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Sample records for rat mammary cancer

  1. Development and characterization of a novel rat model of estrogen-induced mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Harenda, Quincy Eckert; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Seiler, Nicole L; Ding, Lina; Shull, James D

    2015-04-01

    The ACI rat model of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer is highly relevant for use in establishing the endocrine, genetic, and environmental bases of breast cancer etiology and identifying novel agents and strategies for preventing breast cancer. E2 treatment rapidly induces mammary cancer in female ACI rats and simultaneously induces pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and adenoma. The pituitary tumors can result in undesired morbidity, which compromises long-term studies focused on mammary cancer etiology and prevention. We have defined the genetic bases of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancers and pituitary tumors and have utilized the knowledge gained in these studies to develop a novel inbred rat strain, designated ACWi, that retains the high degree of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer exhibited by ACI rats, but lacks the treatment-related morbidity associated with pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma. When treated with E2, female ACWi rats developed palpable mammary cancer at a median latency of 116 days, an incidence of 100% by 161 days and exhibited an average of 15.6 mammary tumors per rat following 196 days of treatment. These parameters did not differ from those observed for contemporaneously treated ACI rats. None of the E2-treated ACWi rats were killed before the intended experimental end point due to any treatment-related morbidity other than mammary cancer burden, whereas 20% of contemporaneously treated ACI rats exhibited treatment-related morbidity that necessitated premature killing. The ACWi rat strain is well suited for use by those in the research community, focusing on breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  2. Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in the ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model.

    PubMed

    Ruhlen, Rachel L; Willbrand, Dana M; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Ma, Lixin; Shull, James D; Sauter, Edward R

    2009-10-01

    The ACI rat is a unique model of human breast cancer in that mammary cancers are induced by estrogen without carcinogens, irradiation, xenografts or transgenic manipulations. We sought to characterize mammary cancers in a congenic variant of the ACI rat, the ACI.COP-Ept2. All rats with estradiol implants developed mammary cancers in 5-7 months. Rats bearing estradiol-induced mammary cancers were treated with tamoxifen for three weeks. Tamoxifen reduced tumor mass, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, by 89%. Tumors expressed estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Erbb2. ERalpha and PR were overexpressed in tumor compared to adjacent non-tumor mammary gland. Thus, this model is highly relevant to hormone responsive human breast cancers.

  3. Experimental mammary carcinogenesis - Rat models.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Antonieta; Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Colaço, Bruno; Oliveira, Paula A

    2017-03-15

    Mammary cancer is one of the most common cancers, victimizing more than half a million of women worldwide every year. Despite all the studies in this field, the current therapeutic approaches are not effective and have several devastating effects for patients. In this way, the need to better understand the mammary cancer biopathology and find effective therapies led to the development of several rodent models over years. With this review, the authors intended to provide the readers with an overview of the rat models used to study mammary carcinogenesis, with a special emphasis on chemically-induced models.

  4. Role of melatonin and luzindole in rat mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Umit, Ugurlu M; Berna, Terzioglu; Handan, Kaya; Ipek, Erbarut; Berrak, Yegen; Can, Erzik; Bahadir, Gulluoglu M

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have analyzed the efficacy of various agents in experimental chemoprevention trials. In our study, the effects of melatonin (Mel) and its antagonist Luzindole (Luz) on Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a NMU (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea)-induced rat mammary carcinoma model are investigated. We aim to demonstrate the relationship between Mel and HO-1. Spraque-Dawley rats were treated with NMU at age 55 days to induce mammary carcinoma. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups consisting of: (a) physiological saline group (PSG); (b) control group, NMU is given; (c) Mel group (500 μg daily); (d) Mel antagonist Luz group (0.25 mg/kg/day i.p.). The animals were sacrificed; their serum and tissues were sampled for histopathologic evaluation, markers of endocrine derangement (serum prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone levels), apoptotic changes, DNA fragmentation, markers of oxidative stress and HO-1 immune expression were measured. Most tumors developed in the Luz group (42%), followed by the control group (33%), and the Mel group (17%). The tumor latency was longer in Mel-treated group (control and Luz at week 17, Mel at week 21). The maximum tumor volume was also smaller in Mel group when compared to control and Luz groups (p < .05). In Mel group estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin levels were decreased compared to control group (p < .001; p < .01; and p < .01) and levels of apoptotic activity and DNA fragmentation ratio increased. The increment of HO-1 expression with Mel is described; possible underlying mechanisms of these effects await further investigations.

  5. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, in the diet suppresses DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Timothy; Carpenter, Mark; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2006-05-15

    Despite the advent of new and aggressive therapeutics, breast cancer remains a leading killer among women; hence there is a need for the prevention of this disease. Several naturally occurring polyphenols have received much attention for their health benefits, including anti-carcinogenic properties. Two of these are resveratrol, a component of red grapes, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these two polyphenols protect against chemically-induced mammary cancer by modulating mammary gland architecture, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were exposed to either resveratrol (1 g/kg AIN-76A diet), EGCG (0.065% in the drinking water), or control diet (AIN-76A) for the entirety of their life starting at birth. At 50 days postpartum, rats were treated with 60 mg dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/kg body weight to induce mammary cancer. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, suppressed mammary carcinogenesis (fewer tumors per rat and longer tumor latency). Analysis of mammary whole mounts from 50-day-old rats revealed that resveratrol, but not EGCG, treatment resulted in more differentiated lobular structures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation studies showed that resveratrol treatment caused a significant reduction in proliferative cells in mammary terminal ductal structures at 50 days postpartum, making them less susceptible to carcinogen insult. The epithelial cells of terminal end buds in the mammary glands of resveratrol-treated rats also showed an increase in apoptotic cells compared to the control or EGCG-treated rats as measured by a DNA fragmentation assay. At the given doses, resveratrol treatment resulted in a serum resveratrol concentration of 2.00 microM, while treatment with EGCG resulted in a serum EGCG concentration of 31.06 nM. 17beta-Estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin concentrations in the serum were not significantly affected by resveratrol or

  6. Mammary renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in rats with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    del Pilar Carrera, Maria; Ramírez-Expósito, Maria Jesus; Mayas, Maria Dolores; García, Maria Jesus; Martínez-Martos, Jose Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Angiotensin II in particular and/or the local renin-angiotensin system in general could have an important role in epithelial tissue growth and modelling; therefore, it is possible that it may be involved in breast cancer. In this sense, previous works of our group showed a predominating role of angiotensin II in tumoral tissue obtained from women with breast cancer. However, although classically angiotensin II has been considered the main effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system cascade, several of its catabolism products such as angiotensin III and angiotensin IV also possess biological functions. These peptides are formed through the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes of the aminopeptidase type, also called angiotensinases. The aim of this work was to analyse several specific angiotensinase activities involved in the renin-angiotensin system cascade in mammary tissue from control rats and from rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU), which may reflect the functional status of their target peptides under the specific conditions brought about by the tumoural process. The results show that soluble and membrane-bound specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activities and membrane-bound glutamyl aminopeptidase activity increased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated animals and soluble aminopeptidase N and aminopeptidase B activities significantly decreased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated rats. These changes support the existence of a local mammary renin-angiotensin system and that this system and its putative functions in breast tissue could be altered by the tumour process, in which we suggest a predominant role of angiotensin III. All described data about the renin-angiotensin system in mammary tissue support the idea that it must be involved in normal breast tissue functions, and its disruption could be involved in one or more steps of the carcinogenesis process.

  7. Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A Increases Dimethylbenzanthracene-Induced Mammary Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Sarah; Raghuraman, Nandini; Eltoum, Isam; Carpenter, Mark; Russo, Jose; Lamartiniere, Coral A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, including infant formula bottles. Objectives Based on the reported endocrine disruptor activity of this polyphenol, we hypothesized that exposure to BPA early in life would elicit developmental changes in the mammary tissue and cause a predisposition for mammary cancer. Methods We exposed neonatal/prepubertal rats to BPA via lactation from nursing dams treated orally with 0, 25, and 250 μg BPA/kg body weight/day. For tumorigenesis studies, female offspring were exposed to 30 mg dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/kg body weight at 50 days of age. Results The combination of DMBA treatment with lactational exposure to BPA demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in mammary tumor multiplicity and reduced tumor latency compared with controls. In the absence of DMBA treatment, lactational BPA exposure resulted in increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis at 50 but not 21 days postpartum (shortly after last BPA treatment). Using Western blot analysis, we determined that steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) 1–3, Akt, phosphorylated Akt, progesterone receptor A (PR-A), and erbB3 proteins were significantly up-regulated at 50 days of age. Conclusions The data presented here provide the first evidence that maternal exposure to BPA during lactation increases mammary carcinogenesis in a DMBA-induced model of rodent mammary cancer. Changes in PR-A, SRC 1–3, erbB3, and Akt activity are consistent with increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis playing a role in mammary cancer susceptibility. These alterations provide an explanation of enhanced mammary carcinogenesis after lactational BPA exposure. PMID:19590682

  8. Significant overlap between human genome-wide association-study nominated breast cancer risk alleles and rat mammary cancer susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jennifer; Samuelson, David J

    2014-01-27

    Human population-based genome-wide association (GWA) studies identify low penetrance breast cancer risk alleles; however, GWA studies alone do not definitively determine causative genes or mechanisms. Stringent genome- wide statistical significance level requirements, set to avoid false-positive associations, yield many false-negative associations. Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) are useful to study many aspects of breast cancer, including genetic susceptibility. Several rat mammary cancer associated loci have been identified using genetic linkage and congenic strain based-approaches. Here, we sought to determine the amount of overlap between GWA study nominated human breast and rat mammary cancer susceptibility loci. We queried published GWA studies to identify two groups of SNPs, one that reached genome-wide significance and one comprised of SNPs failing a validation step and not reaching genome- wide significance. Human genome locations of these SNPs were compared to known rat mammary carcinoma susceptibility loci to determine if risk alleles existed in both species. Rat genome regions not known to associate with mammary cancer risk were randomly selected as control regions. Significantly more human breast cancer risk GWA study nominated SNPs mapped at orthologs of rat mammary cancer loci than to regions not known to contain rat mammary cancer loci. The rat genome was useful to predict associations that had met human genome-wide significance criteria and weaker associations that had not. Integration of human and rat comparative genomics may be useful to parse out false-negative associations in GWA studies of breast cancer risk.

  9. Chemopreventive Activity of Honokiol against 7, 12 - Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Mammary Cancer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xingyi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a predominant cause of death in women across the globe. Chemoprevention by using natural, dietary or synthetic products has been appearing to be a fascinating approach to combat the growing burden of breast cancer. In the current study, we intended to explore the mechanisms of chemopreventive action of honokiol against 7, 12 - dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague Dawlely (SD) rats. We induced mammary cancer in SD rats by administering single dose of DMBA (80 mg/kg) through intra gastric route. Chemopreventive effects of honokiol (80 mg/kg, i.p.) were confirmed from its ameliorating effect on the DMBA-induced anomalies such as liver marker enzymes, Phases I and II metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress markers. Further, honokiol reversed the DMBA-induced abnormalities in inflammatory cytokines levels and serum tumor markers. Additionally, histopathological examination of mammary tissue and protein expression analysis of NF-κB revealed that honokiol is effective against DMBA-induced mammary cancer. In summary, the results of our study support the chemopreventive feature of honokiol in mammary cancer.

  10. Genetic bases of estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in the rat: mapping of loci controlling susceptibility to mammary cancer in a Brown Norway x ACI intercross.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Beverly S; Lachel, Cynthia M; Pennington, Karen L; Murrin, Clare R; Strecker, Tracy E; Tochacek, Martin; Gould, Karen A; Meza, Jane L; McComb, Rodney D; Shull, James D

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Our laboratory has shown that the ACI rat is uniquely susceptible to 17beta-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer. We previously mapped two loci, Emca1 and Emca2 (estrogen-induced mammary cancer), that act independently to determine susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer in crosses between the susceptible ACI rat strain and the genetically related, but resistant, Copenhagen (COP) rat strain. In this study, we evaluate susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer in a cross between the ACI strain and the unrelated Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. Whereas nearly 100% of the ACI rats developed mammary cancer when treated continuously with E2, BN rats did not develop palpable mammary cancer during the 196-day course of E2 treatment. Susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer segregated as a dominant or incompletely dominant trait in a cross between BN females and ACI males. In a population of 251 female (BN x ACI)F(2) rats, we observed evidence for a total of five genetic determinants of susceptibility. Two loci, Emca4 and Emca5, were identified when mammary cancer status at sacrifice was evaluated as the phenotype, and three additional loci, Emca6, Emca7, and Emca8, were identified when mammary cancer number was evaluated as the phenotype. A total of three genetic interactions were identified. These data indicate that susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer in the BN x ACI cross behaves as a complex trait controlled by at least five loci and multiple gene-gene interactions.

  11. Anticancer Potential of Nutraceutical Formulations in MNU-induced Mammary Cancer in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pitchaiah, Gummalla; Akula, Annapurna; Chandi, Vishala

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nutraceuticals help in combating some of the major health problems of the century including cancer, and ‘nutraceutical formulations’ have led to the new era of medicine and health. Objective: To develop different nutraceutical formulations and to assess the anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Different nutraceutical formulations were prepared using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, papaya, turmeric, and wheat grass with and without cow urine distillate. Total phenolic content, acute oral toxicity, and microbial load of nutraceutical formulations were assessed. The anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations was evaluated against MNU-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague Dawley rats. Results: Improvement in total phenolic content was significant (P < 0.001) after self-fortification process. Toxicity studies showed that the nutraceutical formulations were safe to use in animals. Microbial load was within the limits. Significant longer tumor-free days (P < 0.01), lower tumor incidence (P < 0.01), lower tumor multiplicity (P < 0.05) and tumor burden (P < 0.01) were observed for nutraceutical formulation-treated groups. Conclusion: Combination of whole food-based nutraceuticals acted synergistically in the prevention of mammary cancer. Further, the process of fortification is novel and enhanced the anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations. SUMMARY Nutraceuticals help in combating some of the major health problems of the century including cancer, and ‘nutraceutical formulations’ have led to the new era of medicine and health. In this study, different nutraceutical formulations using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, papaya, turmeric, and wheat grass with and without cow urine distillate. Total phenolic content, acute oral toxicity, and microbial load of nutraceutical formulations were assessed

  12. Dietary effects of mead acid on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary cancers in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Hamazaki, Kei; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Yuki, Michiko; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of mead acid (MA; 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid) on the suppression of the development and growth of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. The MA diet (2.4% MA) or control (CTR) diet (0% MA) was started at 6 weeks of age, MNU was injected intraperitoneally at 7 weeks of age, and the rats were maintained on the respective diets for the whole experimental period (until 19 weeks of age). All induced mammary tumors were luminal A subtype carcinomas (estrogen and progesterone receptor positive and HER2/neu negative). The MA diet significantly suppressed the initiation and promotion phases of mammary carcinogenesis; MA suppressed the development (incidence, 61.5 vs. 100%; multiplicity, 2.1 vs. 4.5) and the growth (final tumor weight, 427.1 vs. 1,796.3 mg) of mammary cancers by suppressing cell proliferation, but not by accelerating cell death. There were evident changes in the major fatty acid composition of n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids in the serum of the MA diet group; there was a significant increase in MA and significant decreases in oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In non-tumorous mammary tissue, there was a significant increase in MA and a significant decrease in OA in the MA diet group. The n-6/n-3 ratios in serum and mammary tissue of the MA diet group were significantly decreased. The MA diet suppressed MNU-induced luminal A mammary cancer by lowering cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, MA may be a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent. In addition to hormone therapy, MA supplementation may be a beneficial chemotherapeutic agent for the luminal A subtype of breast cancer.

  13. Diagnostic PET Imaging of Mammary Microcalcifications Using (64)Cu-DOTA-Alendronate in a Rat Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Bradley J; Li, Lin; Ciminera, Alexandra K; Chea, Junie; Poku, Erasmus; Bading, James R; Weist, Michael R; Miller, Marcia M; Colcher, David M; Shively, John E

    2017-09-01

    The development of improved breast cancer screening methods is hindered by a lack of cancer-specific imaging agents and effective small-animal models to test them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate as a mammary microcalcification-targeting PET imaging agent, using an ideal rat model. Our long-term goal is to develop (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate for the detection and noninvasive differentiation of malignant versus benign breast tumors with PET. Methods: DOTA-alendronate was synthesized, radiolabeled with (64)Cu, and administered to normal or tumor-bearing aged, female, retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats for PET imaging. Mammary tissues were subsequently labeled and imaged with light, confocal, and electron microscopy to verify microcalcification targeting specificity of DOTA-alendronate and elucidate the histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of the microcalcifications in different mammary tumor types. Tumor uptake, biodistribution, and dosimetry studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate. Results:(64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate was radiolabeled with a 98% yield. PET imaging using aged, female, retired breeder rats showed specific binding of (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate in mammary glands and mammary tumors. The highest uptake of (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate was in malignant tumors and the lowest uptake in benign tumors and normal mammary tissue. Confocal analysis with carboxyfluorescein-alendronate confirmed the microcalcification binding specificity of alendronate derivatives. Biodistribution studies revealed tissue alendronate concentrations peaking within the first hour, then decreasing over the next 48 h. Our dosimetric analysis demonstrated a (64)Cu effective dose within the acceptable range for clinical PET imaging agents and the potential for translation into human patients. Conclusion:(64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate is a promising PET imaging agent for the sensitive and specific detection of mammary tumors

  14. Mammary cancers and pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Uncertainties persist about management and prognosis of mammary cancers that occur during and after pregnancy and during lactation. Pathological features of mammary cancers occurring during pregnancy are the same as those in non-pregnant women and survival rates are comparable. Management should be the same as in non-pregnant patients. Termination of pregnancy does not improve survival but it should be advised if the prognosis is poor. Mastectomy apparently presents little danger to the fetus, though treatment such as chemotherapy and irradiation should be avoided. Women who have received treatment for mammary cancer need not be advised against subsequent pregnancy. Routine ovarian radiation in non-pregnant premenopausal women is not generally to be recommended, since it does not prolong survival and would deprive some of the chance of further pregnancy. In lactating women who develop mammary cancers survival is apparently not adversely affected. Lactation should be suppressed initially and followed by mastectomy. Regimens of immunotherapy, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy may then be begun. Until results of current trials of combined treatments of mammary cancers associated with pregnancy are available, management should be neither aggressive nor tentative. It should be based on a well-balanced concept of applying all available treatments, as in non-pregnant patients. PMID:376044

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Genistein Mammary Cancer Chemoprevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    to collect a higher yield of proteins and hopefully allow success. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Genistein , Breast Cancer Chemoprevention, Proteomics, Rats ...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0433 TITLE: Proteomic Analysis of Genistein ...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Proteomic Analysis of Genistein Mammary Cancer Chemoprevention 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0433 5c. PROGRAM

  16. Identification of rat mammary tumor-1 gene (RMT-1), which is highly expressed in rat mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Chiou, S; Yoo, J; Loh, K C; Guzman, R C; Gopinath, G R; Rajkumar, L; Chou, Y C; Yang, J; Popescu, N C; Nandi, S

    2001-12-10

    Full-term pregnancy early in life results in a permanent reduction in lifetime breast cancer risk in women. Parous rats and mice are also refractory to chemical carcinogenesis. Therefore, investigation of the differences between mammary glands from virgin and parous rats would provide valuable information regarding the protective effects of early full-term pregnancy. In this report, we examined the gene expression patterns in mammary glands from virgin and parous Lewis rats. Using differential display technology, a novel 4.2 kb cDNA, designated rat mammary tumor-1 (RMT-1) was isolated. Northern blot analysis of RMT-1 showed that RMT-1 expression was higher in the pre-pubertal and pubertal stages during rat mammary gland development while it was down-regulated in mammary glands from mature virgin and parous rats. RMT-1 expression was highest in rat mammary cancers compared with either the mammary glands of virgin or parous rats. At the Northern blot sensitivity level, RMT-1 expression was found only in the mammary gland. Northern blot analysis also showed that the expression of this gene was found in 74% of N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancers while it was not found in MNU-induced cancers from other organs. The examination of the RMT-1 gene structure revealed that it consists of five exons spanning 5.9 kb. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, the gene was localized on rat chromosome 1 band q 43-51. The present data show that there is a correlation between high RMT-1 expression and rat mammary carcinogenesis or decreased RMT-1 expression and parity associated refractoriness to chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis. However, whether or not RMT-1 gene has a functional role in these processes remains to be investigated.

  17. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  18. Genetic determination of susceptibility to estrogen-induced mammary cancer in the ACI rat: mapping of Emca1 and Emca2 to chromosomes 5 and 18.

    PubMed

    Gould, Karen A; Tochacek, Martin; Schaffer, Beverly S; Reindl, Tanya M; Murrin, Clare R; Lachel, Cynthia M; VanderWoude, Eric A; Pennington, Karen L; Flood, Lisa A; Bynote, Kimberly K; Meza, Jane L; Newton, Michael A; Shull, James D

    2004-12-01

    Hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors play major roles in the complex etiology of breast cancer. When treated continuously with 17beta-estradiol (E2), the ACI rat exhibits a genetically conferred propensity to develop mammary cancer. The susceptibility of the ACI rat to E2-induced mammary cancer appears to segregate as an incompletely dominant trait in crosses to the resistant Copenhagen (COP) strain. In both (ACI x COP)F(2) and (COP x ACI)F(2) populations, we find strong evidence for a major genetic determinant of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer on distal rat chromosome 5. Our data are most consistent with a model in which the ACI allele of this locus, termed Emca1 (estrogen-induced mammary cancer 1), acts in an incompletely dominant manner to increase both tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as well as to reduce tumor latency in these populations. We also find evidence suggestive of a second locus, Emca2, on chromosome 18 in the (ACI x COP)F(2) population. The ACI allele of Emca2 acts in a dominant manner to increase incidence and decrease latency. Together, Emca1 and Emca2 act independently to modify susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer.

  19. A rat model of bone cancer pain induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mao-Ying, Q.-L.; Zhao Jun; Dong Zhiqiang; Wang Jun; Yu Jin; Yan Minfen; Zhang Yuqiu; Wu Gencheng; Wang Yanqing . E-mail: wangyanqing@shmu.edu.cn

    2006-07-14

    This study described a modified rat model of bone cancer pain. Syngeneic Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were injected into the tibia medullary cavity via intercondylar eminence. Series of tests were carried out including bone radiology, bone histology, ambulatory pain, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, weight bearing ability, and electrophysiological recording from primary afferent fibers. The rats inoculated with carcinoma cells showed significant ambulatory pain, mechanical allodynia, and reduction in weight bearing, as well as increased incidence of spontaneous activity in A{beta} fibers in affected limb, whereas PBS (vehicle) or heat-killed cells (sham) injected rats showed no significant difference in comparison to normal rats. The pain hypersensitive behaviors were aggravated with time and destruction of bone. Interestingly, mechanical allodynia was also observed in the contralateral limb, indicating the involvement of 'mirror image' pain in bone cancer pain. In summary, the present study provided a useful and easily established rat model of bone cancer pain which will contribute to further study of the mechanisms underlying cancer pain.

  20. Excess weight gain accelerates 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in a rat model of premenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Shawna B.; Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; McGinley, John N.; Neil, Elizabeth S.; Thompson, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the null effects generally reported, high-risk premenopausal women (Gail score ≥1.66) enrolled in the Breast Cancer Prevention P-1 Trial were recently reported to be at increased risk for breast cancer when overweight (HR, 1.59) or obese (HR, 1.70). To investigate this clinical observation in a preclinical setting, ovary-intact female rats were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea at 21 days of age to simulate premenopausal women with increased risk. Two commercially available strains of Sprague Dawley rat (Taconic Farms) were used which are dietary resistant (DR) or dietary susceptible (DS) to excess weight gain when fed a purified diet containing 32% kcal from fat, similar to levels consumed by the typical American woman. DS rats were approximately 15.5% heavier than DR rats at study termination and plasma leptin indicated a marked difference in adiposity. DS rats had higher incidence (26% increase), multiplicity (2.5-fold increase), and burden (5.4-fold increase) of mammary carcinomas with a concomitant reduction in cancer latency (16% earlier detection) compared to DR rats (P <.001 for all analyses), and displayed a higher proportion of hormone receptor negative tumors compared to DR rats (OR=1.78, 95% CI 0.83–3.81). Circulating levels of several breast cancer risk factors including leptin, adiponectin:leptin ratio, insulin, IGF-1, IGF-1:IGFBP3 ratio, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were negatively impacted in DS rats (P <.05 for all analyses). These findings support further investigation of the effects of excess weight in high-risk premenopausal women and demonstrate a useful preclinical model for rapid evaluation of mechanistic hypotheses. PMID:24441676

  1. Excess weight gain accelerates 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in a rat model of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Shawna B; Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; McGinley, John N; Neil, Elizabeth S; Thompson, Henry J

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to the null effects generally reported, high-risk premenopausal women (Gail score ≥1.66) enrolled in the Breast Cancer Prevention P-1 Trial were recently reported to be at increased risk for breast cancer when overweight (HR = 1.59) or obese (HR = 1.70). To investigate this clinical observation in a preclinical setting, ovary-intact female rats were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea at 21 days of age to simulate premenopausal women with increased risk. Two commercially available strains of Sprague-Dawley rat (Taconic Farms) were used, which are dietary resistant (DR) or dietary susceptible (DS) to excess weight gain when fed a purified diet containing 32% kcal from fat, similar to levels consumed by the typical American woman. DS rats were approximately 15.5% heavier than DR rats at study termination and plasma leptin indicated a marked difference in adiposity. DS rats had higher incidence (26% increase), multiplicity (2.5-fold increase), and burden (5.4-fold increase) of mammary carcinomas with a concomitant reduction in cancer latency (16% earlier detection) compared with DR rats (P < 0.001 for all analyses), and displayed a higher proportion of hormone receptor negative tumors compared with DR rats [OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-3.81]. Circulating levels of several breast cancer-risk factors, including leptin, adiponectin:leptin ratio, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-1:IGF-1 binding protein-3 ratio, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were negatively impacted in DS rats (P < 0.05 for all analyses). These findings support further investigation of the effects of excess weight in high-risk premenopausal women and demonstrate a useful preclinical model for rapid evaluation of mechanistic hypotheses.

  2. Molecular characterization of cancer reveals interactions between ionizing radiation and chemicals on rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Doi, Kazutaka; Tani, Shusuke; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Imai, Takashi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2014-04-01

    Although various mechanisms have been inferred for combinatorial actions of multiple carcinogens, these mechanisms have not been well demonstrated in experimental carcinogenesis models. We evaluated mammary carcinogenesis initiated by combined exposure to various doses of radiation and chemical carcinogens. Female rats at 7 weeks of age were γ-irradiated (0.2-2 Gy) and/or exposed to 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) (20 or 40 mg/kg, single intraperitoneal injection) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (40 mg/kg/day by gavage for 10 days) and were observed until 50 weeks of age. The incidence of mammary carcinoma increased steadily as a function of radiation dose in the absence of chemicals; mathematical analysis supported an additive increase when radiation was combined with a chemical carcinogen, irrespective of the chemical species and its dose. Hras mutations were characteristic of carcinomas that developed after chemical carcinogen treatments and were overrepresented in carcinomas induced by the combination of radiation and MNU (but not PhIP), indicating an interaction of radiation and MNU at the level of initiation. The expression profiles of seven classifier genes, previously shown to distinguish two classes of rat mammary carcinomas, categorized almost all examined carcinomas that developed after individual or combined treatments with radiation (1 Gy) and chemicals as belonging to a single class; more comprehensive screening using microarrays and a separate test sample set failed to identify differences in gene expression profiles among these carcinomas. These results suggest that a complex, multilevel interaction underlies the combinatorial action of radiation and chemical carcinogens in the experimental model.

  3. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure--Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to excess estradiol or leptin during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk and prevents parity-induced protective genomic changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Sonia; Wang, Mingyue; Jin, Lu; Bouker, Kerrie B; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena A

    2015-01-01

    Using a preclinical model, we investigated whether excess estradiol (E2) or leptin during pregnancy affects maternal mammary tumorigenesis in rats initiated by administering carcinogen DMBA on day 50. Two weeks later, rats were mated, and pregnant dams were treated daily with 10 μg of 17β-estradiol, 15 μg of leptin or vehicle from gestation day 8 to 19. Tumor development was assessed separately during weeks 1–12 and 13–22 after DMBA administration, since pregnancy is known to induce a transient increase in breast cancer risk, followed by a persistent reduction. Parous rats developed less (32%) mammary tumors than nulliparous rats (59%, p<0.001), and the majority (93%) of tumors in the parous rats appeared before week 13 (versus 41% in nulliparous rats), indicating that pregnancy induced a transient increase in breast cancer risk. Parous rats exposed to leptin (final tumor incidence 65%) or E2 (45%) during pregnancy developed mammary tumors throughout the tumor monitoring period, similar to nulliparous control rats, and the incidence was significantly higher in both the leptin and E2 exposed dams after week 12 than in the vehicle exposed parous dams (p<0.001). The mammary glands of the exposed parous rats contained significantly more proliferating cells (p<0.001). In addition, the E2 or leptin treated parous rats did not exhibit the protective genomic signature induced by pregnancy and seen in the parous control rats. Specifically, these rats exhibited down-regulation of genes involved in differentiation and immune functions and up-regulation of genes involved in angiogenesis, growth, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. PMID:24169961

  5. Exposure to excess estradiol or leptin during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk and prevents parity-induced protective genomic changes in rats.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sonia; Wang, Mingyue; Jin, Lu; Bouker, Kerrie B; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena A

    2013-11-01

    Using a preclinical model, we investigated whether excess estradiol (E2) or leptin during pregnancy affects maternal mammary tumorigenesis in rats initiated by administering carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) on day 50. Two weeks later, rats were mated, and pregnant dams were treated daily with 10 μg of 17β-estradiol, 15 μg of leptin, or vehicle from gestation day 8 to 19. Tumor development was assessed separately during weeks 1 to 12 and 13 to 22 after DMBA administration, because pregnancy is known to induce a transient increase in breast cancer risk, followed by a persistent reduction. Parous rats developed less (32%) mammary tumors than nulliparous rats (59%, P < 0.001), and the majority (93%) of tumors in the parous rats appeared before week 13 (vs. 41% in nulliparous rats), indicating that pregnancy induced a transient increase in breast cancer risk. Parous rats exposed to leptin (final tumor incidence 65%) or E2 (45%) during pregnancy developed mammary tumors throughout the tumor-monitoring period, similar to nulliparous control rats, and the incidence was significantly higher in both the leptin- and E2-exposed dams after week 12 than in the vehicle-exposed parous dams (P < 0.001). The mammary glands of the exposed parous rats contained significantly more proliferating cells (P < 0.001). In addition, the E2- or leptin-treated parous rats did not exhibit the protective genomic signature induced by pregnancy and seen in the parous control rats. Specifically, these rats exhibited downregulation of genes involved in differentiation and immune functions and upregulation of genes involved in angiogenesis, growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  6. Genetic Susceptibility to Estrogen-Induced Mammary Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    mammary glands were reflected in mammary histology. (A and E) Thin sections from Fig. 3. E2 induced pituitary growth and hyperprolactinemia similarly in...with E2 5 (33%) exhibited a normal DNA profile where the great for 12 wk induced pituitary growth and hyperprolactinemia in majority of cells displayed...etal. , " terone, or PRL. Hyperprolactinemia has been shown to be sufficient to induce mammary cancer in certain strains of mouse 1 , (29-31) and rat

  7. In utero exposure of rats to high-fat diets perturbs gene-expression profiles and cancer susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Jun; Gear, Robin; Bornschein, Robert L; Medvedovic, Mario; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Human studies suggest that high-fat diets (HFD) increase the risk of breast cancer. The 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis rat model is commonly used to evaluate the effects of lifestyle factors such as HFD on mammary-tumor risk. Past studies focused primarily on the effects of continuous maternal exposure on the risk of offspring at the end of puberty (PND50). We assessed the effects of prenatal HFD exposure on cancer susceptibility in prepubertal mammary glands and identified key gene networks associated with such disruption. During pregnancy, dams were fed AIN93G-based diets with isocaloric high olive oil, butterfat, or safflower oil. The control group received AIN-93G. Female offspring were treated with DMBA on PND21. However, a significant increase in tumor volume and a trend of shortened tumor latency were observed in rats with HFD exposure against the controls (p=0.048 and p=0.067 respectively). Large-volume tumors harbored carcinoma in situ. Transcriptome profiling identified 43 differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of the HFBUTTER group as compared with control. Rapid hormone signaling was the most dysregulated pathway. The diet also induced aberrant expression of Dnmt3a, Mbd1, and Mbd3, consistent with potential epigenetic disruption. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence supporting susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands to DMBA-induced tumorigenesis that can be modulated by dietary fat that involves aberrant gene expression and likely epigenetic dysregulation. PMID:26895667

  8. Importance of dietary fat during initiation versus promotion in rat mammary cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hasler, C.M.; Bennink, M.R.

    1986-03-05

    This study was designed to determine if the fat content of the diet would alter 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the AIN-76 (high carbohydrate, HC) diet or a modified AIN-76 diet (high fat (37/sup 5/), HF) prior to initiation. The HF diet had the same energy to nutrient ratio as the HC diet. Two groups were fed either the HC or the HF diet during the initiation and promotion phase (HC-HC and HF-HF groups). A third group was fed the HF diet 20 days before and 12 days after initiation and then were fed the HC diet during the promotion phase (HF-HC group). Weight gain during promotion was similar for the HC-HC and HF-HC groups, but the HF-HF group gained 41% more weight. The HC-HC group had significantly fewer tumors than the HF-HF or HF-HC groups (HC-HC = 1.45 tumors/rat; HF-HF = 2.75 and HF-HC = 3.63). Surprisingly, feeding the HC diet during promotion did not cause a decrease in tumorigenesis (there was actually a non-significant increase). This work demonstrates that the fat (energy) content of the diet during DMBA initiation is critical. Furthermore, the fat (energy) content of the diet during initiation was more critical than during promotion.

  9. Pathologic progression of mammary carcinomas in a C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic rat model of human triple-negative and Her2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoenerhoff, M J; Shibata, M A; Bode, A; Green, J E

    2011-04-01

    The C3(1) component of the rat prostate steroid binding protein has been used to target expression of the SV40 T/t-antigen to the mammary epithelium of mice resulting in pre-neoplastic lesions that progress to invasive and metastatic cancer with molecular features of human basal-type breast cancer. However, there are major differences in the histologic architecture of the stromal and epithelial elements between the mouse and human mammary glands. The rat mammary gland is more enriched with epithelial and stromal components than the mouse and more closely resembles the cellular composition of the human gland. Additionally, existing rat models of mammary cancer are typically estrogen receptor positive and hormone responsive, unlike most genetically engineered mouse mammary cancer models. In an attempt to develop a mammary cancer model that might more closely resemble the pathology of human breast cancer, we generated a novel C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic rat model that developed progressive mammary lesions leading to highly invasive adenocarcinomas. However, aggressive tumor development prevented the establishment of transgenic lines. Characterization of the tumors revealed that they were primarily estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative, and either her2/neu positive or negative, resembling human triple-negative or Her2 positive breast cancer. Tumors expressed the basal marker K14, as well as the luminal marker K18, and were negative for smooth muscle actin. The triple negative phenotype has not been previously reported in a rat mammary cancer model. Further development of a C3(1)SV40 T/t-antigen based model could establish valuable transgenic rat lines that develop basal-type mammary tumors.

  10. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0402 TITLE: Mammary Cancer and Activation...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2013 – 31 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements 5a. CONTRACT...investigate molecular events occurring in the preclinical stages of mammary cancer. Specifically, the project investigates the intersection between the

  11. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats.

  12. Dietary lignin, and insoluble fiber, enhance uterine cancer but did not influence mammary cancer induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in rats.

    PubMed

    Birt, D F; Markin, R S; Blackwood, D; Harvell, D M; Shull, J D; Pennington, K L

    1998-01-01

    Previous investigations suggested potential breast cancer-preventive properties of dietary fiber from cabbage. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether lignin, a component of cabbage fiber, would protect against mammary carcinogenesis by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in Sprague-Dawley rats. A six-week study was conducted using diets containing 0.5-5% dietary wood lignin (a readily available, purified source). These diets were well tolerated by the rats, and a carcinogenesis study using 5 mg MNU/100 g body wt i.v. at 50 days of age was conducted, with the 2.5% lignin diet fed from 6 through 8 weeks of age followed by 5% lignin diet until 20 weeks after MNU. Dietary lignin and MNU treatment increased food consumption (p < 0.05), and body weight was slightly reduced at 10 and 20 weeks after MNU in the MNU-5% lignin diet group (p < 0.05). Serum estradiol was not altered by dietary lignin or MNU treatment, but uterine weights were highest in the MNU-control diet group 4 and 12 weeks after MNU. Expression of creatine kinase B, and estrogen-responsive gene, was lower in eh uteri of the MNU-lignin diet group than in other groups at 20 weeks. Mammary carcinogenesis was not altered by dietary lignin. However, uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma was observed only in the MNU-lignin diet group (4 carcinomas/40 effective rats) (p < 0.05).

  13. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helen; Hall, Patti; Smith, Michelle; Kirk, Marion; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen; Grubbs, Clinton

    2004-12-01

    Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins. This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet. Female rats were begun on 5%, 1.25%, or 0% (control) GSE-supplemented diets at age 35 d. At age 50 d they were administered 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil at 80 mg/kg body weight. They were weighed and monitored weekly for tumor development until 120 d after DMBA administration. Administration of GSE in AIN-76A diet did not show any protective activity of GSE against DMBA-induced breast cancer. However, administration of GSE in a laboratory dry food diet (Teklad 4% rodent diet) resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor multiplicity. In similar experiments, genistein administered in AIN-76A diet also failed to show chemopreventive activity against the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; however, when administered at the same dose in the Teklad 4% rodent diet, genistein exhibited significant chemopreventive activity (44-61%). These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered.

  14. Physiologically activated mammary fibroblasts promote postpartum mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiuchen; Burchard, Julja; Spellman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years of childbirth have poorer prognosis than nulliparous or pregnant women. Weaning-induced breast involution is implicated, as the collagen-rich, immunosuppressive microenvironment of the involuting mammary gland is tumor promotional in mice. To investigate the role of mammary fibroblasts, isolated mammary PDGFRα+ cells from nulliparous and postweaning mice were assessed for activation phenotype and protumorigenic function. Fibroblast activation during involution was evident by increased expression of fibrillar collagens, lysyl oxidase, Tgfb1, and Cxcl12 genes. The ability of mammary tumors to grow in an isogenic, orthotopic transplant model was increased when tumor cells were coinjected with involution-derived compared with nulliparous-derived mammary fibroblasts. Mammary tumors in the involution-fibroblast group had increased Ly6C+ monocytes at the tumor border, and decreased CD8+ T cell infiltration and tumor cell death. Ibuprofen treatment suppressed involution-fibroblast activation and tumor promotional capacity, concurrent with decreases in tumor Ly6C+ monocytes, and increases in intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration, granzyme levels, and tumor cell death. In total, our data identify a COX/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–dependent activated mammary fibroblast within the involuting mammary gland that displays protumorigenic, immunosuppressive activity, identifying fibroblasts as potential targets for the prevention and treatment of postpartum breast cancer. PMID:28352652

  15. Salivary α-amylase exhibits antiproliferative effects in primary cell cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fedrowitz, Maren; Hass, Ralf; Bertram, Catharina; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in females, frequently with fatal outcome, so that new strategies for modulating cell proliferation in the mammary tissue are urgently needed. There is some, as yet inconclusive evidence that α-amylase may constitute a novel candidate for affecting cellular growth. The present investigation aimed to examine if salivary α-amylase, an enzyme well known for the metabolism of starch and recently introduced as a stress marker, is able to exert antiproliferative effects on the growth of mammary gland epithelial cells. For this purpose, primary epithelial cultures of breast tissue from two different inbred rat strains, Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis, as well as breast tumor cells of human origin were used. Treatment with human salivary α-amylase was performed once daily for 2 days followed by cell counting (trypan blue assay) to determine alterations in cell numbers. Cell senescence after α-amylase treatment was assessed by β-galactosidase assay. Endogenous α-amylase was detected in cells from F344 and Lewis by immunofluorescence. Salivary α-amylase treatment in vitro significantly decreased the proliferation of primary cells from F344 and Lewis rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Noticeably, the sensitivity towards α-amylase was significantly higher in Lewis cells with stronger impact on cell growth after 5 and 50 U/ml compared to F344 cells. An antiproliferative effect of α-amylase was also determined in mammary tumor cells of human origin, but this effect varied depending on the donor, age, and type of the cells. The results presented here indicate for the first time that salivary α-amylase affects cell growth in rat mammary epithelial cells and in breast tumor cells of human origin. Thus, α-amylase may be considered a novel, promising target for balancing cellular growth, which may provide an interesting tool for tumor prophylaxis and treatment.

  16. Similarity of GATA-3 Expression between Rat and Human Mammary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-07-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. In particular, GATA-3 is necessary for mammary gland maturation and is a useful marker in the characterization of mammary carcinoma in humans. The expression of GATA-3 protein in normal mammary glands, fibroadenomas and carcinomas was immunohistochemically compared in female rats and humans. In normal mammary glands of rats and humans, scattered luminal cells in the acini and whole ductal epithelial cells were positive for GATA-3 in the nuclei. No positive cells were detected in rat or human fibroadenomas. In rat and human mammary carcinomas, the nuclei of proliferating luminal-derived cancer cells expressed GATA-3. Therefore, GATA-3 protein is a candidate marker for mammary carcinoma in rats as well as humans.

  17. Similarity of GATA-3 Expression between Rat and Human Mammary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-01-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. In particular, GATA-3 is necessary for mammary gland maturation and is a useful marker in the characterization of mammary carcinoma in humans. The expression of GATA-3 protein in normal mammary glands, fibroadenomas and carcinomas was immunohistochemically compared in female rats and humans. In normal mammary glands of rats and humans, scattered luminal cells in the acini and whole ductal epithelial cells were positive for GATA-3 in the nuclei. No positive cells were detected in rat or human fibroadenomas. In rat and human mammary carcinomas, the nuclei of proliferating luminal-derived cancer cells expressed GATA-3. Therefore, GATA-3 protein is a candidate marker for mammary carcinoma in rats as well as humans. PMID:25352719

  18. Both ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are necessary for hormonal mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Blank, Edward W; Wong, Po-Yin; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar; Guzman, Raphael; Nandi, Satyabrata

    2008-03-04

    August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats are unique in that the ovary-intact females develop high incidence of mammary cancers induced solely by hormones upon prolonged exposure to high levels of estrogen alone. Studies have also shown that such prolonged exposure to high-dose estrogen results in human-like aneuploid mammary cancers in ovary-intact ACI rats. To determine the role of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis, six-week-old intact and ovariectomized ACI rats were continuously exposed to low- and high-dose estrogen alone, progesterone alone, low-dose estrogen plus progesterone, and ovariectomized ACI rats with high-dose estrogen plus progesterone. Also, ovariectomized ACI rats were treated with high-dose estrogen plus progesterone plus testosterone to determine the role of the androgen, testosterone, if any, in hormonal mammary carcinogenesis. The results indicate that continuous exposure to high, but not low, concentrations of estrogen alone can induce mammary carcinogenesis in intact but not in ovariectomized rats. Mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized ACI rats requires continuous exposure to high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. The addition of testosterone propionate does not affect tumor incidence in such rats. These results suggest that both ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are necessary for mammary carcinogenesis induced solely by hormones in ovariectomized ACI rats. Our results are in agreement with the Women's Health Initiative studies, where treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen (ERT) alone did not increase the risk of breast cancer, but estrogen and progesterone (HRT) did.

  19. Physical Confirmation and Comparative Genomics of the Rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 Quantitative Trait Locus

    PubMed Central

    Le, Saasha; Martin, Zachary C.; Samuelson, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Human breast and rat mammary cancer susceptibility are complex phenotypes where complete sets of risk associated loci remain to be identified for both species. We tested multiple congenic rat strains to physically confirm and positionally map rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 (Mcs3)—a mammary cancer resistance allele previously predicted at Rattus norvegicus chromosome 1 (RNO1). The mammary cancer susceptible Wistar Furth (WF) strain was the recipient, and the mammary cancer resistant Copenhagen (Cop) strain was the RNO1-segment donor for congenics. Inbred WF females averaged 6.3 carcinogen-induced mammary carcinomas per rat. Two WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 2.8 and 3.4 mammary carcinomas per rat, which confirmed Mcs3 as an independently acting allele. Two other WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 6.6 and 8.1 mammary carcinomas per rat, and, thus, did not contain Mcs3. Rat Mcs3 was delimited to 27.8 Mb of RNO1 from rs8149408 to rs105131702 (RNO1:143700228-171517317 of RGSC 6.0/rn6). Human genetic variants with p values for association to breast cancer risk below 10−7 had not been reported for Mcs3 orthologous loci; however, human variants located in Mcs3-orthologous regions with potential association to risk (10−7 < p < 10−3) were listed in some population-based studies. Further, rat Mcs3 contains sequence orthologous to human 11q13/14—a region frequently amplified in female breast cancer. We conclude that Mcs3 is an independently acting mammary carcinoma resistance allele. Human population-based, genome-targeted association studies interrogating Mcs3 orthologous loci may yield novel breast cancer risk associated variants and genes. PMID:28391240

  20. Physical Confirmation and Comparative Genomics of the Rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 Quantitative Trait Locus.

    PubMed

    Le, Saasha; Martin, Zachary C; Samuelson, David J

    2017-06-07

    Human breast and rat mammary cancer susceptibility are complex phenotypes where complete sets of risk associated loci remain to be identified for both species. We tested multiple congenic rat strains to physically confirm and positionally map rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 (Mcs3)-a mammary cancer resistance allele previously predicted at Rattus norvegicus chromosome 1 (RNO1). The mammary cancer susceptible Wistar Furth (WF) strain was the recipient, and the mammary cancer resistant Copenhagen (Cop) strain was the RNO1-segment donor for congenics. Inbred WF females averaged 6.3 carcinogen-induced mammary carcinomas per rat. Two WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 2.8 and 3.4 mammary carcinomas per rat, which confirmed Mcs3 as an independently acting allele. Two other WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 6.6 and 8.1 mammary carcinomas per rat, and, thus, did not contain Mcs3 Rat Mcs3 was delimited to 27.8 Mb of RNO1 from rs8149408 to rs105131702 (RNO1:143700228-171517317 of RGSC 6.0/rn6). Human genetic variants with p values for association to breast cancer risk below 10(-7) had not been reported for Mcs3 orthologous loci; however, human variants located in Mcs3-orthologous regions with potential association to risk (10(-7) < p < 10(-3)) were listed in some population-based studies. Further, rat Mcs3 contains sequence orthologous to human 11q13/14-a region frequently amplified in female breast cancer. We conclude that Mcs3 is an independently acting mammary carcinoma resistance allele. Human population-based, genome-targeted association studies interrogating Mcs3 orthologous loci may yield novel breast cancer risk associated variants and genes. Copyright © 2017 Le et al.

  1. Enhanced mammary progesterone receptor-A isoform activity in the promotion of mammary tumor progression by dietary soy in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary contribution to breast cancer risk, recurrence, and progression remains incompletely understood. Increased consumption of soy and soy isoflavones is associated with reduced mammary cancer susceptibility in women and in rodent models of carcinogenesis. In rats treated with N-Methyl-N-Nitrosou...

  2. Effect of Age at Exposure on the Incidence of Lung and Mammary Cancer after Thoracic X-Ray Irradiation in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yutaka; Iwata, Ken-Ichi; Blyth, Benjamin J; Doi, Kazutaka; Morioka, Takamitsu; Daino, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiology studies have shown that children are at greater overall risk of radiation-induced cancer, but the modifying effect of age at exposure in different tissues is heterogeneous. Early epidemiology findings of increased lung cancer risk with increasing age at the time of exposure have been dismissed, with suggestions that the trend is an artefact from a failure to adequately correct for the effects of tobacco smoking. Yet, differing models used in subsequent analyses have shown that the increased susceptibility with age, counter to the overall solid tumor trend, can either be confirmed or discounted depending on the model parameters used. In this study, we analyzed the induction of tumors in female Wistar rats exposed to increasing thoracic doses of X-ray as neonates, juveniles or young adults, to allow the effect of age at exposure in this early period to be observed in the absence of any interactions with smoking. Histology was used to compare tumor subtypes among groups, and genomic DNA copy number alterations in a number of tumors arising after irradiation at different ages were examined. Induction of lung cancers increased with radiation dose, with the frequency of early occurring lung adenomas greater in rats irradiated at older ages. At the highest dose, the rats irradiated at 5 or 15 weeks of age showed increased age-specific rates of lung adenocarcinomas in later life compared to those irradiated at 1 week of age. However, thoracic mammary gland tumors induced by the highest dose at the later ages significantly decreased the lifespan in these groups, reducing the number of rats at risk of radiation-induced lung adenocarcinoma. There was no induction of mammary tumors outside of the irradiated field. Lung adenocarcinomas showed widespread DNA copy number aberrations at the chromosome level, but the only recurrent lesions were intragenic Fhit deletions and losses on chromosome 4. The results presented here suggest that the risk of radiation

  3. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    transcriptionally activated during pregnancy and lactation , and the mice are predisposed to develop mammary cancer after a minimum of 3 pregnancies and...pregnancy and lactation . After 3 pregnancies and lactations , but not after 1 pregnancy and lactation , females develop mammary cancers at an average...mated females per experimental condition (1 or 3 pregnancies/ lactations . 5 breeding strategy to develop triple transgenic cancer -prone and control

  4. Concordant effects of aromatase inhibitors on gene expression in ER+ Rat and human mammary cancers and modulation of the proteins coded by these genes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; You, Ming; Ghazoui, Zara; Liu, Pengyuan; Vedell, Peter T; Wen, Weidong; Bode, Ann M; Grubbs, Clinton J; Lubet, Ronald A

    2013-11-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are effective in therapy/prevention of estrogen receptor-positive (ER⁺) breast cancers. Rats bearing methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced ER⁺ mammary cancers were treated with the aromatase inhibitor vorozole (1.25 mg/kg BW/day) for five days. RNA expression showed 162 downregulated and 180 upregulated (P < 0.05 and fold change >1.5) genes. Genes modulated by vorozole were compared with published data from four clinical neoadjuvant trials using aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole). More than 30 genes and multiple pathways exhibited synchronous changes in animal and human datasets. Cell-cycle genes related to chromosome condensation in prometaphase [anaphase-prometaphase complex (APC) pathway, including Aurora-A kinase, BUBR1B, TOP2, cyclin A, cyclin B CDC2, and TPX-2)] were downregulated in animal and human studies reflecting the strong antiproliferative effects of aromatase inhibitors. Comparisons of rat arrays with a cell culture study where estrogen was removed from MCF-7 cells showed decreased expression of E2F1-modulated genes as a major altered pathway. Alterations of the cell cycle and E2F-related genes were confirmed in a large independent set of human samples (81 pairs baseline and two weeks anastrozole treatment). Decreases in proliferation-related genes were confirmed at the protein level for cyclin A2, BuRB1, cdc2, Pttg, and TPX-2. Interestingly, the proteins downregulated in tumors were similarly downregulated in vorozole-treated normal rat mammary epithelium. Finally, decreased expression of known estrogen-responsive genes (including TFF, 1,3, progesterone receptor, etc.) were decreased in the animal model. These studies demonstrate that gene expression changes (pathways and individual genes) are similar in humans and the rat model.

  5. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat mammary glands following combinational exposure to bisphenol A and genistein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Jenkins, Sarah; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2014-05-29

    Humans are exposed to an array of both harmful and beneficial hormonally active compounds in the environment and through diet. Two such chemicals are Bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. Prepubertal exposure to BPA increased mammary carcinogenesis, while genistein suppressed cancer in a chemically-induced model of rodent mammary cancer. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of combinational exposure to genistein and BPA on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and associated proteins as markers of cancer in mammary glands of rats exposed prepubertally to these environmental chemicals. Prepubertal rats (postpartum days (PND) 2-20) were exposed through lactation via nursing dams treated orally with sesame oil (SO), BPA, genistein, or a combination of BPA and genistein (BPA + Gen). Cell proliferation, apoptosis and protein expressions were investigated for mechanistic studies in mammary glands of rats exposed to these environmental chemicals. Prepubertal exposure to genistein increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND21 rats, while BPA increased cell proliferation in adult (PND50) rats. Prepubertal combinational exposure to BPA + Gen increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in PND21 rats, but reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in PND50 rats. The altered mechanisms behind these cellular responses appear to be centered on differential protein expression of caspases, PARP, Bad, p21, Akts, PTEN, ER-β and SRCs 1-3, in the rat mammary gland. Prepubertal BPA exposure resulted in increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND50 rats, a process associated with increased risk of cancer development in a chemically-induced mammary cancer. On the other hand, genistein stimulated cell proliferation at PND21, a process that correlates with mammary gland maturation and chemoprevention. In contrast to single chemical exposure, combinational exposure to BPA + Gen performed most similarly to

  6. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat mammary glands following combinational exposure to bisphenol A and genistein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans are exposed to an array of both harmful and beneficial hormonally active compounds in the environment and through diet. Two such chemicals are Bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. Prepubertal exposure to BPA increased mammary carcinogenesis, while genistein suppressed cancer in a chemically-induced model of rodent mammary cancer. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of combinational exposure to genistein and BPA on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and associated proteins as markers of cancer in mammary glands of rats exposed prepubertally to these environmental chemicals. Methods Prepubertal rats (postpartum days (PND) 2–20) were exposed through lactation via nursing dams treated orally with sesame oil (SO), BPA, genistein, or a combination of BPA and genistein (BPA + Gen). Cell proliferation, apoptosis and protein expressions were investigated for mechanistic studies in mammary glands of rats exposed to these environmental chemicals. Results Prepubertal exposure to genistein increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND21 rats, while BPA increased cell proliferation in adult (PND50) rats. Prepubertal combinational exposure to BPA + Gen increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in PND21 rats, but reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in PND50 rats. The altered mechanisms behind these cellular responses appear to be centered on differential protein expression of caspases, PARP, Bad, p21, Akts, PTEN, ER-β and SRCs 1–3, in the rat mammary gland. Conclusion Prepubertal BPA exposure resulted in increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND50 rats, a process associated with increased risk of cancer development in a chemically-induced mammary cancer. On the other hand, genistein stimulated cell proliferation at PND21, a process that correlates with mammary gland maturation and chemoprevention. In contrast to single chemical exposure, combinational exposure to

  7. STEAP1 is over-expressed in breast cancer and down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells and in the rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Maia, Cláudio J B; Socorro, Sílvia; Schmitt, Fernando; Santos, Cecília R A

    2008-01-01

    Six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1) was identified as a prostate-specific cell-surface antigen over-expressed in prostate cancer, and in human cancer cell lines obtained from several other tissues. Its cell surface location in all tumor types analyzed so far, and its absence in most vital organs in humans, turned STEAP1 into a potential target for anti-tumor immunotherapy. This study provides experimental evidence that STEAP1 is also over-expressed in human breast cancer cases, and in normal breast tissue adjacent to breast tumors, where it is localized in the cell membrane of epithelial cells. It is also demonstrated that STEAP1 transcription correlates negatively with estrogen receptor (ER) immunoreactivity, and positively with tumor grading in breast cancer cases. As estrogens are involved in breast cancer onset and progression, the response of STEAP1 to 17beta-estradiol (E2) was investigated in the mammary gland of rats, and in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. These experiments demonstrated that STEAP1 is down-regulated by E2 in both models. The mechanisms underlying the STEAP1 response to E2 in vitro were further investigated in MCF-7 cells, and the results obtained suggest an effect mediated by the membrane-bound ERalpha (mbERalpha).

  8. Dietary fatty acids affect lipid metabolism and estrogen receptor expression in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary cancer model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Chen, Yuehong; Long, Jingpei; Dong, Lifeng; Wang, Yike; Chen, Yiding

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could affect the expression of serum fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) and CD36 levels and also fatty acid synthase (FAS), and estrogen receptor (ER) expressions in breast cancer cells. A rat mammary cancer model was induced by injection i.p., with 50 mg MNU/kg body weight. Low (13.8% energy) or high-fat (42.5% energy) diets composed mainly of n-6 or n-3 PUFAs originating either from linoleic acid or linolenic acid, respectively, were given for eight weeks. After sacrifice at week 8, serum FABP5 level was examined and immunostainings of CD36, FAS, and ER of breast cancer tissue were observed. By week 8, there was no statistical difference of tumor formation rate between each group. The level of serum FABP5 in the high n-3 group was significantly lower than the low n-6 and high n-6 groups. Immunohistochemistry results showed that there was a significant difference of CD36 expression between the low n-3 group and high n-6 group (p < 0.05). Although the high n-3 group had the most inhibition on FAS and ER expression, there was no statistical difference between each group. Our study showed that different dietary PUFAs may affect lipid metabolism in breast cancer tissues by altering the expression of FABP5, CD-36, FAS, and ER, which may change treatment response and even prognosis of breast cancer.

  9. Folic Acid Supplementation Promotes Mammary Tumor Progression in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Deghan Manshadi, Shaidah; Ishiguro, Lisa; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Medline, Alan; Renlund, Richard; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may promote the progression

  10. The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Samantha R; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and regulation of the mammary cellular hierarchy and we describe the development of the concepts that have guided our investigations. We outline recent advances in in vivo lineage tracing that is now challenging many of our assumptions regarding the behavior of mammary stem cells, and we show how understanding these cellular lineages has altered our view of breast cancer.

  11. Prognostic factors in MNU and DMBA-induced mammary tumors in female rats.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Antonieta; Lopes, Ana C; Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Cabrita, António M S; Ferreira, Rita; Oliveira, Paula A; Colaço, Bruno

    2017-02-24

    Chemically-induced mammary tumors in rats by the carcinogens 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea- (MNU) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) are the most widely used models for studies related with human breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the immunoexpression of the prognostic factors estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and Ki-67, in MNU and DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors, in order to know the model that best suits to woman breast cancer. Twenty-eight MNU-induced and 16 DMBA-induced mammary tumors in virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed. The expression of the prognostic markers ERα, PR and Ki-67 proliferation index (Ki-67 PI) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Mitotic activity index (MAI) was also evaluated. More than one histological pattern was identified in each mammary tumor. Carcinomas constituted the lesions most frequently induced by both carcinogens: 33 MNU-induced carcinomas and 23 DMBA-induced carcinomas. All MNU and DMBA-induced mammary carcinomas were ER(+)/PR(+), with a higher expression of ERα when compared with PR. Tumors' weight, the expression of ERα, PR, Ki-67 PI and MAI were higher in MNU-induced mammary carcinomas when compared with the DMBA-induced ones. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed for ERα, PR and MAI (p<0.05). The higher KI-67 PI and MAI in MNU-induced mammary carcinomas are suggestive of a higher aggressiveness of these carcinomas when compared with the DMBA-induced ones, and consequently a worse response to the therapy and a worse prognosis. In this way, the use of the rat model of MNU-induced mammary tumors is advised in experimental protocols aiming to study more aggressive mammary tumors within the group of double-positive mammary tumors (ER(+)/PR(+)).

  12. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat

    PubMed Central

    LÍŠKA, Ján; BRTKO, Július; DUBOVICKÝ, Michal; MACEJOVÁ, Dana; KISSOVÁ, Viktória; POLÁK, Štefan; UJHÁZY, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential. PMID:26424555

  13. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat.

    PubMed

    Líška, Ján; Brtko, Július; Dubovický, Michal; Macejová, Dana; Kissová, Viktória; Polák, Štefan; Ujházy, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential.

  14. Co-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (flk-1 and flt-1) in hormone-induced mammary cancer in the Noble rat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, B; Tam, N N C; Tsao, S W; Wong, Y C

    1999-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is recognized to play a predominant role in breast cancer prognosis. The action of VEGF is mediated by two high-affinity receptors with ligand-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity: VEGFR-1/flt-1 and VEGFR-2/flk-1, which are expressed mainly in vascular endothelial cells. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies on the expression of these receptors in breast cancer cells has been made. We have established a new animal model for breast cancer, using a combination of 17β-oestradiol and testosterone as ‘carcinogens’. Taking advantage of the animal model, we have demonstrated that mammary cancer cells expressed not only high levels of VEGF but also, surprisingly, its receptors (flt-1 and flk-1) in mammary cancer cells. Intense reactivities to VEGF, flt-1 and flk-1 were observed in mammary cancer cells, especially in invasive mammary carcinoma. Western blot analysis confirmed the increase in flk-1 and flt-1 proteins in induced mammary cancers. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that in mammary cancer, VEGF regulates, in addition to endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, also growth of cancer cells by an autocrine mechanism mediated through its receptors. To further verify this hypothesis, we investigated the correlation between cellular proliferation and the expression of VEGF, flt-1 and flk-1. Using double-labelling immunocytochemistry, we have shown a correlation between high VEGF activity and Ki-67 expression. The Ki-67 indices in the areas of strong and weak VEGF reactivities were 58.3% and 3.7% respectively. Similarly, there was also a correlation of strong flk-1 and Ki-67 reactivity. The Ki-67 indices for areas of strong and weak flk-1 reactivities were 53.9% and 3.1% respectively. On the other hand, there was a reverse correlation between flt-1 and Ki-67 activities. These results indicate that overexpression of VEGF and flk-1 is correlated with high Ki-67 index. The data, therefore, suggest that

  15. Obesity decreases serum selenium levels in DMBA-induced mammary tumor using Obese Zucker Rat Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, we reported that obese Zucker rats had increased susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors compared to lean Zucker rats. Several studies suggest that lower serum selenium may play an important role in increasing the risk of several types of cancers (e.g, colon, breast and prostate canc...

  16. A Cytogenetic Footprint for Mammary Carcinomas Induced by PhIP in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A T

    2001-04-01

    PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine), a mutagen/carcinogen belonging to the class of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) found in cooked meats, is a mammary gland carcinogen in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of certain human cancers including breast cancer. To gain insight into the genomic alterations associated with PhIP-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to examine chromosomal abnormalities in rat mammary carcinomas induced by PhIP, and for comparison, by DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), a potent experimental mammary carcinogen. There was a consistent and characteristic pattern of chromosome-region loss in PhIP-induced carcinomas that clearly distinguished them from carcinomas induced by DMBA.

  17. Stromal Effects on Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Bryony S.; Werb, Zena

    2002-05-01

    Breast cancer manifests itself in the mammary epithelium, yet there is a growing recognition that mammary stromal cells also play an important role in tumorigenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer, and many of the stromal factors necessary for mammary development also promote or protect against breast cancer. Here we review our present knowledge of the specific factors and cell types that contribute to epithelial-stromal crosstalk during mammary development. To find cures for diseases like breast cancer that rely on epithelial-stromal crosstalk, we must understand how these different cell types communicate with each other.

  18. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0401 TITLE: Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...way as transcripts from the regular gene promoter. Transcriptional activation of retrotransposons is strongly linked with their CpG DNA methylation

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Genistein Mammary Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    American women. Even with improved technology for early detection and aggressive therapeutics, most often the disease is incurable once it is...the mammary glands of rats and we have been able to collect interstitial fluid. Task g) Now, we are investigating the use of chromatofocusing , 1-D gel...a chromatofocusing column from GE HealthCare (formally AmershamBioscience) and an automated gradient mixer and HPLC system (a BioRad "demo"). To date

  20. Tocopherols inhibit oxidative and nitrosative stress in estrogen-induced early mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Soumyasri; So, Jae Young; Wall, Brian; Wahler, Joseph; Smolarek, Amanda K; Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Soewono, Kelvin Y; Yu, Haixiang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Thomas, Paul E; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9 mg of 17β-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% γ-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7, and 14 d. γ-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or γ-TmT diet. γ-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine, and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by γ-TmT. Noticeably, γ-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of γ-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, γ-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tocopherols Inhibit Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Estrogen-Induced Early Mammary Hyperplasia in ACI Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Soumyasri Das; So, Jae Young; Wall, Brian; Wahler, Joseph; Smolarek, Amanda K.; Sae-tan, Sudathip; Soewono, Kelvin Y.; Yu, Haixiang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Thomas, Paul E.; Yang, Chung S.; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9 mg of 17β-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% γ-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. γ-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or γ-TmT diet. γ-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by γ-TmT. Noticeably, γ-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of γ-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, γ-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer. PMID:24782330

  2. Chemoprevention of Radiation Induced Rat Mammary Neoplasms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huso, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Radiations encountered in space include protons and heavy ions such as iron as well as their secondaries. The relative biological effect (RBE) of these ions is not known, particularly at the doses and dose-rates expected for planetary missions. Neutrons, are not particularly relevant to space travel, but have been found experimentally to have an increase in their RBE with decreasing dose. If a similar trend of increasing RBE with decreasing dose is present for heavy ions and protons during irradiation in space, the small doses received during space travel could potentially have substantial carcinogenic risk. Clearly more investigation of the effects of heavy ions and protons is needed before accurate risk assessment for prolonged travel in space can be done. One means to mitigate the increased risk of cancer due to radiation exposure in space is by developing effective countermeasures that can reduce the incidence of tumor development. Tamoxifen has recently been shown to be an effective chemopreventive agent in both animal models and humans for the prevention of mammary tumors. Tamoxifen is a unique drug, with a highly specific mechanism of action affecting a specific radiation-sensitive population of epithelial cells in the mammary gland. In human studies, the annual incidence of a primary tumor in the contralateral breast of women with previous breast cancer is about 8 per 1000, making them an exceedingly high-risk group for the development of breast cancer. In this high risk group, treated with tamoxifen, daily, for 2 years, the incidence of a new primary tumor in the contralateral breast was approximately one third of that noted in the non-tamoxifen treatment group. Tamoxifen antagonizes the action of estrogen by competing for the nuclear receptor complex thereby altering the association of the receptor complex and nuclear binding sites. Its effects in reducing the development of breast cancer could be accomplished by controlling clinically undetectable

  3. Chemoprevention of Radiation Induced Rat Mammary Neoplasms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huso, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Radiations encountered in space include protons and heavy ions such as iron as well as their secondaries. The relative biological effect (RBE) of these ions is not known, particularly at the doses and dose-rates expected for planetary missions. Neutrons, are not particularly relevant to space travel, but have been found experimentally to have an increase in their RBE with decreasing dose. If a similar trend of increasing RBE with decreasing dose is present for heavy ions and protons during irradiation in space, the small doses received during space travel could potentially have substantial carcinogenic risk. Clearly more investigation of the effects of heavy ions and protons is needed before accurate risk assessment for prolonged travel in space can be done. One means to mitigate the increased risk of cancer due to radiation exposure in space is by developing effective countermeasures that can reduce the incidence of tumor development. Tamoxifen has recently been shown to be an effective chemopreventive agent in both animal models and humans for the prevention of mammary tumors. Tamoxifen is a unique drug, with a highly specific mechanism of action affecting a specific radiation-sensitive population of epithelial cells in the mammary gland. In human studies, the annual incidence of a primary tumor in the contralateral breast of women with previous breast cancer is about 8 per 1000, making them an exceedingly high-risk group for the development of breast cancer. In this high risk group, treated with tamoxifen, daily, for 2 years, the incidence of a new primary tumor in the contralateral breast was approximately one third of that noted in the non-tamoxifen treatment group. Tamoxifen antagonizes the action of estrogen by competing for the nuclear receptor complex thereby altering the association of the receptor complex and nuclear binding sites. Its effects in reducing the development of breast cancer could be accomplished by controlling clinically undetectable

  4. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    retrotransposon transcriptional activity, and retrotransposon-driven transcription of cellular genes in an engineered mouse model of mammary cancer. RNA-seq and...transcriptional activity, and retrotransposon-driven transcription of cellular genes . Retrotransposon promoters are well recognized to function as alternative...promoters for different cellular genes , generating chimeric transcripts that may or may not function in the same way as transcripts from the regular

  5. Leukocytes in Mammary Development and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, Lisa M.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocytes, of both the innate and adaptive lineages, are normal cellular components of all tissues. These important cells not only are critical for regulating normal tissue homeostasis, but also are significant paracrine regulators of all physiologic and pathologic tissue repair processes. This article summarizes recent insights regarding the trophic roles of leukocytes at each stage of mammary gland development and during cancer development, with a focus on Murids and humans. PMID:21123394

  6. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dorn, C R; Schneider, R

    1976-09-01

    Using files of the Animal Neoplasm Registry (ANR) in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the degree of inbreeding in the ancestry of purebred dogs with mammary and other cancers, and of those without tumors. Wright's coefficients of inbreeding, calculated for all animals in the three groups, ranged from 0.000 to 0.535. The median inbreeding coefficients of the mammary cancer and comparison groups (consisting of other cancers) were approximately twice that of the nonneoplastic group, but neither difference was statistically significant. Dogs with mammary adenocarcinoma and mixed mammary cancer had similar degrees of inbreeding.

  7. The rat ErbB2 tyrosine kinase receptor produced in plants is immunogenic in mice and confers protective immunity against ErbB2(+) mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Matić, Slavica; Quaglino, Elena; Arata, Lucia; Riccardo, Federica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Vallino, Marta; Cavallo, Federica; Noris, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The rat ErbB2 (rErbB2) protein is a 185-kDa glycoprotein belonging to the epidermal growth factor-related proteins (ErbB) of receptor tyrosine kinases. Overexpression and mutations of ErbB proteins lead to several malignancies including breast, lung, pancreatic, bladder and ovary carcinomas. ErbB2 is immunogenic and is an ideal candidate for cancer immunotherapy. We investigated the possibility of expressing the extracellular (EC) domain of rErbB2 (653 amino acids, aa) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, testing the influence of the 23 aa transmembrane (TM) sequence on protein accumulation. Synthetic variants of the rErbB2 gene portion encoding the EC domain, optimized with a human codon usage and either linked to the full TM domain (rErbB2_TM, 676 aa), to a portion of it (rErbB2-pTM, 662 aa), or deprived of it (rErbB2_noTM, 653 aa) were cloned in the pEAQ-HT expression vector as 6X His tag fusions. All rErbB2 variants (72-74.5 kDa) were transiently expressed, but the TM was detrimental for rErbB2 EC accumulation. rERbB2_noTM was the most expressed protein; it was solubilized and purified with Nickel affinity resin. When crude soluble extracts expressing rErbB2_noTM were administered to BALB/c mice, specific rErbB2 immune responses were triggered. A potent antitumour activity was induced when vaccinated mice were challenged with syngeneic transplantable ErbB2(+) mammary carcinoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of expression of rErbB2 in plants and of its efficacy in inducing a protective antitumour immune response, opening interesting perspectives for further immunological testing.

  8. Reduction in mammary tumorigenesis in the rat by cabbage and cabbage residue.

    PubMed

    Bresnick, E; Birt, D F; Wolterman, K; Wheeler, M; Markin, R S

    1990-07-01

    Mammary cancer was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and rats were randomized to control fat (5%) and high fat (24.6%) diets. In addition, dried cabbage (5 and 10%) and collards (5%) were included in the diets of some animals. No statistically significant differences were observed in food consumption, body wt gain and caloric intake between the MNU-treated and control groups in the rats fed the low-fat diet. However, the groups fed the high-fat diet consumed more than the rats maintained on the control diet. The rats on the control fat diet containing cabbage exhibited a significantly lower incidence of mammary cancer than rats that were fed the control-fat diet without cabbage. This effect was not observed in comparable rats on the high-fat diet. The inhibitory effect on mammary tumorigenesis was demonstrated using a residue obtained from cabbage by exhaustive extraction with methanol, methylene chloride and petroleum ether. These studies reinforce the efficacy of cabbage as a 'suppressor' of cancer in experimental model systems under control-fat dietary conditions.

  9. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun

    2010-04-01

    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  10. Paternal selenium deficiency but not supplementation during preconception alters mammary gland development and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Guido, Luiza N; Fontelles, Camile C; Rosim, Mariana P; Pires, Vanessa C; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Castro, Inar A; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Barbisan, Luis F; Ong, Thomas P

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is a global public health problem and accumulating evidence indicates early-life exposures as relevant factors in the disease risk determination. Recent studies have shown that paternal nutrition can influence offspring health including breast cancer risk. Selenium is a micronutrient with essential role in central aspects of embryogenesis, male fertility and cancer and that has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent in several breast cancer experimental models. Thus, we designed an animal study to evaluate whether paternal selenium deficiency or supplementation during preconception could affect the female offspring mammary gland development and breast cancer susceptibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN93-G diet containing 0.15 ppm (control diet), 0.05 ppm (deficient diet) or 1 ppm (supplemented diet) of selenium for 9 weeks and mated with control female rats. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in their female offspring. Paternal selenium deficiency increased the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the female rat offspring and these effects were associated with higher susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors (increased incidence and higher grade tumors). On the other hand, paternal selenium supplementation did not influence any of these parameters. These results highlight the importance of father's nutrition including selenium status as a relevant factor affecting daughter's breast cancer risk and paternal preconception as a potential developmental stage to start disease preventive strategies.

  11. Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zysk, Adam M.; Chaney, Eric J.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2006-05-01

    Near-infrared optical techniques for clinical breast cancer screening in humans are rapidly advancing. Based on the computational inversion of the photon diffusion process through the breast, these techniques rely on optical tissue models for accurate image reconstruction. Recent interest has surfaced regarding the effect of refractive index variations on these reconstructions. Although many data exist regarding the scattering and absorption properties of normal and diseased tissue, no measurements of refractive index appear in the literature. In this paper, we present near-infrared refractive index data acquired from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumours, which are similar in pathology and disease progression to human ductal carcinoma. Eight animals, including one control, were employed in this study, yielding data from 32 tumours as well as adjacent adipose and connective tissues.

  12. Positional variations in mammary gland development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M; Ramsdell, Ann F; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-06-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary glands differ from one another, and tumor incidence and biology depend on the position along the anterior-posterior and the left-right axis as well. This insight has implications for experimental designs with mouse models and for data extrapolation between mammary glands within and between species. We suggest that improved documentation of location-specific mammary gland features will lead to more insights into the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and cancer biology in both mice and humans.

  13. Mapping Mammary Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMDI7-94-J-4040 TITLE: Mapping Mammary Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Gould, Ph.D...Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat DAMDI7-94-J-4040 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael Gould, Ph.D. Hong Lan, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  14. Mammary gland stem cells and their application in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Wang, Hui; Jiao, Baowei

    2017-02-07

    The mammary gland is an organ comprising two primary lineages, specifically the inner luminal and the outer myoepithelial cell layers. Mammary gland stem cells (MaSCs) are highly dynamic and self-renewing, and can give rise to these mammary gland lineages. The lineages are responsible for gland generation during puberty as well as expansion during pregnancy. In recent years, researchers have focused on understanding how MaSCs are regulated during mammary gland development and transformation of breast cancer. Here, we summarize the identification of MaSCs, and how they are regulated by the signaling transduction pathways, mammary gland microenvironment, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Moreover, we debate the evidence for their serving as the origin of breast cancer, and discuss the therapeutic perspectives of targeting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In conclusion, a better understanding of the key regulators of MaSCs is crucial for the clinical treatment of breast cancer.

  15. Mammary development and breast cancer: the role of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ercan, C; van Diest, P J; Vooijs, M

    2011-06-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation and involution, a process controlled by stem cells. The last decade much progress has been made in the identification of signaling pathways that function in these stem cells to control self-renewal, lineage commitment and epithelial differentiation in the normal mammary gland. The same signaling pathways that control physiological mammary development and homeostasis are also often found deregulated in breast cancer. Here we provide an overview on the functional and molecular identification of mammary stem cells in the context of both normal breast development and breast cancer. We discuss the contribution of some key signaling pathways with an emphasis on Notch receptor signaling, a cell fate determination pathway often deregulated in breast cancer. A further understanding of the biological roles of the Notch pathway in mammary stem cell behavior and carcinogenesis might be relevant for the development of future therapies.

  16. Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiguo; Feng, Jing; Chen, Ceshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that the Hippo signaling pathway plays crucial roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. Key components of the Hippo pathway regulate breast epithelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and stemness. Additionally, the Hippo pathway regulates breast tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. It is expected that the Hippo pathway will provide novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. This review will discuss and summarize the roles of several core components of the Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

  17. Evaluation of Mammary Cancer in 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-Induced Wister Rats by Asymmetrical Temperature Distribution Analysis Using Thermography: A Comparison with Serum CEA Levels and Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Angeline Kirubha, S. P.; Anburajan, M.; Venkataraman, B.; Akila, R.; Sharath, D.; Raj, Baldev

    2012-01-01

    Animal surface temperature profile captured using infrared camera is helpful for the assessment of physiological responses associated with the regulation of body temperature. Diagnosing breast cancer in early stage itself has a greater effect on the prognosis. In this work, asymmetrical temperature distribution analysis of chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-induced in the lower right flank region of Wistar rats (n = 6) was carried out to test the potential of thermography in diagnosing mammary cancer and tumor growth over a period of nine weeks in comparison with histopathology results as standard. Temperature difference between the tumor induced lower right and left side of flank region was significant (with P value <0.001), whereas in the abdomen and shoulder there was no significant difference in temperature between right and left sides. Percentage of asymmetrical temperature difference in the tumor induced lower flank region was 0.5 to 2%, whereas in the other regions it was <0.5%. Green pixel distribution in RGB color histogram was asymmetrical in the tumor induced lower flank region. Temperature reduction was observed in the tumor induced region after the seventh day of carcinogen induction. Asymmetrical thermogram analysis is the best method of diagnosing mammary cancer and for studying tumor development. PMID:23093865

  18. Evaluation of mammary cancer in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced Wister rats by asymmetrical temperature distribution analysis using thermography: a comparison with serum CEA levels and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Angeline Kirubha, S P; Anburajan, M; Venkataraman, B; Akila, R; Sharath, D; Raj, Baldev

    2012-01-01

    Animal surface temperature profile captured using infrared camera is helpful for the assessment of physiological responses associated with the regulation of body temperature. Diagnosing breast cancer in early stage itself has a greater effect on the prognosis. In this work, asymmetrical temperature distribution analysis of chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-induced in the lower right flank region of Wistar rats (n = 6) was carried out to test the potential of thermography in diagnosing mammary cancer and tumor growth over a period of nine weeks in comparison with histopathology results as standard. Temperature difference between the tumor induced lower right and left side of flank region was significant (with P value <0.001), whereas in the abdomen and shoulder there was no significant difference in temperature between right and left sides. Percentage of asymmetrical temperature difference in the tumor induced lower flank region was 0.5 to 2%, whereas in the other regions it was <0.5%. Green pixel distribution in RGB color histogram was asymmetrical in the tumor induced lower flank region. Temperature reduction was observed in the tumor induced region after the seventh day of carcinogen induction. Asymmetrical thermogram analysis is the best method of diagnosing mammary cancer and for studying tumor development.

  19. Flor-Essence? Herbal Tonic Promotes Mammary Tumor Development in Sprague Dawley Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L; Montgomery, J; Steinberg, S; Kulp, K

    2004-01-28

    Background: Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines to augment their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} Tonic is a complex mixture of herbal extracts used by cancer patients because of anecdotal evidence that it can treat or prevent disease. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were given water or exposed to 3% or 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} beginning at one day of age. Mammary tumors were induced with a single oral 40 mg/kg/bw dose of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene at 50 days of age and sacrificed at 23 weeks. Rats were maintained on AIN-76A diet. Results: Control rats had palpable mammary tumor incidence of 51.0% at 19 weeks of age compared to 65.0% and 59.4% for the 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} groups respectively. Overall, no significant difference in time until first palpable tumor was detected among any of the groups. At necropsy, mammary tumor incidence was 82.5% for controls compared to 90.0% and 97.3% for rats consuming 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign}, respectively. Mean mammary tumor multiplicity ({+-}SES) for the controls was 2.8 ({+-} 0.5) and statistically different from the 3% or 6% Flor- Essence{reg_sign} groups with 5.2 ({+-} 0.7), and 4.8 ({+-} 0.6), respectively (p{<=}0.01). As expected, the majority of isolated tumors were diagnosed as adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: Flor-Essence{reg_sign} can promote mammary tumor development in the Sprague Dawley rat model. This observation is contrary to widely available anecdotal evidence as well as the desire of the consumer that this commercially available herbal tonic will suppress and/or inhibit tumor growth.

  20. Modeling mechanical interactions between cancerous mammary acini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeffrey; Liphardt, Jan; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-03-01

    The rules and mechanical forces governing cell motility and interactions with the extracellular matrix of a tissue are often critical for understanding the mechanisms by which breast cancer is able to spread through the breast tissue and eventually metastasize. Ex vivo experimentation has demonstrated the the formation of long collagen fibers through collagen gels between the cancerous mammary acini responsible for milk production, providing a fiber scaffolding along which cancer cells can disorganize. We present a minimal mechanical model that serves as a potential explanation for the formation of these collagen fibers and the resultant motion. Our working hypothesis is that cancerous cells induce this fiber formation by pulling on the gel and taking advantage of the specific mechanical properties of collagen. To model this system, we employ a new Eulerian, fixed grid simulation method to model the collagen as a nonlinear viscoelastic material subject to various forces coupled with a multi-agent model to describe individual cancer cells. We find that these phenomena can be explained two simple ideas: cells pull collagen radially inwards and move towards the tension gradient of the collagen gel, while being exposed to standard adhesive and collision forces.

  1. HORMONAL INFLUENCES ON MAMMARY TUMORS OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Mainzer, Klaus

    1957-01-01

    Many members of the androstane series profoundly retarded the growth of a transplanted benign mammary fibroadenoma of the rat; the restraint of tumor growth was in direct proportion to the amount of the administered compound until its maximal effect was achieved. Certain steroids closely related to the androstane inhibitors accelerated the growth of the tumor. These effects of divergent sort depend on the molecular structure of the steroid. The molecular structure of androstane derivatives, which is of high significance in modifying the rate of growth of the benign mammary tumor, consists of multiple components. These include (a) the presence and number of ketone and hydroxyl groups in special orientation at specific sites, (b) the sites of dehydrogenation in the molecule, and (c) the presence, number, and state of hydrogenation of alkyl groups at designated molecular positions. These multiple factors determine whether androstane compounds will inhibit growth of the tumor, enhance it, or fail to influence its growth. The androstane compounds which caused either the restraint or the promotion of tumor growth had the common property of inducing proliferation of the normal mammary epithelium. Two mechanisms are involved in the restraint of growth of mammary fibroadenoma by androstane inhibitors. The primary effect is the abolition of action of phenolic estrogens and progesterone when dihydrotestosterone is administered concurrently, presumably through direct action at the tumor cell level A secondary contributory suppressive effect is the depression of ovarian activity, and consequently of the production of phenolic estrogens and progesterone, by these compounds. Transplanted mammary fibroadenoma in the rat possesses neoplastic traits and also some growth properties of normal mammary epithelium; inhibition of these latter by hormonal methods commonly retarded the growth of the tumor. But in hypophysectomized rats dihydrotestosterone failed to inhibit the growth of a

  2. Inhibition of radiogenic mammary carcinoma in rats by estriol or tamoxifen

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, H.M.; Kumar, P.F.; Peterson, C.; Rodriguez-Sierra, J.F.; Abbo, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Mammary carcinomas have been induced by 3.5 Gy whole-body gamma radiation administered at age 40 to 50 days to virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats. In 142 irradiated controls carcinoma incidence averaged 7.8% in survivors observed less than 300 days and 38.3% of those surviving longer (P less than 0.001 by t test). Mammary cancer promotion was inhibited by two methods: estriol (E3) 638 micrograms/month (2.2 microns/mo) subcutaneously for natural life span begun 2 weeks after exposure reduced cancer incidence from 76% in controls to 48% after 331 to 449 mean days observation until neoplasia was palpable (P less than 0.02 by chi-square analysis). Uterine weights were similar in control and treated groups, and were 15% to 18% greater than uteri of nonirradiated controls from other simultaneous experiments. Six monthly 638-micrograms doses of 17 alpha ethinyl estriol (EE3) reduced tumors from 88% in controls to 64% (P less than 0.05 by chi-square analysis) and delayed cancer onset (P less than 0.01-0.04 by life table analysis). Ethinyl estradiol (EE2) after 6 months' treatment similarly delayed mammary tumor development reducing incidence to 75% (NS), with a six-fold increase in nonmammary epithelial malignant tumors. Estriol administration begun between 3 days before to 5 days after radiation did not alter mammary cancer incidence in six experiments. Monthly implantation of 2.5 mg tamoxifen (4.44 microns/mo) started 2 weeks after radiation reduced mammary cancer incidence from 83% to 14% after 307 to 314 days' observation (P less than 0.001 by chi-square analysis). Treated rats had atrophic ovaries and uteri consistent with blockade of endogenous estradiol activity.

  3. A mammary nodule mimicking breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Solaini, Leonardo; Bianchi, Anna; Filippini, Luigi; Lucini, Laura; Simoncini, Edda; Ragni, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary tumors are rare. Several clinical, radiologic, and histologic signs can help to distinguish metastases from breast primary tumors. In the present study, we present a case of a left-sided breast metastasis from renal cancer in a 44-year-old woman whose clinical presentation was a mammary nodule in the upper internal quadrant. The patient underwent quadrantectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. The histology revealed a clear cell carcinoma. On computed tomography scan a 5×8-cm left renal mass with pulmonary, liver, and intrapericardial nodules was found. The patient underwent palliative care and died after 4 months. Metastasis to the breast is rare, but all of those clinical, radiologic, and histologic signs more typical of extramammary malignancies should always be considered in order to choose the best treatment strategy.

  4. Breast cancer detection using mammary ductoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Edward

    2005-06-01

    Mammary ductoscopy (MD) has been used as a tool to evaluate the breast for cancer for over 10 years. MD allows the direct visualization of the duct lumen, providing a more targeted approach to the diagnosis of disease arising in the ductal system, since the lesion can be visualized and samples collected in the area of interest. Initial studies of MD evaluated women with pathologic spontaneous nipple discharge (PND), while more recent reports are also using MD to assess women without PND for the presence of breast cancer. Cytologic assessment of MD is highly specific but less sensitive in the detection of breast cancer. Nonetheless, a MD sample from a breast with PND may rarely undergo cytologic review and be interpreted as consistent with malignancy, only later to undergo surgical resection demonstrating benign pathology. For this reason, PND specimens interpreted as malignant on cytologic review require histopathologic confirmation prior to instituting therapy. Additional sample evaluation using image or molecular analysis may improve the sensitivity and specificity of MD in breast cancer detection.

  5. Mammary carcinogenesis in rats: basic facts and recent results in Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Stone, J.P.; Holtzman, s.

    1982-01-01

    Some research results from experiments investigating neutron-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats are presented. The additive effects of neutrons and 3-methylcholanthrene on mammary adenocarcinoma were determined. Synergism between diethylstilbestrol and neutrons was likewise studied. Differences in mammary neoplastic response between strains of laboratory rats was also investigated. (ACR)

  6. Altered mammary gland differentiation and progesterone receptor expression in rats fed soy and whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, J Craig; Hakkak, Reza; Ronis, Martin J J; Badger, Thomas M

    2002-11-01

    There are suspected links between an animal's diet, differentiation status of a target tissue, and sensitivity to chemically induced cancer. We have demonstrated that rats fed AIN93G diets made with soy protein isolate (SPI) or whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) had a lower incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced adenocarcinoma than rats fed the same diet made with casein (CAS). The current study was conducted to determine the differentiation status of the mammary glands during development. Offspring of rats (n = 5-10/group) were fed diets made with SPI, WPH, or CAS throughout life (beginning on gestation day 4) and were sacrificed on postnatal day (PND) 21, PND 33, PND 50 or on metaestrous between PND 48 and PND 51. There were no significant differences between the numbers of mammary terminal end buds (TEBs) or lobuloalveoli (LOB) between any of the diets groups at PND 21 or PND 33, but at PND 50 there was an 75% decrease in the mean numbers of TEBs/mm(2) in the SPI- or WPH-fed rats, compared with the CAS-fed rats (p = 0.09 and p = 0.06, respectively). In rats sacrificed in metaestrous, there were no significant differences in the proliferation index (PI) in the TEBs or LOB between any of the diet groups. In metaestrous rats, there were twice as many cells expressing estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta; approximately 60%) compared with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha; approximately 30%) in the LOB and 1.5 times more ERbeta (approximately 60%) compared with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha, approximately 40%) in the TEBs. There were no diet-dependent differences in expression of ERalpha and ERbeta. Similarly, there were no differences between the diet groups in progesterone receptor (PR) expressing LOB cells. However, in the TEBs there was a diet-dependent difference in PR positive cells with a 34% increase (p < 0.05) in the SPI-fed rats and a 38% increase (p < 0.05) in the WPH-fed rats compared with the CAS-fed rats. These results show that the type of

  7. Imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation during early stages of mammary gland carcinogenesis in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Kutanzi, Kristy R; Koturbash, Igor; Bronson, Roderick T; Pogribny, Igor P; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2010-12-10

    Estrogen and ionizing radiation are well-documented human breast carcinogens, yet the exact mechanisms of their deleterious effects on mammary gland remain to be discerned. Here we analyze the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen and X-ray radiation and the combined action of these carcinogenic agents. For the first time, we show that combined exposure to estrogen and radiation has a synergistic effect on cell proliferation in the mammary glands of ACI rats, as evidenced by a substantially greater magnitude of cell proliferation, especially after 12 and 18 weeks of treatment, when compared to mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen or radiation alone. We also demonstrate that an imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, rather than enhanced cell proliferation or apoptosis suppression alone, may be a driving force for carcinogenesis. Our studies further suggest that compromised functional activity of p53 may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance. In sum, the results of our study indicate that evaluation of the extent of cell proliferation and apoptosis before the onset of preneoplastic lesions may be a potential biomarker of breast cancer risk after exposure to breast carcinogens.

  8. HORMONAL INFLUENCES ON MAMMARY TUMORS OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Torralba, Yolanda; Mainzer, Klaus

    1956-01-01

    A transplanted mammary fibroadenoma was found to grow in 95 per cent of intact adult female rats and the increment of tumor weights was progressive and logarithmic. The growth of the tumor was retarded by ovariectomy and still more when this was combined with adrenalectomy. In ovariectomized rats the growth of the tumor was stimulated by phenolic estrogens, this increase being enhanced when progesterone was added. In these responses to hormonal changes the mammary gland and the tumor resembled each other. Yet there are many differences between the growth of the fibroadenoma and that of the mammary gland. In contrast to the progressive growth which occurred in intact adult females there was a prolonged period of indolent growth of transplants in hypophysectomized rats; but after many weeks active growth began and the tumors eventually reached large size. During the period of quiescent growth the tumor was cytologically atrophic but after the growth spurt had started the microscopic appearance of the fibroadenoma resembled that of tumors growing in normal adult females. The mammary gland remained atrophic during both the slow and the accelerated phases of tumor growth, and so too with the other secondary sex expressions. In hypophysectomized rats estrone and progesterone, when combined, stimulated the growth of the tumor, and this growth was accelerated by the additional administration of lactogenic or growth hormones. None of these hormones, separately, stimulated the growth of the tumor. In ovariectomized rats other differences were demonstrated between the growth of the mammary gland and the fibroadenoma. Progesterone, injected alone, accelerated the growth of the tumor but not that of the mammary glands. The administration of phenolic estrogens exerted a biphasic effect on the growth of the tumor whilst that on the breast of its hosts was monophasic. With progressively increasing doses of these phenols there occurred primarily an augmentation of the rate of

  9. Internal mammary node management in breast cancer. A review.

    PubMed

    Vrana, David; Gatek, Jiri; Cwiertka, Karel; Lukesova, Lucie; Koranda, Pavel

    2013-09-01

    Internal mammary nodes visualized during sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer, remain an unresolved management issue. Further, both internal mammary node (IMN) radiotherapy and biopsy have attendant risks and hence should be used with caution. The purpose of this review is to highlight the available data and evidence. A PubMed database from 1960 to 2012 using key words: internal mammary nodes, breast cancer radiotherapy planning, adjuvant radiotherapy, sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer and selected publications on the significance of internal mammary nodes in breast cancer treatment, published data and approaches used. We found 14513 relevant papers and we selected 30 that clearly investigated the management of internal mammary nodes during sentinel node search. We focused on the incidence of IMN metastasis (6 papers), risk factors associated with IMN drainage (9 reports), management of IMN and the impact on disease free and overall patient survival (15 papers). The evidence for breast cancer axillary nodes management is good but the data for other draining nodes such as internal mammary nodes are far less conclusive and further research is needed.

  10. Hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is conserved in multiple rat strains and identifies a core gene expression signature induced by pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Collin M; Stoddard, Alexander J; Belka, George K; Dugan, Katherine D; Notarfrancesco, Kathleen L; Moody, Susan E; D'Cruz, Celina M; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2006-06-15

    Women who have their first child early in life have a substantially lower lifetime risk of breast cancer. The mechanism for this is unknown. Similar to humans, rats exhibit parity-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis. To explore the basis for this phenomenon, we identified persistent pregnancy-induced changes in mammary gene expression that are tightly associated with protection against tumorigenesis in multiple inbred rat strains. Four inbred rat strains that exhibit marked differences in their intrinsic susceptibilities to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis were each shown to display significant protection against methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis following treatment with pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone. Microarray expression profiling of parous and nulliparous mammary tissue from these four strains yielded a common 70-gene signature. Examination of the genes constituting this signature implicated alterations in transforming growth factor-beta signaling, the extracellular matrix, amphiregulin expression, and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in pregnancy-induced alterations in breast cancer risk. Notably, related molecular changes have been associated with decreased mammographic density, which itself is strongly associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Our findings show that hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is widely conserved among divergent rat strains and define a gene expression signature that is tightly correlated with reduced mammary tumor susceptibility as a consequence of a normal developmental event. Given the conservation of this signature, these pathways may contribute to pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer.

  11. Dietary extra-virgin olive oil and corn oil differentially modulate the mRNA expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the liver and in the mammary gland in a rat chemically induced breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, Miguel Á; Solanas, Montserrat; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Costa, Irmgard; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-05-01

    High extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) and corn oil diets differentially modulate experimental mammary carcinogenesis. We have investigated their influence on the initiation stage through the modulation of the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in the liver and the mammary gland. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (LF), high corn oil (HCO), or high EVOO (HOO) diet from weaning and gavaged with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). The HCO diet increased the mRNA levels of the phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and, to a lesser extent, CYP1B1, in the liver. The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) seemed to be involved in this upregulated CYP1 expression. However, a slight trend toward an increase in the mRNA levels of the phase II enzymes GSTP1 and NQO1 was observed with the HOO diet. At least in the case of GSTP1, this effect was linked to an increased Nrf2 transactivation activity. This different regulation of the XMEs expression led, in the case of the HCO diet, to a balance between the production of active carcinogenic compounds and their inactivation tilted toward phase I, which would stimulate DMBA-induced cancer initiation, whereas the HOO diet was associated with a slower phase I metabolism accompanied by a faster phase II detoxification, thus reducing the output of the active compounds to the target tissues. In the mammary gland, the differential effects of diets may be conditioned by the state of cell differentiation, sexual maturity, and hormone metabolism.

  12. Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes of rats with mammary gland cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Arias de Saavedra, J M; Sánchez, R; Pérez, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase is an omega-peptidase that hydrolyses N-terminal pyroglutamyl residues from biologically active peptides such as gonadotropin-releasing and thyrotrophin-releasing hormones. We previously described a decrease in both rat and human pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity with breast cancer, suggesting that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may be an important local intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine hormonal factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer while playing a role in the tumoral process. However, the other susceptible substrate of pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, may also be modified with breast cancer, supporting an association between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. The present work analyses soluble and membrane-bound pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes in N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer in rats. Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone regulation through pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity. We propose that pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity dysregulation at various local and systemic levels may participate in the initiation, promotion and progression of breast cancer induced in rat by N-methyl nitrosourea through the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Since pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity also acts on thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, the dysregulation of this enzyme's activity could indirectly affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis function, and thus potentially represent a link between the diseases of thyroid and breast cancer.

  13. A review of mammary ductoscopy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tanaka, Kanji

    2004-01-01

    Breast carcinoma and hyperplasia are thought to start in the lining of the breast duct. Mammary ductoscopy is an emerging technique allowing direct visual access of the ductal system of the breast through the nipple. This article reviews and discusses the utility of mammary ductoscopy. Abnormalities can be identified successfully by mammary ductoscopy, and intraductal biopsy can be used when the tumor is a polypoid type. Ductal lavage using microcatheters is effective in identifying malignant cells in high-risk women and this has stimulated interest in exploring the role of mammary ductoscopy in breast cancer screening. Mammary ductoscopy combined with ductal lavage may have a role in the management of patients with nipple discharge, the guiding of breast-conserving surgery for cancer, and in screening for high-risk women. The addition of molecular and genetic analysis of cells obtained by mammary ductoscopy are likely to enhance the use of this technique. Mammary ductoscopy techniques are safe and appear useful for detecting abnormalities in the breast. The additional molecular biologic study or ductal lavage may enhance the ability to direct and limit subsequent surgery when removing the offending lesions.

  14. Quercetin attenuates oxidative stress in the blood plasma of rats bearing DMBA-induced mammary cancer and treated with a combination of doxorubicin and docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Tabaczar, Sabina; Pieniążek, Anna; Czepas, Jan; Piasecka-Zelga, Joanna; Gwoździński, Krzysztof; Koceva-Chyła, Aneta

    2013-12-01

    The development of side-effects during doxorubicin-docetaxel (DOX-DTX) chemotherapy is considered as related to generation of oxidative stress by DOX. The addition of docetaxel potentiates this effect. Thus, antioxidants are assumed as a promising remedy for neutralizing deteriorating effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pathological conditions and polyphenolic antioxidants are suitable candidates for such a therapeutic approach. We evaluated the ability of quercetin to attenuate oxidative stress developed during the process of DMBA carcinogenesis and DOX-DTX chemotherapy in the blood plasma of rats bearing mammary tumors. We have found that quercetin significantly improved the plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and reduced lipid peroxidation, which suggest the beneficial effect of flavonoid. The inclusion of quercetin to the DOX-DTX chemotherapy was also advantageous. A considerable decrease of carbonyls and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) and improvement of the endogenous antioxidant defense system (an increase of NEAC, thiols and SOD activity) were observed compared to rats treated with DOX-DTX chemotherapy. These results suggest that quercetin could protect blood plasma constituents against oxidative damage evoked by DOX and DTX.

  15. Notch in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Politi, Katerina; Feirt, Nikki; Kitajewski, Jan

    2004-10-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in many processes including cell fate determination and oncogenesis. In mice, the Notch1 and Notch4 genes are both targets for insertion and rearrangement by the mouse mammary tumor virus and these mutations promote epithelial mammary tumorigenesis. Moreover, expression of a constitutively active form of Notch4 in mammary epithelial cells inhibits epithelial differentiation and leads to tumor formation in this organ. These data implicate the Notch pathway in breast tumorigenesis and provide the foundation for future experiments that will aid in our understanding of the role of Notch in human breast cancer development. Here, we review studies of mammary tumorigenesis induced by Notch in mouse and in vitro culture models providing evidence that Notch activation is a causal factor in human breast cancer.

  16. Exercise and caloric restriction modify rat mammary carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennink, M.R.; Palmer, H.J.; Messina, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    This study was designed to determine the effect of energy expenditure and dietary restriction on tumorigenesis. Energy balance was altered in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment by: 1) exercising rats by running on a treadmill or 2) a 16% reduction in caloric intake. Treatments were begun 24 days after initiation and continued for 160 days. Mammary cancer was initiated with 10 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene given intragastrically. All 4 groups received the same quantity of fat, protein vitamins, minerals and sucrose in the diet. Energy restriction (ER) was achieved by removing 15% of the corn starch from the diet fed to the ER groups. Energy content of the carcass (as a % of the ad lib., sedentary group) was: pair-fed, EX = 71; ER, sedentary = 75; ER, EX = 61. ER decreased total body protein by 6%. EX did not change body protein. EX reduced the rate constant (rate constant is the change in tumor incidence or size with time) of the cummulative mean tumor incidence by 16% and ER reduced the rate constant by 28%. EX decreased the rate constant of the cummulative mean tumor size by 23%; however, ER increased the rate constant by 46%. In this experiment, EX was equally or more effective than ER in reducing tumorigenesis.

  17. In vivo MRI of early stage mammary cancers and the normal mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sanaz A; Conzen, Suzanne D; Fan, Xiaobing; Markiewicz, Erica; Krausz, Thomas; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2011-08-01

    Since the advent of screening mammography, approximately one-quarter of newly diagnosed breast cancers are at the earliest preinvasive stage of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Concomitant with this improvement in early detection has been a growing clinical concern that distinguishing aggressive from indolent DCIS is necessary to optimize patient management. Genetically engineered mouse models offer an appealing experimental framework in which to investigate factors that influence and predict progression of preinvasive neoplasias. Because of the small size of early stage carcinomas in mice, high-resolution imaging techniques are required to effectively observe longitudinal progression. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI for assessment of in situ mammary neoplasias and early invasive mammary cancers that stochastically arise in mammary glands of C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice. Additionally, images of normal mammary glands from wild-type FVB/N mice were acquired and compared with those from transgenic mice. Sixteen mice underwent MR examinations employing axial two-dimensional multi-slice gradient recalled echo scans (TR/TE =∼1000/5.5 ms) with fat suppression in a two-step process targeting both the upper and lower mammary glands. MRI successfully detected in situ and early invasive neoplasias in transgenic mice with high sensitivity and specificity. The average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of in situ lesions on fat-suppressed high-resolution T(1) -weighted images was 22.9, which was lower than that of invasive tumors, lymph nodes and muscle (average SNR of 29.5-34.9, p < 0.0001) but significantly higher than that of normal mammary tissue (average SNR = 5.5, p < 0.0001). Evaluation of wild-type mammary glands revealed no cancerous or benign lesions, and comparable image contrast characteristics (average SNR = 5.2) as compared with normal tissue areas of transgenic mice. This present study demonstrates that MRI is an excellent

  18. Influence of DMBA-induced mammary cancer on the liver CPT I, mit HMG-CoA synthase and PPARalpha mRNA expression in rats fed a low or high corn oil diet.

    PubMed

    Moral, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Manzanares, Eva Mónica; Haro, Diego; Escrich, Eduard

    2004-08-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase) enzymes play a key role in regulation of fatty acid oxidation and in ketogenic pathways, respectively. Their expression are regulated by fatty acids mainly by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). To investigate possible mechanisms through which cancer alters the lipid metabolism, we analyzed by Northern blot, the mRNA relative abundance of these proteins in liver from healthy and DMBA-induced mammary tumor-bearing rats fed a low or high corn oil diet. Serum levels of lipids, body weight and mass were also determined. Whereas mRNA steady-state levels of CPT I and mit HMG-CoA synthase were unaffected by the presence of the extra-hepatic tumor, the cancer state seemed to modify the regulation of the expression of these genes by high fat diet. We hypothesize that putative changes in PPARalpha mRNA levels could have contributed to such alterations. These results, together with changes in serum lipid profiles, body weight and mass, indicate fat mobilization and non-enhanced oxidation rates despite a high-fat feeding. This effect of the cancer state could be related to tumor aggressiveness and suggest a preferential redirection of long-chain fatty acids into energetic and specific pathways of the cancer cells.

  19. Endocrine-active chemicals in mammary cancer causation and prevention.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sarah; Betancourt, Angela M; Wang, Jun; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2012-04-01

    Endocrine-active chemicals alter or mimic physiological hormones. These compounds are reported to originate from a wide variety of sources, and recent studies have shown widespread human exposure to several of these compounds. Given the role of the sex steroid hormone, estradiol, in human breast cancer causation, endocrine-active chemicals which interfere with estrogen signaling constitute one potential factor contributing to the high incidence of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine several common endocrine-active chemicals and their respective roles in breast cancer causation or prevention. The plastic component, bisphenol A (BPA), the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), the by-product of organic combustion, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the soy component, genistein, and the red grape phytoalexin, resveratrol, have some degree of structural similarities to each other and estradiol. However, despite these structural similarities, the in vitro and in vivo properties of each of these chemicals vary greatly in terms of breast cancer causation and prevention. Early life exposure to BPA and DES increases rodent susceptibility to chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis, presumably through retardation of normal mammary gland maturation and/or disrupting the ratio of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland. On the other hand, early exposures to genistein and resveratrol protect rodents against chemically induced and spontaneous mammary cancers. This is reported to occur through the ability of genistein and resveratrol to accelerate mammary gland maturation. Interestingly, TCDD, which is the most structurally dissimilar to the above chemicals and functions as an anti-estrogen, also increases chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis through retardation of mammary gland maturation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors'. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. MATERNAL FLAXSEED DIET DURING PREGNANCY OR LACTATION INCREASES FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING’S SUSCEPTIBILITY TO CARCINOGEN-INDUCED MAMMARY TUMORIGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Galam; Penttinen, Pauliina; Cabanes, Anna; Foxworth, Aaron; Chezek, Antonia; Masterpole, Kristen; Yu, Bin; Smeds, Annika; Halttunen, Teemu; Good, Carolyn; Mäkelä, Sari; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Flaxseed contains several dietary components that have been linked to low breast cancer risk; i.e., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), lignans and fiber, but it also contains detectable levels of cadmium, a heavy metal that activates the estrogen receptor (ER). Since estrogenic exposures early in life modify susceptibility to develop breast cancer, we wondered whether maternal dietary intake of 5% or 10% flaxseed during pregnancy or lactation (between postpartum days 5 and 21) might affect 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) -induced mammary tumorigenesis in the rat offspring. Our data indicated that both in utero and postnatal 5% and 10% flaxseed exposures shortened mammary tumor latency, and 10% flaxseed exposure increased tumor multiplicity, compared to the controls. Further, when assessed in 8-week-old rats, in utero 10% flaxseed exposure increased lobular ER-α protein levels, and both in utero and postnatal flaxseed exposures dose-dependently reduced ER-β protein levels in the lobules and terminal end buds (TEBs). Exposures to flaxseed did not alter the number of TEBs or affect cell proliferation within the TEBs, lobules or ducts. In a separate group of immature rats that were fed 5% defatted flaxseed diet (flaxseed source different than in the diets fed to pregnant or lactating rats) for 7 days, cadmium exposure through the diet was 7-fold higher than allowed for humans by World Health Organization, and cadmium significantly accumulated in the liver and kidneys of the rats. It remains to be determined whether the increased mammary cancer in rats exposed to flaxseed through a maternal diet in utero or lactation was caused by cadmium present in flaxseed, and whether the reduced mammary ER-β content was causally linked to increased mammary cancer risk among the offspring. PMID:17398067

  1. The role of neutralizing antibodies for mouse mammary tumor virus transmission and mammary cancer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Daniela; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Acha-Orbea, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infection establishes chronic germinal centers and a lifelong neutralizing Ab response. We show that removal of the draining lymph node after establishment of the germinal center reaction led to complete loss of neutralizing Abs despite comparable infection levels in peripheral lymphocytes. Importantly, in the absence of neutralization, only the exocrine organs mammary gland, salivary gland, pancreas, and skin showed strikingly increased infection, resulting in accelerated mammary tumor development. Induction of stronger neutralization did not influence chronic infection levels of peripheral lymphoid organs but strongly inhibited mammary gland infection and virus transmission to the next generation. Taken together, we provide evidence that a tight equilibrium in virus neutralization allows limited infection of exocrine organs and controls cancer development in susceptible mouse strains. These experiments show that a strong neutralizing Ab response induced after infection is not able to control lymphoid MMTV infection. Strong neutralization, however, is capable of blocking amplification of mammary gland infection, tumor development, and virus transmission to the next generation. The results also indicate a role of neutralization in natural resistance to MMTV infection.

  2. Mammary gland morphological and gene expression changes underlying pregnancy protection of breast cancer tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Yogi; Bentley, Pamela A.; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Tighe, Scott; Hunter, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    A full-term pregnancy early in life reduces lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and the effect can be mimicked in rodents by full-term pregnancy or short-term treatment with exogenous estrogen and progesterone. To gain insight into the protective mechanism, 15 3-mo-old postpubertal virgin Lewis rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (C), pregnancy (P), or hormone (H). The P group animals underwent a full-term pregnancy, and H group animals were implanted subcutaneously with silastic capsules filled with ethynyl estradiol and megesterol acetate for 21 days. C and P animals were implanted with sham capsules. On day 21 capsules were removed, which was followed by a 49-day involution period, euthanasia, and mammary tissue collection. Global gene expression was measured using Rat Genome 230.2 Arrays. Histological analysis revealed that P and H treatments induced sustained morphological changes in the mammary gland with significantly increased percentages of mammary parenchyma and stromal tissues and higher ratio of stroma to parenchyma. Transcriptome analysis showed that P and H treatments induced sustained global changes in gene expression in the mammary gland. Analysis of commonly up- and downregulated genes in P and H relative to C treatment showed increased expression of three matrix metallopeptidases (Mmp3, 8, and 12), more differentiated mammary phenotype, enhanced innate and adaptive immunity, and reduced cell proliferation and angiogenic signatures. The sustained morphological and global gene expression changes in mammary tissue after pregnancy and hormone treatment may function together to provide the protective effect against breast cancer. PMID:22085904

  3. Selective effects of whey protein concentrate on glutathione levels and apoptosis in rats with mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Hsuan; Tseng, Yang-Ming; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in antioxidant defense and regulation of apoptosis. GSH deficiency is related to many diseases, including cancer, and increased GSH levels in cancer cells are associated with chemotherapy resistance because of resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC), a precursor of GSH, in rats with mammary tumors induced by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA treatment results in cellular changes that mimic the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis of breast tissue. We aimed to examine the possible preventive effects of diets containing whey protein on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats. The results indicate that WPC (0.334 g/kg) supplementation significantly increased the liver GSH levels by 92%, and were accompanied by low Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 5 to 3) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 2.4 to 1.2) in DMBA-treated rats. Furthermore, tumor GSH levels were decreased by 47% in WPC-supplemented rats, which resulted in increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 0.9 to 2) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 1.1 to 2.7). In conclusion, supplementation with WPC could selectively deplete tumor GSH levels and, therefore, WPC supplementation might be a promising strategy to overcome treatment resistance in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypothyroidism reduces mammary tumor progression via Β-catenin-activated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, C M; Zyla, L E; Santiano, F E; Sasso, C V; Cuello-Carrión, F D; Pistone Creydt, V; Fanelli, M A; Carón, R W

    2017-02-13

    Experimental hypothyroidism retards mammary carcinogenesis promoting apoptosis of tumor cells. β-catenin plays a critical role in cell adhesion and intracellular signaling pathways conditioning the prognosis of breast cancer. However, the mechanistic connections associated with the expression of β-catenin in thyroid status and breast cancer are not known. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the expression and localization of β-catenin and apoptosis in mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in hypothyroid (Hypot) and euthyroid (EUT) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with a dose of DMBA (15 mg/rat) at 55 days of age and were then divided into two groups: HypoT (0.01% 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water, n = 54) and EUT (untreated control, n = 43). Latency, incidence and progression of tumors were determined. At sacrifice, tumors were obtained for immunohistological studies and Western Blot. The latency was longer (p < 0.05), the incidence was lower (p < 0.0001) and tumor growth was slower (p < 0.01) in HypoT rats compared to EUT. The expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly higher in tumors of HypoT than in EUT (p < 0.05) indicating the activation of the intrinsic pathway. In this group, β-catenin was expressed in the plasma membrane and with less intensity, while its expression was nuclear and with greater intensity in the EUT (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of survivin was reduced in tumors of HypoT rats (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreased expression of β-catenin and its normal location in membrane of mammary tumors are associated with augmented apoptosis via activation of the intrinsic pathway in HypoT rats.

  5. The rat mammary gland: morphologic changes as an indicator of systemic hormonal perturbations induced by xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Julia N; Rudmann, Daniel G; Credille, Kelly M; Irizarry, Armando R; Peter, Augustine; Snyder, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The development and morphology of the rat mammary gland are dependent upon several hormones including estrogens, androgens, progesterone, growth hormone and prolactin. In toxicology studies, treatment with xenobiotics may alter these hormones resulting in changes in the morphology of reproductive tissues such as the mammary gland. In the rat, male and female mammary glands exhibit striking morphologic differences that can be altered secondary to hormonal perturbations. Recognizing these morphologic changes can help the pathologist predict potential xenobiotic-induced perturbations in the systemic hormonal milieu. This review examines the development of the rat mammary gland and the influence of sex hormones on the morphology of the adult male and female rat mammary gland. Specific case examples from the literature and data from our laboratory highlight the dynamic nature of the rat mammary gland in response to hormonal changes.

  6. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.

  7. Development of Hyperplasias, Preneoplasias, and Mammary Tumors in MMTV-c-erbB-2 and MMTV-TGFα Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Barry R.; Platt-Higgins, Angela M.; Schmidt, Gunter; Rudland, Philip S.

    1999-01-01

    Human cDNAs corresponding to two epidermal growth factor-related products that are overexpressed in human breast cancers, that for c-erbB-2 (HER-2) and for transforming growth factor α (TGFα), have been cloned downstream of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat promoter and injected into the pronucleus of fertilized oocytes of Sprague-Dawley rats to produce transgenic offspring. Expression of the transgenic mRNAs is not detectable in mammary tissue from virgin transgenic rats but is detected in mammary tissue from certain lines of mid-pregnant transgenic rats. When two such lines of either type of transgenic rat are subjected to repeated cycles of pregnancy and lactation, they produce, primarily in the mammary glands, extensive pathologies, whereas virgin transgenic rats produce no such abnormalities. Multiparous transgenic female offspring from c-erbB-2-expressing lines develop a variety of focal hyperplastic and benign lesions that resemble lesions commonly found in human breasts. These lesions include lobular and ductal hyperplasia, fibroadenoma, cystic expansions, and papillary adenomas. More malignant lesions, including ductal carcinoma in situ and carcinoma, also develop stochastically at low frequency. The mammary glands of transgenic females invariably fail to involute fully after lactation. Similar phenotypes are observed in female MMTV-TGFα transgenic rats. In addition, multiparous TGFα-expressing female transgenics frequently develop severe pregnancy-dependent lactating hyperplasias as well as residual lobules of hyperplastic secretory epithelium and genuine lactating adenomas after weaning. These transgenic rat models confirm the conclusions reached in transgenic mice that overexpression of the c-erbB-2 and TGFα genes predisposes the mammary gland to stochastic tumor development. PMID:10393862

  8. The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism in pregnant rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, K.; Maple, R.; Vyas, C.; Munaim, S.; Darling, A.; Casey, T.; Alberts, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism of 10 pregnant rats was measured on Day 20 of pregnancy and after parturition. Rats were flown on the space shuttle from Day 11 through Day 20 of pregnancy. After their return to earth, glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide increased 43% (P < 0.05), and incorporation into fatty acids increased 300% (P < 0.005) compared to controls. It is unclear whether the enhanced glucose use is due to spaceflight or a response to landing. Casein mRNA and gross histology were not altered at Day 20 of pregnancy. Six rats gave birth (on Day 22 to 23 of pregnancy) and mammary metabolic activity was measured immediately postpartum. The earlier effects of spaceflight were no longer apparent. There was also no difference in expression of beta-casein mRNA. It is clear from these studies that spaceflight does not impair the normal development of the mammary gland, its ability to use glucose, nor the ability to express mRNA for a major milk protein.

  9. The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism in pregnant rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, K.; Maple, R.; Vyas, C.; Munaim, S.; Darling, A.; Casey, T.; Alberts, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism of 10 pregnant rats was measured on Day 20 of pregnancy and after parturition. Rats were flown on the space shuttle from Day 11 through Day 20 of pregnancy. After their return to earth, glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide increased 43% (P < 0.05), and incorporation into fatty acids increased 300% (P < 0.005) compared to controls. It is unclear whether the enhanced glucose use is due to spaceflight or a response to landing. Casein mRNA and gross histology were not altered at Day 20 of pregnancy. Six rats gave birth (on Day 22 to 23 of pregnancy) and mammary metabolic activity was measured immediately postpartum. The earlier effects of spaceflight were no longer apparent. There was also no difference in expression of beta-casein mRNA. It is clear from these studies that spaceflight does not impair the normal development of the mammary gland, its ability to use glucose, nor the ability to express mRNA for a major milk protein.

  10. Influence of fatty acid diets on gene expression in rat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Medvedovic, M; Gear, R; Freudenberg, J M; Schneider, J; Bornschein, R; Yan, M; Mistry, M J; Hendrix, H; Karyala, S; Halbleib, D; Heffelfinger, S; Clegg, D J; Anderson, M W

    2009-06-10

    This study examines the impact of dietary fatty acids on regulation of gene expression in mammary epithelial cells before and during puberty. Diets primarily consisted of n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower), saturated acids (butter), and the reference AIN-93G diet (soy oil). The dietary regimen mimics the repetitive nature of fatty acid exposure in Western diets. Diet-induced changes in gene expression were examined in laser capture microdissected mammary ductal epithelial cells at day of weaning and end of puberty. PCNA immunohistochemistry analysis compared proliferation rates between diets. Genes differentially expressed between each test diets and the reference diet were significantly enriched by cell cycle genes. Some of these genes were involved in activation of the cell cycle pathway or the G2/M check point pathway. Although there were some differences in the level of differential expression, all diets showed qualitatively the same pattern of differential expression compared to the reference diet. Cluster analysis identified an expanded set of cell cycle as well as immunity and sterol metabolism related clusters of differentially expressed genes. Fatty acid-enriched diets significantly upregulated proliferation above normal physiological levels during puberty. Higher cellular proliferation during puberty caused by enriched fatty acid diets poses a potential increase risk of mammary cancer in later life. The human homologs of 27 of 62 cell cycle rat genes are included in a human breast cancer cluster of 45 cell cycle genes, further emphasizing the importance of our findings in the rat model.

  11. Multiple susceptibility loci for radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Victoria L; Ponce, Lorenz R; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Although two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified accounting for 20% of breast cancer genetic risk, identification of other susceptibility genes accounting for 80% risk remains a challenge due to the complex, multi-factorial nature of breast cancer. Complexity derives from multiple genetic determinants, permutations of gene-environment interactions, along with presumptive low-penetrance of breast cancer predisposing genes, and genetic heterogeneity of human populations. As with other complex diseases, dissection of genetic determinants in animal models provides key insight since genetic heterogeneity and environmental factors can be experimentally controlled, thus facilitating the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL). We therefore, performed the first genome-wide scan for loci contributing to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female F2-(Dahl S x R)-intercross rats. Tumorigenesis was measured as tumor burden index (TBI) after induction of rat mammary tumors at forty days of age via ¹²⁷Cs-radiation. We observed a spectrum of tumor latency, size-progression, and pathology from poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma to fibroadenoma, indicating major effects of gene-environment interactions. We identified two mammary tumorigenesis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (Mts-QTLs) with significant linkage: Mts-1 on chromosome-9 (LOD-2.98) and Mts-2 on chromosome-1 (LOD-2.61), as well as two Mts-QTLs with suggestive linkage: Mts-3 on chromosome-5 (LOD-1.93) and Mts-4 on chromosome-18 (LOD-1.54). Interestingly, Chr9-Mts-1, Chr5-Mts-3 and Chr18-Mts-4 QTLs are unique to irradiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis, while Chr1-Mts-2 QTL overlaps with a mammary cancer susceptibility QTL (Mcs 3) reported for 7,12-dimethylbenz-[α]antracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[COP x Wistar-Furth]-intercross rats. Altogether, our results suggest at least three distinct susceptibility QTLs for irradiation

  12. Multiple Susceptibility Loci for Radiation-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in F2[Dahl S x R]-Intercross Rats

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Victoria L.; Ponce, Lorenz R.; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Although two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified accounting for 20% of breast cancer genetic risk, identification of other susceptibility genes accounting for 80% risk remains a challenge due to the complex, multi-factorial nature of breast cancer. Complexity derives from multiple genetic determinants, permutations of gene-environment interactions, along with presumptive low-penetrance of breast cancer predisposing genes, and genetic heterogeneity of human populations. As with other complex diseases, dissection of genetic determinants in animal models provides key insight since genetic heterogeneity and environmental factors can be experimentally controlled, thus facilitating the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL). We therefore, performed the first genome-wide scan for loci contributing to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female F2-(Dahl S x R)-intercross rats. Tumorigenesis was measured as tumor burden index (TBI) after induction of rat mammary tumors at forty days of age via 127Cs-radiation. We observed a spectrum of tumor latency, size-progression, and pathology from poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma to fibroadenoma, indicating major effects of gene-environment interactions. We identified two mammary tumorigenesis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (Mts-QTLs) with significant linkage: Mts-1 on chromosome-9 (LOD-2.98) and Mts-2 on chromosome-1 (LOD-2.61), as well as two Mts-QTLs with suggestive linkage: Mts-3 on chromosome-5 (LOD-1.93) and Mts-4 on chromosome-18 (LOD-1.54). Interestingly, Chr9-Mts-1, Chr5-Mts-3 and Chr18-Mts-4 QTLs are unique to irradiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis, while Chr1-Mts-2 QTL overlaps with a mammary cancer susceptibility QTL (Mcs 3) reported for 7,12-dimethylbenz-[α]antracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[COP x Wistar-Furth]-intercross rats. Altogether, our results suggest at least three distinct susceptibility QTLs for irradiation

  13. The effect of dietary zinc - and polyphenols intake on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein, on the effectiveness of chemically induced mammary cancer and the changes in the content of selected elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca) in tumors as compared with normal tissue of the mammary gland. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet and DMBA (7,12-dimethyl-1,2- benz[a]anthracene), were treated with zinc ions (Zn) or zinc ions + resveratrol (Zn + resveratrol) or zinc ions + genistein (Zn + genistein) via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. The ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) technique was used to analyze the following elements: magnesium, iron, zinc and calcium. Copper content in samples was estimated in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Regardless of the diet (standard; Zn; Zn + resveratrol; Zn + genistein), DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was not inhibited. On the contrary, in the Zn + resveratrol supplemented group, tumorigenesis developed at a considerably faster rate. On the basis of quantitative analysis of selected elements we found - irrespectively of the diet applied - great accumulation of copper and iron, which are strongly prooxidative, with a simultaneous considerable decrease of the magnesium content in DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The combination of zinc supplementation with resveratrol resulted in particularly large differences in the amount of the investigated elements in tumors as compared with their content in normal tissue. Conclusions Diet supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein had no effect on the decreased copper level in tumor tissue and inhibited mammary carcinogenesis in the rat. Irrespectively of the applied diet, the development of the neoplastic process in rats resulted in changes of the iron and magnesium

  14. TGF-beta biology in mammary development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moses, Harold; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) was first implicated in mammary epithelial development by Daniel and Silberstein in 1987 and in breast cancer cells and hormone resistance by Lippman and colleagues in 1988. TGF-β is critically important for mammary morphogenesis and secretory function through specific regulation of epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix. Differential TGF-β effects on distinct cell types are compounded by regulation at multiple levels and the influence of context on cellular responses. Studies using controlled expression and conditional-deletion mouse models underscore the complexity of TGF-β biology across the cycle of mammary development and differentiation. Early loss of TGF-β growth regulation in breast cancer evolves into fundamental deregulation that mediates cell interactions and phenotypes driving invasive disease. Two outstanding issues are to understand the mechanisms of biological control in situ and the circumstances by which TGF-β regulation is subverted in neoplastic progression.

  15. Significance of rat mammary tumors for human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Russo, Jose

    2015-02-01

    We have previously indicated that the ideal animal tumor model should mimic the human disease. This means that the investigator should be able to ascertain the influence of host factors on the initiation of tumorigenesis, mimic the susceptibility of tumor response based on age and reproductive history, and determine the response of the tumors induced to chemotherapy. The utilization of experimental models of mammary carcinogenesis in risk assessment requires that the influence of ovarian, pituitary, and placental hormones, among others, as well as overall reproductive events are taken into consideration, since they are important modifiers of the susceptibility of the organ to neoplastic development. Several species, such as rodents, dogs, cats, and monkeys, have been evaluated for these purposes; however, none of them fulfills all the criteria specified previously. Rodents, however, are the most widely used models; therefore, this work will concentrate on discussing the rat rodent model of mammary carcinogenesis.

  16. Naturally-occurring estradiol-17{beta}-fatty acid esters, but not estradiol-17{beta}, preferentially induce mammary tumorigenesis in female rats: Implications for an important role in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Laura H.; Yu Jina; Xu Xiaomeng; Lee, Anthony J.; Zhu Baoting

    2008-06-15

    Because mammary glands are surrounded by adipose tissues, we hypothesize that the ultra-lipophilic endogenous estrogen-17{beta}-fatty acid esters may have preferential hormonal and carcinogenic effects in mammary tissues compared to other target organs (such as the uterus and pituitary). This hypothesis is tested in the present study. We found that all 46 rats implanted with an estradiol-17{beta} pellet developed large pituitary tumors (average weight = 251 {+-}103 mg) and had to be terminated early, but only 48% of them developed mammary tumors. In addition, approximately one-fourth of them developed a huge uterus. In the 26 animals implanted with a mixture containing estradiol-17{beta}-stearate and estradiol-17{beta}-palmitate (two representative estradiol-17{beta}-fatty acid esters) or in the 29 animals implanted with estradiol-17{beta}-stearate alone (in the same molar dose as estradiol-17{beta}), 73% and 79%, respectively, of them developed mammary tumors, whereas only 3 or 2 animals, respectively, had to be terminated early due to the presence of a large pituitary tumor. Both tumorous and normal mammary tissues contained much higher levels of estrogen esterase than other tissues, which catalyzes the releases of bioactive estrogens from their fatty acid esters. In conclusion, while estradiol-17{beta} is much stronger in inducing pituitary tumor (100% incidence) than mammary tumor, estradiol-17{beta}-fatty acid esters have a higher efficacy than estradiol-17{beta} in inducing mammary tumor and yet it only has little ability to induce uterine out-growth and pituitary tumorigenesis. This study establishes the endogenous estrogen-17{beta}-fatty acid esters as preferential inducers of mammary tumorigenesis.

  17. Effects of early and late treatment with soy isoflavones in the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, M Aparecida; Florencio-Silva, R; Teixeira, C P; Sasso, G Rodrigues da Silva; Marinho, D Souza; Simões, R S; Simões, M J; Carbonel, A Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Soy isoflavones have been shown to be an alternative to hormone therapy at menopause, without causing side-effects such as breast cancer. However, the effects of early and late treatment with isoflavones on the mammary gland remain controversial. To investigate the effects of early and late treatment with soy isoflavones on the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats. Thirty 3-month-old rats were ovariectomized and divided equally into groups: Control, treated with vehicle solution; or with 150 mg/kg/body weight of isoflavones by gavage; or subcutaneously treated with 10 μg/kg/body weight with 17β-estradiol. Treatments started 3 days (early treatment) or 30 days (late treatment) after ovariectomy and lasted for 30 consecutive days. Thereafter, the animals were euthanized and the mammary glands were removed and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometry or subjected to immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and VEGF-A. The ductal, lobular and total epithelial fractions were similar between controls and the early/late isoflavone groups, but they were significantly higher in the groups treated with estradiol. In both epithelial and stromal regions, the immunoreactivity of VEGF-A and the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells were significantly higher in the groups treated with estradiol, while they were similar in the early/late isoflavone groups and control groups. Our results indicate that early and late treatment with soy isoflavones at the dose of 150 mg/kg/body weight does not show proliferative and angiogenic effects on the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats.

  18. Bovine herpesvirus 4-based vector delivering a hybrid rat/human HER-2 oncoantigen efficiently protects mice from autochthonous Her-2+ mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jacca, Sarah; Rolih, Valeria; Quaglino, Elena; Franceschi, Valentina; Tebaldi, Giulia; Bolli, Elisabetta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Ottonello, Simone; Cavallo, Federica; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) oncogene is a major target for the immunotherapy of breast cancer. Following up to the therapeutic success achieved with Her-2-targeting monoclonal antibodies, immune-prophylactic approaches directed against Her-2 have also been investigated taking into account, and trying to overcome, Her-2 self-tolerance. Perhaps due to safety (and efficacy) concerns, the least explored anti-Her-2 active immunization strategy so far has been the one relying on viral-vectored vaccine formulations. Taking advantage of the favorable properties of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) in terms of safety and ease of manipulation as well as its previously documented ability to transduce and confer immunogenicity to heterologous antigens, we tested the ability of different recombinant HER-2-BoHV-4 immunogens to 8break tolerance and elicit a protective, anti-mammary tumor antibody response in HER-2 transgenic BALB-neuT mice. All the tested constructs expressed the HER-2 transgenes at high levels and elicited significant cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice upon administration via either DNA vaccination or viral infection. In BALB-neuT mice, instead, only the viral construct expressing the membrane-bound chimeric form of Her-2 protein (BoHV-4-RHuT-gD) elicited a humoral immune response that was more intense and earlier-appearing than that induced by DNA vaccination. In keeping with this observation, two administrations of BoHV-4-RHuT-gD effectively protected BALB-neuT mice from tumor formation, with 50% of vaccinated animals tumor-free after 30 weeks from immunization compared to 100% of animals exhibiting at least one palpable tumor in the case of animals vaccinated with the other BoHV-4-HER-2 constructs. PMID:27141335

  19. A Rat Model to Study the Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity on Radiation-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Daino, Kazuhiro; Morioka, Takamitsu; Nishimura, Yukiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Akimoto, Kenta; Furukawa, Yuki; Fukushi, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2016-05-01

    A detailed understanding of the relationship between radiation-induced breast cancer and obesity is needed for appropriate risk management and to prevent the development of a secondary cancer in patients who have been treated with radiation. Our goal was to develop an animal model to study the relationship by combining two existing Sprague-Dawley rat models of radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Female rats were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks and categorized as obesity prone or obesity resistant based on their body weight at 7 weeks of age, at which time the rats were irradiated with 4 Gy. Control rats were fed a standard diet and irradiated at the same time and in the same manner. All rats were maintained on their initial diets and assessed for palpable mammary cancers once a week for the next 30 weeks. The obesity-prone rats were heavier than those in the other groups. The obesity-prone rats were also younger than the other animals at the first detection of mammary carcinomas and their carcinoma weights were greater. A tendency toward higher insulin and leptin blood levels were observed in the obesity-prone rats compared to the other two groups. Blood angiotensin II levels were elevated in the obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Genes related to translation and oxidative phosphorylation were upregulated in the carcinomas of obesity-prone rats. Expression profiles from human breast cancers were used to validate this animal model. As angiotensin is potentially an important factor in obesity-related morbidities and breast cancer, a second set of rats was fed in a similar manner, irradiated and then treated with an angiotensin-receptor blocker, losartan and candesartan. Neither blocker altered mammary carcinogenesis; analyses of losartan-treated animals indicated that expression of renin in the renal cortex and of Agtr1a (angiotensin II receptor, type 1) in cancer tissue was significantly upregulated, suggesting the presence of

  20. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in

  1. Amphiregulin: role in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McBryan, Jean; Howlin, Jillian; Napoletano, Silvia; Martin, Finian

    2008-06-01

    Extensive epithelial cell proliferation underlies the ductal morphogenesis of puberty that generates the mammary tree that will eventually fill the fat pad. This estrogen-dependent process is believed to be essentially dependent on locally produced growth factors that act in a paracrine fashion. EGF-like growth factor ligands, acting through EGF receptors are some of the principal promoters of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. Amphiregulin is the most abundant EGF-like growth factor in the pubertal mammary gland. Its gene is transcriptionally regulated by ERalpha, and recent evidence identifies it as a key mediator of the estrogen-driven epithelial cell proliferation of puberty: The pubertal deficiency in mammary gland ductal morphogenesis in ERalpha, amphiregulin, and EGFR knockout mice phenocopy each other. As a prognostic indicator in human breast cancer, amphiregulin indicates an outcome identical to that predicted by ERalpha presence. Despite this, a range of studies both on preneoplastic human breast tissue and on cell culture based models of breast cancer, suggest a possibly significant role for amphiregulin in driving human breast cancer progression. Here we summarise our current understanding of amphiregulin's contribution to mammary gland development and breast cancer progression.

  2. Genetic Susceptibility to Estrogen-Induced Mammary Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Susceptibility to Estrogen -Induced Mammary Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. James D. Shull CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Nebraska Medical Center Omaha...DATES COVERED blank) November 2001 Final (01 Oct 98 - 01 Oct 01) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Genetic Susceptibility to Estrogen -Induced...Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Estrogens are important in the etiology of breast cancer. We have developed

  3. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on chemically-induced mammary tumors in rats receiving tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is used extensively by breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with Tamoxifen (TAM). Thus, the present study investigated the effects of GbE in female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats bearing chemically-induced mammary tumors and receiving TAM. Methods Animals bearing mammary tumors (≥1 cm in diameter) were divided into four groups: TAM [10 mg/kg, intragastrically (i.g.)], TAM plus GbE [50 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] or an untreated control group. After 4 weeks, the therapeutic efficacy of the different treatments was evaluated by measuring the tumor volume (cm3) and the proportions of each tumor that were alive, necrotic or degenerative (mm2). In addition, labeling indexes (LI%) were calculated for cell proliferation (PCNA LI%) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 LI%), expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) and p63 biomarkers. Results Overall, the tumor volume and the PCNA LI% within live tumor areas were reduced by 83% and 99%, respectively, in all TAM-treated groups when compared to the untreated control group. GbE treatment (100 mg/kg) reduced the proportions of live (24.8%) and necrotic areas (2.9%) (p = 0.046 and p = 0.038, respectively) and significantly increased the proportion of degenerative areas (72.9%) (p = 0.004) in mammary tumors when compared to the group treated only with TAM. The expression of ER-α, p63 and cleaved caspase-3 in live tumor tissues was not modified by GbE treatment. Conclusions Co-treatment with 100 mg/kg GbE presented a slightly beneficial effect on the therapeutic efficacy of TAM in female SD rats bearing mammary tumors. PMID:23634930

  4. Effects of weak alternating magnetic fields on nocturnal melatonin production and mammary carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Löscher, W; Wahnschaffe, U; Mevissen, M; Lerchl, A; Stamm, A

    1994-01-01

    Since extremely low frequency (i.e., 50- or 60-Hz) magnetic fields (MFs) from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources are ubiquitous in modern societies, the possible carcinogenic effect of such fields recently suggested by epidemiological studies has engendered much concern. However, in view of various unknown and uncontrolled variables which may bias epidemiological studies on MF interactions, a causal relationship between MFs and tumorigenesis can only be determined precisely in animal experiments. The goal of the study reported here was to determine if low frequency MFs at the low flux densities which are relevant for human populations induce tumor-promoting or copromoting effects in a model of breast cancer. Furthermore, since reduction in pineal production of melatonin has been implicated as a cause of tumor promotion by electromagnetic fields, determinations of nocturnal melatonin peak levels in serum were performed during MF exposure. Mammary tumors were induced by intragastric administration of 20 mg (5 mg/week) 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of 36 rats were either sham-exposed or exposed for 91 days at a 50-Hz gradient MF of 0.3-1 microT, which is a relevant range for elevated domestic MF exposure as arising from neighboring power lines. Nocturnal melatonin levels were significantly reduced by exposure to this weak alternating MF. However, histopathological evaluation of mammary lesions did not disclose any significant difference between MF- and sham-exposed animals. Incidence of mammary tumors was 61% in controls versus 67% in MF-exposed rats. The predominant tumor type was the invasive adenocarcinoma, which was found in 21 rats of both groups. Examination of tumor size did not indicate significant differences in tumor burden between both groups. Furthermore, the incidence of preneoplastic lesions was not altered by MF exposure. Thus, the data of this study indicate that alternating MF do not

  5. Physical Confirmation and Mapping of Overlapping Rat Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility QTLs, Mcs2 and Mcs6

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Jennifer; Haag, Jill D.; Samuelson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Only a portion of the estimated heritability of breast cancer susceptibility has been explained by individual loci. Comparative genetic approaches that first use an experimental organism to map susceptibility QTLs are unbiased methods to identify human orthologs to target in human population-based genetic association studies. Here, overlapping rat mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) predicted QTLs, Mcs6 and Mcs2, were physically confirmed and mapped to identify the human orthologous region. To physically confirm Mcs6 and Mcs2, congenic lines were established using the Wistar-Furth (WF) rat strain, which is susceptible to developing mammary carcinomas, as the recipient (genetic background) and either Wistar-Kyoto (WKy, Mcs6) or Copenhagen (COP, Mcs2), which are resistant, as donor strains. By comparing Mcs phenotypes of WF.WKy congenic lines with distinct segments of WKy chromosome 7 we physically confirmed and mapped Mcs6 to ∼33 Mb between markers D7Rat171 and gUwm64-3. The predicted Mcs2 QTL was also physically confirmed using segments of COP chromosome 7 introgressed into a susceptible WF background. The Mcs6 and Mcs2 overlapping genomic regions contain multiple annotated genes, but none have a clear or well established link to breast cancer susceptibility. Igf1 and Socs2 are two of multiple potential candidate genes in Mcs6. The human genomic region orthologous to rat Mcs6 is on chromosome 12 from base positions 71,270,266 to 105,502,699. This region has not shown a genome-wide significant association to breast cancer risk in pun studies of breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:21625632

  6. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices

    PubMed Central

    Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Munagala, Radha; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Schultz, David J.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish) rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M) or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w) of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold) enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92 days in control

  7. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Munagala, Radha; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Schultz, David J; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2017-02-16

    Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish) rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M) or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w) of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold) enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92 days in control

  8. DNA Methylation Patterns in Rat Mammary Carcinomas Induced by Pre- and Post-Pubertal Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Masaru; Blyth, Benjamin J; Daino, Kazuhiro; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate one's age at exposure to radiation strongly modifies the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer. We previously reported that rat mammary carcinomas induced by pre- and post-pubertal irradiation have distinct gene expression patterns, but the changes underlying these differences have not yet been characterized. The aim of this investigation was to see if differences in CpG DNA methylation were responsible for the differences in gene expression between age at exposure groups observed in our previous study. DNA was obtained from the mammary carcinomas arising in female Sprague-Dawley rats that were either untreated or irradiated (γ-rays, 2 Gy) during the pre- or post-pubertal period (3 or 7 weeks old). The DNA methylation was analyzed using CpG island microarrays and the results compared to the gene expression data from the original study. Global DNA hypomethylation in tumors was accompanied by gene-specific hypermethylation, and occasionally, by unique tumor-specific patterns. We identified methylation-regulated gene expression candidates that distinguished the pre- and post-pubertal irradiation tumors, but these represented only 2 percent of the differentially expressed genes, suggesting that methylation is not a major or primary mechanism underlying the phenotypes. Functional analysis revealed that the candidate methylation-regulated genes were enriched for stem cell differentiation roles, which may be important in mammary cancer development and worth further investigation. However, the heterogeneity of human breast cancer means that the interpretation of molecular and phenotypic differences should be cautious, and take into account the co-variates such as hormone receptor status and cell-of-origin that may influence the associations.

  9. DNA Methylation Patterns in Rat Mammary Carcinomas Induced by Pre- and Post-Pubertal Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Takabatake, Masaru; Blyth, Benjamin J.; Daino, Kazuhiro; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate one’s age at exposure to radiation strongly modifies the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer. We previously reported that rat mammary carcinomas induced by pre- and post-pubertal irradiation have distinct gene expression patterns, but the changes underlying these differences have not yet been characterized. The aim of this investigation was to see if differences in CpG DNA methylation were responsible for the differences in gene expression between age at exposure groups observed in our previous study. DNA was obtained from the mammary carcinomas arising in female Sprague-Dawley rats that were either untreated or irradiated (γ-rays, 2 Gy) during the pre- or post-pubertal period (3 or 7 weeks old). The DNA methylation was analyzed using CpG island microarrays and the results compared to the gene expression data from the original study. Global DNA hypomethylation in tumors was accompanied by gene-specific hypermethylation, and occasionally, by unique tumor-specific patterns. We identified methylation-regulated gene expression candidates that distinguished the pre- and post-pubertal irradiation tumors, but these represented only 2 percent of the differentially expressed genes, suggesting that methylation is not a major or primary mechanism underlying the phenotypes. Functional analysis revealed that the candidate methylation-regulated genes were enriched for stem cell differentiation roles, which may be important in mammary cancer development and worth further investigation. However, the heterogeneity of human breast cancer means that the interpretation of molecular and phenotypic differences should be cautious, and take into account the co-variates such as hormone receptor status and cell-of-origin that may influence the associations. PMID:27711132

  10. RUNX2 in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Nicola; McDonald, Laura; Morris, Joanna S; Cameron, Ewan R; Blyth, Karen

    2013-06-01

    Runx2 is best known as an essential factor in osteoblast differentiation and bone development but, like many other transcription factors involved in development, is known to operate over a much wider tissue range. Our understanding of these other aspects of Runx2 function is still at a relatively early stage and the importance of its role in cell fate decisions and lineage maintenance in non-osseous tissues is only beginning to emerge. One such tissue is the mammary gland, where Runx2 is known to be expressed and participate in the regulation of mammary specific genes. Furthermore, differential and temporal expression of this gene is observed during mammary epithelial differentiation in vivo, strongly indicative of an important functional role. Although the precise nature of that role remains elusive, preliminary evidence hints at possible involvement in the regulation of mammary stem and/or progenitor cells. As with many genes important in regulating cell fate, RUNX2 has also been linked to metastatic cancer where in some established breast cell lines, retention of expression is associated with a more invasive phenotype. More recently, expression analysis has been extended to primary breast cancers where high levels of RUNX2 align with a specific subtype of the disease. That RUNX2 expression correlates with the so called "Triple Negative" subtype is particularly interesting given the known cross talk between Runx2 and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. This review summaries our current understanding of Runx2 in mammary gland development and cancer, and postulates a role that may link both these processes.

  11. Effect of milk on the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene-induced mammary tumor model in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Qin, Li-Qiang; Tang, Fu-Lei; Ma, De-Fu; Wang, Pei-Yu; Wang, Yan

    2007-10-01

    Milk may be one of the risk factors in the development of breast cancer from epidemiological investigations. Our study investigated the hormones and main ingredients in milk and assessed the effects of milk on the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors in rats by comparing differences among three groups: commercial milk (C), traditional milk (T) or water (W). During the 20-weeks experiment the C and T groups showed higher incidences of mammary tumors than the W group. After excluding potential confounding factors including fat and calcium, the C group was found to score higher than the T group in the indices of tumorigenesis. These findings suggested that DMBA-induced mammary tumors are more prevalent in milk-fed groups due in part to the contribution of estrogen and progesterone in milk.

  12. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    cytes and ADS-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (ADS-iPSCs) (19) and primary mouse ES cells to isolated sperm and oocytes (20). We selected an...051 59 5 92% H9-IMR90 5875 7 669 782 605 58 91% oocyte - ES cell (mouse) 4727 1 204 883 334 25 93% sperm - ES cell (mouse) 4580 4 364 748 1027 104 91...collaborator, Dr. Anne Peaston, developed a genetically engineered mouse model in which a specific mammary cell population is fluorescently marked upon

  13. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight.

  14. [Effect of genistein combined with anastrozole on mammary tumors in ovariectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Kang, Xin-Mei; Song, Ying; Ma, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Qing-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory effect of genistin combined with anastrozole on the growth and apoptosis of breast tumor tissue, and to study their anti-cancer mechanism by using the model of 7,12-dimethylbenz [alpha] anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors following ovariectomy in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The DMBA induced postmenopausal SD rats were randomly divided into the control group, the genistein group, the anastrozole group, and the genistein combined with anastrozole group. The growth of tumors was observed in each group. The proliferation index and apoptosis index of tumor cells were determined. Moreover, estradiol (E2) and 17beta-HSD1 mRNA levels were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. The tumor growth was inhibited in the genistein group and the anastrozole group. The inhibitory ratio was significantly higher in the genistein combined with anastrozole group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, levels of E2 and 17beta-HSD1 mRNA decreased more significantly in the genistein combined with anastrozole group (P < 0.05). Genistein could suppress the growth of mammary tumors in postmenopausal rats. It showed synergistic effect when combined with anastrozole, which resulted in reduced levels of E2 and 17beta-HSD1 mRNA. It had inhibitory effect on the growth of breast tumors.

  15. Pueraria mirifica Exerts Estrogenic Effects in the Mammary Gland and Uterus and Promotes Mammary Carcinogenesis in Donryu Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Yoshida, Midori; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Naomi; Okuno, Takahiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N-ethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3%, and more pronouncedly, at 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA. PMID:27827907

  16. Enzymes of the taurine biosynthetic pathway are expressed in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Iori; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2007-08-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body and is present at high concentrations during development and in the early milk. It is synthesized from cysteine via oxidation of cysteine to cysteinesulfinate by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), followed by the decarboxylation of cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine, catalyzed by cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD). To determine whether the taurine biosynthetic pathway is present in mammary gland and whether it is differentially expressed during pregnancy and lactation, and also to further explore the possible regulation of hepatic taurine synthesis during pregnancy and lactation, we measured mammary and hepatic CDO and CSAD mRNA and protein concentrations and tissue, plasma and milk taurine concentrations. CDO and CSAD mRNA and protein were expressed in mammary gland and liver regardless of physiological state. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of CDO in ductal cells of pregnant rats, but not in other mammary epithelial cells or in ductal cells of nonpregnant rats. CDO was also present in stromal adipocytes in mammary glands of both pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Our findings support an upregulation of taurine synthetic capacity in the mammary gland of pregnant rats, based on mammary taurine and hypotaurine concentrations and the intense immunohistochemical staining for CDO in ductal cells of pregnant rats. Hepatic taurine synthetic capacity, particularly CSAD, and taurine concentrations were highest in rats during the early stages of lactation, suggesting the liver may also play a role in the synthesis of taurine to support lactation or repletion of maternal reserves.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi extracts elicit protective immune response against chemically induced colon and mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Ubillos, Luis; Freire, Teresa; Berriel, Edgardo; Chiribao, María Laura; Chiale, Carolina; Festari, María Florencia; Medeiros, Andrea; Mazal, Daniel; Rondán, Mariella; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Robello, Carlos; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' disease, has anticancer effects mediated, at least in part, by parasite-derived products which inhibit growth of tumor cells. We investigated whether immunity to T. cruzi antigens could induce antitumor activity, using two rat models which reproduce human carcinogenesis: colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and mammary cancer induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). We found that vaccination with T. cruzi epimastigote lysates strongly inhibits tumor development in both animal models. Rats immunized with T. cruzi antigens induce activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and splenocytes from these animals showed higher cytotoxic responses against tumors as compared to rats receiving adjuvant alone. Tumor-associated immune responses included increasing number of CD11b/c(+) His48(-) MHC II(+) cells corresponding to macrophages and/or dendritic cells, which exhibited augmented NADPH-oxidase activity. We also found that T. cruzi lysate vaccination developed antibodies specific for colon and mammary rat cancer cells, which were capable of mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies cross-reacted with human colon and breast cancer cell lines and recognized 41/60 (68%) colon cancer and 38/63 (60%) breast cancer samples in a series of 123 human tumors. Our results suggest that T. cruzi antigens can evoke an integrated antitumor response involving both the cellular and humoral components of the immune response and provide novel insights into the understanding of the intricate relationship between parasite infection and tumor growth. © 2015 UICC.

  18. Influence of fatty acid diets on gene expression in rat mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Medvedovic, M.; Gear, R.; Freudenberg, J. M.; Schneider, J.; Bornschein, R.; Yan, M.; Mistry, M. J.; Hendrix, H.; Karyala, S.; Halbleib, D.; Heffelfinger, S.; Clegg, D. J.; Anderson, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the impact of dietary fatty acids on regulation of gene expression in mammary epithelial cells before and during puberty. Methods: Diets primarily consisted of n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower), saturated acids (butter), and the reference AIN-93G diet (soy oil). The dietary regimen mimics the repetitive nature of fatty acid exposure in Western diets. Diet-induced changes in gene expression were examined in laser capture microdissected mammary ductal epithelial cells at day of weaning and end of puberty. PCNA immunohistochemistry analysis compared proliferation rates between diets. Results: Genes differentially expressed between each test diets and the reference diet were significantly enriched by cell cycle genes. Some of these genes were involved in activation of the cell cycle pathway or the G2/M check point pathway. Although there were some differences in the level of differential expression, all diets showed qualitatively the same pattern of differential expression compared to the reference diet. Cluster analysis identified an expanded set of cell cycle as well as immunity and sterol metabolism related clusters of differentially expressed genes. Conclusion: Fatty acid-enriched diets significantly upregulated proliferation above normal physiological levels during puberty. Higher cellular proliferation during puberty caused by enriched fatty acid diets poses a potential increase risk of mammary cancer in later life. The human homologs of 27 of 62 cell cycle rat genes are included in a human breast cancer cluster of 45 cell cycle genes, further emphasizing the importance of our findings in the rat model. PMID:19351911

  19. [Controversy about internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Fourquet, A

    2014-10-01

    Irradiation of lymph nodes areas after surgery of breast cancer, and specifically of the internal mammary chain, is an open question, frequently discussed. Three randomised trials (French, European-EORTC, Canadian) have been recently published or presented. The French trial did not show any benefit for internal mammary chain irradiation, but it was probably underpowered. The EORTC and Canadian trials demonstrated an improvement in overall survival after lymph nodes irradiation, including the internal mammary chain. The absolute benefit is 1.6% (hazard ratio-0.88 in a recent meta-analysis). Because this benefit is limited, it is important to define the characteristics of the patients who may benefit from this irradiation. Analyses of the randomized trials are not complete, and it is difficult at this moment to accurately define this population. However, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity of lymph nodes irradiation is well known. For each patient, evaluation of the potential late toxicity must be evaluated and so an accurate dosimetry for critical organs must be performed: the indication of internal mammary chain irradiation depends of the benefit/risk ratio. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Introduction 6 6. Body 9 7. Key Research Accomplishments 15 8. Reportable Outcomes 15 9. Conclusions 16 10. References 17 11. Bibliography 20 12. Personnel 20...seen in human breast cancer (2-4). Third, a high percentage of the resulting rat mammary cancers are hormonally responsiveness, closely mimicking that...13, 17), activated c-neu (18-20), wild type c-neu (21), deregulated growth hormone (22), and deregulated transforming growth factor a (23-25) has

  1. Effect of chronic 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammary tumorigenesis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Leung, F.C.; Rommereim, D.N.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    Female rats were administered a single dosage of 7 or 10 mg of DMBA intragastrically between 50 and 55 days of age and palpated weekly for mammary tumors in two experiments. Rats were either exposed to a 40 kV/m 60-Hz electric field or sham-exposed in utero through 18 or 23 weeks of age. There was no difference between electric field exposed and sham-exposed in incidence of first tumor. When the results of the two experiments were combined, the electric field exposed groups had significantly more tumors per tumor-bearing animal than the sham-groups. These results may have implications for the role of electric power use in the etiology and promotion of breast cancer. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. exerts chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Anupam; Mandal, Animesh

    2014-10-01

    Due to limited treatment options for advanced-stage metastatic breast cancer, a high priority should be given to develop non-toxic chemopreventive drugs. The value of various natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae), a dietary and medicinal plant, has been found to exert antihepatotoxic and antihepatocarcinogenic properties in rodents. This study was initiated to investigate mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of an ethanolic extract of T. portulacastrum (TPE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary gland carcinogenesis, an experimental tumor model that closely resembles human breast cancer. Rats had access to a basal diet supplemented with TPE to yield three dietary doses of the extract, i.e., 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Following two weeks of TPE treatment, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated by oral administration of DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight). At the end of the study (16 weeks after DMBA exposure), TPE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden and average tumor weight and reversed intratumor histopathological alterations. TPE dose-dependently suppressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1 expression, induced apoptosis, upregulated proapoptotic protein Bax, downregulated antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and diminished the expression of nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin in mammary tumors. Our results clearly provide the first experimental evidence that TPE exerts chemopreventive effect in the classical DMBA model of breast cancer by suppressing abnormal cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis mediated through alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Mechanistically, TPE is capable of diminishing activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to exhibit antiproliferative, proapoptotic and oncostatic effects during an early-stage breast cancer. These results may encourage further

  3. /sup 20/neon ion- and x-ray-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Baum, J.W.; Holtzman, S.; Stone, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the proposed uses of heavy ion irradiation is to image lesions of the human female breast. The rat model system was chosen to assess the carcinogenic potential of heavy ion irradiation in the belief that data obtained from rat studies would have a qualitatively predictive value for the human female. Accordingly, female rats were exposed to /sup 20/Ne ions at the BEVALAC and studied for the development of mammary neoplasia for 312 +- 2 days at Brookhaven along with rats exposed concurrently to x-irradiation or to no irradiation. As the dose of either type of radiation was increased the percent of rats with mammary adenocarcinomas, and the percent of rats with mammary fibroadenomas, tended to increase. At a prevalence of 20%, the RBE for /sup 20/Neon ions for mammary adenocarcinomas was estimated to be larger than 5 and for mammary fibroadenomas the RBE was estimated to be less than 2. No conclusion was reached concerning whether or not the RBE might vary with dose. We suggest that /sup 20/Ne ions do have a carcinogenic potential for rat mammary tissue and that this carcinogenic potential is likely to be greater than for x-irradiation. (DT)

  4. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Boggs, R Michelle; Wright, Zachary M; Stickney, Mark J; Porter, Weston W; Murphy, Keith E

    2008-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-22-nt noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Oncomirs, a subclass of miRNAs, include genes whose expression, or lack thereof, are associated with cancers. Until the last decade, the domestic dog was an underused model for the study of various human diseases that have genetic components. The dog exhibits marked genetic and physiologic similarity to the human, thereby making it an excellent model for study and treatment of various hereditary diseases. Furthermore, because the dog presents with distinct, spontaneously occurring mammary tumors, it may serve as a model for genetic analysis and treatments of humans with malignant breast tumors. Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancers were compared to malignant canine mammary tumors (n = 6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n = 10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p < 0.05 by MANOVA analysis) upregulation in cancerous samples. The ten canine miRNAs follow the same pattern of expression as in the human, except for miR-145 which does not show a difference in expression between the normal and cancerous canine samples. In addition, when analyzed according to specific cancer phenotypes, miR-15a and miR-16 show a significant downregulation in canine ductal carcinomas while miRsR-181b, -21, -29b, and let-7f show a significant upregulation in canine tubular papillary carcinomas.

  5. Mammary tumor induction in ACI rats exposed to low levels of 17beta-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Sahoo, Sunati; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2007-07-01

    Animal models play a major role in understanding the etiology, molecular mechanisms, strategizing intervention and treatment of human diseases. ACI, an inbred line derived from August and Copenhagen strains, is unique for its susceptibility to estrogen-induced mammary tumors. Histologically and in many molecular aspects, the tumors formed in these rats are similar to human breast cancers. Previous studies have shown high mortality and significant weight loss in this model associated with pituitary gland abnormality. We hypothesized that this could be due to overwhelming the biological system with estrogen. Three groups of female ACI rats (7-8 weeks) received either 3-cm sham silastic implants, or the conventional 3-cm silastic implants containing 27 mg of 17beta-estradiol, or 1.2-cm silastic implants containing 9 mg 17beta-estradiol. The sham and 3-cm implant rats were euthanized at 180 days while the 1.2-cm implant rats were euthanized at 240 days. The 1.2-cm implants resulted in significantly reduced serum estrogen levels and pituitary gland size. Animals with 1.2-cm implants had 100% tumor incidence, while not all rats developed tumors with 3-cm implants. Both the tumor burden (from 1,011+/-402 to 2,324+/-454 mm(3); p=0.01) and tumor multiplicity (from 5.78+/-1.4 to 7.6+/-1.04) increased by lowering the estrogen dose, and the inter-animal variability in the tumor indices decreased. Finally, the weight of the pituitary gland was also significantly (p=0.0004) reduced (from 178+/-23.5 mg to 80+/-8.9 mg) and the mortality rate decreased from 42% to 0% (p=0.01). Our data indicate that the improvised model will provide valuable insights into the molecular alterations in the estrogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis and will be ideal for inhibition studies.

  6. Simulation of the pentose cycle in lactating rat mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Michael J.; London, Jack W.; Garfinkel, David

    1974-01-01

    A computer model representing the pentose cycle, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis in slices of lactating rat mammary glands has been constructed. This model is based primarily on the studies, with radioactive chemicals, of Abraham & Chaikoff (1959) [although some of the discrepant data of Katz & Wals (1972) could be accommodated by changing one enzyme activity]. Data obtained by using [1-14C]-, [6-14C]- and [3,4-14C]-glucose were simulated, as well as data obtained by using unlabelled glucose (for which some new experimental data are presented). Much past work on the pentose cycle has been mainly concerned with the division of glucose flow between the pentose cycle and glycolysis, and has relied on the assumption that the system is in steady state (both labelled and unlabelled). This assumption may not apply to lactating rat mammary glands, since the model shows that the percentage flow through the shunt progressively decreased for the first 2h of a 3h experiment, and we were unable to construct a completely steady-state model. The model allows examination of many quantitative features of the system, especially the amount of material passing through key enzymes, some of which appear to be regulated by NADP+ concentrations as proposed by McLean (1960). Supplementary information for this paper has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50023 at the British Museum (Lending Division) (formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1973) 131, 5. PMID:4154746

  7. Pubertal high fat diet: effects on mammary cancer development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies linking dietary fat intake and obesity to breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. This may be due to the difficulty of dissociating fat intake from obesity, and/or the lack of defined periods of exposure in these studies. The pubertal mammary gland is highly sensitive to cancer-causing agents. We assessed how high fat diet (HFD) affects inflammation, proliferative, and developmental events in the pubertal gland, since dysregulation of these can promote mammary tumorigenesis. To test the effect of HFD initiated during puberty on tumorigenesis, we utilized BALB/c mice, for which HFD neither induces obesity nor metabolic syndrome, allowing dissociation of HFD effects from other conditions associated with HFD. Methods Pubertal BALB/c mice were fed a low fat diet (12% kcal fat) or a HFD (60% kcal fat), and subjected to carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced tumorigenesis. Results HFD elevated mammary gland expression of inflammatory and growth factor genes at 3 and 4 weeks of diet. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), robustly induced at 4 weeks, has direct mitogenic activity in mammary epithelial cells and, as a potent inducer of NF-κB activity, may induce inflammatory genes. Three weeks of HFD induced a transient influx of eosinophils into the mammary gland, consistent with elevated inflammatory factors. At 10 weeks, prior to the appearance of palpable tumors, there were increased numbers of abnormal mammary epithelial lesions, enhanced cellular proliferation, increased growth factors, chemokines associated with immune-suppressive regulatory T cells, increased vascularization, and elevated M2 macrophages. HFD dramatically reduced tumor latency. Early developing tumors were more proliferative and were associated with increased levels of tumor-related growth factors, including increased plasma levels of HGF in tumor-bearing animals. Early HFD tumors also had increased

  8. Purple grape juice inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and in vivo DMBA-DNA adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwan-Jae; Wallig, Matthew A; Singletary, Keith W

    2006-02-28

    There has been considerable interest in identifying specific foods and phytochemicals that may have breast cancer preventive properties. Concord grapes are rich in polyphenolic chemicals and anthocyanin pigments that may have biological properties which could suppress cancer such as having antioxidant, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic actions. To determine the potential breast cancer protective action of purple grape juice, we examined the effect of grape juice consumption on the initiation stage of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and on the in vivo formation of rat mammary DNA adducts in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Consumption of grape juice significantly inhibited mammary tumor mass at termination and the growth of tumors for the first 5 weeks of detectable tumor development. Consumption of grape juice phenolics by rats also significantly inhibited in vivo mammary DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 34 and 56% for animals fed phenolics at 346 and 692 mg/dL, respectively, compared to controls. Mammary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) levels decreased by 25 and 37%, respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant. Liver DMBA-DNA adducts decreased by 10-30%, while 8-oxo-dG adducts remained unchanged, following grape juice intake. Liver glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly increased following grape juice consumption, but only at the highest level of intake. In addition, liver activities of catalase increased and xanthine oxidase decreased significantly, but only at the highest grape juice dose. Thus, these studies indicate that specific constituents or combinations of phytochemicals in purple grape juice can block the initiation stage of DMBA-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. This tumor inhibitory effect was associated with a suppression of mammary DMBA-DNA adduct formation, which in part may be explained by increased liver activity of the phase II metabolizing enzyme, glutathione S

  9. Intraductal approach to breast cancer: the role of mammary ductoscopy.

    PubMed

    Deshmane, Vinay

    2010-09-01

    Mammary ductoscopy is a recent advance enabling direct visualisation and sampling of human mammary ducts using a micro endoscope. The majority of pre malignant and malignant changes in the breast arise from the epithelium lining the duct lobular unit, and access to this region by ductoscopy has the potential to revolutionise breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. The ability to sample ductal epithelium may allow identification of early malignant and pre-malignant cytological changes and assist surgical excision, facilitating diagnosis of non palpable cancer before detection on current imaging modalities. Presently, there are three main indications for ductoscopy in clinical practice viz. determining extent of resection for breast cancer, assessment of high risk individuals and in the management of patients with pathological nipple discharge. Our initial experience with ductoscopy in patients with nipple discharge undergoing surgery has been rewarding. Ductoscopy was feasible in 92% of patients. Abnormal findings on ductoscopy were associated with DCIS in 37% and DCIS with early invasive breast cancer in 21%, while normal ductoscopy correlated with a normal pathological assessment.

  10. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  11. EB1089, a vitamin D receptor agonist, reduces proliferation and decreases tumor growth rate in a mouse model of hormone-induced mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Milliken, Erin L.; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; MacDonald, Paul N.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several of its analogs, such as EB1089, induce growth arrest and apoptosis of breast cancer cells in culture. EB1089 has also been shown to limit growth of xenografts in nude mice and carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats. Coupled with the fact that the vitamin D receptor is highly expressed in a large proportion of breast tumors, these data suggest that it may be a broad spectrum therapeutic target. We utilized a transgenic model of hormone-induced mammary cancer, the LH-overexpressing mouse, to assess, for the first time, the efficacy of EB1089 in a spontaneous tumor model. Similar to human breast cancers, the pre-neoplastic mammary glands and mammary tumors in these mice express high levels of vitamin D receptor. Treatment with EB1089 decreased proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in pre-neoplastic glands by 35%. Moreover, half of hormone-induced mammary tumors treated with EB1089 demonstrated a decreased rate of growth, with a subset of these tumors even regressing, suggesting that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogs may be effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer. PMID:16115727

  12. EB1089, a vitamin D receptor agonist, reduces proliferation and decreases tumor growth rate in a mouse model of hormone-induced mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L; MacDonald, Paul N; Keri, Ruth A

    2005-11-18

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several of its analogs, such as EB1089, induce growth arrest and apoptosis of breast cancer cells in culture. EB1089 has also been shown to limit growth of xenografts in nude mice and carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats. Coupled with the fact that the vitamin D receptor is highly expressed in a large proportion of breast tumors, these data suggest that it may be a broad spectrum therapeutic target. We utilized a transgenic model of hormone-induced mammary cancer, the LH-overexpressing mouse, to assess, for the first time, the efficacy of EB1089 in a spontaneous tumor model. Similar to human breast cancers, the pre-neoplastic mammary glands and mammary tumors in these mice express high levels of vitamin D receptor. Treatment with EB1089 decreased proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in pre-neoplastic glands by 35%. Moreover, half of hormone-induced mammary tumors treated with EB1089 demonstrated a decreased rate of growth, with a subset of these tumors even regressing, suggesting that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogs may be effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer.

  13. [Effects of extracts of root of kudzu vine on mammary gland and uterus development in rats].

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-ou; Jin, Huan; Niu, Jian-zhao; Wang, Ji-feng

    2003-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of root of kudzu vine on mammary gland and uterus development in rats. 40 Wistar rats weighting 65-85 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, estrogen group, extracts of root of kudzu vine group of high dose, extracts of root of kudzu vine group of low dose. (10 rats in each group). After having been treated for 7 days, the rats were killed; mammary glands and uterus were removed and weighed. Serum was isolated and kept at 4 degrees C for determination of hormones. 1. Administration of the root of kudzu vine significantly increased the weigh of mammary gland and uterus in rats. 2. Administration of the root of kudzu vine increased serum FSH, LH, E2 and decreased PRL. Extracts of root of kudzu vine could enhance the weight of mammary gland and uterus growth in rats, which may provide experimental evidence for the development of new drug used for promoting mammary gland and uterus.

  14. Unplanned irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanyilmaz, Gul; Aktan, Meryem; Koc, Mehmet; Demir, Hikmettin; Demir, Lütfi Saltuk

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the incidental dose to the internal mammary chain (IMC) in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, to estimate the predictors affecting the magnitude of IMC receiving dose and to determine the predictive role of clinical parameters on survival. Between 2009 and 2015, 348 patients undergoing RT for breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent our department's routine procedure for breast cancer. The internal mammary lymph nodes were contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) concensus. Based on each patient's dose-volume histograms, the mean doses (D mean) to internal mammary gland were analyzed. Overall survival and disease-free survival were also evaluated. The median follow-up time was 38 (range 3-80) months. The D mean to IMC was 32.8 Gy and the dose delivered to IMC showed a greater coverage in modified radical mastectomy (MRM) group compared with breast conserving surgery (34.6 vs 26.7 Gy). The T-stage of tumor and the N-stage of tumor affected the incidental dose to IMC. The tumor size, the number of involved lymph nodes, the percentage of involved lymph nodes, hormonal status, advanced T-stage and advanced N-stage were the prognostic factors that affect survival. The IMC received meaningful incidental irradiation dose when treated with two opposite tangential fields and ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa with a single anterior field. The real effect of incidental dose on survival and the hypothesis about the benefit of incidental irradiation of IMC should be examined in clinical studies.

  15. Remodeling of endogenous mammary epithelium by breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Parashurama, Natesh; Lobo, Neethan A; Ito, Ken; Mosley, Adriane R; Habte, Frezghi G; Zabala, Maider; Smith, Bryan R; Lam, Jessica; Weissman, Irving L; Clarke, Michael F; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2012-10-01

    Poorly regulated tissue remodeling results in increased breast cancer risk, yet how breast cancer stem cells (CSC) participate in remodeling is unknown. We performed in vivo imaging of changes in fluorescent, endogenous duct architecture as a metric for remodeling. First, we quantitatively imaged physiologic remodeling of primary branches of the developing and regenerating mammary tree. To assess CSC-specific remodeling events, we isolated CSC from MMTV-Wnt1 (mouse mammary tumor virus long-term repeat enhancer driving Wnt1 oncogene) breast tumors, a well studied model in which tissue remodeling affects tumorigenesis. We confirm that CSC drive tumorigenesis, suggesting a link between CSC and remodeling. We find that normal, regenerating, and developing gland maintain a specific branching pattern. In contrast, transplantation of CSC results in changes in the branching patterns of endogenous ducts while non-CSC do not. Specifically, in the presence of CSC, we identified an increased number of branches, branch points, ducts which have greater than 40 branches (5/33 for CSC and 0/39 for non-CSC), and histological evidence of increased branching. Moreover, we demonstrate that only CSC implants invade into surrounding stroma with structures similar to developing mammary ducts (nine for CSC and one for non-CSC). Overall, we demonstrate a novel approach for imaging physiologic and pathological remodeling. Furthermore, we identify unique, CSC-specific, remodeling events. Our data suggest that CSC interact with the microenvironment differently than non-CSC, and that this could eventually be a therapeutic approach for targeting CSC.

  16. Mouse Mammary Cancer Models - Mechanisms and Markers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    levels in the Writ-I TG p5 3 +,1+ tutmors have been shown to be regulated by p53 ( Innocente el compared to either HWit-I TG p53 +, - LOH or Wnt-1 TG...intracellular cyclin BI levels ( Innocente et al., 1999; cells and has recently been shown to be a p53 target Taylor et al., 1999). p21 has also been shown to...and Smith HS. (1992). ./. Nail. Cancer Inst.. 84, Innocente SA. Abrahamson JL, Cogswcll JP and Lee JM. 845 855. (1999). Proc. Nail. Acad. Sri. USA, 96

  17. Altered carcinogenesis and proteome in mammary glands of rats after prepubertal exposures to the hormonally active chemicals bisphenol a and genistein.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Angela M; Wang, Jun; Jenkins, Sarah; Mobley, Jim; Russo, Jose; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2012-07-01

    Through our diet, we are exposed to numerous natural and man-made chemicals, including polyphenols with hormone-like properties. The most abundant hormonally active polyphenols are characterized as weak estrogens. These chemicals are hypothesized to interfere with signaling pathways involved in important diseases such as breast cancer, which in most cases is initially estrogen dependent. Two such chemicals are bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. In spite of both possessing estrogenic properties, BPA and genistein yield different health outcomes. The exposure of rats during the prepubertal period to BPA increases the susceptibility of adult animals for mammary cancer development, whereas genistein decreases this susceptibility in a chemically induced model. Because both BPA and genistein possess estrogenic properties, it is certainly plausible that additional mechanisms are affected by these chemicals. Hence, it was our goal to investigate at the protein level how exposure to these 2 chemicals can contribute to mammary cancer causation as opposed to cancer chemoprevention. Using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis, we identified differentially regulated proteins from the mammary glands of rats prepubertally exposed to BPA and genistein. Following protein identification, we used immunoblotting techniques to validate the identity and regulation of these proteins and to identify downstream signaling proteins. Our studies highlight the importance of proteomics technology in elucidating signaling pathways altered by exposure to hormonally active chemicals and its potential value in identifying biomarkers for mammary cancer.

  18. Altered Carcinogenesis and Proteome in Mammary Glands of Rats after Prepubertal Exposures to the Hormonally Active Chemicals Bisphenol A and Genistein123

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Angela M.; Wang, Jun; Jenkins, Sarah; Mobley, Jim; Russo, Jose; Lamartiniere, Coral A.

    2012-01-01

    Through our diet, we are exposed to numerous natural and man-made chemicals, including polyphenols with hormone-like properties. The most abundant hormonally active polyphenols are characterized as weak estrogens. These chemicals are hypothesized to interfere with signaling pathways involved in important diseases such as breast cancer, which in most cases is initially estrogen dependent. Two such chemicals are bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. In spite of both possessing estrogenic properties, BPA and genistein yield different health outcomes. The exposure of rats during the prepubertal period to BPA increases the susceptibility of adult animals for mammary cancer development, whereas genistein decreases this susceptibility in a chemically induced model. Because both BPA and genistein possess estrogenic properties, it is certainly plausible that additional mechanisms are affected by these chemicals. Hence, it was our goal to investigate at the protein level how exposure to these 2 chemicals can contribute to mammary cancer causation as opposed to cancer chemoprevention. Using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis, we identified differentially regulated proteins from the mammary glands of rats prepubertally exposed to BPA and genistein. Following protein identification, we used immunoblotting techniques to validate the identity and regulation of these proteins and to identify downstream signaling proteins. Our studies highlight the importance of proteomics technology in elucidating signaling pathways altered by exposure to hormonally active chemicals and its potential value in identifying biomarkers for mammary cancer. PMID:22649256

  19. Tumor suppressor pten signaling is up-regulated in mammary epithelial cells by soy isoflavone genistein: implications for breast cancer protection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiological studies have shown lower occurrence of breast cancer in Asian women whose early intake of soy products is higher than their American counterparts. In a previous work, we showed protection against NMU-induced mammary tumors in rats exposed to dietary soy protein isolate (SPI) or casei...

  20. Aurora kinase-A overexpression in mouse mammary epithelium induces mammary adenocarcinomas harboring genetic alterations shared with human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Treekitkarnmongkol, Warapen; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kai, Kazuharu; Sasai, Kaori; Jones, Jennifer Carter; Wang, Jing; Shen, Li; Sahin, Aysegul A; Gagea, Mihai; Ueno, Naoto T; Creighton, Chad J; Sen, Subrata

    2016-12-01

    Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis have revealed that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) amplification and overexpression characterize a distinct subset of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Although elevated expression of AURKA has been shown to induce oncogenic phenotypes in cells in vitro, findings from transgenic mouse models of Aurora-A overexpression in mammary glands have been distinct depending on the models generated. In the present study, we report that prolonged overexpression of AURKA transgene in mammary epithelium driven by ovine β-lactoglobulin promoter, activated through multiple pregnancy and lactation cycles, results in the development of mammary adenocarcinomas with alterations in cancer-relevant genes and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The tumor incidence was 38.9% (7/18) in Aurora-A transgenic mice at 16 months of age following 4-5 pregnancy cycles. Aurora-A overexpression in the tumor tissues accompanied activation of Akt, elevation of Cyclin D1, Tpx2 and Plk1 along with downregulation of ERα and p53 proteins, albeit at varying levels. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses of transgenic mouse mammary adenocarcinomas revealed copy gain of Glp1r and losses of Ercc5, Pten and Tcf7l2 loci. Review of human breast tumor transcriptomic data sets showed association of these genes at varying levels with Aurora-A gain of function alterations. Whole exome sequencing of the mouse tumors also identified gene mutations detected in Aurora-A overexpressing human breast cancers. Our findings demonstrate that prolonged overexpression of Aurora-A can be a driver somatic genetic event in mammary adenocarcinomas associated with deregulated tumor-relevant pathways in the Aurora-A subset of human breast cancer.

  1. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  2. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF TCDD ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG EVANS RATS: A TWO GENERATIONAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated variable effects on mammary gland development in rat offspring exposed to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1 ug/kg, gavage) on day 15 of gestation. We have characterized these effects in Long Evans rats, in both one and two-generational...

  3. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  4. Monosaccharide transport into lactating-rat mammary acini.

    PubMed Central

    Threadgold, L C; Coore, H G; Kuhn, N J

    1982-01-01

    The uptake and release of 3-O-methyl-D-[3H]glucose at 37 degrees C by acini, prepared from lactating-rat mammary gland with collagenase, was inhibited by glucose, phloretin, cytochalasin B, HgCl2 and low temperature. Uptake and phosphorylation of 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose, studied in greater detail, could be ascribed to a specific, saturable, inhibitable, process of apparent Km 16 mM and Vmax. approx. 56 nmol/min per mg of protein, plus a non-specific, non-inhibitable process that was monitored with [14C]fructose. The mean rate of uptake of 5 mM-2-deoxyglucose (16 nmol/min per mg of protein) was similar to the rate of consumption of 5 mM-glucose, suggesting that transport was a rate-limiting step in the overall metabolism of glucose. This accords with evidence for a glucose gradient across the plasma membrane. PMID:6214256

  5. Effects of hypothyroidism on mammary and liver lipid metabolism in virgin and late-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Hapon, María Belén; Varas, Silvia M; Jahn, Graciela A; Giménez, María S

    2005-06-01

    Untreated maternal hypothyroidism (hypoT) has serious consequences in offspring development that may result from the effect on lactation of maternal metabolism dysfunction. We studied the effects of prolonged propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypoT (0.1% PTU in drinking water starting 8 days before mating until day 21 of pregnancy or for 30 days in virgin rats) on liver and mammary lipid metabolism and serum lipid concentrations. In virgins, hypoT reduced hepatic mRNAs associated with triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol synthesis (including fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase), and induced lobuloalveolar mammary development. Pregnancy increased hepatic mRNAs associated with TG and cholesterol synthesis and uptake (including LDL receptor) and with lipid oxidation, such as acyl CoA oxidase. HypoT decreased mRNAs and the activity of proteins associated with TG synthesis, and mRNAs associated with cholesterol uptake and lipid oxidation. Pregnancy increased mammary mRNAs related to lipid oxidation and decreased cholesterol synthesis, whereas hypoT decreased mRNAs and activities of proteins associated with TG synthesis and decreased epithelial mammary tissue. Virgin and pregnant hypoT rats had increased circulating VLDL + LDL cholesterol. HypoT decreased circulating TGs in pregnant rats. The observed effects of hypoT may result in decreased mammary lipid availability. This, along with the decreased epithelial mammary tissue during lactogenesis, may contribute to the future lactational deficit of hypoT mothers.

  6. Precocious differentiation of the virgin Wistar-Kyoto rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Benton, M E; Chen, K S; Haag, J D; Sattler, C A; Gould, M N

    1999-06-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain expresses high levels of beta-casein in its virgin mammary glands. We found that the onset of beta-casein overexpression (BCO) occurs at 6 weeks of age, with morphological differentiation of the mammary gland detectable at 7 weeks of age. BCO was previously shown to be cell autonomous; however, we found that adrenal and ovarian hormones were permissive and necessary for the expression of the BCO phenotype, indicating that the genetic variation that initiates BCO from within the mammary epithelium can only manifest BCO in the presence of virgin hormone levels. Sequencing of the WKY and Wistar-Furth (WF) rat beta-casein promoters showed them to be identical. Culture of primary rat mammary epithelial cells (RMEC) under lactogenic conditions revealed that expression of beta-casein was independent of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in RMEC from virgin WKYv, but was dependent in WFv, RMEC. RMEC from a pregnant WFp responded similarly to WKYv RMEC, suggesting that EGF-independent beta-casein expression occurs naturally in differentiated rat mammary epithelium. However, induction of beta-casein expression in RMEC from immature WKY rats was also independent of EGF, indicating that the induction as well as maintenance of BCO do not require EGF. We suggest that an EGF-independent signaling pathway, arising from a trans-acting inherited effector(s), underlies BCO.

  7. Nonrandom frequency distribution of mitoses in rat lobuloaveolar mammary gland epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, D. M.; Stowers, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative microscopic technique was employed to examine the distribution of mitotic activity in the rat mammary gland. The frequency distribution of mitoses per unit volume of lobuloalveolar mammary gland epithelium in virgin Lewis/Mai rats at each phase of the estrous cycle were determined and compared to the expected Poisson frequency distributions, assuming random mitotic activity. Both pooled data and data from individual rats were compared to expected Poisson distributions. At each phase of the estrous cycle, the pooled observed distributions deviated significantly from Poisson distributions. Sixty-seven percent (72/108) of the observed frequency distributions obtained from individual rats also deviated significantly from expected Poisson distributions. These data indicate a nonrandom distribution of mitoses in rat lobuloalveolar mammary gland epithelium. This observation suggests that local cell products and/or a variation in the extent of replicative synchrony of lobuloalveolar cell populations may determine in part the pattern of mitotic activity in this tissue. A nonrandom distribution of mitoses in mammary epithelium may have significance in relation to the genesis of hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland. PMID:560125

  8. THE RELEVANCE OF CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC IN THE MAMMARY GLAND CANCER.

    PubMed

    Anton, E; Ancuta, E; Doroftei, B; Ioanid, N; Anton, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, while in Eastern Europe the most common form of diagnosed cancer. Out of the multiple possibilities of early detection of mammary neoplasia that have been elaborated, only mammography has proved to be a simple, efficient method and of a high sensitivity, almost 90% However, the cytological confirmation of diagnosis allows us to perform the preoperative radiotherapy treatment or poly chemotherapy. we analyzed the informative value of these diagnosis methods in stage I mammary gland cancer (MGC). In this way, in the present paper we demonstrated that collecting samples through fine-needle aspiration biopsy allows the cytological confirmation of the diagnosis of stage I MGC in 30.7% cases. In stage I MGC young patients, under 35 years, the cytological confirmation rate is 22.2% and is lower as compared to the cytological confirmation rate in patients older than 35 years which is 37.9% Also, for a tumor diameter < 0.5 cm, the prevalence of cytological confirmation was only 10.3%, while for the diameter of 0.6-1.0 cm the cytological confirmation was around 40.0%. Therefore, in order to improve the cytological diagnosis confirmation rate the tumor biopsy through the USG of the mammary glands is required. Moreover, the cytological investigation of the smear obtained by the first and second puncture was instrumental in confirming the diagnosis in 41.3% and 17.4% cases; the subsequent repetition of the punctures was not useful as it helped to confirmation of the diagnosis only in 9.3% cases. The frequency of diagnosis cytological confirmation depends on the tumor histopathological form and type of growth. Thus, the lowest prevalence was in the mixed forms--12.5% cases, lobular cancer--24.4% cases, while regarding the type of growth, for the rare forms the cytological confirmation rate was 7.7% and 31.5% cases for the schiros growth type.

  9. Deficiency of the p53/p63 target Perp alters mammary gland homeostasis and promotes cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Perp is a transcriptional target of both p53 during DNA damage-induced apoptosis and p63 during stratified epithelial development. Perp-/- mice exhibit postnatal lethality associated with dramatic blistering of the epidermis and oral mucosa, reflecting a critical role in desmosome-mediated intercellular adhesion in keratinocytes. However, the role of Perp in tissue homeostasis in other p63-dependent stratified epithelial tissues is poorly understood. Given that p63 is essential for proper mammary gland development and that cell adhesion is fundamental for ensuring the proper architecture and function of the mammary epithelium, here we investigate Perp function in the mammary gland. Methods Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis were performed to characterize Perp expression and localization in the mouse mammary epithelium throughout development. The consequences of Perp deficiency for mammary epithelial development and homeostasis were examined by using in vivo mammary transplant assays. Perp protein levels in a variety of human breast cancer cell lines were compared with those in untransformed cells with Western blot analysis. The role of Perp in mouse mammary tumorigenesis was investigated by aging cohorts of K14-Cre/+;p53fl/fl mice that were wild-type or deficient for Perp. Mammary tumor latency was analyzed, and tumor-free survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results We show that Perp protein is expressed in the mammary epithelium, where it colocalizes with desmosomes. Interestingly, although altering desmosomes through genetic inactivation of Perp does not dramatically impair mammary gland ductal development, Perp loss affects mammary epithelial homeostasis by causing the accumulation of inflammatory cells around mature mammary epithelium. Moreover, we show reduced Perp expression in many human breast cancer cell lines compared with untransformed cells. Importantly, Perp deficiency also promotes the development of mouse mammary

  10. Deficiency of the p53/p63 target Perp alters mammary gland homeostasis and promotes cancer.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Rachel L; Bascom, Jamie L; Vogel, Hannes; Baron, Sylvain; Borowsky, Alexander D; Bissell, Mina J; Attardi, Laura D

    2012-04-20

    Perp is a transcriptional target of both p53 during DNA damage-induced apoptosis and p63 during stratified epithelial development. Perp-/- mice exhibit postnatal lethality associated with dramatic blistering of the epidermis and oral mucosa, reflecting a critical role in desmosome-mediated intercellular adhesion in keratinocytes. However, the role of Perp in tissue homeostasis in other p63-dependent stratified epithelial tissues is poorly understood. Given that p63 is essential for proper mammary gland development and that cell adhesion is fundamental for ensuring the proper architecture and function of the mammary epithelium, here we investigate Perp function in the mammary gland. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis were performed to characterize Perp expression and localization in the mouse mammary epithelium throughout development. The consequences of Perp deficiency for mammary epithelial development and homeostasis were examined by using in vivo mammary transplant assays. Perp protein levels in a variety of human breast cancer cell lines were compared with those in untransformed cells with Western blot analysis. The role of Perp in mouse mammary tumorigenesis was investigated by aging cohorts of K14-Cre/+;p53fl/fl mice that were wild-type or deficient for Perp. Mammary tumor latency was analyzed, and tumor-free survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. We show that Perp protein is expressed in the mammary epithelium, where it colocalizes with desmosomes. Interestingly, although altering desmosomes through genetic inactivation of Perp does not dramatically impair mammary gland ductal development, Perp loss affects mammary epithelial homeostasis by causing the accumulation of inflammatory cells around mature mammary epithelium. Moreover, we show reduced Perp expression in many human breast cancer cell lines compared with untransformed cells. Importantly, Perp deficiency also promotes the development of mouse mammary cancer. Together, these

  11. Interplay between progesterone and prolactin in mammary development and implications for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heather J; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2012-06-24

    Progesterone and prolactin remodel mammary morphology during pregnancy by acting on the mammary epithelial cell hierarchy. The roles of each hormone in mammary development have been well studied, but evidence of signalling cross-talk between progesterone and prolactin is still emerging. Factors such as receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) may integrate signals from both hormones to orchestrate their joint actions on the epithelial cell hierarchy. Common targets of progesterone and prolactin signalling are also likely to integrate their pro-proliferative actions in breast cancer. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the interplay between progesterone and prolactin in mammary development may reveal therapeutic targets for breast cancer. This review summarises our understanding of Pg and PRL action in mammary gland development before focusing on molecular mechanisms of signalling cross-talk and the implications for breast cancer.

  12. Copper and resveratrol attenuates serum catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and element values in rats with DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Skrajnowska, Dorota; Bobrowska-Korczak, Barbara; Tokarz, Andrzej; Bialek, Slawomir; Jezierska, Ewelina; Makowska, Justyna

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a hypothesis was assessed whether or not the intoxication with copper and supplementation with copper plus resveratrol would result in changes in the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and moreover if the characteristic changes would appear in concentrations of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of rats with chemically induced carcinogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet, were treated with copper (42.6 mg Cu/kg food as CuSO4·5H2O) or copper plus resveratrol (0.2 mg/kg body) via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. In cancer groups, the rats were treated with a dose of 80 mg/body weight of 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) given in rapeseed oil at 50 and 80 days of age to induce mammary carcinogenesis. The control groups included the rats kept in the same conditions and fed with the same diet as the animals from the study groups, but not DMBA-treated. The activity of catalase significantly decreased in groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper (p < 0.05) or copper plus resveratrol (p < 0.001) in comparison with the control groups that received the same diets. In cancer groups of nonsupplemented rats, the increase of glutathione peroxidase activity was observed. The process of carcinogenesis and the applied supplementation significantly altered the concentrations of trace elements in serum, in particular as concerns iron and copper. The mean serum iron levels in rats with breast cancer were significantly lower than those in the control groups (p < 0.001). The mean serum copper levels significantly decreased in the groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper or copper plus resveratrol in comparison with the control groups that received the same diets (p < 0.001). The characteristic changes in iron content and the zinc/copper and zinc/iron ratios in blood

  13. The effects of steroidal estrogens in ACI rat mammary carcinogenesis: 17beta-estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestradiol, 16alpha-hydroxyestradiol, and 4-hydroxyestrone.

    PubMed

    Turan, V K; Sanchez, R I; Li, J J; Li, S A; Reuhl, K R; Thomas, P E; Conney, A H; Gallo, M A; Kauffman, F C; Mesia-Vela, S

    2004-10-01

    Several investigators have suggested that certain hydroxylated metabolites of 17beta-estradiol (E2) are the proximate carcinogens that induce mammary carcinomas in estrogen-sensitive rodent models. The studies reported here were designed to examine the carcinogenic potential of different levels of E2 and the effects of genotoxic metabolites of E2 in an in vivo model sensitive to E2-induced mammary cancer. The potential induction of mammary tumors was determined in female ACI rats subcutaneously implanted with cholesterol pellets containing E2 (1, 2, or 3 mg), or 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OH E2), 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OH E2), 16alpha-hydroxyestradiol (16alpha-OH E2), or 4-hydoxyestrone (4-OH E1) (equimolar to 2 mg E2). Treatment with 1, 2, or 3 mg E2 resulted in the first appearance of a mammary tumor between 12 and 17 weeks, and a 50% incidence of mammary tumors was observed at 36, 19, and 18 weeks respectively. The final cumulative mammary tumor incidence in rats treated with 1, 2, or 3 mg E2 for 36 weeks was 50%, 73%, and 100% respectively. Treatment of rats with pellets containing 2-OH E2, 4-OH E2, 16alpha-OH E2, or 4-OH E1 did not induce any detectable mammary tumors. The serum levels of E2 in rats treated with a 1 or 3 mg E2 pellet for 12 weeks was increased 2- to 6-fold above control values (approximately 30 pg/ml). Treatment of rats with E2 enhanced the hepatic microsomal metabolism of E2 to E1, but did not influence the 2- or 4-hydroxylation of E2). In summary, we observed a dose-dependent induction of mammary tumors in female ACI rats treated continuously with E2; however, under these conditions 2-OH E2, 4-OH E2, 16alpha-OH E2, and 4-OH E1 were inactive in inducing mammary tumors.

  14. Embryonic mammary signature subsets are activated in Brca1-/- and basal-like breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is often suggested to result from development gone awry. Links between normal embryonic development and cancer biology have been postulated, but no defined genetic basis has been established. We recently published the first transcriptomic analysis of embryonic mammary cell populations. Embryonic mammary epithelial cells are an immature progenitor cell population, lacking differentiation markers, which is reflected in their very distinct genetic profiles when compared with those of their postnatal descendents. Methods We defined an embryonic mammary epithelial signature that incorporates the most highly expressed genes from embryonic mammary epithelium when compared with the postnatal mammary epithelial cells. We looked for activation of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature in mouse mammary tumors that formed in mice in which Brca1 had been conditionally deleted from the mammary epithelium and in human breast cancers to determine whether any genetic links exist between embryonic mammary cells and breast cancers. Results Small subsets of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature were consistently activated in mouse Brca1-/- tumors and human basal-like breast cancers, which encoded predominantly transcriptional regulators, cell-cycle, and actin cytoskeleton components. Other embryonic gene subsets were found activated in non-basal-like tumor subtypes and repressed in basal-like tumors, including regulators of neuronal differentiation, transcription, and cell biosynthesis. Several embryonic genes showed significant upregulation in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and/or grade 3 breast cancers. Among them, the transcription factor, SOX11, a progenitor cell and lineage regulator of nonmammary cell types, is found highly expressed in some Brca1-/- mammary tumors. By using RNA interference to silence SOX11 expression in breast cancer cells, we found evidence that SOX11 regulates breast cancer cell

  15. Compensatory nutrition-directed mammary cell proliferation and lactation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Moon, Y S; Keller, W L; Park, C S

    1998-02-01

    The proper use of a time-dependent and controlled nutrition regimen during the hormone-sensitive growth phase before first parturition can significantly affect mammary growth and subsequent lactation performance. The objective of the present study was to determine if a compensatory nutrition regimen improves lactation performance by affecting proliferation and apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells. Forty female rats (7 weeks of age, average weight 148 g) were assigned to either (1) control, free access to diet or (2) stair-step compensatory nutrition regimen, an alternating 3-4-week schedule beginning with an energy-restricted diet (31.2% restriction) for 3 weeks, followed by the control diet for 4 weeks. Estimated milk yield was greater (P < 0.05) on day 15 of lactation in the compensatory nutrition group than in the control group. Mammary cell proliferation values were 1.4- and 2.7-fold greater in mammary tissue from the compensatory group during pregnant and early lactating stages respectively, compared with those from the control group. Ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.17) mRNA was 24% higher (P < 0.05) in mammary tissues of rats from the compensatory nutrition group during pregnancy than in those from the control group. These results indicate that the compensatory nutrition regimen imposed during the peripubertal growth phase stimulated mammary epithelial cell proliferation and improved lactation performance.

  16. Chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gokul Raj, Kathamuthu; Chidambaram, Ranganathan; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Pandi, Mohan

    2015-11-15

    Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and foremost global public health problem. The present study was designed to appraise the chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. After 90 days of tumor induction, fungal and authentic taxol were given intraperitoneally once in a week for four weeks. Infrared thermal imaging analysis, serum biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidase (LPO), creatinine, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants, liver markers tests such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins was analysed. In addition, histopathological observation (breast, kidney and liver), immunohistochemical analysis (p53 and Her2/neu) and western blotting experiments (bcl-2, bax and caspase-9) were performed both in control and experimental animals. In thermal imaging, decreased temperature was observed in rat treated with fungal and authentic taxol when compared to tumor induced rats. The significant decrease in LPO, creatinine, ALT, AST, TC, TG, lipoproteins and increase in enzymic, non-enzymic antioxidants were exemplified in serum of treated groups. Further histopathology, immunohistochemical and western blot analysis (bax, cas-9 and bcl-2) of apoptotic markers in breast tissues clearly showed the anti-carcinogenic property of fungal taxol. Our findings implement that fungal taxol is a potential chemo preventive agent against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulatory effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on oxidant/antioxidant status in 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats--A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Deepalakshmi; Sankaran, Mirunalini

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women and its incidence is increasing alarmingly. To determine a dose-response effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on oxidant/antioxidant status in 7,12-dimethylbenz. (a) antheracene induced. (DMBA) mammary carcinoma in experimental rats. Cancer bearing female Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with Pleurotus ostreatus ethanolic extract (POEet) (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks. By means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, ergosterol (48.82%) were identified and quantified in POEet. Body weight of experimental rats in each groups and the biochemical parameters of plasma, liver and mammary tissues were carried out. Histopathological analyses were also determined. Results were analyzed using SPSS software package, version 16.0. The values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT). The result showed that depleted activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant level and significant elevated TBARS level were observed in DMBA group of plasma, mammary and liver tissues of experimental rats. The effects were dose.dependent and the above noted parameters were renovated to near normal after supplementation with different dose of POEet (150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg/kg bwt). The data obtained from the study indicate that POEet at a dose of 600 mg/kg bwt possesses optimum anticancer effects against DMBA induced mammary carcinogenesis. Based on the scientific appraisal, we conclude that the POEet is having a potent antioxidant capacity; thereby it offers maximum protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

  18. Centrosome amplification and overexpression of aurora A are early events in rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, Thea M; Adigun, Yetunde E; Zhong, Ling; Gay, Jason; Medina, Daniel; Brinkley, William R

    2002-07-15

    The cells of many solid tumors have been found to contain supernumerary centrosomes, a condition known as centrosome amplification. Centrosome amplification, accompanied by the overexpression of an associated kinase, Aurora A (AurA), has been implicated in mechanisms leading to mitotic spindle aberrations, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. Using a well-established rat mammary model favorable for experimental carcinogenesis, we analyzed centrosome amplification as a cellular marker for early stages of transformation and its regulation by the kinase ratAurA. Parity or treatment with estrogen and progesterone conferred resistance to tumorigenesis, as well as to overexpression of ratAurA and to centrosome amplification. ratAurA, cloned from a rat mammary gland cDNA library, is a bona fide Ser/Thr kinase, and sequence comparison demonstrated high homology to members of the entire AurA kinase family. Using immunocytochemical localization with confocal microscopy, we found ratAurA to be localized at the centrosome in normal and neoplastic tissues of the rat mammary gland. Normal ductal epithelium and stromal cells displayed an expected complement of one to two centrosomes/cell, whereas comparable cells in methylnitrosourea-treated animals displayed significantly elevated centrosome numbers. In tumors, 46% of cells showed more than two centrosomes/cell, and ratAurA expression levels coincided with higher centrosome numbers. Both centrosome numbers and ratAurA expression were permanently elevated. Centrosome amplification was found to occur at a very early, premalignant stage prior to detectable lesions after treatment with methylnitrosourea, a condition that was not detected in mammary glands of rats made refractory to the carcinogen via pregnancy or estrogen and progesterone treatment. Our results indicate that hormones influence kinase expression, and progesterone had the major effect on ratAurA expression levels. Cumulatively, these results suggest that rat

  19. Does cancer start in the womb? altered mammary gland development and predisposition to breast cancer due to in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ana M; Brisken, Cathrin; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary development and tumorigenesis in rodents is used as a paradigmatic example of how altered prenatal mammary development may lead to breast cancer in humans who are also widely exposed to it through plastic goods, food and drink packaging, and thermal paper receipts. Changes in the stroma and its extracellular matrix led to altered ductal morphogenesis. Additionally, gestational and lactational exposure to BPA increased the sensitivity of rats and mice to mammotropic hormones during puberty and beyond, thus suggesting a plausible explanation for the increased incidence of breast cancer.

  20. Milk inhibits the regression of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li-Qiang; Xu, Jia-Ying; Tezuka, Hideo; Wang, Pei-Yu; Hoshi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the relation between the milk consumption and breast cancer risk. In this study, rats were induced mammary tumors by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. When tumors developed to acceptable levels, rats were placed into 1 of 3 treatment groups. Those in the negative control group and the milk group were ovariectomized, whereas those in the positive control group were sham operated. After grouping, tumor incidence remained 100%, and tumor number and volume increased in the positive control group. However, tumors in the 2 ovariectomized groups regressed. Compared with the negative control group, tumor incidence and tumor number and volume per rat in the milk group became significantly higher from Week 6 and Week 4, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor-I levels were borderline significantly higher in the milk group than in the negative control group at autopsy. Although plasma 17beta-estradiol levels did not differ significantly, estrogenicity was found in the milk group because uterine weight was significantly heavier in the milk group than in the negative control group. In conclusion, commercial milk inhibited the regression of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in ovariectomized rats.

  1. Antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer: participation of 6-iodolactone (6-IL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR).

    PubMed

    Aceves, Carmen; García-Solís, Pablo; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; Vega-Riveroll, Laura; Delgado, Guadalupe; Anguiano, Brenda

    2009-06-06

    Studies in mammary cancer demonstrated that moderately high concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) have a antiproliferative and apoptotic effect either in vivo as in vitro, however the cellular intermediated involved in these effects has not been elucidated. Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with methyl-nitrosourea (MNU: single dose ip, 50 mg/Kg bw) and the participation of arachidonic acid (AA) and PPAR receptors in the antineoplasic effect of I2 where analyzed. I2-treated rats for four weeks exhibited a significant reduction in the incidence (62.5 vs. 100%) and size (0.87 +/- 0.98 vs 1.96 +/- 1.5 cm3) of mammary tumors. HPLC analysis showed that tumoral but not normal mammary tissue contained an elevated basal concentration of AA and significantly more AA-iodinated called 6-iodolactone (6-IL) after chronic I2 treatment. Tumors from I2-treated rats showed fewer cells positive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, lower blood vessel density, as well as decreases in vascular endothelial growth factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and PPAR type alpha (PPARalpha). These same tumors showed increases in the cell death markers, TUNEL-positive cells (p < 0.05) and the enzyme caspase-3 (trend), as well as significant induction of PPAR type gamma (PPARgamma). Together, these data demonstrate that the antineoplasic effect of iodine involves 6-IL formation and PPARgamma induction.

  2. Antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer: participation of 6-iodolactone (6-IL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)

    PubMed Central

    Aceves, Carmen; García-Solís, Pablo; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; Vega-Riveroll, Laura; Delgado, Guadalupe; Anguiano, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Studies in mammary cancer demonstrated that moderately high concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) have a antiproliferative and apoptotic effect either in vivo as in vitro, however the cellular intermediated involved in these effects has not been elucidated. Methods Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with methyl-nitrosourea (MNU: single dose ip, 50 mg/Kg bw) and the participation of arachidonic acid (AA) and PPAR receptors in the antineoplasic effect of I2 where analyzed. Results I2-treated rats for four weeks exhibited a significant reduction in the incidence (62.5 vs. 100%) and size (0.87 ± 0.98 vs 1.96 ± 1.5 cm3) of mammary tumors. HPLC analysis showed that tumoral but not normal mammary tissue contained an elevated basal concentration of AA and significantly more AA-iodinated called 6-iodolactone (6-IL) after chronic I2 treatment. Tumors from I2-treated rats showed fewer cells positive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, lower blood vessel density, as well as decreases in vascular endothelial growth factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and PPAR type alpha (PPARα). These same tumors showed increases in the cell death markers, TUNEL-positive cells (p < 0.05) and the enzyme caspase-3 (trend), as well as significant induction of PPAR type gamma (PPARγ). Conclusion Together, these data demonstrate that the antineoplasic effect of iodine involves 6-IL formation and PPARγ induction. PMID:19500378

  3. Exposure to estrogen and ionizing radiation causes epigenetic dysregulation, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and genome instability in the mammary gland of ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Kutanzi, Kristy; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-07-01

    The impact of environmental mutagens and carcinogens on the mammary gland has recently received a lot of attention. Among the most generally accepted carcinogenic agents identified as factors that may increase breast cancer incidence are ionizing radiation and elevated estrogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland aberrations associated with radiation and estrogen exposure still need to be further elucidated, especially the interplay between elevated hormone levels and radiation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated molecular changes induced in rat mammary gland tissue by estrogen, ionizing radiation, and the combined action of these two carcinogens using a well-established ACI rat model. We found that continuous exposure of intact female ACI rats to elevated levels of estrogen or to both estrogen and radiation resulted in significant hyperproliferative changes in rat mammary glands. In contrast, radiation exposure alone did not induce hyperplasia. Interestingly, despite the obvious disparity in mammary gland morphology, we did not detect significant differences in the levels of genomic methylation among animals exposed to estrogen, radiation, or both agents together. Specifically, we observed a significant global genomic hypomethylation at 6 weeks of exposure. However, by 12 and 18 weeks, the levels of global DNA methylation returned to those of age-matched controls. We also found that combined exposure to radiation and estrogen significantly altered the levels of histone H3 and H4 methylation and acetylation. Most importantly, we for the first time demonstrated that estrogen and radiation exposure caused a significant induction of p42/44 MAPK and p38 pathways that was paralleled by elevated levels of H3S10 phosphorylation, a well-established biomarker of genome and chromosome instability. The precise role of MAPK pathways and their inter-relationship with H3S10 phosphorylation and genome instability in mammary gland tissues needs

  4. Congenic rats with higher arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 activity exhibit greater carcinogen-induced mammary tumor susceptibility independent of carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Marcus W; Doll, Mark A; Samuelson, David J; Sanders, Mary Ann G; States, J Christopher; Hein, David W

    2017-03-31

    Recent investigations suggest role(s) of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in breast cancer. Rat NAT2 is orthologous to human NAT1 and the gene products are functional homologs. We conducted in vivo studies using F344.WKY-Nat2 (rapid/slow) rats, congenic at rat Nat2 for high (rapid) and low (slow) arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity, to assess a possible role for rat NAT2 in mammary tumor susceptibility. Mammary carcinogens, methylnitrosourea (MNU) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) neither of which is metabolized by N-acetyltransferase, were administered to assess mammary tumors. MNU was administered at 3 or 8 weeks of age. DMBA was administered at 8 weeks of age. NAT2 enzymatic activity and endogenous acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) levels were measured in tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the congenic rats. Tumor latency was shorter in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats, with statistical significance for MNU administered at 3 and 8 weeks of age (p = 0.009 and 0.050, respectively). Tumor multiplicity and incidence were higher in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats administered MNU or DMBA at 8 weeks of age (MNU, p = 0.050 and 0.035; DMBA, p = 0.004 and 0.027, respectively). Recombinant rat rapid-NAT2, as well as tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts derived from rapid NAT2 rats, catalyzed p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyl transfer and folate-dependent acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) hydrolysis at higher rates than those derived from rat slow-NAT2. Embryonic fibroblasts isolated from rapid NAT2 rats displayed lower levels of cellular AcCoA than slow NAT2 rats (p < 0.01). A novel role for rat NAT2 in mammary cancer was discovered unrelated to carcinogen metabolism, suggesting a role for human NAT1 in breast cancer.

  5. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  6. Charles River Sprague Dawley Rats Lack Early Age-Dependent Susceptibility to DMBA-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gear, R.B.; Yan, M.; Schneider, J.; Succop, P.; Heffelfinger, S.C.; Clegg, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental stages of mammary glands influence their susceptibility to initiating events related to carcinogenesis. The “window of susceptibility” to mammary carcinogenesis is classically defined as the time in early puberty when the mammary gland morphology is most sensitive to initiation events. Administration of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in a single oral dose yields maximal mammary tumor formation when administered in this “window”. We examined the DMBA treated mammary glands, precursor lesions, and morphology of the uninvolved mammary epithelium for the first 100 days of life for Charles River Sprague Dawley CDR IGS. Our goal was to determine the DMBA dose at which 50% of the rats (IC50) developed carcinoma in situ (CIS) within three months of dosing. Here we demonstrate, rather than the classical U-shaped dose curve in which there is maximum sensitivity for DMBA at 50 days, there is an increasing degree of sensitivity with age in the CDR IGS rat. Additionally, we report that vehicle-treated animals developed mammary CIS without any known initiator, and 100 day virgin animals demonstrated lactational changes, independent of DMBA exposure or dose. Lastly, we demonstrate this strain of virgin female rats has elevated pituitary prolactin immunoreactivity independent of the level of mammary differentiation. We conclude this strain of Charles River Sprague Dawley rats has prolactin-induced pituitary stimulation, and therefore, the window of susceptibility for mammary tumorigenesis is absent. PMID:17940635

  7. Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression Genetically Hyper-Muscular Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    1-0424 TITLE: Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression in...SUBTITLE Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tumorigenesis and Progression in Genetically...activity independently reduce breast cancer . Conversely, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased breast cancer incidence

  8. Robot-assisted internal mammary lymph chain excision for breast cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Du, Junze; Mo, Hongbiao; Fan, Linjun; Jiang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the status of internal mammary lymph nodes of breast cancer is critical in the accurate staging of breast cancer and the development of accurate therapeutic regimen for selected patients. Current techniques for dissection of internal mammary lymph node biopsy involve endoscopic or Traditional thoracic surgery, An important drawback of the current techniques is the great trauma caused by them. Da Vinci robotic surgery system (Intuitive Surgical Inc. Sunnyvale, CA) was used to perform the internal mammary lymph chain excision for a breast cancer patient with left internal mammary lymph node metastasis. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography examination and Ultrasonography examination. In this paper, we introduce a Robot-assisted technique for dissection of internal mammary lymph node biopsy with only 3 small trocar ports. This technique reduces the incision size and considerably reduce the trauma. The operation lasted a duration of 1.5 hours. The operation was carried out smoothly with removal of 9 internal mammary lymph nodes in total. The amount of intra operative bleeding was less than 10 ml. The patient's postoperative recovery was fast. 11-month postoperative follow-up showed that the patient recovered well after surgery, no local recurrence or distant metastasis was found, and no obvious discomfort was reported. Robot-assisted excision of internal mammary lymph chain in breast cancer is a safe, effective and simple operation with minimal invasion.

  9. Effect of elevated selenium intakes on mammary cell proliferation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salbe, A.D.; Albanes, D.; Winick, M.; Taylor, P.R.; Levander, O.A. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Elevated selenium (Se) intakes and calorie restriction (CR) inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate cell proliferation in the mammary tissue gland. Female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, 40% CR, 4 or 6 ppm Se in water as selenate. Control rats and Se rats were fed a control diet ad lib. CR rats were pair-fed 40% less than controls with a diet providing equal nutrients except carbohydrate calories. After 3 weeks, rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and killed 1 hr later. Se at 4 ppm significantly decreased only the number of ducts, whereas 6 ppm Se decreased both the number of ducts as well as the number and percent of labeled cells. CR had no effect on mammary cell proliferation. These results suggest that elevated Se intakes may protect against mammary tumorigenesis by decreasing cell proliferation, a mechanism which may affect the dose-response of the genotoxic chemicals frequently used as initiating agents in animal experiments.

  10. Detection of differentially expressed genes in methylnitrosourea-induced rat mammary adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Lin, L; Crist, K A; Kelloff, G J; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; You, M; Wang, Y

    1997-01-01

    In this study, altered gene expression in five methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary adenocarcinomas was investigated using a newly developed competitive cDNA library screening assay. In order to detect the differentially expressed cDNA transcripts, three cDNA libraries (rat mammary, rat liver, and rat kidney) with over 18,000 clones were differentially screened with competing normal and neoplastic mammary cDNA probes. Ninety-eight clones indicated by competitive hybridization to be differentially expressed in tumors were verified by dot-blot hybridization analysis. Of these clones, 45 were found to be overexpressed while 53 were underexpressed in tumors. Forty-five of the confirmed clones were further analyzed by single-pass cDNA sequence determination. Four clones showed homology with cytochrome oxidase subunit I, polyoma virus PTA noncoding region, cytoplasmic beta-actin, and mouse secretory protein containing thrombospondin motifs. Further investigation into the potential roles of these identified genes should contribute significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) of rat mammary tumorigenesis.

  11. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  12. A spontaneous high-grade undifferentiated mammary carcinoma in a seven-week-old female rat.

    PubMed

    Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Gama, Adelina; Oliveira, Paula A; Alvarado, Antonieta; Ferreira, Rita; Ginja, Mário

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes a rare case of a spontaneous high-grade carcinoma in a seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rat that had been included in the control group of an assay of mammary carcinogenesis. The mass was detected at 50days of age, it grown quickly and the animal was humanely sacrificed eight days later. The tumor was located in the left cervical region, in the vicinity of the left submandibular and sublingual glands. It was soft and reddish and had several dens with a bloody content. The tumor was PAS negative and exhibited immunostaining for ER-α. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical data are suggestive of a high-grade carcinoma from mammary gland. It was the first report of a spontaneous mammary tumor in such a young rat.

  13. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    sorting data coming from human and mouse adult mammary gland , and coming from the fetal mammary rudiment, to define gene expression profiles of...AD_____________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0106 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human...SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making Improve

  14. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion. We have used FAC sorting data coming from human and mouse adult mammary gland , and coming from the fetal mammary rudiment, to define gene...AD_____________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0107 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic

  15. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Transdermal Delivery of α-Santalol through Breast Skin and Mammary Papilla (Nipple).

    PubMed

    Dave, Kaushalkumar; Alsharif, Fahd M; Islam, Saiful; Dwivedi, Chandradhar; Perumal, Omathanu

    2017-09-01

    Almost all breast cancers originate from epithelial cells lining the milk ducts in the breast. To this end, the study investigated the feasibility of localized transdermal delivery of α-santalol, a natural chemopreventive agent to the breast. Different α-santalol formulations (cream, solution and microemulsion) were developed and the in vitro permeability was studied using excised animal (porcine and rat) and human breast skin/mammary papilla (nipple). The in vivo biodistribution and efficacy studies were conducted in female rats. A chemical carcinogenesis model of breast cancer was used for the efficacy studies. Phospholipid based α-santalol microemulsion showed the highest penetration through the nipple and breast skin. Delivery of α-santalol through the entire breast (breast skin and nipple) in vivo in rats resulted in significantly higher concentration in the mammary gland compared to transdermal delivery through the breast skin or nipple. There was no measurable α-santalol concentration in the blood. Transdermal delivery of α-santalol reduced the tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Furthermore, the tumor size was significantly reduced with α-santalol treatment. The findings from this study demonstrate the feasibility of localized transdermal delivery of α-santalol for chemoprevention of breast cancer.

  16. Peroral Estradiol Is Sufficient to Induce Carcinogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Ovariectomized Rats without Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Stires, Hillary; Saboya, Mariana; Globerman, Samantha P; Cohick, Wendie S

    2016-01-01

    A role for estrogens in breast cancer is widely accepted, however, recent evidence highlights that timing and exposure levels are important in determining whether they elicit harmful versus beneficial effects. The rat chemical carcinogen model has been widely used to study the effects of estrogens but conclusions on the levels that lead to tumor development and an absolute requirement for progesterone (P4) are lacking. A newer method of hormone administration mixes hormones with nut butter for peroral consumption allowing for a less stressful method of long-term administration with lower spikes in serum estradiol (E2) levels. The present study was designed to determine if estrogens alone at a physiological dose can drive carcinogen-induced tumors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats or if P4 is also required using this method of hormone administration. Short-term studies were conducted to determine the dose of estrogen (E) that would lead to increased uterine weight following OVX. Subsequently, rats were OVX on postnatal day (PND) 40 then treated daily with E (600 μg/kg/day), P4 (15 mg/kg/day), or the combination. On PND 50, all rats were injected with nitrosomethylurea to induce mammary tumors. Uterine weights, body weights, and serum E2 levels were measured to demonstrate the efficacy of the method for increasing E2 levels during long-term treatment. After 26 weeks, tumor incidence was similar in Sham, E, and E + P4 animals indicating that E was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis when hormone levels were normalized by this method. This study demonstrates peroral administration can be used in long-term studies to elucidate relationships between different types and levels of steroid hormones.

  17. Peroral Estradiol Is Sufficient to Induce Carcinogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Ovariectomized Rats without Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Stires, Hillary; Saboya, Mariana; Globerman, Samantha P.; Cohick, Wendie S.

    2016-01-01

    A role for estrogens in breast cancer is widely accepted, however, recent evidence highlights that timing and exposure levels are important in determining whether they elicit harmful versus beneficial effects. The rat chemical carcinogen model has been widely used to study the effects of estrogens but conclusions on the levels that lead to tumor development and an absolute requirement for progesterone (P4) are lacking. A newer method of hormone administration mixes hormones with nut butter for peroral consumption allowing for a less stressful method of long-term administration with lower spikes in serum estradiol (E2) levels. The present study was designed to determine if estrogens alone at a physiological dose can drive carcinogen-induced tumors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats or if P4 is also required using this method of hormone administration. Short-term studies were conducted to determine the dose of estrogen (E) that would lead to increased uterine weight following OVX. Subsequently, rats were OVX on postnatal day (PND) 40 then treated daily with E (600 μg/kg/day), P4 (15 mg/kg/day), or the combination. On PND 50, all rats were injected with nitrosomethylurea to induce mammary tumors. Uterine weights, body weights, and serum E2 levels were measured to demonstrate the efficacy of the method for increasing E2 levels during long-term treatment. After 26 weeks, tumor incidence was similar in Sham, E, and E + P4 animals indicating that E was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis when hormone levels were normalized by this method. This study demonstrates peroral administration can be used in long-term studies to elucidate relationships between different types and levels of steroid hormones. PMID:27611094

  18. DETECTION OF A CRITICAL PERIOD NECESSARY FOR ATRAZINE-INDUCED MAMMARY GLAND DELAYS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of a Critical Period Necessary for Atrazine-Induced Mammary Gland Delays in Rats.

    Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, R...

  19. NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero.
    HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2
    1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  20. DETECTION OF A CRITICAL PERIOD NECESSARY FOR ATRAZINE-INDUCED MAMMARY GLAND DELAYS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of a Critical Period Necessary for Atrazine-Induced Mammary Gland Delays in Rats.

    Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, R...

  1. NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero.
    HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2
    1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  2. Dietary berries and ellagic acid diminish estrogen-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Harini S; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen acts as a complete mammary carcinogen in ACI rats. Prevention studies in this model allowed us to identify agents that are effective against estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated efficacy of dietary berries and ellagic acid to reduce estrogen-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. Female ACI rats (8-9 wk) were fed either AIN-93M diet (n = 25) or diet supplemented with either powdered blueberry (n = 19) and black raspberry (n = 19) at 2.5% wt/wt each or ellagic acid (n = 22) at 400 ppm. Animals received implants of 17beta-estradiol 2 wk later, were palpated periodically for mammary tumors, and were euthanized after 24 wk. No differences were found in tumor incidence at 24 wk; however, tumor volume and multiplicity were reduced significantly after intervention. Compared with the control group (average tumor volume = 685 +/- 240 mm3 and tumor multiplicity = 8.0 +/- 1.3), ellagic acid reduced the tumor volume by 75% (P < 0.005) and tumor multiplicity by 44% (P < 0.05). Black raspberry followed closely, with tumor volume diminished by > 69% (P < 0.005) and tumor multiplicity by 37% (P = 0.07). Blueberry showed a reduction (40%) only in tumor volume. This is the first report showing the significant efficacy of both ellagic acid and berries in the prevention of solely estrogen-induced mammary tumors.

  3. A rat mammary tumor model induced by the organophosphorous pesticides parathion and malathion, possibly through acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, G; Valenzuela, M; Vilaxa, A; Durán, V; Rudolph, I; Hrepic, N; Calaf, G

    2001-01-01

    Environmental chemicals may be involved in the etiology of breast cancers. Many studies have addressed the association between cancer in humans and agricultural pesticide exposure. Organophosphorous pesticides have been used extensively to control mosquito plagues. Parathion and malathion are organophosphorous pesticides extensively used to control a wide range of sucking and chewing pests of field crops, fruits, and vegetables. They have many structural similarities with naturally occurring compounds, and their primary target of action in insects is the nervous system; they inhibit the release of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase at the synaptic junction. Eserine, parathion, and malathion are cholinesterase inhibitors responsible for the hydrolysis of body choline esters, including acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. Atropine, a parasympatholytic alkaloid, is used as an antidote to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The aim of this study was to examine whether pesticides were able to induce malignant transformation of the rat mammary gland and to determine whether alterations induced by these substances increase the cholinergic activation influencing such transformation. These results showed that eserine, parathion, and malathion increased cell proliferation of terminal end buds of the 44-day-old mammary gland of rats, followed by formation of 8.6, 14.3, and 24.3% of mammary carcinomas, respectively, after about 28 months. At the same time, acetylcholinesterase activity decreased in the serum of these animals from 9.78 +/- 0.78 U/mL in the control animals to 3.05 +/- 0.06 U/mL; 2.57 +/- 0.15 U/mL; and 3.88 +/- 0.44 U/mL in the eserine-, parathion-, and malathion-treated groups, respectively. However, atropine alone induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity from the control value of 9.78 +/- 0.78 to 4.38 +/- 0.10 for atropine alone, to 1.32 +/- 0.06 for atropine in combination with eserine, and 2.39 +/- 0.29 for atropine with

  4. High Relative Biologic Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiation on Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinoma and its Lack of H-ras and Tp53 Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Hatano, Yukiko; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Yoshinaga, Shinji Ph.D.; Kawano, Akihiro; Maekawa, Akihiko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: The high relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy-ion radiation has enabled powerful radiotherapy. The potential risk of later onset of secondary cancers, however, has not been adequately studied. We undertook the present study to clarify the RBE of therapeutic carbon ion radiation and molecular changes that occur in the rat mammary cancer model. Methods and Materials: We observed 7-8-week-old rats (ACI, F344, Wistar, and Sprague-Dawley) until 1 year of age after irradiation (0.05-2 Gy) with either 290 MeV/u carbon ions with a spread out Bragg peak (LET 40-90 keV/{mu}m) generated from the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba or {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays. Results: Carbon ions significantly induced mammary carcinomas in Sprague-Dawley rats but less so in other strains. The dose-effect relationship for carcinoma incidence in the Sprague-Dawley rats was concave downward, providing an RBE of 2 at a typical therapeutic dose per fraction. In contrast, {approx}10 should be considered for radiation protection at low doses. Immunohistochemically, 14 of 18 carcinomas were positive for estrogen receptor {alpha}. All carcinomas examined were free of common H-ras and Tp53 mutations. Importantly, lung metastasis (7%) was characteristic of carbon ion-irradiated rats. Conclusions: We found clear genetic variability in the susceptibility to carbon ion-induced mammary carcinomas. The high RBE for carbon ion radiation further supports the importance of precise dose localization in radiotherapy. Common point mutations in H-ras and Tp53 were not involved in carbon ion induction of rat mammary carcinomas.

  5. Effects of maternal exposure to cow's milk high or low in isoflavones on carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Purup, Stig; Wärri, Anni; Godschalk, Roger W; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2011-05-01

    We investigated whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to cow's milk containing endogenous estrogens and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and either high or low levels of isoflavones from dietary legumes (HIM and LIM, respectively) affected carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given HIM, LIM, or tap water (control) from gestational day (GD) 11 until birth; hereafter all rats received tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administrating 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) on postnatal day 50. No differences in maternal serum estradiol (P = 0.19) and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.15) at GD 19 or birth weight among the milk and water groups were seen, but estradiol, and IGF-1 levels and birth weight were numerically higher in the LIM group than in the HIM group. Puberty onset occurred earlier in the LIM offspring than in controls (P = 0.03). Although the high isoflavone content seemed to prevent the effect on circulating estradiol and IGF-1 levels and advanced puberty onset seen in the LIM group, HIM increased DMBA-DNA adducts in the mammary gland and tended to increase mammary tumorigenesis. In contrast, offspring exposed to LIM in utero, did not exhibit increased breast cancer risk, despite having higher estradiol and IGF-1 environment and consequently earlier puberty onset. These results indicate that the phytochemical content in the cow's milk, consumed by a pregnant dam, determines how milk affects the offspring.

  6. Surgery and electrochemotherapy treatment of incompletely excised mammary carcinoma in two male pet rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    LANZA, Andrea; PETTORALI, Michela; BALDI, Alfonso; SPUGNINI, Enrico P.

    2017-01-01

    Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administration in the tumor bed, followed by a series of eight biphasic electric pulses. The treatment was well tolerated, and the rats were disease-free after 10 and 14 months. Therefore, adjuvant ECT resulted in good local control of mammary carcinoma and can potentially be used for adjuvant treatment of pet rats with cutaneous and adnexal tumors. PMID:28216544

  7. Evaluation of Leucocyte Functions Six Years after Tumour Autograft in Human Mammary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. Maxwell; Kelly, F.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Rodger, K. D.; Freshney, R. Ian

    1973-01-01

    Mammary cancer directed and nonspecific immunoassays were made in 3 groups of female patients. One group had primary mammary cancer treated by mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy plus an autograft of irradiated tumour (AIT) 40-66 months previously. A second age-matched group had mammary cancer comparable to the first group in clinical presentation and treatment except that no AIT was given. The third group consisted of non-cancer-bearing age-matched females. The migration of leucocytes from autografted patients was significantly inhibited in the presence of allogeneic mammary cancer cells from a standardized panel, compared with leucocytes from either non-autograft patients or non-cancer bearers. Selected data from a lymphocyte cytotoxicity test revealed a significantly greater kill of allogeneic mammary cancer target cells by autograft lymphocytes than by those of other groups. These indications of increased cancer directed cell mediated immunity in respect of sensitivity and toxicity in association with AIT require further elucidation under strictly controlled conditions. PMID:4807858

  8. Key signalling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in experimental models of breast cancer progression and in mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jacqueline; Bergin, Orla; Bianchi, Alessandro; McNally, Sara; Martin, Finian

    2009-01-01

    Seven classes of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signalling cascades exist, four of which are implicated in breast disease and function in mammary epithelial cells. These are the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway, the ERK5 pathway, the p38 pathway and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. In some forms of human breast cancer and in many experimental models of breast cancer progression, signalling through the ERK1/2 pathway, in particular, has been implicated as being important. We review the influence of ERK1/2 activity on the organised three-dimensional association of mammary epithelial cells, and in models of breast cancer cell invasion. We assess the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor family signalling through ERK1/2 in models of breast cancer progression and the influence of ERK1/2 on its substrate, the oestrogen receptor, in this context. In parallel, we consider the importance of these MAPK-centred signalling cascades during the cycle of mammary gland development. Although less extensively studied, we highlight the instances of signalling through the p38, JNK and ERK5 pathways involved in breast cancer progression and mammary gland development.

  9. Incidental radiation to uninvolved internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arora, Divya; Frakes, Jessica; Scott, Jacob; Opp, Daniel; Johnson, Carol; Song, Juhee; Harris, Eleanor

    2015-06-01

    Routine treatment of clinically uninvolved internal mammary nodes in breast cancer patients requiring post-mastectomy radiation therapy is controversial. The purpose of this study was to measure the incidental radiation dose to the internal mammary lymph nodes not included in the planning target volume (PTV) in women with breast cancer receiving post-mastectomy radiation therapy. This retrospective protocol utilized CT-based 3D conformal treatment plans. Fifty consecutive patients were included in the analysis: 25 left breast and 25 right breast patients. 3D conformal treatment plans chest wall tangent fields and matched supraclavicular were used. All plans were prescribed to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the chest wall and 46 Gy in 23 fractions to the supraclavicular field. The internal mammary node chain was intentionally not included in the target volume. For purposes of this study, internal mammary vessels were contoured following the Radiation Therapy Oncologist Group atlas with a 7-mm PTV expansion, utilizing original CT simulation images. The internal mammary nodes were contoured in between the first 3 and first 5 intercostal spaces for comparison. Percent volume of internal mammary node PTV receiving 95 % of the prescribed dose (47.5 Gy) with 7-mm expansion and first 5 intercostal spaces for all patients was 25.2 % (range 0.04-97.6 %, standard deviation (SD) 23.5). The mean internal mammary node dose for all patients was 24.98 Gy (range 3.54-55.93 Gy, SD 16). Results of this study suggest the incidental dose to the internal mammary nodes does not achieve clinically significant therapeutic levels in post-mastectomy breast cancer patients treated with standard 3D conformal radiation therapy chest wall irradiation. If risk factors for microscopic involvement are present, internal mammary nodes must be specifically included in target volumes in order to be adequately treated.

  10. Preventive effects of antioestrogen on mammary and pituitary tumorigenesis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sumi, C.; Yokoro, K.; Matsushima, R.

    1984-01-01

    Six groups of inbred male Wistar/Furth (WF) rats were castrated at 40 days of age and group I received no further treatment. Groups 3 and 5 received 5.0 mg diethylstilboestrol (DES) pellets. Groups 4 and 6 were given both DES and 5.0 mg anti-oestrogen (antiE) clomiphene citrate pellets. At 50-55 days of age groups 2, 5, and 6 were exposed daily to drinking water containing 5.0 mg N-nitrosobutylurea (NBU), for 30 days. None of the castrated rats given NBU alone developed mammary or pituitary tumours (MT, PT). When antiE was administered, both MT and PT incidences were reduced in rats given DES alone or in combination with NBU. Furthermore, in antiE-treated rats receiving DES and NBU the mean number of MT per rat was also significantly decreased. Similarly a marked reduction in the mean pituitary weight was observed in antiE-treated groups. These results indicate that antiE treatment was effective in the prevention of both mammary and pituitary tumorigenesis in rats receiving DES alone or receiving a combination of DES and NBU, and its inhibitory effect on mammary tumorigenesis may be mainly due to competitive antagonism for DES-induced pituitary tumorigenesis by antiE. PMID:6498074

  11. Mammary Fat of Breast Cancer: Gene Expression Profiling and Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Hong; Lu, Xun; Yu, Jing; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion) was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies. PMID:25291184

  12. Mammary fat of breast cancer: gene expression profiling and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengliang; Gao, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Hong; Lu, Xun; Yu, Jing; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion) was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies.

  13. Comparison of increased aromatase versus ERα in the generation of mammary hyperplasia and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S.; Sugimoto, Yasuro; Gallicano, G. Ian; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Furth, Priscilla A

    2011-01-01

    Factors associated with increased estrogen synthesis increase breast cancer risk. Increased aromatase and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in both normal epithelium and ductal carcinoma in situ lesions are found in conjunction with breast cancer, leading to the idea that altered estrogen signaling pathways predispose the mammary gland to cancer development. Here, we developed a transgenic mouse that conditionally expresses aromatase in the mammary gland, and used it along with a deregulated ERα expression model to investigate the molecular pathways involved in the development of mammary gland preneoplasia and carcinoma. Both increased ERα and aromatase expression led to the development of preneoplasia, but increased preneoplasia, in addition to carcinoma, was found in aromatase over-expressing mice. Increased prevalence of mammary pathological changes in mice expressing aromatase correlated with increased Cyclin E and Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 expression. Gain of both ERα and aromatase increased expression of ERα and progesterone receptor, but aromatase produced a higher increase than ERα, accompanied by higher levels of downstream target genes cyclin D1, c-Myc and RANKL. In summary, while gain of both ERα and aromatase activate abnormal growth pathways in the mammary gland, aromatase induced a wider range of abnormalities that was associated with a higher prevalence of mammary preneoplasia and cancer progression. PMID:21840986

  14. Mammary Development and Breast Cancer: A Wnt Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing Cissy; Verheyen, Esther M.; Zeng, Yi Arial

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt pathway has emerged as a key signaling cascade participating in mammary organogenesis and breast oncogenesis. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of how the pathway regulates stem cells and normal development of the mammary gland, and discuss how its various components contribute to breast carcinoma pathology. PMID:27420097

  15. Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, Agata; Król, Magdalena

    2016-12-19

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in diverse types of cancer, including breast cancer. Spontaneously occurring mammary tumors in canines share clinical and molecular similarities with the human counterpart, making the dog a potentially powerful model for the study of human breast cancer and clinical trials. Studies focused on canine mammary CSC might therefore enhance our understanding of the biology and possible treatment of the disease in both dogs and humans. In this review, we discuss various approaches currently in use to isolate and characterize canine mammary CSC.

  16. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond.

  17. Key signaling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer: β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    β-Catenin plays important roles in mammary development and tumorigenesis through its functions in cell adhesion, signal transduction and regulation of cell-context-specific gene expression. Studies in mice have highlighted the critical role of β-catenin signaling for stem cell biology at multiple stages of mammary development. Deregulated β-catenin signaling disturbs stem and progenitor cell dynamics and induces mammary tumors in mice. Recent data showing deregulated β-catenin signaling in metaplastic and basal-type tumors suggest a similar link to reactivated developmental pathways and human breast cancer. The present review will discuss β-catenin as a central transducer of numerous signaling pathways and its role in mammary development and breast cancer. PMID:21067528

  18. Mammary Gland Involution Provides a Unique Model to Study the TGF-β Cancer Paradox.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiuchen; Betts, Courtney; Pennock, Nathan; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Schedin, Pepper

    2017-01-13

    Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer has been termed the "TGF-β paradox", acting as both a tumor suppresser and promoter. The complexity of TGF-β signaling within the tumor is context dependent, and greatly impacted by cellular crosstalk between TGF-β responsive cells in the microenvironment including adjacent epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells. Here we utilize normal, weaning-induced mammary gland involution as a tissue microenvironment model to study the complexity of TGF-β function. This article reviews facets of mammary gland involution that are TGF-β regulated, namely mammary epithelial cell death, immune activation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. We outline how distinct cellular responses and crosstalk between cell types during physiologically normal mammary gland involution contribute to simultaneous tumor suppressive and promotional microenvironments. We also highlight alternatives to direct TGF-β blocking anti-cancer therapies with an emphasis on eliciting concerted microenvironmental-mediated tumor suppression.

  19. Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A or Diethylstilbestrol Increases the Susceptibility to Develop Mammary Gland Lesions After Estrogen Replacement Therapy in Middle-Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ayelen L; Delconte, Melisa B; Altamirano, Gabriela A; Vigezzi, Lucia; Bosquiazzo, Veronica L; Barbisan, Luís F; Ramos, Jorge G; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Kass, Laura

    2017-04-01

    The development of the mammary gland is a hormone-regulated event. Several factors can dysregulate its growth and make the gland more susceptible to cellular transformation. Among these factors, perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens and hormone replacement therapy has been associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we assessed the effects induced by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged rats and whether perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or bisphenol A (BPA) modified these effects in the mammary gland. Pregnant rats were orally exposed to vehicle, 5 μg DES/kg/day, or 0.5 or 50 μg BPA/kg/day from gestational day 9 until weaning. Then, 12-month-old offspring were OVX and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months. Morphological changes and the percentage of epithelial cells that proliferated or expressed estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PR) were analyzed in mammary gland samples of 15-month-old animals. ERT induced lobuloalveolar hyperplasia and ductal cysts in the mammary gland of middle-aged rats, associated with a higher proliferation index of epithelial cells. Perinatal exposure to DES followed by ERT increased the number of cysts and induced the formation of fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ, without modifying the expression of ESR1 or PR. Also, after 3 months of ERT, BPA-exposed rats had a higher incidence of ductal hyperplasia and atypical lobular hyperplasia than animals under ERT alone. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens increases the susceptibility of the mammary gland to develop cysts and hyperplastic lesions when confronted with ERT later in life.

  20. Histological, immunohistological, and ultrastructural description of vasculogenic mimicry in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Clemente, M; Pérez-Alenza, M D; Illera, J C; Peña, L

    2010-03-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) and human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) are the most aggressive and lethal type of mammary cancer in female dogs and in women. The generation of microvascular channels by malignant tumor cells (endothelial-like cells [ELCs]) without endothelial cell participation (vasculogenic mimicry) has been reported in human breast cancer, including IBC, and is considered a new type of tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ELCs in highly malignant canine mammary tumors (IMC and non-IMC) by histology, inmunohistochemistry (pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 14, vimentin, actin, desmin, vWF, CD31, and CD34), and electron microscopy. This retrospective study included 21 female dogs with diagnoses of IMC and 20 animals with metastatic grade III noninflammatory malignant mammary tumors (MMT). IMC tumors (33.33%) and MMT (5%) showed ELCs forming structures similar to small capillaries. The histological, immunohistochemical (positive to AE1/AE3 and cytokeratin 14, mostly negative to endothelial markers), and ultrastructural characteristics of these cells indicated vasculogenic mimicry. The higher frequency of this phenomenon in inflammatory versus noninflammatory canine mammary cancer is in agreement with previous studies in experimental and spontaneous human IBC, and it could be in relation with the extremely high lymphangiogenic capacity and metastatic lymphangiotropism characteristics of inflammatory breast cancer.

  1. Internal Mammary and Medial Supraclavicular Irradiation in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Poortmans, Philip M; Collette, Sandra; Kirkove, Carine; Van Limbergen, Erik; Budach, Volker; Struikmans, Henk; Collette, Laurence; Fourquet, Alain; Maingon, Philippe; Valli, Mariacarla; De Winter, Karin; Marnitz, Simone; Barillot, Isabelle; Scandolaro, Luciano; Vonk, Ernest; Rodenhuis, Carla; Marsiglia, Hugo; Weidner, Nicola; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Glanzmann, Christoph; Kuten, Abraham; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Bartelink, Harry; Van den Bogaert, Walter

    2015-07-23

    The effect of internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph-node irradiation (regional nodal irradiation) added to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after surgery on survival among women with early-stage breast cancer is unknown. We randomly assigned women who had a centrally or medially located primary tumor, irrespective of axillary involvement, or an externally located tumor with axillary involvement to undergo either whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation in addition to regional nodal irradiation (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation alone (control group). The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were the rates of disease-free survival, survival free from distant disease, and death from breast cancer. Between 1996 and 2004, a total of 4004 patients underwent randomization. The majority of patients (76.1%) underwent breast-conserving surgery. After mastectomy, 73.4% of the patients in both groups underwent chest-wall irradiation. Nearly all patients with node-positive disease (99.0%) and 66.3% of patients with node-negative disease received adjuvant systemic treatment. At a median follow-up of 10.9 years, 811 patients had died. At 10 years, overall survival was 82.3% in the nodal-irradiation group and 80.7% in the control group (hazard ratio for death with nodal irradiation, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.00; P=0.06). The rate of disease-free survival was 72.1% in the nodal-irradiation group and 69.1% in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00; P=0.04), the rate of distant disease-free survival was 78.0% versus 75.0% (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.98; P=0.02), and breast-cancer mortality was 12.5% versus 14.4% (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97; P=0.02). Acute side effects of regional nodal irradiation were modest. In patients with early-stage breast cancer, irradiation of the regional nodes had a marginal

  2. Genetically determined inflammatory-response related cytokine and chemokine transcript profiles between mammary carcinoma resistant and susceptible rat strains

    PubMed Central

    Devapatla, Bharat; Sanders, Jennifer; Samuelson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple human breast and rat mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) alleles have been identified. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are resistant to developing mammary carcinomas, while Wistar Furth (WF) females are susceptible. Gene transcripts at Mcs5a1, Mcs5a2, and Mcs5c are differentially expressed between resistant WKY and susceptible WF alleles in immune-system tissues. We hypothesized that immune-related gene transcript profiles are genetically determined in mammary carcinoma resistant and susceptible mammary glands. Low-density QPCR arrays were used to compare inflammation related genes between mammary carcinoma resistant WKY and susceptible WF females. Mammary gland gene transcript levels predicted to be different based on arrays were tested in independent samples. In total, twenty females per strain were exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to induce mammary carcinogenesis. Twelve age-matched controls per strain without DMBA were included to determine main effects of DMBA-exposure. Significant (ANOVA P ≤ 0.01) effects of strain on mammary gland transcript level were observed for Cx3cl1, Il11ra, Il4, C3, Ccl20, Ccl11, Itgb2, Cxcl12, and Cxcr7. Significant effects of DMBA-exposure were observed for Cx3cl1, Il11ra, Cxcr4, Il4ra, and Il4. Strain and DMBA-exposure interaction effects were significant for Cx3cl1. Transcript levels of Cxcr7 relative to Cxcr4 were modified differently by DMBA in mammary carcinoma resistant and susceptible strains. In conclusion, several genetically-determined differences in cytokine, chemokine, and receptor gene transcript levels were identified between mammary carcinoma susceptible and resistant mammary glands, which may be indicative of cell populations and activities that suppress mammary carcinogenesis in resistant genotypes. PMID:22609213

  3. Hormone control of total plasminogen activator activity is specific to malignant DMBA-induced rat mammary tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Inada, K.; Yamashita, J.; Matsuo, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Ogawa, M.

    1992-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of plasminogen activator expression in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)--induced rat mammary carcinomas was studied both in vivo and in vitro and was compared to that in DMBA-mammary dysplasia induced in neonatally androgenised rats. The plasminogen activator activity in DMBA-mammary carcinomas, but not in DMBA-mammary dysplasia, was regulated by oestrogen. This suggests that expression of this enzyme is hormonally regulated in carcinoma cells. Furthermore, in two of six DMBA-mammary carcinoma groups classified in terms of hormonal treatment, plasminogen activator activity was not under the control of oestrogen. Thus, the present results suggest that at the time of carcinogenesis, the hormonal milieu determines the hormone sensitivities of the malignant cells. PMID:1562466

  4. Prolactin Promotes the Secretion of Active Cathepsin D at the Basal Side of Rat Mammary Acini

    PubMed Central

    Castino, Roberta; Delpal, Serge; Bouguyon, Edwige; Demoz, Marina; Isidoro, Ciro; Ollivier-Bousquet, Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Cathepsin D (CD), a lysosomal aspartic protease present in mammary tissue and milk in various molecular forms, is also found in the incubation medium of mammary acini in molecular forms that are proteolytically active on prolactin at a physiological pH. Because prolactin controls the vesicular traffic in mammary cells, we studied, in vivo and in vitro, its effects on the polarized transport and secretion of various forms of CD in the rat mammary gland. CD accumulated in vesicles not involved in endocytosis in the basal region of cells. Prolactin increased this accumulation and the release of endosomal active single-chain CD at the basal side of acini. The CD-mediated proteolysis of prolactin, leading to the antiangiogenic 16-kDa form, at a physiological pH, was observed only in conditioned medium but not milk. These data support the novel concept that an active molecular form of CD, secreted at the basal side of the mammary epithelium, participates in processing blood-borne prolactin outside the cell, this polarized secretion being controlled by prolactin itself. PMID:18420735

  5. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth in rats and mice by administration of agonistic and antagonistic analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken with estrogen-dependent mammary carcinomas in rats and mice to determine the antitumor activities of agonistic and antagonistic analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Chronic administration of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH or of antagonist 1 ( [NAc-D-p-Cl-Phe1,2-Phe3,D-Arg6-D-Ala10]LH-RH) at doses of 25 and 50 micrograms/day, respectively, for 21 days to mice bearing the MXT mammary carcinoma significantly decreased tumor weight and volume. The weight of the ovaries and serum progesterone levels in mice treated with [D-Trp6]LH-RH or antagonist 1 were also significantly reduced. In rats bearing the MT/W9A mammary adenocarcinoma, chronic administration of [D-Trp6]LH-RH at a dose of 25 micrograms twice a day or of antagonist 2 ( [NAc-D-p-Cl-Phe1,2,D-Trp3,D-Arg6,D-Ala10]LH-RH) at a dose of 50 micrograms twice a day for 28 days significantly decreased tumor weight and volume. Chronic treatment with either [D-Trp6]LH-RH or antagonist 2 markedly diminished the weight of the ovaries and serum levels of both estrogen and progesterone. Serum luteinizing hormone was significantly decreased in rats treated with antagonist 2 but not in rats treated with [D-Trp6]LH-RH. There was a significant drop in serum prolactin levels in rats treated with [D-Trp6]LH-RH but not in those receiving antagonist 2. Regression of mammary tumors in rats and mice in response to chronic administration of [D-Trp6]LH-RH and the two antagonistic analogs of LH-RH suggests that these compounds should be considered for the development of a new hormone therapy for breast cancer in women. PMID:6219395

  6. Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumour oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hull, E L; Conover, D L; Foster, T H

    1999-01-01

    We have evaluated the ability of steady-state, radially-resolved, broad-band near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to measure carbogen-induced changes in haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration in a rat R3230 mammary adenocarcinoma model in vivo. Detectable shifts toward higher saturations were evident in all tumours (n = 16) immediately after the onset of carbogen breathing. The SO2 reached a new equilibrium within 1 min and remained approximately constant during 200–300 s of administration. The return to baseline saturation was more gradual when carbogen delivery was stopped. The degree to which carbogen increased SO2 was variable among tumours, with a tendency for tumours with lower initial SO2 to exhibit larger changes. Tumour haemoglobin concentrations at the time of peak enhancement were also variable. In the majority of cases, haemoglobin concentration decreased in response to carbogen, indicating that increased tumour blood volume was not responsible for the observed elevation in SO2. We observed no apparent relationship between the extent of the change in tumour haemoglobin concentration and the magnitude of the change in the saturation. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a rapid, non-invasive means of monitoring spatially averaged changes in tumour haemoglobin oxygen saturation induced by oxygen modifiers. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10206281

  7. A Comparative Approach of Tumor-Associated Inflammation in Mammary Cancer between Humans and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Pires, Isabel; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating cells of the immune system are widely accepted to be generic constituents of tumor microenvironment. It has been well established that the development of mammary cancer, both in humans and in dogs, is associated with alterations in numbers and functions of immune cells at the sites of tumor progression. These tumor infiltrating immune cells seem to exhibit exclusive phenotypic and functional characteristics and mammary cancer cells can take advantage of signaling molecules released by them. Cancer related inflammation has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, contributing to the acquisition of core hallmark capabilities that allow cancer cells to survive, proliferate, and disseminate. Indeed, recent studies in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors have identified a growing list of signaling molecules released by inflammatory cells that serve as effectors of their tumor-promoting actions. These include the COX-2, the tumor EGF, the angiogenic VEGF, other proangiogenic factors, and a large variety of chemokines and cytokines that amplify the inflammatory state. This review describes the intertwined signaling pathways shared by T-lymphocytic/macrophage infiltrates and important tissue biomarkers in both human and dog mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:28053982

  8. A Comparative Approach of Tumor-Associated Inflammation in Mammary Cancer between Humans and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating cells of the immune system are widely accepted to be generic constituents of tumor microenvironment. It has been well established that the development of mammary cancer, both in humans and in dogs, is associated with alterations in numbers and functions of immune cells at the sites of tumor progression. These tumor infiltrating immune cells seem to exhibit exclusive phenotypic and functional characteristics and mammary cancer cells can take advantage of signaling molecules released by them. Cancer related inflammation has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, contributing to the acquisition of core hallmark capabilities that allow cancer cells to survive, proliferate, and disseminate. Indeed, recent studies in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors have identified a growing list of signaling molecules released by inflammatory cells that serve as effectors of their tumor-promoting actions. These include the COX-2, the tumor EGF, the angiogenic VEGF, other proangiogenic factors, and a large variety of chemokines and cytokines that amplify the inflammatory state. This review describes the intertwined signaling pathways shared by T-lymphocytic/macrophage infiltrates and important tissue biomarkers in both human and dog mammary carcinogenesis.

  9. Perinatally Administered Bisphenol A as a Potential Mammary Gland Carcinogen in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nicole; Davis, Barbara; Schaeberle, Cheryl M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affects mammary gland development in rodents and primates. Prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA increased the number of intraductal hyperplasias and ductal carcinomas in situ by 50 days of age in Wistar-Furth rats. Objective: We aimed to determine whether BPA exposure of dams during gestation only or throughout lactation affects the incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in female offspring. Methods: We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with BPA at 0, 0.25, 2.5, 25, or 250 μg BPA/kg BW/day from gestational day (GD) 9 to birth and from GD9 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Mammary glands from BPA-exposed offspring were examined at four time points for preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. To assess circulating BPA levels, we exposed pregnant rats to vehicle or 250 μg BPA/kg BW/day during gestation only or during gestation/lactation and analyzed sera from dams, fetuses, and nursing pups for total and unconjugated BPA. Results: Total and unconjugated BPA were detected in sera from 100% of dams and fetuses and 33% of pups exposed to 250 μg BPA/kg BW/day. Unconjugated BPA levels in exposed dams and fetuses (gestational) and in exposed dams and pups (gestational/lactational) were within levels found in humans. Preneoplastic lesions developed in BPA-exposed female offspring across all doses as early as PND50. Unexpectedly, mammary gland adenocarcinomas developed in BPA-exposed offspring by PND90. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BPA during gestation and lactation induces mammary gland neoplasms in the absence of any additional carcinogenic treatment. Thus, BPA may act as a complete mammary gland carcinogen. Citation: Acevedo N, Davis B, Schaeberle CM, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2013. Perinatally administered bisphenol A acts as a mammary gland carcinogen in rats. Environ Health Perspect 121:1040–1046; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  10. Gestational high-fat diet and bisphenol A exposure heightens mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Cheong, Ana; Veevers, Jennifer; Song, Dan; Gear, Robin; Zhu, Xuegong; Ying, Jun; Kendler, Ady; Medvedovic, Mario; Belcher, Scott; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-07-01

    In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose-response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group. In utero HBF and BPA exposure elicited differential effects at the gene level in PND21 mammary glands through DNA methylation, compared with HBF intake in the absence of BPA. Top HBF + BPA-dysregulated genes (ALDH1B1, ASTL, CA7, CPLX4, KCNV2, MAGEE2 and TUBA3E) are associated with poor overall survival in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) human breast cancer cohort (n = 1082). Furthermore, the prognostic power of the identified genes was further enhanced in the survival analysis of Caucasian patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. In conclusion, concurrent HBF dietary and a low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy increases mammary tumor incidence in offspring, accompanied by alterations in mammary gland development and gene expression, and possibly through epigenetic reprogramming. © 2017 The authors.

  11. Gestational high-fat diet and bisphenol A exposure heightens mammary cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Cheong, Ana; Veevers, Jennifer; Song, Dan; Gear, Robin; Zhu, Xuegong; Ying, Jun; Kendler, Ady; Medvedovic, Mario; Belcher, Scott

    2017-01-01

    In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose–response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group. In utero HBF and BPA exposure elicited differential effects at the gene level in PND21 mammary glands through DNA methylation, compared with HBF intake in the absence of BPA. Top HBF + BPA-dysregulated genes (ALDH1B1, ASTL, CA7, CPLX4, KCNV2, MAGEE2 and TUBA3E) are associated with poor overall survival in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) human breast cancer cohort (n = 1082). Furthermore, the prognostic power of the identified genes was further enhanced in the survival analysis of Caucasian patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. In conclusion, concurrent HBF dietary and a low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy increases mammary tumor incidence in offspring, accompanied by alterations in mammary gland development and gene expression, and possibly through epigenetic reprogramming. PMID:28487351

  12. Vitamin C and α-naphthoflavone prevent estrogen-induced mammary tumors and decrease oxidative stress in female ACI rats

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Sarah M.; Singh, Bhupendra; Remotti, Fabrizio; Liu, Xinhua; Bhat, Hari K.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis remain unclear. The present study investigated the roles of estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress in estrogen-mediated mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. Female August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), the antioxidant vitamin C, the estrogen metabolic inhibitor α-naphthoflavone (ANF), or cotreated with E2 + vitamin C or E2 + ANF for up to 8 months. E2 (3 mg) was administered as an subcutaneous implant, ANF was given via diet (0.2%) and vitamin C (1%) was added to drinking water. At necropsy, breast tumor incidence in the E2, E2 + vitamin C and E2 + ANF groups was 82, 29 and 0%, respectively. Vitamin C and ANF attenuated E2-induced alterations in oxidative stress markers in breast tissue, including 8-iso-prostane F2α formation and changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Quantification of 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) formation in breast tissue confirmed that ANF inhibited 4-hydroxylation of E2 and decreased formation of the highly carcinogenic 4-OHE2. These results demonstrate that antioxidant vitamin C reduces the incidence of estrogen-induced mammary tumors, increases tumor latency and decreases oxidative stress in vivo. Further, our data indicate that ANF completely abrogates breast cancer development in ACI rats. The present study is the first to demonstrate the inhibition of breast carcinogenesis by antioxidant vitamin C or the estrogen metabolic inhibitor ANF in an animal model of estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that E2 metabolism and oxidant stress are critically involved in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis. PMID:19406931

  13. Vitamin C and alpha-naphthoflavone prevent estrogen-induced mammary tumors and decrease oxidative stress in female ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Mense, Sarah M; Singh, Bhupendra; Remotti, Fabrizio; Liu, Xinhua; Bhat, Hari K

    2009-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis remain unclear. The present study investigated the roles of estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress in estrogen-mediated mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. Female August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats were treated with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), the antioxidant vitamin C, the estrogen metabolic inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), or cotreated with E(2) + vitamin C or E(2) + ANF for up to 8 months. E(2) (3 mg) was administered as an subcutaneous implant, ANF was given via diet (0.2%) and vitamin C (1%) was added to drinking water. At necropsy, breast tumor incidence in the E(2), E(2) + vitamin C and E(2) + ANF groups was 82, 29 and 0%, respectively. Vitamin C and ANF attenuated E(2)-induced alterations in oxidative stress markers in breast tissue, including 8-iso-prostane F(2alpha) formation and changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Quantification of 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE(2)) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE(2)) formation in breast tissue confirmed that ANF inhibited 4-hydroxylation of E(2) and decreased formation of the highly carcinogenic 4-OHE(2). These results demonstrate that antioxidant vitamin C reduces the incidence of estrogen-induced mammary tumors, increases tumor latency and decreases oxidative stress in vivo. Further, our data indicate that ANF completely abrogates breast cancer development in ACI rats. The present study is the first to demonstrate the inhibition of breast carcinogenesis by antioxidant vitamin C or the estrogen metabolic inhibitor ANF in an animal model of estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that E(2) metabolism and oxidant stress are critically involved in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis.

  14. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of induced mammary tumor in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira, Juliana; Vollet-Filho, José Dirceu; Moriyama, Lilian T; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Favero; Rocha, Noeme S

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using a hematoporphyrin derivative as a photosensitizer and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light source in induced mammary tumors of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Twenty SD rats with mammary tumors induced by DMBA were used. Animals were divided into four groups: control (G1), PDT only (G2), surgical removal of tumor (G3), and submitted to PDT immediately after surgical removal of tumor (G4). Tumors were measured over 6 weeks. Lesions and surgical were LEDs lighted up (200 J/cm(2) dose). The light distribution in vivo study used two additional animals without mammary tumors. In the control group, the average growth of tumor diameter was approximately 0.40 cm/week. While for PDT group, a growth of less than 0.15 cm/week was observed, suggesting significant delay in tumor growth. Therefore, only partial irradiation of the tumors occurred with a reduction in development, but without elimination. Animals in G4 had no tumor recurrence during the 12 weeks, after chemical induction, when compared with G3 animals that showed 60 % recurrence rate after 12 weeks of chemical induction. PDT used in the experimental model of mammary tumor as a single therapy was effective in reducing tumor development, so the surgery associated with PDT is a safe and efficient destruction of residual tumor, preventing recurrence of the tumor.

  15. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Fluorescence as a Biomarker to Monitor the Anticancer Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium in DMBA Induced Mammary Carcinoma Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vani, S; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous fluorescence has been proposed as a means of aiding the diagnosis of various malignancies. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the spectrofluorimetric analysis of blood components as a marker for the analysis of mammary carcinoma treatment and also to bring about the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium on oxidative stress mediated damage of erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectra of the blood components were studied and also the level of lipid per oxides and antioxidant enzymes status in erythrocytes were determined in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rats treated with Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of blood components are altered under cancer conditions and the drug effectively ameliorated these alterations in mammary carcinoma induced rats. The drug also effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced erythrocyte damage thereby restoring the erythrocytes antioxidant status. These results suggest that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and hence acts as new biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients: case series and review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Chunjian; Liu, Yanbing; Qiu, Pengfei; Cong, Binbin; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is considered as a rare disease that accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers, and its treatment has been based on the evidence available from female breast cancer. Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is now regarded as the standard of care for both female and male patients without clinical and imaging evidence of axillary lymph node metastases, while internal mammary SLNB has rarely been performed. Internal mammary chain metastasis is an independent prognostic predictor. Internal mammary SLNB should be performed to complete nodal staging and guide adjuvant therapy in MBC patients with preoperative lymphoscintigraphic internal mammary chain drainage. We report both axillary and internal mammary SLNB in two cases with MBC. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node did contain metastasis in one case.

  17. New methods in mammary gland development and cancer: proteomics, epigenetics, symmetric division and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) meeting on 'Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer' has become an annual international rendezvous for scientists with interests in the normal and neoplastic breast. The fourth meeting in this series, held in April in Weggis, Switzerland, focused on proteomics, epigenetics, symmetric division, and metastasis. PMID:22809213

  18. The effect of physical training on the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis of Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Siewierska, Katarzyna; Pula, Bartosz; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Haus, Dominik; Paslawska, Urszula; Cegielski, Marek; Dziegiel, Piotr; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Wozniewski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The impact of physical activity on carcinogenesis has been demonstrated in many studies. Taking into account the discrepant results of physical exercise on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer, we aimed to examine the impact of physical training on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-(MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Fifty female rats were divided into four groups according to the intensity of physical activity they undertook. The number of developed tumors, tumor volume, and histopathological diagnoses were noted. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were studied by the number of TUNEL-positive and Ki-67-expressing cells. We demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the tumor number between all trained groups and the control group. The results were most pronounced in the group with a moderate intensity of training. Moreover, we showed a decrease in tumor volume as training intensity increased, though the differences were not statistically significant. The mean number of TUNEL-positive cancer cells was significantly higher in the training groups than in the control group. These data suggest that physical training, especially of moderate intensity, may alleviate MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The results could suggest that physical exercise-induced apoptosis may be a protective mechanism. PMID:25990440

  19. The effect of physical training on the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Malicka, Iwona; Siewierska, Katarzyna; Pula, Bartosz; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Haus, Dominik; Paslawska, Urszula; Cegielski, Marek; Dziegiel, Piotr; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Wozniewski, Marek

    2015-11-01

    The impact of physical activity on carcinogenesis has been demonstrated in many studies. Taking into account the discrepant results of physical exercise on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer, we aimed to examine the impact of physical training on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-(MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Fifty female rats were divided into four groups according to the intensity of physical activity they undertook. The number of developed tumors, tumor volume, and histopathological diagnoses were noted. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were studied by the number of TUNEL-positive and Ki-67-expressing cells. We demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the tumor number between all trained groups and the control group. The results were most pronounced in the group with a moderate intensity of training. Moreover, we showed a decrease in tumor volume as training intensity increased, though the differences were not statistically significant. The mean number of TUNEL-positive cancer cells was significantly higher in the training groups than in the control group. These data suggest that physical training, especially of moderate intensity, may alleviate MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The results could suggest that physical exercise-induced apoptosis may be a protective mechanism. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. A new ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), GW7845, inhibits rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suh, N; Wang, Y; Williams, C R; Risingsong, R; Gilmer, T; Willson, T M; Sporn, M B

    1999-11-15

    We have tested a new ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, GW7845, as an inhibitor of experimental mammary carcinogenesis, using the classic rat model with nitrosomethylurea as carcinogen. Rats were first treated with a single dose of nitrosomethylurea (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). Starting 1 week later, they were fed GW7845, at either 60 or 30 mg/kg of diet, for 2 months. This agent significantly reduced tumor incidence, tumor number, and tumor weight at both doses. This is the first report of the use of a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma to prevent experimental breast cancer.

  1. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Shemamruthaa, a Herbal Preparation, in 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Breast Cancer Rats.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Ayyakkannu; Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachidanandam, Thiruvaiyaru Panchanatham

    2015-10-01

    A herbal preparation, Shemamruthaa (SM), was formulated to investigate the molecular mechanism by which it exhibits anticancer effects in mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study, and mammary carcinoma was induced by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, intragastrically. After 3 months of induction period, the rats were treated with SM (400 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Our study shows that SM-treated mammary carcinoma rats showed regression in tumor volume with concomitant increase in p(53), Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 mRNA and protein levels compared with mammary carcinoma-induced rats. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were markedly increased in mammary carcinoma-induced rats, whereas the SM treatment significantly decreased the expression of these proteins. The expression pattern of apoptotic signaling molecules analyzed in the present study signifies the therapeutic efficacy of SM against breast cancer.

  2. The absence of Mth1 inactivation and DNA polymerase kappa overexpression in rat mammary carcinomas with frequent A:T to C:G transversions.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Eriko; Ichimura, Shizue; Sugimura, Takashi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2002-05-01

    Single nucleotide instability (SNI), an increase in spontaneous point mutation rates (MRs) without involvement of microsatellite instability, is present in rat mammary carcinoma cell lines and human breast cancer cell lines. A:T to C:G transversions, which are generally rare, were frequently observed in two rat mammary carcinoma cell lines and in their primary carcinomas, and were considered to be related to the molecular mechanism of SNI. In this study, two known molecular mechanisms that cause increases of A:T to C:G transversions, inactivation of the MutT mammalian homologue (Mth1) gene and overexpression of the DNA polymerase k (Pol k) gene, were analyzed in two rat mammary carcinoma cell lines and 11 rat primary carcinomas. PCR-SSCP analysis revealed no mutations in the entire Mth1 coding region. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that Mth1 mRNA expression was slightly, but significantly, increased in the primary carcinomas (P = 0.001 using GAPDH for normalization, and P = 0.002 using histone H4, t-test), contrary to our expectation, and was decreased to 1 / 2 in the cell lines. The expression of Pol k, which is known to be error-prone with frequent A:T to C:G transversions, was rather decreased in the cell lines and primary carcinomas. Inactivation of Mth1 and overexpression of Pol k were unlikely to have caused SNI in the two rat mammary carcinoma cell lines with a high frequency of A:T to C:G transversions, and searching for other unknown molecular mechanisms is important.

  3. Effects of 900 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da; Shen, Yonghao; Kuster, Niels; Fu, Yiti; Chiang, Huai

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether exposure to 900 MHz GSM wireless communication signals enhances mammary tumor development and growth induced by low-dose DMBA. Five hundred female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single dose of 35 mg/kg DMBA and then divided into five groups in a blinded fashion: one cage control group and four exposure groups, including three microwave exposure groups and one sham exposure with specific absorption rates (SARs) of 4.0, 1.33, 0.44 and 0 W/kg, respectively. Exposure started on the day after DMBA administration and lasted 4 h/day, 5 days/week for 26 weeks. Rats were weighed and palpated weekly for the presence of tumors and were killed humanely at the end of the 26-week exposure period. All mammary glands were examined histologically. There were no statistically significant differences in body weight between sham- and GSM microwave-exposed groups. No significant differences in overall mammary tumor incidence, latency to tumor onset, tumor multiplicity, or tumor size were observed between microwave- and sham-exposed groups. There was a tendency for reduction of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence in the lowest microwave exposure group (0.44 W/ kg) compared with the sham-exposed group (P = 0.058). Additionally, a higher incidence of adenocarcinoma was noticed in the 4.0 W/kg group from the 15th to 26th weeks, especially in the 19th week (P = 0.358 compared to sham). However, neither tendency was statistically significant; thus this study does not provide evidence that GSM microwave exposure promotes mammary tumor development in rats. In the present study there were significant differences between the cage controls and the experimental groups (sham and exposure). Body weight and mammary tumor (malignant plus benign) incidence in the cage control group were significantly higher than in the sham- and GSM microwave-exposed groups. The latency to the mammary tumor onset was significantly shorter in the cage control

  4. MTA family of transcriptional metaregulators in mammary gland morphogenesis and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh R; Kumar, Rakesh

    2007-09-01

    Since breast cancer and its associated metastasis are a global health problem and a major cause of mortality among women, research efforts to understand the development, morphogenesis, and functioning of the mammary gland are a high priority. Myriad signaling pathways, transcription factors, and associated transcriptional coregulators have been identified in both normal functioning and neoplastic transformation of the mammary gland. The discovery of the metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) gene, its overexpression in cancer and metastasis and its subsequent identification as an integral part of the chromatin remodeling complex heralded extensive research on its physiological role. Subsequent identification of additional gene family members, namely MTA1s, MTA2, and MTA3, and their functions in the cell has resulted in the establishment of the significance of the MTA family. The role of these proteins in modulating hormonal responses in normal mammary glands and in breast cancer has resulted in their identification as important molecular markers and potential therapeutic targets.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of annexin a5 in the mammary gland of rats: up-regulation of expression by pup removal.

    PubMed

    Rieanrakwong, Duangjai; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kurusu, Shiro; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of annexin A5, a cytosolic protein related to gonadotropin releasing hormone action, was examined in the mammary gland of rats by immunohistochemistry with special reference to changes by lactation. Annexin A5 was observed in the interstitial tissues but not alveolar cells in virgin rats, while mammary epithelial cells became positive for annexin A5 in pregnant rats. The intensity of annexin A5 was decreased in lactating rats and dramatically increased after weaning, especially on the nucleus. When pups were removed from their dam at mid-lactation (day 10), annexin A5 was also increased on day 12. Apoptotic epithelial cells detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling were simultaneously increased. Annexin A5 mRNA expression of mammary tissues was increased after pup removal. These results are the first to demonstrate the distribution of annexin A5 in the mammary glands of lactating rats, and the enhanced expression in mammary epithelial cells after lactation suggests its involvement in mammary epithelial cell involution.

  6. The effect of hyposmotic and isosmotic cell swelling on the intracellular [Ca2+] in lactating rat mammary acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B; Grant, A C G; Gow, I F

    2002-04-01

    The effect of hyposmotic and isosmotic cell swelling on the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in rat mammary acinar cells has been examined using the fura-2 dye technique. Ahyposmotic shock (40% reduction) increased the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells in a fashion which was transient; the [Ca2+]i returned to a value similar to that found under isomotic conditions within 180 sec. The increase in the [Ca2+]i was dependent upon the extent of the osmotic shock. The hyposmotically-activated increase in the [Ca2+]i could not be attributed to a reduction in extracellular Na+ or a change in the ionic strength of the incubation medium. Thapsigargin (1 microM) enhanced the hyposmotically-activated increase in the [Ca2+]i. Isosmotic swelling of rat mammary acinar cells, using urea, had no significant effect on the [Ca2+]i. Similarly, a hyperosmotic shock did not affect the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells. It appears that the effect of cell swelling on the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells depends on how the cells are swollen (hyposmotic vs. isosmotic). This finding may have important physiological implications given that it is predicted that mammary cell volume will change in vivo under isomotic conditions.

  7. Mammary Gland Evaluation in Juvenile Toxicity Studies: Temporal Developmental Patterns in the Male and Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Filgo, Adam J; Foley, Julie F; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Borde, Aditi R; Midkiff, Bentley R; Reed, Casey E; Chappell, Vesna A; Alexander, Lydia B; Borde, Pretish R; Troester, Melissa A; Bouknight, Schantel A Hayes; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no reports describing mammary gland development in the Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rat, the current strain of choice for National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing. Our goals were to empower the NTP, contract labs, and other researchers in understanding and interpreting chemical effects in this rat strain. To delineate similarities/differences between the female and male mammary gland, data were compiled starting on embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal day 70. Mammary gland whole mounts, histology sections, and immunohistochemically stained tissues for estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors were evaluated in both sexes; qualitative and quantitative differences are highlighted using a comprehensive visual timeline. Research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in animal models has highlighted chemically induced mammary gland anomalies that may potentially impact human health. In order to investigate these effects within the HSD strain, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, diethylstilbestrol, or vehicle control was gavage dosed on gestation day 15 and 18 to demonstrate delayed, accelerated, and control mammary gland growth in offspring, respectively. We provide illustrations of normal and chemically altered mammary gland development in HSD male and female rats to help inform researchers unfamiliar with the tissue and may facilitate enhanced evaluation of both male and female mammary glands in juvenile toxicity studies.

  8. Mammary Gland Evaluation in Juvenile Toxicity Studies: Temporal Developmental Patterns in the Male and Female Harlan Sprague Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Filgo, Adam J.; Foley, Julie F.; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Borde, Aditi R.; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Reed, Casey E.; Chappell, Vesna A.; Alexander, Lydia B.; Borde, Pretish R.; Troester, Melissa A.; Hayes Bouknight, Schantel A.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no reports describing mammary gland development in the Harlan Sprague Dawley (HSD) rat, the current strain of choice for National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing. Our goals were to empower the NTP, contract labs and other researchers in understanding and interpretation of chemical effects in this rat strain. To delineate similarities/differences between the female and male mammary gland, data were compiled starting on embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal day 70. Mammary gland whole mounts, histology sections, and immunohistochemically-stained tissues for estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors were evaluated in both sexes; qualitative and quantitative differences are highlighted using a comprehensive visual timeline. Research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in animal models has highlighted chemically-induced mammary gland anomalies which may potentially impact human health. In order to investigate these effects within the HSD strain, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo p-dioxin, diethylstilbestrol or vehicle control was gavage dosed on gestation day 15 and 18 to demonstrate delayed, accelerated and control mammary gland growth in offspring, respectively. We provide illustrations of normal and chemically altered mammary gland development in HSD male and female rats to help inform researchers unfamiliar with the tissue and may facilitate enhanced evaluation of both male and female mammary glands in juvenile toxicity studies. PMID:27613106

  9. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-04-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H)phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis.

  10. [FACTORS OF PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY CANCER OF MAMMARY GLAND].

    PubMed

    Shchurov, M F; Voloshyna, N M; Pogorila, T Yu

    2015-12-01

    A survival indices in patients with early mammary gland cancer of a ductal infiltrating histology stage T1-2N0M0, who were treated in accordance to actual standards, differ significantly, what witnesses the necessity for searching of additional prognostic criteria. The investigation objective was to study the impact of independent and interrelated clinical, morphological and biochemical factors of prognosis on the survival indices in patients with mammary gland cancer stage T1-2N0M0 in conditions of local and systemic treatment.

  11. Therapeutic attitude towards internal mammary chain drainage in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferreres García, Karla; Siegrist Ridruejo, Jaime; Rincón Olbés, Patricia; Luque Molina, María Sol; Almoguera Arias, María Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Internal mammary chain (IMC) is one of the main local lymph drainages in breast cancer. However, internal mammary chain sentinel lymph node biopsy (IMC-SLNB) is not always performed. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the outcomes of IMC-SLNB in our institution from 2008 to 2014. We analyzed 1346 women with breast cancer. Six-hundred twenty-two sentinel node biopsies were carried out, one out of ten in IMC territory. Adjuvant radiotherapy in this area was added when positive. IMC-SLNB is feasible, it may change tumour stage, modify adjuvant therapy and change prognosis in selected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adiponectin differentially affects gene expression in human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Treeck, O; Lattrich, C; Juhasz-Boess, I; Buchholz, S; Pfeiler, G; Ortmann, O

    2008-10-21

    Serum levels of adiponectin are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. In this study, its effect on growth and gene expression of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells was compared. The antiproliferative effect of adiponectin on MCF-10A cells was more pronounced and was accompanied by elevated transcript levels of caspase 1, ERbeta2, ERbeta5, TR2 and USP2. Our data suggest that upregulation of genes with known growth inhibitory or apoptotic functions in mammary epithelial cells might contribute to the protective action of this adipocytokine.

  13. Anti-hyperplasia effects of Rosa rugosa polyphenols in rats with hyperplasia of mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jingjing; Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping; Yang, Chuhao

    2015-03-01

    Rosa rugosa (Thunb.) is used in Chinese traditional medicine with the functions of promoting blood circulation, relieving the depressed liver and attenuating breast disorders. This study was to investigate the anti-hyperplasia effects of the polyphenols-rich fraction from R. rugosa (FRR) in rat. Rat model of hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG) was induced by intramuscularly injected with estrogen (0.5mg/kg/d) for 25 days, and followed with progestogen (5mg/kg/d) for another 5 days. Meanwhile, FRR was orally given for 30 days. Then, the levels of estradiol and oxidative stress were assessed. The mammary expressions of AKT and JNK were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The expressions of NFκB-p65, COX-2 and VEGF were measured by immunohistochemical analysis. The whole results indicated that FRR could exert anti-hyperplasia effects in rat via modulating the mammary expression of JNK and AKT, as well as alleviating the NFκB related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Decreases Mammary Gland Lipoprotein Lipase Activity and Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Dolado, Laura; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia; Herrera, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with a reduction of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in adipose tissue and development of hypertriglyceridemia. To determine how a condition of severe insulin deficiency affects mammary gland LPL activity and mRNA expression during late pregnancy, streptozotocin (STZ) treated (40 mg/kg) and non-treated (control) virgin and 20 day pregnant rats were studied. In control rats, both LPL activity and mRNA were higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. When compared to control rats, STZ-treated rats, either pregnant or virgin, showed decreased LPL activity and mRNA content. Furthermore, mammary gland LPL activity was linearly correlated with mRNA content, and either variable was linearly correlated with plasma insulin levels. Thus, insulin deficiency impairs the expression of LPL in mammary glands, revealing the role of insulin as a modulator of the enzyme at the mRNA expression level. PMID:11900280

  15. The mammary stem cell hierarchy: a looking glass into heterogeneous breast cancer landscapes.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, Amulya; Roarty, Kevin; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes extensive morphogenesis during the different stages of embryonic development, puberty, estrus, pregnancy, lactation and involution. Systemic and local cues underlie this constant tissue remodeling and act by eliciting an intricate pattern of responses in the mammary epithelial and stromal cells. Decades of studies utilizing methods such as transplantation and lineage-tracing have identified a complex hierarchy of mammary stem cells, progenitors and differentiated epithelial cells that fuel mammary epithelial development. Importantly, these studies have extended our understanding of the molecular crosstalk between cell types and the signaling pathways maintaining normal homeostasis that often are deregulated during tumorigenesis. While several questions remain, this research has many implications for breast cancer. Fundamental among these are the identification of the cells of origin for the multiple subtypes of breast cancer and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. A deeper understanding of these critical questions will unveil novel breast cancer drug targets and treatment paradigms. In this review, we provide a current overview of normal mammary development and tumorigenesis from a stem cell perspective. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness.

  17. On the possible role of mammary-derived growth hormone in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Jos H H

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has risen worldwide, especially in countries where it used to be low, very probably as a result of economic prosperity and changes in life-style. In women, the available data have resulted in the concept of progression from normal breast development to cancer through precursor lesions sensitive to hormones and growth factors that can be produced locally in the mammary gland, acting as paracrine or autocrine stimulating agents. The local endocrine environment in the breast can be different from the situation in the circulation. In the dog, growth hormone (GH) can be produced locally in the mammary glands and its production can be stimulated by progestins. This GH probably plays a paracrine role in the progesterone-induced proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelium. There is increasing evidence that the local mammary progestin/GH-axis is operational not only in dogs but also in human breast cancer. No data are yet available on the production of mammary-derived GH in women.

  18. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  19. Prolactin and aging: X-irradiated and estrogen-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, A.; Naito, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yokoro, K.

    1984-07-01

    Both sexes of inbred WF rats at either 8 or 28-60 weeks of age were exposed to 200 rad whole-body radiation, 2.5 or 5.0 mg 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or both agents The female rats treated with E2 alone or with both X-rays and E2 at 8 weeks of age showed a high incidence of mammary carcinomas (MCA), a large increase in pituitary weight, and a rise in serum prolactin (PRL) levels. However, the same treatments to males did not induce MCA despite a moderate increase in both pituitary weight and serum PRL. Ovariectomy prior to E2 treatment failed to modify the occurrence of MCA or pituitary tumors. When X-rays and E2 were given to female rats at 28-60 weeks of age, pituitary weight, serum PRL levels, and the incidence of MCA were unaffected. When the E2 pellet was kept for the first 24 weeks and withdrawn during the last 12 weeks, the incidence of MCA, pituitary weight, and serum PRL was low. It was concluded that: 1) the pituitary glands of young female rats were susceptible to E2 treatment but were insensitive in older females, and 2) the occurrence of MCA in female rats appeared to be promoted by elevated PRL levels secreted by E2-induced pituitary tumors. Mammary tissue of male rats was less sensitive to PRL levels in the development of MCA.

  20. Characterization of mammary cancer stem cells in the MMTV-PyMT mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Lanza, Denise Grant; Guest, Ian; Uk-Lim, Chang; Glinskii, Anna; Glinsky, Gennadi; Sell, Stewart

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer stem cells, the root of tumor growth, present challenges to investigate: Primary human breast cancer cells are difficult to establish in culture and inconsistently yield tumors after transplantation into immune-deficient recipient mice. Furthermore, there is limited characterization of mammary cancer stem cells in mice, the ideal model for the study of breast cancer. We herein describe a pre-clinical breast cancer stem cell model, based on the properties of cancer stem cells, derived from transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice. Using a defined set of cell surface markers to identify cancer stem cells by flow cytometry, at least four cell populations were recovered from primary mammary cancers. Only two of the four populations, one epithelial and one mesenchymal, were able to survive and proliferate in vitro. The epithelial population exhibited tumor initiation potential with as few as 10 cells injected into syngeneic immune-competent recipients. Tumors initiated from injected cell lines recapitulated the morphological and physiological components of the primary tumor. To highlight the stemness potential of the putative cancer stem cells, B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) expression was knocked down via shRNA targeting Bmi-1. Without Bmi-1 expression, putative cancer stem cells could no longer initiate tumors, but tumor initiation was rescued with the introduction of a Bmi-1 overexpression vector in the Bmi-1 knockdown cells. In conclusion, our data show that primary mammary cancers from MMTV-PyMT mice contain putative cancer stem cells that survive in culture and can be used to create a model for study of mammary cancer stem cells.

  1. Breast Cancer and Early Onset Childhood Obesity: Cell Specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia and Adipocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    hormone leptin (ob/ob mice) or its receptor (db/db mice, Zucker rat). These leptin signaling impaired animals are resistant to oncogene and...chemically induced mammary tumors (3,4). However, human obesity is not generally caused by mutations in leptin or its receptor (5). As expression of leptin ...morbidity factors associated with human obesity in the three groups of rats, including Leptin , Free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG) and insulin

  2. Comparative effect of inorganic and organic selenocyanate derivatives in mammary cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Ip, C; el-Bayoumy, K; Upadhyaya, P; Ganther, H; Vadhanavikit, S; Thompson, H

    1994-02-01

    Recently El-Bayoumy and coworkers have reported that 1,4-phenylene-bis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) was very effective in inhibiting 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis and adduct formation during the initiation phase (Cancer Res., 52, 2402-2407, 1992). Furthermore, this compound was found to be well tolerated by rats at high doses. The present study was designed to extend these earlier observations by investigating the response to lower levels of p-XSC given either before or after DMBA administration. At a level of 15 p.p.m. Se, p-XSC suppressed total mammary tumor yield by 80% and 52% in the initiation phase and post-initiation phase, respectively. A dose-response effect was evident in the range 5-15 p.p.m. Se. When p-XSC was given at a level of 5 p.p.m. Se during the entire course of the experimental period, total tumor yield was reduced by half. This dose is about 4 x less than the maximum tolerable dose (MTD). Other selenocyanate analogs were also examined in an attempt to obtain information on their respective chemopreventive index, which is calculated as the ratio of MTD to the effective dose which produces approximately a 50% inhibition in total tumor yield (ED50). The reagents studied included potassium selenocyanate, methyl selenocyanate and benzyl selenocyanate, as well as sodium selenite (reference compound). Compared to p-XSC, which has a chemopreventive index of 4.0, the other four compounds have a lower index ranging from 1.3 for sodium selenite and potassium selenocyanate to 2.0 for methyl selenocyanate and 2.5 for benzyl selenocyanate. A high chemopreventive index signifies that a compound is well tolerated at doses required for cancer suppression. The last component of the present study involved the repletion assay of liver glutathione peroxidase in selenium-deficient rats as a biomarker to estimate the metabolizability of the above selenium compounds. The bioavailability data suggest that the selenium from p

  3. Tracking the Mammary Architectural Features and Detecting Breast Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nissan, Noam; Furman-Haran, Edna; Feinberg-Shapiro, Myra; Grobgeld, Dov; Eyal, Erez; Zehavi, Tania; Degani, Hadassa

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices. The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection. PMID:25549209

  4. Tracking the mammary architectural features and detecting breast cancer with magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Noam; Furman-Haran, Edna; Feinberg-Shapiro, Myra; Grobgeld, Dov; Eyal, Erez; Zehavi, Tania; Degani, Hadassa

    2014-12-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices. The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection.

  5. Effect of protein quality on /sup 14/C glucose utilization in isolated rat mammary acini

    SciTech Connect

    Masor, M.L.; Grundleger, M.L.; Jansen, G.R.

    1986-03-01

    Poor protein quality has a deleterious effect on lactation in rats. Dams consuming a 13% wheat gluten (WG) diet are unable to maintain litters. Glucose utilization in isolated mammary acini taken from dams at either day 20 of gestation (G20) or day 4 of lactation (L4) was examined in dams consuming 13% WG vs 13% casein-methionine (CM) diets from day of breeding. Dams consuming WG had significantly smaller inguinal-abdominal mammary glands than CM dams at both G20 and L4, and mammary glands of CM but not WG dams were larger at L4 than G20. Both average pup weight and pup daily gain were smaller in WG litters. Basal levels of /sup 14/C glucose oxidation (GO) and /sup 14/C glucose incorporation into lipid (GL) and lactose were examined. A large significant increase in GO and GL occurred in CM dams from G20 to L4 but not in WG dams. Both GO and GL were higher in CM dams on L4 but not at G20. The ratio of GO:GO+GL changed at parturition in CM but not WG dams. The normal changes in glucose utilization by mammary epithelial cells which occur at parturition were impaired by the WG diet.

  6. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    PubMed

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Wadia, Perinaaz R; Murray, Tessa J; Settles, Matthew L; Treitman, Jo D; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens) may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND) 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments), with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50). BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene expression patterns

  7. Integrated extracellular matrix signaling in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieqing; Xiong, Gaofeng; Trinkle, Christine; Xu, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM), a major component of the cellular microenvironment, plays critical roles in normal tissue morphogenesis and disease progression. Binding of ECM to membrane receptor proteins, such as integrin, discoidin domain receptors, and dystroglycan, elicits biochemical and biomechanical signals that control cellular architecture and gene expression. These ECM signals cooperate with growth factors and hormones to regulate cell migration, differentiation, and transformation. ECM signaling is tightly regulated during normal mammary gland development. Deposition and alignment of fibrillar collagens direct migration and invasion of mammary epithelial cells during branching morphogenesis. Basement membrane proteins are required for polarized acinar morphogenesis and milk protein expression. Deregulation of ECM proteins in the long run is sufficient to promote breast cancer development and progression. Recent studies demonstrate that the integrated biophysical and biochemical signals from ECM and soluble factors are crucial for normal mammary gland development as well as breast cancer progression.

  8. Sensitization by dietary docosahexaenoic acid of rat mammary carcinoma to anthracycline: a role for tumor vascularization.

    PubMed

    Colas, Séverine; Mahéo, Karine; Denis, Fabrice; Goupille, Caroline; Hoinard, Claude; Champeroux, Pascal; Tranquart, François; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    To investigate whether dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a peroxidizable polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, sensitizes rat mammary tumors to anthracyclines and whether its action interferes with tumor vascularization, a critical determinant of tumor growth. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated by N-methylnitrosourea to develop mammary tumors and then assigned to a control group (n = 18), receiving a supplementation of palm oil, or to a DHA group (n = 54), supplemented with a microalgae-produced oil (DHASCO, 1.5 g/d). The DHA group was equally subdivided into three subgroups with addition of different amounts of alpha-tocopherol. Epirubicin was injected weekly during 6 weeks after the largest tumor reached 1.5 cm(2), and subsequent changes in the tumor surface were evaluated. Tumor vascularization was assessed by power Doppler sonography before and during chemotherapy. DHA and alpha-tocopherol were readily absorbed and incorporated into rat tissues. Epirubicin induced a 45% mammary tumor regression in the DHA-supplemented group, whereas no tumor regression was observed in the control group. In the DHA group, before chemotherapy was initiated, tumor vascular density was 43% lower than in the control group and remained lower during chemotherapy. Enhancement of epirubicin efficacy by DHA was abolished in a dose-dependent manner by alpha-tocopherol, and the same trend was observed for DHA-induced reduction in tumor vascular density. Dietary DHA supplementation led to a reduction in tumor vascularization before the enhancement of any response to anthracyclines, suggesting that DHA chemosensitizes mammary tumors through an inhibition of the host vascular response to the tumor.

  9. Selective photothermal laser-tissue interaction with augmentation of immunoadjuvants in treatment of DMBA-4 metastatic mammary tumors in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong; Wolf, Roman F.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2002-09-01

    Induced anti-tumor immunity can be the most effective and long-term cure for cancers, particularly for metastatic tumors. Laser immunotherapy has been developed to induce such immunological responses in rats bearing DMBA-4 metastatic mammary tumors. It involves an intratumoral administration of a laser-absorbing dye (indocyanine green) and a specially formulated immunoadjuvant (glycated chitosan), followed by an irradiation of a near-infrared laser (805-nm diode laser). To understand the immunity induced in this tumor model, immunization using freeze-thaw cell lysates against the DMBA-4 tumors was performed, followed by the tumor challenge twenty-one days later. Also performed is the surgical removal of the primary tumors of the rats before the observation of metastatic tumors. The immunization only delayed the emergence of the primary and metastases in the rats but did not provide immunity against the tumor challenge. After surgical removal of the primary tumors, the tumors re-emerged at the primary sites and the metastases developed at multiple remote sites. In contrast, laser immunotherapy cured rats experienced tumor regression and eradication. Our research has provided strong support for the working mechanism of laser immunotherapy. The experimental results showed that selective photothermal laser-tissue interaction with a complementary use of immunoadjuvant could be a potential therapy for treatment of metastatic tumors by inducing a tumor-specific, long-lasting immunity.

  10. The Gain-of-Function of p53 Cancer Mutant in Promoting Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuefeng; Liu, Dongping; Xu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is critical to suppress all types of human cancers, including breast cancers. The p53 gene is somatically mutated in over half of all human cancers. The majority of the p53 mutations are missense mutations, leading to the expression of the full-length p53 mutants. Several hotspot mutations, including R175H, are frequently detected in human breast cancers. P53 cancer mutants not only lose tumor suppression activity, but more problematically, gain new oncogenic activities. Despite correlation of the expression of p53 cancer mutants and the poor prognosis of human breast cancer patients, the roles of p53 cancer mutants in promoting breast cancer remain unclear. We employed the humanized p53 cancer mutant knock-in (R175H) mice and MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic (mWnt-1) mice to specifically address the gain of function of R175H in promoting breast cancer. While both R175H/R175HmWnt-1(R175HmWnt-1) and p53−/−mWnt-1 mice died from mammary cancers at the same kinetics, which was much earlier than mWnt-1 mice, most of the R175HmWnt-1 mice developed multiple mammary tumors per mouse, whereas p53−/−mWnt-1 and mWnt-1 mice mostly developed one tumor per mouse. The multiple mammary tumors arose in the same R175HmWnt-1 mouse exhibited different histological characters. Moreover, R175H gain-of-function mutant expands the mammary epithelial stem cells (MESCs) that give rise to the mammary tumors. Since ATM suppresses the expansion of MESCs, the inactivation of ATM by R175H in mammary epithelial cells could contribute to the expansion of MESCs in R175HmWnt-1 mice. These findings provide the basis for R175H to promote the initiation of breast cancer by expanding MESCs. PMID:22824795

  11. CHEMOPREVENTIVE EFFICACY OF NAPROXEN AND NO-NAPROXEN IN RODENT MODELS OF COLON, URINARY BLADDER, AND MAMMARY CANCERS

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vernon E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.; Zhang, Yuting; Patlolla, Jagan; Boring, Daniel; Kopelovich, Levy; Juliana, M. Margaret; Grubbs, Clinton J.; Lubet, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically; and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation. However, certain NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration and may increase cardiovascular (CV) events. Naproxen appears to cause the lowest CV events of the common NSAIDs other than aspirin. NO-naproxen was tested based on the finding that adding a nitric oxide (NO) group to NSAIDs may help alleviate GI toxicity. In the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45–60%, respectively. NO-naproxen was likewise administered in the diet at roughly equimolar doses (300 and 600 ppm), and reduced total ACF by 20–40%, respectively. In the hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine (OH-BBN) rat urinary bladder cancer model, NO-naproxen was given at 183 ppm or 550 ppm in the diet, and naproxen at 128 ppm. The NO-naproxen groups had 77% and 73% decreases, respectively, in the development of large urinary bladder tumors, while the 128 ppm naproxen group also showed a strong decrease (69%). If treatments were started three months after OH-BBN, NO-naproxen (550 ppm) and naproxen (400 ppm) were also highly effective (86–94% decreases). In the methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer model in rats, NO-naproxen and naproxen showed non-significant inhibitions (12 and 24%) at 550 and 400 ppm, respectively. These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis. PMID:19892664

  12. Naïve rat umbilical cord matrix stem cells significantly attenuate mammary tumor growth through modulation of endogenous immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Atsushi; Ohta, Naomi; Seiler, Garret; Pyle, Marla M.; Ishiguro, Susumu; Zhang, Yong Qing; Becker, Kevin G.; Troyer, Deryl; Tamura, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Background aims Un-engineered human and rat umbilical cord matrix stem cells (UCMSCs) attenuate growth of several types of tumors in mice and rats. However, the mechanism by which UCMSCs attenuate tumor growth has not been studied rigorously. Methods The possible mechanisms of tumor growth attenuation by rat UCMSCs were studied using orthotopic Mat B III rat mammary tumor grafts in female F344 rats. Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes were identified and quantified by immunohistochemistry analysis. Potential cytokines involved in lymphocyte infiltration in the tumors were determined by microarray and Western blot analysis. The Boyden chamber migration assay was performed for the functional analysis of identified cytokines. Results Rat UCMSCs markedly attenuated tumor growth; this attenuation was accompanied by considerable lymphocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that most infiltrating lymphocytes in the rat UCMSC-treated tumors were CD3+ T cells. In addition, treatment with rat UCMSCs significantly increased infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells throughout tumor tissue. CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were scarcely observed, only in the tumors of the phosphate-buffered saline control group. Microarray analysis of rat UCMSCs demonstrated that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is involved in rat UCMSC-induced lymphocyte infiltration in the tumor tissues. Conclusions These results suggest that naïve rat UCMSCs attenuated mammary tumor growth at least in part by enhancing host anti-tumor immune responses. Naïve UCMSCs can be used as powerful therapeutic cells for breast cancer treatment, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 may be a key molecule to enhance the effect of UCMSCs at the tumor site. PMID:23474329

  13. At last: classification of human mammary cells elucidates breast cancer origins.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2014-02-01

    Current breast cancer classification systems are based on molecular evaluation of tumor receptor status and do not account for distinct morphological phenotypes. In other types of cancer, taxonomy based on normal cell phenotypes has been extremely useful for diagnosis and treatment strategies. In this issue of the JCI, Santagata and colleagues developed a breast cancer classification scheme based on characterization of healthy mammary cells. Reclassification of breast cancer cells and breast cancer tissue microarrays with this system correlated with prognosis better than the standard receptor status designation. This scheme provides a major advance toward our understanding of the origin of the cells in the breast and breast cancers.

  14. Immunofluorescent studies of the local immune response in the mammary glands of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C G; Ladds, P W; Watson, D L; Goddard, M E

    1979-01-01

    Two irritants, phosphate-buffered saline and alcohol, and antigens including killed Brucella abortus, live B. abortus, Staphylococcus aureus, and rat parvovirus were separately infused into rat mammary glands during pregnancy, and by using immunofluorescent techniques, the numbers of immunoglobulin-containing cells in glands during lactation and involution were determined. The study provided basic information on the local immune response of the mammary gland to antigens of various types. In all experiments, the number of immunoglobulin M (IgM) cells present was small and no trends were apparent. IgA cells were always more prevalent than IgG cells. Fewer IgA cells were in the glands of rats infused with phosphate-buffered saline and alcohol than in normal rats. IgA cell prevalence was greatest in response to infusion of live B. abortus. Responses to live S. aureus and parvovirus were less pronounced, and infusion of killed B. abortus did not induce an elevation in IgA cell prevalence. IgG cell prevalence was greatest in response to infusion of live B. abortus or S. aureus and was decreasingly less pronounced in response to killed B. abortus and rat parvovirus. With the exception of parvovirus infusion, in regard to IgA cells, all glands locally infused with antigen had elevated IgA and IgG cell numbers when compared with noninfused glands in the same animal. Images PMID:106012

  15. Iodine and doxorubicin, a good combination for mammary cancer treatment: antineoplastic adjuvancy, chemoresistance inhibition, and cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although mammary cancer (MC) is the most common malignant neoplasia in women, the mortality for this cancer has decreased principally because of early detection and the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Of several preparations that cause MC regression, doxorubicin (DOX) is the most active, first-line monotherapeutic. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to the rapid development of chemoresistance and to the cardiotoxicity caused by free radicals. In previous studies we have shown that supplementation with molecular iodine (I2) has a powerful antineoplastic effect in methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced experimental models of MC. These studies also showed a consistent antioxidant effect of I2 in normal and tumoral tissues. Methods Here, we analyzed the effect of I2 in combination with DOX treatment in female Sprague Dawley rats with MNU-induced MC. In the first experiment (short) animals were treated with the therapeutic DOX dose (16 mg/kg) or with lower doses (8 and 4 mg/Kg), in each case with and without 0.05% I2 in drinking water. Iodine treatment began on day 0, a single dose of DOX was injected (ip) on day 2, and the analysis was carried out on day 7. In the second experiment (long) animals with and without iodine supplement were treated with one or two injections of 4 mg/kg DOX (on days 0 and 14) and were analyzed on day 56. Results At all DOX doses, the short I2 treatment induced adjuvant antineoplastic effects (decreased tumor size and proliferating cell nuclear antigen level) with significant protection against body weight loss and cardiotoxicity (creatine kinase MB, cardiac lipoperoxidation, and heart damage). With long-term I2, mammary tumor tissue became more sensitive to DOX, since a single injection of the lowest dose of DOX (4 mg/Kg) was enough to stop tumor progression and a second DOX4 injection on day 14 caused a significant and rapid decrease in tumor size, decreased the expression of chemoresistance markers (Bcl2 and survivin), and increased

  16. Genistein Programming Against Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, *GENES, *DIET, *ESTROGENS, *SOY PROTEIN, *BREAST CANCER, RATS , CHEMICALS, MOLECULES, ENZYMES, PROTEINS, SENSITIVITY, WOMEN, SENSE ORGANS, ASIA, MAMMARY GLANDS, METHYLATION, ANDROGENS, TRANSFERASES.

  17. Circadian disruption-induced microRNAome deregulation in rat mammary gland tissues.

    PubMed

    Kochan, David Z; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Golubov, Andrey; Deibel, Scott H; McDonald, Robert J; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide, and evidence is mounting that circadian-disruption-induced breast cancer is a warranted concern. Although studies on the role of epigenetics have provided valuable insights, and although epigenetics has been increasingly recognized in the etiology of breast cancer, relatively few studies have investigated the epigenetic link between circadian disruption (CD) and breast cancer. Using a proven photoperiod-shifting paradigm, differing degrees of CD, various tissue-extraction time points, and Illumina sequencing, we investigated the effect of CD on miRNA expression in the mammary tissues of a rodent model system. To our knowledge, our results are the first to illustrate CD-induced changes in miRNA expressions in mammary tissues. Furthermore, it is likely that these miRNA expression changes exhibit varying time frames of plasticity linked to both the degree of CD and length of reentrainment, and that the expression changes are influenced by the light and dark phases of the 24-hour circadian cycle. Of the differentially expressed miRNAs identified in the present study, all but one have been linked to breast cancer, and many have predicted circadian-relevant targets that play a role in breast cancer development. Based on the analysis of protein levels in the same tissues, we also propose that the initiation and development of CD-induced breast cancer may be linked to an interconnected web of increased NF-κB activity and increased levels of Tudor-SN, STAT3, and BCL6, with aberrant CD-induced downregulation of miR-127 and miR-146b potentially contributing to this dynamic. This study provides direct evidence that CD induces changes in miRNA levels in mammary tissues with potentially malignant consequences, thus indicating that the role of miRNAs in CD-induced breast cancer should not be dismissed.

  18. Spontaneous infarcted adenoma of the mammary gland in a Wistar Hannover GALAS rat

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kohei; Toyoda, Takeshi; Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Sone, Mizuki; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous massive infarction of mammary gland tumors has been reported to occur infrequently in humans. A subcutaneous mass (18 × 17 × 10 mm) was observed in the right axilla extending to the chest region of a 110-week-old female Wistar Hannover GALAS rat. Histopathologically, a well-circumscribed mass with lobular structures was present in the subcutis. Most of the mass was occupied by extensive coagulative necrosis of neoplastic cells with relatively uniform acinar and ductal structures. Although each necrotic acinar structure was separated by reticular fibers, periacinar stromal collagen fibers were not abundant. Considering the site of occurrence and histological features, the necrotic tissue was diagnosed as adenoma of the mammary gland. The necrotic region lacked hemorrhage and obvious inflammatory cell infiltration, indicating the necrosis was caused by infarction. Although multiple necrosis and focal infarction are occasionally observed in large-sized tumors in rodents, especially in adenocarcinomas, the present case was characteristic, with the massive infarction involving most parts of the tumor despite the relatively small size and low atypia of neoplastic cells. This is a rare case of spontaneous infarcted adenoma of the mammary gland in rats histologically resembling human cases. PMID:28190925

  19. Undergraduate Training in Mammary Gland Biology and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Proiect (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY 2. REPORT DATE 3 . REPORT TYPE AND... 3 Introduction .................................................................................... 5 Body...receptors that mediate cell-cell interactions ( 3 ). Studies have shown that when unirradiated non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial COMMA-D cells were

  20. Black cohosh increases metastatic mammary cancer in transgenic mice expressing c-erbB2.

    PubMed

    Davis, Vicki L; Jayo, Manuel J; Ho, Arline; Kotlarczyk, Mary P; Hardy, Mary L; Foster, Warren G; Hughes, Claude L

    2008-10-15

    Black cohosh is an herbal extract that is often used as an alternative to estrogen-based replacement therapies to treat hot flushes that frequently accompany the transition to menopause. Although cancer-free women as well as breast cancer patients and survivors use black cohosh to relieve vasomotor symptoms, there is limited information on its potential to influence breast cancer development or progression. Therefore, in this study, the effects of black cohosh on mammary tumorigenesis were investigated in the MMTV-neu mouse model due to its similarities to HER2(+) breast cancer, including stochastic development of mammary tumors, which frequently progress to metastatic disease. Using an adjusted dose for the mice to correlate to the recommended dose in women (40 mg/d), no differences were detected in the incidence or onset of mammary tumors in black cohosh-treated versus control females. The lack of effect on mammary tumor development suggests that black cohosh would not influence breast cancer risk if given to women before tumor formation. In contrast, black cohosh significantly increased the incidence of lung metastases in tumor-bearing animals compared with mice fed the isoflavone-free control diet. Additional studies will be needed to correlate these findings to women taking different black cohosh products at various times during breast cancer development; however, these results suggest caution for women using black cohosh, especially for extended periods of time. As metastatic progression is linked to patient survival, these data stress the importance of investigating how women's therapies influence all stages of mammary tumorigenesis, particularly for assessing their safety.

  1. Mammary gland development and response to prenatal atrazine exposure in the Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary gland (MG) tumor development in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats is increased by longterm dietary exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR). ATR is proposed to cause these changes in the adult SD rat by altering hormonally-regulated estrous cyclicity. In Long-Evans...

  2. Mammary gland development and response to prenatal atrazine exposure in the Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary gland (MG) tumor development in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats is increased by longterm dietary exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR). ATR is proposed to cause these changes in the adult SD rat by altering hormonally-regulated estrous cyclicity. In Long-Evans...

  3. Raman spectra of normal and cancerous mouse mammary gland tissue using near infrared excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Vaman; Serhatkulu, G. K.; Dai, H.; Shukla, N.; Weber, R.; Thakur, J. S.; Freeman, D. C.; Pandya, A. K.; Auner, G. W.; Naik, R.; Miller, R. F.; Cao, A.; Klein, M. D.; Rabah, R.

    2006-03-01

    Raman spectra of normal mammary gland tissues, malignant mammary gland tumors, and lymph nodes have been recorded using fresh tissue from mice. Tumors were induced in mice by subcutaneously injecting 4T1 BALB/c mammary tumor (a highly malignant) cell line. The Raman spectra were collected using the same tissues that were examined by histopathology for determining the cancerous/normal state of the tissue. Differences in various peak intensities, peak shifts and peak ratios were analyzed to determine the Raman spectral features that differentiate mammary gland tumors from non-tumorous tissue. Tissues that were confirmed by pathology as cancerous (tumors) show several distinctive features in the Raman spectra compared to the spectra of the normal tissues. For example, the cancerous tissues show Raman peaks at 621, 642, 1004, 1032, 1175 and 1208 cm-1 that are assignable to amino acids containing aromatic side-chains such as phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine. Further, the cancerous tissues show a greatly reduced level of phospholipids compared to the normal tissues. The Raman spectral regions that are sensitive to pathologic alteration in the tissue will be discussed.

  4. Chemotherapeutic effect of tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavone studied in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, A; Subramanian, S

    2014-04-01

    Globally, breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women and its incidence is amplifying alarmingly. Since genetics is believed to account for only 10% of the reported cases, the environmental factors including diet are thought to play a significant role in predisposing breast cancer. Many bioactive compounds of plant origin have been reported for their anticancer potential. Tangeretin, a pentamethoxy flavone, is a naturally occurring phytoconstituent found to be present in significant amounts in the peel of citrus fruits. Tangeretin possess a wide array of pharmacological activities such as cytostatic, anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties. In the absence of systemic studies in the literature, the present study was aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic potential of tangeretin in 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinoma in rats. Oral treatment of tangeretin (50 mg/kg BW) to breast tumor bearing rats daily for four weeks was found to be effective against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in female Wistar rats. The increased activities of AST, ALT, ALP, ACP, 5'-ND, γ-GT and LDH in serum of control and experimental breast cancer rats were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased to near normal levels. Further, the levels of lipid peroxide (TBARS), enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, CAT, GPx and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as GSH, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Phase I (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, EROD, MROD and PROD) and Phase II detoxification (glutathione S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR)) were decreased significantly by administration of tangeretin. Immunohistochemical and western blotting studies for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2/neu status exemplified the chemotherapeutic effect of tangeretin. Further, the histological and ultrastructural analysis of breast tissues evidenced the anti-tumorigenic nature of tangeretin. Thus, the results of the present study clearly indicate that

  5. Apigenin prevents development of medroxyprogesterone acetate-accelerated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Benford; Benakanakere, Indira; Lopez, Franklin; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Hyder, Salman M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of progestins as a component of hormone replacement therapy has been linked to an increase in breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We have previously shown that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a commonly administered synthetic progestin, increases production of the potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by tumor cells, leading to the development of new blood vessels and tumor growth. We sought to identify nontoxic chemicals that would inhibit progestin-induced tumorigenesis. We used a recently developed progestin-dependent mammary cancer model in which tumors are induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treatment. The flavonoid apigenin, which we previously found to inhibit progestin-dependent VEGF synthesis in human breast cancer cells in vitro, significantly delayed the development of, and decreased the incidence and multiplicity of, MPA-accelerated DMBA-induced mammary tumors in this animal model. Whereas apigenin decreased the occurrence of such tumors, it did not block MPA-induced intraductal and lobular epithelial cell hyperplasia in the mammary tissue. Apigenin blocked MPA-dependent increases in VEGF, and suppressed VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) but not VEGFR-1 in regions of hyperplasia. No differences were observed in estrogen or progesterone receptor levels, or the number of estrogen receptor-positive cells, within the mammary gland of MPA-treated animals administered apigenin, MPA-treated animals, and placebo treated animals. However, the number of progesterone receptor-positive cells was reduced in animals treated with MPA or MPA and apigenin compared with those treated with placebo. These findings suggest that apigenin has important chemopreventive properties for those breast cancers that develop in response to progestins. PMID:21505181

  6. Increased levels of interleukins 8 and 10 as findings of canine inflammatory mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    de Andrés, Paloma Jimena; Illera, Juan Carlos; Cáceres, Sara; Díez, Lucía; Pérez-Alenza, Maria Dolores; Peña, Laura

    2013-04-15

    Inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) is a distinct form of mammary cancer that affects dogs and women [in humans, IMC is known as inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)], and is characterized by a sudden onset and an aggressive clinical course. Spontaneous canine IMC shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as the best spontaneous animal model for studying IBC, although several aspects remain unstudied. Interleukins (ILs) play an important role in cancer as potential modulators of angiogenesis, leukocyte infiltration and tumor growth. The aims of the present study were to assess serum and tumor levels of several ILs (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) by enzyme-immunoassay in dogs bearing benign and malignant mammary tumors, including dogs with IMC, for a better understanding of this disease. Forty-eight dogs were prospectively included. Animals consisted of 7 healthy Beagles used as donors for normal mammary glands (NMG) and serum controls (SCs), 10 dogs with hyperplasias and benign mammary tumors (HBMT), 24 with non-inflammatory malignant mammary tumors (non-IMC MMT) and 7 dogs with clinical and pathological IMC. IL-8 (serum) and IL-10 (serum and tissue homogenate) levels were higher in the dogs with IMC compared with the non-IMC MMT group. ILs were increased with tumor malignancy as follows: in tumor homogenates IL-6 levels were higher in malignant tumors (IMC and non-IMC MMT) versus HBMT and versus NMG and tumor IL-8 was increased in malignant tumors versus NMG; in serum, IL-1α and IL-8 levels were higher in the malignant groups respect to HBMT and SCs; interestingly, IL-10 was elevated only in the serum of IMC animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that analyzes ILs in IMC and IL-10 in canine mammary tumors. Our results indicate a role for IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in canine mammary malignancy and specific differences in ILs content in IMC versus non-IMC MMT that could

  7. Induction of mammary tumors in rat by intraperitoneal injection of NMU: histopathology and estral cycle influence.

    PubMed

    Rivera, E S; Andrade, N; Martin, G; Melito, G; Cricco, G; Mohamad, N; Davio, C; Caro, R; Bergoc, R M

    1994-11-11

    In order to obtain an experimental model we induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 50 mg/kg body weight when animals were 50, 80 and 110 days old. Tumor sizes were measured with a caliper and their growth parameters and histopathological properties were tested. For 100 rats, 88.4% of developed lesions were ductal carcinomas, histologically classified as 52.8% cribiform variety, 30.6% solid carcinoma. Metastases in liver, spleen and lung were present. Other primary tumors were detected with low incidence. The influence of the rat estrous cycle during the first exposure to intraperitoneal NMU injection was studied. The latency period in estrus, proestrus and diestrus was 82 +/- 15, 77 +/- 18 and 79 +/- 18 days, respectively. Tumor incidence was significantly higher in estrus (95.2%) than proestrus (71.4%) or diestrus (77.4), (P < 0.01). Mean number or tumors per animal was similar among the three groups (4.4 +/- 3.2, 3.8 +/- 3.6, 3.2 +/- 1.8). The procedure described appears to be the simplest method for inducing experimental mammary tumors in rats.

  8. Nutritional and hormonal regulation of malic enzyme synthesis in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, M F; Ros, M; Moreno, F J; García-Ruíz, J P

    1986-01-01

    Cytosolic malic enzyme was purified from rat mammary gland by L-malate affinity chromatography. The pure enzyme obtained was used to produce a specific antiserum in a rabbit. Relative synthesis of malic enzyme in the mammary gland of mid-lactating rats was 0.097%, measured by labelling the enzyme in isolated acini. When food was removed, malic enzyme synthesis decreased to 35% and 20% of the control value at 4 and 6 h respectively. Incorporation of [3H]leucine into soluble proteins was constant during the first 6 h of starvation. When lactating rats (maintained with their pups) were starved for 24 h and then re-fed, the relative rate of enzyme synthesis increased 2.5-, 4-, and 4.5-fold at 3 h, 6 h and 18 h respectively after initiation of re-feeding. The relative rate of malic enzyme synthesis was about 50% of normal at 15 h after weaning, whereas the rate of synthesis of soluble proteins did not change. Administration of bromocriptine or adrenalectomy of lactating rats decreased the relative rate of synthesis of malic enzyme by 40% or 30% respectively; these effects were counteracted by hormone supplementation. Hormone therapy also caused an increase in the rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into soluble proteins and in malic enzyme activity. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3753458

  9. Influence of Age on the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiation for Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Daino, Kazuhiro; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Doi, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nishimura, Yukiko; Okutani, Tomomi; Takabatake, Masaru; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of developing secondary cancer after radiotherapy, especially after treatment of childhood cancers, remains a matter of concern. The high biological effects of carbon-ion radiation have enabled powerful radiotherapy, yet the approach is commonly restricted to the treatment of adults. Susceptibility of the fetus to particle radiation–induced cancer is also unclear. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of carbon-ion irradiation in childhood on breast carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: We irradiated female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages (embryonic days 3, 13, and 17 and 1, 3, 7, and 15 weeks after birth) with {sup 137}Cs γ rays or a 290-MeV/u monoenergetic carbonion beam (linear energy transfer, 13 keV/μm). All animals were screened weekly for mammary carcinoma by palpation until they were 90 weeks old. Results: Irradiation of fetal and mature (15-week-old) rats with either radiation source at a dose of 0.2 or 1 Gy did not substantially increase the hazard ratio compared with the nonirradiated group. Dose responses (0.2-2.0 Gy) to γ rays were similar among the groups of rats irradiated 1, 3, and 7 weeks after birth. The effect of carbon ions increased along with the age at the time of irradiation, indicating relative biological effectiveness values of 0.2 (−0.3, 0.7), 1.3 (1.0, 1.6), and 2.8 (1.8, 3.9) (mean and 95% confidence interval) for animals that were 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings imply that carbonion therapy may be associated with a risk of secondary breast cancer in humans, the extent of which may depend on the age of the patient at the time of irradiation.

  10. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the response of the rat mammary gland to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I. H.; Gimotty, P.; Dupuis, M.; Russo, J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine whether mammary gland differentiation, which is known to protect this organ from chemically induced carcinogenesis, can be stimulated in virgin rats by administration of a progestagenic agent, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) was given to 300 Sprague-Dawley virgin rats, which at the ages of 45, 55, 65 and 75 days, groups I, II, III and IV respectively, had implanted an MPA pellet of 0.5 mg (low dose-LD) or 5.0 mg (high dose-HD). Pellets were removed after 21 days, and 21 days later five animals per group were killed for evaluation of mammary gland development. The remaining animals received 8 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) per 100 g body weight, and were killed after 24 weeks for evaluation of tumour incidence. Both age and treatment affected mammary gland structure and had a significant interaction in the proportion of terminal end buds (TEBs) present. The number of TEBs decreased as a function of age; treatment at both LD and HD did not modify the proportion of TEBs in groups I and III; LD decreased their percentage in group II, and both doses markedly increased TEB percentage in group IV animals. MPA LD treatment did not affect overall tumour and adenocarcinoma incidence although group IV animals developed greater incidences than their respective controls. MPA HD treated rats were 2.45 times more likely to develop tumours than their respective controls. Adenocarcinoma incidence had a significant positive correlation with the percentage of TEBs present. It was concluded that this progestagenic agent did not increase the risk of carcinoma development when administered to virgin rats at the clinical dose used for contraception. However, a 10-fold dose increase resulted in a higher tumorigenic response. PMID:2522791

  11. [Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: accurate staging and individualized treatment].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Pengfe; Zhao, Rongrong; Cong, Binbin; Yang, Guoren; Liu, Yanbing; Chen, Peng; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Chunjian; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routinely performed internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) on the staging and treatment, and to analyze the success rate, complications and learning curve. All patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy between 2012 and 2014 were included in a prospective analysis. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) was performed in all patients with IM-SLN visualized on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and/or detected by intraoperative gamma probe detection. The adjuvant treatment plan was adjusted according to the current guidelines. In a total of 349 patients, 249 patients (71.1%) showed internal mammary drainage. IM-SLNB was performed in 153 patients with internal mammary drainage, with a success rate of IM-SLNB of 97.4% (149/153). Pleural lesion and internal mammary artery bleeding were found in 7.2% and 5.2% patients, respectively. In 8.1% of patients (12/149) the IM-SLN was tumor positive. In the group of patients who underwent IM-SLNB, lymph node staging was changed in 8.1% of patients, and IMLNs radiotherapy was guided by these results, however, systemic treatment was changed in only 0.7% of the patients. IM-SLNB has a high successful rate and good safety. Identification of internal mammary metastases through IM-SLNB may provide more accurate staging and guide the tailored internal mammary radiotherapy. ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT01642511.

  12. The role of mammary ductoscopy in breast cancer: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kapenhas-Valdes, Edna; Feldman, Sheldon M; Boolbol, Susan K

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among American women. It is the second most common cause of cancer death. Genetic analysis using comparative genetic hybridization (CGH) has shown evidence that the majority of breast cancers, approximately 85%, begin in the ductal epithelium with normal cells progressing to atypia and finally to carcinoma. Mammary ductoscopy, also referred to as the intraductal approach, is a new tool that allows direct visualization of the breast ductal system. It enables one to sample the ductal epithelium and may allow identification of early changes cytologically as well as potentially play an important role in aiding surgical excision. This may aid in detection of breast masses long before they are palpable or visible via mammography. Mammary ductoscopy may have a role in the evaluation of women with nipple discharge, high-risk women, or limiting the amount of tissue removed in breast conservation surgery for cancer.

  13. Effect of Thyroid Function on MNU-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vermey, Mackenzie L; Marks, Gregory T; Baldridge, Monika G

    2015-06-01

    Mammary cancer is a disease that affects many women. Extensive research has been conducted to elucidate which variables are involved in the development of this cancer. Studies have highlighted thyroid function as a modulator of tumor growth and development. Thyroxine and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine are responsible for regulating the development, differentiation, homeostasis, and metabolism of cells in the body including mammary tissue. Thyroid hormones also have estrogen-like effects on mammary cancer cell growth by regulating the estrogen receptor. The present study was designed to determine whether medically induced hyperthyroidism increases the multiplicity, prevalence, and mammary tumor burden in rats; and to elucidate whether surgically induced hypothyroidism conversely attenuates the rate of mammary cancer cell growth. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (euthyroid-control, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid). Hyperthyroidism was induced via oral administration of levothyroxine; whereas, hypothyroidism was induced by thyroidectomy. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). Rats were sacrificed at 38 weeks, and the mammary tumors were excised, fixed for histology and analyzed. Analysis included evaluation of malignancy and immunohistochemistry for ER. MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis among the groups resulted in a significant difference in tumor burden. The hyperthyroid group had a statistically higher tumor burden than did the euthyroid group, and the hypothyroid group had no tumors of mammary tissue origin at 38 weeks. All excised mammary tumors were ER alpha negative. These data support the hypothesis that thyroid function is one of potentially many factors that contribute to modulation of MNU-induced mammary tumor growth.

  14. Differentiation of the mammary epithelial cell during involution: implications for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monks, Jenifer; Henson, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    That milk secretion is not the final differentiated state of the mammary alveolar cells is a relatively new concept. Recent work has suggested that secreting, mammary epithelial cells (MECs) have another function to perform before they undergo cell death in the involuting mammary gland. That is, they help in the final clearance and breakdown of their neighboring cells (and likely residual milk as well.) They become, for a short time, amateur phagocytes, or efferocytes, and then are believed to die and be cleared themselves. Although relatively little study has been made of this change in the functional state of the MEC, nevertheless we may speculate from the involution literature, and extend findings from other systems of apoptotic cell clearance, on some of the mechanisms involved. And with the finding that involution may represent a unique susceptibility window for the progression of metastatic breast cancer, we may suggest areas for future research along these lines as well.

  15. Male breast cancer originating in an accessory mammary gland in the axilla: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85 mm × 51 mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55 mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla.

  16. The hedgehog signaling network, mammary stem cells, and breast cancer: connections and controversies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M T; Visbal, A P

    2006-01-01

    Several signal transduction networks have been implicated in the regulation of mammary epithelial stem cell self-renewal and maintenance (Kalirai and Clarke 2006; Liu et al. 2005). These signaling networks include those of the Wnt, Notch, TGFO, EGF, FGF, IGF, and most recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) families of secreted ligands. However, we currently know very little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these signaling pathways function to regulate normal epithelial stem/progenitor cells. What is clear is that the regulatory signaling networks thought to control normal stem/progenitor cell self-renewal and maintenance are, with the current sole exception of the hedgehog network, well-documented to have contributory roles in mammary cancer development and disease progression when misregulated. In this review, genetic regulation of mammary gland development by hedgehog network genes is outlined, highlighting a developing controversy as to whether activated hedgehog signaling regulates normal regenerative mammary epithelial stem cells or, indeed, whether activated hedgehog signaling functions at all in ductal development. In addition, the question of whether inappropriate hedgehog network activation influences breast cancer development is addressed, with emphasis on the prospects for using hedgehog signaling antagonists clinically for breast cancer treatment or prevention.

  17. [Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Auberdiac, P; Cartier, L; Chargari, C; Hau Desbat, N-H; Zioueche, A; Mélis, A; Kirova, Y-M; de Laroche, G; Magné, N

    2011-04-01

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Field cancerization in mammary carcinogenesis - Implications for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivenbark, Ashley G; Coleman, William B

    2012-12-01

    The natural history of breast cancer unfolds with the development of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in normal breast tissue, and evolution of this pre-invasive neoplasm into invasive cancer. The mechanisms that drive these processes are poorly understood, but evidence from the literature suggests that mammary carcinogenesis may occur through the process of field cancerization. Clinical observations are consistent with the idea that (i) DCIS may arise in a field of altered breast epithelium, (ii) narrow surgical margins do not remove the entire altered field (contributing to recurrence and/or disease progression), and (iii) whole-breast radiation therapy is effective in elimination of the residual field of altered cells adjacent to the resected DCIS. Molecular studies suggest that the field of altered breast epithelial cells may carry cancer-promoting genetic mutations (or other molecular alterations) or cancer promoting epimutations (oncogenic alterations in the epigenome). In fact, most breast cancers develop through a succession of molecular events involving both genetic mutations and epimutations. Hence, in hereditary forms of breast cancer, the altered field reflects the entire breast tissue which is composed of cells with a predisposing molecular lesion (such as a BRCA1 mutation). In the example of a BRCA1-mutant patient, it is evident that local resection of a DCIS lesion or localized but invasive cancer will not result in elimination of the altered field. In sporadic breast cancer patients, the mechanistic basis for the altered field may not be so easily recognized. Nonetheless, identification of the nature of field cancerization in a given patient may guide clinical intervention. Thus, patients with DCIS that develops in response to an epigenetic lesion (such as a hypermethylation defect affecting the expression of tumor suppressor genes) might be treated with epigenetic therapy to normalize the altered field and reduce the risk of secondary occurrence of

  19. Mammary Stem Cell Based Somatic Mouse Models Reveal Breast Cancer Drivers Causing Cell Fate Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Christin, John R.; Wang, Chunhui; Ge, Kai; Oktay, Maja H.; Guo, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancer genomics have provided an unprecedented opportunity for understanding genetic causes of human cancer. However, distinguishing which mutations are functionally relevant to cancer pathogenesis remains a major challenge. We describe here a mammary stem cell (MaSC) organoid-based approach for rapid generation of somatic GEMMs (genetically engineered mouse models). By using RNAi and CRISPR-mediated genome engineering in MaSC-GEMMs, we have discovered that inactivation of Ptpn22 or Mll3, two genes mutated in human breast cancer, greatly accelerated PI3K-driven mammary tumorigenesis. Using these tumor models, we have also identified genetic alterations promoting tumor metastasis and causing resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy. Both Ptpn22 and Mll3 inactivation resulted in disruption of mammary gland differentiation and an increase in stem cell activity. Mechanistically, Mll3 deletion enhanced stem cell activity through activation of the HIF pathway. Thus, our study established a robust in vivo platform for functional cancer genomics and discovered functional breast cancer mutations. PMID:27653681

  20. Volatile Organic Metabolites Identify Patients with Breast Cancer, Cyclomastopathy, and Mammary Gland Fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changsong; Sun, Bo; Guo, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Suqi; Guo, Zhigang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    The association between cancer and volatile organic metabolites in exhaled breaths has attracted increasing attention from researchers. The present study reports on a systematic study of gas profiles of metabolites in human exhaled breath by pattern recognition methods. Exhaled breath was collected from 85 patients with histologically confirmed breast disease (including 39 individuals with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 25 individuals with cyclomastopathy and from 21 individuals with mammary gland fibroma) and 45 healthy volunteers. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to process the final data. The volatile organic metabolites exhibited significant differences between breast cancer and normal controls, breast cancer and cyclomastopathy, and breast cancer and mammary gland fibroma; 21, 6, and 8 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively (P < 0.05). Three volatile organic metabolites in the exhaled air, 2,5,6-trimethyloctane, 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol, and cyclohexanone, distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy individuals, mammary gland fibroma patients, and patients with cyclomastopathy (P < 0.05). The identified three volatile organic metabolites associated with breast cancer may serve as novel diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:24947160

  1. Biomarkers of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate-Mediated Mammary Cancer Chemoprevention in a Clinically Relevant Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a natural plant compound with chemopreventative potential against some cancers and the ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Methods Female mouse mammary tumor virus–neu mice were fed a control AIN-76A diet (n = 35) or the same diet supplemented with 3 µmol PEITC/g diet (n = 33) for 29 weeks, at which time they were killed. Breast tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological assessments, and incidence and size of macroscopic mammary tumors were assessed. Cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining), apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-labeling), and neoangiogenesis (CD31 staining) were determined in tumor sections. Plasma levels of transthyretin were measured in treated and control mice. Expression of proteins in mammary tumor sections was determined by immunohistochemistry. Proteomic profiling was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Administration of PEITC for 29 weeks was associated with 53.13% decreased incidence of macroscopic mammary tumors (mean tumor incidence, PEITC-supplemented diet vs control diet, 18.75% vs 40.00%, difference = –21.25%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = –43.19% to 0.69%, P = .07) and with a 56.25% reduction in microscopic mammary carcinoma lesions greater than 2mm2 (mean incidence, PEITC-supplemented diet vs control diet, 18.75% vs 42.86%, difference = –24.11%, 95% CI = –46.35% to –1.86%, P = .04). PEITC-mediated mammary cancer growth inhibition was not because of suppression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression but was associated with reduced cellular proliferation and neoangiogenesis, increased apoptosis, and altered expression of several proteins, including decreased ATP synthase in the tumor and increased plasma levels of transthyretin. Conclusions PEITC inhibits the growth of mammary cancers in a

  2. MicroRNA-regulated gene networks during mammary cell differentiation are associated with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Eylem; Katchy, Anne; Tsouko, Efrosini; Lin, Chin-Yo; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Helguero, Luisa; Williams, Cecilia

    2012-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in stem cell biology, differentiation and oncogenesis and are of high interest as potential breast cancer therapeutics. However, their expression and function during normal mammary differentiation and in breast cancer remain to be elucidated. In order to identify which miRNAs are involved in mammary differentiation, we thoroughly investigated miRNA expression during functional differentiation of undifferentiated, stem cell-like, murine mammary cells using two different large-scale approaches followed by qPCR. Significant changes in expression of 21 miRNAs were observed in repeated rounds of mammary cell differentiation. The majority, including the miR-200 family and known tumor suppressor miRNAs, was upregulated during differentiation. Only four miRNAs, including oncomiR miR-17, were downregulated. Pathway analysis indicated complex interactions between regulated miRNA clusters and major pathways involved in differentiation, proliferation and stem cell maintenance. Comparisons with human breast cancer tumors showed the gene profile from the undifferentiated, stem-like stage clustered with that of poor-prognosis breast cancer. A common nominator in these groups was the E2F pathway, which was overrepresented among genes targeted by the differentiation-induced miRNAs. A subset of miRNAs could further discriminate between human non-cancer and breast cancer cell lines, and miR-200a/miR-200b, miR-146b and miR-148a were specifically downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. We show that miR-200a/miR-200b can inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-characteristic morphological changes in undifferentiated, non-tumorigenic mammary cells. Our studies propose EphA2 as a novel and important target gene for miR-200a. In conclusion, we present evidentiary data on how miRNAs are involved in mammary cell differentiation and indicate their related roles in breast cancer.

  3. Sesamin synergistically potentiates the anticancer effects of γ-tocotrienol in mammary cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Akl, Mohamed R; Ayoub, Nehad M; Abuasal, Bilal S; Kaddoumi, Amal; Sylvester, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    γ-Tocotrienol and sesamin are phytochemicals that display potent anticancer activity. Since sesamin inhibits the metabolic degradation of tocotrienols, studies were conducted to determine if combined treatment with sesamin potentiates the antiproliferative effects of γ-tocotrienol on neoplastic mouse (+SA) and human (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) mammary cancer cells. Results showed that treatment with γ-tocotrienol or sesamin alone induced a significant dose-responsive growth inhibition, whereas combination treatment with these agents synergistically inhibited the growth of +SA, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary cancer cells, while similar treatment doses were found to have little or no effect on normal (mouse CL-S1 and human MCF-10A) mammary epithelial cell growth or viability. However, sesamin synergistic enhancement of γ-tocotrienol-induced anticancer effects was not found to be mediated from a reduction in γ-tocotrienol metabolism. Rather, combined treatment with subeffective doses of γ-tocotrienol and sesamin was found to induce G1 cell cycle arrest, and a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, phospho-Rb, and E2F1 levels, and increase in p27 and p16 levels. Additional studies showed that the antiproliferative effect of combination treatment did not initiate apoptosis or result in a decrease in mammary cancer cell viability. Taken together, these findings indicate that the synergistic antiproliferative action of combined γ-tocotrienol and sesamin treatment in mouse and human mammary cancer cells is cytostatic, not cytotoxic, and results from G1 cell cycle arrest.

  4. Expression of the apoptotic markers in normal breast epithelium, benign mammary dysplasia and in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Koda, Mariusz; Kanczuga-Koda, Luiza; Reszec, Joanna; Sulkowska, Mariola; Famulski, Waldemar; Baltaziak, Marek; Kisielewski, Wojciech; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2004-08-01

    Apoptosis and proliferation are processes associated with the development and progression of breast cancer. The sensitivity of tumour cells to the induction of apoptosis depends on the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. The expression of Bak and Bcl-2 was examined using an immunohistochemical method in 71 primary breast cancers. Furthermore, Bcl-2 and Bak were assessed in the normal mammary gland as well as in benign mammary dysplasia adjacent to breast cancer. Positive immunostaining for Bcl-2 was observed in 77.8% of cases of normal breast epithelium (NBE), 93% of benign dysplasia without intraductal proliferation (BBD) as well as in 94% of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast (BIPL). Expression of Bak was detected in 39% of cases of NBE, 45% of BBD and in 67% of BIPL. In breast cancer Bcl-2 and Bak expression was found in 83% and 70% of the cases studied, respectively. Increased Bcl-2 expression in primary tumours significantly correlated with favourable prognostic factors, namely pT1, G2 and lack of metastases to the regional lymph nodes (p < 0.01, p < 0.03, p < 0.02, respectively). There were no relationships between Bak and the clinicopathological features studied, but our results indicate changes in the expression of Bak during breast cancer development and progression. It would appear to be important to assess and compare pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins between normal mammary gland, benign mammary dysplasia and the primary tumours of breast cancer. This knowledge should be helpful in understanding breast cancer development and progression.

  5. Ovarian renin--angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidases are involved in progesterone overproduction in rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar Carrera, María; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García, María Jesús; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2009-11-01

    A local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been found in ovary. This ovarian RAS may regulate ovarian steroidogenesis. Ample studies show that the ovarian hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are strongly implicated in the development of breast cancer. The aim of the present work was to elucidate if alterations in ovarian RAS, analyzed through their proteolytic regulatory enzymes aminopeptidase A (APA), B (APB) and N (APN), could be responsible for an altered steroidogenesis in rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl nitrosourea (NMU). We describe here a highly significant increase of serum P levels in NMU-treated rats, concomitantly with an increase in ovarian aspartyl and glutamyl aminopeptidase activities (named together as APA activity). Moreover, we did not find changes in APB or APN activities, suggesting an increased metabolism from Ang II to Ang III and a decreased catabolism of Ang III. The relationship between ovarian RAS and P overproduction in a rat model of mammary carcinogenesis indicates ovarian RAS as a new potential target in breast cancer therapy.

  6. CCL2-driven inflammation increases mammary gland stromal density and cancer susceptibility in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Glynn, Danielle J; Hodson, Leigh J; Huo, Cecilia; Britt, Kara; Thompson, Erik W; Woolford, Lucy; Evdokiou, Andreas; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Robertson, Sarah A; Ingman, Wendy V

    2017-01-11

    Macrophages play diverse roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is an inflammatory cytokine that recruits macrophages to sites of injury. Although CCL2 has been detected in human and mouse mammary epithelium, its role in regulating mammary gland development and cancer risk has not been explored. Transgenic mice were generated wherein CCL2 is driven by the mammary epithelial cell-specific mouse mammary tumour virus 206 (MMTV) promoter. Estrous cycles were tracked in adult transgenic and non-transgenic FVB mice, and mammary glands collected at the four different stages of the cycle. Dissected mammary glands were assessed for cyclical morphological changes, proliferation and apoptosis of epithelium, macrophage abundance and collagen deposition, and mRNA encoding matrix remodelling enzymes. Another cohort of control and transgenic mice received carcinogen 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and tumour development was monitored weekly. CCL2 protein was also quantified in paired samples of human breast tissue with high and low mammographic density. Overexpression of CCL2 in the mammary epithelium resulted in an increased number of macrophages, increased density of stroma and collagen and elevated mRNA encoding matrix remodelling enzymes lysyl oxidase (LOX) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)3 compared to non-transgenic controls. Transgenic mice also exhibited increased susceptibility to development of DMBA-induced mammary tumours. In a paired sample cohort of human breast tissue, abundance of epithelial-cell-associated CCL2 was higher in breast tissue of high mammographic density compared to tissue of low mammographic density. Constitutive expression of CCL2 by the mouse mammary epithelium induces a state of low level chronic inflammation that increases stromal density and elevates cancer risk. We propose that CCL2-driven inflammation contributes to the increased risk of breast cancer observed in women

  7. Interdisciplinary Breast Cancer Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    2-Dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteomic identification of mammary gland proteins of rats treated with the soy isoflavone , genistein...Coral A. Lamartiniere. "Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer, Proteomic Discovery of Genistein Action in the Rat Mammary Gland." Accepted in Journal of...biomarker discover of rat mammary tumors using mass-coded abundance tags (MCAT)" 9 5th Annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research

  8. Enhanced Doppler ultrasound imaging of interstitial laser therapy in rat mammary tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasuly, James M.; Fan, Ming; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz

    1997-05-01

    In order to better develop ultrasonography for use in monitoring interstitial laser therapy (ILT), we imaged rat mammary tumors using power Doppler ultrasound in conduction with intravenous contrast agent (Albunex) before and after laser therapy. Small vessel perfusion throughout a variable portion of the tumor could be detected by power Doppler ultrasound. Lesions created with diode laser by delivery of 500 to 3000 J appeared as perfusion defects on post-treatment images. Image topography and lesion size correlated with gross histologic findings. We conclude that ultrasonographic monitoring of local changes in blood flow using contrast enhancing agent can be useful in characterizing lesions created with ILT.

  9. Human breast cancer cells are redirected to mammary epithelial cells upon interaction with the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Karen M; Smith, Gilbert H

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display 'normal' behavior when placed into 'normal' ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for 'normal' gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts) confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini) were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic) respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo.

  10. Human Breast Cancer Cells Are Redirected to Mammary Epithelial Cells upon Interaction with the Regenerating Mammary Gland Microenvironment In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bussard, Karen M.; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display ‘normal’ behavior when placed into ‘normal’ ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for ‘normal’ gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts) confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini) were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic) respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo. PMID:23155468

  11. microRNAs and EMT in mammary cells and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Josephine A; Richer, Jennifer K; Goodall, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs are master regulators of gene expression in many biological and pathological processes, including mammary gland development and breast cancer. The differentiation program termed the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involves changes in a number of microRNAs. Some of these microRNAs have been shown to control cellular plasticity through the suppression of EMT-inducers or to influence cellular phenotype through the suppression of genes involved in defining the epithelial and mesenchymal cell states. This has led to the suggestion that microRNAs maybe a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss microRNAs that are involved in EMT in mammary cells and breast cancer.

  12. Hypothyroidism decreases JAK/STAT signaling pathway in lactating rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Campo Verde Arboccó, Fiorella; Persia, Fabio Andres; Hapon, María Belén; Jahn, Graciela A

    2017-07-15

    Thyroid pathologies have deleterious effects on lactation. Especially hypothyroidism (HypoT) induces premature mammary involution at the end of lactation and decreases milk production and quality in mid lactation. Milk synthesis is controlled by JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway and prolactin (PRL), which activates the pathway. In this work we analyzed the effect of chronic 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced HypoT on PRL signaling pathway on mammary glands from rats on lactation (L) days 2, 7 and 14. HypoT decreased prolactin receptor expression, and expression and activation of Stat5a/b protein. Expression of members of the SOCS-CIS family, inhibitors of the JAK-STAT pathway, decreased in L2 and L7, possibly as a compensatory response of the mammary cells to maintain PRL responsiveness. However, on L14, the level of these inhibitors was normal and the transcription of α-lactoalbumin (lalba), a target gene of the PRL pathway, decreased by half. HypoT altered the transcriptional capacity of the cell and decreased mRNA levels of Prlr and Stat5b on L14. Stat5b gene has functional thyroid hormone response elements in the regulatory regions, that bind thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) differentially and in a thyroid hormone dependent manner. The overall decrease in the PRL signaling pathway and consequently in target gene (lalba) mRNA transcription explain the profound negative impact of HypoT on mammary function through lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mammary gland tumor promotion in F1 generation offspring from male and female rats exposed to soy isoflavones for a lifetime.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rekha; Lok, Eric; Caldwell, Donald; Mueller, Rudolf; Kapal, Kamla; Taylor, Marnie; Cooke, Gerard M; Curran, Ivan H A

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dietary isoflavones in the form of NOVASOY (NS) was investigated on methylnitrosourea-initiated mammary gland cancer in F1 generation female Sprague Dawley rats from parents who had undergone lifetime exposure to variable levels of dietary NS. In comparison to NS-free dietary groups, lifetime exposure of F1 rats to 40 and 1000 mg/kg diets of NS reduced tumor latency, but did not significantly affect tumor incidence, tumor size, or tumor multiplicity. A significantly lower tumor multiplicity was, however, observed in rats fed the soy-based, NS-free diet compared to the casein-based, NS-free diet. An evaluation of a dose-response relationship pointed towards a biphasic effect, with a trend showing lower tumor incidence, lower tumor multiplicity, and lower tumor size in rats fed 1000 mg/kg diet NS compared to 40 mg/kg diet NS; however, the data failed to achieve statistical significance. Histologically, tumor type significantly differed according to the administered basal diet variety and NS dose. Our data and that of others provide conflicting evidence for chemopreventive effects of soy isoflavones on mammary gland tumor induction. We suggest standardization of interlaboratory experimental approaches for establishing low dose-response relationships for soy and its isoflavones to aid in risk assessment.

  14. Mammary Gland Involution Provides a Unique Model to Study the TGF-β Cancer Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiuchen; Betts, Courtney; Pennock, Nathan; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Schedin, Pepper

    2017-01-01

    Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer has been termed the “TGF-β paradox”, acting as both a tumor suppresser and promoter. The complexity of TGF-β signaling within the tumor is context dependent, and greatly impacted by cellular crosstalk between TGF-β responsive cells in the microenvironment including adjacent epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells. Here we utilize normal, weaning-induced mammary gland involution as a tissue microenvironment model to study the complexity of TGF-β function. This article reviews facets of mammary gland involution that are TGF-β regulated, namely mammary epithelial cell death, immune activation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. We outline how distinct cellular responses and crosstalk between cell types during physiologically normal mammary gland involution contribute to simultaneous tumor suppressive and promotional microenvironments. We also highlight alternatives to direct TGF-β blocking anti-cancer therapies with an emphasis on eliciting concerted microenvironmental-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:28098775

  15. Predictive parameters for internal mammary node drainage in patients with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lukesova, Lucie; Vrana, David; Gatek, Jiri; Koranda, Pavel; Cwiertka, Karel; Radova, Lenka; Melichar, Bohuslav; Prouzova, Zuzana; Sramek, Vlastislav; Svach, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment currently represents one of the biggest challenges in clinical oncology. The gold standard for axillary lymph node management is to perform sentinel node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection and its sequelae. The detection of radiocolloid flow outside the axillary nodes is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A database search at the Department of Oncology of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, identified 127 patients who underwent breast cancer resection with a sentinel node procedure and had radiocolloid flow into the internal mammary nodes. Sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy was performed after intraparenchymal injection. Clinical and pathological data were collected to identify possible risk factors. Ten clinical and pathological parameters including age, tumor histology, axillary lymph node status, estrogen receptor expression, progesterone receptor expression, tumor grade, Ki-67 expression, Her-2 status, tumor size and tumor location were analyzed with regard to internal mammary node drainage. A cohort of 127 patients with detected drainage into the internal mammary nodes was compared with 135 patients without such drainage. Six significant risk factors, including age <50 years ( P <0.0313), tumor location in central and inner quadrants (P <0.012), larger tumor size (P <0.017), positive Her-2 status (P <0.025), progesterone receptor expression (P <10-4) and axillary lymph node involvement (P <0.01) were found to predict radiocolloid flow into the internal mammary nodes. Six parameters (patient age, tumor location, hormone receptor status, tumor size, Her-2 status and axillary lymph node status) should be considered in the management of breast cancer patients and help in the selection of patients for locoregional procedures encompassing the internal mammary nodes.

  16. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    satellites ” resulted in reversion of the cells to an epithelial state, re-entry into the cell cycle, and restoration of their ability to generate both...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0107 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer...W81XWH-12-1-0107 Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

  17. Deregulated expression of the PCPH proto-oncogene in rat mammary tumors induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.

    PubMed

    Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard; Rouzaut, Ana; Costa, Irmgard; Martínez, Alfredo; Notario, Vicente

    2002-04-01

    The PCPH proto-oncogene was identified by its frequent activation in Syrian hamster fetal cells exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene. We previously isolated human PCPH cDNA and studied its expression in normal human tissues. We report herein the pattern of PCPH expression in normal rat tissues. Each tissue expressed one major PCPH polypeptide that varied in molecular mass in different tissues. Normal mammary gland expressed a single PCPH polypeptide of 27 kDa. This PCPH form also was expressed in lactating mammary glands but at significantly greater levels. These results suggest the existence of tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms for PCPH expression that may be influenced by the differentiation stage. Our previous studies on the involvement of PCPH in human cancer showed that human breast tumor cell lines have frequent alterations in PCPH, including multiple PCPH polypeptide forms that are not expressed in normal cells. These cell lines also have frequent loss of a 27-kDa form identified as the only PCPH polypeptide expressed by normal human breast epithelial cells. In this study, we found that these same alterations occurred in vivo during mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, in both benign and malignant tumors, indicating that stable changes in PCPH expression took place early in the neoplastic process. Results showed that this experimental system is relevant to human breast carcinogenesis and provides an excellent model to study the molecular basis of the regulation of PCPH expression during normal differentiation and pathologic stages of neoplasia of the mammary gland and to analyze the role of PCPH in the carcinogenic process. Furthermore, the detection of atypical PCPH polypeptides in tumors suggests that PCPH immunodetection may be applied as a diagnostic tool for the early identification of neoplastic breast epithelial cells. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Regulation of mammary stem cell population with dietary intake of soy protein isolate reveals novel mechanisms for diet-mediated control of mammary tumorigenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breast cancer risk is highly modified by environmental factors including diet. Previously, we showed that dietary intake of soy protein isolate (SPI) decreased mammary tumor incidence and increased mammary tumor latency in rats relative to those fed a control casein (CAS) diet, when exposed to the c...

  19. Induction of A.T to G.C mutations by erroneous repair of depurinated DNA following estrogen treatment of the mammary gland of ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Mailander, Paula C; Meza, Jane L; Higginbotham, Sheila; Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti

    2006-11-01

    Evidence suggests that the genotoxic mechanism of estrogens (estrone/estradiol) in breast cancer involves their oxidation to 3,4-quinones and reaction with DNA to form depurinating N3Ade and N7Gua adducts. We examined whether estrogen genotoxicity is mutagenic in the mammary gland of the female ACI rat, a model for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Mutagenesis was studied by PCR amplification of the H-ras1 gene (exons 1-2), cloning in pUC18, transforming Escherichia coli, and sequencing the inserts in plasmids from individual colonies. Mammary glands of both estrogen-responsive (ACI and DA) and resistant (Sprague-Dawley) rats contained pre-existing mutations at frequencies of (39.8-58.8)x10(-5), the majority (62.5-100%) of which were A.T to G.C transitions. Estradiol-3,4-quinone (200 nmol) treatment of ACI rats caused rapid (6h to 1 day) mutagenesis (frequency (83.3-156.1)x10(-5); A.T to G.C 70-73.3%). The estrogen-induced A.T to G.C mutations were detected as G.T heteroduplexes, as would be expected if N3Ade depurinations caused Gua misincorporations by erroneous repair. These heteroduplexes were identified by the T.G-DNA glycosylase (TDG) assay. TDG converts G.T heteroduplexes to G.abasic sites, rendering DNA templates refractory to PCR amplification. Consequently, A.T to G.C mutations present as G.T heteroduplexes in the DNA are eliminated from the spectra. TDG treatment of mammary DNA from estradiol-3,4-quinone-treated ACI rats brought A.T to G.C mutations down to pre-existing frequencies. Our results demonstrate that treatment with estradiol-3,4-quinone, an important metabolite of estrogens, produced A.T to G.C mutations in the DNA of the mammary gland of ACI rats.

  20. Alcohol exposure in utero leads to enhanced prepubertal mammary development and alterations in mammary IGF and estradiol systems.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Tiffany A; Crismale-Gann, Catina; Cohick, Wendie S

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol during fetal development increases susceptibility to mammary cancer in adult rats. This study determined if early changes in mammary morphology and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/estradiol axis are involved in the mechanisms that underlie this increased susceptibility. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% ethanol (alcohol), an isocaloric liquid diet (pair-fed), or rat chow ad libitum from days 11 to 21 of gestation. At birth, female pups were cross-fostered to ad libitum-fed control dams. Offspring were euthanized at postnatal days (PND) 20, 40, or 80. Animals were injected with BrdU before euthanasia, then mammary glands, serum, and livers were collected. Mammary glands from animals exposed to alcohol in utero displayed increased epithelial cell proliferation and aromatase expression at PND 20 and 40. Mammary IGF-I mRNA was higher in alcohol-exposed animals relative to controls at PND 20, while mammary IGFBP-5 mRNA was lower in this group at PND 40. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression was increased at all time points in alcohol-exposed animals, however, circulating IGF-I levels were not altered. These data indicate that alcohol exposure in utero may advance mammary development via the IGF and estradiol systems, which could contribute to increased susceptibility to mammary cancer later in life.

  1. ErbB/EGF signaling and EMT in mammary development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Katharine M; Booth, Brian W; Hendrix, Mary J C; Salomon, David S; Strizzi, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    Activation of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases via cognate Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like peptide ligands constitutes a major group of related signaling pathways that control proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. In this respect, clinical trials with various ErbB receptor blocking antibodies and specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have proven to be partially efficacious in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease. Induction of an embryonic program of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer, whereupon epithelial tumor cells convert to a more mesenchymal-like phenotype, facilitates the migration, intravasation, and extravasation of tumor cells during metastasis. Breast cancers which exhibit properties of EMT are highly aggressive and resistant to therapy. Activation of ErbB signaling can regulate EMT-associated invasion and migration in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells, as well as modulating discrete stages of mammary gland development. The purpose of this review is to summarize current information regarding the role of ErbB signaling in aspects of EMT that influence epithelial cell plasticity during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. How this information may contribute to the improvement of therapeutic approaches in breast cancer will also be addressed.

  2. Elimination of Progressive Mammary Cancer by Repeated Administrations of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Globerson-Levin, Anat; Waks, Tova; Eshhar, Zelig

    2014-01-01

    Continuous oncogenic processes that generate cancer require an on-going treatment approach to eliminate the transformed cells, and prevent their further development. Here, we studied the ability of T cells expressing a chimeric antibody-based receptor (CAR) to offer a therapeutic benefit for breast cancer induced by erbB-2. We tested CAR-modified T cells (T-bodies) specific to erbB-2 for their antitumor potential in a mouse model overexpressing a human erbB-2 transgene that develops mammary tumors. Comparing the antitumor reactivity of CAR-modified T cells under various therapeutic settings, either prophylactic, prior to tumor development, or therapeutically. We found that repeated administration of CAR-modified T cells is required to eliminate spontaneously developing mammary cancer. Systemic, as well as intratumoral administered CAR-modified T cells accumulated at tumor sites and eventually eliminated the malignant cells. Interestingly, within a few weeks after a single CAR T cells' administration, and rejection of primary lesion, tumors usually relapsed both in treated mammary gland and at remote sites; however, repeated injections of CAR-modified T cells were able to control the secondary tumors. Since spontaneous tumors can arise repeatedly, especially in the case of syndromes characterized by specific susceptibility to cancer, multiple administrations of CAR-modified T cells can serve to control relapsing disease. PMID:24572294

  3. ErbB/EGF Signaling and EMT in Mammary Development and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katharine M.; Booth, Brian W.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Salomon, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases via cognate Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like peptide ligands constitutes a major group of related signaling pathways that control proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. In this respect, clinical trials with various ErbB receptor blocking antibodies and specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have proven to be partially efficacious in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease. Induction of an embryonic program of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer, whereupon epithelial tumor cells convert to a more mesenchymal-like phenotype, facilitates the migration, intravasation, and extravasation of tumor cells during metastasis. Breast cancers which exhibit properties of EMT are highly aggressive and resistant to therapy. Activation of ErbB signaling can regulate EMT-associated invasion and migration in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells, as well as modulating discrete stages of mammary gland development. The purpose of this review is to summarize current information regarding the role of ErbB signaling in aspects of EMT that influence epithelial cell plasticity during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. How this information may contribute to the improvement of therapeutic approaches in breast cancer will also be addressed. PMID:20369376

  4. Elimination of progressive mammary cancer by repeated administrations of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells.

    PubMed

    Globerson-Levin, Anat; Waks, Tova; Eshhar, Zelig

    2014-05-01

    Continuous oncogenic processes that generate cancer require an on-going treatment approach to eliminate the transformed cells, and prevent their further development. Here, we studied the ability of T cells expressing a chimeric antibody-based receptor (CAR) to offer a therapeutic benefit for breast cancer induced by erbB-2. We tested CAR-modified T cells (T-bodies) specific to erbB-2 for their antitumor potential in a mouse model overexpressing a human erbB-2 transgene that develops mammary tumors. Comparing the antitumor reactivity of CAR-modified T cells under various therapeutic settings, either prophylactic, prior to tumor development, or therapeutically. We found that repeated administration of CAR-modified T cells is required to eliminate spontaneously developing mammary cancer. Systemic, as well as intratumoral administered CAR-modified T cells accumulated at tumor sites and eventually eliminated the malignant cells. Interestingly, within a few weeks after a single CAR T cells' administration, and rejection of primary lesion, tumors usually relapsed both in treated mammary gland and at remote sites; however, repeated injections of CAR-modified T cells were able to control the secondary tumors. Since spontaneous tumors can arise repeatedly, especially in the case of syndromes characterized by specific susceptibility to cancer, multiple administrations of CAR-modified T cells can serve to control relapsing disease.

  5. Early postnatal exposure to endosulfan interferes with the normal development of the male rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, Gabriela A; Delconte, Melisa B; Gomez, Ayelen L; Alarcón, Ramiro; Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Kass, Laura

    2017-09-19

    Our aim was to evaluate whether postnatal exposure to endosulfan (ENDO) modifies mammary gland (MG) development in pre- and post-pubertal male rats. From postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND7, male rats were injected subcutaneously every 48h with either corn oil (vehicle) or 600μg ENDO/kg.bw. On PND21 and PND60, MG and blood samples were collected. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) serum levels, MG histology, collagen fiber organization, proliferation index, and estrogen (ESR1) and androgen receptor (AR) expressions were evaluated. On PND21, E2 and T levels were similar between groups, whereas MG area, perimeter, number of terminal end buds and ESR1 expression were increased in ENDO-exposed rats. These changes were associated with alveolar development and increased organized collagen in the stroma. On PND60, a higher proliferation index in ENDO-exposed rats was correlated with a more developed lobuloalveolar structure. Hyperplastic alveoli and, hyperplastic ducts surrounded by a dense stroma were also observed in this group. T levels and ESR1 expression were similar between groups, whereas E2 levels and AR expression were decreased in ENDO-exposed rats. The exposure to ENDO in the first week of life interferes with the normal development of the MG and induces pre-malignant lesions in post-pubertal male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotoxic effects of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human and rat mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.S.; Purnell, D.M.; Hsu, Ih-chang )

    1990-01-01

    Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of different carcinogenic activities were evaluated for their effects on DNA synthesis ({sup 3}HTdR labeling index (L.I.)) of rat and human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and for their effects on chromosomes in MEC-mediated sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. When compared with DMSO-treated cells, exposures of rat MEC to the two most potent carcinogens, i.e., 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), resulted in a 45-62% reduction in the L.I. of rat MEC. Another carcinogen, 20-methylcholanthrene (MCA), produced a 35-48% reduction in L.I., while the noncarcinogenic PAHs, 1,2-benzanthracene (BA) and benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), showed no effect. Similarly, exposures of human MEC to DMBA and B(a)P resulted in a 50-90% depression in L.I. while BA was significantly less effective. When co-cultivated with Chinese hamster V-79 cells in the presence of PAH, both rat and human MEC can activate and release the active metabolites to induce SCE in V-79 cells. Comparing depression of L.I., SCE, and in vivo carcinogenicity for the 5 PAHs, SCE mediated by rat MEC is better correlated with carcinogenicity in rat than L.I. depression.

  7. Developmental signaling pathways regulating mammary stem cells and contributing to the etiology of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Maria Cristina; Bertolette, Daniel; Castro, Nadia P; Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Cuttitta, Frank; Salomon, David S

    2016-04-01

    Cancer has been considered as temporal and spatial aberrations of normal development in tissues. Similarities between mammary embryonic development and cell transformation suggest that the underlying processes required for mammary gland development are also those perturbed during various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer (BC) development. The master regulators of embryonic development Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin play key roles in modulating mammary gland morphogenesis and cell fate specification in the embryo through fetal mammary stem cells (fMaSC) and in the adult organism particularly within the adult mammary stem cells (aMaSC), which determine mammary progenitor cell lineages that generate the basal/myoepithelial and luminal compartments of the adult mammary gland. Together with recognized transcription factors and embryonic stem cell markers, these embryonic regulatory molecules can be inappropriately augmented during tumorigenesis to support the tumor-initiating cell (TIC)/cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment, and the effects of their deregulation may contribute for the etiology of BC, in particular the most aggressive subtype of BC, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This in depth review will present evidence of the involvement of Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin in the normal mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis, from fMaSC/aMaSC regulation to TIC generation and maintenance in TNBC. Specific therapies for treating TNBC by targeting these embryonic pathways in TICs will be further discussed, providing new opportunities to destroy not only the bulk tumor, but also TICs that initiate and promote the metastatic spread and recurrence of this aggressive subtype of BC.

  8. PKCδ Inhibition Impairs Mammary Cancer Proliferative Capacity But Selects Cancer Stem Cells, Involving Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Damián E; Flumian, Carolina; Rodriguez, Cristina E; Bessone, María I Díaz; Cirigliano, Stefano M; Joffé, Elisa D Bal de Kier; Fiszman, Gabriel L; Urtreger, Alejandro J; Todaro, Laura B

    2016-03-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate diverse cellular functions including cell death, proliferation, and survival. Recent studies have reported that PKCδ, are involved in apoptosis or autophagy induction. In the present study we focused on how PKCδ regulates proliferation and cancer stem cell (CSC) properties of the hormone-independent mammary cancer cell line LM38-LP, using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We found that pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ, by Rottlerin treatment, impairs in vitro LM38-LP proliferation through cell cycle arrest, inducing the formation of cytoplasmic-vacuoles. Using immunofluorescence we confirmed that Rottlerin treatment induced the apparition of LC3 dots in cell cytoplasm, and increased autophagy flux. On the other side, the same treatment increased CSC growth rate and self-renewal. Furthermore, Rottlerin pre-treatment induced in CSC the development of a "grape-like" morphology when they are growing in 3D cultures (Matrigel), usually associated with a malignant phenotype, as well as an increase in the number of experimental lung metastasis when these cells were inoculated in vivo. The PKCδ knockdown, by RNA interference, induced autophagy and increased CSC number, indicating that these effects are indeed exerted through a PKCδ dependent pathway. Finally, the increase in the number of mammospheres could be reversed by a 3MA treatment, suggesting that autophagy mechanism is necessary for the increased of CSC self-renewal induced by PKCδ inhibition. Here we demonstrated that PKCδ activity exerts a dual role through the autophagy mechanism, decreasing proliferative capacity of mammary tumor cells but also regulating tumor stem cell self-renewal. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Production of skeletal muscle elements by cell lines derived from neoplastic rat mammary epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rudland, P S; Dunnington, D J; Gusterson, B; Monaghan, P; Hughes, C M

    1984-05-01

    Single-cell-cloned cell lines intermediate in morphology between the cuboidal epithelial and fully elongated myoepithelial-like cells have been isolated from the single-cell-cloned epithelial stem cell lines Rama 25 and Rama 37 originally obtained from dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors from Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Furth rats, respectively. These are designated Rama 25-l1, Rama 25-l2, Rama 25-l4 (Sprague-Dawley) and Rama 50-55, Rama 59, and Rama 60 (Wistar-Furth), respectively. When growing as tumors in nude mice or syngeneic Wistar-Furth rats, respectively, many of the newly cloned cell lines give rise to spindle and giant, multinucleated cells which stain immunocytochemically with antisera to myoglobin and myosin and contain longitudinal fibrils, some of which contain phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin-staining cross-striations. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates the presence of A-, l-, and H-bands and Z-discs and the hexagonal arrangement of thick and thin filaments characteristic of skeletal muscle. Similar results are obtained with selected cloned cell lines growing on floating collagen gels in vitro. Thus, a developmentally committed mammary epithelial cell can give rise, under suitable conditions, to a well-differentiated mesenchymal lineage, that of skeletal muscle. It is suggested that such cells may be responsible for the generation of the well-differentiated mesenchymal elements seen in the mixed (epithelial and myoepithelial) tumors of glandular origin.

  10. Dietary rosemary suppresses 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene binding to rat mammary cell DNA.

    PubMed

    Amagase, H; Sakamoto, K; Segal, E R; Milner, J A

    1996-05-01

    Commercially available ground rosemary powder was examined for its ability to modify the in vivo binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) metabolites to mammary cell DNA in 55-d-old rats fed diets containing varying quantities and types of lipids. Supplementing a casein-based diet containing 20% corn oil with 1 % rosemary for 2 wk reduced by 76% the occurrence of DMBA-induced DNA adducts occurring 24 h after treatment with 50 mg DMBA/kg body weight. A comparable reduction in DNA adducts (66%) occurred when 0.5% rosemary was added to a diet containing 20% corn oil, and the quantity of DMBA given was reduced to 25 mg/kg body weight. The reduction in the occurrence of adducts occurring 24 h after DMBA treatment caused by 0.5% dietary rosemary was greater (P < 0.05) when added to a diet containing 20% corn oil than when added to a diet containing 5% corn oil and 15% coconut oil. Rosemary, 1% but not 0.5%, reduced DMBA-induced DNA adducts when the diet contained 5% corn oil. These studies demonstrate that rosemary is effective in reducing the binding of DMBA metabolites to rat mammary cell DNA. Furthermore, the present studies demonstrate that the benefits of rosemary are dependent on the source and concentration of dietary lipids.

  11. N-glycolylneuraminic acid biosynthesis in rat mammary tumor ascites cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sherblom, A.

    1986-05-01

    N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGl) are two of the most common forms of sialic acid, a compound found at the cell surface of all animal cells. The expression of NeuGl, which is thought to be synthesized from NeuAc, appears to be species-dependent, and the amounts of NeuGl change with differentiation and during malignancy. Hydroxylation of the acetyl group to glycolyl was monitored in 13762 rat mammary tumor ascites cells in which NeuGl accounts for 47% of the total sialic acid. N-acetylmannosamine-(/sup 14/C-acetyl) was incubated with a crude extract of MAT-Cl cells and formation of /sup 14/C-glycolate was determined by thin-layer chromatography following methanolic HCl hydrolysis and hydroxamate derivation. Conversion of /sup 14/C-acetate to /sup 14/C-glycolate increased with time of incubation and with protein concentration, and the specific activity of MAT-Cl crude extract for the conversion was 940 + 160 pmol/h/mg protein. By ion exchange chromatography, the /sup 14/C-glycolate product was predominantly neutral, with less than 10% associated with the sialic acid fraction. The results suggest that N-acetylmannosamine is a substrate for the hydroxylase under the conditions of the assay and that N-glycolylmannosamine may be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of NeuGl in rat mammary tumor ascites cells.

  12. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiming; Modiano, Jaime F; Ito, Daisuke

    2017-03-30

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1(-) and SSEA-1(+) cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines.

  13. Macrophages: Regulators of the Inflammatory Microenvironment during Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brady, Nicholas J; Chuntova, Pavlina; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are critical mediators of inflammation and important regulators of developmental processes. As a key phagocytic cell type, macrophages evolved as part of the innate immune system to engulf and process cell debris and pathogens. Macrophages produce factors that act directly on their microenvironment and also bridge innate immune responses to the adaptive immune system. Resident macrophages are important for acting as sensors for tissue damage and maintaining tissue homeostasis. It is now well-established that macrophages are an integral component of the breast tumor microenvironment, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression, likely through many of the mechanisms that are utilized during normal wound healing responses. Because macrophages contribute to normal mammary gland development and breast cancer growth and progression, this review will discuss both resident mammary gland macrophages and tumor-associated macrophages with an emphasis on describing how macrophages interact with their surrounding environment during normal development and in the context of cancer.

  14. Macrophages: Regulators of the Inflammatory Microenvironment during Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nicholas J.; Chuntova, Pavlina; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are critical mediators of inflammation and important regulators of developmental processes. As a key phagocytic cell type, macrophages evolved as part of the innate immune system to engulf and process cell debris and pathogens. Macrophages produce factors that act directly on their microenvironment and also bridge innate immune responses to the adaptive immune system. Resident macrophages are important for acting as sensors for tissue damage and maintaining tissue homeostasis. It is now well-established that macrophages are an integral component of the breast tumor microenvironment, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression, likely through many of the mechanisms that are utilized during normal wound healing responses. Because macrophages contribute to normal mammary gland development and breast cancer growth and progression, this review will discuss both resident mammary gland macrophages and tumor-associated macrophages with an emphasis on describing how macrophages interact with their surrounding environment during normal development and in the context of cancer. PMID:26884646

  15. STAT5A Regulates the Survival of Mammary Epithelial Cells and the Development of Mammary Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    1997; Ciardiello signal from EGFR to its intracellular signaling et al., 1996; Ciardiello and Tortora , 1998), anti- molecules is critical in...Endocrinology, 126, 596-607. 1817. Bianco C, Tortora G, Baldassarre G, Caputo R, Fontanini Gillett C, Smith P, Gregory W, Richards M, Millis R, Peters...10582. De Placido S, Fan Z, Mendelsohn J, Bianco AR and Halter SA, Dempsey P, Matsui Y, Stokes MK, Graves-Deal Tortora G. (1999). Clin. Cancer Res

  16. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ryan R; La Merrill, Michele; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter; Threadgill, David W; Pomp, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed that mice fed a high-fat diet have shorter mammary cancer latency, increased tumor growth and more pulmonary metastases than mice fed a standard diet. Subsequent genetic analysis identified several modifiers of metastatic mammary cancer along with widespread interactions between cancer modifiers and dietary fat. To elucidate diet-dependent genetic modifiers of mammary cancer and metastasis risk, global gene expression profiles and copy number alterations from mammary cancers were measured and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified. Functional candidate genes that colocalized with previously detected metastasis modifiers were identified. Additional analyses, such as eQTL by dietary fat interaction analysis, causality and database evaluations, helped to further refine the candidate loci to produce an enriched list of genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of metastatic mammary cancer. PMID:20354763

  17. The ADAM17-amphiregulin-EGFR axis in mammary development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sternlicht, Mark D; Sunnarborg, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    In order to fulfill its function of producing and delivering sufficient milk to newborn mammalian offspring, the mammary gland first has to form an extensive ductal network. As in all phases of mammary development, hormonal cues elicit local intra- and inter-cellular signaling cascades that regulate ductal growth and differentiation. Among other things, ductal development requires the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), its ligand amphiregulin (AREG), and the transmembrane metalloproteinase ADAM17, which can cleave and release AREG from the cell surface so that it may interact with its receptor. Tissue recombination and transplantation studies demonstrate that EGFR phosphorylation and ductal development proceed only when ADAM17 and AREG are expressed on mammary epithelial cells and EGFR is present on stromal cells, and that local administration of soluble AREG can rescue the development of ADAM17-deficient transplants. Thus proper mammary morphogenesis requires the ADAM17-mediated release of AREG from ductal epithelial cells, the subsequent activation of EGFR on stromal cells, and EGFR-dependent stromal responses that in return elicit a new set of epithelial responses, all culminating in the formation of a fully functional ductal tree. This, however, raises new issues concerning what may act upstream, downstream or in parallel with the ADAM17-AREG-EGFR axis, how it may become hijacked or corrupted during the onset and evolution of cancer, and how such ill effects may be confronted.

  18. Rat mammary-gland transferrin: nucleotide sequence, phylogenetic analysis and glycan structure.

    PubMed Central

    Escrivá, H; Pierce, A; Coddeville, B; González, F; Benaissa, M; Léger, D; Wieruszeski, J M; Spik, G; Pamblanco, M

    1995-01-01

    The complete cDNA for rat mammary-gland transferrin (Tf) has been sequenced and also the native protein isolated from milk in order to analyse the structure of the main glycan variants present. A lactating-rat mammary-gland cDNA library in lambda gt10 was screened with a partial cDNA copy of rat liver Tf and subsequently rescreened with 5' fragments of the longest clones. This produced a 2275 bp insert coding for an open reading frame of 695 amino acid residues. This includes a 19-amino acid signal sequence and the mature protein containing 676 amino acids and one N-glycosylation site in the C-terminal domain at residue 490. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using 14 translated Tf nucleotide sequences, and the derived evolutionary tree shows that at least three gene duplication events have occurred during Tf evolution, one of which generated the N- and C-terminal domains and occurred before separation of arthropods and chordates. The two halves of human melanotransferrin are more similar to each other than to any other sequence, which contrasts with the pattern shown by the remaining sequences. Native rat milk Tf is separated into four bands on native PAGE that differ only in their sialic acid content: one biantennary glycan is present containing either no sialic acid residues or up to three. The complete structures of the two major variants were determined by methylation, m.s. and 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. They contain either one or two neuraminic acid residues (alpha 2-->6)-linked to galactose in conventional biantennary N-acetyl-lactosamine-type glycans. Most contain fucose (alpha 1-->6)-linked to the terminal non-reducing N-acetylglucosamine. Images Figure 4 PMID:7717992

  19. The myoepithelial cell: its role in normal mammary glands and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sopel, M

    2010-02-01

    Mammary gland epithelium is composed of an inner layer of secretory cells (luminal) and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells (MEC) bordering the basal lamina which separates the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Mature MECs morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells; however, they exhibit features typical for epithelial cells, such as the presence of specific cytokeratin filaments. During lactation, secretory cells synthesize milk components, which are collected in alveoli and duct lumen, and transported to the nipple as a result of MEC contraction. Although the induction of MEC contraction results from oxytocin action, also other, still unknown auto/paracrine mechanisms participate in the regulation of this process. As well as milk ejection, MECs are involved in mammary gland morphogenesis in all developmental stages, modulating proliferation and differentiation of luminal cells. They take part in the formation of extracellular matrix, synthesizing its components and secreting proteinases and their inhibitors. In addition, MECs are regarded as natural cancer suppressors, stabilizing the normal structure of the mammary gland, they secrete suppressor proteins (e.g. maspin) limiting cancer growth, invasiveness, and neoangiogenesis. The majority of malignant breast cancers are derived from luminal cells, whereas neoplasms of MEC origin are the most seldom and usually benign form of breast tumours. MECs are markedly resistant to malignant transformation and they are able to suppress the transformation of neighboring luminal cells. Therefore, a deeper insight into the role of MECs in the physiology and pathology of mammary glands would allow a better understanding of cancerogenesis mechanisms and possible application of specific MEC markers in the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer.

  20. IMPACT OF OBESITY ON DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF MAMMARY TUMORS IN PRECLINICAL MODELS OF BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Margot P.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and/or obesity are known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. More recently increased body weight has also been associated with poor prognosis for both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. This relationship has primarily been identified through epidemiological studies. Additional information from in vitro studies has also been produced in attempts to delineate mechanisms of action for the association of obesity and body weight and breast cancer. This approach has identified potential growth factors such as insulin, leptin, estrogen and IGF-I which are reported to be modulated by body weight changes. However, in vitro studies are limited in scope and frequently use non-physiological concentrations of growth factors, while long follow-up is needed for human studies. Preclinical animal models provide an intermediary approach to investigate the impact of body weight and potential growth factors on mammary/breast tumor development and progression. Here results of a number of studies addressing this issue are presented. In the majority of the studies either genetically-obese or diet-induced obese rodent models have been used to investigate spontaneous, transgenic and carcinogen-induced mammary tumor development. To study tumor progression the major focus has been allograft studies in mice with either genetic or dietary-induced obesity. In general, obesity has been demonstrated to shorten mammary tumor latency and to impact tumor pathology. However, in rodents with defects in leptin and other growth factors the impact of obesity is not as straightforward. Future studies using more physiologically relevant obesity models and clearly distinguishing diet composition from body weight effects will be important in continuing to understand the factors associated with body weight’s impact on the mammary/breast cancer development and progression. PMID:24122258

  1. Antiproliferative effect of berberine on canine mammary gland cancer cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sefidabi, Reyhaneh; Mortazavi, Pejman; Hosseini, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Canine mammary gland tumors are the most frequent cause of cancer in female dogs. Numerous studies using cancer cell lines and clinical trials have indicated that various natural products and antioxidants reduce or possibly prevent the development of cancer. Berberine (BBR), the most important alkaloid in the Berberidaceae, which exerts a wide range of pharmacological and biochemical effects, has drawn much attention due to its particularly high antitumor activity in vitro and in animal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effect of BBR against a canine mammary gland carcinoma cell line (CF41.Mg) in vitro. CF41.Mg cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% heat inactived fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 100 mg/ml peniciline-streptomycin. Subsequently the cells were treated with different concentrations of BBR chloride (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) at a density of 12,000 cells/well in 96-well plates. Following treatment, the MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after 24-, 48- and 72-h incubations at 37°C with 5% CO2. The results indicated that BBR inhibited proliferation of canine mammary gland carcinoma cells, as treatment with 100 µM BBR for 24 h resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability (P<0.005). As the present study demonstrated that BBR (10-200 µM) induced cancer cell death, it is proposed that BBR may serve as a candidate agent against canine mammary tumor cells via its antiproliferative activity.

  2. VRP immunotherapy targeting neu: treatment efficacy and evidence for immunoediting in a stringent rat mammary tumor model.

    PubMed

    Laust, Amanda K; Sur, Brandon W; Wang, Kehui; Hubby, Bolyn; Smith, Jonathan F; Nelson, Edward L

    2007-12-01

    The ability to overcome intrinsic tolerance to a strict "self" tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and successfully treat pre-existing tumor is the most stringent test for anti-tumor immunotherapeutic strategies. Although this capacity has been demonstrated in various models using complicated strategies that may not be readily translated into the clinical arena, straightforward antigen-specific immunotherapeutic strategies in the most stringent models of common epithelial cancers have largely failed to meet this standard. We employed an immunotherapeutic strategy using an alphavirus-based, virus-like replicon particle (VRP), which has in vivo tropism for dendritic cells, to elicit immune responses to the non-mutated TAA rat neu in an aggressive rat mammary tumor model. Using this VRP-based immunotherapeutic strategy targeting a single TAA, we generated effective anti-tumor immunity in the setting of pre-existing tumor resulting in the cure of 36% of rats over multiple experiments, P = 0.002. We also observed down-regulation of rat neu expression in tumors that showed initial responses followed by tumor escape with resumption of rapid tumor growth. These responses were accompanied by significant anti-tumor proliferative responses and CD8+ cellular tumor infiltrates, all of which were restricted to animals receiving the anti-neu immunotherapy. Together these data, obtained in a stringent "self" TAA model, indicate that the VRP-based antigen-specific immunotherapy elicits sufficiently potent immune responses to exert immunologic pressure, selection, and editing of the growing tumors, thus supporting the activity of this straightforward immunotherapy and suggesting that it is a promising platform upon which to build even more potent strategies.

  3. Met Receptor Acts Uniquely for Survival and Morphogenesis of EGFR-Dependent Normal Mammary Epithelial and Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, Francesca; Quaglino, Elena; Martignani, Eugenio; Baratta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Mammary gland development and breast cancer growth require multiple factors both of endocrine and paracrine origin. We analyzed the roles of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (Met) in mammary epithelial cells and mammary tumor cells derived from a mutated-ErbB2 transgenic mice. By using highly specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors we found that MCF-10A and NMuMG mammary epithelial cell lines are totally dependent on EGFR activation for their growth and survival. Proliferation and 3D-morphogenesis assays showed that HGF had no role in maintaining mammary cell viability, but was the only cytokine able to rescue EGFR-inhibited mammary cells. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), basic-Fibroblast Growth Factor (b-FGF) and Neuregulin, which are well known mammary morphogenic factors, did not rescue proliferation or morphogenesis in these cell lines, following EGFR inhibition. Similarly, ErbB2-driven tumor cells are EGFR-dependent and also display HGF-mediated rescue. Western-blot analysis of the signaling pathways involved in rescue after EGFR inhibition indicated that concomitant ERK1/2 and AKT activation was exclusively driven by Met, but not by IGF-I or b-FGF. These results describe a unique role for EGFR and Met in mammary epithelial cells by showing that similar pathways can be used by tumorigenic cells to sustain growth and resist to EGFR-directed anti-tumorigenic drugs. PMID:23028720

  4. Soy protein isolate and estradiol differ in their effects on the mammary gland of weanling male and female rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isoflavones are phytochemical components of soy diets that bind weakly to estrogen receptors (ERs). To study potential estrogen-like actions of soy in the mammary gland, we fed weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a casein diet from PND21 to PND33, the same diet substituting soy protein isol...

  5. Gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in mammary gland of pregnant rats and its regulation by ovarian hormones, prolactin and placental lactogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, L E; Deis, R P

    1984-01-01

    Ovariectomy and ovariectomy plus hysterectomy on day 18 of pregnancy increased gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in the mammary gland. The withdrawal of progesterone and the subsequent release of prolactin are responsible for the rise in enzyme activity. Rat placental lactogen in the absence of prolactin and progesterone is able to induce gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. PMID:6149746

  6. EXPOSURE PARAMETERS NECESSARY FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure Parameters Necessary For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine

    Jennifer L. Rayner1, 2, Carmen Wood2, and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Heal...

  7. EXPOSURE PARAMETERS NECESSARY FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure Parameters Necessary For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine

    Jennifer L. Rayner1, 2, Carmen Wood2, and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Heal...

  8. Inhibitory effect of an oxygenated cholesterol on the induction and progression of DMBA-induced mammary carcinomas in the rat.

    PubMed

    Iversen, O H; Kolberg, A; Smith-Kielland, I; Stabursvik, A

    1986-01-01

    In vivo studies on the effect of two stereoisomeric 7,22-dihydroxycholesterols on tumor development were conducted in the Charles Huggins animal cancer model (DMBA-induced mammary cancer in the Sprague-Dawley female rat). Three groups of DMBA-treated animals were fed a 9:1 mixture of (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 beta,22-triol and (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 alpha,22-triol in the drinking water in a calculated dose of 250 micrograms per animal per day. One group (A) received the sterols throughout the experimental period of 35 weeks, another group (B) during the first 12 weeks only, and a third group (C) only during weeks 13 through 35 after DMBA injection. Tumor rates and tumor yields were calculated, and statistical assessment by accepted methods demonstrated a very significant inhibitory effect on tumor development in Groups A and B, as compared with Group C. The results indicate a growth-inhibitory effect during the induction period of carcinoma development. The influence on neoplastic growth of (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 alpha,22-triol, (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 beta,22-triol, and (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,22-diol-7-one was examined in suspension cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The 7 alpha-hydroxy compound proved to be ineffective, whereas the latter two substances displayed a strong cytotoxic effect.

  9. Mammary gland involution as an immunotherapeutic target for postpartum breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fornetti, Jaime; Martinson, Holly A; Betts, Courtney B; Lyons, Traci R; Jindal, Sonali; Guo, Qiuchen; Coussens, Lisa M; Borges, Virginia F; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-07-01

    Postpartum mammary gland involution has been identified as tumor-promotional and is proposed to contribute to the increased rates of metastasis and poor survival observed in postpartum breast cancer patients. In rodent models, the involuting mammary gland microenvironment is sufficient to induce enhanced tumor cell growth, local invasion, and metastasis. Postpartum involution shares many attributes with wound healing, including upregulation of genes involved in immune responsiveness and infiltration of tissue by immune cells. In rodent models, treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ameliorates the tumor-promotional effects of involution, consistent with the immune milieu of the involuting gland contributing to tumor promotion. Currently, immunotherapy is being investigated as a means of breast cancer treatment with the purpose of identifying ways to enhance anti-tumor immune responses. Here we review evidence for postpartum mammary gland involution being a uniquely defined 'hot-spot' of pro-tumorigenic immune cell infiltration, and propose that immunotherapy should be explored for prevention and treatment of breast cancers that arise in this environment.

  10. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) inhibits mammary epithelial differentiation and induces fibroadenoma formation in female Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wright, Laura E; Frye, Jennifer B; Lukefahr, Ashley L; Marion, Samuel L; Hoyer, Patricia B; Besselsen, David G; Funk, Janet L

    2011-07-01

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), an occupational chemical that targets ovarian follicles and accelerates ovarian failure in rodents, was used to test the effect of early-onset reproductive senescence on mammary fibroadenoma formation. One-month female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with VCD (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) and monitored for 22 months for persistent estrus and tumor development. Only high-dose VCD treatment accelerated the onset of persistent estrus relative to controls. However, both doses of VCD accelerated mammary tumor onset by 5 months, increasing incidence to 84% (vs. 38% in controls). Tumor development was independent of time in persistent estrus, 17 β-estradiol, androstenedione and prolactin. Delay in VCD administration until after completion of mammary epithelial differentiation (3 months) did not alter tumor formation despite acceleration of ovarian senescence. VCD administration to 1-month rats acutely decreased mammary alveolar bud number and expression of β-casein, suggesting that VCD's tumorigenic effect requires exposure during mammary epithelial differentiation.

  11. Characterization of the autonomic innervation of mammary gland in lactating rats studied by retrograde transynaptic virus labeling and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Köves, Katalin; Györgyi, Z; Szabó, F K; Boldogkői, Zs

    2012-06-01

    The aim of experiments was to characterize the neurons of the autonomic chain that innervates the nipple and the mammary gland of lactating rats using retrograde transynaptic virus labeling and neurotransmitter and neuropeptide immunohistochemistry. Two days after injection of green fluorescence protein labeled virus in two nipples and underlying mammary glands, labeling was observed in the ipsilateral paravertebral sympathetic trunk and the lateral horn. Three days after inoculation the labeling appeared in the brain stem and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Above the spinal cord the labeling was bilateral. A subpopulation of virus labeled cells in the paraventricular nuclei synthesized oxytocin. Labeled neurons in the lateral horn showed cholinergic immunoreactivity. These cholinergic neurons innervated the paravertebral ganglia where the virus labeled neurons were partially noradrenergic. The noradrenergic fibers in the mammary gland innervate the smooth muscle wall of vessels, but not the mammary gland in rats. The neurons in the lateral horn receive afferents from the brain stem, and paraventricular nucleus and these afferents are noradrenergic and oxytocinergic. New findings in our work: Some oxytocinergic fibers may descend to the neurons of the lateral horn which innervate noradrenergic neurons in the paravertebral sympathetic trunk, and in turn these noradrenergic neurons reach the vessels of the mammary gland.

  12. 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide (VCD) Inhibits Mammary Epithelial Differentiation and Induces Fibroadenoma Formation in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Laura E.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Lukefahr, Ashley L.; Marion, Samuel L.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Besselsen, David G.; Funk, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), an occupational chemical that targets ovarian follicles and accelerates ovarian failure in rodents, was used to test the effect of early-onset reproductive senescence on mammary fibroadenoma formation. One-month female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with VCD (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) and monitored for 22 months for persistent estrus and tumor development. Only high-dose VCD treatment accelerated the onset of persistent estrus relative to controls. However, both doses of VCD accelerated mammary tumor onset by 5 months, increasing incidence to 84% (vs. 38% in controls). Tumor development was independent of time in persistent estrus, 17β-estradiol, androstenedione and prolactin. Delay in VCD administration until after completion of mammary epithelial differentiation (3 months) did not alter tumor formation despite acceleration of ovarian senescence. VCD administration to 1-month rats acutely decreased mammary alveolar bud number and expression of β-casein, suggesting that VCD’s tumorigenic effect requires exposure during mammary epithelial differentiation. PMID:21621605

  13. Biochemical characteristics of cytosolic and particulate forms of protein tyrosine kinases from methyl nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.K.; Chiasson, J.C.; Chiasson, J.L.; Lacroix, A.; Windisch, L. )

    1991-03-11

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities in MNU-induced rat mammary carcinoma has been investigated by using poly (glu: tyr; 4:1) as an exogenous substrate. The PTK activity of the mammary carcinoma was about equally distributed between the particulate and cytosolic fractions at 110 000 x g. Both particulate and cytosolic PTKs catalyzed the phosphorylation of several tyrosine containing synthetic substrates to various degrees, however, poly (glu: tyr; 4:1) was the best substrate. Both the forms utilized ATP as the phosphoryl group donor. Among various divalent cations tested, Co{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were able to fulfill the divalent cation requirement. Poly-lysine exerted a stimulatory effect on the particulate, but not on the cytosolic form. On the other hand, though heparin and quercetin inhibited both the forms in a concentration dependent manner, the particulate form was more sensitive to inhibition. These data indicate that MNU-induced rat mammary carcinoma expresses both particulate and cytosolic forms of PTKs and that there are significant differences in the properties of the two forms. Differential differences in the properties of the two forms. Differential effects of some agents on mammary carcinoma PTKs suggest that these enzymes may be acutely regulated in vivo and could play important role in mammary carcinogenesis.

  14. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Hadsell, Darryl L.; Hadsell, Louise A.; Olea, Walter; Rijnkels, Monique; Creighton, Chad J.; Smyth, Ian; Short, Kieran M.; Cox, Liza L.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetic diversity in mammary gland development is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structural variation in mammary ductal development, and determined if these QTL correlated with genomic intervals conferring breast cancer susceptibility in humans. For about half of the traits, the observed variation among the complete set of strains in this study was greater (P<0.05) than that observed with previously studied strains or with strains that are in current common use for mammary gland biology. Correlations were also detected with previously reported variation in mammary tumor latency and metastasis. In silico genome-wide association (GWAS) identified 20 mammary development QTL (Mdq). Of these, 5 were syntenic with previously reported human BrCa loci. The most highly significant (P=1×10−11) association of the study was on MMU6 and contained the genes Plxna4, Plxna4os1, and Chchd3. On MMU5, a QTL was detected (p=8×10−7) that was syntenic to a human BrCa locus on h12q24.5 containing the genes Tbx3 and Tbx5. Intersection of high-association SNP (r2 >0.8) with genomic and epigenomic features, and intersection of candidate genes with gene expression and survival data from human BrCa highlighted several for further study. These results support the conclusion that genetic variation in mammary ductal development is greater than previously appreciated. They also suggest that mammary tumor latency and metastatic index may be influenced by variations in the same factors that control normal mammary ductal development and that further studies of genetically diverse mice can improve our understanding of the connection between breast development and breast cancer in humans by identifying novel susceptibility genes. PMID:25552398

  15. Susceptibility of fetal, virgin, pregnant and lactating rats for the induction of mammary tumors by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Heiko; Onoda, Makoto; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant Wistar-MS rats received a whole-body irradiation of 0-2.6 Gy {gamma} rays at day 20 of pregnancy. The mother rats were implanted with a diethylstilbestrol (DES) pellet 30 days after weaning, and the female pups delivered by the irradiated mother were treated with DES after maturation. Lactating rats were irradiated with {gamma} rays 21 days after parturition and then treated with DES. Virgin rats 70 days of age were also irradiated and then administered DES. The rats which received intrauterine irradiation did not develop mammary tumors in the mother rats and lactating rats increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing doses of {gamma} rays up to 2.1 Gy. With 0.1-1 Gy, the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the mother rats was significantly lower than that observed in the lactating rats. However, the incidence in the mother rats irradiated with 1.0-1.5 Gy was significantly higher than that of virgin rats treated with the corresponding {gamma}-ray doses. These findings suggest that the susceptibility of the mammary glands to radiation depends upon the differentiation at the time of exposure. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Bisected, complex N-glycans and galectins in mouse mammary tumor progression and human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hazuki E; Koba, Wade R; Fine, Eugene J; Giricz, Orsi; Kenny, Paraic A; Stanley, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Bisected, complex N-glycans on glycoproteins are generated by the glycosyltransferase MGAT3 and cause reduced cell surface binding of galectins. Previously, we showed that MGAT3 reduces growth factor signaling and retards mammary tumor progression driven by the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) expressed in mammary epithelium under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. However, the penetrance of the tumor phenotype became variable in mixed FVB/N and C57BL/6 female mice and we therefore investigated a congenic C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT model. In the absence of MGAT3, C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT females exhibited accelerated tumor appearance and increased tumor burden, glucose uptake in tumors and lung metastasis. Nevertheless, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or protein kinase B (AKT) was reduced in ∼20-week C57BL/6 MMTV-PyMT tumors lacking MGAT3. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein tyrosine kinase Src, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar to that of controls. All the eight mouse galectin genes were expressed in mammary tumors and tumor epithelial cells (TECs), but galectin-2 and -12 were not detected by western analysis in tumors, and galectin-7 was not detected in 60% of the TEC lines. From microarray data reported for human breast cancers, at least 10 galectin and 7 N-glycan N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc)-transferase (MGAT) genes are expressed in tumor tissue, and expression often varies significantly between different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, in summary, while MGAT3 and bisected complex N-glycans retard mouse mammary tumor progression, genetic background may modify this effect; identification of key galectins that promote mammary tumor progression in mice is not straightforward because all the eight galectin genes are expressed; and high levels of MGAT3, galectin-4, -8, -10, -13 and -14 transcripts correlate with better relapse-free survival in human breast cancer. PMID:24037315

  17. Bisected, complex N-glycans and galectins in mouse mammary tumor progression and human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Hazuki E; Koba, Wade R; Fine, Eugene J; Giricz, Orsi; Kenny, Paraic A; Stanley, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    Bisected, complex N-glycans on glycoproteins are generated by the glycosyltransferase MGAT3 and cause reduced cell surface binding of galectins. Previously, we showed that MGAT3 reduces growth factor signaling and retards mammary tumor progression driven by the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) expressed in mammary epithelium under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. However, the penetrance of the tumor phenotype became variable in mixed FVB/N and C57BL/6 female mice and we therefore investigated a congenic C57BL/6 Mgat3(-/-)/MMTV-PyMT model. In the absence of MGAT3, C57BL/6 Mgat3(-/-)/MMTV-PyMT females exhibited accelerated tumor appearance and increased tumor burden, glucose uptake in tumors and lung metastasis. Nevertheless, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or protein kinase B (AKT) was reduced in ∼20-week C57BL/6 MMTV-PyMT tumors lacking MGAT3. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein tyrosine kinase Src, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar to that of controls. All the eight mouse galectin genes were expressed in mammary tumors and tumor epithelial cells (TECs), but galectin-2 and -12 were not detected by western analysis in tumors, and galectin-7 was not detected in 60% of the TEC lines. From microarray data reported for human breast cancers, at least 10 galectin and 7 N-glycan N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc)-transferase (MGAT) genes are expressed in tumor tissue, and expression often varies significantly between different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, in summary, while MGAT3 and bisected complex N-glycans retard mouse mammary tumor progression, genetic background may modify this effect; identification of key galectins that promote mammary tumor progression in mice is not straightforward because all the eight galectin genes are expressed; and high levels of MGAT3, galectin-4, -8, -10, -13 and -14 transcripts correlate with better relapse-free survival in human breast cancer.

  18. Strain Differences in Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumor Incidence in Long Evans and Sprague Dawley Rat Offspring Following Prenatal Atrazine Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been shown that prenatal exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR) during mammary bud outgrowth (late gestation) delays postnatal mammary epithelial progression in Long Evans (LE) rats. Our laboratory has recently found that prenatal exposure to ATR also effe...

  19. Strain Differences in Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumor Incidence in Long Evans and Sprague Dawley Rat Offspring Following Prenatal Atrazine Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been shown that prenatal exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR) during mammary bud outgrowth (late gestation) delays postnatal mammary epithelial progression in Long Evans (LE) rats. Our laboratory has recently found that prenatal exposure to ATR also effe...

  20. Exogenous normal mammary epithelial mitochondria suppress glycolytic metabolism and glucose uptake of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xian-Peng; Elliott, Robert L; Head, Jonathan F

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesized that normal mitochondria inhibited cancer cell proliferation and increased drug sensitivity by the mechanism of suppression of cancer aerobic glycolysis. To demonstrate the mechanism, we used real-time PCR and glycolysis cell-based assay to measure gene expression of glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporters, and extracellular lactate production of human breast cancer cells. We found that isolated fluorescent probe-stained mitochondria of MCF-12A (human mammary epithelia) could enter into human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231, confirmed by fluorescent and confocal microscopy. Mitochondria from the untransformed human mammary epithelia increased drug sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to paclitaxel. Real-time PCR showed that exogenous normal mitochondria of MCF-12A suppressed gene expression of glycolytic enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase A, and glucose transporter 1 and 3 of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Glycolysis cell-based assay revealed that normal mitochondria significantly suppressed lactate production in culture media of MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, normal mitochondria suppress cancer proliferation and increase drug sensitivity by the mechanism of inhibition of cancer cell glycolysis and glucose uptake.

  1. A new immunization and treatment strategy for mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) associated cancers

    PubMed Central

    Braitbard, Ori; Roniger, Maayan; Bar-Sinai, Allan; Rajchman, Dana; Gross, Tamar; Abramovitch, Hillel; Ferla, Marco La; Franceschi, Sara; Lessi, Francesca; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Mazzanti, Chiara M.; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Hochman, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) causes mammary carcinoma or lymphoma in mice. An increasing body of evidence in recent years supports its involvement also in human sporadic breast cancer. It is thus of importance to develop new strategies to impair the development, growth and metastasis of MMTV-associated cancers. The signal peptide of the envelope precursor protein of this virus: MMTV-p14 (p14) is an excellent target for such strategies, due to unique characteristics distinct from its regular endoplasmic reticulum targeting function. These include cell surface expression in: murine cancer cells that harbor the virus, human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells that ectopically express p14, as well as cultured human cells derived from an invasive ductal breast carcinoma positive for MMTV sequences. These findings support its use in signal peptide-based immune targeting. Indeed, priming and boosting mice with p14 elicits a specific anti-signal peptide immune response sufficient for protective vaccination against MMTV-associated tumors. Furthermore, passive immunization using a combination of anti-p14 monoclonal antibodies or the transfer of T-cells from immunized mice (Adoptive Cell Transfer) is also therapeutically effective. With reports demonstrating involvement of MMTV in human breast cancer, we propose the immune-mediated targeting of p14 as a strategy for prevention, treatment and diagnosis of MMTV-associated cancers. PMID:26934560

  2. Vitamin D receptor regulates autophagy in the normal mammary gland and in luminal breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E; Westerling, Thomas; Libby, Eric; Marusyk, Andriy; Cato, Laura; Cassani, Raymundo; Cameron, Lisa A; Ficarro, Scott B; Marto, Jarrod A; Klawitter, Jelena; Brown, Myles

    2017-03-14

    Women in North America have a one in eight lifetime risk of developing breast cancer (BC), and a significant proportion of these individuals will develop recurrent BC and will eventually succumb to the disease. Metastatic, therapy-resistant BC cells are refractory to cell death induced by multiple stresses. Here, we document that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) acts as a master transcriptional regulator of autophagy. Activation of the VDR by vitamin D induces autophagy and an autophagic transcriptional signature in BC cells that correlates with increased survival in patients; strikingly, this signature is present in the normal mammary gland and is progressively lost in patients with metastatic BC. A number of epidemiological studies have shown that sufficient vitamin D serum levels might be protective against BC. We observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in mice increases basal levels of autophagy in the normal mammary gland, highlighting the potential of vitamin D as a cancer-preventive agent. These findings point to a role of vitamin D and the VDR in modulating autophagy and cell death in both the normal mammary gland and BC cells.

  3. Vitamin D receptor regulates autophagy in the normal mammary gland and in luminal breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Westerling, Thomas; Libby, Eric; Marusyk, Andriy; Cato, Laura; Cassani, Raymundo; Cameron, Lisa A.; Ficarro, Scott B.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Klawitter, Jelena; Brown, Myles

    2017-01-01

    Women in North America have a one in eight lifetime risk of developing breast cancer (BC), and a significant proportion of these individuals will develop recurrent BC and will eventually succumb to the disease. Metastatic, therapy-resistant BC cells are refractory to cell death induced by multiple stresses. Here, we document that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) acts as a master transcriptional regulator of autophagy. Activation of the VDR by vitamin D induces autophagy and an autophagic transcriptional signature in BC cells that correlates with increased survival in patients; strikingly, this signature is present in the normal mammary gland and is progressively lost in patients with metastatic BC. A number of epidemiological studies have shown that sufficient vitamin D serum levels might be protective against BC. We observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in mice increases basal levels of autophagy in the normal mammary gland, highlighting the potential of vitamin D as a cancer-preventive agent. These findings point to a role of vitamin D and the VDR in modulating autophagy and cell death in both the normal mammary gland and BC cells. PMID:28242709

  4. Muc4/sialomucin complex in the mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carraway, K L; Price-Schiavi, S A; Komatsu, M; Jepson, S; Perez, A; Carraway, C A

    2001-07-01

    MUC4 is a one of the membrane mucins of the mucin gene (MUC) family, characterized by mucin tandem repeat domains and a transmembrane domain which associates it with the cell plasma membrane. Although MUC4 is encoded by a single gene, it is produced by epithelial cells as a heterodimer through a proteolytic cleavage mechanism. This heterodimer is found in both membrane and soluble forms associated with epithelia. Functionally, MUC4 is proposed to provide a protective mechanism for vulnerable epithelia, such as those of the airway, eye, female reproductive tract and mammary gland. The protective mechanism(s) may be highjacked by some carcinomas, such as those of the breast, to increase tumor progression. Two mechanisms are proposed to contribute to the MUC4 functions. First, MUC4 acts as an anti-adhesive or anti-recognition barrier at epithelial or tumor cell surfaces. Second, MUC4 can bind the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 and alter its cellular signaling. Expression of MUC4 in mammary gland is repressed by posttranscriptional mechanisms involving basement membrane and TGF-beta, which are relieved during pregnancy to permit secretion of MUC4 into milk. These mechanisms are also abrogated in some breast cancers, providing a scenario for promotion of tumor progression. These observations imply important functions for MUC4 in both normal mammary function and in breast cancer.

  5. Characterization of a myoepithelial cell line derived from a neonatal rat mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    A clonal, myoepithelial-like cell line has been obtained from a primary culture established from the mammary gland of a 7-d-old rat. In a number of respects, this cell line, termed Rama 401, resembles the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland, especially when grown on floating collagen gels. The cells grow as multilayers on the gel surface and form branching structures that do not appear to contain a lumen. They are rather elongated, with irregular-shaped, flattened nuclei that contain large amounts of peripheral chromatin. Elongated processes project from the cell surface and numerous membrane pinocytotic vesicles can be seen. The cytoplasm is filled with linear arrays of 5- to 7-nm filaments with occasional dense foci. Cell junctions with associated 8- to 11-nm tonofilaments are also observed. Immunofluorescence techniques reveal actin and myosin filaments and also intermediate filaments of both prekeratin and vimentin types. Rama 401 cells secrete an amorphous material that, when an immunoperoxidase technique is used, stains with antibodies to basement membrane-specific type IV collagen. Localized densities of the cell membrane, which resemble hemidesmosomes, are located adjacent to these extracellular deposits. Immunofluorescence staining and immunoprecipitation techniques reveal that the cells also synthesize two other basement membrane proteins, laminin and fibronectin. The type IV collagen consists of two chains with molecular weights of 195,000 and 185,000. PMID:7199047

  6. Use of chromatofocusing to distinguish estradiol receptor from ovarian-dependent and -independent rat mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Coufalik, A H; Feldman, M; Platica, M; Toth, L; Dreiling, D; Hollander, V P

    1983-11-01

    Cytosol estradiol receptor from MTW9-D (ovarian dependent) and MTW9-MtT (ovarian independent) rat mammary tumors were fractionated by chromatofocusing, a procedure which separates proteins on an ion-exchange column as a function of isoelectric point. Receptor from MTW9-D usually fractionated as three peaks with mean pH at peak height of 7.5, 6.8, and 6.0. The intermediate peak at pH 6.8 was present in 90% of MTW9-D tumors examined but in only 20% of MTW9-MtT tumors. Treatment of cytosols with 20 mM sodium molybdate or 50 mM leupeptin did not change the chromatofocusing profiles. The pI 6.8 fraction of receptor bound quantitatively to DNA-cellulose after ammonium sulfate precipitation, while receptor in the other two peaks bound much less. The quantitative binding of a fraction of estradiol receptor characteristic of MTW9-D to DNA is consistent with the greater binding of unfractionated cytosol receptor from MTW9-D to DNA than the binding of receptor from MTW9-MtT. Sucrose gradient analysis of the pI 6.8 receptor showed a sedimentation coefficient slightly less than ovalbumin with a Stokes radius of 26 A as determined by agarose chromatography. The correlation of receptor binding to DNA with response to ovariectomy might make this form of receptor a potential marker of hormonal responsivity in mammary tumors.

  7. Fluorodeoxyglucose--positive internal mammary lymph node in breast cancer patients with silicone implants: is it always metastatic cancer?

    PubMed

    Soudack, Michalle; Yelin, Alon; Simansky, David; Ben-Nun, Alon

    2013-07-01

    Patients with breast cancer following mastectomy and silicone implant reconstruction may have enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes with pathological uptake on positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose. This lymphadenopathy is usually considered as metastatic in nature, but has also been reported to be related to other conditions, including silicon migration. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of metastatic disease in this unique group of patients. A retrospective comparative study of 12 female patients with breast cancer with silicone implants referred for biopsy due to isolated internal mammary lymph node fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography. Five patients (41.6%) had histological findings related to silicone (n = 4) or non-specific inflammation (n = 1). The remaining 7 (58.3%) had histological evidence of cancer recurrence. There was no significant difference in the fluorodeoxyglucose-standardized uptake value between the two groups. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positive mammary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer following silicone implant reconstruction may be due to metastatic deposits, non-specific inflammation or silicone migration. Clinical and imaging characteristics are insufficient in differentiating between these conditions. Biopsy is recommended prior to initiation of further treatment.

  8. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer - Effects on Disease Prognosis and Therapeutic Protocols - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Stojanoski, Sinisa; Ristevska, Nevena; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Antevski, Borce; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2015-03-15

    The main prognostic factor in early staged breast cancer is the axillary lymph node metastatic affection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, as a staging modality, significantly decreases surgical morbidity. The status of internal mammary lymph nodes gains an increased predictive role in grading breast carcinomas and modulation of postoperative therapeutic protocols. If positive, almost always are associated with worse disease outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of internal mammary lymph node micrometastases has not been up to date precisely defined. To present a case of female patient clinically diagnosed as T1, N0, M0 (clinical TNM) ductal breast carcinoma with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Dual method of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node detection using 99mTc-SENTI-SCINT and blue dye injection, intraoperative gamma probe detection, radioguided surgery and intraoperative ex tempore biopsy were used. We present a case of clinically T1, N0, M0 ductal breast cancer with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative ex tempore biopsy revealed micrometastases in the internal mammary node and no metastatic involvement of the axillary sentinel lymph node. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastases improves N (nodal) grading of breast cancer by selecting a high risk subgroup of patients that require adjuvant hormone therapy, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  9. Fingerprinting Breast Cancer vs. Normal Mammary Cells by Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingjing; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Hollmén, Maija; Li, Xue; Detmar, Michael; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for early cancer detection, to improve the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients. Identification of volatile metabolic compounds may provide an approach for noninvasive early diagnosis of malignant diseases. Here we analyzed the volatile metabolic signature of human breast cancer cell lines versus normal human mammary cells. Volatile compounds in the headspace of conditioned culture medium were directly fingerprinted by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were subsequently treated statistically to identify discriminating features between normal vs. cancerous cell types. We were able to classify different samples by using feature selection followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to propose their chemical structures for some of the most discriminating molecules. We conclude that cancerous cells can release a characteristic odor whose constituents may be used as disease markers. PMID:24903350

  10. Fingerprinting Breast Cancer vs. Normal Mammary Cells by Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingjing; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Hollmén, Maija; Li, Xue; Detmar, Michael; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for early cancer detection, to improve the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients. Identification of volatile metabolic compounds may provide an approach for noninvasive early diagnosis of malignant diseases. Here we analyzed the volatile metabolic signature of human breast cancer cell lines versus normal human mammary cells. Volatile compounds in the headspace of conditioned culture medium were directly fingerprinted by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were subsequently treated statistically to identify discriminating features between normal vs. cancerous cell types. We were able to classify different samples by using feature selection followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to propose their chemical structures for some of the most discriminating molecules. We conclude that cancerous cells can release a characteristic odor whose constituents may be used as disease markers.

  11. Exposure to light-at-night increases the growth of DMBA-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in rats.

    PubMed

    Cos, Samuel; Mediavilla, Dolores; Martínez-Campa, Carlos; González, Alicia; Alonso-González, Carolina; Sánchez-Barceló, Emilio J

    2006-04-28

    In order to assess whether light exposure at night influences the growth of mammary tumors, as well as the role of melatonin in this process, female rats bearing DMBA-induced mammary adenocarcinomas were exposed to different lighting environments. Animals exposed to light-at-night, especially those under a constant dim light during the darkness phase, showed: (a) significantly higher rates of tumor growth as well as lower survival than controls, (b) higher concentration of serum estradiol, and (c) lower nocturnal excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, without there being differences between nocturnal and diurnal levels. These results suggest that circadian and endocrine disruption induced by light pollution, could induce the growth of mammary tumors.

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL DIAGNOSTIC IN THE MAMMARY GLAND CANCER.

    PubMed

    Anton, E; Botnariuc, Natalia; Ancuta, E; Doroftei, B; Ciobica, A; Anton, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncology disease in women and is one of the major public health issues. Worldwide, is the second leading cause of cancer death in women and cancer research is a priority in all the laboratories of the world, in terms of uncovering the appearance causes of the malignant process, understanding the mechanisms of development, but most of all, the discovery of early diagnostic methods and effective treatment. Ignorance, fear of diagnosis, lack of health education and of efficient programmes for prevention and screening could cause diagnosis of the disease to be detected in the majority of cases in advanced stages, when treatment remains only palliative and very costly, in this cases the patient's suffering being immense. In this way, regarding the clinical diagnosis in stage I mammary gland cancer, in the 496 stage I MGC patients, during the primary clinical investigation the diagnosis of stage I MGC was established only in 165 (33.3%) patients, and in 232 (46,8%) patients the diagnosis of suspicion MGC was obtained. Also, in terms of instrumental diagnosis, such as mammography, ultrasonography in mammary gland cancer stage I, it seems that in accordance with literature data the pathological process features assessment in the mammary gland is problematic especially in young age. Thus, it seems that MGC represents a polymorphic and pathogenic disease and it cannot be admitted that all subgroups of patients will obtain identical results from one tactic of treatment determined for all the patients with MGC. In this way, the concept of MGC both clinical and patho morphological, combines different cell clones depending on its microstructure and biology. As a result, the evolution of the disease, the prognosis and the effectiveness of the treatment may vary in different patients at the same stage, depending on the degree of malignancy of the tumor, its histopathological structure, the degree of expression of molecular markers identification

  13. Human mammary cancer progression model recapitulates methylation events associated with breast premalignancy.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nancy; Crawford, Yongping G; Sigaroudinia, Mahvash; Nagrani, Shefali S; Wilson, Matthew B; Buehring, Gertrude C; Turashvili, Gulisa; Aparicio, Samuel; Gauthier, Mona L; Fordyce, Colleen A; McDermott, Kimberly M; Tlsty, Thea D

    2009-01-01

    We have previously identified a rare subpopulation of variant human mammary epithelial cells (vHMEC) with repressed p16INK4A that exist in disease-free women yet display premalignant properties, suggesting that they have engaged the process of malignant transformation. In order to gain insight into the molecular alterations required for vHMEC to progress to malignancy, and to characterize the epigenetic events associated with early progression, we examined the effect of oncogenic stress on the behavior of these cells. HMEC that express p16INK4A and vHMEC that do not, were transduced with constitutively active Ha-rasV12 and subsequently exposed to serum to determine whether signals from the cellular microenvironment could cooperate with ras to promote the malignant transformation of vHMEC. Epigenetic alterations were assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). vHMEC expressing Ha-rasV12 (vHMEC-ras) bypassed the classic proliferative arrest that has been previously documented in normal fibroblasts following oncogenic stress, and that we also observe here in normal HMEC. Moreover, vHMEC-ras cells exhibited many additional alterations that are observed during progression to malignancy such as the generation of chromosomal abnormalities, upregulation of telomerase activity, immortalization following exposure to serum, and anchorage-independent growth, but they did not form tumors following orthotopic injection in vivo. Associated with their early progression to malignancy was an increase in the number of genes methylated, two of which (RASSF1A and SFRP1) were also methylated in other immortalized mammary cell lines as well as in breast cancer cells and tissues. We have characterized a mammary progression model that recapitulates molecular and methylation alterations observed in many breast cancers. Our data suggest that concomitant methylation of RASSF1A and SFRP1 marks an early event in mammary transformation and may thus have prognostic

  14. Human mammary cancer progression model recapitulates methylation events associated with breast premalignancy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We have previously identified a rare subpopulation of variant human mammary epithelial cells (vHMEC) with repressed p16INK4A that exist in disease-free women yet display premalignant properties, suggesting that they have engaged the process of malignant transformation. In order to gain insight into the molecular alterations required for vHMEC to progress to malignancy, and to characterize the epigenetic events associated with early progression, we examined the effect of oncogenic stress on the behavior of these cells. Methods HMEC that express p16INK4A and vHMEC that do not, were transduced with constitutively active Ha-rasV12 and subsequently exposed to serum to determine whether signals from the cellular microenvironment could cooperate with ras to promote the malignant transformation of vHMEC. Epigenetic alterations were assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results vHMEC expressing Ha-rasV12 (vHMEC-ras) bypassed the classic proliferative arrest that has been previously documented in normal fibroblasts following oncogenic stress, and that we also observe here in normal HMEC. Moreover, vHMEC-ras cells exhibited many additional alterations that are observed during progression to malignancy such as the generation of chromosomal abnormalities, upregulation of telomerase activity, immortalization following exposure to serum, and anchorage-independent growth, but they did not form tumors following orthotopic injection in vivo. Associated with their early progression to malignancy was an increase in the number of genes methylated, two of which (RASSF1A and SFRP1) were also methylated in other immortalized mammary cell lines as well as in breast cancer cells and tissues. Conclusions We have characterized a mammary progression model that recapitulates molecular and methylation alterations observed in many breast cancers. Our data suggest that concomitant methylation of RASSF1A and SFRP1 marks an early event in mammary

  15. Prevention of mammary carcinogenesis by short-term estrogen and progestin treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Lakshmanaswamy; Guzman, Raphael C; Yang, Jason; Thordarson, Gudmundur; Talamantes, Frank; Nandi, Satyabrata

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Women who have undergone a full-term pregnancy before the age of 20 have one-half the risk of developing breast cancer compared with women who have never gone through a full-term pregnancy. This protective effect is observed universally among women of all ethnic groups. Parity in rats and mice also protects them against chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis. Methods Seven-week-old virgin Lewis rats were given N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Two weeks later the rats were treated with natural or synthetic estrogens and progestins for 7–21 days by subcutaneous implantation of silastic capsules. Results In our current experiment, we demonstrate that short-term sustained exposure to natural or synthetic estrogens along with progestins is effective in preventing mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Treatment with 30 mg estriol plus 30 mg progesterone for 3 weeks significantly reduced the incidence of mammary cancer. Short-term exposure to ethynyl estradiol plus megesterol acetate or norethindrone was effective in decreasing the incidence of mammary cancers. Tamoxifen plus progesterone treatment for 3 weeks was able to confer only a transient protection from mammary carcinogenesis, while 2-methoxy estradiol plus progesterone was effective in conferring protection against mammary cancers. Conclusions The data obtained in the present study demonstrate that, in nulliparous rats, long-term protection against mammary carcinogenesis can be achieved by short-term treatments with natural or synthetic estrogen and progesterone combinations. PMID:14680498

  16. Reduction of mammary and liver lipogenesis and alteration of milk composition during lactation in rats by hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hapon, María Belén; Varas, Silvia M; Giménez, María S; Jahn, Graciela A

    2007-01-01

    The profound impairment in litter growth produced by untreated maternal hypothyroidism (HypoT) may be a consequence of maternal metabolic dysfunctions affecting lactation. In this work we studied the effects of HypoT on mammary and liver lipid metabolism and its consequences on milk quality. We studied the effects of prolonged 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced HypoT (0.01% PTU in drinking water starting 8 days before mating until sacrifice) on milk macronutrient composition, liver and mammary lipid metabolism and content and serum lipid, and glucose and insulin concentrations in rats on days 7, 15 (L15), and 20 (L20) of lactation. Mammary and hepatic mRNA abundances of lipogenic enzymes were measured using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on L15 and L20. Milk lactose and triglycerides (TG) were reduced by HypoT, as well as mammary acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity on L15 and L20, and ACC and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA on L20. HypoT also decreased hepatic ACC activity on both days, ACC mRNA on L15 and liver [(3)H]H(2)O incorporation to TGs and TG content on L20. HypoT diminished insulinemia, increased serum total lipids, and decreased serum TGs on some or all the days of lactation studied. HypoT produces a drastic decrease in milk TGs; the main cause for this seems to be the decreases in liver TG synthesis and in circulating TGs, which, along with reduced mammary uptake of fatty acids caused by decreased LPL expression and possibly diminished mammary lipogenesis, result in an impaired mammary output of TGs to the milk. Thus, the impaired growth of the litters of HypoT mothers can be largely attributed to the low milk quality along with the impaired milk ejection.

  17. A mammary stem cell population identified and characterized in late embryogenesis reveals similarities to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Spike, Benjamin T; Engle, Dannielle D; Lin, Jennifer C; Cheung, Samantha K; La, Justin; Wahl, Geoffrey M

    2012-02-03

    Gene expression signatures relating mammary stem cell populations to breast cancers have focused on adult tissue. Here, we identify, isolate, and characterize the fetal mammary stem cell (fMaSC) state since the invasive and proliferative processes of mammogenesis resemble phases of cancer progression. fMaSC frequency peaks late in embryogenesis, enabling more extensive stem cell purification than achieved with adult tissue. fMaSCs are self-renewing, multipotent, and coexpress multiple mammary lineage markers. Gene expression, transplantation, and in vitro analyses reveal putative autocrine and paracrine regulatory mechanisms, including ErbB and FGF signaling pathways impinging on fMaSC growth. Expression profiles from fMaSCs and associated stroma exhibit significant similarities to basal-like and Her2+ intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. Our results reveal links between development and cancer and provide resources to identify new candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.

  18. Dietary compound isoliquiritigenin prevents mammary carcinogenesis by inhibiting breast cancer stem cells through WIF1 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Xie, Xiaoming; Shen, Jiangang; Peng, Cheng; You, Jieshu; Peng, Fu; Tang, Hailin; Guan, Xinyuan; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the root of mammary tumorigenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that ISL efficiently limited the activities of breast CSCs. However, the cancer prevention activities of ISL and its precise molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report a novel function of ISL as a natural demethylation agent targeting WIF1 to prevent breast cancer. ISL administration suppressed in vivo breast cancer initiation and progression, accompanied by reduced CSC-like populations. A global gene expression profile assay further identified WIF1 as the main response gene of ISL treatment, accompanied by the simultaneous downregulation of β-catenin signaling and G0/G1 phase arrest in breast CSCs. In addition, WIF1 inhibition significantly relieved the CSC-limiting effects of ISL and methylation analysis further revealed that ISL enhanced WIF1 gene expression via promoting the demethylation of its promoter, which was closely correlated with the inhibition of DNMT1 methyltransferase. Molecular docking analysis finally revealed that ISL could stably dock into the catalytic domain of DNMT1. Taken together, our findings not only provide preclinical evidence to demonstrate the use of ISL as a dietary supplement to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis but also shed novel light on WIF1 as an epigenetic target for breast cancer prevention. PMID:25918249

  19. An Herbal Galactagogue Mixture Increases Milk Production and Aquaporin Protein Expression in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Hua, Ying; Luo, Hui; Shen, Zhaojun; Tao, Xuejiao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Herbal galactagogues have been increasingly used to treat postpartum hypogalactia. The mechanism of action of herbal galactagogues remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an herbal galactagogue mixture on milk production and aquaporin (AQP) expression in lactating rats. Methods. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into virgin, lactating + H2O, and lactating + galactagogue groups (n = 10 per group). Lactating rats were administered the decoction of an herbal galactagogue mixture by oral gavage or the same amount of distilled water. Results. The herbal decoction significantly increased milk production in lactating rats (P < 0.05). Both immunohistochemical staining and western blot showed that protein levels of AQP-3 and AQP-5 were significantly increased during lactation compared with virgin stage and the herbal decoction further elevated their expression (P < 0.05). AQP-1 was predominantly expressed in the capillaries whereas AQP-3 and AQP-5 were mainly detected in the epithelial cells and ducts of the mammary glands. Conclusion. The expression of AQPs in the mammary glands of rats was developmentally regulated. Herbal galactagogues might have increased milk secretion by regulating the expression and function of AQPs in the mammary glands. PMID:26075000

  20. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo- Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lisa Y; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W; Argyle, David J

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  1. Soy isoflavone exposure through all life stages accelerates 17β-estradiol-induced mammary tumor onset and growth, yet reduces tumor burden, in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Möller, Frank Josef; Pemp, Daniela; Soukup, Sebastian T; Wende, Kathleen; Zhang, Xiajie; Zierau, Oliver; Muders, Michael H; Bosland, Maarten C; Kulling, Sabine E; Lehmann, Leane; Vollmer, Günter

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether the intake of soy-derived isoflavones (sISO) mediates beneficial or adverse effects with regard to breast cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated whether nutritional exposure to a sISO-enriched diet from conception until adulthood impacts on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced carcinogenesis in the rat mammary gland (MG). August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats were exposed to dietary sISO from conception until postnatal day 285. Silastic tubes containing E2 were used to induce MG tumorigenesis. Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were recorded weekly. At necropsy, the number, position, size, and weight of each tumor were determined. Plasma samples underwent sISO analysis, and the morphology of MG was analyzed. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were reduced by 20 and 56 %, respectively, in the sISO-exposed rats compared to the control rats. Time-to-tumor onset was shortened from 25 to 20 weeks, and larger tumors developed in the sISO-exposed rats. The histological phenotype of the MG tumors was independent of the sISO diet received, and it included both comedo and cribriform phenotypes. Morphological analyses of the whole-mounted MGs also showed no diet-dependent differences. Lifelong exposure to sISO reduced the overall incidence of MG carcinomas in ACI rats, although the time-to-tumor was significantly shortened.

  2. Monitoring therapeutic response to tamoxifen in NMU-induced rat mammary tumours by 31P MRS.

    PubMed Central

    Baluch, S.; Midwood, C. J.; Griffiths, J. R.; Stubbs, M.; Coombes, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Tamoxifen injections were given once a week for 4 weeks to 19 rats bearing N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced mammary carcinomas. NMR spectra were collected on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Only 42% of the tumours responded to the tamoxifen in that they regressed significantly; another 21% did not change in size and 37% grew significantly. In the ones that did subsequently regress there were significant changes in the NTP/Pi ratio as early as 2 days after treatment, before any detectable change in volume was recorded, and continuing up to 21 days. The significance of these findings and the possible mechanisms underlying the changes are discussed. PMID:2069847

  3. Genetic Mapping in Mice Identifies DMBT1 as a Candidate Modifier of Mammary Tumors and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Anneke C.; Hill, Linda Z.; Roberts, Amy L.; Wang, Jun; Aud, Dee; Jung, Jimmy; Nikolcheva, Tania; Allard, John; Peltz, Gary; Otis, Christopher N.; Cao, Qing J.; Ricketts, Reva St. J.; Naber, Stephen P.; Mollenhauer, Jan; Poustka, Annemarie; Malamud, Daniel; Jerry, D. Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53+/− strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an ∼25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk twofold (P = 0.002). Dmbt1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) was identified as a candidate modifier gene within the SuprMam1 interval because it was differentially expressed in mammary tissues from BALB/c-Trp53+/− and C57BL/6-Trp53+/− mice. Dmbt1 mRNA and protein was reduced in mammary glands of the susceptible BALB/c mice. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that DMBT1 protein expression was also significantly reduced in normal breast tissue from women with breast cancer (staining score, 1.8; n = 46) compared with cancer-free controls (staining score, 3.9; n = 53; P < 0.0001). These experiments demonstrate the use of Trp53+/− mice as a sensitized background to screen for low-penetrance modifiers of cancer. The results identify a novel mammary tumor susceptibility locus in mice and support a role for DMBT1 in suppression of mammary tumors in both mice and women. PMID:17525270

  4. Altered expression of glycosaminoglycans in metastatic 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, P.A.; Cheong, P.H.; Nakajima, M.; Yung, W.K.A.; Moser, R.P.; Nicolson, G.L.

    1987-02-24

    A difference in the expression and metabolism of (/sup 35/S)sulfated glycosaminoglycans between rat mammary tumor cells derived from a primary tumor and those from its metastatic lesions has been observed. Cells from the primary tumor possessed about equal quantities of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate on their cell surfaces but released fourfold more chondroitin sulfate than heparan sulfate into their medium. In contrast, cells from distal metastatic lesions expressed approximately 5 times more heparan sulfate than chondroitin sulfate in both medium and cell surface fractions. This was observed to be the result of differential synthesis of the glycosaminoglycans and not of major structural alterations of the individual glycosaminoglycans. The degree of sulfation and size of heparan sulfate were similar for all cells examined. However, chondroitin sulfate, observed to be only chondroitin 4-sulfate, from the metastases-derived cells had a smaller average molecular weight on gel filtration chromatography and showed a decreased quantity of sulfated disaccharides upon degradation with chondroitin ABC lyase compared to the primary tumor derived cells. Major qualitative or quantitative alterations were not observed for hyaluronic acid among the various 13762NF cells. The metabolism of newly synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycans was also different between cells from primary tumor and metastases. A pulse-chase kinetics study demonstrated that both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were degraded by the metastases-derived cells, whereas the primary tumor derived cells degraded only heparan sulfate and degraded it at a slower rate. These results suggested that altered glycosaminoglycan expression and metabolism may be associated with the metastatic process in 13762NF rat mammary tumor cells.

  5. Modulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum on expression of xenobiotic enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant and hormonal status in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinoma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Deepalakshmi, Krishnamoorthy; Mirunalini, Sankaran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms are an important natural source represents a major and untapped potent pharmaceutical product. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) an important medicinal mushroom has been shown to contain high amount of antioxidant. However, in vivo studies on G. lucidum fruiting bodies are lacking. Objectives: To determine the effects of G. lucidum fruiting bodies ethanolic extract (GLEet) on expression of xenobiotic enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant and hormonal status on 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]antheracene (DMBA) induced experimental breast cancer was investigated in female Sprague dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Cancer bearing female Sprague dawley rats was orally treated with GLEet (500mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Incidence and tumor volume in each groups, and biochemical parameters were carried out in plasma, liver, and mammary tissues of animals. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were also determined. Result: Oral administration of GLEet on tumor bearing animals significantly diminished the levels of lipid peroxidation thereby enhancing the nonenzymatic antioxidants and also positively regulated the estrogen receptor hormones level to near normal when compared with DMBA treated rats. Moreover, it also positively modulates the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, the dietary administration of G. lucidum may be efficiently used as a chemopreventive agent against mammary carcinogenesis. Conclusion: We concluded that G. lucidum is a potent chemopreventive agent, thereby it offers maximum protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:23772114

  6. Tracing anti-cancer and cancer-promoting actions of all-trans retinoic acid in breast cancer to a RARa epigenetic mechanism of mammary epithelial cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Stefano; Ren, MingQiang; Visconti, Nicolo; Corlazzoli, Francesca; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Somenzi, Giulia; Yao, Jin; Sun, Yijun; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer cells is the ability to evade the growth inhibitory/pro-apoptotic action of physiological all-trans retinoic acid (RA) signal, the bioactive derivative of Vitamin A. However, as we and others reported, RA can also promote cancer cell growth and invasion. Here we show that anticancer and cancer-promoting RA actions in breast cancer have roots in a mechanism of mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis that involves both transcriptional (epigenetic) and non-transcriptional RARα (RARA) functions. We found that the mammary epithelial cell-context specific degree of functionality of the RARA transcriptional (epigenetic) component of this mechanism, by tuning the effects of the non-transcriptional RARA component, determines different cell fate decisions during mammary morphogenesis. Indeed, factors that hamper the RARA epigenetic function make physiological RA drive aberrant morphogenesis via non-transcriptional RARA, thus leading to cell transformation. Remarkably, also the cell context-specific degree of functionality of the RARA epigenetic component retained by breast cancer cells is critical to determine cell fate decisions in response to physiological as well as supraphysiological RA variation. Overall this study supports the proof of principle that the epigenetic functional plasticity of the mammary epithelial cell RARA mechanism, which is essential for normal morphogenetic processes, is necessary to deter breast cancer onset/progression consequent to the insidious action of physiological RA. PMID:27894085

  7. Pathology Working Group review and evaluation of proliferative lesions of mammary gland tissues in female rats fed ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in the diet for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Jerry F; Willson, Gabrielle A; Brown, W Ray; McConnell, Ernest E; Frame, Steven R; Gaylor, David W; Kennedy, Gerald L; Butenhoff, John L

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) is a perfluorinated carboxylate that is widely distributed in the environment. A 2-year chronic study was conducted in rats fed either 30 or 300 ppm of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO). To investigate the possible relationship of APFO exposure to proliferative mammary lesions, a Pathology Working Group (PWG) review of the original slides was performed. The consensus reached by the PWG was that the incidence of mammary-gland neoplasms was not affected by chronic dietary administration of APFO. Therefore, feeding female rats up to 300 ppm of APFO resulted in no increase in proliferative lesions of the mammary tissue.

  8. Cytokine networks that mediate epithelial cell-macrophage crosstalk in the mammary gland: implications for development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Ingman, Wendy V

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic interactions between the hormone responsive mammary gland epithelium and surrounding stromal macrophage populations are critical for normal development and function of the mammary gland. Macrophages are versatile cells capable of diverse roles in mammary gland development and maintenance of homeostasis, and their function is highly dependent on signals within the local cytokine microenvironment. The mammary epithelium secretes a number of cytokines, including colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) that affect the abundance, phenotype and function of macrophages. However, aberrations in these interactions have been found to increase the risk of tumour formation, and utilisation of stromal macrophage support by tumours can increase the invasive and metastatic potential of the cancer. Studies utilising genetically modified mouse models have shed light on the significance of epithelial cell-macrophage crosstalk, and the cytokines that mediate this communication, in mammary gland development and tumourigenesis. This article reviews the current status of our understanding of the roles of epithelial cell-derived cytokines in mammary gland development and cancer, with a focus on the crosstalk between epithelial cells and the local macrophage population.

  9. The T-box transcription factors TBX2 and TBX3 in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Nataki C; Papaioannou, Virginia E

    2013-06-01

    TBX2 and TBX3, closely related members of the T-box family of transcription factor genes, are expressed in mammary tissue in both humans and mice. Ulnar mammary syndrome (UMS), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in TBX3, underscores the importance of TBX3 in human breast development, while abnormal mammary gland development in Tbx2 or Tbx3 mutant mice provides models for experimental investigation. In addition to their roles in mammary development, aberrant expression of TBX2 and TBX3 is associated with breast cancer. TBX2 is preferentially amplified in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and TBX3 overexpression has been associated with advanced stage disease and estrogen-receptor-positive breast tumors. The regulation of Tbx2 and Tbx3 and the downstream targets of these genes in development and disease are not as yet fully elucidated. However, it is clear that the two genes play unique, context-dependent roles both in mammary gland development and in mammary tumorigenesis.

  10. Trans-Resveratrol Alters Mammary Promoter Hypermethylation in Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weizhu; Qin, Wenyi; Zhang, Ke; Rottinghaus, George E.; Chen, Yin-Chieh; Kliethermes, Beth; Sauter, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol, present in high concentration in the skin of red grapes and red wine, has a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect in vitro, prevents the formation of mammary tumors, and has been touted as a chemopreventive agent. Based upon in vitro studies demonstrating that trans-resveratrol downregulates the expression of 1) DNA methyltransferases and 2) the cancer promoting prostaglandin (PG)E2, we determined if trans-resveratrol had a dose-related effect on DNA methylation and prostaglandin expression in humans. Thirty-nine adult women at increased breast cancer risk were randomized in double-blind fashion to placebo, 5 or 50 mg trans-resveratrol twice daily for 12 wk. Methylation assessment of 4 cancer-related genes (p16, RASSF-1α, APC, CCND2) was performed on mammary ductoscopy specimens. The predominant resveratrol species in serum was the glucuronide metabolite. Total trans-resveratrol and glucuronide metabolite serum levels increased after consuming both trans-resveratrol doses (P < .001 for both). RASSF-1α methylation decreased with increasing levels of serum trans-resveratrol (P = .047). The change in RASSF-1α methylation was directly related to the change in PGE2 (P = .045). This work provides novel insights into the effects of trans-resveratrol on the breast of women at increased breast cancer risk, including a decrease in methylation of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF-1α. Because of the limited sample size, our findings should be validated in a larger study. PMID:22332908

  11. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Luciana B.; Nagamine, Marcia K.; Biondi, Luiz R.; Sanches, Daniel S.; Toyota, Fábio; Giovani, Tatiane M.; de Jesus, Isis P.; da Fonseca, Ivone I. M.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Diaz, Bruno L.; Salles Gomes, Cristina de O. Massoco

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors which make canine cancer like cancer in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in pet dogs, tumor genetics, molecular targets and exposure to the same environmental risk factors are among these factors. Therefore, the study of canine cancer can provide useful information to the oncology field. This study aimed to establish and characterize a panel of primary mixed cell cultures obtained from spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Eight established cell cultures obtained from one normal mammary gland, one complex adenoma, one mixed adenoma, two complex carcinomas and two mixed carcinomas were analyzed. The gene expression levels of classic molecular cancer players such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, breast cancer (BRCA) 1, BRCA2 and estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 were evaluated. For the first time, three orphan nuclear receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α, β and γ were studied in canine mammary cancer. The highest expression level of ERRα was observed in complex carcinoma-derived cell culture, while the highest levels of ERRβ and γ were observed in cells derived from a mixed carcinoma. Meanwhile, complex carcinomas presented the highest levels of expression of ESR1, BRCA1 and FGFR2 among all samples. BRCA2 was found exclusively in complex adenoma. The transcription factor GATA3 had its highest levels in mixed carcinoma samples and its lowest levels in complex adenoma. Proliferation assays were also performed to evaluate the mixed cell cultures response to ER ligands, genistein and DES, both in normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional studies of primary mixed cell cultures derived from spontaneous canine mammary tumors are possible and provide valuable tool for the study of various stages of mammary cancer development. PMID:28945747

  12. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luciana B; Nagamine, Marcia K; Biondi, Luiz R; Sanches, Daniel S; Toyota, Fábio; Giovani, Tatiane M; de Jesus, Isis P; da Fonseca, Ivone I M; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Diaz, Bruno L; Salles Gomes, Cristina de O Massoco; Dagli, Maria Lucia Z

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors which make canine cancer like cancer in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in pet dogs, tumor genetics, molecular targets and exposure to the same environmental risk factors are among these factors. Therefore, the study of canine cancer can provide useful information to the oncology field. This study aimed to establish and characterize a panel of primary mixed cell cultures obtained from spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Eight established cell cultures obtained from one normal mammary gland, one complex adenoma, one mixed adenoma, two complex carcinomas and two mixed carcinomas were analyzed. The gene expression levels of classic molecular cancer players such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, breast cancer (BRCA) 1, BRCA2 and estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 were evaluated. For the first time, three orphan nuclear receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α, β and γ were studied in canine mammary cancer. The highest expression level of ERRα was observed in complex carcinoma-derived cell culture, while the highest levels of ERRβ and γ were observed in cells derived from a mixed carcinoma. Meanwhile, complex carcinomas presented the highest levels of expression of ESR1, BRCA1 and FGFR2 among all samples. BRCA2 was found exclusively in complex adenoma. The transcription factor GATA3 had its highest levels in mixed carcinoma samples and its lowest levels in complex adenoma. Proliferation assays were also performed to evaluate the mixed cell cultures response to ER ligands, genistein and DES, both in normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional studies of primary mixed cell cultures derived from spontaneous canine mammary tumors are possible and provide valuable tool for the study of various stages of mammary cancer development.

  13. The role of the microenvironment in mammary gland development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Kornelia; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-11-01

    The mammary gland is composed of a diverse array of cell types that form intricate interaction networks essential for its normal development and physiologic function. Abnormalities in these interactions play an important role throughout different stages of tumorigenesis. Branching ducts and alveoli are lined by an inner layer of secretory luminal epithelial cells that produce milk during lactation and are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells and basement membrane. The surrounding stroma comprised of extracellular matrix and various cell types including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and infiltrating leukocytes not only provides a scaffold for the organ, but also regulates mammary epithelial cell function via paracrine, physical, and hormonal interactions. With rare exceptions breast tumors initiate in the epithelial compartment and in their initial phases are confined to the ducts but this barrier brakes down with invasive progression because of a combination of signals emitted by tumor epithelial and various stromal cells. In this article, we overview the importance of cellular interactions and microenvironmental signals in mammary gland development and cancer.

  14. JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing prodrug, induces breast cancer cell death while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Vanity; Saavedra, Joseph E; Nieves-Alicea, René; Simeone, Ann-Marie; Keefer, Larry K; Tari, Ana M

    2011-04-01

    Targeted therapy with reduced side effects is a major goal in cancer research. We investigated the effects of JS-K, a nitric oxide (NO) prodrug designed to release high levels of NO when suitably activated, on human breast cancer cell lines, on non-transformed human MCF-10A mammary cells, and on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Cell viability assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis were used to study the effects of JS-K on breast cancer and on mammary epithelial cells. After a 3-day incubation, the IC50s of JS-K against the breast cancer cells ranged from 0.8 to 3 µM. However, JS-K decreased the viability of the MCF-10A cells by only 20% at 10-µM concentration, and HMECs were unaffected by 10 µM JS-K. Flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased the percentages of breast cancer cells under-going apoptosis. Interestingly, flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased acidic vesicle organelle formation in breast cancer cells, suggesting that JS-K induced autophagy in breast cancer cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that JS-K-treated breast cancer cells underwent autophagic cell death. Western blot analysis showed that JS-K induced the expression of microtubule light chain 3-II, another autophagy marker, in breast cancer cells. However, JS-K did not induce apoptosis or autophagy in normal human mammary epithelial cells. These data indicate that JS-K selectively induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells under the same conditions. The selective anti-tumor activity of JS-K warrants its further investigation in breast tumors.

  15. MRI ductography of contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary ducts and ducts with in situ cancer.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2017-07-01

    High resolution 3D MRI was used to study contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary glands and glands containing in situ cancer after intra-ductal injection. Five female FVB/N mice (~19weeks old) with no detectable mammary cancer and eight C3(1) SV40 Tag virgin female mice (~15weeks old) with extensive in situ cancer were studied. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple and approximately 15μL of a Gadodiamide was injected slowly over 1min into the nipple and throughout the duct on one side of the inguinal gland. Following injection, the mouse was placed in a 9.4T MRI scanner, and a series of high resolution 3D T1-weighted images was acquired with a temporal resolution of 9.1min to follow contrast agent leakage from the ducts. The first image was acquired at about 12min after injection. Ductal enhancement regions detected in images acquired between 12 and 21min after contrast agent injection was five times smaller in SV40 mouse mammary ducts (p<0.001) than in non-cancerous FVB/N mouse mammary ducts, perhaps due to rapid washout of contrast agent from the SV40 ducts. The contrast agent washout rate measured between 12min and 90min after injection was ~20% faster (p<0.004) in SV40 mammary ducts than in FVB/N mammary ducts. These results may be due to higher permeability of the SV40 ducts, likely due to the presence of in situ cancers. Therefore, increased permeability of ducts may indicate early stage breast cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sentinel nodes scintigraphy of the internal mammary chain in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Giovanni; Viale, Giuseppe; Veronesi, Umberto

    2003-01-01

    Internal mammary chain lymphnodes (IMNs) were studied by lymphoscintigraphy and biopsy in 100 breast cancer patients to assess: (i) if a deep injection can visualize the IMNs in a high percentage of cases (ii) to determine how often IMNs are metastatic. More than 60% of patients showed IMNs uptake. Surgical sampling proved simple and risks insignificant. Five positive IMN cases migrated from NO/N1 to N3, prompting treatment modification. It is unclear whether this additional information can lead to better survival.

  17. Is internal mammary nodes irradiation as a part of breast cancer postoperative radiotherapy necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Yang, Zhao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy plays an important role in the multidisciplinary treatment of breast cancer. However, it remains a controversy whether it is necessary to carry out prophylactic internal mammary nodes irradiation (IMNI). This review will focus on this topic. In our opinion, the total risk of relapse should be considered during the decision-making on IMNI; in particular, IMNI is recommended for high-risk patients whose tumor is located at the central/medial area or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. PMID:28066623

  18. Development of new therapy for canine mammary cancer with recombinant measles virus

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Koichiro; Yoneda, Misako; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Amagai, Yosuke; Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Ogihara, Kikumi; Naya, Yuko; Ikeda, Fusako; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising treatment strategy for cancer. We previously generated a recombinant measles virus (rMV-SLAMblind) that selectively uses a poliovirus receptor-related 4 (PVRL4/Nectin4) receptor, but not signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We demonstrated that the virus exerts therapeutic effects against human breast cancer cells. Here, we examined the applicability of rMV-SLAMblind to treating canine mammary cancers (CMCs). We found that the susceptibilities of host cells to rMV-SLAMblind were dependent on canine Nectin-4 expression. Nectin-4 was detected in four of nine CMC cell lines. The rMV-SLAMblind efficiently infected those four Nectin-4-positive cell lines and was cytotoxic for three of them (CF33, CHMm, and CTBm). In vivo experiment showed that the administration of rMV-SLAMblind greatly suppressed the progression of tumors in mice xenografted with a CMC cell line (CF33). Immunohistochemistry revealed that canine Nectin-4 was expressed in 45% of canine mammary tumors, and the tumor cells derived from one clinical specimen were efficiently infected with rMV-SLAMblind. These results suggest that rMV-SLAMblind infects CMC cells and displays antitumor activity in vitro, in xenografts, and ex vivo. Therefore, oncolytic virotherapy with rMV-SLAMblind can be a novel method for treating CMCs. PMID:27119113

  19. Mammary stem cells and parity-induced breast cancer protection- new insights.

    PubMed

    Dall, Genevieve; Risbridger, Gail; Britt, Kara

    2016-02-22

    Parity (childbearing) significantly decreases a woman's risk of breast cancer and the protective effect is greater if the woman is younger and has more children. The mechanism/s of parity-induced protection are not known. Although several factors are postulated to play a role, we discuss how a reduction in the number of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) may lead to a reduction in breast cancer risk in parous women. Firstly we review the epidemiology linking childbearing to reduced breast cancer risk and discuss how additional births, a young age at first full term birth, and breastfeeding impact the protection. We then detail the mouse and human studies implicating MaSC in parity induced protection and the in-vivo work being performed in mice to directly investigate the effect of parity on MaSC. Finally we discuss the transplant and lineage tracing experiments assessing MaSC activity according to parity and the need to define if MaSC are indeed more carcinogen sensitive than mature mammary epithelial cells. Continuing and future studies attempting to define the parity induced mechanisms will aid in the development of preventative therapies.

  20. From milk to malignancy: the role of mammary stem cells in development, pregnancy and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Benjamin; Kang, Yibin

    2011-02-01

    Adult stem cells of the mammary gland (MaSCs) are a highly dynamic population of cells that are responsible for the generation of the gland during puberty and its expansion during pregnancy. In recent years significant advances have been made in understanding how these cells are regulated during these developmentally important processes both in humans and in mice. Understanding how MaSCs are regulated is becoming a particularly important area of research, given that they may be particularly susceptible targets for transformation in breast cancer. Here, we summarize the identification of MaSCs, how they are regulated and the evidence for their serving as the origins of breast cancer. In particular, we focus on how changes in MaSC populations may explain both the increased risk of developing aggressive ER/PR(-) breast cancer shortly after pregnancy and the long-term decreased risk of developing ER/PR(+) tumors.

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in cancer stem cells from canine mammary carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Michishita, M; Akiyoshi, R; Suemizu, H; Nakagawa, T; Sasaki, N; Takemitsu, H; Arai, T; Takahashi, K

    2012-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that diverse solid tumours arise from a small population of cells known as cancer stem cells or tumour-initiating cells. Cancer stem cells in several solid tumours are enriched for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. High levels of ALDH activity (ALDH(high)) were detected in four cell lines derived from canine mammary carcinomas. ALDH(high) cells were enriched in a CD44(+)CD24(-) population having self-renewal capacity. Xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mice demonstrated that 1×10(4) ALDH(high) cells were sufficient for tumour formation in all injected mice, whereas 1×10(4) ALDH(low) cells failed to initiate any tumours. ALDH(high)-derived tumours contained both ALDH(+) and ALDH(-) cells, indicating that these cells had cancer stem cell-like properties.

  2. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1− and SSEA-1+ cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines. PMID:27456773

  3. Warfarin inhibits metastasis of Mtln3 rat mammary carcinoma without affecting primary tumour growth.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P.; George, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Coumarin anticoagulants inhibit metastasis in several animal models, but the mechanism of this effect is uncertain. In order to determine the role of cytotoxic and/or cytostatic actions of coumarins on the tumour cells, we have studied the effects of warfarin on tumour cell growth in a model in which tumour metastasis is inhibited by this drug. Clonogenic assay, growth curve analysis and thymidine labelling index revealed that warfarin had no effects on Mtln3 mammary carcinoma cell growth in vitro at concentrations below 1 mM. The growth rate of subcutaneously implanted Mtln3 tumour deposits in female F344 rats, assessed by weight and by stathmokinetic analysis of the tumour tissue, was identical in warfarin-treated and control animals. Spontaneous metastasis from such tumours to the lungs was, however, significantly reduced in warfarin-treated animals (median 0 pulmonary tumours per animal in warfarin treated, eight tumours per animal in control animals; P less than 0.05, Mann-Whitney). The mean plasma warfarin concentration in warfarin treated rats was 1.63 microM. These results suggest that warfarin treatment of the host animal can inhibit tumour metastasis without having any direct or indirect effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells. PMID:2930682

  4. Description of the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus): 100 cases (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Keel, M Kevin; Goldsmith, Dayna; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats. PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the signalment, age at mass detection, reproductive sterilization status, histologic diagnosis of the SC mass, location of the initial and all subsequent SC masses, treatments administered, and clinical outcomes was extracted from each record and summarized. RESULTS 105 SC masses were initially detected in 100 rats. The most prevalent SC mass identified was mammary gland fibroadenoma (56/105 [53%]), followed by mammary gland carcinoma (13/105 [12%]). Overall, 26 of 105 (25%) masses were malignant. Sexually intact males were more likely to have nonmammary SC tumors than sexually intact females. In rats receiving no adjunctive treatment after excision of a mammary gland fibroadenoma (n = 16), a second fibroadenoma was detected 1 to 8 months after initial excision, at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. A concomitant pituitary gland tumor was identified in most rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma (21/28 [75%]) and other types of mammary gland tumors (10/17 [59%]). Fourteen of 35 (40%) rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma had concomitant reproductive tract abnormalities. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, like other species, companion rats with SC masses should undergo a thorough diagnostic workup that includes histologic examination of the excised mass.

  5. Dietary effects of soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in ovariectomized Big Blue transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Shelton, Sharon; Bishop, Michelle E; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles E; Aidoo, Anane

    2006-12-01

    The major constituents of isoflavones, daidzein (DZ) and genistein (GE) are known to interact with the alpha and beta estrogen receptors (ERalpha/beta) in several tissues including mammary. In this study, we used ovariectomy (OVX) to model menopause and determined the effects of DZ, GE or 17beta-estradiol (E2) exposures on chemically induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in the mammary glands of female Big Blue (BB) transgenic rats. The rats were fed control diet containing the isoflavones and E2 and treated with a single oral dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at PND 50. Animals were sacrificed at 16 or 20 weeks post-carcinogen treatment to assess mutant frequencies (MFs) and histopathological parameters, respectively. The isoflavones or E2 supplementation alone resulted in modest increases in the lacI MF that were not significantly different from the MFs measured in rats fed the control diet alone. DMBA exposure, however, induced significant increases in the lacI MFs in the mammary of both OVX and ovary intact (INT) rats and Hprt MFs in spleen lymphocytes (Pmammary. However, feeding the isoflavone mixture (DZG) resulted in a significant reduction in the DMBA-induced lacI MFs (Prats exposed to DMBA as compared with rats fed control diet (PMammary histology indicated that hyperplasia was induced in most of the treatment groups including control. Although DMBA treatment did not induce mammary tumors in the OVX rats, adenoma and adenocarcinoma were detected in the mammary glands of INT rats.

  6. Dietary effects of soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in ovariectomized Big Blue transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane; Shelton, Sharon; Bishop, Michelle; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles; Aidoo, Anane

    2006-10-01

    The major constituents of isoflavones daidzein (DZ) and genistein (GE) interact with the and estrogen receptors in several tissues including mammary tissues. In this study, we used ovariectomy (OVX) to model menopause and determined the effects of DZ, GE or 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) exposures on chemically induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in the mammary glands of female Big Blue transgenic rats. The rats were fed control diet containing the isoflavones and E(2) and treated with a single oral dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at PND50. Animals were euthanized at 16 or 20 weeks post-carcinogen treatment to assess mutant frequencies (MFs) and histopathological parameters, respectively. The isoflavones or E(2) supplementation alone resulted in the lac I MFs that were not significantly different from the MFs measured in rats fed the control diet alone. DMBA exposure, however, induced significant increases in the lac I MFs in the mammary tissues of both OVX and INT rats and Hprt MFs in spleen lymphocytes (P < 0.01). In general, feeding the isoflavones or E(2) did not cause any significant changes in DMBA-induced mutagenicity in the mammary tissues. However, feeding the isoflavone mixture (daidzein + genistein; DZG) resulted in a significant reduction in the DMBA-induced lac I MFs (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation as measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry was increased in both OVX and INT rats exposed to DMBA as compared with rats fed control diet (P < 0.05). Mammary histology indicated that hyperplasia was induced in most of the treatment groups including control. Although DMBA did not induce mammary tumors in the OVX rats, adenoma and adenocarcinoma were detected in the mammary glands of INT rats.

  7. Alcohol drinking and mammary cancer: Pathogenesis and potential dietary preventive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Gerardo Daniel; Castro, José A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, increasing linearly even with a moderate consumption and irrespectively of the type of alcoholic beverage. It shows no dependency from other risk factors like menopausal status, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, or genetic history of breast cancer. The precise mechanism for the effect of drinking alcohol in mammary cancer promotion is still far from being established. Studies by our laboratory suggest that acetaldehyde produced in situ and accumulated in mammary tissue because of poor detoxicating mechanisms might play a role in mutational and promotional events. Additional studies indicated the production of reactive oxygen species accompanied of decreases in vitamin E and GSH contents and of glutathione transferase activity. The resulting oxidative stress might also play a relevant role in several stages of the carcinogenic process. There are reported in literature studies showing that plasmatic levels of estrogens significantly increased after alcohol drinking and that the breast cancer risk is higher in receptor ER-positive individuals. Estrogens are known that they may produce breast cancer by actions on ER and also as chemical carcinogens, as a consequence of their oxidation leading to reactive metabolites. In this review we introduce our working hypothesis integrating the acetaldehyde and the oxidative stress effects with those involving increased estrogen levels. We also analyze potential preventive actions that might be accessible. There remains the fact that alcohol drinking is just one of the avoidable causes of breast cancer and that, at present, the suggested acceptable dose for prevention of this risk is of one drink per day. PMID:25300769

  8. Alcohol drinking and mammary cancer: Pathogenesis and potential dietary preventive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Castro, Gerardo Daniel; Castro, José A

    2014-10-10

    Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, increasing linearly even with a moderate consumption and irrespectively of the type of alcoholic beverage. It shows no dependency from other risk factors like menopausal status, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, or genetic history of breast cancer. The precise mechanism for the effect of drinking alcohol in mammary cancer promotion is still far from being established. Studies by our laboratory suggest that acetaldehyde produced in situ and accumulated in mammary tissue because of poor detoxicating mechanisms might play a role in mutational and promotional events. Additional studies indicated the production of reactive oxygen species accompanied of decreases in vitamin E and GSH contents and of glutathione transferase activity. The resulting oxidative stress might also play a relevant role in several stages of the carcinogenic process. There are reported in literature studies showing that plasmatic levels of estrogens significantly increased after alcohol drinking and that the breast cancer risk is higher in receptor ER-positive individuals. Estrogens are known that they may produce breast cancer by actions on ER and also as chemical carcinogens, as a consequence of their oxidation leading to reactive metabolites. In this review we introduce our working hypothesis integrating the acetaldehyde and the oxidative stress effects with those involving increased estrogen levels. We also analyze potential preventive actions that might be accessible. There remains the fact that alcohol drinking is just one of the avoidable causes of breast cancer and that, at present, the suggested acceptable dose for prevention of this risk is of one drink per day.

  9. Differences in the Rate of In Situ Mammary Gland Development and Other Developmental Endpoints in Three Strains of Female Rat Commonly Used in Mammary Carcinogenesis Studies: Implications for Timing of Carcinogen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stanko, Jason P.; Kissling, Grace E.; Chappell, Vesna A.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of chemicals to alter susceptibility to mammary tumor formation is often assessed using a carcinogen-induced study design in various rat strains. The rate of mammary gland development must be considered so that the timing of carcinogen administration is impactful. In this study, in situ mammary gland (MG) development was assessed in females of the Harlan Sprague Dawley (Hsd:SD), Charles River Sprague Dawley (Crl:SD), and Charles River Long Evans (Crl:LE) rat strains at postnatal day (PND) 25, 33, and 45. Development was evaluated by physical assessment of growth parameters, developmental scoring, and quantitative morphometric analysis. Though body weight was consistently lower and day of vaginal opening (VO) occurred latest in female Hsd:SD rats, they exhibited accelerated pre-and peripubertal MG development compared to other strains. Glands of Crl:SD and Crl:LE rats exhibited significantly more terminal end buds (TEBs) and TEB/mm than Hsd:SD rats around the time of VO. These data suggest a considerable difference in rate of MG development across commonly used strains, which is independent of body weight and timing of VO. In mammary tumor induction studies employing these strains, administration of the carcinogen should be timed appropriately, based on strain, to specifically target the peak of TEB occurrence. PMID:27613105

  10. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast cancer samples of Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Benavides, P; Saavedra-Alonso, S; Zamora-Avila, D; Vargas-Rodarte, C; Barrera-Rodríguez, R; Salinas-Silva, J; Rodríguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, R; Trejo-Avila, L

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports related the presence of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like gene sequences to human breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether MMTV-like env gene sequences are present in breast cancer samples of Mexican women and in breast and lung cancer cell lines. Using specific primers for MMTV, we tested 3 breast cancer cell lines, 4 non-small lung cancer cell lines and 119 breast cancer samples from Mexican women. MMTV-like gene sequences were amplified in the lung cancer cell INER-51, but not in the MCF-7 cell line that has been used as a positive control in other reports and in 5 of 119 (4.2%) breast cancer biopsy tissues. Furthermore, the identity of sequences of PCR products from INER-51 and a breast cancer-positive sample are 98 and 99% when compared with the env region of MMTV (GenBank accession No. AY161347). These results indicate that MMTV-like gene sequences are present in the Mexican population. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Distribution of isoflavones in samples of serum, liver and mammary glands of rats or pigs fed dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Farmer, Chantal; Dyck, Monica; Robertson, Patrick; Dahiya, Jagroop; Sepehr, Estatira; Fan, Li; Nicolidakis, Helen; Curran, Ivan; Cooke, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    There has been great interest in the potential beneficial and adverse health effects of dietary isoflavones. Determination of tissue concentrations of isoflavone metabolites provides an insight into the potential bioactivity of dietary isoflavones. However, data on the distribution of isoflavones in animal models fed dietary isoflavones are limited. In this study, additional data on the distribution of isoflavones in serum and/or tissues of rats and pigs fed dietary isoflavones were generated. Rats (male and female) were fed a casein control diet (containing no isoflavones) and an isoflavone-supplemented diet (containing an alcohol-washed soy protein isolate plus NOVASOY, providing a total of 1,047 mg/kg of total isoflavones). Female pigs were fed a control diet (without soy) containing 17.5 mg/kg of isoflavones, a soy diet containing 582.8 mg/kg of isoflavones or a soy diet supplemented with a daily dose of 2.3 g (equivalent to 42.0 and 14.5 mg/kg of body weight at the onset and end of treatment, respectively) of crystalline genistein. The concentrations of isoflavones in serum and tissues (liver and mammary gland) and in tissues (liver and mammary gland) of pigs were determined via a sensitive and rapid method using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rats fed the control diet containing no isoflavones had nondetectable levels of isoflavone metabolites in serum, liver and mammary gland samples. Rats fed the isoflavone-supplemented diet had the greatest levels of equol, followed by genistein, daidzein and glycitein, respectively, in their serum, livers and mammary glands. The concentrations of total isoflavones (daidzein, equol and genistein plus glycitein) in serum were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in male rats vs. female rats, but the reverse was true in the case of livers. Concentrations of daidzein, equol, genistein and glycitein were lowest (p < 0.05) in the livers of pigs fed the control diet, and in the mammary glands of female pigs there was only

  12. Effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics of etoposide in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si Hyung; Choi, Hyeon Gyeom; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Myung Gull; Kim, So Hee

    2013-03-01

    Etoposide, used for the treatment of breast cancer, is mainly metabolized via hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in humans and is also a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp). Morin is known to be able to modulate the activities of metabolic enzymes including CYPs and can act as a potent P-gp inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics of etoposide in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. Etoposide was administered intravenously (2 mg/kg) and orally (10 mg/kg) in control and DMBA rats without (DMBA-WOM) and with (DMBA-WM) morin (15 mg/kg). Protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A and P-gp was analyzed, and the tissue distribution of etoposide was also measured. Both protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A and P-gp was inhibited by morin in the liver, intestine and breast tumors of DMBA-WM rats. After both intravenous and oral administration of etoposide in DMBA-WM rats, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC) of etoposide was significantly greater, and the time-averaged total body clearance (CL) of etoposide was significantly slower than those in control and DMBA-WOM rats. The amount of etoposide recovered from each tissue was significantly higher in DMBA-WM rats, especially in the breast tumor, liver and large intestine. No significant differences between control and DMBA-WOM rats were observed. Taken together, greater AUC and slower CL of etoposide in DMBA-WM rats could possibly be due to the inhibition of hepatic CYP3A (intravenous) and mainly due to the inhibition of intestinal CYP3A and P-gp (oral) by morin.

  13. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Raquel; Wang, Richard; Russo, Irma H; Mailo, Daniel A; Lamartiniere, Coral A; Russo, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20) to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days). Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days), becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland. PMID:18062813

  14. Mammary carcinogenic effect of low-dose fission radiation in Wistar/Furth rats and its dependency on prolactin.

    PubMed

    Yokoro, K; Sumi, C; Ito, A; Hamada, K; Kanda, K; Kobayashi, T

    1980-06-01

    The mammary carcinogenic effect in rats of low-dose fission radiation and its dependency on prolactin were studied. A total of 141 female W/Fu rats were exposed to 4.8, 8.9, or 19.5 rads of fission radiation that had both fision neutrons of 2.0 million electron volts (MeV) and gamma ray components similar to those produced by the Hiroshima bomb. Only 1 of 48 rats (2.0%) developed mammary tumor (MT) after irradiation alone, whereas 20 of 48 rats (41.6%) developed MT's if prolactin was supplied shortly after irradiation by means of grafting of the prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor. Furthermore, MT's occurred in 11 of 45 rats (24.4%) treated with prolactin as late as 12 months after irradiation, which suggested the long-term survival of radiation-induced dormant MT cells. A correlation was found between the development of MT and the elevation of serum prolactin level; most MT's appeared shortly after the grafted mammotropic pituitary tumor became palpable. The growth of MT's appeared to be promoted by prolactin in collaboration with ovarian hormones; the growth of adenocarcinomas was dependent on prolactin and ovarian hormones, whereas the growth of fibroadenomas appeared to be less hormone-dependent. Much higher biologic effectiveness, especially in the low-dose range, was found with 2.0-MeV fission neutrons compared with 14.1-MeV fast neutrons or 180-kilovolt peak X-rays in rat mammary carcinogenesis.

  15. Mammary carcinogenic effect of low-dose fission radiation in Wistar/Furth rats and its dependency on prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoro, K.; Sumi, C.; Ito, A.; Hamada, K.; Kanda, K.; Kobayashi, T.

    1980-06-01

    The mammary carcinogenic effect in rats of low-dose fission radiation and its dependency on prolactin were studied. A total of 141 female W/Fu rats were exposed to 4.8, 8.9, or 19.5 rads of fission radiation that had both fission neutrons of 2.0 million electron volts (MeV) and gamma ray components similar to those produced by the Hiroshima bomb. Only 1 of 48 rats (2.0%) developed mammary tumor (MT) after irradiation alone, whereas 20 of 48 rats (41.6%) developed MT's if prolactin was supplied shortly after irradiation by means of grafting of the prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor. Furthermore, MT's occurred in 11 of 45 rats (24.4%) treated wit prolactin as late as 12 months after irradiation, which suggested the long-term survival of radiation-induced dormant MT cells. A correlation was found between the development of MT and the elevation of serum prolactin level; most MT's appeared shortly after the grafted mammotropic pituitary tumor became palpable. The growth of MT's appeared to be promoted by prolactin in collaboration with ovarian hormones; the growth of adenocarcinomas was dependent on prolactin and ovarian hormones, whereas the growth of fibroadenomas appeared to be less hormone-dependent. Much higher bioiogic effectiveness, especially in the low-dose range, was found with 2.0-MeV fission neutrons compared with 14.1-MeV fast neutrons or 180-kilovolt peak X-rays in rat mammary carcinogenesis.

  16. Beneficial bacteria stimulate host immune cells to counteract dietary and genetic predisposition to mammary cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Levkovich, Tatiana; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Mirabal, Sheyla; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest health benefits including protection from cancer after eating fermented foods such as probiotic yogurt, though the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we tested mechanistic hypotheses using two different animal models: the first model studied development of mammary cancer when eating a Westernized diet, and the second studied animals with a genetic predilection to breast cancer. For the first model, outbred Swiss mice were fed a Westernized chow putting them at increased risk for development of mammary tumors. In this Westernized diet model, mammary carcinogenesis was inhibited by routine exposure to Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC-PTA-6475 in drinking water. The second model was FVB strain erbB2 (HER2) mutant mice, genetically susceptible to mammary tumors mimicking breast cancers in humans, being fed a regular (non-Westernized) chow diet. We found that oral supplement with these purified lactic acid bacteria alone was sufficient to inhibit features of mammary neoplasia in both models. The protective mechanism was determined to be microbially-triggered CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. When isolated and transplanted into other subjects, these L. reuteri-stimulated lymphocytes were sufficient to convey transplantable anti-cancer protection in the cell recipient animals. These data demonstrate that host immune responses to environmental microbes significantly impact and inhibit cancer progression in distal tissues such as mammary glands, even in genetically susceptible mice. This leads us to conclude that consuming fermentative microbes such as L. reuteri may offer a tractable public health approach to help counteract the accumulated dietary and genetic carcinogenic events integral in the Westernized diet and lifestyle. What's new? Can eating fermented foods like yogurt ward off cancer? Recent studies have suggested it's possible. To find out how, these authors isolated the probiotic bacteria involved in fermentation and fed them to mice that were

  17. Withania somnifera root extract inhibits mammary cancer metastasis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Garcia, Anapatricia; Xu, Songli; Powell, Doris R; Vertino, Paula M; Singh, Shivendra; Marcus, Adam I

    2013-01-01

    Though clinicians can predict which patients are at risk for developing metastases, traditional therapies often prove ineffective and metastatic disease is the primary cause of cancer patient death; therefore, there is a need to develop anti-metastatic therapies that can be administered over long durations to specifically inhibit the motility of cancer cells. Withaniasomnifera root extracts (WRE) have anti-proliferative activity and the active component, Withaferin A, inhibits the pro-metastatic protein, vimentin. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and is part of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program to promote metastasis. Here, we determined whether WRE standardized to Withaferin A (sWRE) possesses anti-metastatic activity and whether it inhibits cancer motility via inhibition of vimentin and the EMT program. Several formulations of sWRE were created to enrich for Withaferin A and a stock solution of sWRE in EtOH could recover over 90% of the Withaferin A found in the original extract powder. This sWRE formulation inhibited breast cancer cell motility and invasion at concentrations less than 1µM while having negligible cytotoxicity at this dose. sWRE treatment disrupted vimentin morphology in cell lines, confirming its vimentin inhibitory activity. To determine if sWRE inhibited EMT, TGF-β was used to induce EMT in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells. In this case, sWRE prevented EMT induction and inhibited 3-D spheroid invasion. These studies were taken into a human xenograft and mouse mammary carcinoma model. In both models, sWRE and Withaferin A showed dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and metastatic lung nodule formation with minimal systemic toxicity. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that low concentrations of sWRE inhibit cancer metastasis potentially through EMT inhibition. Moreover, these doses of sWRE have nearly no toxicity in normal mouse organs, suggesting the potential for clinical use of orally

  18. Wnt5a as an Effector of TGFβ in Mammary Development and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Stephanie L.; Jiang, Wen; Baxley, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Wnt5a is a member of the Wingless-related/MMTV-integration family of secreted growth factors, which are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Wnt signaling can be broadly divided into two categories the canonical, β-catenin-dependent pathway and the non-canonical β-catenin-independent pathway. Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling member of the Wnt family. Loss of Wnt5a is associated with early relapse of invasive breast cancer, increased metastasis, and poor survival in humans. It has been shown that TGF-β directly regulates expression of Wnt5a in mammary gland and that Wnt5a mediates the effects of TGF-β on branching during mammary gland development. Here we review the evidence suggesting Wnt5a acts as an effector of TGF-β actions in breast cancer. It is suggested that the tumor suppressive functions of TGF-β involve Wnt5a-mediated antagonism of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and limiting the stem cell population. Interactions between TGF-β and Wnt5a in metastasis appear to be more complex, and may depend on specific cues from the microenvironment as well as activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:21416313

  19. A mammary adenocarcinoma murine model suitable for the study of cancer immunoediting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer immunoediting is a dynamic process composed of three phases: elimination (EL), equilibrium (EQ) and escape (ES) that encompasses the potential host-protective and tumor-sculpting functions of the immune system throughout tumor development. Animal models are useful tools for studying diseases such as cancer. The present study was designed to characterize the interaction between mammary adenocarcinoma M-406 and CBi, CBi− and CBi/L inbred mice lines. Results The mammary adenocarcinoma M-406 developed spontaneously in a CBi mouse. CBi/L and CBi− mice were artificially selected for body conformation from CBi. When CBi mice are s.c. challenged with M-406, tumor growths exponentially in 100% of animals, while in CBi− the tumor growths briefly and then begins a rejection process in 100% of the animals. In CBi/L the growth of the tumor shows the three phases: 51.6% in ES, 18.5% in EQ and 29.8% in EL. Conclusions The results obtained support the conclusion that the system M-406 plus the inbred mouse lines CBi, CBi− and CBi/L, is a good murine model to study the process of tumor immunoediting. PMID:24885995

  20. Luteolin suppresses development of medroxyprogesterone acetate-accelerated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew T; Mafuvadze, Benford; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Ellersieck, Mark R; Goyette, Sandy; Hyder, Salman M

    2016-02-01

    Postmenopausal women undergoing hormone-replacement therapy containing both progestins and estrogens are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with women taking estrogen alone. We recently demonstrated that medroxyprogesterone acetate, a progestin commonly used for hormone-replacement therapy, accelerates development of mammary carcinogenesis in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene‑treated Sprague-Dawley rats. Synthetic antiprogestins used to block the deleterious effects of progestins, are themselves associated with toxic side-effects. In order to circumvent this, we used the aforementioned model to identify less toxic natural compounds that may prevent the development of progestin-accelerated tumors. Luteolin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables, has previously been shown to possess anticancer properties. In our studies, both low (1 mg/kg) and high (25 mg/kg) doses of luteolin significantly suppressed progestin-dependent increases in tumor incidence, while increasing tumor latency and reducing the occurrence of large (>300 mm3) mammary tumors. However, an intermediate dose of luteolin (10 mg/kg), while suppressing the development of large tumors, did not affect either tumor incidence or latency. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues revealed that all concentrations of luteolin (1, 10, and 25 mg/kg) significantly reduced levels of VEGF within tumors. The suppressive effects of luteolin on tumor incidence and volume, together with its ability to reduce VEGF and blood vessels, persisted even after treatment was terminated. This suggests that luteolin possesses anti‑angiogenic properties which could mechanistically explain its capacity to control tumor progression. Thus luteolin may be a valuable, non-toxic, naturally-occurring anticancer compound which may potentially be used to combat progestin-accelerated mammary tumors.

  1. Antiproliferative Effects of Oxytocin and Desmopressin on Canine Mammary Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Micaela Andrea; Bianchi, Carolina Paula; Imperiale, Fernanda; Aba, Marcelo Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland represent the most frequent tumor type in the female dog, and according to the histologic criteria, approximately 50% of them are malignant. In the most aggressive cases of mammary cancer, surgery is not enough to warrant a favorable outcome, and adjuvant therapies are needed to improve the patient’s overall survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two peptides on proliferation of a canine mammary cancer cell line derived from a simple carcinoma. The cell line CMT-U27 was grown in 96-well plates, at two cell densities (4 × 103 and 8 × 103 cells/well). Cultures were treated with oxytocin (OT) or desmopressin at five concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM). After 72 h of incubation, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Results showed that with 4 × 103 cells/well, OT at 50, 500, and 1000 nM was growth inhibitory for the cells, being statistically significant at 1000 nM. On the contrary, no antiproliferative effect was observed with 10 or 100 nM. At 8 × 103 cells/well, OT showed a significant antiproliferative effect only with the highest concentration (1000 nM). Desmopressin at 4 × 103 cells/well decreased cell viability at concentrations of 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM (statistically significant with the highest concentration), while no effect was observed with 10 nM. With 8 × 103 cells/well, this peptide reduced cell growth at 100, 500, and 1000 nM. In conclusion, we suggest that these peptides may be potential and promising compounds for the treatment of dogs with simple carcinomas of the mammary gland. In vivo studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:28083539

  2. Antiproliferative Effects of Oxytocin and Desmopressin on Canine Mammary Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Micaela Andrea; Bianchi, Carolina Paula; Imperiale, Fernanda; Aba, Marcelo Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland represent the most frequent tumor type in the female dog, and according to the histologic criteria, approximately 50% of them are malignant. In the most aggressive cases of mammary cancer, surgery is not enough to warrant a favorable outcome, and adjuvant therapies are needed to improve the patient's overall survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two peptides on proliferation of a canine mammary cancer cell line derived from a simple carcinoma. The cell line CMT-U27 was grown in 96-well plates, at two cell densities (4 × 10(3) and 8 × 10(3) cells/well). Cultures were treated with oxytocin (OT) or desmopressin at five concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM). After 72 h of incubation, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Results showed that with 4 × 10(3) cells/well, OT at 50, 500, and 1000 nM was growth inhibitory for the cells, being statistically significant at 1000 nM. On the contrary, no antiproliferative effect was observed with 10 or 100 nM. At 8 × 10(3) cells/well, OT showed a significant antiproliferative effect only with the highest concentration (1000 nM). Desmopressin at 4 × 10(3) cells/well decreased cell viability at concentrations of 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM (statistically significant with the highest concentration), while no effect was observed with 10 nM. With 8 × 10(3) cells/well, this peptide reduced cell growth at 100, 500, and 1000 nM. In conclusion, we suggest that these peptides may be potential and promising compounds for the treatment of dogs with simple carcinomas of the mammary gland. In vivo studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  3. Modulatory effects of neonatal exposure to TCDD, or a mixture of PCBs, p,p'-DDT, and p-p'-DDE, on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumor development in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Desaulniers, D; Leingartner, K; Russo, J; Perkins, G; Chittim, B G; Archer, M C; Wade, M; Yang, J

    2001-01-01

    The role of organochlorine (OC) exposure in the etiology of breast cancer remains controversial. Thus, our objective was to determine whether the most abundant and toxic OCs found in human milk could, when ingested during the neonatal period, modulate the development of mammary tumors in the rat. We prepared a mixture composed of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its major metabolite, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) based on their concentrations found in the milk of Canadian women. Neonate rats at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of age were gavaged with this mixture, at 10, 100, and 1,000 times the amount that a human baby would consume. An additional group received 2.5 microg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)/kg body weight (bw) by gavage at 18 days of age, instead of the mixture. On day 21, all treatment groups, except for a control group and a 1,000-mix group, received a single intraperitoneal injection of methylnitrosourea (MNU, 30 mg/kg bw), the initiator of the carcinogenic process. The average number of rats per treatment group was 33. Rats were sacrificed when their tumors reached 1 cm in size, or at 308 days of age. We prepared mammary tumors and mammary gland whole mounts for histologic analysis. There were no significant effects when only the malignant or only the benign tumors were considered. After all benign and malignant lesions were pooled, the number of mammary tumors differed among all MNU-treated groups (p = 0.02) with more lesions developing in the MNU-1,000[times] (median = 4.5; p = 0.05) and MNU-TCDD (median = 5.5; p = 0.07) compared to the MNU-0 rats (median = 2). Compared to the MNU-0 group, the percentage of rats that developed palpable tumors (benign plus malignant) was slightly higher (p = 0.06) in the MNU-TCDD group, but not in the MNU-1,000[times] group. The percentage of palpable tumors that were malignant was higher (p = 0.02) in the MNU-100[times] group (15/16, 94%) than

  4. Dose response study of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil on mammary and colon carcinogenesis pretreated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing Lei; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Kumiko; Iwata, Toshio; Kasai, Masaaki; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hirose, Masao; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-07-10

    To clarify the chemopreventive effects of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on mammary and colon carcinogenesis, 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received diet containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, or 2% CFA-S subsequent to five times subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. and a single 50 mg/kg b.w. intragastric application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) during the first 11 days. The experiment was terminated at week 36. Numbers of mammary tumors, colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and proliferative indices of mammary tumors, and colon epithelium were analyzed. The 1% dose was found to be optimal for suppression of carcinogenesis in both target organs, a good correlation being noted with between data for cell proliferation. These results suggest that a diet containing appropriate levels of CFA-S may be useful for prevention of mammary and colon cancer.

  5. Prevention of rat breast cancer by genistin and selenium.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Soha M; Latif, Abdel Karim M Abdel; Drees, Ehab A; Soliman, Sahar M

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women and the third most common cancer. In this study, we investigated the chemoprevention efficacy of each of soy genistin, selenium or a combination of them against breast cancer. Seventy-five female rats were divided into five groups : control group (I); 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) group (II); DMBA treated with genistin group (III); DMBA treated with selenium group (IV); and DMBA treated with genistin combined with selenium group (V). The treatments were daily administered for 3 months. There were a significant decrease in body weight and serum total antioxidant, while a significant elevation in serum total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen, prolactin, estradiol, nitric oxide, and malondialdhyde of DMBA injected rats compared with control group. Administration of genistin and selenium was associated with decreasing levels of tumorigenicity, endocrine derangement, and oxidative stress. Formation of breast carcinoma in DMBA-induced rats and abnormal changes were ameliorated in the rats treated with genistin/selenium or genistin alone. Supplementation of genistin alone or with selenium provided antioxidant defense with high-potential chemopreventive activity against DMBA-induced mammary tumors more than selenium alone.

  6. Elf5 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary gland development and breast cancer metastasis by transcriptionally repressing Snail2.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Rumela; Hwang, Julie; Andres Blanco, Mario; Wei, Yong; Lukačišin, Martin; Romano, Rose-Anne; Smalley, Kirsten; Liu, Song; Yang, Qifeng; Ibrahim, Toni; Mercatali, Laura; Amadori, Dino; Haffty, Bruce G; Sinha, Satrajit; Kang, Yibin

    2012-11-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process that occurs during organogenesis and in cancer metastasis. Despite recent progress, the molecular pathways connecting the physiological and pathological functions of EMT need to be better defined. Here we show that the transcription factor Elf5, a key regulator of mammary gland alveologenesis, controls EMT in both mammary gland development and metastasis. We uncovered this role for Elf5 through analyses of Elf5 conditional knockout animals, various in vitro and in vivo models of EMT and metastasis, an MMTV-neu transgenic model of mammary tumour progression and clinical breast cancer samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Elf5 suppresses EMT by directly repressing the transcription of Snail2, a master regulator of mammary stem cells and a known inducer of EMT. These findings establish Elf5 not only as a key cell lineage regulator during normal mammary gland development, but also as a suppressor of EMT and metastasis in breast cancer.

  7. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetics is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structura...

  8. Associated expressions of FGFR-2 and FGFR-3: from mouse mammary gland physiology to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerliani, Juan P; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Piñero, Cecilia Pérez; Bottino, María C; Sahores, Ana; Nuñez, Myriam; Varchetta, Romina; Martins, Rubén; Zeitlin, Eduardo; Hewitt, Stephen M; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Lanari, Claudia; Lamb, Caroline A

    2012-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are tyrosine kinase receptors which have been implicated in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate FGFR-1, -2, -3, and -4 protein expressions in normal murine mammary gland development, and in murine and human breast carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot, we report a hormonal regulation of FGFR during postnatal mammary gland development. Progestin treatment of adult virgin mammary glands resulted in changes in localization of FGFR-3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, while treatment with 17-β-estradiol induced changes in the expressions and/or localizations of FGFR-2 and -3. In murine mammary carcinomas showing different degrees of hormone dependence, we found progestin-induced increased expressions, mainly of FGFR-2 and -3. These receptors were constitutively activated in hormone-independent variants. We studied three luminal human breast cancer cell lines growing as xenografts, which particularly expressed FGFR-2 and -3, suggesting a correlation between hormonal status and FGFR expression. Most importantly, in breast cancer samples from 58 patients, we found a strong association (P < 0.01; Spearman correlation) between FGFR-2 and -3 expressions and a weaker correlation of each receptor with estrogen receptor expression. FGFR-4 correlated with c-erbB2 over expression. We conclude that FGFR-2 and -3 may be mechanistically linked and can be potential targets for treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients.

  9. Overexpression of LMO4 induces mammary hyperplasia, promotes cell invasion, and is a predictor of poor outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sum, Eleanor Y. M.; Segara, Davendra; Duscio, Belinda; Bath, Mary L.; Field, Andrew S.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Visvader, Jane E.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc finger protein LMO4 is overexpressed in a high proportion of breast carcinomas. Here, we report that overexpression of a mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Lmo4 transgene in the mouse mammary gland elicits hyperplasia and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia or adenosquamous carcinoma in two transgenic strains with a tumor latency of 13–18 months. To investigate cellular processes controlled by LMO4 and those that may be deregulated during oncogenesis, we used RNA interference. Down-regulation of LMO4 expression reduced proliferation of human breast cancer cells and increased differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells. Furthermore, small-interfering-RNA-transfected breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) had a reduced capacity to migrate and invade an extracellular matrix. Conversely, overexpression of LMO4 in noninvasive, immortalized human MCF10A cells promoted cell motility and invasion. Significantly, in a cohort of 159 primary breast cancers, high nuclear levels of LMO4 were an independent predictor of death from breast cancer. Together, these findings suggest that deregulation of LMO4 in breast epithelium contributes directly to breast neoplasia by altering the rate of cellular proliferation and promoting cell invasion. PMID:15897450

  10. Acceleration of mammary tumorigenesis by exposure of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-treated female rats in a 50-Hz, 100-microT magnetic field: replication study.

    PubMed

    Mevissen, M; Häussler, M; Lerchl, A; Löscher, W

    1998-03-13

    In view of the methodological problems of epidemiological studies on associations between residential and occupational exposures to 50/60-Hz magnetic fields (MF) and increased incidence of cancers, laboratory studies are necessary to determine if 50/60-Hz MF can affect cancer development or growth. Recently, it was reported that alternating (50-Hz) MF of low flux density (100 microT) increase tumor growth and progression in a model of breast cancer in female rats in which mammary tumors were induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The objective of the present study was to determine if a replicate experiment carried out in the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions yields a significant increase in tumor development and growth of similar magnitude. For the MF experiment, a group of 99 female Sprague-Dawley rats was exposed to a homogeneous horizontally polarized MF for 24 h/d (minus time for weighing, tumor palpation, cage cleaning, cage rotation), 7 d/wk; another group of 99 rats was sham exposed. DMBA was administered intragastrically at a dose of 5 mg/rat at the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals thereafter up to a total dose of 20 mg/rat. Duration of MF or sham exposure was 91 d. In both MF-exposed and sham-exposed rats, the first tumors could be recorded 6 wk after the initial DMBA application. At 9 wk after DMBA application, the group of MF-exposed rats exhibited significantly more animals with tumors than the sham-exposed group. This significant difference in the rate of tumor development was observed throughout the subsequent period of exposure. After autopsy, the incidence of macroscopically visible mammary tumors was 62% in controls, but 83% in MF-exposed rats, with the 35% difference between groups being statistically significant. Data substantiate that long-term exposure of DMBA-treated female Sprague-Dawley rats in an alternating MF of low flux density promotes the development and growth of

  11. Exercise-induced muscle-derived cytokines inhibit mammary cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Pernille; Dethlefsen, Christine; Brandt, Claus; Hansen, Jakob; Pedersen, Line; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-09-01

    Regular physical activity protects against the development of breast and colon cancer, since it reduces the risk of developing these by 25-30%. During exercise, humoral factors are released from the working muscles for endocrinal signaling to other organs. We hypothesized that these myokines mediate some of the inhibitory effects of exercise on mammary cancer cell proliferation. Serum and muscles were collected from mice after an exercise bout. Incubation with exercise-conditioned serum inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by 52% and increased caspase activity by 54%. A similar increase in caspase activity was found after incubation of MCF-7 cells with conditioned media from electrically stimulated myotubes. PCR array analysis (CAPM-0838E; SABiosciences) revealed that seven genes were upregulated in the muscles after exercise, and of these oncostatin M (OSM) proved to inhibit MCF-7 proliferation by 42%, increase caspase activity by 46%, and induce apoptosis. Blocking OSM signaling with anti-OSM antibodies reduced the induction of caspase activity by 51%. To verify that OSM was a myokine, we showed that it was significantly upregulated in serum and in three muscles, tibialis cranialis, gastronemius, and soleus, after an exercise bout. In contrast, OSM expression remained unchanged in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, liver, and spleen (mononuclear cells). We conclude that postexercise serum inhibits mammary cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of these cells. We suggest that one or more myokines secreted from working muscles may be mediating this effect and that OSM is a possible candidate. These findings emphasize that role of physical activity in cancer treatment, showing a direct link between exercise-induced humoral factors and decreased tumor cell growth.

  12. Epistatic Control of Mammary Cancer Susceptibility in Mice may Depend on the Dietary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leamy, Larry J.; Gordon, Ryan R.; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked a high fat diet to the development of breast cancer, but any genetic basis for this association is poorly understood. We investigated this association with an epistatic analysis of seven cancer traits in a segregating population of mice with metastatic mammary cancer that were fed either a control or a high-fat diet. We used an interval mapping approach with single nucleotide polymorphisms to scan all 19 autosomes, and discovered a number of diet-independent epistatic interactions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these traits. More importantly,