxidation of nicotinamide nucleotides and glutathione, resulting in a concomitant increase in the rate of release of oxidized glutathione into the perfusate. Thus the rate of production of lipid peroxide and H2O2 in the perfused organ could be compared by simultaneous measurement of the rate of glutathione release and the turnover number of the catalase reaction. 3. On hyperbaric oxygenation at 4 X 10(5)Pa, H2O2 production, estimated from the turnover of the catalase reaction, was increased slightly in the liver, and glutathione release was increased slightly, in both lung and liver. 4. Tocopherol deficiency caused a marked increase in lipid-peroxide formation as indicated by a corresponding increase in glutathione release under hyperbaric oxygenation, with a further enhancement when the tocopherol-deficient rats were also starved. 5. The study demonstrates that the primary response to hyperbaric oxygenation is an elevation of the rate of lipid peroxidation rather than of the rate of formation of H2O2 or superoxide. PMID:12754

  6. Short treatment with the tumour necrosis factor-α blocker infliximab diminishes chronic chagasic myocarditis in rats without evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, A R; Fontanella, G H; Nocito, A L; Revelli, S; Bottasso, O A

    2009-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is crucial for resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection, but there is scant information on its role during the chronic phase. To address this issue, we analysed whether a short treatment with a TNF-α blocker affected the course and characteristics of chronic disease in a rat experimental model of T. cruzi infection. An anti-TNF-α agent (infliximab) was administered during the chronic phase for a period of 4 weeks (3 mg/kg/week), while control infected rats were inoculated with saline physiological solution. Search for parasites yielded non-successful results in all infected groups, irrespective of treatment. Nevertheless, the presence of T. cruzi kDNA in heart tissue was detected in infected and infected plus treated animals. Because infliximab might induce changes in the anti-parasite cytokine response, circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-gamma and nitric oxide were evaluated. An increase in IL-10 levels was observed only in the infected group treated with the anti-TNF-α blocker compared to the remaining groups (P < 0·05). A clear attenuation of histological damage associated with a diminution of cardiac TNF-α mRNA expression was observed in the infected and treated animals compared to the infected and non-treated group. Blocking of TNF-α during a relatively short period in chronically infected rats did not lead to evident parasite reactivation but reduced myocarditis severity significantly, indicating a role of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of chronic myocardial damage. PMID:19604269

  7. Frequent aberrant methylation of p16{sup INK4a} in primary rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Swafford, D.S.; Middleton, S.K.; Palmisano, W.A.

    1997-03-01

    The p16{sup INK4a} (p16) tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated by homozygous deletion or methylation of the 5{prime} CpG island in cell lines derived from human non-small-cell lung cancers. However, the frequency of dysfunction in primary tumors appears to be significantly lower than that in cell lines. This discordance could result from the occurrence or selection of p16 dysfunction during cell culture. Alternatively, techniques commonly used to examine tumors for genetic and epigenetic alterations may not be sensitive enough to detect all dysfunctions within the heterogeneous cell population present in primary tumors. If p16 inactivation plays a central role in development of non-small-cell lung cancer, then the frequency of gene inactivation in primary tumors should parallel that observed in cell lines. A further goal was to determine whether the aberrant p16 gene methylation seen in human tumors is a conserved event in this animal model. The rat p16 gene was cloned and sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence of its product found to be 62% homologous to the amino acid sequence of the human analog. Homozygous deletion accounted for loss of p16 expression in 8 of 20 cell lines, while methylation of the CpG island extending throughout exon 1 was observed in 9 of 20 cell lines. The methylated phenotype seen in cell lines showed an absolute correlation with detection of methylation in primary tumors. Aberrant methylation was also detected in four of eight primary tumors in which the derived cell line contained a deletion in p16. These results substantiate the primary tumor as the origin for dysfunction of the p16 gene and implicate CpG island methylation as the major mechanism for inactivating this gene in the rat lung tumors examined. Furthermore, rat lung cancer appears to be an excellent model in which to investigate the mechanisms of gene methylation and the role of p16 dysfunction in the progression of neoplasia. 48 refs., 8 figs. 2 tabs.

  8. Preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on the liver in a rat model of acid-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sen, Velat; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Ece, Aydın; Uluca, Unal; Söker, Sevda; Doğan, Erdal; Kaplan, İbrahim; Deveci, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300-350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS) was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV) in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI) was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant activity (TOA), oxidative stress index (OSI), and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P < 0.05). The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI. PMID:25165710

  9. Elastolytic activity in the lungs of rats exposed to cadmium aerosolization

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, R.V.; Gudapaty, S.R.; Liener, I.E.; Hoidal, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    Rats were exposed for 1 hr per day for up to 35 days to an aerosol of 0.1% cadmium chloride. At periodic intervals, animals were sacrificed and their lungs lavaged. The lung lavage fluid was examined for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and alveolar macrophages (AM). A portion of the cells of the lavage fluid was lysed, and the remainder of the cells were cultured. The lavage fluids, cell lysates, and conditioned media were assayed for elastolytic activity in the presence and absence of a peptide chloromethyl ketone and EDTA. Exposure to cadmium evoked a biphasic cellular response characterized by an initial influx (1-3 days) of PMN followed by a gradual increase in AM. This biphasic cellular response was accompanied by a shift in the type of elastolytic activity which was present in the lung lavage and its cellular components. The initial PMN phase was accompanied by the enhanced production of an elastase inhibited only by the peptide chloromethyl ketone, while the subsequent AM phase was associated with an elastase activity which was inhibited only by EDTA. The possible implication of these results with respect to the pathogenesis of emphysema is considered.

  10. Involvement of oncogenes in radon-induced lung tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, M.E.; McCoy, L.S.; Frazier, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    Several oncogenes, notably those of the ras and myc family, have been implicated in the induction of lung tumors. Although inhalation of radon and radon daughters has been shown to result in a high incidence of lung tumors, the role of oncogenes in these tumors (if any) remains unknown. In certain cases of chemically induced carcinogenesis, unique point mutations in the 12th, 59th, and 61st codons of H-ras and Ki-ras have been found to transform ras proto-oncogenes to dominant-acting oncogenes. We have isolated DNA from fixed, archived, radon-induced tumors in rats, amplified the oncogene of interest by polymerase chain reaction, and analyzed it by sequencing. Although we have not found any of the classically described point mutations in the H-ras gene, preliminary evidence indicates that several common mutations occur with high frequency in the second exon. These point mutations have not been seen in any {open_quotes}spontaneously{close_quotes} occurring tumors. At present we theorize that these mutations represent one of the secondary effects of a multi-step process in the development of these lung tumors. As this project expands, we are making a systematic effort to correlate the molecular data with the pathological data derived from the original studies of these archived tumors.

  11. Gene alterations in radiation-induced F344 rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, G.; Hahn, F.F.

    1994-11-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is frequently altered in all major histopathologic types of human lung tumors. Reported p53 mutations include base substitutions, allelic loss, rearrangements, and deletions. Point mutations resulting in base substitutions are clustered within a highly conserved region of the gene encoding exons 508, and mutations in this region substantially extend the half-life of the p53 protein. In addition to its prominent importance in lung carcinogenesis, the p53 gene plays a critical role in the cellular response to genetic damage caused by radiation. Specifically, the protein product of p53 induces a pause or block at the G{sub 1} to S boundary of the cell cycle following radiation-caused DNA damage. This G{sub 1} block may allow the cell time to repair the damaged DNA prior to replication. Cells lacking a functional p53 protein fail to pause for repair and consequently accumulate mutations in the genome at an accelerated rate. p53 has also been implicated as a controlling factor in apoptosis or in programmed cell death induced by DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation. The p53 gene is mutated in approximately 50% of squamous cell carcinomas from uranium miners who inhaled high doses of radon daughters. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a similar percentage of squamous cell carcinomas with p53 mutations developed in the lungs of rats exposed to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}.

  12. RNA interference for CFTR attenuates lung fluid absorption at birth in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianbo; Koshy, Shyny; Folkesson, Hans G

    2008-01-01

    Background Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against αENaC (α-subunit of the epithelial Na channel) and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) was used to explore ENaC and CTFR function in newborn rat lungs. Methods Twenty-four hours after trans-thoracic intrapulmonary (ttip) injection of siRNA-generating plasmid DNA (pSi-0, pSi-4, or pSi-C2), we measured CFTR and ENaC expression, extravascular lung water, and mortality. Results αENaC and CFTR mRNA and protein decreased by ~80% and ~85%, respectively, following αENaC and CFTR silencing. Extravascular lung water and mortality increased after αENaC and CFTR-silencing. In pSi-C2-transfected isolated DLE cells there were attenuated CFTR mRNA and protein. In pSi-4-transfected DLE cells αENaC mRNA and protein were both reduced. Interestingly, CFTR-silencing also reduced αENaC mRNA and protein. αENaC silencing, on the other hand, only slightly reduced CFTR mRNA and protein. Conclusion Thus, ENaC and CFTR are both involved in the fluid secretion to absorption conversion around at birth. PMID:18652671

  13. Characteristic subcellular distribution, in brain, heart and lung, of biperiden, trihexyphenidyl, and (-)-quinuclidinyl benzylate in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, J; Yokogawa, K; Nakashima, E; Ohkuma, S; Ichimura, F

    1998-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of biperiden (BP), trihexyphenidyl (TP) and (-)-quinuclidinyl benzylate (QNB) in brain, heart and lung following high dose (3.2 mg/kg) i.v. administration was investigated in rats. The subcellular distribution of BP or TP used clinically conformed with that of QNB, a typical potent central muscarinic antagonist. The concentration-time courses of the brain subcellular fractions for these drugs were of two types which decreased slowly and in parallel to the plasma concentration. The subcellular distribution in the brain and heart was dependent on the protein amount of each fraction. The percent post-nuclear fraction (P2) of the total concentration in the lung was characteristically about 3-5 times larger than that in the heart. It was elucidated that the distribution in the lung differs from that in the brain and heart, with high affinity which is not dependent on the protein amount in the P2 fraction containing lysosomes. On the other hand, at a low dose (650 ng/kg) of 3H-QNB, each fraction as a percentage of the total concentration in the brain increased in synaptic membrane and synaptic vesicles and decreased in nuclei and cytosol as compared with the high dose. These results show that although the tissue concentration-time courses of anticholinergic drugs appear to decrease simply in parallel to plasma concentration, the subcellular distribution exhibits a variety of patterns among various tissues.

  14. Effect of gestational age and retinol (vitamin A) deficiency on fetal rat lung nuclear retinoic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    McMenamy, K R; Zachman, R D

    1993-03-01

    Retinol, or one of its metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA), is an important factor in the differentiation and maintenance of integrity of lung epithelium. Retinol deficiency in rats induces morphologic changes in respiratory tract epithelial cells that are histologically similar to those found in human premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The exact mechanism of retinoid action in cellular growth and differentiation is not understood, but recently investigators have focused on mechanisms mediated by nuclear RA receptors (RAR). The role of these RAR as regulators of retinoid function is being studied in adult animal tissues and malignant cell lines, but little is known about RAR in developing fetal lung tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gestational age and vitamin A deficiency on fetal rat lung nuclear RAR. RAR were also assayed in vitamin A control and vitamin A-deficient adult rat lung. A competitive binding assay and size exclusion HPLC separation were used to quantitate total RAR-specific binding. Binding analysis revealed a single class of receptor binding sites with high affinity (kd approximately 10(-9) M) for RA and RAR saturation at 2-5 nM RA. Specific binding of lung RAR in rat fetuses at 18 d gestation was two to three times greater than in fetuses at 20-21 d gestation, newborn pups, or adults. Western blot analysis revealed a predominance of RAR-beta receptors in fetal lung. Lungs from vitamin A-deficient fetuses demonstrated up-regulation of nuclear RAR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8384711

  15. Galantamine protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Zhou, C L; Zhou, Q S; Zou, H D

    2016-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia triggers the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and can cause acute lung injury (ALI). The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein plays an important role as a late mediator of sepsis and ALI. Galantamine (GAL) is a central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that inhibits the expression of HMGB1. This study evaluated the effects of GAL by measuring levels of inflammatory mediators and observing histopathological features associated with LPS-induced ALI. Sixty 8-10 week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-240 g) were randomized into three groups as follows: control group, LPS group (7.5 mg/kg LPS), and LPS+GAL group (5 mg/kg GAL before LPS administration). Histopathological examination of lung specimens obtained 12 h after LPS administration was performed to analyze changes in wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and HMGB1 expression level. Additionally, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and HMGB1 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 0 (baseline), 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after LPS administration. Mortality in the three groups was recorded at 72 h. LPS-induced ALI was characterized by distortion of pulmonary architecture and elevation of MPO activity, W/D weight ratio, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and HMGB1. Pretreatment with GAL significantly reduced the LPS-induced lung pathological changes, W/D weight ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MPO activity (ANOVA). Moreover, GAL treatment significantly decreased the mortality rate (ANOVA). In conclusion, we demonstrated that GAL exerted a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats.

  16. Galantamine protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, G.; Zhou, CL.; Zhou, QS.; Zou, HD.

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia triggers the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and can cause acute lung injury (ALI). The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein plays an important role as a late mediator of sepsis and ALI. Galantamine (GAL) is a central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that inhibits the expression of HMGB1. This study evaluated the effects of GAL by measuring levels of inflammatory mediators and observing histopathological features associated with LPS-induced ALI. Sixty 8-10 week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-240 g) were randomized into three groups as follows: control group, LPS group (7.5 mg/kg LPS), and LPS+GAL group (5 mg/kg GAL before LPS administration). Histopathological examination of lung specimens obtained 12 h after LPS administration was performed to analyze changes in wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and HMGB1 expression level. Additionally, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and HMGB1 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 0 (baseline), 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after LPS administration. Mortality in the three groups was recorded at 72 h. LPS-induced ALI was characterized by distortion of pulmonary architecture and elevation of MPO activity, W/D weight ratio, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and HMGB1. Pretreatment with GAL significantly reduced the LPS-induced lung pathological changes, W/D weight ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MPO activity (ANOVA). Moreover, GAL treatment significantly decreased the mortality rate (ANOVA). In conclusion, we demonstrated that GAL exerted a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats. PMID:26648090

  17. Galantamine protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Zhou, C L; Zhou, Q S; Zou, H D

    2016-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia triggers the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and can cause acute lung injury (ALI). The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein plays an important role as a late mediator of sepsis and ALI. Galantamine (GAL) is a central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that inhibits the expression of HMGB1. This study evaluated the effects of GAL by measuring levels of inflammatory mediators and observing histopathological features associated with LPS-induced ALI. Sixty 8-10 week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-240 g) were randomized into three groups as follows: control group, LPS group (7.5 mg/kg LPS), and LPS+GAL group (5 mg/kg GAL before LPS administration). Histopathological examination of lung specimens obtained 12 h after LPS administration was performed to analyze changes in wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and HMGB1 expression level. Additionally, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and HMGB1 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 0 (baseline), 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after LPS administration. Mortality in the three groups was recorded at 72 h. LPS-induced ALI was characterized by distortion of pulmonary architecture and elevation of MPO activity, W/D weight ratio, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and HMGB1. Pretreatment with GAL significantly reduced the LPS-induced lung pathological changes, W/D weight ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MPO activity (ANOVA). Moreover, GAL treatment significantly decreased the mortality rate (ANOVA). In conclusion, we demonstrated that GAL exerted a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats. PMID:26648090

  18. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

    2009-10-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns.

  19. Ex vivo effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenases in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    PubMed

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; De los Santos, A R; Marti, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1999-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is an anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic drug with minor digestive side effects, which might suggest a weak COX-1 inhibitor. The aim of this study focused on ex vivo effects of LC 40 mg/kg ip and indomethacin (INDO) 10 mg/kg ip in lung and stomach preparations of control rats and LPS-treated rats (5 mg/kg ip). The non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs were administered concomitantly, following three hours and before one, two or three hours of LPS treatment. Tissues were weighed and incubated in 2 ml of Kress Ringer Bicarbonate buffer containing glucose (11 mM) under an atmosphere of 95% oxygen and 5% CO(2). Approximately 200 mg of tissue were used for each determination; 0.25 microCi of (14)C-arachidonic acid was added to each tube and the tissues were incubated for 60 min. Prostanoids were extracted from the incubation medium and separated by TLC. Results were expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity of the plates (% of cpm on plate/100 mg ww). It was found that LC animals that were not given LPS did not modify the synthesis of PGE(2); in lung and stomach tissues showing that did not inhibit COX-1 activity. However, LC inhibited clearly the synthesis of PGE(2) in both preparations obtained from LPS-treated animals. The inhibition was shown when the rats were treated concomitantly, 3 h after or 1 or 2 h before the injection of LPS. PMID:17657442

  20. Genotoxic effects of bitumen fumes in Big Blue transgenic rat lung.

    PubMed

    Bottin, Marie Claire; Gate, Laurent; Rihn, Bertrand; Micillino, Jean Claude; Nathalie, Monhoven; Martin, Aurélie; Nunge, Hervé; Morel, Georges; Wrobel, Richard; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie; Champmartin, Catherine; Keith, Gérard; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-04-11

    Road paving workers are exposed to bitumen fumes (CAS No. 8052-42-4), a complex mixture of volatile compounds and particles containing carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, epidemiological and experimental animal studies failed to draw unambiguous conclusions concerning their toxicity. In order to gain better insights on their genotoxic potential, we used an experimental design able to generate bitumen fumes at road paving temperature (temperature: 170 degrees C, total particulate matter: 100mg/m3) and perform a nose-only exposure of Big Blue transgenic rodents 6h/day for five consecutive days. The mutagenic properties of bitumen fumes were determined by analyzing the mutation frequency and spectrum of the neutral reporter gene cII inserted into the rodent genome. We previously observed in mouse lung, that bitumen fumes did not induce an increase of cII mutants, a modification of the mutation spectrum, nor the formation of DNA adducts. Since DNA adducts were found in the lungs of rats exposed to asphalt fumes in similar conditions, we decided to carry out an analogous experiment with Big Blue rats. A DNA adduct was detected 3 and 30 days after the end of treatment suggesting that these genetic alterations were quite steady. Thirty days after exposure, the cII mutant frequency was similar in control and exposed rats. In addition, a slight but not significant modification of the mutation spectrum associated with an increase of G:C to T:A and A:T to C:G transversions was noticeable in the treated animals. Then, these data failed to demonstrate a pulmonary mutagenic potential for bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature in our experimental conditions despite the presence of a DNA adduct. These results may provide information concerning the pulmonary mechanism of action of this aerosol and may contribute to the occupational health hazard assessment.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Lung Tissue in a Rat Acute Lung Injury Model: Identification of PRDX1 as a Promoter of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongdong; Mao, Pu; Huang, Yongbo; Liu, Yiting; Liu, Xiaoqing; Pang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a high morbidity and mortality disease entity in critically ill patients, despite decades of numerous investigations into its pathogenesis. To obtain global protein expression changes in acute lung injury (ALI) lung tissues, we employed a high-throughput proteomics method to identify key components which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we analyzed lung tissue proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ALI rats and identified eighteen proteins whose expression levels changed more than twofold as compared to normal controls. In particular, we found that PRDX1 expression in culture medium was elevated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of PRDX1 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas knockdown of PRDX1 led to downregulated expression of cytokines induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings provide a global alteration in the proteome of lung tissues in the ALI rat model and indicate that PRDX1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ARDS by promoting inflammation and represent a novel strategy for the development of new therapies against ALI. PMID:25024510

  2. DNA damage in lung after oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles in Big Blue rats.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne K; Farombi, E Olatunde; Møller, Peter; Autrup, Herman N; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Dragsted, Lars O; Loft, Steffen; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2004-06-01

    Several chemical mutagens and carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs, are adsorbed to the surface of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). DEP can induce formation of reactive oxygen species and cause oxidative DNA damage as well as bulky carcinogen DNA adducts. Lung tissue is a target organ for DEP induced cancer following inhalation. Recent studies have provided evidence that the lung is also a target organ for DNA damage and cancer after oral exposure to other complex mixtures of PAHs. The genotoxic effect of oral administration of DEP was investigated, in terms of markers of DNA damage, mutations and repair, in the lung of Big Blue rats fed a diet with 0, 0.2, 0.8, 2, 8, 20 or 80 mg DEP/kg feed for 21 days. There was no significant increase in the mutation frequency in the cII gene. However, an increase of DNA damage measured as DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and bulky DNA adducts (32P post labeling) was observed. The level of DNA strand breaks increased significantly at all dose levels while the level of DNA adducts increased significantly only at the intermediate dose levels. Similarly, the number of oxidized DNA bases measured as endonuclease III and fapyguanine glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites increased at the intermediate dose levels. The induction of DNA damage by DEP exposure did not increase the expression of the repair genes OGG1 and ERCC1 at the mRNA level. The present study indicates that the lung is a target organ for primary DNA damage following oral exposure to DEP. DNA damage was induced following exposure to relatively low levels of DEP, but under the conditions used in the present experiment DNA damage did not result in an increased mutation rate. PMID:15135646

  3. Investigation on the durability of man-made vitreous fibers in rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Bellmann, B; Muhle, H; Kamstrup, O; Draeger, U F

    1994-01-01

    Two types of sized stonewool with median lengths of 6.7 and 10.1 microns and median diameters of 0.63 and 0.85 microns, and crocidolite with fibers of median length of 4.8 microns and median diameter of 0.18 microns were instilled intratracheally into female Wistar rats. A single dose of 2 mg in 0.3 ml saline was used for the stonewool samples and 0.1 mg in 0.3 ml saline for crocidolite. The evenness of distribution of fibers in the lung was checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Five animals per group were sacrificed after 2 days, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. After low-temperature ashing of the lungs about 200 fibers per animal were analyzed by SEM for length and diameter. The number and mass of fibers in the total lung were calculated. For the stonewool samples the decrease in the number of fibers in the lung ash followed approximately first order kinetics resulting in half-times of 90 and 120 days. The analysis of fiber number and diameter of different length fractions was used to estimate the contribution of three processes of fiber elimination: transport by macrophages for short fibers, breakage of fibers, and dissolution of fibers. (The process of transport by macrophages was found fastest for fibers with length < 2.5 microns). For the elimination of critical fibers with length > 5 microns, the breakage and dissolution were the most important processes. The breakage of fibers was predominant for one of the stonewool samples. The preferential type of the mechanism of fiber elimination is dependent on chemical composition and size distribution. PMID:7882927

  4. Inhaled nitric oxide: Dose response and the effects of blood in the isolated rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, G.F.; Roos, C.M.; Anderson, S.M.; Urich, D.C.; Daugherty, M.O.; Johns, R.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator selective to the pulmonary circulation. Using isolated rat lungs, the authors determined the dose-response relationship of NO and the role of blood in mediating pulmonary vasodilation and selectivity. Inhaled 20, 50, 100, and 1,000 ppm NO attenuated (P < 0.001) hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction by 16.1 [+-] 4.9, 22.6 [+-] 6.8, 28.4 [+-] 3.5, and 69.3 [+-] 4.2%, respectively. Inhaled 13, 34, 67, and 670 ppm NO attenuated the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure secondary to angiotensin II more (P < 0.001) in Greenberg-Bohr buffer- (GB) than in blood-perfused lungs (51.7 [+-] 0.0, 71.9 [+-] 8.9, 78.2 [+-] 5.3, and 91.9 [+-] 2.1% vs. 14.3 [+-] 4.2, 23.8 [+-] 4.6, 28.4 [+-] 3.8, and 55.5 [+-] 5.9%, respectively). Samples from GB- but not blood-perfused lungs contained NO (93.0 [+-] 26.3 nM). Intravascular NO attenuated the response to angiotensin II more (P < 0.001) in GB- (with and without plasma) than in blood- (hematocrit = 41 and 5%) perfused lungs (75.6 [+-] 6.4 and 70.9 [+-] 4.8% vs. 22.2 [+-] 2.4 and 39.4 [+-] 7.6%). In conclusion, inhaled NO produces reversible dose-dependent pulmonary vasodilation over a large range of concentrations. Inhaled NO enters the circulation, but red blood cells prevent systematic vasodilation and also a significant amount of pulmonary vasodilation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The effect of intravenous Corynebacterium parvum on gut associated mononuclear phagocytes in normal and tumour bearing rats.

    PubMed Central

    Souter, R G; Steer, H W

    1982-01-01

    Corynebacterium Parvum, which has been used in the treatment of human colorectal cancer, probably exerts its action through cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). In this study the effect of systemically administered C. parvum has been measured on gut associated MPS cells in normal and colorectal cancer bearing rats. MPS cells are not normally found in samples of lymph obtained after cannulation of the thoracic duct (TDC). However, after total extirpation of the mesenteric lymph nodes, TDC yields samples in which up to 5% of the total cell population appear to be MPS cells. This procedure has been carried out in adult Wistar rats enabling an in vivo study to be made on the effect of C. parvum treatment on the effluent gut cells. Measurements have been made both of the number of cells found in thoracic duct lymph and of their capacity to phagocytose sensitized sheep red blood cells. These measurements were repeated in a mesenteric lymphadenectomized group of rats which had also undergone induction of colonic cancer using dimethylhydrazine. C. parvum treatment did not effect total cell, or phagocyte numbers in thoracic duct lymph (TDL). However rats with colonic cancers showed a marked reduction in the numbers of phagocytic cells in TDL irrespective of C. parvum treatment. PMID:7165995

  6. Comparison of primary lung tumor incidences in the rat evaluated by the standard microscopy method and by multiple step sections.

    PubMed

    Kolling, Angelika; Ernst, Heinrich; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Heinrich, Uwe; Pott, Friedrich

    2008-08-01

    The data presented in this paper have been derived from a carcinogenicity experiment with rats as part of a comprehensive research project focused on experimental studies on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of intratracheally instilled granular dusts [Ernst H, Rittinghausen S, Bartsch W, Creutzenberg O, Dasenbrock C, Görlitz B-D et al. Pulmonary inflammation in rats after intratracheal instillation of quartz, amorphous SiO(2), carbon black, and coal dust and the influence of poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO). Exp Toxicol Pathol 2002; 54: 109-26; Ernst H, Kolling A, Bellmann B, Rittinghausen S, Heinrich U, Pott F. Pathogenetische und immunbiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage: Ist die Extrapolation der Staubkanzerogenität von der Ratte auf den Menschen gerechtfertigt? Teil II: Histologie. Abschlussbericht. Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit. November 2005. http://www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3033.pdf]. The results of the standard approach to histological sampling in rodent carcinogenicity inhalation studies were compared to those obtained after supplemental evaluation of step sections at intervals of 250microm through the entire lung. Seven lung tissue specimens (six sections) each of 251 rats (55 rats of the control group, 53 rats of the group treated with quartz DQ 12, 56 rats of the group treated with quartz DQ 12 and PVNO (poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide), 53 rats of the group treated with amorphous SiO(2), and 17 rats each of the groups treated with coal dust and carbon black) were evaluated by light microscopy. At least 60 hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections per lung were evaluated of 99 female rats (30 rats of the control group, 7 rats each of the groups treated with quartz, quartz and PVNO, and carbon black, 31 rats of the group treated with amorphous SiO(2), and 17 rats treated with coal dust). For the neoplastic and pre-neoplastic lesions detected in the serial slides an

  7. Antenatal endotoxin disrupts lung vitamin D receptor and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase expression in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Erica; Seedorf, Gregory J; Ryan, Sharon; Gien, Jason; Cramer, Scott D; Abman, Steven H

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D [vit D; 1,25-(OH)2D] treatment improves survival and lung alveolar and vascular growth in an experimental model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) after antenatal exposure to endotoxin (ETX). However, little is known about lung-specific 1,25-(OH)2D3 regulation during development, especially regarding maturational changes in lung-specific expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase), and CYP24A1 during late gestation and the effects of antenatal ETX exposure on 1,25-(OH)2D3 metabolism in the lung. We hypothesized that vit D regulatory proteins undergo maturation regulation in the late fetal and early neonatal lung and that prenatal exposure to ETX impairs lung growth partly through abnormal endogenous vit D metabolism. Normal fetal rat lungs were harvested between embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 14. Lung homogenates were assayed for VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP24A1 protein contents by Western blot analysis. Fetal rats were injected on embryonic day 20 with intra-amniotic ETX, ETX + 1,25-(OH)2D3, or saline and delivered 2 days later. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from fetal sheep were assessed for VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP24A1 expression after treatment with 25-(OH)D3, 1,25-(OH)2D3, ETX, ETX + 25-(OH)D3, or ETX + 1,25-(OH)2D3. We found that lung VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP2741 protein expression dramatically increase immediately before birth (P < 0.01 vs. early fetal values). Antenatal ETX increases CYP24A1 expression (P < 0.05) and decreases VDR and 1α-OHase expression at birth (P < 0.001), but these changes are prevented with concurrent vit D treatment (P < 0.001). ETX-induced reduction of fetal PAEC growth and tube formation and lung 1α-OHase expression are prevented by vit D treatment (P < 0.001). We conclude that lung VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP24A1 protein content markedly increase before birth and that antenatal ETX disrupts lung vit D metabolism through downregulation of VDR and increased vit D catabolic enzyme

  8. Effect of ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl ethyl ketone on butanol oxidase activity in rat lung and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Tha ability of the rat liver to oxidize 2-butanol via a cytochrome P-450-mediated mixed-function oxidase reaction is well known. The purpose of this study was to examine this microsomal alcohol oxidizing system in rat lung and determine if it could be altered by treatments that inhibit or induce this activity. 2-Butanol was incubated with microsomal preparations from male rats, and methyl ethyl ketone production was measured by gas chromatography. The rate was six to eight times lower in lung than in liver. Administration of low doses of ethanol (0.5 ml/kg and 1.0 ml/kg) ip for 7 d did not alter activity in the liver but was inhibitory in the lung, as was a high dose of 3.0 ml/kg in the liver. Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 ml/kg, ip) decreased activity in both tissues, especially the lung. The effects of the two inhibitors were not additive. Methyl ethyl ketone induced 2-butanol oxidation in both tissues. The lung possesses butanol oxidase activity that is alterable by both inhibitors and inducers.

  9. Detecting Radiation-Induced Injury Using Rapid 3D Variogram Analysis of CT Images of Rat Lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Murphy, Mark K.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Carson, James P.

    2013-10-01

    A new heterogeneity analysis approach to discern radiation-induced lung damage was tested on CT images of irradiated rats. The method, combining octree decomposition with variogram analysis, demonstrated a significant correlation with radiation exposure levels, whereas conventional measurements and pulmonary function tests did not. The results suggest the new approach may be highly sensitive for assessing even subtle radiation-induced changes

  10. DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT THE SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    M. C. Schladweiler, BS 1, P. S. Gilmour, PhD 2, D. L. Andrews, BS 1, D. L. Costa, ScD 1, A. D. Ledbetter, BS 1, K. E. Pinkerton, PhD 3 and U. P. Kodavanti, ...

  11. FORMATION OF 8-OXO-7, 8-DIHYDRO-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE IN RAT LUNG FOLLOWING SUB-CHRONIC INHALATION OF CARBON BLACK

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative adduct in the lung DNA of rats following sub-chronic inhalation of carbon black. Gallagher, J., Sams II, R.L., Inmon, J., Gelein, R., Elder, A., Oberdorster, G., Prahalad, A. (2002). Toxicol. Appl. Pharm...

  12. [R-value comprehensive evaluation of effect of three methods for lung-kidney comprehensive evaluation study on R value of three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney in regulating lung inflammation signaling pathways in COPD rats].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong-xin; Tian, Yan-ge; Li, Jian-sheng; Xie, Yang; Li, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies showed that three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney (lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, and Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing) could regulate inflammatory signaling pathways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats, so as to alleviate inflammation. In the present study, R-value comprehensive evaluation method was used to evaluate the comprehensive effect of three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney on inflammatory signaling pathways. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing and aminophylline groups. The COPD rat models were established by cigarette smoking combined with bacterial infection, and orally administered with drugs between the 9th and 20th week. Afterwards, efforts were made to observe the long-term effects between the drug withdrawal and the 32rd week and detect indicators in two batches in the 20th week and 32th week. Specifically, (1) Linking JAK/STAT signaling pathway: JAK2 mRNA, and protein expressions of STAT-1, STAT-3, STAT-5, JAK-2; (2) NF-kappaB signaling pathway: Smad2 mRNA and protein expressions of I-kappaB, NF-kappaB, TGF-beta1; (3) PPARgamma and antioxidant signaling pathway: SOD, PGE mRNA, PPARgamma protein. According to the results, 5 indicators in JAK/STAT pathway, 4 indicators in NF-kappaB pathway, and 3 indicators in PPARgamma pathway were significantly rectified by three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney in between the 20th week and 32nd week. Between the 20th and 32nd week, the recipes for rectifying JAK/STAT pathway with intensity from high to low were recipes for lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, aminophylline, particularly those for lung invigorating and spleen

  13. Lipoxygenase Pathway Mediates Increases of Airway Resistance and Lung Inflation Induced by Exposure to Nanotitanium Dioxide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jyu-Feng; Tung, Shu-Ping; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yuwung; Fong, Yao; Young, Yu-Chung; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Nanotitanium dioxide particle (nTiO2) inhalation has been reported to induce lung parenchymal injury. After inhalation of nTiO2, we monitored changes in 5-lipoxygenase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in rat lung tissue. Lung function parameters include specific airway resistance (SRaw), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), functional residual capacity (FRC), and lung compliance (Cchord); blood white blood cell count (WBC), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH); and lung lavage leukotriene C4, interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrotic factor α (TNFα), hydroxyl radicals, and NO. Leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor MK886 were used for pharmacologic intervention. Compared to control, nTiO2 exposure induced near 5-fold increase in 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression in lung tissue. iNOS mRNA increased while eNOS mRNA decreased. Lavage leukotriene C4; IL6; TNFα; NO; hydroxyl radicals; and blood WBC, NO, hydrogen peroxide, and LDH levels rose. Obstructive ventilatory insufficiency was observed. MK571 and MK886 both attenuated the systemic inflammation and lung function changes. We conclude that inhaled nTiO2 induces systemic inflammation, cytokine release, and oxidative and nitrosative stress in the lung. The lipoxygenase pathway products, mediated by oxygen radicals and WBC, play a critical role in the obstructive ventilatory insufficiency induced by nTiO2. PMID:24693335

  14. Relationship between bronchiolar dose and lung carcinoma induction following inhalation of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Lauhala, K.E.; McDonald, K.E.

    1988-08-01

    This manuscript describes preliminary observations in a lifespan and serial sacrifice study with 3332 female, Wistar rats exposed to high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ aerosols. Sufficient numbers of sham-control and low dose (equivalent to maximal permissible occupational lung deposition of 0.6 kBq in standard man) animals are provided to statistically estimate lung cancer risk and define the cellular-microdosimetric relationships leading to lung tumor formation. Whole-body counting for /sup 169/Yb tagged /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ aerosol provided a very accurate method for determining Pu ILB in individual rats (Sanders et al., 1986). The experimental design, methodology and early results of the lifespan study have been previously reported (Sanders et al., 1986, 1988a). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumour

    PubMed Central

    Attila, Tan; Chen, Dean; Gardiner, Geoffrey W; Ptak, Theadore W; Marcon, Norman E

    2006-01-01

    Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours); however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases. PMID:16858502

  16. Genomic heterogeneity of multiple synchronous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jianjun; Li, Lin; Yin, Guangliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zheng, Shan; Cheung, Hannah; Wu, Ning; Lu, Ning; Mao, Xizeng; Yang, Longhai; Zhang, Jiexin; Zhang, Li; Seth, Sahil; Chen, Huang; Song, Xingzhi; Liu, Kan; Xie, Yongqiang; Zhou, Lina; Zhao, Chuanduo; Han, Naijun; Chen, Wenting; Zhang, Susu; Chen, Longyun; Cai, Wenjun; Li, Lin; Shen, Miaozhong; Xu, Ningzhi; Cheng, Shujun; Yang, Huanming; Lee, J. Jack; Correa, Arlene; Fujimoto, Junya; Behrens, Carmen; Chow, Chi-Wan; William, William N.; Heymach, John V.; Hong, Waun Ki; Swisher, Stephen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Wang, Jun; Lin, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangyang; Futreal, P. Andrew; Gao, Yanning

    2016-01-01

    Multiple synchronous lung cancers (MSLCs) present a clinical dilemma as to whether individual tumours represent intrapulmonary metastases or independent tumours. In this study we analyse genomic profiles of 15 lung adenocarcinomas and one regional lymph node metastasis from 6 patients with MSLC. All 15 lung tumours demonstrate distinct genomic profiles, suggesting all are independent primary tumours, which are consistent with comprehensive histopathological assessment in 5 of the 6 patients. Lung tumours of the same individuals are no more similar to each other than are lung adenocarcinomas of different patients from TCGA cohort matched for tumour size and smoking status. Several known cancer-associated genes have different mutations in different tumours from the same patients. These findings suggest that in the context of identical constitutional genetic background and environmental exposure, different lung cancers in the same individual may have distinct genomic profiles and can be driven by distinct molecular events. PMID:27767028

  17. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L.; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C.; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1,2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK, or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome (TIS) stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination, and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The vemurafenib reactive secretome in melanoma is driven by down-regulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of multiple signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant melanoma tumours, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  18. Biosynthesis of collagen crosslinks. III. In vivo labeling and stability of lung collagen in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.; Reiser, K.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mCi (each) of (3H)lysine at Day 11 of neonatal life to label their lung collagen. Five weeks later, half of the animals were given an intratracheal injection of 1.5 U of bleomycin sulfate via a tracheostomy; control animals received saline intratracheally by the same technique. Age-matched groups of control and bleomycin-treated rats were killed, and their lung collagen was analyzed at zero (control animals only), 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 wk after bleomycin administration, a time course appropriate for development of pulmonary fibrosis in this animal model. We measured radioactivity in hydroxylysine and in the difunctional collagen crosslinks hydroxylysinonorleucine and dihydroxylysinonorleucine at each time point. No evidence of breakdown of this pool of mature, preformed collagen was observed in lungs of either the control or the bleomycin-treated rats. We also measured the total lung content of hydroxypyridinium, a trifunctional collagen crosslink, by its intrinsic fluorescence. There was no evidence of collagen degradation in lungs of either group of rats by this criterion either. We conclude that there is no biochemically detectable turnover of mature lung collagen, defined as that pool of lung collagen that is obligatorily extracellular (i.e., crosslinked and containing labeled hydroxylysine from an injection of precursor 5 to 15 wk earlier), in either normal rat lungs or lungs of rats made fibrotic with bleomycin. Statistical analysis of the data suggests that our methodology was sensitive and precise enough to have detected turnover of less than 0.5% of lung collagen per day, some 20-fold less than estimates of lung collagen turnover that have been suggested to be occurring in vivo by others using different techniques and presumably studying different pools of lung collagen.

  19. Evaluation of oxidative response and tissular damage in rat lungs exposed to silica-coated gold nanoparticles under static magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Ferchichi, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Azzouz, Inès; Hanini, Amel; Rejeb, Ahmed; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was the evaluation of toxicological effects of silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and static magnetic fields (SMFs; 128 mT) exposure in rat lungs. Animals received a single injection of GNPs (1,100 µg/kg, 100 nm, intraperitoneally) and were exposed to SMFs, over 14 days (1 h/day). Results showed that GNPs treatment induced a hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Fluorescence microscopy images showed that red fluorescence signal was detected in rat lungs after 2 weeks from the single injection of GNPs. Oxidative response study showed that GNPs exposure increased malondialdehyde level and decreased CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in rat lungs. Furthermore, the histopathological study showed that combined effects of GNPs and SMFs led to more tissular damages in rat lungs in comparison with GNPs-treated rats. Interestingly, intensity of red fluorescence signal was enhanced after exposure to SMFs indicating a higher accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs under magnetic environment. Moreover, rats coexposed to GNPs and SMFs showed an increased malondialdehyde level, a fall of CuZn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in comparison with GNPs-treated group. Hence, SMFs exposure increased the accumulation of GNPs in rat lungs and led to more toxic effects of these nanocomplexes. PMID:27354800

  20. Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress at Out-of-Field Lung Tissues after Pelvis Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Masoud; Fardid, Reza; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Rezaeyan, Abol-Hassan; Salajegheh, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The out-of-field/non-target effect is one of the most important phenomena of ionizing radiation that leads to molecular and cellular damage to distant non-irradiated tissues. The most important concern about this phenomenon is carcinogenesis many years after radiation treatment. In vivo mechanisms and consequences of this phenomenon are not known completely. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damages to out-of-field lung tissues 24 and 72 hours after pelvic irradiation in rats. Materials and Methods In this experimentalinterventional study, Sprague-Dawleymale rats (n=49) were divided into seven groups (n=7/each group), including two groups of pelvis- exposed rats (out-of-field groups), two groups of whole bodyexposed rats (scatter groups), two groups of lung-exposed rats (direct irradiation groups), and one control sham group. Out- of-field groups were irradiated at a 2×2 cm area in the pelvis region with 3 Gy using 1.25 MeV cobalt-60 gamma-ray source, and subsequently, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in out-of-field lung tissues were measured. Results were compared to direct irradiation, control and scatter groups at 24 and 72 hours after exposure. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results SOD activity decreased in out-of-field lung tissue 24 and 72 hours after irradiation as compared with the controls and scatter groups. GSH level decreased 24 hours after exposure and increased 72 hours after exposure in the out-of-field groups as compared with the scatter groups. MDA level in out-of-field groups only increased 24 hours after irradiation. Conclusion Pelvis irradiation induced oxidative damage in distant lung tissue that led to a dramatic decrease in SOD activity. This oxidative stress was remarkable, but it was less durable as compared to direct irradiation. PMID:27602315

  1. Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress at Out-of-Field Lung Tissues after Pelvis Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Masoud; Fardid, Reza; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Rezaeyan, Abol-Hassan; Salajegheh, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The out-of-field/non-target effect is one of the most important phenomena of ionizing radiation that leads to molecular and cellular damage to distant non-irradiated tissues. The most important concern about this phenomenon is carcinogenesis many years after radiation treatment. In vivo mechanisms and consequences of this phenomenon are not known completely. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damages to out-of-field lung tissues 24 and 72 hours after pelvic irradiation in rats. Materials and Methods In this experimentalinterventional study, Sprague-Dawleymale rats (n=49) were divided into seven groups (n=7/each group), including two groups of pelvis- exposed rats (out-of-field groups), two groups of whole bodyexposed rats (scatter groups), two groups of lung-exposed rats (direct irradiation groups), and one control sham group. Out- of-field groups were irradiated at a 2×2 cm area in the pelvis region with 3 Gy using 1.25 MeV cobalt-60 gamma-ray source, and subsequently, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in out-of-field lung tissues were measured. Results were compared to direct irradiation, control and scatter groups at 24 and 72 hours after exposure. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results SOD activity decreased in out-of-field lung tissue 24 and 72 hours after irradiation as compared with the controls and scatter groups. GSH level decreased 24 hours after exposure and increased 72 hours after exposure in the out-of-field groups as compared with the scatter groups. MDA level in out-of-field groups only increased 24 hours after irradiation. Conclusion Pelvis irradiation induced oxidative damage in distant lung tissue that led to a dramatic decrease in SOD activity. This oxidative stress was remarkable, but it was less durable as compared to direct irradiation.

  2. Increased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury and alveolar simplification in newborn rats by prenatal administration of benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Vijay S.; Liang, Yanhong W.; Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Zhou, Guodong; Guntupalli, Bharath; Shivanna, Binoy; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Couroucli, Xanthi I.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the risk factors for preterm birth and for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure of rats to benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a component of cigarette smoke, will result in increased susceptibility of newborns to oxygen-mediated lung injury and alveolar simplification, and that cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A and 1B1 enzymes and oxidative stress mechanistically contribute to this phenomenon. Timed pregnant Fisher 344 rats were administered BP (25 mg/Kg) or the vehicle corn oil (CO) on gestational days 18, 19 and 20, and newborn were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for 7 or 14 days. Hyperoxic newborn rats prenatally exposed to the vehicle CO showed lung injury and alveolar simplification, and inflammation, and these effects were potentiated in rats that were prenatally exposed to BP. Prenatal exposure to BP, followed by hyperoxia, also resulted in significant modulation of hepatic and pulmonary cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A and 1B1 enzymes at PND 7-14. These rats displayed significant oxidative stress in lungs at postnatal day (PND) 14, as evidenced by increased levels of the F2-isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α. Furthermore, these animals showed BP-derived DNA adducts and oxidative DNA adducts in the lung. In conclusion, our results show increased susceptibility of newborns to oxygen-mediated lung injury and alveolar simplification following maternal exposure to BP, and our results suggest that modulation of CYP1A/1B1 enzymes, increases in oxidative stress, and BP-DNA adducts contributed to this phenomenon. PMID:24657529

  3. Ru(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea ligands: Synthesis, characterization, BSA- and DNA-binding studies of new cytotoxic agents against lung and prostate tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Correa, Rodrigo S; de Oliveira, Katia M; Delolo, Fábio G; Alvarez, Anislay; Mocelo, Raúl; Plutin, Ana M; Cominetti, Marcia R; Castellano, Eduardo E; Batista, Alzir A

    2015-09-01

    Four ruthenium(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea derivatives (Th) were obtained. The compounds, with the general formula trans-[Ru(PPh3)2(Th)(bipy)]PF6, interact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA. BSA-binding constants, which were in the range of 3.3-6.5×10(4) M(-1), and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS), suggest spontaneous interactions with this protein by electrostatic forces due to the positive charge of the complexes. Also, binding constant by spectrophotometric DNA titration (Kb = 0.8-1.8×10(4) M(-1)) and viscosity studies indicate weak interactions between the complexes and DNA. Cytotoxicity assays against DU-145 (prostate cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) tumour cells revealed that the complexes are more active in tumour cells than in normal (L929) cells, and that they present high cytotoxicity (low IC50 values) compared with the reference metallodrug, cisplatin.

  4. Ru(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea ligands: Synthesis, characterization, BSA- and DNA-binding studies of new cytotoxic agents against lung and prostate tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Correa, Rodrigo S; de Oliveira, Katia M; Delolo, Fábio G; Alvarez, Anislay; Mocelo, Raúl; Plutin, Ana M; Cominetti, Marcia R; Castellano, Eduardo E; Batista, Alzir A

    2015-09-01

    Four ruthenium(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea derivatives (Th) were obtained. The compounds, with the general formula trans-[Ru(PPh3)2(Th)(bipy)]PF6, interact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA. BSA-binding constants, which were in the range of 3.3-6.5×10(4) M(-1), and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS), suggest spontaneous interactions with this protein by electrostatic forces due to the positive charge of the complexes. Also, binding constant by spectrophotometric DNA titration (Kb = 0.8-1.8×10(4) M(-1)) and viscosity studies indicate weak interactions between the complexes and DNA. Cytotoxicity assays against DU-145 (prostate cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) tumour cells revealed that the complexes are more active in tumour cells than in normal (L929) cells, and that they present high cytotoxicity (low IC50 values) compared with the reference metallodrug, cisplatin. PMID:26160296

  5. Optimised Pre-Analytical Methods Improve KRAS Mutation Detection in Circulating Tumour DNA (ctDNA) from Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, James L.; Corcoran, Claire; Brown, Helen; Sharpe, Alan D.; Musilova, Milena; Kohlmann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-invasive mutation testing using circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is an attractive premise. This could enable patients without available tumour sample to access more treatment options. Materials & Methods Peripheral blood and matched tumours were analysed from 45 NSCLC patients. We investigated the impact of pre-analytical variables on DNA yield and/or KRAS mutation detection: sample collection tube type, incubation time, centrifugation steps, plasma input volume and DNA extraction kits. Results 2 hr incubation time and double plasma centrifugation (2000 x g) reduced overall DNA yield resulting in lowered levels of contaminating genomic DNA (gDNA). Reduced “contamination” and increased KRAS mutation detection was observed using cell-free DNA Blood Collection Tubes (cfDNA BCT) (Streck), after 72 hrs following blood draw compared to EDTA tubes. Plasma input volume and use of different DNA extraction kits impacted DNA yield. Conclusion This study demonstrated that successful ctDNA recovery for mutation detection in NSCLC is dependent on pre-analytical steps. Development of standardised methods for the detection of KRAS mutations from ctDNA specimens is recommended to minimise the impact of pre-analytical steps on mutation detection rates. Where rapid sample processing is not possible the use of cfDNA BCT tubes would be advantageous. PMID:26918901

  6. Stem cell factor potentiates histamine secretion by multiple mechanisms, but does not affect tumour necrosis factor-alpha release from rat mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T J; Bissonnette, E Y; Hirsh, A; Befus, A D

    1996-01-01

    The effect of stem cell factor (SCF) on histamine and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release from rat peritoneal mast cells (PMC) was determined and the intracellular pathways involved in the potentiation of histamine secretion were investigated. The effects of SCF (2-100 ng/ml) were examined following both short-term (0 and 20 min) and long-term (up to 24hr) preincubations with SCF. Pretreatment of PMC with SCF for 0 min (concurrent) or 20 min did not induce histamine secretion directly, but significantly increased antigen (Ag)-induced histamine secretion. SCF potentiated Ag-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase and calcium ionophore A23187-induced histamine secretion. Pertussis toxin (PT) inhibited SCF-induced potentiation of IgE-dependent histamine secretion, indicating that PT-sensitive G-proteins are involved in the immediate effects of SCF. In long-term incubation experiments, SCF pretreatment for 18-24 hr significantly enhanced Ag-induced histamine secretion, but did not affect Ag-induced intracellular Ca2+ levels. The effects of long-term incubation with SCF, but not the short-term effects, were blocked by cycloheximide. Interestingly, spontaneous and Ag-induced TNF-alpha release from rat PMC were not affected by pretreatment with SCF (2-500 ng/ml) for 1 to 24 hr. Thus, through immediate and delayed mechanisms, SCF potentiates histamine release from PMC, but has not effect on TNF-alpha release. The regulation of MC by SCF may be important in allergic and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:8943730

  7. Relative susceptibility of microsomes from lung, heart, liver, kidney, brain and testes to lipid peroxidation: correlation with vitamin E content. [Rats, rabbits, mice, human

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of in vitro lipid peroxidation of microsomes and homogenates were found to vary widely among different tissues and species. In rats and rabbits, lung microsomes peroxidized at 25- to 50-fold lower rate than liver, kidney, testes and brain microsomes. Heart microsomes peroxidized at a rate slightly greater than, but most similar to, lung microsomes. Comparison of tissue homogenates also revealed the unique resistance of lung and heart to lipid peroxidation. Higher rates of peroxidation in mouse lung microsomes relative to rabbit, rat and human lung microsomes were similarly correlated with a lower ratio of vitamin E to peroxidizable fatty acids in mouse lung microsomes. These data provide strong support for the role of vitamin E as the major cellular antioxidant, especially in the highly oxygenated tissues of heart and lung, and demonstrate the utility of the microsomal system in characterizing tissue differences in susceptibility to peroxidative membrane decomposition.

  8. Formation and persistence of 8-oxoguanine in rat lung cells as an important determinant for tumor formation following particle exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Nehls, P; Seiler, F; Rehn, B; Greferath, R; Bruch, J

    1997-01-01

    Exposure of rats to quartz (or various other particles) can lead to the development of lung tumors. At the moment, the mechanisms involved in particle-induced tumor formation are not clarified. However, it is suggested that inflammation, in conjunction with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an enhancement of epithelial cell proliferation, may play a key role in the development of lung tumors. ROS induces 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) and other mutagenic DNA oxidation products, which can be converted to mutations in proliferating cells. Mutation formation in cancer-related genes is a critical event with respect to tumor formation. In this study we investigated the effects of quartz (DQ12) and of the nontumorigenic dust corundum on the induction of 8-oxoGua in the DNA of rat lung cells, as well as on cell proliferation and pulmonary inflammation. Wistar rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to quartz (2.5 mg/rat) or corundum (2.5 mg/rat) suspended in physiological saline; control animals exposed to physiological saline or left untreated. Measurements were carried out 7, 21, and 90 days after the exposures. 8-oxoGua levels were determined in lung tissue sections at the single cell level by immunocytological assay using a rabbit anti-8-oxoGua antibody. After exposure to quartz, 8-oxoGua levels were significantly increased at all time points of investigation. Additionally, we observed inflammation and an enhanced cell proliferation. Exposure to corundum had no adverse effects on the lung; neither increased 8-oxoGua levels nor enhanced cell proliferation or inflammation were detected. These observations support the suggestion that inflammation associated with increased 8-oxoGua levels in lung cells and increased cell proliferation is an important determinant for particle-induced development of lung tumors in the rat. Images Figure 1. A i Figure 1. A ii Figure 1. A iii Figure 1. B Figure 1. B Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. C Figure 1. C PMID

  9. Pathogenesis of lesions induced in rat lung by chronic tobacco smoke inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, C.A.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1982-07-01

    Lesions were induced in the lungs of specific-pathogen-free F344 rats by chronic tobacco smoke exposure. Animals exposed to 7 cigarettes/day were killed after 1, 1.5 or 2 years of exposure. Parallel lifetime exposures induced pulmonary tumors in 9% of the animals. In serially killed animals, four types of lesions were found: (1) perivascular or peribronchiolar accumulation of lymphoreticular cells; (2) fibrotic and cellular enlargement of peribronchiolar septa; (3) type II cell hyperplasia with septal fibrosis; and (4) air-space enlargement (emphysema). However, emphysema occurred only in animals exposed to a higher (10 cigarettes) dose of tobacco smoke. Ultrastructural studies showed all of the focal lesions to be infiltrated by cells typical of the inflammatory response. The type II hyperplastic and peribronchiolar alveolar lesions involved larger portions of the parenchyma in fibrotic changes but differed in structure, location, and frequency. The incidence of the peribronchiolar alveolar lesions was temporally related to tumor incidence.

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin E or selenium on prostaglandin dehydrogenase in hyperoxic rat lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, L. N.; Mathias, M. M.; Schatte, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed semipurified diets supplemented with 0, 60, or 600 IU/kg vitamin E or 0, 100, or 1000 ppb selenium. One group was injected daily with vitamin E at a rate equivalent to consumption of 60 IU/kg. Animals from all groups were sacrificed after exposure to normobaric oxygen or air for 48 h. Lung tissue was analyzed for the combined activity of prostaglandin dehydrogenase and reductase. Using the decline in enzyme activity as an indicator of susceptibility to oxygen poisoning, protection against hyperoxia was directly related to the level of vitamin E supplementation. Selenium supplemented at 100 ppb provided significant protection when compared to 0 ppb or 1000 ppb. The latter dose may have been marginally toxic. Thus dietary supplementation of vitamin E and selenium may influence the relative susceptibility of an animal to pulmonary oxygen poisoning.

  11. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  12. Metyrapone Blocks Maternal Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Female Rat Offspring Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yishi; Corral, Julia; Saraswat, Aditi; Husain, Sumair; Dhar, Ankita; Sakurai, Reiko; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) during pregnancy affects pulmonary surfactant production in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring through unknown mechanisms. Since pulmonary surfactant production is regulated by maternal and fetal corticosteroid levels, both known to be increased in IUGR pregnancies, we hypothesized that metyrapone (MTP), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, would block the effects of MFR on surfactant production in the offspring. Three groups of pregnant rat dams were used (1) control dams fed ad libitum; (2) MFR (50% reduction in calories) from days 10 to 22 of gestation; and (3) MFR + MTP in drinking water (0.5 mg/mL), days 11 to 22 of gestation. At 5 months, the MFR offspring weighed significantly more, had reduced alveolar number, increased septal thickness, and decreased surfactant protein and phospholipid synthesis. These MFR-induced effects were normalized by the antiglucocorticoid MTP, suggesting that the stress of MFR causes hypercorticoidism, altering lung structure and function in adulthood. PMID:24023031

  13. In vivo electrical conductivity of hepatic tumours.

    PubMed

    Haemmerich, Dieter; Staelin, S T; Tsai, J Z; Tungjitkusolmun, S; Mahvi, D M; Webster, J G

    2003-05-01

    Knowledge of electrical tissue conductivity is necessary to determine deposition of electromagnetic energy and can further be used to diagnostically differentiate between normal and neoplastic tissue. We measured 17 rats with a total of 24 tumours of the K12/TRb rat colon cancer cell line. In each animal we measured in vivo hepatic tumour and normal tissue conductivity at seven frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz, at different tumour stages between 6 and 12 weeks after induction. Conductivity of normal liver tissue was 1.26 +/- 0.15 mS cm(-1) at 10 Hz, and 4.61 +/- 0.42 mS cm(-1) at 1 MHz. Conductivity of tumour was 2.69 +/- 0.91 mS cm(-1) at 10 Hz, and 5.23 +/- 0.82 mS cm(-1) at 1 MHz. Conductivity was significantly different between normal and tumour tissue (p < 0.05). We determined the percentage of necrosis and fibrosis at the measurement site. We fitted the conductivity data to the Cole-Cole model. For the tumour data we determined Spearman's correlation coefficients between the Cole-Cole parameters and age, necrosis, fibrosis and tumour volume and found significant correlation between necrosis and the Cole-Cole parameters (p < 0.05). We conclude that necrosis within the tumour and the associated membrane breakdown is likely responsible for the observed change in conductivity.

  14. Smooth muscle myosin regulation by serum and cell density in cultured rat lung connective tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Babij, P; Zhao, J; White, S; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Periasamy, M; Low, R B

    1993-08-01

    RNA and protein analyses were used to detect expression of SM1 and SM2 smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) in cultured adult rat lung connective tissue cells (RL-90). Smooth muscle MHC mRNA expression in confluent cells grown in 10% serum was approximately 50% of the level in adult stomach. Similar results were obtained in cells cultured at low density (25% confluency) in 1% serum. However, in low-density cultures transferred to 10% serum for 24 h, the level of MHC mRNA decreased to approximately 20% of that in adult stomach. Smooth muscle alpha-actin showed a pattern of expression similar to that for smooth muscle MHC. Expression of nonmuscle MHC-A mRNA was higher in all culture conditions compared to stomach. MHC-A mRNA expression was less in low-density cultures in low serum and increased when low-density cultures were transferred to 10% serum for 24 h. MHC-B mRNA expression was less in low- vs. high-density cultures. In contrast to MHC-A, however, MHC-B mRNA expression in low-density cultures was higher in low serum. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting with SM1-specific antibody demonstrated the presence of the SM1 protein isoform as well as reactivity to a protein band migrating slightly faster than SM2. These results demonstrate that cultured rat lung connective tissue cells express smooth muscle MHC and that expression is modulated by culture conditions.

  15. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  16. Influence of exposure regimen on nitrogen dioxide-induced morphological changes in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rombout, P.J.A.; Dormans, J.A.M.A.; Marra, M.; van Esch, G.J.

    1986-12-01

    Experiments were performed to study the influence of concentration, exposure pattern, and length of exposure on the degree and extent of morphological alterations in the NO/sub 2//sup -/ exposed rat lung. Four weeks of continuous exposure to 20 mg NO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ consecutively revealed damage and loss of cilia, replacement of desquamated type I pneumocytes by type II pneumocytes resulting in a cuboidal epithelial lining, an influx of alveolar macrophages, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium. The animals recovered almost completely from the induced lesions within 8 days. Continuous exposure to 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/m/sup 3/ displayed minimal alterations in the 5 mg/m/sup 3/ group. The effects increased with exposure time. Intermittent or continuous exposure to 20 mg NO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ resulted in minor differences after 4 weeks. The onset of the lesions was delayed and the massive influx of alveolar macrophages in the continuously exposed animals failed to appear in the intermittently exposed animals. This work demonstrates that in subacute experiments: (1) Concentration plays a more important role in inducing pulmonary lesions than exposure time when the product of concentration and time is kept constant. This effect is stronger during intermittent exposure than during continuous exposure. (2) Continuous exposure seems to be a more important factor with regard to a macrophage response than intermittent exposure. (3) The rat lung has a large capacity to repair almost completely from damage caused by short-term NO/sub 2/ exposure.

  17. Structural and biochemical changes in lungs of 3-methylindole-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, L. W.; Wilson, D. W.; Schiedt, M. J.; Giri, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of a single dose of 3-methylindole (3-MI) (250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were studied at different times ranging from 12 hours to 2 weeks post-treatment (PT). Microscopic study revealed mild Clara cell injury 24 hours PT and mucus hyperplasia 24 hours to 2 weeks PT. Diffuse type I alveolar epithelial cell necrosis occurred at 48 hours, followed by type II cell hyperplasia. Septal edema and accumulation of interstitial and capillary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and perivascular mixed mononuclear inflammatory cells accompanied the injury and repair. A gradual resolution of lesions with persistent mononuclear inflammatory cellular clusters at septal junctions, focal septal fibrosis, and accumulation of alveolar macrophages was evident at 1 and 2 weeks PT. Collagen, measured as hydroxyproline, in 3-MI-treated rats was significantly increased to 130% and 139% of control (3.0 mg/lung) at 1 and 2 weeks PT, respectively. Biphasic peaks of plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha occurred at 12 to 24 hours and at 96 hours PT with 3-MI and thromboxane B2 was elevated 12, 48, and 96 hours PT. Right ventricular/left ventricular and septal weight was increased to 120% and 140% of the control 1 and 2 weeks PT. We concluded that 3-MI induces alveolar septal injury in the rat with relatively complete repair of the alveolar epithelium and residual mild focal septal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension 2 weeks PT. Arachidonic acid-derived mediators and inflammation are associated with 3-MI-induced lung injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8424451

  18. Retention and clearance of stainless steel shieldgas welding fumes in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Kalliomäki, P L; Tuomisaari, M; Lakomaa, E L; Kalliomäki, K; Kivelä, R

    1983-09-01

    The use of metal inert gas (MIG) stainless steel (SS) welding techniques is rapidly increasing. The possible health hazards of MIG/SS welding fumes are not known; more attention has been paid to manual metal arc (MMA) welding. In this study, 52 male Wistar rats were exposed to MIG/SS welding fumes generated by an automatic welding device for "nose only" exposure. For the retention study, the duration of exposure was one hour per workday for 1,2,3, and 4 weeks. For the clearance study, the duration was 4 weeks, and the follow-up period was 106 days. The retention and clearance of the alloyed metals of SS (chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni] and iron were studied in the rats' lungs, and the results were compared with the corresponding results of MMA/SS welding. The multielement chemical analysis was made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); the concentration of exogeneous iron (Feex) was determined by a magnetic measuring method. Feex and Cr were retained in the ratio expected; Mn, Ni and total Fe were retained slower than expected. The total Fe did not clear at all even though Feex cleared with the half-time of 50 d which corresponded well with that of pure magnetite. The accumulation of Cr in the lungs was very high: it cleared with the half-time of 240 d. The clearance patterns of Mn and Ni were very similar. They followed a double exponential model with half-times of 2 d and 125 d for Mn, and 3 d and 85 d for Ni. The results indicated that even though the retention patterns for MMA and MIG welding fumes were very similar, the clearances differed very much.

  19. Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Antonini, James M. Stone, Sam; Roberts, Jenny R.; Chen, Bean; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Afshari, Aliakbar A.; Frazer, David G.

    2007-09-15

    Many welders have experienced bronchitis, metal fume fever, lung function changes, and an increase in the incidence of lung infection. Questions remain regarding the possible mechanisms associated with the potential pulmonary effects of welding fume exposure. The objective was to assess the early effects of stainless steel (SS) welding fume inhalation on lung injury, inflammation, and defense responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gas metal arc-SS welding fume at a concentration of 15 or 40 mg/m{sup 3} x 3 h/day for 1, 3, or 10 days. The control group was exposed to filtered air. To assess lung defense responses, some animals were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10{sup 4}Listeria monocytogenes 1 day after the last exposure. Welding particles were collected during exposure, and elemental composition and particle size were determined. At 1, 4, 6, 11, 14, and 30 days after the final exposure, parameters of lung injury (lactate dehydrogenase and albumin) and inflammation (PMN influx) were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, particle-induced effects on pulmonary clearance of bacteria and macrophage function were assessed. SS particles were composed of Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni. Particle size distribution analysis indicated the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the generated fume to be 0.255 {mu}m. Parameters of lung injury were significantly elevated at all time points post-exposure compared to controls except for 30 days. Interestingly, no significant difference in lung PMNs was observed between the SS and control groups at 1, 4, and 6 days post-exposure. After 6 days post-exposure, a dramatic increase in lung PMNs was observed in the SS group compared to air controls. Lung bacteria clearance and macrophage function were reduced and immune and inflammatory cytokines were altered in the SS group. In summary, short-term exposure of rats to SS welding fume caused significant lung damage and suppressed lung defense responses to bacterial

  20. Inhalation exposure to chloramine T induces DNA damage and inflammation in lung of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ilseob; Seo, Gyun-Baek; Oh, Eunha; Lee, Mimi; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Sul, Donggeun; Lee, Byung-Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Hyun-Mi

    2013-01-01

    Chloramine T has been widely used as a disinfectant in many areas such as kitchens, laboratories and hospitals. It has been also used as a biocide in air fresheners and deodorants which are consumer products; however, little is known about its toxic effects by inhalation route. This study was performed to identify the subacute inhalation toxicity of chloramine T under whole-body inhalation exposure conditions. Male and female groups of rats were exposed to chloramine T at concentrations of 0.2, 0.9 and 4.0 mg/m³ for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week during 4 weeks. After 28-day repeated inhalation of chloramine T, there were dose-dependently significant DNA damage in the rat tissues evaluated and inflammation was histopathologically noted around the terminal airways of the lung in both genders. As a result of the expression of three types of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-2, GPx-1, PRX-1) in rat's lung after exposure, there was no significant change of all antioxidant enzymes in the male and female rats. The results showed that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 0.2 mg/m³ in male rats and 0.9 mg/m³ in female rats under the present experimental condition.

  1. Imaging of testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Owens, E J; Kabala, J; Goddard, P

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis, pathology and imaging of testicular tumours, predominantly germ cell tumours. It will discuss the imaging techniques used in their diagnosis, staging and surveillance.

  2. Evaluation of allergic lung inflammation by computed tomography in a rat model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jobse, B N; Johnson, J R; Farncombe, T H; Labiris, R; Walker, T D; Goncharova, S; Jordana, M

    2009-06-01

    The ability of micro-computed tomography (CT) to noninvasively evaluate allergic pulmonary inflammation in an experimental model was investigated. In addition, two image segmentation methods and the value of respiratory gating were investigated in the context of this model. Brown Norway rats were exposed to one of four doses of house dust mite (HDM) extract (0, 0.15, 15 or 150 microg) delivered intratracheally every 24 h for 10 days. CT scanning was performed at baseline and after several longitudinal HDM exposures. Both thoracic- and lung-segmentation methods yielded similar results when standardisation practices were employed. While tissue histology correlated well with CT images, cell counts from bronchoalveolar lavage depicted greater inflammation than did density measures from CT images. Evidence from representative CT slices and transaxial density distribution indicated that inflammation was primarily associated with major airways and extended into the periphery from these focal points. Respiratory gating demonstrated that images of the inspiratory state provided greater contrast of inflammatory processes. Lastly, decreases in tidal volumes indicated significant mechanical respiratory changes in animals exposed to both 15 and 150 microg. In summary, CT image segmentation can extract pertinent data on in vivo allergic airway/lung inflammation. Furthermore, respiratory gating provides additional contrast and insight into these quantification practices.

  3. Dissolution and clearance of titanium tritide particles in the lungs of F344/Crl rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Snipes, M.B.; Wang, Yansheng

    1995-12-01

    Metal tritides are compounds in which the radioactive isotope tritium, following adsorption onto the metal, forms a stable chemical compound with the metal. When particles of tritiated metals become airborne, they can be inhaled by workers. Because the particles may be retained in the lung for extended periods, the resulting dose will be greater than doses following exposure to tritium gas or tritium oxide (HTO). Particles of triated metals may be dispersed into the air during routine handling, disruption of contaminated metals, or as a result of spontaneous radioactive decay processes. Unlike metal hydrides and deuterides, tritides are radioactive, and the decay of the tritium atoms affects the metal. Because helium is a product of the decay, helium bubbles form within the metal tritide matrix. The pressure from these bubbles leads to respirable particles breaking off from the tritide surface. Our results show that a substantial amount of titanium tritide remains in the rat lung 10 d after intratracheal instillation, confirming results previously obtain in an in vitro dissolution study.

  4. Enhanced expressions and histological characteristics of intravenously administered plasmid DNA in rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Rha, S. J.; Wang, Y. P.

    2001-01-01

    Cationic liposome-mediated gene transfection is a promising method for gene therapy. In this study, the transfection efficiency and histological patterns were evaluated in rat lung after intravenous administration via femoral vein of naked plasmid DNA, naked plasmid DNA with pretreatment of DOTAP, and DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex. Plasmid DNA encoding bacterial LacZ gene was used. For quantification of LacZ gene expression, beta-galactosidase assay was performed. For histologic examination, X-gal staining and immunohistochemical staining for transfected gene products were performed. Pretreatment of DOTAP prior to the infusion of naked plasmid DNA increased transfection efficiency up to a level comparable to DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex injection. Transfected genes were mainly expressed in type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in all animals. We conclude that the high transfection efficiency is achievable by intravenous administration of naked plasmid DNA with pretreatment of DOTAP, to a level comparable to DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex. In this regard, naked plasmid DNA administration with pretreatment of DOTAP could be a more feasible option for intravenous gene transfer than DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex, in that the former is technically easier and more cost-effective than the latter with a comparable efficacy, in terms of intravenous gene delivery to the lung. PMID:11641524

  5. Single and combined supplementation of glutamine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on host tolerance and tumour response to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxy-camptothecin (CPT-11)/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in rats bearing Ward colon tumour.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongyu; Le Roy, Séverine; Sawyer, Michael B; Field, Catherine J; Dieleman, Levinus A; Baracos, Vickie E

    2009-08-01

    Prior reports suggest that during irinotecan (7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxy-camptothecin; CPT-11) chemotherapy in laboratory rats, the anti-tumour efficacy and diarrhoea toxicity could be modulated by n-3 PUFA and glutamine, respectively. We further examined how these two dietary elements, when provided individually and in combination, would affect the efficacy of a cyclical regimen of CPT-11/5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an accepted combination regimen for colorectal cancer. Prior to initiating chemotherapy, diets enriched either with glutamine (2 %, w/w total diet) or n-3 PUFA (0.88 %, w/w total diet) alone, inhibited Ward colon tumour growth (P < 0.05). These diets also completely or partially normalized the changes in peripheral leucocyte counts associated with the tumour-bearing state (e.g. neutrophil proportion/concentration and lymphocyte proportion). During chemotherapy, either glutamine- or n-3 PUFA-enriched diet enhanced tumour chemo-sensitivity, and reduced body weight loss, anorexia and muscle wasting (v. animals fed control diet, P < 0.05). Surprisingly, providing both glutamine and n-3 PUFA together did not confer a greater benefit on tumour inhibition either in the presence or absence of chemotherapy; individual benefits associated with single treatments, particularly in respect to host nutritional status (i.e. body weight, food intake and muscle weight) and immune (peripheral leucocyte counts) features were instead partially or completely lost when these two nutrients were combined. These results draw into question the common assumption that there are additive or synergistic benefits of combinations of nutrients, which are beneficial on an individual basis, and suggest that co-supplementation with glutamine and n-3 PUFA is not indicated during chemotherapy with CPT-11 and 5-FU.

  6. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked.

  7. Oxidative damage and histopathological changes in lung of rat chronically exposed to nicotine alone or associated to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dhouib, H; Jallouli, M; Draief, M; Bouraoui, S; El-Fazâa, S

    2015-12-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. This study was designed to investigate oxidative damage and histopathological changes in lung tissue of rats chronically exposed to nicotine alone or supplemented with ethanol. Twenty-four male Wistar rats divided into three groups were used for the study. The nicotine group received nicotine (2.5mg/kg/day); the nicotine-ethanol group was given simultaneously same dose of nicotine plus ethanol (0.2g/kg/day), while the control group was administered only normal saline (1 ml/kg/day). The treatment was administered by subcutaneous injection once daily for a period of 18 weeks. Chronic nicotine administration alone or combined to ethanol caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase (CAT) activity in lung tissue compared to control rats suggesting an oxidative damage. However, these increases were mostly prominent in nicotine group. The histopathological examination of lung tissue of rats in both treated groups revealed many alterations in the pulmonary structures such as emphysema change (disappearance of the alveolar septa, increased irregularity and size of air sacs) and marked lymphocytic infiltration in perivascular and interstitial areas. However, the changes characterized in the nicotine group (pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage into alveoli and interstitial areas, edema) were more drastic than those observed in the nicotine-ethanol group, and they can be attributed to a significant degree of capillary endothelial permeability and microvascular leak. Conversely, the ethanol supplementation caused an appearance of fatty change and fibrosis in pulmonary tissue essentially due to a metabolism of ethanol. Finally, the lung damage illustrated in nicotine group was more severe than that observed in the nicotine-ethanol group. We conclude that the combined administration of nicotine and ethanol

  8. Oxidative damage and histopathological changes in lung of rat chronically exposed to nicotine alone or associated to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dhouib, H; Jallouli, M; Draief, M; Bouraoui, S; El-Fazâa, S

    2015-12-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. This study was designed to investigate oxidative damage and histopathological changes in lung tissue of rats chronically exposed to nicotine alone or supplemented with ethanol. Twenty-four male Wistar rats divided into three groups were used for the study. The nicotine group received nicotine (2.5mg/kg/day); the nicotine-ethanol group was given simultaneously same dose of nicotine plus ethanol (0.2g/kg/day), while the control group was administered only normal saline (1 ml/kg/day). The treatment was administered by subcutaneous injection once daily for a period of 18 weeks. Chronic nicotine administration alone or combined to ethanol caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase (CAT) activity in lung tissue compared to control rats suggesting an oxidative damage. However, these increases were mostly prominent in nicotine group. The histopathological examination of lung tissue of rats in both treated groups revealed many alterations in the pulmonary structures such as emphysema change (disappearance of the alveolar septa, increased irregularity and size of air sacs) and marked lymphocytic infiltration in perivascular and interstitial areas. However, the changes characterized in the nicotine group (pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage into alveoli and interstitial areas, edema) were more drastic than those observed in the nicotine-ethanol group, and they can be a