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Sample records for rat microglial cells

  1. The origin of microglial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boya, J; Calvo, J; Prado, A

    1979-01-01

    The rat brain has been studied between 6 hours after birth and 100 days, using histochemical techniques for acid phosphatase and peroxidase, and silver impregnation for microglial cells. The results indicate that microglia come initially from acid phosphatase-positive cells of the meninges. These invade the nervous parenchyma and transform into ramified microglia. At 3 days of age similar cells are present on the outer surface of the large blood vessels, from which site they migrate into the nervous parenchyma. In 100 days old rats the acid phosphatase-positive cells are practically all pericytes. None of the microglial cells or their precursors give a positive reaction for peroxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:511761

  2. Naegleria fowleri lysate induces strong cytopathic effects and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in rat microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2011-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A (51)Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response. PMID:22072830

  3. Naegleria fowleri lysate induces strong cytopathic effects and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in rat microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2011-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A (51)Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response.

  4. Naegleria fowleri Lysate Induces Strong Cytopathic Effects and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Release in Rat Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2011-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A 51Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response. PMID:22072830

  5. Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Rat Developing Brain In Utero Prominently Targets Immune Cells and Promotes Early Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cloarec, Robin; Bauer, Sylvian; Luche, Hervé; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Salmi, Manal; Courtens, Sandra; Massacrier, Annick; Grenot, Pierre; Teissier, Natacha; Watrin, Françoise; Schaller, Fabienne; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Gressens, Pierre; Malissen, Marie; Stamminger, Thomas; Streblow, Daniel N.; Bruneau, Nadine; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus infections are a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in human and represent a major health care and socio-economical burden. In contrast with this medical importance, the pathophysiological events remain poorly known. Murine models of brain cytomegalovirus infection, mostly neonatal, have brought recent insights into the possible pathogenesis, with convergent evidence for the alteration and possible involvement of brain immune cells. Objectives and Methods In order to confirm and expand those findings, particularly concerning the early developmental stages following infection of the fetal brain, we have created a model of in utero cytomegalovirus infection in the developing rat brain. Rat cytomegalovirus was injected intraventricularly at embryonic day 15 (E15) and the brains analyzed at various stages until the first postnatal day, using a combination of gene expression analysis, immunohistochemistry and multicolor flow cytometry experiments. Results Rat cytomegalovirus infection was increasingly seen in various brain areas including the choroid plexi and the ventricular and subventricular areas and was prominently detected in CD45low/int, CD11b+ microglial cells, in CD45high, CD11b+ cells of the myeloid lineage including macrophages, and in CD45+, CD11b– lymphocytes and non-B non-T cells. In parallel, rat cytomegalovirus infection of the developing rat brain rapidly triggered a cascade of pathophysiological events comprising: chemokines upregulation, including CCL2-4, 7 and 12; infiltration by peripheral cells including B-cells and monocytes at E17 and P1, and T-cells at P1; and microglia activation at E17 and P1. Conclusion In line with previous findings in neonatal murine models and in human specimen, our study further suggests that neuroimmune alterations might play critical roles in the early stages following cytomegalovirus infection of the brain in utero. Further studies are now needed to determine which

  6. Minocycline Effects on IL-6 Concentration in Macrophage and Microglial Cells in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moini-Zanjani, Taraneh; Ostad, Seyed-Nasser; Labibi, Farzaneh; Ameli, Haleh; Mosaffa, Nariman; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that neuropathic pain pathogenesis is not confined to changes in the activity of neuronal systems but involves interactions between neurons, inflammatory immune and immune-like glial cells. Substances released from immune cells during inflammation play an important role in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. It has been found that minocycline suppresses the development of neuropathic pain. Here, we evaluated the analgesic effect of minocycline in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rat and assessed IL-6 concentration from cultured macrophage and microglia cells. Methods: Male Wistar rat (n=6, 150-200 g) were divided into three different groups: 1) CCI+vehicle, 2) sham+vehicle, and 3) CCI+drug. Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was injected one hour before surgery and continued daily to day 14 post ligation. Von Frey filaments and acetone, as pain behavioral tests, were used for mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia, respectively. Experiments were performed on day 0 (before surgery) and days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post -injury. At day 14, rats were killed and monocyte-derived macrophage from right ventricle and microglia from lumbar part of the spinal cord were isolated and cultured in RPMI and Leibovitz’s media, respectively. IL-6 concentration was evaluated in cell culture supernatant after 24 h. Results: Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) attenuated pain behavior, and a decrease in IL-6 concentration was observed in immune cells compared to CCI vehicle-treated animals. Conclusion: Minocycline reduced pain behavior and decreased IL-6 concentration in macrophage and microglial cells. PMID:27221523

  7. Isolation and analysis of mouse microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jenny A; Cardona, Sandra M; Cardona, Astrid E

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are mononuclear phagocytes that make up about 10% of the central nervous system (CNS). They are known for their surveillant behavior, which involves continuous monitoring of neural tissue by extending and retracting their processes. Microglial cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells and play important roles in homeostasis as well as inflammatory and immune responses in the brain. This unit describes several microglial cell isolation protocols that can be easily adapted for projects requiring a rapid and efficient analysis of mouse microglial cells by flow cytometry. Methods for visualizing microglial cells using in situ immunohistochemistry and immunochemistry in free-floating sections are also included.

  8. Cytopathic changes and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by Naegleria fowleri trophozoites in rat microglial cells and protective effects of an anti-Nfa1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y-H; Jeong, S-R; Kim, J-H; Song, K-J; Kim, K; Park, S; Sohn, S; Shin, H-J

    2005-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in experimental animals and humans. The nfa1 gene (360 bp) was previously cloned from a cDNA library of pathogenic N. fowleri by immunoscreening, and produced a 13.1-kDa recombinant protein that showed pseudopodia-specific localization by immunocytochemistry. On the basis of an idea that the pseudopodia-specific Nfa1 protein seems to be involved in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri, the cytopathic activity of N. fowleri trophozoites co-cultured with rat microglial cells was observed, and the effects of an anti-Nfa1 antibody in a co-culture system were elucidated. Using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, it was seen that N. fowleri trophozoites in contact with microglial cells produced vigorous pseudopodia and a food-cup structure. Microglial cells were destroyed by N. fowleri trophozoites as seen from necrotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. In a(51)Cr release assay, N. fowleri showed 17.8%, 24.9%, 54.6% and 98% cytotoxicity against microglial cells at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-incubation, respectively. However, when anti-Nfa1 antibody was added in a coculture system, N. fowleri cytotoxicity was reduced to 15.5%, 20.3%, 46.7% and 66.9%, respectively. Moreover, microglial cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites secreted the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. In the presence of anti-Nfa1 antibody, the secretion of TNF-alpha was slightly, but not significantly, decreased. PMID:16255744

  9. Cytopathic changes and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by Naegleria fowleri trophozoites in rat microglial cells and protective effects of an anti-Nfa1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y-H; Jeong, S-R; Kim, J-H; Song, K-J; Kim, K; Park, S; Sohn, S; Shin, H-J

    2005-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in experimental animals and humans. The nfa1 gene (360 bp) was previously cloned from a cDNA library of pathogenic N. fowleri by immunoscreening, and produced a 13.1-kDa recombinant protein that showed pseudopodia-specific localization by immunocytochemistry. On the basis of an idea that the pseudopodia-specific Nfa1 protein seems to be involved in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri, the cytopathic activity of N. fowleri trophozoites co-cultured with rat microglial cells was observed, and the effects of an anti-Nfa1 antibody in a co-culture system were elucidated. Using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, it was seen that N. fowleri trophozoites in contact with microglial cells produced vigorous pseudopodia and a food-cup structure. Microglial cells were destroyed by N. fowleri trophozoites as seen from necrotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. In a(51)Cr release assay, N. fowleri showed 17.8%, 24.9%, 54.6% and 98% cytotoxicity against microglial cells at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-incubation, respectively. However, when anti-Nfa1 antibody was added in a coculture system, N. fowleri cytotoxicity was reduced to 15.5%, 20.3%, 46.7% and 66.9%, respectively. Moreover, microglial cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites secreted the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. In the presence of anti-Nfa1 antibody, the secretion of TNF-alpha was slightly, but not significantly, decreased.

  10. Isolation and Analysis of Mouse Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jenny A.; Cardona, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are mononuclear phagocytes that make up about 10% of the central nervous system (CNS). They are known for their surveillant behavior which comprises continuously monitoring neural tissue by extending and retracting their processes. Microglial cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells and play important roles in homeostasis, inflammatory and immune responses in the brain. This Unit describes several microglial cell isolation protocols (Basic Protocol 1, Alternate Protocol, and Basic Protocol 2) that can be easily adapted for projects requiring a rapid and efficient analysis of mouse microglial cells by flow cytometry (Support Protocol 1). Methods for visualizing microglial cells using in situ immunohistochemistry (Basic Protocol 3) and immunochemistry in free-floating sections (Basic Protocol 4) are also included. PMID:24510618

  11. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Nuclear Factor kappa B Mediated iNOS/NO Production by Bromelain in Rat Primary Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi Habashi, Soraya; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Moghimi, Ali; Ansari Majd, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system .They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation. Methods: Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain. Results: Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death. Conclusion: Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26459398

  12. Maternal separation activates microglial cells and induces an inflammatory response in the hippocampus of male rat pups, independently of hypothalamic and peripheral cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Roque, Angélica; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Torner, Luz

    2016-07-01

    Adult animals subjected to chronic stress show an inflammatory response in the hippocampus which has been related to cognitive dysfunction and psychopathology. However the immediate consequences of early life stress on hippocampal glial cells have not been studied. Here we analyzed the effects of maternal separation (MS) on astrocyte and microglial cell morphology in the hippocampal hilus, compared the expression of cytokines in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, and the peripheral response of cytokines, on postnatal day (PD) 15. Male rat pups of MS (3h/day, PD1-PD14) and Control (CONT) pups showed similar microglial cell densities in the hilus, but MS pups presented more activated microglia. MS decreased astrocyte density and the number of processes in the hilus. Cytokine mRNA expression (qPCR) was analyzed in MS and CONT groups, sacrificed (i) under basal (B) conditions or (ii) after a single stress event (SS) at PN15. In hippocampal extracts, MS increased IL-1β mRNA, under B and SS conditions while IL-6 and TNF-α did not change. In hypothalamic tissue, MS increased TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA, but not IL-1b, after SS. Peripheral concentrations of IL-1β were decreased under B and SS conditions in MS; IL-6 concentration increased after SS in MS pups, and TNF-α concentration was unchanged. In conclusion, MS activates microglial cells and decreases astrocyte density in the hippocampus. A differential cytokine expression is observed in the hippocampus and the hypothalamus after MS, and after SS. Also, MS triggers an independent response of peripheral cytokines. These specific responses together could contribute to decrease hippocampal neurogenesis and alter the neuroendocrine axis.

  13. Neuronal Regulation of Neuroprotective Microglial Apolipoprotein E Secretion in Rat In Vitro Models of Brain Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Polazzi, Elisabetta; Mengoni, Ilaria; Peña-Altamira, Emiliano; Massenzio, Francesca; Virgili, Marco; Petralla, Sabrina; Monti, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is mainly secreted by glial cells and is involved in many brain functions, including neuronal plasticity, β-amyloid clearance, and neuroprotection. Microglia--the main immune cells of the brain--are one source of ApoE, but little is known about the physiologic regulation of microglial ApoE secretion by neurons and whether this release changes under inflammatory or neurodegenerative conditions. Using rat primary neural cell cultures, we show that microglia release ApoE through a Golgi-mediated secretion pathway and that ApoE progressively accumulates in neuroprotective microglia-conditioned medium. This constitutive ApoE release is negatively affected by microglial activation both with lipopolysaccharide and with ATP. Microglial ApoE release is stimulated by neuron-conditioned media and under coculture conditions. Neuron-stimulated microglial ApoE release is mediated by serine and glutamate through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and is differently regulated by activation states (i.e. lipopolysaccharide vs ATP) and by 6-hydroxydopamine. Microglial ApoE silencing abrogated protection of cerebellar granule neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in cocultures, indicating that microglial ApoE release is neuroprotective. Our findings shed light on the reciprocal cross-talk between neurons and microglia that is crucial for normal brain functions. They also open the way for the identification of possible pharmacologic targets that can modulate neuroprotective microglial ApoE release under pathologic conditions.

  14. Effects of caffeine and paracetamol alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid on prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Fiebich, B L; Lieb, K; Hüll, M; Aicher, B; van Ryn, J; Pairet, M; Engelhardt, G

    2000-08-23

    Paracetamol has mild analgesic and antipyretic properties and is, along with acetylsalicylic acid, one of the most popular "over the counter" analgesic agents. However, the mechanism underlying its clinical effects is unknown. Another drug whose mechanism of action is unknown is caffeine, which is often used in combination with other analgesics, augmenting their effect. We investigated the inhibitory effect of paracetamol and caffeine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)- and prostaglandin (PG)E(2)-synthesis in primary rat microglial cells and compared it with the effect of acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and dipyrone. Furthermore, combinations of these drugs were used to investigate a possible synergistic inhibitory effect on PGE(2)-synthesis. Both paracetamol (IC(50)=7.45 microM) and caffeine (IC(50)=42.5 microM) dose-dependently inhibited microglial PGE(2) synthesis. In combination with acetylsalicylic acid (IC(50)=3.12 microM), both substances augmented the inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on LPS-induced PGE(2)-synthesis. Whereas paracetamol inhibited only COX enzyme activity, caffeine also inhibited COX-2 protein synthesis. These results are compatible with the view that the clinical activity of paracetamol and caffeine is due to inhibition of COX. Furthermore, these results may help explain the clinical experience of an adjuvant analgesic effect of caffeine and paracetamol when combined with acetylsalicylic acid.

  15. Cannabinoids and neuronal damage: differential effects of THC, AEA and 2-AG on activated microglial cells and degenerating neurons in excitotoxically lesioned rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Susanne; Koch, Marco; Ghadban, Chalid; Korf, Horst-Werner; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoids (CBs) are attributed neuroprotective effects in vivo. Here, we determined the neuroprotective potential of CBs during neuronal damage in excitotoxically lesioned organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). OHSCs are the best characterized in vitro model to investigate the function of microglial cells in neuronal damage since blood-borne monocytes and T-lymphocytes are absent and microglial cells represent the only immunocompetent cell type. Excitotoxic neuronal damage was induced by NMDA (50 microM) application for 4 h. Neuroprotective properties of 9-carboxy-11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in different concentrations were determined after co-application with NMDA by counting degenerating neurons identified by propidium iodide labeling (PI(+)) and microglial cells labeled by isolectin B(4) (IB(4)(+)). All three CBs used significantly decreased the number of IB(4)(+) microglial cells in the dentate gyrus but the number of PI(+) neurons was reduced only after 2-AG treatment. Application of AM630, antagonizing CB2 receptors highly expressed by activated microglial cells, did not counteract neuroprotective effects of 2-AG, but affected THC-mediated reduction of IB(4)(+) microglial cells. Our results indicate that (1) only 2-AG exerts neuroprotective effects in OHSCs; (2) reduction of IB(4)(+) microglial cells is not a neuroprotective event per se and involves other CB receptors than the CB2 receptor; (3) the discrepancy in the neuroprotective effects of CBs observed in vivo and in our in vitro model system may underline the functional relevance of invading monocytes and T-lymphocytes that are absent in OHSCs. PMID:17010339

  16. Poly I:C induced microglial activation impairs motor activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Patro, I K; Amit; Shrivastava, M; Bhumika, S; Patro, N

    2010-02-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidic acid (poly I:C) is a synthetic double stranded RNA, which mimics with viral genome and mediates immune activation response similar to double stranded RNA virus infection into the brain. Microglial cells are the immune competent cells of the central nervous system having Toll like receptors-3 on their surface. Upon establishing that poly I:C infusion into the brain causes microgliosis by creating a viral infection model, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of microglial activation following poly I:C infusion on motor activity. We infused 100 microl of 1% solution of Poly I:C in TBE buffer directly into the lateral ventricle and TBE buffer as vehicle to controls. A significantly higher microglial cell count as compared to control on 2, 3 and 7 days post infusion was recorded. Motor activity and microglial cell count was assessed in both controls and poly I:C infused rats on 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post infusion. A significant decrease in motor activity and motor coordination occurred with respect to control. The results clearly demonstrate that microglial activation has a direct relevance with decreased motor activity. Findings could also have their importance in understanding the role of microglial cells on behavioral aspects in viral diseases.

  17. Tocopherol-mediated modulation of age-related changes in microglial cells: turnover of extracellular oxidized protein material.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Widmer, Rebecca; Jung, Tobias; Voss, Peter; Grune, Tilman

    2006-06-15

    Proteins accumulate during aging and form insoluble protein aggregates. Microglia are responsible for their removal from the brain. During aging, changes within the microglia might play a crucial role in the malfunctioning of these cells. Therefore, we isolated primary microglial cells from adult rats and compared their activation status and their ability to degrade proteins to that of microglial cells isolated from newborn animals. The ability of adult microglial cells to degrade proteins is substantially decreased. However, the preincubation of microglial cells with vitamin E improves significantly the degradation of such modified proteins. The degradation of proteins from apoptotic vesicles is decreased in microglia isolated from adult rats. This might be the result of a suppression of the CD36 receptor due to vitamin E treatment. We concluded that microglial cells isolated from adult organisms have different metabolic properties and seem to be a more valuable model to study age-related diseases.

  18. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical in promoting alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyunghee; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Hye-In; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Bonghee

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a neurotoxic agent, since long-term heavy ingestion of alcohol can cause various neural diseases including fetal alcohol syndrome, cerebellar degeneracy and alcoholic dementia. However, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol-induced neurotoxicity are still poorly understood despite numerous studies. Thus, we hypothesized that activated microglial cells with elevated AGE-albumin levels play an important role in promoting alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Our results revealed that microglial activation and neuronal damage were found in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex following alcohol treatment in a rat model. Increased AGE-albumin synthesis and secretion were also observed in activated microglial cells after alcohol exposure. The expressed levels of receptor for AGE (RAGE)-positive neurons and RAGE-dependent neuronal death were markedly elevated by AGE-albumin through the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Treatment with soluble RAGE or AGE inhibitors significantly diminished neuronal damage in the animal model. Furthermore, the levels of activated microglial cells, AGE-albumin and neuronal loss were significantly elevated in human brains from alcoholic indivisuals compared to normal controls. Taken together, our data suggest that increased AGE-albumin from activated microglial cells induces neuronal death, and that efficient regulation of its synthesis and secretion is a therapeutic target for preventing alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25140518

  19. Trimethyltin-Induced Microglial Activation via NADPH Oxidase and MAPKs Pathway in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Jung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is known as a potent neurotoxicant that causes neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation, particularly in the hippocampus. Microglial activation is one of the prominent pathological features of TMT neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how microglial activation occurs in TMT intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the signaling pathways in TMT-induced microglial activation using BV-2 murine microglial cells. Our results revealed that TMT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the expression of CD11b and nuclear factor-κB- (NF-κB-) mediated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α in BV-2 cells. We also observed that NF-κB activation was controlled by p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, TMT-induced ROS generation occurred via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in BV-2 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed p38 and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation and ultimately the production of proinflammatory mediators upon TMT exposure. These findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation activated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which then stimulated NF-κB to release proinflammatory mediators in the TMT-treated BV-2 cells. PMID:26221064

  20. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  1. Microglial ROS production in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model of epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rettenbeck, Maruja L; von Rüden, Eva-Lotta; Bienas, Silvia; Carlson, Regina; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Potschka, Heidrun

    2015-07-10

    Reactive oxygen species and inflammatory signaling have been identified as pivotal pathophysiological factors contributing to epileptogenesis. Considering the development of combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment strategies with antiepileptogenic potential, a characterization of the time course of microglial reactive oxygen species generation during epileptogenesis is of major interest. Thus, we isolated microglia cells and analyzed the generation of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometric analysis in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model. Two days post status epilepticus, a large-sized cell cluster exhibited a pronounced response with excessive production of reactive oxygen species upon stimulation with phorbol-myristate-acetate. Neither in the latency phase nor in the chronic phase with spontaneous seizures a comparable cell population with induction of reactive oxygen species was identified. We were able to demonstrate in the electrical rat post-status-epilepticus model, that microglial ROS generation reaches a peak after the initial insult, is only marginally increased in the latency phase, and returns to control levels during the chronic epileptic phase. The data suggest that a combination of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging approaches might only be beneficial during a short time window after an epileptogenic brain insult.

  2. Neonatal binge alcohol exposure increases microglial activation in the developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Boschen, K E; Ruggiero, M J; Klintsova, A Y

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant activation of the developing immune system can have long-term negative consequences on cognition and behavior. Teratogens, such as alcohol, activate microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, which could contribute to the lifelong deficits in learning and memory observed in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigates the microglial response of the brain 24 h following neonatal alcohol exposure (postnatal days (PDs) 4-9, 5.25 g/kg/day). On PD10, microglial cell counts and area of cell territory were assessed using unbiased stereology in the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), and hippocampal expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes was analyzed. A significant decrease in microglial cell counts in CA1 and DG was found in alcohol-exposed and sham-intubated (SI) animals compared to undisturbed suckle controls (SCs), suggesting overlapping effects of alcohol exposure and intubation alone on the neuroimmune response. Cell territory was decreased in alcohol-exposed animals in CA1, CA3, and DG compared to controls, suggesting the microglia have shifted to a more activated state following alcohol treatment. Furthermore, both alcohol-exposed and SI animals had increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, CD11b, and CCL4; in addition, CCL4 was significantly increased in alcohol-exposed animals compared to SI as well. Alcohol-exposed animals also showed increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β compared to both SI and SCs. In summary, the number and activation of microglia in the neonatal hippocampus are both affected in a rat model of FASD, along with increased gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study shows that alcohol exposure during development induces a neuroimmune response, potentially contributing to long-term alcohol-related changes to cognition, behavior and immune function. PMID:26996510

  3. Immunocytochemical localization of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase in cultured ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Murín, Radovan; Verleysdonk, Stephan; Rapp, Mirna; Hamprecht, Bernd

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the ability of ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cells to degrade leucine, the presence of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) was investigated in cultures of these cells. MCC is a biotin-containing heterodimeric enzyme that is specific for the irreversible part of the leucine catabolic pathway. It has been reported previously that in cell culture MCC is expressed in astrocytes and a subpopulation of neurones. In the present study ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cell cultures, derived from the brains of newborn rats, were examined for the expression of MCC by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The results of RT-PCR and western blotting showed the presence of mRNA as well as protein of both subunits of MCC in ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cell cultures. Immunocytochemical investigation of the cellular and subcellular distribution of MCC demonstrated a mitochondrial location of MCC in all neuroglial cell types investigated. The ubiquitous expression of MCC in glial cells demonstrates the ability of the cells to engage in the catabolism of leucine transported into the brain, mainly for the generation of energy.

  4. A microglial hypothesis of globoid cell leukodystrophy pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Alexandra M; Bongarzone, Ernesto R; Crocker, Stephen J

    2016-11-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), also known as Krabbe's disease, is a fatal demyelinating disease accompanied by the formation of giant, multinucleated cells called globoid cells. Previously believed to be a byproduct of inflammation, these cells can be found early in disease before evidence of any damage. The precise mechanism by which these globoid cells cause oligodendrocyte dysfunction is not completely understood, nor is their cell type defined. This Review outlines the idea that microglial cells are transformed into an unknown and undefined novel M3 phenotype in GLD, which is cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes, leading to disease progression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638591

  5. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Daniela S; Soria, Javier A; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS. PMID:23073832

  6. Calmodulin inhibition regulates morphological and functional changes related to the actin cytoskeleton in pure microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Melinda; Dulka, Karolina; Gulya, Karoly

    2016-01-01

    The roles of calmodulin (CaM), a multifunctional intracellular calcium receptor protein, as concerns selected morphological and functional characteristics of pure microglial cells derived from mixed primary cultures from embryonal forebrains of rats, were investigated through use of the CaM antagonists calmidazolium (CALMID) and trifluoperazine (TFP). The intracellular localization of the CaM protein relative to phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide that binds only to filamentous actin, and the ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), a microglia-specific actin-binding protein, was determined by immunocytochemistry, with quantitative analysis by immunoblotting. In unchallenged and untreated (control) microglia, high concentrations of CaM protein were found mainly perinuclearly in ameboid microglia, while the cell cortex had a smaller CaM content that diminished progressively deeper into the branches in the ramified microglia. The amounts and intracellular distributions of both Iba1 and CaM proteins were altered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in activated microglia. CALMID and TFP exerted different, sometimes opposing, effects on many morphological, cytoskeletal and functional characteristics of the microglial cells. They affected the CaM and Iba1 protein expressions and their intracellular localizations differently, inhibited cell proliferation, viability and fluid-phase phagocytosis to different degrees both in unchallenged and in LPS-treated (immunologically challenged) cells, and differentially affected the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the microglial cell cortex, influencing lamellipodia, filopodia and podosome formation. In summary, these CaM antagonists altered different aspects of filamentous actin-based cell morphology and related functions with variable efficacy, which could be important in deciphering the roles of CaM in regulating microglial functions in health and disease.

  7. Levo-Tetrahydropalmatine Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain by Inhibiting Microglial Cells Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao-yin; Liu, Yue-peng; Zhang, Lian-yi; Yue, Dong-mei; Qi, Dun-yi; Liu, Gong-jian; Liu, Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study is to investigate the analgesic roles of L-THP in rats with bone cancer pain caused by tumor cell implantation (TCI). Methods. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured at different time points before and after operation. L-THP (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg) were administrated intragastrically at early phase of postoperation (before pain appearance) and later phase of postoperation (after pain appearance), respectively. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-18 in spinal cord were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot was used to test the activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in spinal cord after TCI treatment. Results. TCI treatment induced significant thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Administration of L-THP at high doses significantly prevented and/or reversed bone cancer-related pain behaviors. Besides, TCI-induced activation of microglial cells and the increased levels of TNF-α and IL-18 were inhibited by L-THP administration. However, L-THP failed to affect TCI-induced astrocytes activation and IL-1β increase. Conclusion. This study suggests the possible clinical utility of L-THP in the treatment of bone cancer pain. The analgesic effects of L-THP on bone cancer pain maybe underlying the inhibition of microglial cells activation and proinflammatory cytokines increase. PMID:26819501

  8. Litter size, age-related memory impairments, and microglial changes in rat dentate gyrus: stereological analysis and three dimensional morphometry.

    PubMed

    Viana, L C; Lima, C M; Oliveira, M A; Borges, R P; Cardoso, T T; Almeida, I N F; Diniz, D G; Bento-Torres, J; Pereira, A; Batista-de-Oliveira, M; Lopes, A A C; Silva, R F M; Abadie-Guedes, R; Amâncio Dos Santos, A; Lima, D S C; Vasconcelos, P F C; Cunningham, C; Guedes, R C A; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2013-05-15

    It has been demonstrated that rat litter size affects the immune cell response, but it is not known whether the long-term effects aggravate age-related memory impairments or microglial-associated changes. To that end, we raised sedentary Wistar rats that were first suckled in small or large litters (6 or 12pups/dam, respectively), then separated into groups of 2-3 rats from the 21st post-natal day to study end. At 4months (young adult) or 23months (aged), all individual rats were submitted to spatial memory and object identity recognition tests, and then sacrificed. Brain sections were immunolabeled with anti-IBA-1 antibodies to selectively identify microglia/macrophages. Microglial morphological changes in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus were estimated based on three-dimensional reconstructions. The cell number and laminar distribution in the dentate gyrus was estimated with the stereological optical fractionator method. We found that, compared to young rat groups, aged rats from large litters showed significant increases in the number of microglia in all layers of the dentate gyrus. Compared to the microglia in all other groups, microglia in aged individuals from large litters showed a significantly higher degree of tree volume expansion, branch base diameter thickening, and cell soma enlargement. These morphological changes were correlated with an increase in the number of microglia in the molecular layer. Young adult individuals from small litters exhibited preserved intact object identity recognition memory and all other groups showed reduced performance in both spatial and object identity recognition tasks. We found that, in large litters, brain development was, on average, associated with permanent changes in the innate immune system in the brain, with a significant impact on the microglial homeostasis of aged rats.

  9. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced nitric oxide synthase production in microglial cells by the presence of astroglial cells: a role for transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Vincent, V A; Tilders, F J; Van Dam, A M

    1997-03-01

    In mixed glial cell cultures from cerebral cortices of newborn rats, endotoxin induces inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) production in microglial cells. Earlier we demonstrated that endotoxin induced iNOS but not IL-1 beta expression in microglial cells is inhibited by the presence of astroglial cells. In the present paper we describe studies on the mechanism by which astroglial cells exert selective suppressive action on iNOS expression by microglial cells. Expression of iNOS and IL-1 beta was studied by single or double label immunocytochemical techniques and cell identification was performed with GSA-I-B4-isolectin and an antibody against GFAP. Production of IL-1 beta and NO was determined by measurement of IL-1 beta and nitrite concentrations in cell lysates and the culture medium, respectively. TGF beta, a cytokine known to inhibit NO production by endotoxin challenged macrophages, was measured in culture medium of mixed glial cell cultures using a bioassay. Microglial, astroglial, and mixed glial cell cultures produced similar concentrations of TGF beta. The potential effect of TGF beta was studied by using immunoneutralizing antibodies against TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 on the induction of iNOS in microglial cells in the presence of astroglial cells. Incubation of the mixed glial cell culture with these TGF beta antibodies (3 micrograms/ml) markedly increased endotoxin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in microglial cells, whereas the production of IL-1 beta was not affected. The antibodies against TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 marginally increased NO production in pure microglial cell cultures, nonetheless in cultures of purified microglial cells recombinant TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 together with endotoxin inhibited NO production. We conclude that the presence of astroglial cells is essential for the inhibitory effect of TGF beta on NO production by microglial cells (possibly) by activation of TGF beta

  10. Inhibition of microglial activity alters spinal wide dynamic range neuron discharge and reduces microglial Toll-like receptor 4 expression in neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, Samad; Manaheji, Homa; Noorbakhsh, Syyed Mohammad; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    It is believed that neuropathic pain results from aberrant neuronal discharges although some evidence suggests that the activation of glia cells contributes to pain after an injury to the nervous system. This study aimed to evaluate the role of microglial activation on the hyper-responsiveness of wide dynamic range neurons (WDR) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 30 g) underwent surgery for induction of CCI neuropathy. Six days after surgery, administration of minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated and continued until day 14. After administration of the last dose of minocycline or saline, a behavioral test was conducted, then animals were sacrificed and lumbar segments of the spinal cord were collected for Western blot analysis of TLR4 expression. The electrophysiological properties of WDR neurons were investigated by single unit recordings in separate groups. The findings showed that after CCI, in parallel with thermal hyperalgesia, the expression of TLR4 in the spinal cord and the evoked response of the WDR neurons to electrical, mechanical, and thermal stimulation significantly increased. Post-injury administration of minocycline effectively decreased thermal hyperalgesia, TLR4 expression, and hyper-responsiveness of WDR neurons in CCI rats. The results of this study indicate that post-injury, repeated administration of minocycline attenuated neuropathic pain by suppressing microglia activation and reducing WDR neuron hyper-responsiveness. This study confirms that post-injury modulation of microglial activity is a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain.

  11. Organization of hyperactive microglial cells in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord associated with orofacial neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Shibuta, Kazuo; Suzuki, Ikuko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Kuniya; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-04-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial organization of hyperactive microglial cells in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1), and to clarify the involvement in mechanisms underlying orofacial secondary hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve injury. We found that the head-withdrawal threshold to non-noxious mechanical stimulation of the maxillary whisker pad skin was significantly reduced in chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (ION-CCI) rats from day 1 to day 14 after ION-CCI. On day 3 after ION-CCI, mechanical allodynia was obvious in the orofacial skin areas innervated by the 1st and 3rd branches of the trigeminal nerve as well as the 2nd branch area. Hyperactive microglial cells in Vc and C1 were observed on days 3 and 7 after ION-CCI. On day 3 after ION-CCI, a large number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)-immunoreactive (IR) cells were observed in Vc and C1. Many hyperactive microglial cells were also distributed over a wide area of Vc and C1 innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The intraperitoneal administration of minocycline significantly reduced the activation of microglial cells and the number of pERK-IR cells in Vc and C1, and also significantly attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, enhanced background activity and mechanical evoked responses of Vc wide dynamic range neurons in ION-CCI rats were significantly reversed following minocycline administration. These findings suggest that activation of microglial cells over a wide area of Vc and C1 is involved in the enhancement of Vc and C1 neuronal excitability in the early period after ION-CCI, resulting in the neuropathic pain in orofacial areas innervated by the injured as well as uninjured nerves.

  12. Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kelly, Megan E; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries-which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats-would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0-1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1-4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals. PMID:27669317

  13. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability.

  14. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  15. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Beatriz I; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability.

  16. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Beatriz I; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  17. Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Chamera, Katarzyna; Roman, Adam; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure. Our study found that the microglia do not express fractalkine. Prenatal stress decreases the expression of the fractalkine receptor, which in turn is enhanced by the administration of exogenous fractalkine. Moreover, treatment with fractalkine diminishes the prenatal stress-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, or NO in the microglial cells derived from prenatally stressed newborns. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the pathological activation of microglia in prenatally stressed newborns may be attenuated by fractalkine administration. Therefore, understanding of the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuron-microglia interaction and its role in pathological conditions in the brain. PMID:27239349

  18. Enriched environment induces beneficial effects on memory deficits and microglial activation in the hippocampus of type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Francele Valente; Segabinazi, Ethiane; Centenaro, Lígia Aline; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Achaval, Matilde; Marcuzzo, Simone

    2014-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been associated with long-term complications in the central nervous system, causing brain cellular dysfunctions and cognitive deficits. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) induces experience-dependent plasticity, especially in the hippocampus, improving the performance of animals in learning and memory tasks. Thus, our objective was to investigate the influence of the EE on memory deficits, locomotion, corticosterone levels, synaptophysin (SYP) protein immunoreactivity, cell survival and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of T1DM rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (21-day-old) were exposed to EE or maintained in standard housing (controls, C) for 3 months. At adulthood, the C and EE animals were randomly divided and diabetes was induced in half of them. All the animals received 4 doses of BrdU, 24 h apart. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, general locomotion and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The animals were transcardially perfused 30 days post-BrdU administration. Our results showed that EE was able to prevent/delay the development of memory deficits caused by diabetes in rats, however it did not revert the motor impairment observed in the diabetic group. SYP immunoreactivity was increased in the enriched healthy group. The EE decreased the serum corticosterone levels in diabetic adult rats and attenuated the injurious microglial activation, though without altering the decrease of the survival cell. Thus, EE was shown to help to ameliorate cognitive comorbidities associated with T1DM, possibly by reducing hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and microglial activation in diabetic animals. PMID:24318482

  19. Enriched environment induces beneficial effects on memory deficits and microglial activation in the hippocampus of type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Francele Valente; Segabinazi, Ethiane; Centenaro, Lígia Aline; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Achaval, Matilde; Marcuzzo, Simone

    2014-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been associated with long-term complications in the central nervous system, causing brain cellular dysfunctions and cognitive deficits. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) induces experience-dependent plasticity, especially in the hippocampus, improving the performance of animals in learning and memory tasks. Thus, our objective was to investigate the influence of the EE on memory deficits, locomotion, corticosterone levels, synaptophysin (SYP) protein immunoreactivity, cell survival and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of T1DM rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (21-day-old) were exposed to EE or maintained in standard housing (controls, C) for 3 months. At adulthood, the C and EE animals were randomly divided and diabetes was induced in half of them. All the animals received 4 doses of BrdU, 24 h apart. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, general locomotion and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The animals were transcardially perfused 30 days post-BrdU administration. Our results showed that EE was able to prevent/delay the development of memory deficits caused by diabetes in rats, however it did not revert the motor impairment observed in the diabetic group. SYP immunoreactivity was increased in the enriched healthy group. The EE decreased the serum corticosterone levels in diabetic adult rats and attenuated the injurious microglial activation, though without altering the decrease of the survival cell. Thus, EE was shown to help to ameliorate cognitive comorbidities associated with T1DM, possibly by reducing hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and microglial activation in diabetic animals.

  20. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Daniela S.; Soria, Javier A.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M.; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C.; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.—Arroyo, D. S., Soria, J. A., Gaviglio, E. A., Garcia-Keller, C., Cancela, L. M., Rodriguez-Galan, M. C., Wang, J. M., Iribarren, P. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy. PMID:23073832

  1. Astrocytes Enhance Streptococcus suis-Glial Cell Interaction in Primary Astrocyte-Microglial Cell Co-Cultures.

    PubMed

    Seele, Jana; Nau, Roland; Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Stangel, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Seitz, Maren

    2016-06-13

    Streptococcus (S.) suis infections are the most common cause of meningitis in pigs. Moreover, S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can lead to meningitis in humans, mainly in adults. We assume that glial cells may play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions during S. suis infection of the central nervous system. Glial cells are considered to possess important functions during inflammation and injury of the brain in bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we established primary astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures to investigate interactions of S. suis with glial cells. For this purpose, microglial cells and astrocytes were isolated from new-born mouse brains and characterized by flow cytometry, followed by the establishment of astrocyte and microglial cell mono-cultures as well as astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures. In addition, we prepared microglial cell mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected astrocyte mono-culture supernatants and astrocyte mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected microglial cell mono-culture supernatants. After infection of the different cell cultures with S. suis, bacteria-cell association was mainly observed with microglial cells and most prominently with a non-encapsulated mutant of S. suis. A time-dependent induction of NO release was found only in the co-cultures and after co-incubation of microglial cells with uninfected supernatants of astrocyte mono-cultures mainly after infection with the capsular mutant. Only moderate cytotoxic effects were found in co-cultured glial cells after infection with S. suis. Taken together, astrocytes and astrocyte supernatants increased interaction of microglial cells with S. suis. Astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures are suitable to study S. suis infections and bacteria-cell association as well as NO release by microglial cells was enhanced in the presence of astrocytes.

  2. Astrocytes Enhance Streptococcus suis-Glial Cell Interaction in Primary Astrocyte-Microglial Cell Co-Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Seele, Jana; Nau, Roland; Prajeeth, Chittappen K.; Stangel, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Seitz, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis infections are the most common cause of meningitis in pigs. Moreover, S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can lead to meningitis in humans, mainly in adults. We assume that glial cells may play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions during S. suis infection of the central nervous system. Glial cells are considered to possess important functions during inflammation and injury of the brain in bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we established primary astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures to investigate interactions of S. suis with glial cells. For this purpose, microglial cells and astrocytes were isolated from new-born mouse brains and characterized by flow cytometry, followed by the establishment of astrocyte and microglial cell mono-cultures as well as astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures. In addition, we prepared microglial cell mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected astrocyte mono-culture supernatants and astrocyte mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected microglial cell mono-culture supernatants. After infection of the different cell cultures with S. suis, bacteria-cell association was mainly observed with microglial cells and most prominently with a non-encapsulated mutant of S. suis. A time-dependent induction of NO release was found only in the co-cultures and after co-incubation of microglial cells with uninfected supernatants of astrocyte mono-cultures mainly after infection with the capsular mutant. Only moderate cytotoxic effects were found in co-cultured glial cells after infection with S. suis. Taken together, astrocytes and astrocyte supernatants increased interaction of microglial cells with S. suis. Astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures are suitable to study S. suis infections and bacteria-cell association as well as NO release by microglial cells was enhanced in the presence of astrocytes. PMID:27304968

  3. The effect of propofol on astro- and microglial reactivity in the course of experimental intracerebral haemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Karwacki, Zbigniew; Kowiański, Przemysław; Dziewiatowski, Jerzy; Domaradzka-Pytel, Beata; Ludkiewicz, Beata; Wójcik, Sławomir; Narkiewicz, Olgierd; Moryś, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The glial cells play an important role in pathophysiology of the intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Thus the attempt at evaluating the possible influence of the propofol on the reactivity of astro- and microglial cells in the course of ICH was performed. 50 rats were divided into two groups depending on the applied anaesthesia. All animals were generally anaesthetized with fentanyl, dehydrobenzperidol and midazolam. No additional agents were given to the animals of the control group (group I). In the experimental group (group II), the animals received additionally intraperitoneally propofol in a dose of 50 mg/kg every thirty minutes. ICH was produced through infusion of the blood into the striatum. The astrocytic and microglial cells population was assessed on the 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after producing a haematoma using antibodies anti-GFAP and OX42. The stereological analysis was applied to estimate the numerical density of immunoreactive cells and the distribution of their types. On the 14th and 21st days of observation the density of GFAP-immunoreactivity (ir) cells was significantly higher in group II than that in group I. There were no differences in percentage distribution of GFAP-ir astrocytes between group I and group II. On the 3rd, 14th and 21st days of observation the density of OX42-ir cells was higher in group II in comparison with group I. For the 7th, and 21st days of survival the percentage of the ameboid form of OX42-ir cells was significantly lower in group I than that in group II. The administration of propofol during anaesthesia in the animals with ICH has evoked an increase of the activation of the astro- and microglial cells.

  4. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugenín, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide (NO) secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in the reduction of protective activation and the facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the promotion of

  5. Fine-tuning the central nervous system: microglial modelling of cells and synapses.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Anna L; Menezes, João R L; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-10-19

    Microglia constitute as much as 10-15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies have largely been dedicated to defining the complex immune functions of microglial cells. However, our understanding of the roles of microglia has expanded radically over the past years. It is now clear that microglia are critically involved in shaping neural circuits in both the developing and adult CNS, and in modulating synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Intriguingly, microglial cells appear to use the same sets of tools, including cytokine and chemokine release as well as phagocytosis, whether modulating neural function or mediating the brain's innate immune responses. This review will discuss recent developments that have broadened our views of neuro-glial signalling to include the contribution of microglial cells.

  6. Differential Effects of Stress on Microglial Cell Activation in Male and Female Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Justin L.; Bergeon Burns, Christine M.; Wellman, Cara L.

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to stress-linked psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, differs between men and women. Dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in many of these disorders. Chronic stress affects mPFC in a sex-dependent manner, differentially remodeling dendritic morphology and disrupting prefrontally mediated behaviors in males and females. Chronic restraint stress induces microglial activation, reflected in altered microglial morphology and immune factor expression, in mPFC in male rats. Unstressed females exhibit increased microglial ramification in several brain regions compared to males, suggesting both heightened basal activation and a potential for sex-dependent effects of stress on microglial activation. Therefore, we assessed microglial density and ramification in the prelimbic region of mPFC, and immune-associated genes in dorsal mPFC in male and female rats following acute or chronic restraint stress. Control rats were left unstressed. On the final day of restraint, brains were collected for either qPCR or visualization of microglia using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Microglia in mPFC were classified as ramified, primed, reactive, or amoeboid, and counted stereologically. Expression of microglia-associated genes (MHCII, CD40, IL6, CX3CL1, and CX3CR1) was also assessed using qPCR. Unstressed females showed a greater proportion of primed to ramified microglia relative to males, alongside heightened CX3CL1-CX3CR1 expression. Acute and chronic restraint stress reduced the proportion of primed to ramified microglia and microglial CD40 expression in females, but did not significantly alter microglial activation in males. This sex difference in microglial activation could contribute to the differential effects of stress on mPFC structure and function in males versus females. PMID:26441134

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26592472

  8. Gypenoside Attenuates β Amyloid-Induced Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells via SOCS1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Liang, Qianlei; Ge, Guanqun

    2016-01-01

    Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ-) induced microglial activation is believed to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia can be activated into classic activated state (M1 state) or alternative activated state (M2 state), and the former is harmful; in contrast, the latter is beneficial. Gypenoside (GP) is the major bioactive constituent of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb medicine. In this study, we hypothesized that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating microglial M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by suppressor of cell signaling protein 1 (SOCS1). In this study, we found that Aβ exposure increased the levels of microglial M1 markers, including iNOS expression, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 releases, and coadministration of GP reversed the increase of M1 markers and enhanced the levels of M2 markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) releases in the Aβ-treated microglial cells. SOCS1-siRNA, however, significantly abolished the GP-induced effects on the levels of microglial M1 and M2 markers. These findings indicated that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by SOCS1. PMID:27213058

  9. Stress Granules Modulate SYK to Cause Microglial Cell Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Geahlen, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Microglial cells in the brains of Alzheimer's patients are known to be recruited to amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques where they exhibit an activated phenotype, but are defective for plaque removal by phagocytosis. In this study, we show that microglia stressed by exposure to sodium arsenite or Aβ(1-42) peptides or fibrils form extensive stress granules (SGs) to which the tyrosine kinase, SYK, is recruited. SYK enhances the formation of SGs, is active within the resulting SGs and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are toxic to neuronal cells. This sequestration of SYK inhibits the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose Escherichia coli or Aβ fibrils. We find that aged microglial cells are more susceptible to the formation of SGs; and SGs containing SYK and phosphotyrosine are prevalent in the brains of patients with severe Alzheimer's disease. Phagocytic activity can be restored to stressed microglial cells by treatment with IgG, suggesting a mechanism to explain the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous IgG. These studies describe a mechanism by which stress, including exposure to Aβ, compromises the function of microglial cells in Alzheimer's disease and suggest approaches to restore activity to dysfunctional microglial cells.

  10. Microglial Cells as a Link between Cannabinoids and the Immune Hypothesis of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Sabrina F.; Gomes, Felipe V.; Guimaraes, Francisco S.; Campos, Alline C.

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Although several therapeutic options are available, the exact mechanisms responsible for the genesis of these disorders remain to be fully elucidated. In the last decade, a body of evidence has supported the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of these conditions. Microglial cells play a significant role in maintaining brain homeostasis and surveillance. Dysregulation of microglial functions has been associated with several psychiatric conditions. Cannabinoids regulate the brain–immune axis and inhibit microglial cell activation. Here, we summarized evidence supporting the hypothesis that microglial cells could be a target for cannabinoid influence on psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and stress-related disorders. PMID:26858686

  11. NG2 expression in microglial cells affects the expression of neurotrophic and proinflammatory factors by regulating FAK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lie; Su, Qing; Jie, Xiang; Liu, Antang; Wang, Hui; He, Beiping; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is significantly upregulated in a subset of glial cells in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) following CNS injury. NG2 is reported to promote the resulting inflammatory reaction, however, the mechanism by which NG2 mediates these effects is yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the changes in NG2 expressing microglial cells in the FMN in response to facial nerve axotomy (FNA) in mice. Our findings indicated that NG2 expression was progressively induced and upregulated specifically in the ipsilateral facial nucleus following FNA. To further investigate the effects of NG2 expression, in vivo studies in NG2-knockout mice and in vitro studies in rat microglial cells transfected with NG2 shRNAs were performed. Abolition of NG2 expression both in vitro and in vivo resulted in increased expression of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor and glial derived neurotrophic factor), decreased expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and decreased apoptosis in the ipsilateral facial nucleus in response to FNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the role of FAK in these NG2-induced effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that NG2 expression mediates inflammatory reactions and neurodegeneration in microglial cells in response to CNS injury, potentially by regulating FAK phosphorylation. PMID:27306838

  12. Role of orexin A signaling in dietary palmitic acid-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Yuan, Ce; Wisdorf, Lauren E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Nixon, Joshua P; Butterick, Tammy A

    2015-10-01

    Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA, hypocretin 1) is neuroprotective in brain. In cortex, OXA can also reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration through a microglial-mediated pathway. Whether hypothalamic orexin neuroprotection mechanisms depend upon microglia is unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated effects of OXA and PA on inflammatory response in immortalized murine microglial and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time in microglial cells that exposure to PA increases gene expression of orexin-1 receptor but not orexin-2 receptor. Pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglial cells are increased following PA exposure, but are reduced by pretreatment with OXA. The anti-inflammatory marker arginase-1 is increased by OXA. Finally, we show hypothalamic neurons exposed to conditioned media from PA-challenged microglia have increased cell survival only when microglia were pretreated with OXA. These data support the concept that OXA may act as an immunomodulatory regulator of microglia, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory factors to promote a favorable neuronal microenvironment. PMID:26306651

  13. Role of orexin A signaling in dietary palmitic acid-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Yuan, Ce; Wisdorf, Lauren E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Nixon, Joshua P; Butterick, Tammy A

    2015-10-01

    Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA, hypocretin 1) is neuroprotective in brain. In cortex, OXA can also reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration through a microglial-mediated pathway. Whether hypothalamic orexin neuroprotection mechanisms depend upon microglia is unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated effects of OXA and PA on inflammatory response in immortalized murine microglial and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time in microglial cells that exposure to PA increases gene expression of orexin-1 receptor but not orexin-2 receptor. Pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglial cells are increased following PA exposure, but are reduced by pretreatment with OXA. The anti-inflammatory marker arginase-1 is increased by OXA. Finally, we show hypothalamic neurons exposed to conditioned media from PA-challenged microglia have increased cell survival only when microglia were pretreated with OXA. These data support the concept that OXA may act as an immunomodulatory regulator of microglia, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory factors to promote a favorable neuronal microenvironment.

  14. Constitutive and functional expression of YB-1 in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Keilhoff, G; Titze, M; Esser, T; Langnaese, K; Ebmeyer, U

    2015-08-20

    Y-box-binding protein (YB-1) is a member of the cold-shock protein family and participates in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent cellular processes including DNA repair, transcription, mRNA splicing, packaging, and translation. At the cellular level, YB-1 is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, stress responses, and malignant cell transformation. A general role for YB-1 during inflammation has also been well described; however, there are minimal data concerning YB-1 expression in microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain. Therefore, we studied the expression of YB-1 in a clinically relevant global ischemia model for neurological injury following cardiac arrest. This model is characterized by massive neurodegeneration of the hippocampal CA1 region and the subsequent long-lasting activation of microglia. In addition, we studied YB-1 expression in BV-2 cells, which are an accepted microglia culture model. BV-2 cells were stressed by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), OGD-relevant mediators, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phagocytosis-inducing cell debris and nanoparticles. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we show constitutive expression of YB-1 transcripts in unstressed BV-2 cells. The functional upregulation of the YB-1 protein was demonstrated in microglia in vivo and in BV-2 cells in vitro. All stressors except for LPS were potent enhancers of the level of YB-1 protein, which appears to be regulated primarily by proteasomal degradation and, to a lesser extent, by the activation (phosphorylation) of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. The proteasome of BV-2 cells is impaired by OGD, which results in decreased protein degradation and therefore increased levels of YB-1 protein. LPS induces proteasome activity, which enables the level of YB-1 protein to remain at control levels despite enhanced protein ubiquitination. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 was able to increase YB-1 protein levels in control and LPS

  15. Differential microglial and astrocytic response to bacterial and viral infection in the developing hippocampus of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Patro, Nisha; Singh, Kavita; Patro, Ishan

    2013-08-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C; 5 mg/kg body weight, ip) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.3 mg/kg body weight, ip) induced microglial and astrocytic activation in Sprague Dawley rats. Higher microglial and astrocytic activities were noticed in Poly I:C infused rats throughout the hippocampus till postnatal day 21 with a comparatively weaker response in LPS group. However, LPS induced inflammation persisted even after postnatal day 21, indicating thereby, that the Poly I:C (viral mimic) produces an acute inflammation, while LPS (bacterial endotoxin) produces chronic inflammation when exposed during early neonatal life.

  16. Vitamin d deficiency reduces the immune response, phagocytosis rate, and intracellular killing rate of microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Marija; Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  18. Phagocytosis-dependent and independent mechanisms underlie the microglial cell damage caused by carbon nanotube agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Hoshikawa, Kazue; Hirose, Akihiko; Sato, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used in many fields, including energy, healthcare, environmental technology, materials, and electronics, the adverse effects of CNTs in the brain are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNTs on cultured microglia, as microglia are the first responders to foreign materials. We compared the effects of sonicated suspensions of 5 kinds of CNTs and their flow-through filtered with a 0.22 µm membrane filter on microglial viability. We found that sonicated suspensions caused microglial cell damage, but their flow-through did not. The number of microglial aggregates was well correlated with the extent of the damage. We also determined that the CNT agglomerates consisted of two groups: one was phagocytosed by microglia and caused microglial cell damage, and the other caused cell damage without phagocytosis. These results suggest that phagocytosis-dependent and independent mechanisms underlie the microglial cell damage caused by CNT agglomerates and it is important to conduct studies about the relationships between physical properties of nanomaterial-agglomerates and cell damage. PMID:27432236

  19. Blockade of microglial KATP -channel abrogates suppression of inflammatory-mediated inhibition of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco J; Vukovic, Jana; Rodríguez, Manuel J; Bartlett, Perry F

    2014-02-01

    Microglia positively affect neural progenitor cell physiology through the release of inflammatory mediators or trophic factors. We demonstrated previously that reactive microglia foster K(ATP) -channel expression and that blocking this channel using glibenclamide administration enhances striatal neurogenesis after stroke. In this study, we investigated whether the microglial K(ATP) -channel directly influences the activation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone using transgenic Csf1r-GFP mice. In vitro exposure of NPCs to lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma resulted in a significant decrease in precursor cell number. The complete removal of microglia from the culture or exposure to enriched microglia culture also decreased the precursor cell number. The addition of glibenclamide rescued the negative effects of enriched microglia on neurosphere formation and promoted a ∼20% improvement in precursor cell number. Similar results were found using microglial-conditioned media from isolated microglia. Using primary mixed glial and pure microglial cultures, glibenclamide specifically targeted reactive microglia to restore neurogenesis and increased the microglial production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). These findings provide the first direct evidence that the microglial K(ATP) -channel is a regulator of the proliferation of NPCs under inflammatory conditions.

  20. Fine-tuning the central nervous system: microglial modelling of cells and synapses

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Anna L.; Menezes, João R. L.; Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Microglia constitute as much as 10–15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies have largely been dedicated to defining the complex immune functions of microglial cells. However, our understanding of the roles of microglia has expanded radically over the past years. It is now clear that microglia are critically involved in shaping neural circuits in both the developing and adult CNS, and in modulating synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Intriguingly, microglial cells appear to use the same sets of tools, including cytokine and chemokine release as well as phagocytosis, whether modulating neural function or mediating the brain's innate immune responses. This review will discuss recent developments that have broadened our views of neuro-glial signalling to include the contribution of microglial cells. PMID:25225087

  1. Essential Role of MFG-E8 for Phagocytic Properties of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chenying; Nie, Pan; Liu, Yan; Ma, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Milk fat globule factor-E8 (MFG-E8) has been regarded as a key factor involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. We induced a lentivirus into the microglial cells for the augmentation or abrogation of MFG-E8 expression in mouse microglial cells, and investigated phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine tagged human red blood cells (hRBCs) in co-cultures. Increased MFG-E8 levels were associated with a significant increase in phagocytic activity compared to the controls. Conversely, phagocytosis dramitically decreased due to the abrogation of MFG-E8. In addition, the expression of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, also increased or decreased in the microglial cells with the augmentation or abrogation of MFG-E8, respectively. Our findings indicate that the enhanced expression of MFG-E8 could increase phagocytosis of apoptotic cells; conversely, the rate of phagocytosis and the expression of inflammatory cytokines decreased when MFG-E8 expression was knocked down. Our results confirm that MFG-E8 plays an important role in phagocytosis, and possibly serves as an essential signal molecule for microglial cells. PMID:23405209

  2. Inhibition of microglial activation contributes to propofol-induced protection against post-cardiac arrest brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Rui; Feng, Da-Yun; Liang, Li-Rong; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    It has been suggested that propofol can modulate microglial activity and hence may have potential roles against neuroinflammation following brain ischemic insult. However, whether and how propofol can inhibit post-cardiac arrest brain injury via inhibition of microglia activation remains unclear. A rat model of asphyxia cardiac arrest (CA) was created followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CA induced marked microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region, revealed by increased OX42 and P2 class of purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R) expression, as well as p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Morris water maze showed that learning and memory deficits following CA could be inhibited or alleviated by pre-treatment with the microglial inhibitor minocycline or propofol. Microglial activation was significantly suppressed likely via the P2X7R/p-p38 pathway by propofol. Moreover, hippocampal neuronal injuries after CA were remarkably attenuated by propofol. In vitro experiment showed that propofol pre-treatment inhibited ATP-induced microglial activation and release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. In addition, propofol protected neurons from injury when co-culturing with ATP-treated microglia. Our data suggest that propofol pre-treatment inhibits CA-induced microglial activation and neuronal injury in the hippocampus and ultimately improves cognitive function. We proposed a possible mechanism of propofol-mediated brain protection after cardiac arrest (CA). CA induces P2X7R upregulation and p38 phosphorylation in microglia, which induces release of TNF-α and IL-1β and consequent neuronal injury. Propofol could inhibit microglial activation and alleviate neuronal damage. Our results suggest propofol-induced anti-inflammatory treatment as a plausible strategy for therapeutic intervention in post-CA brain injury.

  3. Effects of Elderberry Juice from Different Genotypes on Oxidative and Inflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J.M.; Zong, Y.; Chuang, D.Y.; Lei, W.; Lu, C.-H.; Gu, Z.; Fritsche, K.L.; Thomas, A.L.; Lubahn, D.B.; Simonyi, A.; Sun, G.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many species of berries are nutritious food and offer health benefits. However, among the different types of berries, information on health effects of American elderberries (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) has been lacking and little is known about whether elderberry consumption can confer neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. Microglial cells constitute a unique class of immune cells and exhibit characteristic properties to carry out multifunctional duties in the brain. Activation of microglial cells has been implicated in brain injury and in many types of neurodegenerative diseases. Our recent studies demonstrated the ability for endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in murine microglial cells (BV-2) through activating NADPH oxidase and the MAPK pathways. In this study, BV-2 microglial cells were used to examine effects of elderberry juice obtained from different genotypes on oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by LPS and IFNγ. Results show that ‘Wyldewood’ extract demonstrated antioxidant properties by inhibiting IFNγ-induced ROS production and p-ERK1/2 expression. On the other hand, most juice extracts exerted small effects on LPS-induced NO production and some extracts showed an increase in NO production upon stimulation with IFNγ. The disparity of responses on ROS and NO production from different extracts suggests possible presence of unknown endogenous factor(s) in the extract in promoting the IFNγ-induced iNOS synthesis pathway. PMID:27158184

  4. Iron uptake of the normoxic, anoxic and postanoxic microglial cell line RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Rebecca; Grune, Tilman

    2005-01-01

    Iron is one of the trace elements playing a key role in the normal brain metabolism. An excess of free iron on the other hand is catalyzing the iron-mediated oxygen radical production. Such a condition might be a harmful event leading perhaps to serious tissue damage and degeneration. Therefore, during evolution a complex iron sequestering apparatus developed, minimizing the amount of redox-reactive free iron. However, this system might be severely disturbed under pathophysiological conditions including hypoxia or anoxia. Since little is known about the non-transferrin-mediated iron metabolism of the brain during anoxia/reoxygenation, we tested the ability of the microglial cell line RAW 264.7 to take up iron independently of transferrin under various oxygen concentrations. Microglial cells are thought to be the major player in the maintenance of the extracellular homeostasis in the brain. Therefore, we investigated the iron metabolism of microglial cells employing radiolabeled ferric chloride. We tested the uptake of iron under normoxic, anoxic and postanoxic conditions. Furthermore, the amount of ferritin was measured by immunoblotting. We were able to show that iron enters the microglial cell line in the absence of extracellular transferrin under normoxic, anoxic and postanoxic conditions. Interestingly, the amount of ferritin is decreasing in the early reoxygenation phase. Therefore, we concluded that microglia is able to contribute to the brain iron homeostasis under anoxic and postanoxic conditions.

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates inflammatory and antineurogenic functions of activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Antonietta Ajmone-Cat, Maria; Lavinia Salvatori, Maria; De Simone, Roberta; Mancini, Melissa; Biagioni, Stefano; Bernardo, Antonietta; Cacci, Emanuele; Minghetti, Luisa

    2012-03-01

    The complex process of microglial activation encompasses several functional activation states associated either with neurotoxic/antineurogenic or with neurotrophic/proneurogenic properties, depending mainly on the extent of activation and the nature of the activating stimuli. Several studies have demonstrated that acute exposure to the prototypical activating agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) confers antineurogenic properties upon microglial cells. Acutely activated microglia ortheir conditioned media (CM) reduce neural stem progenitor cell (NPC) survival and prevent NPC differentiation into neurons. The present study tested the hypothesis that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain polyunsatured fatty acid (L-PUFA) with potent immunomodulatory properties, could dampen microglial proinflammatory functions and modulate their antineurogenic effect. We demonstrate that DHA dose dependently inhibits the synthesis of inflammatory products in activated microglia without inducing an alternative antiinflammatory phenotype. Among the possible DHA mechanisms of action, we propose the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and the activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. The attenuation of M1 proinflammatory phenotype has relevant consequences for the survival and differentiation of NPC, because DHA reverses the antineurogenic activities of conditioned media from LPS-activated microglia. Our study identifies new relevant potentially protective and proneurogenic functions of DHA, exerted through the modulation of microglial functions, that could be exploited to sustain or promote neuroregenerative processes in damaged/aged brain. PMID:22057807

  6. Data from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with Withaferin A (WA)

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Malathi; Seeley, Kent W.; Jinwal, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry data collected in a study analyzing the effect of withaferin A (WA) on a mouse microglial (N9) cell line is presented in this article. Data was collected from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with either WA or DMSO vehicle control. This article reports all the proteins that were identified in this analysis. The data presented here is related to the published research article on the effect of WA on the differential regulation of proteins in mouse microglial cells [1]. Mass spectrometry data has also been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD003032. PMID:27054189

  7. Cocaine promotes oxidative stress and microglial-macrophage activation in rat cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    López-Pedrajas, Rosa; Ramírez-Lamelas, Dolores T.; Muriach, Borja; Sánchez-Villarejo, María V.; Almansa, Inmaculada; Vidal-Gil, Lorena; Romero, Francisco J.; Barcia, Jorge M.; Muriach, María

    2015-01-01

    Different mechanisms have been suggested for cocaine neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress alterations. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), considered a sensor of oxidative stress and inflammation, is involved in drug toxicity and addiction. NF-κB is a key mediator for immune responses that induces microglial/macrophage activation under inflammatory processes and neuronal injury/degeneration. Although cerebellum is commonly associated to motor control, muscular tone, and balance. Its relation with addiction is getting relevance, being associated to compulsive and perseverative behaviors. Some reports indicate that cerebellar microglial activation induced by cannabis or ethanol, promote cerebellar alterations and these alterations could be associated to addictive-related behaviors. After considering the effects of some drugs on cerebellum, the aim of the present work analyzes pro-inflammatory changes after cocaine exposure. Rats received daily 15 mg/kg cocaine i.p., for 18 days. Reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and glutamate were determined in cerebellar homogenates. NF-κB activity, CD68, and GFAP expression were determined. Cerebellar GPx activity and GSH/GSSG ratio are significantly decreased after cocaine exposure. A significant increase of glutamate concentration is also observed. Interestingly, increased NF-κB activity is also accompanied by an increased expression of the lysosomal mononuclear phagocytic marker ED1 without GFAP alterations. Current trends in addiction biology are focusing on the role of cerebellum on addictive behaviors. Cocaine-induced cerebellar changes described herein fit with previosus data showing cerebellar alterations on addict subjects and support the proposed role of cerebelum in addiction. PMID:26283916

  8. Infection of brain microglial cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is CD4 dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, C A; Watkins, B A; Kufta, C; Dubois-Dalcq, M

    1991-01-01

    In the central nervous system of AIDS patients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects primarily microglia, a cell type of bone marrow origin. Moreover, microglial cells isolated from adult human brain support the replication of macrophage-adapted strains of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) (B.A. Watkins, H.H. Dorn, W.B. Kelly, R.C. Armstrong, B. Potts, F. Michaels, C.V. Kufta, and M. Dubois-Dalcq, Science 249:549-553, 1990). To determine whether the CD4 receptor, which is expressed in brain, mediates the entry of HIV-1 in microglial cells, we analyzed CD4 transcript expression in cultured microglia using highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction detection of cDNAs synthesized from RNA. With this method, CD4 transcripts could be detected in cultured microglia--as well as in various human brain regions and cultured macrophages used as positive controls--along with transcripts for the LDL and Fc receptors which are characteristic of cells of the macrophage lineage. We then attempted to block viral entry into microglial cells using anti-CD4 antibodies or soluble CD4 (sCD4), which recognize binding sites on CD4 and HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120, respectively. Cultures were pretreated with blocking antibodies (Leu-3a, OKT4A) or virus was preincubated with sCD4 prior to infection with HIV-1 strain AD87(M) or BaL. With either viral strain, these treatments resulted in the prevention of infection or significant and dose-dependent reduction in the number of infected cells and in the levels of reverse transcriptase or p24 antigen released in the medium. Thus, brain-derived microglial cells, which are the primary target of HIV-1 infection in the brain, express the CD4 receptor and this receptor is effectively used for viral entry in vitro. Images PMID:1702842

  9. Interferon γ-dependent migration of microglial cells in the retina after systemic cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Zinkernagel, Martin S; Chinnery, Holly R; Ong, Monique L; Petitjean, Claire; Voigt, Valentina; McLenachan, Samuel; McMenamin, Paul G; Hill, Geoffrey R; Forrester, John V; Wikstrom, Matthew E; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A

    2013-03-01

    Microglial cells are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses but can also lead to exacerbation of neurodegenerative pathologies after viral infections. Microglia in the outer layers of the retina and the subretinal space are thought to be involved in retinal diseases where low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play a role. This study investigated the effect of systemic infection with murine cytomegalovirus on the distribution and dynamics of retinal microglia cells. Systemic infection with murine cytomegalovirus elicited a significant increase in the number of microglia in the subretinal space and an accumulation of iris macrophages, along with morphological signs of activation. Interferon γ (IFN-γ)-deficient mice failed to induce changes in microglia distribution. Bone marrow chimera experiments confirmed that microglial cells in the subretinal space were not recruited from the circulating monocyte pool, but rather represented an accumulation of resident microglial cells from within the retina. Our results demonstrate that a systemic viral infection can lead to IFN-γ-mediated accumulation of microglia into the outer retinal layers and offer proof of concept that systemic viral infections alter the ocular microenvironment and therefore, may influence the course of diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or autoimmune uveitis, where low-grade inflammation is implicated.

  10. Inhibition of microglial activation attenuates the development but not existing hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Vasudeva; Tanga, Flobert; DeLeo, Joyce A

    2003-08-01

    Microglia, the intrinsic macrophages of the central nervous system, have previously been shown to be activated in the spinal cord in several rat mononeuropathy models. Activation of microglia and subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines are known to play a role in inducing a behavioral hypersensitive state (hyperalgesia and allodynia) in these animals. The present study was undertaken to determine whether minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, could attenuate both the development and existing mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in an L5 spinal nerve transection model of neuropathic pain. In a preventive paradigm (to study the effect on the development of hypersensitive behaviors), minocycline (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was administered daily, beginning 1 h before nerve transection. This regimen produced a decrease in mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, with a maximum inhibitory effect observed at the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The attenuation of the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia by minocycline was associated with an inhibitory action on microglial activation and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines at the L5 lumbar spinal cord of the nerveinjured animals. The effect of minocycline on existing allodynia was examined after its intraperitoneal administration initiated on day 5 post-L5 nerve transection. Although the postinjury administration of minocycline significantly inhibited microglial activation in neuropathic rats, it failed to attenuate existing hyperalgesia and allodynia. These data demonstrate that inhibition of microglial activation attenuated the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain but had no effect on the treatment of existing mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  11. Microglial Activation & Chronic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lull, Melinda E.; Block, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Microglia, the resident innate immune cells in the brain, have long been implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence points to activated microglia as a chronic source of multiple neurotoxic factors, including TNFα, NO, IL1-β, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), driving progressive neuron damage. Microglia can become chronically activated by either a single stimulus (ex. LPS or neuron damage) or multiple stimuli exposures to result in cumulative neuronal loss over time. While the mechanisms driving these phenomena are just beginning to be understood, reactive microgliosis (the microglial response to neuron damage) and ROS have been implicated as key mechanisms of chronic and neurotoxic microglial activation, particularly in the case of Parkinson’s Disease. Here, we review the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated with chronic microglial activation and discuss the role of neuronal death and microglial ROS driving the chronic and toxic microglial phenotype. PMID:20880500

  12. Development of the microglial phenotype in culture.

    PubMed

    Szabo, M; Gulya, K

    2013-06-25

    Selected morphological, molecular and functional aspects of various microglial cell populations were characterized in cell cultures established from the forebrains of E18 rat embryos. The mixed primary cortical cultures were maintained for up to 28days using routine culturing techniques when the microglial cells in the culture were not stimulated or immunologically challenged. During culturing, expansion of the microglial cell populations was observed, as evidenced by quantitative assessment of selected monocyte/macrophage/microglial cell-specific markers (human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DP, DQ, DR, CD11b/c and Iba1) via immunocyto- and histochemistry and Western blot analysis. The Iba1 immunoreactivity in Western blots steadily increased about 750-fold, and the number of Iba1-immunoreactive cells rose at least 67-fold between one day in vitro (DIV1) and DIV28. Morphometric analysis on binary (digital) silhouettes of the microglia revealed their evolving morphology during culturing. Microglial cells were mainly ameboid in the early stages of in vitro differentiation, while mixed populations of ameboid and ramified cell morphologies were characteristic of older cultures as the average transformation index (TI) increased from 1.96 (DIV1) to 15.17 (DIV28). Multiple immunofluorescence labeling of selected biomarkers revealed different microglial phenotypes during culturing. For example, while HLA DP, DQ, DR immunoreactivity was present exclusively in ameboid microglia (TI<3) between DIV1 and DIV10, CD11b/c- and Iba1-positive microglial cells were moderately (TI<13) and progressively (TI<81) more ramified, respectively, and always present throughout culturing. Regardless of the age of the cultures, proliferating microglia were Ki67-positive and characterized by low TI values (TI<3). The microglial function was assessed by an in vitro phagocytosis assay. Unstimulated microglia with low TI values were significantly more active in phagocytosing fluorescent microspheres than

  13. Contact-independent cell death of human microglial cells due to pathogenic Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-12-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increase of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death.

  14. Paeonol attenuates inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity and microglial activation☆

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyong Nyon; Woo, Byung-Cheol; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Seong-Uk; Park, Joo-young; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Bae, Hyung-Sup; Ko, Chang-Nam; Lee, Eunjoo Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. The root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall has been considered useful for the treatment of various disorders in traditional oriental medicine. Paeonol, found in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of paeonol in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial cell activation. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and primary microglial cells from rat brain were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Paeonol pretreatment was performed for 30 minutes prior to lipopolysaccharide addition. Cell viability and nitrite (the production of nitric oxide), tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta products were measured after lipopolysaccharide treatment. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, paeonol blocked lipopolysaccharide-related hippocampal cell death and inhibited the release of nitrite and interleukin-1beta. Paeonol was effective in inhibiting nitric oxide release from primary microglial cells. It also reduced the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1β from microglial cells. Paeonol possesses neuroprotective activity in a model of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and reduces the release of neurotoxic and proinflammatory factors in activated microglial cells. PMID:25206460

  15. Delayed activation of human microglial cells by high dose ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxin; Chong, Zhao Zhong; De Toledo, Sonia M; Azzam, Edouard I; Elkabes, Stella; Souayah, Nizar

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that microglia affects the fate of neural stem cells in response to ionizing radiation, which suggests a role for microglia in radiation-induced degenerative outcomes. We therefore investigated the effects of γ-irradiation on cell survival, proliferation, and activation of microglia and explored associated mechanisms. Specifically, we evaluated cellular and molecular changes associated with exposure of human microglial cells (CHME5) to low and high doses of acute cesium-137 γ rays. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, cell cycle analyses revealed dose-dependent decreases in the fraction of cells in S and G2/M phase, which correlated with significant oxidative stress. By one week after irradiation, 20-30% of the cells exposed to high doses of γ rays underwent apoptosis, which correlated with significant concomitant decrease in metabolic activity as assessed by the MTT assay, and microglial activation as judged by both morphological changes and increased expression of Glut-5 and CR43. These changes were associated with increases in the mRNA levels for IL-1α, IL-10 and TNFα. Together, the results show that human CHME5 microglia are relatively resistant to low and moderate doses of γ rays, but are sensitive to acute high doses, and that CHME5 cells are a useful tool for in vitro study of human microglia. PMID:27265419

  16. Effects of aspirin on expression of iron transport and storage proteins in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan Xin; Du, Fang; Jiang, Li Rong; Gong, Jing; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Luo, Qian Qian; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2015-12-01

    In the light of recent studies, we hypothesized that aspirin might have the functions to regulate the expression of iron transport proteins and then affect cellular iron levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of aspirin on expression of iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), iron release protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and iron storage protein ferritin using Western blot analysis and on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αlpha, interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and hepcidin using quantitative real-time PCR in BV-2 microglial cells treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We found that aspirin significantly down-regulated TfR1, while also up-regulated Fpn1 and ferritin expressions in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. We also showed that TfR1 and Fpn1 expressions were significantly higher, while ferritin contents, IL-6, TNF-alpha and hepcidin mRNA levels were lower in cells treated with aspirin plus LPS than those in cells treated with LPS only. We concluded that aspirin has a negative effect on cell iron contents under 'normal' conditions and could partly reverse LPS-induced-disruption in cell iron balance under in vitro inflammatory conditions. Our findings also suggested that hepcidin might play a dominant role in the control of TfR1 expression by aspirin in the cells treated with LPS. PMID:26522688

  17. Effects of aspirin on expression of iron transport and storage proteins in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan Xin; Du, Fang; Jiang, Li Rong; Gong, Jing; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Luo, Qian Qian; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2015-12-01

    In the light of recent studies, we hypothesized that aspirin might have the functions to regulate the expression of iron transport proteins and then affect cellular iron levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of aspirin on expression of iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), iron release protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and iron storage protein ferritin using Western blot analysis and on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αlpha, interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and hepcidin using quantitative real-time PCR in BV-2 microglial cells treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We found that aspirin significantly down-regulated TfR1, while also up-regulated Fpn1 and ferritin expressions in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. We also showed that TfR1 and Fpn1 expressions were significantly higher, while ferritin contents, IL-6, TNF-alpha and hepcidin mRNA levels were lower in cells treated with aspirin plus LPS than those in cells treated with LPS only. We concluded that aspirin has a negative effect on cell iron contents under 'normal' conditions and could partly reverse LPS-induced-disruption in cell iron balance under in vitro inflammatory conditions. Our findings also suggested that hepcidin might play a dominant role in the control of TfR1 expression by aspirin in the cells treated with LPS.

  18. Ghrelin Inhibits Oligodendrocyte Cell Death by Attenuating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Youn

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, we reported the antiapoptotic effect of ghrelin in spinal cord injury-induced apoptotic cell death of oligodendrocytes. However, how ghrelin inhibits oligodendrocytes apoptosis, is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether ghrelin inhibits microglia activation and thereby inhibits oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Methods Using total cell extracts prepared from BV-2 cells activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without ghrelin, the levels of p-p38 phosphor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38MAPK), phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (pJNK), p-c-Jun, and pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) were examined by Western blot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated by using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. To examine the effect of ghrelin on oligodendrocyte cell death, oligodendrocytes were cocultured in transwell chambers of 24-well plates with LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. After 48 hours incubation, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'-deoxyuridine, 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling staining were assessed. Results Ghrelin treatment significantly decreased levels of p-p38MAPK, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, and proNGF in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. ROS production increased in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells was also significantly inhibited by ghrelin treatment. In addition, ghrelin significantly inhibited oligodendrocyte cell death when cocultured with LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Conclusion Ghrelin inhibits oligodendrocyte cell death by decreasing proNGF and ROS production as well as p38MAPK and JNK activation in activated microglia as an anti-inflammatory hormone. PMID:25309797

  19. Sutherlandia frutescens Ethanol Extracts Inhibit Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses in Neurons and Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinghua; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Zong, Yijia; Patel, Jayleenkumar; Brownstein, Korey; Lei, Wei; Lu, Chi-Hua; Simonyi, Agnes; Gu, Zezong; Cui, Jiankun; Rottinghaus, George E.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Folk, William R.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. (SF) is a medicinal plant indigenous to southern Africa and used in folk and contemporary remedies for stress, chronic diseases, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. While previous studies have focused on physiological effects of SF on cellular and systemic abnormalities associated with these diseases, little is known about its effects in the brain and immune cells in the central nervous system. Results of this study indicate that ethanol extracts of SF (SF-E) suppress NMDA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, and LPS- and IFNγ-induced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial cells. SF-E’s action on microglial cells appears to be mediated through inhibition of the IFNγ-induced p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway which is central to regulating a number of intracellular metabolic processes including enhancing STAT1α phosphorylation and filopodia formation. The involvement of SF in these pathways suggests the potential for novel therapeutics for stress and prevention, and/or treatment of HIV/AIDS as well as other inflammatory diseases in the brain. PMID:24587007

  20. Prenylated Flavonoids from Cudrania tricuspidata Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Activities in BV2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Cheol; Yoon, Chi-Su; Quang, Tran Hong; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Jong-Su; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2016-01-01

    In Korea and China, Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant used to treat lumbago, hemoptysis, and contusions. The C. tricuspidata methanol extract suppressed both production of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells. Cudraflavanone D (1), isolated from this extract, remarkably suppressed the protein expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Cudraflavanone D (1) also decreased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β production, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB heterodimers (p50 and p65) by interrupting the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor of IκB-α, and inhibited NF-κB binding. In addition, cudraflavanone D (1) suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK pathways. This study indicated that cudraflavanone D (1) can be a potential drug candidate for the cure of neuroinflammation. PMID:26907256

  1. Celecoxib Inhibits Prion Protein 90-231-Mediated Pro-inflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Villa, Valentina; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Novelli, Federica; Tasso, Bruno; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Gatta, Elena; Tonelli, Michele; Florio, Tullio

    2016-01-01

    Activation of microglia is a central event in the atypical inflammatory response occurring during prion encephalopathies. We report that the prion protein fragment encompassing amino acids 90-231 (PrP90-231), a model of the neurotoxic activity of the pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)), causes activation of both primary microglia cultures and N9 microglial cells in vitro. This effect was characterized by cell proliferation arrest and induction of a secretory phenotype, releasing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Conditioned medium from PrP90-231-treated microglia induced in vitro cytotoxicity of A1 mesencephalic neurons, supporting the notion that soluble mediators released by activated microglia contributes to the neurodegeneration during prion diseases. The neuroinflammatory role of COX activity, and its potential targeting for anti-prion therapies, was tested measuring the effects of ketoprofen and celecoxib (preferential inhibitors of COX1 and COX2, respectively) on PrP90-231-induced microglial activation. Celecoxib, but not ketoprofen significantly reverted the growth arrest as well as NO and PGE2 secretion induced by PrP90-231, indicating that PrP90-231 pro-inflammatory response in microglia is mainly dependent on COX2 activation. Taken together, these data outline the importance of microglia in the neurotoxicity occurring during prion diseases and highlight the potentiality of COX2-selective inhibitors to revert microglia as adjunctive pharmacological approach to contrast the neuroinflammation-dependent neurotoxicity.

  2. Regulation of Macrophage, Dendritic Cell, and Microglial Phenotype and Function by the SOCS Proteins

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Sarah M.; Heller, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells of dynamic phenotype that rapidly respond to external stimuli in the microenvironment by altering their phenotype to respond to and to direct the immune response. The ability to dynamically change phenotype must be carefully regulated to prevent uncontrolled inflammatory responses and subsequently to promote resolution of inflammation. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a key role in regulating macrophage phenotype. In this review, we summarize research to date from mouse and human studies on the role of the SOCS proteins in determining the phenotype and function of macrophages. We will also touch on the influence of the SOCS on dendritic cell (DC) and microglial phenotype and function. The molecular mechanisms of SOCS function in macrophages and DCs are discussed, along with how dysregulation of SOCS expression or function can lead to alterations in macrophage/DC/microglial phenotype and function and to disease. Regulation of SOCS expression by microRNA is discussed. Novel therapies and unanswered questions with regard to SOCS regulation of monocyte–macrophage phenotype and function are highlighted. PMID:26579124

  3. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol elicits neuroprotective effects on excitotoxically lesioned dentate gyrus granule cells via abnormal-cannabidiol-sensitive receptors on microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Susanne; Koch, Marco; Böttger, Charlotte; Ghadban, Chalid; Korf, Horst-Werner; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2009-02-01

    Endocannabinoids like 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) exert neuroprotective effects after brain injuries. According to current concepts, these neuroprotective effects are due to interactions between 2-AG and cannabinoid (CB)1 receptors on neurons. Moreover, 2-AG modulates migration and proliferation of microglial cells which are rapidly activated after brain lesion. This effect is mediated via CB2- and abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-CBD)-sensitive receptors. In the present study, we investigated whether the abn-CBD-sensitive receptor on microglial cells contributes to 2-AG-mediated neuroprotection in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) after excitotoxic lesion induced by NMDA (50 microM) application for 4 h. This lesion caused neuronal damage and accumulation of microglial cells within the granule cell layer. To analyze the role of abn-CBD-sensitive receptors for neuroprotection and microglial cell accumulation, two agonists of the abn-CBD-sensitive receptor, abn-CBD or 2-AG, two antagonists, 1,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-2-[(1R,6R)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen1-yl]-benzene (O-1918) or cannabidiol (CBD), and the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, were applied to NMDA-lesioned OHSC. Propidium iodide (PI) labeling was used as a marker of degenerating neurons and isolectin B(4) (IB(4)) as a marker of microglial cells. Application of both, abn-CBD or 2-AG to lesioned OHSC significantly decreased the number of IB(4)(+) microglial cells and PI(+) neurons in the dentate gyrus. In contrast to AM251, application of O-1918 or CBD antagonized these effects. When microglial cells were depleted by preincubation of OHSC with the bisphosphonate clodronate (100 microg/mL) for 5 days before excitotoxic lesion, 2-AG and abn-CBD lost their neuroprotective effects. We therefore propose that the endocannabinoid 2-AG exerts its neuroprotective effects via activation of abn-CBD-sensitive receptors on microglial cells.

  4. Highly permissive infection of microglial cells by Japanese encephalitis virus: a possible role as a viral reservoir.

    PubMed

    Thongtan, Thananya; Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp; Chaiworakul, Voravasa; Rattanarungsan, Chutima; Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R

    2010-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne Flavivirus, is a major cause of acute encephalitis, and neurons have been proposed to be the principle JEV target cells in the central nervous system. However, clinically, infection with JEV leads to increased levels of cytokines and chemokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) the levels of which correlate with the mortality rate of patients. This research aimed to study the role of microglial cells in JEV infection. Mouse microglial cells (BV-2) supported the replication of JEV with extracellular production of virus by 10h post-infection, and virus titer reached a maximum (2.55x10(10)pfu/ml) by day 3 post-infection. While apoptosis was induced in response to virus infection, no alteration in nitric oxide production was observed. Microglial cells remained productively infected with JEV for up to 16 weeks without significant morphological alterations, and the released virions were infectious to mouse neuroblastoma (NA) cells. The high virus production and long persistence of JEV in microglial cells suggests that these cells may serve as viral reservoirs for the infection of neurons in the CNS.

  5. Anti-neuro-inflammatory effects of Nardostachys chinensis in lipopolysaccharide-and lipoteichoic acid-stimulated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hun; Park, Geuntae

    2016-05-01

    Excessive microglial cell activation is related to the progression of chronic neuro-inflammatory disorders. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by the NFE2-related factor (Nrf-2) pathway is a key regulator of neuro-inflammation. Nardostachys chinensis is used as an anti-malarial, anti-nociceptive, and neurotrophic treatment in traditional Asian medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of N. chinensis (EN) on the anti-neuro-inflammatory effects mediated by HO-1 up-regulation in Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that EN suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production and induced HO-1 transcription and translation through Nrf-2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. EN markedly inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Furthermore, EN protected hippocampal HT22 cells from indirect neuronal toxicity mediated by LPS- and LTA-treated microglial cells. These results suggested that EN impairs LPS- and LTA-induced neuro-inflammatory responses in microglial cells and confers protection against indirect neuronal damage to HT22 cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EN could be used as a natural anti-neuro-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent. PMID:27478097

  6. Regulatory Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Neuroinflammation in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Caren Yu-Ju; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Lai, Sheng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Shu; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lu, Jheng-Kun; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current study intended to probe the effects of CAPE on microglia activation by using in vitro and in vivo models. Western blot and Griess reaction assay revealed CAPE significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Administration of CAPE resulted in increased expressions of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1and erythropoietin (EPO) in microglia. The phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α was further found to regulate the anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid. In vivo results from immunohistochemistry along with rotarod test also revealed the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of CAPE in microglia activation. The current study has evidenced several possible molecular determinants, AMPKα, EPO, and HO-1, in mediating anti-neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells. PMID:25768341

  7. Two-dimensional zymography differentiates gelatinase isoforms in stimulated microglial cells and in brain tissues of acute brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Wesley, Jennifer M; Sun, Grace Y; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this study, we investigated gelatinase isoforms under in vitro and in vivo conditions using two-dimensional (2D) gelatin zymography electrophoresis, a protocol allowing separation of proteins based on isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. We observed organomercuric chemical 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced activation of MMP-2 isoforms with variant pI values in the conditioned medium of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Studies with murine BV-2 microglial cells indicated a series of proform MMP-9 spots separated by variant pI values due to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The MMP-9 pI values were shifted after treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting presence of phosphorylated isoforms due to the proinflammatory stimulation. Similar MMP-9 isoforms with variant pI values in the same molecular weight were also found in mouse brains after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. In contrast, there was no detectable pI differentiation of MMP-9 in the brains of chronic Zucker obese rats. These results demonstrated effective use of 2D zymography to separate modified MMP isoforms with variant pI values and to detect posttranslational modifications under different pathological conditions.

  8. Microglial neurotransmitter receptors trigger superoxide production in microglia; consequences for microglial-neuronal interactions.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma L; Mosley, Angelina; Eaton, Simon; Dobson, Lucianne; Heales, Simon J; Pocock, Jennifer M

    2012-04-01

    Microglia express three isoforms of the NADPH oxidase, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, with the potential to produce superoxide (O(2) ˙(-) ). Microglia also express neurotransmitter receptors, which can modulate microglial responses. In this study, microglial activity of Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 in primary rat cultured microglia or the rodent BV2 cell line were altered by microglial neurotransmitter receptor modulation. Glutamate, GABA or ATP triggered microglial O(2) ˙(-) production via Nox activation. Nox activation was elicited by agonists of metabotropic mGlu3 receptors and by group III receptors, by GABA(A) but not GABA(B) receptors, and by purinergic P2X(7) or P2Y(2/4) receptors but not P2Y(1) receptors, and inhibited by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonists. The neurotransmitters also modulated Nox mRNA expression and NADPH activity. The activation of Nox by BzATP or GABA promoted a neuroprotective phenotype whilst the activation of Nox by glutamate promoted a neurotoxic phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial neurotransmitter receptors can signal via Nox to promote neuroprotection or neurotoxicity. This has implications for the subsequent neurotoxic profile of microglia when neurotransmitter levels may become skewed in neurodegeneration. PMID:22243365

  9. Dietary supplementation with the polyphenol-rich açaí pulps (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart.) improves cognition in aged rats and attenuates inflammatory signaling in BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine if lyophilized acai fruit pulp (genus, Euterpe), rich in polyphenolics and other bioactive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is efficacious in reversing age-related cognitive deficits in aged rats. Methods: The diets of 19-mo...

  10. Infiltrating cells from host brain restore the microglial population in grafted cortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Tao, Sijue; Fang, Yukun; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Lirui; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using two-photon intravital imaging and parabiotic model, here we investigated the proliferation and source of microglia in the donor region by transplanting embryonic cortical tissue into adult cortex. Live imaging showed that the endogenous microglia of the grafted tissue were rapidly lost after transplantation. Instead, host-derived microglia infiltrated and colonized the graft. Parabiotic model suggested that the main source of infiltrating cells is the parenchyma of the host brain. Colonized microglia proliferated and experienced an extensive morphological transition and eventually differentiated into resting ramified morphology. Collectively, these results demonstrated that donor tissue has little contribution to the activated microglia and host brain controls the microglial population in the graft.

  11. Monoclonal antibody to macrophages (EMB/11) labels macrophages and microglial cells in human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Esiri, M M; McGee, J O

    1986-01-01

    Normal and diseased human central nervous system (CNS) tissues were studied immunohistochemically by a monoclonal antibody to human macrophages (EBM/11), antisera to glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP), and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT). EBM/11 reacted with brain macrophages located mainly around blood vessels in normal brain; it also reacted with resting microglia in normal brain and with numerous reactive microglia and macrophages in brain tumours and inflammatory lesions. Microglia did not react with anti-GFAP or alpha 1-ACT. An EBM/11 positive phenotype, therefore, is shared by microglia and macrophages and suggests that microglial cells form a specialised part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Images PMID:3755142

  12. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells therapy attenuates activated microglial/macrophage response and improves spatial learning after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Supinder S.; Walker, Peter A.; Shah, Shinil K.; Jimenez, Fernando; Thomas, Chelsea P.; Smith, Philippa; Hetz, Robert A.; Xue, Hasen; Pati, Shibani; Dash, Pramod K.; Cox, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (AMNC) have shown therapeutic promise for central nervous system insults such as stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that intravenous injection of AMNC provides neuroprotection which leads to cognitive improvement after TBI. Methods A controlled cortical impact (CCI) rodent traumatic brain injury (TBI) model was used to examine blood-brain barrier permeability (BBB), neuronal and glial apoptosis and cognitive behavior. Two groups of rats underwent CCI with (CCI-Autologous) or without AMNC treatment (CCI-Alone), consisting of 2 million AMNC/kilogram body weight harvested from the tibia and intravenously injected 72 hr after injury. CCI-Alone animals underwent sham harvests and received vehicle injections. Results 96 hr after injury, AMNC significantly reduced the BBB permeability in injured animals, and there was an increase in apoptosis of pro-inflammatory activated microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus. At 4 weeks after injury, we examined changes in spatial memory after TBI due to AMNC treatment. There was a significant improvement in probe testing of CCI-Autologous group in comparison to CCI-Alone in the Morris Water Maze paradigm. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the intravenous injection of AMNC after TBI leads to neuroprotection by preserving early BBB integrity and increasing activated microglial apoptosis. In addition, AMNC also improves cognitive function. PMID:23928737

  13. Microglial NADPH oxidase activation mediates rod cell death in the retinal degeneration in rd mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, H; Ding, M; Chen, X-X; Lu, Q

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase contributes to microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in the CNS neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies, including ours, suggest that microglial activation is involved in the retinal degeneration in the animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In the present study, we investigated the activation of NADPH oxidase in the rod degeneration in rd mice and further explored its role in the microglia-mediated photoreceptor apoptosis. Expression of gp91phox protein, a major subunit of NAPDH oxidase in the whole retina of rd mice at postnatal days (P) 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 was assessed by western blot analysis. Location of gp91phox in the rd retina at each age group and its cellular source were studied by immunohistochemical analysis and double labeling respectively. The generation of superoxide radicals in the rd retinas was demonstrated by intraperitoneal injection of hydroethidine. Apocynin was applied intraperitoneally in the rd mice from P8 to P14 to inhibit the activity of NAPDH oxidase and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was measured before and after apocynin treatment. Our results demonstrated that during the rod degenerative process, the expression of gp91phox started to increase in the outer part of rd retina at P10 and reached a peak at P14. Double labeling of gp91phox with CD11b showed co-localization of gp91phox in the retinal microglial cells. Increasing generation of superoxide radicals visualized by hydroethidine was noted at P8 and reached a peak at P14. Apocynin markedly reduced the production of superoxide radicals and preserved the rod cells. The results suggested that NADPH oxidase might play an important role in the rod degeneration in the rd mice. Inhibition of NAPDH oxidase could be a possible approach to treat RP in the early degenerative stage.

  14. Myeloid/Microglial Driven Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy Corrects a Neuronopathic Lysosomal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sergijenko, Ana; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Liao, Ai Y; Pickford, Claire E; McDermott, John; Nowinski, Gabriel; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Merry, Catherine LR; Jones, Simon A; Wraith, J Edmond; Wynn, Robert F; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Bigger, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPSIIIA) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH), resulting in heparan sulfate (HS) accumulation and progressive neurodegeneration. There are no treatments. We previously demonstrated improved neuropathology in MPSIIIA mice using lentiviral vectors (LVs) overexpressing SGSH in wild-type (WT) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants (HSCTs), achieved via donor monocyte/microglial engraftment in the brain. However, neurological disease was not corrected using LVs in autologous MPSIIIA HSCTs. To improve brain expression via monocyte/microglial specificity, LVs expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under ubiquitous phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) or myeloid-specific promoters were compared in transplanted HSCs. LV-CD11b-GFP gave significantly higher monocyte/B-cell eGFP expression than LV-PGK-GFP or LV-CD18-GFP after 6 months. Subsequently, autologous MPSIIIA HSCs were transduced with either LV-PGK-coSGSH or LV-CD11b-coSGSH vectors expressing codon-optimized SGSH and transplanted into MPSIIIA mice. Eight months after HSCT, LV-PGK-coSGSH vectors produced bone marrow SGSH (576% normal activity) similar to LV-CD11b-coSGSH (473%), but LV-CD11b-coSGSH had significantly higher brain expression (11 versus 7%), demonstrating improved brain specificity. LV-CD11b-coSGSH normalized MPSIIIA behavior, brain HS, GM2 ganglioside, and neuroinflammation to WT levels, whereas LV-PGK-coSGSH partly corrected neuropathology but not behavior. We demonstrate compelling evidence of neurological disease correction using autologous myeloid driven lentiviral-HSC gene therapy in MPSIIIA mice. PMID:23748415

  15. Phenotypic dynamics of microglial and monocyte-derived cells in glioblastoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Clément; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Luche, Hervé; Grenot, Pierre; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Rougon, Geneviève; Malissen, Marie; Debarbieux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells, an integral component of tumor evolution, are present in Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). To address the cellular basis and dynamics of the inflammatory microenvironment in GBM, we established an orthotopic syngenic model by grafting GL261-DsRed cells in immunocompetent transgenic LysM-EGFP//CD11c-EYFP reporter mice. We combined dynamic spectral two-photon imaging with multiparametric cytometry and multicolor immunostaining to characterize spatio-temporal distribution, morphology and activity of microglia and blood-derived infiltrating myeloid cells in live mice. Early stages of tumor development were dominated by microglial EYFP+ cells invading the tumor, followed by massive recruitment of circulating LysM-EGFP+ cells. Fluorescent invading cells were conventional XCR1+ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells distributed in subpopulations of different maturation stages, located in different areas relative to the tumor core. The lethal stage of the disease was characterized by the progressive accumulation of EGFP+/EYFP+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This local phenotypic regulation of monocyte subtypes marked a transition in the immune response. PMID:27193333

  16. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assessment of spinal microglial and astrocytic activation markers in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tanga, F Y; Raghavendra, V; DeLeo, J A

    2004-01-01

    Activated spinal glial cells have been strongly implicated in the development and maintenance of persistent pain states following a variety of stimuli including traumatic nerve injury. The present study was conducted to characterize the time course of surface markers indicative of microglial and astrocytic activation at the transcriptional level following an L5 nerve transection that results in behavioral hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal group, a sham surgery group with an L5 spinal nerve exposure and an L5 spinal nerve transected group. Mechanical allodynia (heightened response to a non-noxious stimulus) of the ipsilateral hind paw was assessed throughout the study. Spinal lumbar mRNA levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), integrin alpha M (ITGAM), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cluster determinant 14 (CD14) were assayed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at 4 h, 1, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post surgery. The spinal lumbar mRNA expression of ITGAM, TLR4, and CD14 was upregulated at 4 h post surgery, CD14 peaked 4 days after spinal nerve transection while ITGAM and TLR4 continued to increase until day 14 and returned to almost normal levels by postoperative day 28. In contrast, spinal GFAP mRNA did not significantly increase until postoperative day 4 and then continued to increase over the duration of the study. Our optimized real-time RT-PCR method was highly sensitive, specific and reproducible at a wide dynamic range. This study demonstrates that peripheral nerve injury induces an early spinal microglial activation that precedes astrocytic activation using mRNA for surface marker expression; the delayed but sustained expression of mRNA coding for GFAP implicates astrocytes in the maintenance phase of persistent pain states. In summary, these data demonstrate a distinct spinal glial response following nerve injury using real-time RT-PCR. PMID:15145554

  17. β-Arrestin 2 mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of fluoxetine in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ren-Wei; Du, Ren-Hong; Bu, Wen-Guang

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that microglial activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Activated microglia can secrete various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Thus, inhibition of microglial activation may have a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of depression. In the present study, we found that fluoxetine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- 6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) and reduced the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation in microglia. We further found that fluoxetine increased the expression of β-arrestin 2 and enhanced the association of β-arrestin 2 with TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1) and disrupted TAK1-TAB1 interaction. Moreover, β-arrestin 2 knock-down abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of fluoxetine in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that β-arrestin 2 is necessary for the anti-inflammatory effects of fluoxetine and offers novel drug targets in the convergent fluoxetine/β-arrestin 2 and inflammatory pathways for treating microglial inflammatory neuropathologies like depression.

  18. Interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with the enteric glia and microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the interaction of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and different glial cells (enteric glial and microglial cells) in order to evaluate the infecting ability of these microorganisms and the effects produced on these cells, such as the evaluation of cytokines expression. Results Our experiments demonstrated the adhesion of M. paratuberculosis to the enteroglial cells and the induction of IL-1A and IL-6 expression; M. tuberculosis and M. bovis showed a good adhesive capability to the enteric cell line with the expression of the following cytokines: IL-1A and IL-1B, TNF-α, G-CSF and GM-CSF; M. bovis induced the expression of IL-6 too. The experiment performed with the microglial cells confirmed the results obtained with the enteroglial cells after the infection with M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, whereas M. paratuberculosis stimulated the production of IL-1A and IL-1B. Conclusion Enteroglial and microglial cells, could be the target of pathogenic mycobacteria and, even if present in different locations (Enteric Nervous System and Central Nervous System), show to have similar mechanism of immunomodulation. PMID:22151930

  19. Enhanced detection and study of murine norovirus-1 using a more efficient microglial cell line

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Courtney; Cao, Shengbo; Lu, Yuanan

    2009-01-01

    Background Human Noroviruses are the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To facilitate prevention and control, a norovirus isolated from mice can provide a model to understand human noroviruses. To establish optimal viral infectivity conditions for murine noroviruses, several cell lines of hematopoietic lineage, including murine BV-2, RAW 264.7, and TIB, as well as human CHME-5, were tested comparatively for their sensitivity to murine norovirus-1. Results Except for CHME-5, all three murine-derived cell lines were susceptible to MNV infection. Viral infection of these cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. Using both viral plaque and replication assays, BV-2 and RAW 264.7 cells were determined to have comparable sensitivities to MNV-1 infection. Comparisons of cell growth characteristics, general laboratory handling and potential in-field applications suggest the use of BV-2 to be more advantageous. Conclusion Results obtained from these studies demonstrate that an immortalized microglial cell line can support MNV-1 replication and provides a more efficient method to detect and study murine noroviruses, facilitating future investigations using MNV-1 as a model to study, detect, and control Human Norovirus. PMID:19903359

  20. Intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cell therapy attenuates activated microglial/macrophage response and improves spatial learning after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Supinder S; Hetz, Robert; Thomas, Chelsea; Smith, Philippa; Olsen, Alex B; Williams, Stephen; Xue, Hasen; Aroom, Kevin; Uray, Karen; Hamilton, Jason; Mays, Robert W; Cox, Charles S

    2013-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intravenous delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodents provides neuroprotection by preserving the blood-brain barrier and systemically attenuating inflammation in the acute time frame following cell treatment; however, the long-term behavioral and anti-inflammatory effects of MAPC administration after TBI have yet to be explored. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of MAPCs after TBI attenuates the inflammatory response (as measured by microglial morphology) and improves performance at motor tasks and spatial learning (Morris water maze [MWM]). MAPCs were administered intravenously 2 and 24 hours after a cortical contusion injury (CCI). We tested four groups at 120 days after TBI: sham (uninjured), injured but not treated (CCI), and injured and treated with one of two concentrations of MAPCs, either 2 million cells per kilogram (CCI-2) or 10 million cells per kilogram (CCI-10). CCI-10 rats showed significant improvement in left hind limb deficit on the balance beam. On the fifth day of MWM trials, CCI-10 animals showed a significant decrease in both latency to platform and distance traveled compared with CCI. Probe trials revealed a significant decrease in proximity measure in CCI-10 compared with CCI, suggesting improved memory retrieval. Neuroinflammation was quantified by enumerating activated microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus. We observed a significant decrease in the number of activated microglia in the dentate gyrus in CCI-10 compared with CCI. Our results demonstrate that intravenous MAPC treatment after TBI in a rodent model offers long-term improvements in spatial learning as well as attenuation of neuroinflammation.

  1. Dual RNA Sequencing Reveals the Expression of Unique Transcriptomic Signatures in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Park, Kyoung Sun; Lee, Young Seek; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells become rapidly activated through interactions with pathogens, and the persistent activation of these cells is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have investigated the transcriptomic signatures in microglia or macrophages using microarray technologies. However, this method has numerous restrictions, such as spatial biases, uneven probe properties, low sensitivity, and dependency on the probes spotted. To overcome this limitation and identify novel transcribed genes in response to LPS, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to determine the novel transcriptomic signatures in BV-2 microglial cells. Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that approximately 263 and 319 genes (≥ 1.5 log2-fold), such as cytokines and chemokines, were strongly induced after 2 and 4 h, respectively, and the induction of several genes with unknown immunological functions was also observed. Importantly, we observed that previously unidentified transcription factors (TFs) (irf1, irf7, and irf9), histone demethylases (kdm4a) and DNA methyltransferases (dnmt3l) were significantly and selectively expressed in BV-2 microglial cells. The gene expression levels, transcription start sites (TSS), isoforms, and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation upon infection with LPS. In addition, gene ontology, molecular networks and pathway analyses identified the top significantly regulated functional classification, canonical pathways and network functions at each activation status. Moreover, we further analyzed differentially expressed genes to identify transcription factor (TF) motifs (−950 to +50 bp of the 5’ upstream promoters) and epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expressions of key inflammatory genes as well as pro-inflammatory mediators in the supernatants were significantly induced in LPS treated primary microglial cells. This

  2. Possible involvement of P2X7 receptor activation in microglial neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Takata, Kazuyuki; Hide, Izumi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    Microglia play important roles in the pathogenic cascade following cerebral ischemia, since they express growth factors, chemokines and regulatory cytokines as well as free radicals and other toxic mediators. P2X7 receptor, a subtype of a family of P2 purinoceptors, is primarily expressed in microglia and macrophages, suggesting that it regulates immune function and inflammatory responses. However, the involvement of ATP in such microglial responses after cerebral ischemia is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of ATP, especially through the P2X7 receptors, in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. In immunohistochemical analysis, P2X7 receptor-like immunoreactivity was predominantly detected in microglia, and then activated microglia accumulated in the ischemic region, in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. Intracerebroventricular injection with P2X7 receptor agonist 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) improved behavioral dysfunction accessed by rota-rod test and ischemic neural injury induced by MCAO. In contrast, P2X7 receptor antagonist adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde (OxATP) exacerbated ischemic brain damage. These results suggest that microglia play an important role in neuroprotection against rat cerebral ischemia, which is regulated by a P2X7 receptor-mediated ATP signal.

  3. Brucella outer membrane protein Omp25 induces microglial cells in vitro to secrete inflammatory cytokines and inhibit apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiao-Li; Liu, Ai-Cui; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Yan-Bai; Hou, Yu-Ting; Wang, Zhen-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Omp25 protein, an outer membrane protein of Brucella, can cause damage to the central nervous system. As one type of macrophage, microglial cells play a role in immune surveillance and immune protection in the central nervous system; therefore, they are major targets of bacterial attack. The present study examined BV2 mouse microglial cells that were stimulated with different concentrations of Omp25 recombinant protein, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by the BV2 cells as well as their level of apoptosis were observed. The objective of the study was to preliminarily illustrate the possible mechanism that Omp25 uses to damage the central nervous system. Mouse BV2 microglial cells were incubated with different concentrations of Omp25 for 24 h, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and HMGB1 (high mobility group box-1 protein); reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) mRNA; Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) double staining was used to detect apoptosis in the BV2 cells. After the BV2 cells were stimulated with different concentrations of Omp25, the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1 was increased, and the difference was statistically significant compared with the control group (P<0.05). The secretion of TNF-α and HMGB1 showed a trend toward an initial increase followed by a decrease. The expression level of TLR4 mRNA was increased. Omp25 protein can inhibit apoptosis in BV2 cells. The outer membrane protein Omp25 of Brucella promotes microglial cells to secrete inflammatory cytokines and inhibit apoptosis. TLR4 may be involved in the immune response of the central nervous system to Brucella infection. PMID:26770344

  4. In situ Synthesis of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters by Nontumorigenic Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    West, Abby L; Schaeublin, Nicole M; Griep, Mark H; Maurer-Gardner, Elizabeth I; Cole, Daniel P; Fakner, Alexis M; Hussain, Saber M; Karna, Shashi P

    2016-08-24

    To date, the directed in situ synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) has only been demonstrated in cancerous cells, with the theorized synthesis mechanism prohibiting AuNC formation in nontumorigenic cell lines. This limitation hinders potential biostabilized AuNC-based technology in healthy cells involving both chemical and mechanical analysis, such as the direct sensing of protein function and the elucidation of local mechanical environments. Thus, new synthesis strategies are required to expand the application space of AuNCs beyond cancer-focused cellular studies. In this contribution, we have developed the methodology and demonstrated the direct in situ synthesis of AuNCs in the nontumorigenic neuronal microglial line, C8B4. The as-synthesized AuNCs form in situ and are stabilized by cellular proteins. The clusters exhibit bright green fluorescence and demonstrate low (<10%) toxicity. Interestingly, elevated ROS levels were not required for the in situ formation of AuNCs, although intracellular reductants such as glutamate were required for the synthesis of AuNCs in C8B4 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first-ever demonstration of AuNC synthesis in nontumorigenic cells and, as such, it considerably expands the application space of biostabilized fluorescent AuNCs. PMID:27328035

  5. In situ Synthesis of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters by Nontumorigenic Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    West, Abby L; Schaeublin, Nicole M; Griep, Mark H; Maurer-Gardner, Elizabeth I; Cole, Daniel P; Fakner, Alexis M; Hussain, Saber M; Karna, Shashi P

    2016-08-24

    To date, the directed in situ synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) has only been demonstrated in cancerous cells, with the theorized synthesis mechanism prohibiting AuNC formation in nontumorigenic cell lines. This limitation hinders potential biostabilized AuNC-based technology in healthy cells involving both chemical and mechanical analysis, such as the direct sensing of protein function and the elucidation of local mechanical environments. Thus, new synthesis strategies are required to expand the application space of AuNCs beyond cancer-focused cellular studies. In this contribution, we have developed the methodology and demonstrated the direct in situ synthesis of AuNCs in the nontumorigenic neuronal microglial line, C8B4. The as-synthesized AuNCs form in situ and are stabilized by cellular proteins. The clusters exhibit bright green fluorescence and demonstrate low (<10%) toxicity. Interestingly, elevated ROS levels were not required for the in situ formation of AuNCs, although intracellular reductants such as glutamate were required for the synthesis of AuNCs in C8B4 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first-ever demonstration of AuNC synthesis in nontumorigenic cells and, as such, it considerably expands the application space of biostabilized fluorescent AuNCs.

  6. C1q, the recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement, drives microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Färber, Katrin; Cheung, Giselle; Mitchell, Daniel; Wallis, Russell; Weihe, Eberhard; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage or pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology; by release of cytokines, chemokines, or nitric oxide; and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, nonramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca(2+) increase. A shift toward proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an activation and differentiation process similar to the proinflammatory response of microglia to exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Our findings indicate 1) that extrinsic plasma C1q is involved in the initiation of microglial activation in the course of CNS diseases with blood-brain barrier impairment and 2) that C1q synthesized and released by activated microglia is likely to contribute in an autocrine/paracrine way to maintain and balance microglial activation in the diseased CNS tissue. PMID:18831010

  7. TREM2 regulates microglial cell activation in response to demyelination in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Claudia; Bollman, Bryan; Licastro, Danilo; Xie, Mingqiang; Mikesell, Robert; Schmidt, Robert; Yuede, Carla M.; Galimberti, Daniela; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Klein, Robyn S.; Cross, Anne H.; Otero, Karel; Piccio, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are phagocytic cells that survey the brain and perform neuroprotective functions in response to tissue damage, but their activating receptors are largely unknown. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial immunoreceptor whose loss-of-function mutations in humans cause presenile dementia, while genetic variants are associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. In myeloid cells, TREM2 has been involved in the regulation of phagocytosis, cell proliferation and inflammatory responses in vitro. However, it is unknown how TREM2 contributes to microglia function in vivo. Here, we identify a critical role for TREM2 in the activation and function of microglia during cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination. TREM2-deficient (TREM2−/−) mice had defective clearance of myelin debris and more axonal pathology, resulting in impaired clinical performances compared to wild-type (WT) mice. TREM2−/− microglia proliferated less in areas of demyelination and were less activated, displaying a more resting morphology and decreased expression of the activation markers MHC II and inducible nitric oxide synthase as compared to WT. Mechanistically, gene expression and ultrastructural analysis of microglia suggested a defect in myelin degradation and phagosome processing during CPZ intoxication in TREM2−/− microglia. These findings place TREM2 as a key regulator of microglia activation in vivo in response to tissue damage. PMID:25631124

  8. Microglial derived tumor necrosis factor-α drives Alzheimer's disease-related neuronal cell cycle events.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Kiran; Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Varvel, Nicholas H; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Weick, Jason P; Staugaitis, Susan M; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M; Herrup, Karl; Lamb, Bruce T

    2014-02-01

    Massive neuronal loss is a key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that neuroinflammation, cell autonomous to microglia, is capable of inducing neuronal cell cycle events (CCEs), which are toxic for terminally differentiated neurons. First, oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide (AβO)-mediated microglial activation induced neuronal CCEs via the tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and the c-Jun Kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Second, adoptive transfer of CD11b+ microglia from AD transgenic mice (R1.40) induced neuronal cyclin D1 expression via TNFα signaling pathway. Third, genetic deficiency of TNFα in R1.40 mice (R1.40-Tnfα(-/-)) failed to induce neuronal CCEs. Finally, the mitotically active neurons spatially co-exist with F4/80+ activated microglia in the human AD brain and that a portion of these neurons are apoptotic. Together our data suggest a cell-autonomous role of microglia, and identify TNFα as the responsible cytokine, in promoting neuronal CCEs in the pathogenesis of AD.

  9. Intracellular delivery of dendrimer triamcinolone acetonide conjugates into microglial and human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Siva P.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Oh, Yumin; Lutty, Gerard A.; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2016-01-01

    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a potent, intermediate-acting, steroid that has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activity. Intravitreal administration of TA has been used for diabetic macular edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the hydrophobicity, lack of solubility, and the side effects limit its effectiveness in the treatment of retinal diseases. In this study, we explore a PAMAM dendrimer-TA conjugate (D-TA) as a potential strategy to improve intracellular delivery and efficacy of TA to target cells. The conjugates were prepared with a high drug payload (~21%) and were readily soluble in saline. Compared to free TA, D-TA demonstrated a significantly improved toxicity profile in two important target [microglial and human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)] cells. The D-TA was ~100-fold more effective than free TA in its anti-inflammatory activity (measured in microglia), and in suppressing VEGF production (in hypoxic RPE cells). Dendrimer-based delivery may improve the efficacy of TA towards both its key targets of inflammation and VEGF production, with significant clinical implications. PMID:25701805

  10. Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory responses by inflexanin B in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Youn; Sul, Donggeun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Yoo, Ki-Yeol; Park, So-Young

    2013-02-01

    Microglia are a type of resident macrophage that functions as an inflammation modulator in the central nervous system. Over-activation of microglia by a range of stimuli disrupts the physiological homeostasis of the brain, and induces inflammatory response and degenerative processes, such as those implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of inflexanin B in murine microglial BV2 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated BV2 cells and induced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokines (interleukins-1β and -6, and tumour necrosis factor α). The LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators was associated with the enhancement of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) including ERK1/2 and JNK. Conversely, pretreatment of cells with inflexanin B (10 and 20 μg/mL) significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. This was accompanied with the reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and reduced activation of MAPKs. These results suggest that inflexanin B attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory process by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. PMID:23458198

  11. Maternal immune activation evoked by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid does not evoke microglial cell activation in the embryo

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Silke; Smolders, Sophie M. T.; Swinnen, Nina; Gärtner, Annette; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Legendre, Pascal; Brône, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Morphological brain abnormalities combined with deviations in the inflammatory status of the brain can be observed in patients of both autism and schizophrenia. It was shown that acute infection can induce changes in maternal cytokine levels which in turn are suggested to affect fetal brain development and increase the risk on the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Animal models of maternal immune activation reproduce the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In this study the poly (I:C) model was used to mimic viral immune activation in pregnant mice in order to assess the activation status of fetal microglia in these developmental disorders. Because microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain they were expected to be activated due to the inflammatory stimulus. Microglial cell density and activation level in the fetal cortex and hippocampus were determined. Despite the presence of a systemic inflammation in the pregnant mice, there was no significant difference in fetal microglial cell density or immunohistochemically determined activation level between the control and inflammation group. These data indicate that activation of the fetal microglial cells is not likely to be responsible for the inflammation induced deficits in the offspring in this model. PMID:26300736

  12. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE2 and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells. PMID:27169820

  13. Infiltrating cells from host brain restore the microglial population in grafted cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Tao, Sijue; Fang, Yukun; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Lirui; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using two-photon intravital imaging and parabiotic model, here we investigated the proliferation and source of microglia in the donor region by transplanting embryonic cortical tissue into adult cortex. Live imaging showed that the endogenous microglia of the grafted tissue were rapidly lost after transplantation. Instead, host-derived microglia infiltrated and colonized the graft. Parabiotic model suggested that the main source of infiltrating cells is the parenchyma of the host brain. Colonized microglia proliferated and experienced an extensive morphological transition and eventually differentiated into resting ramified morphology. Collectively, these results demonstrated that donor tissue has little contribution to the activated microglia and host brain controls the microglial population in the graft. PMID:27615195

  14. Infiltrating cells from host brain restore the microglial population in grafted cortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Tao, Sijue; Fang, Yukun; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Lirui; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using two-photon intravital imaging and parabiotic model, here we investigated the proliferation and source of microglia in the donor region by transplanting embryonic cortical tissue into adult cortex. Live imaging showed that the endogenous microglia of the grafted tissue were rapidly lost after transplantation. Instead, host-derived microglia infiltrated and colonized the graft. Parabiotic model suggested that the main source of infiltrating cells is the parenchyma of the host brain. Colonized microglia proliferated and experienced an extensive morphological transition and eventually differentiated into resting ramified morphology. Collectively, these results demonstrated that donor tissue has little contribution to the activated microglia and host brain controls the microglial population in the graft. PMID:27615195

  15. NitroDIGE analysis reveals inhibition of protein S-nitrosylation by epigallocatechin gallates in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule regulating numerous cellular functions in development and disease. In the brain, neuronal injury or neuroinflammation can lead to microglial activation, which induces NO production. NO can react with critical cysteine thiols of target proteins forming S-nitroso-proteins. This modification, known as S-nitrosylation, is an evolutionarily conserved redox-based post-translational modification (PTM) of specific proteins analogous to phosphorylation. In this study, we describe a protocol for analyzing S-nitrosylation of proteins using a gel-based proteomic approach and use it to investigate the modes of action of a botanical compound found in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on protein S-nitrosylation after microglial activation. Methods/Results To globally and quantitatively analyze NO-induced protein S-nitrosylation, the sensitive gel-based proteomic method, termed NitroDIGE, was developed by combining two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with the modified biotin switch technique (BST) using fluorescence-tagged CyDye™ thiol reactive agents to label S-nitrosothiols. The NitroDIGE method showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting S-nitrosylated proteins (SNO-proteins). Using this approach, we identified a subset of SNO-proteins ex vivo by exposing immortalized murine BV-2 microglial cells to a physiological NO donor, or in vivo by exposing BV-2 cells to endotoxin lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce a proinflammatory response. Moreover, EGCG was shown to attenuate S-nitrosylation of proteins after LPS-induced activation of microglial cells primarily by modulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated oxidative stress response. Conclusions These results demonstrate that NitroDIGE is an effective proteomic strategy for “top-down” quantitative analysis of protein S-nitrosylation in multi-group samples in response to nitrosative stress due

  16. Inhibition of Peripheral TNF-α and Downregulation of Microglial Activation by Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Etanercept Protect Rat Brain Against Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Huang, Chao-Ching; Chio, Chung-Ching; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Nan-Kai; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic stroke, caused by obstruction of blood flow to the brain, would initiate microglia activation which contributes to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation could be a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid and etanercept given either singly or in combination in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Both α-lipoic acid and etanercept markedly reduced cerebral infarct, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neurological motor deficits with the former drug being more effective with the dosage used. Furthermore, when used in combination, the reduction was more substantial. Remarkably, a greater diminution in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as the brain levels of microglial activation (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α) was observed with the combined drug treatment as compared to the drugs given separately. We conclude that inhibition of peripheral tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as downregulation of brain microglial activation by alpha-lipoic acid or etanercept protect rat brain against ischemic stroke. Moreover, when both drugs were used in combination, the stroke recovery was promoted more extensively.

  17. Time-dependent retinal ganglion cell loss, microglial activation and blood-retina-barrier tightness in an acute model of ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Trost, A; Motloch, K; Bruckner, D; Schroedl, F; Bogner, B; Kaser-Eichberger, A; Runge, C; Strohmaier, C; Klein, B; Aigner, L; Reitsamer, H A

    2015-07-01

    Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a well known risk factor for the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and pharmacological or surgical lowering of intraocular pressure represents a standard procedure in glaucoma treatment. However, the treatment options are limited and although lowering of intraocular pressure impedes disease progression, glaucoma cannot be cured by the currently available therapy concepts. In an acute short-term ocular hypertension model in rat, we characterize RGC loss, but also microglial cell activation and vascular alterations of the retina at certain time points. The combination of these three parameters might facilitate a better evaluation of the disease progression, and could further serve as a new model to test novel treatment strategies at certain time points. Acute ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by the injection of magnetic microbeads into the rat anterior chamber angle (n = 22) with magnetic position control, leading to constant elevation of IOP. At certain time points post injection (4d, 7d, 10d, 14d and 21d), RGC loss, microglial activation, and microvascular pericyte (PC) coverage was analyzed using immunohistochemistry with corresponding specific markers (Brn3a, Iba1, NG2). Additionally, the tightness of the retinal vasculature was determined via injections of Texas Red labeled dextran (10 kDa) and subsequently analyzed for vascular leakage. For documentation, confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used, followed by cell counts, capillary length measurements and morphological and statistical analysis. The injection of magnetic microbeads led to a progressive loss of RGCs at the five time points investigated (20.07%, 29.52%, 41.80%, 61.40% and 76.57%). Microglial cells increased in number and displayed an activated morphology

  18. Spinal microglial proliferation is evident in a rat model of painful disc herniation both in the presence of behavioral hypersensitivity and following minocycline treatment sufficient to attenuate allodynia.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sarah M; Guarino, Benjamin B; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2009-09-01

    Although spinal glia acquire a reactive profile in radiculopathy, glial cell proliferation remains largely unstudied. This study investigated spinal glial proliferation in a model simulating painful disc herniation; the C7 nerve root underwent compression and chromic gut suture exposure or sham procedures. A subset of injured rats received minocycline injections prior to injury. Allodynia was assessed and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 2 hr before tissue harvest on day 1 or 3. Spinal cell proliferation and phenotype identification were assayed by fluorescent colabeling with antibodies to BrdU and either glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocytes) or Iba1 (microglia). At day 1, ipsilateral allodynia was significantly increased (P < 0.001) for injury over sham. Minocycline treatment significantly decreased ipsilateral allodynia to sham levels at day 1 (P < 0.001). At day 3, ipsilateral allodynia remained and contralateral allodynia was also present for injury (P< 0.003) over sham. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn at day 1 after injury was significantly elevated (P < 0.001) over sham. Approximately 70% of BrdU-positive cells labeled positively for Iba1; dividing microglia were significantly increased (P < 0.004) in the ipsilateral dorsal horn at day 1 following injury compared with sham. Spinal cellular proliferation after injury was not changed by minocycline injection. By day 3, the number of BrdU-positive cells had returned to sham levels bilaterally. Data indicate that spinal microglia proliferate after injury but that proliferation is not abolished by minocycline treatment that attenuates allodynia, indicating that spinal microglial proliferation may be related to injury and may not be linked to changes in sensory perception.

  19. Age-Related Differences in Neuropathic Pain Behavior and Spinal Microglial Activity after L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali, Hossein; Manaheji, Homa; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Bahari, Zahra; Nazemi, Samad; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have reported the involvement of age-related changes in the development of neuropathic pain behaviors. However, limited data are available on the role of age in establishing and maintaining chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Methods: In the present study, we examined age-related neuropathic behavior among rats in 4 age groups: pups (4 weeks old; weight, 60–80 g), juvenile rats (6 weeks old; weight, 120–140 g), and mature rats (10–12 weeks old; weight, 200–250 g). Because the exact contribution of spinal microglia and its association with the development of neuropathic pain remains unknown, we also evaluated the expression of spinal Iba1, a microglial marker, by using western blotting before and 5 days after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) as well as after the daily IP administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg). Results: Our results showed that SNL-induced mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia in mature rats but not in pups (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The expression of spinal Iba1 in the juvenile rats was significantly lower than that in pups and mature rats (P<0.01). Moreover, administration of minocycline decreased the expression of spinal Iba1 in the pup rats more than in juvenile rats (P<0.001) and in the juvenile rats more than in the mature rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: These data suggest that the development of neuropathic behaviors and microglial activation after SNL could be age dependent. PMID:27563413

  20. Serotonin 5-HT7 receptors coupled to induction of interleukin-6 in human microglial MC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Cécile; Loetscher, Erika; Dev, Kumlesh K; Bobirnac, Ionel; Otten, Uwe; Schoeffter, Philippe

    2005-07-01

    Brain serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors are known to be expressed in neurons and astrocytes. We now report the presence of these receptors in a third type of cell, microglial cells. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) induced concentration-dependent stimulations of cAMP accumulation in the human microglial MC-3 cell line. The maximal effect of 5-HT was 3.4+/-0.3-fold stimulation (mean+/-S.E.M., n=5) above basal levels. The rank order of agonist potency (pEC50 values) was 5-CT (7.09)>5-HT (6.13)>or=5-MeOT (5.78)>8-OH-DPAT (ca. 5). The effect of 5-CT was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (pA2 value 9.03). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands corresponding to the human 5-HT7 receptor in extracts of MC-3 cells. The presence of two splice variants of the 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7(a/b)) was visualized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis with specific primers. In real-time PCR studies, the mRNA for interleukin-6 (IL-6) was found to be increased by 2.5-fold in MC-3 cells after 1 h incubation with 5-CT (1 microM) and this effect was fully blocked by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (1 microM). These data show that functional 5-HT7 receptors are present in human microglial MC-3 cells, suggesting that they are involved in neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:15992579

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of thymoquinone in activated BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Taka, Equar; Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Goodman, Carl B; Redmon, Natalie; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Reams, Renee; Darling-Reed, Selina; Soliman, Karam F A

    2015-09-15

    Thymoquinone (TQ), the main pharmacological active ingredient within the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) is believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects on chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, asthma and neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory role of TQ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 murine microglia cells. The results obtained indicate that TQ was effective in reducing NO2(-) with an IC50 of 5.04μM, relative to selective iNOS inhibitor LNIL-l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (IC50 4.09μM). TQ mediated reduction in NO2(-) was found to parallel the decline of iNOS protein expression as confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TQ on ninety-six (96) cytokines using a RayBio AAM-CYT-3 and 4 cytokine antibody protein array. Data obtained establish a baseline protein expression profile characteristic of resting BV-2 cells in the order of osteopontin>MIP-1alpha>MIP-1g>IGF-1 and MCP-I. In the presence of LPS [1ug/ml], activated BV-2 cells produced a sharp rise in specific pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine's IL-6, IL-12p40/70, CCL12 /MCP-5, CCL2/MCP-1, and G-CSF which were attenuated by the addition of TQ (10μM). The TQ mediated attenuation of MCP-5, MCP-1 and IL-6 protein in supernatants from activated BV-2 cells were corroborated by independent ELISA. Moreover, the data obtained from the RT(2) PCR demonstrated a similar pattern where the LPS mediated elevation of mRNA for IL-6, CCL12/MCP-5, CCL2/MCP-1 were significantly attenuated by TQ (10μM). Also, in this study, consistent data were obtained for both protein antibody array densitometry and ELISA assays. In addition, TQ was found to reduce LPS mediated elevation in gene expression of Cxcl10 and a number of other cytokines in the panel. These findings demonstrate the significant anti-inflammatory properties of TQ in LPS activated microglial cells. Therefore, the obtained results might indicate

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of thymoquinone in activated BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Taka, Equar; Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Goodman, Carl B; Redmon, Natalie; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Reams, Renee; Darling-Reed, Selina; Soliman, Karam F A

    2015-09-15

    Thymoquinone (TQ), the main pharmacological active ingredient within the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) is believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects on chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, asthma and neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory role of TQ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 murine microglia cells. The results obtained indicate that TQ was effective in reducing NO2(-) with an IC50 of 5.04μM, relative to selective iNOS inhibitor LNIL-l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (IC50 4.09μM). TQ mediated reduction in NO2(-) was found to parallel the decline of iNOS protein expression as confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TQ on ninety-six (96) cytokines using a RayBio AAM-CYT-3 and 4 cytokine antibody protein array. Data obtained establish a baseline protein expression profile characteristic of resting BV-2 cells in the order of osteopontin>MIP-1alpha>MIP-1g>IGF-1 and MCP-I. In the presence of LPS [1ug/ml], activated BV-2 cells produced a sharp rise in specific pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine's IL-6, IL-12p40/70, CCL12 /MCP-5, CCL2/MCP-1, and G-CSF which were attenuated by the addition of TQ (10μM). The TQ mediated attenuation of MCP-5, MCP-1 and IL-6 protein in supernatants from activated BV-2 cells were corroborated by independent ELISA. Moreover, the data obtained from the RT(2) PCR demonstrated a similar pattern where the LPS mediated elevation of mRNA for IL-6, CCL12/MCP-5, CCL2/MCP-1 were significantly attenuated by TQ (10μM). Also, in this study, consistent data were obtained for both protein antibody array densitometry and ELISA assays. In addition, TQ was found to reduce LPS mediated elevation in gene expression of Cxcl10 and a number of other cytokines in the panel. These findings demonstrate the significant anti-inflammatory properties of TQ in LPS activated microglial cells. Therefore, the obtained results might indicate

  3. Olfactory Sensory Activity Modulates Microglial-Neuronal Interactions during Dopaminergic Cell Loss in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Grier, Bryce D.; Belluscio, Leonardo; Cheetham, Claire E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) displays robust activity-dependent plasticity throughout life. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the glomerular layer (GL) of the OB are particularly plastic, with loss of sensory input rapidly reducing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine production, followed by a substantial reduction in DA neuron number. Here, we asked whether microglia participate in activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons in the mouse OB. Interestingly, we found a significant reduction in the number of both DA neurons and their synapses in the OB ipsilateral to the occluded naris (occluded OB) within just 7 days of sensory deprivation. Concomitantly, the volume of the occluded OB decreased, resulting in an increase in microglial density. Microglia in the occluded OB also adopted morphologies consistent with activation. Using in vivo 2-photon imaging and histological analysis we then showed that loss of olfactory input markedly altered microglial-neuronal interactions during the time that DA neurons are being eliminated: both microglial process motility and the frequency of wrapping of DA neuron somata by activated microglia increased significantly in the occluded OB. Furthermore, we found microglia in the occluded OB that had completely engulfed components of DA neurons. Together, our data provide evidence that loss of olfactory input modulates microglial-DA neuron interactions in the OB, thereby suggesting an important role for microglia in the activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons and their synapses. PMID:27471450

  4. Anti-neuroinflammatory effect of a novel caffeamide derivative, KS370G, in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dah-Yuu; Huang, Bor-Ren; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Liu, Yu-Shu; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play important roles in several neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, development of methods for microglial inhibition is considered an important strategy in the search for neuroprotective agents. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is distributed wildly in nature, but rapid decomposition by esterase leads to its low bioavailability. In this study, we investigated the effects of KS370G, a novel caffeic acid phenylethyl amide, on microglial activation. KS370G significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Treatment with KS370G also induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression in the microglia. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of KS370G were found to be regulated by phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α (AMPK-α) translocated to the nucleus. Moreover, KS370G showed significant anti-neuroinflammatory effects on microglial activation in vivo and on motor behavior as well. The protective effect of KS370G was weakened by an AMPK inhibitor Compound C. This study focuses on the importance of key molecular determinants of inflammatory homeostasis, AMPK, HO-1, and SOCS-3, and their possible involvement in anti-neuroinflammatory responses.

  5. Olfactory Sensory Activity Modulates Microglial-Neuronal Interactions during Dopaminergic Cell Loss in the Olfactory Bulb.

    PubMed

    Grier, Bryce D; Belluscio, Leonardo; Cheetham, Claire E J

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) displays robust activity-dependent plasticity throughout life. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the glomerular layer (GL) of the OB are particularly plastic, with loss of sensory input rapidly reducing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine production, followed by a substantial reduction in DA neuron number. Here, we asked whether microglia participate in activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons in the mouse OB. Interestingly, we found a significant reduction in the number of both DA neurons and their synapses in the OB ipsilateral to the occluded naris (occluded OB) within just 7 days of sensory deprivation. Concomitantly, the volume of the occluded OB decreased, resulting in an increase in microglial density. Microglia in the occluded OB also adopted morphologies consistent with activation. Using in vivo 2-photon imaging and histological analysis we then showed that loss of olfactory input markedly altered microglial-neuronal interactions during the time that DA neurons are being eliminated: both microglial process motility and the frequency of wrapping of DA neuron somata by activated microglia increased significantly in the occluded OB. Furthermore, we found microglia in the occluded OB that had completely engulfed components of DA neurons. Together, our data provide evidence that loss of olfactory input modulates microglial-DA neuron interactions in the OB, thereby suggesting an important role for microglia in the activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons and their synapses. PMID:27471450

  6. A label-free impedance-based whole cell assay revealed a new G protein-coupled receptor ligand for mouse microglial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yasufumi; Okino, Nozomu; Furuya, Shigeki; Ito, Makoto

    2016-09-16

    We report the usefulness of an impedance-based label-free whole cell assay to identify new ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in microglial cell migration. Authentic GPCR ligands were subjected to the impedance-based cell assay in order to examine the responses of ligands for MG5 mouse microglial cells. Complement component 5 (C5a), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) were found to elicit different cellular impedance patterns, i.e. C5a, ADP, and UTP caused a transient increase in cellular impedance, while LPA and LysoPS decreased it. The responses for C5a and ADP were abolished by pertussis toxin (PTX), but not rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, indicating that C5a and ADP elicited responses through the Gαi pathway. On the other hand, the response for UTP, LPA or LysoPS was not cancelled by PTX or Y-27632. In a modified Boyden chamber assay, C5a and ADP, but not UTP, LPA, or LysoPS, induced the migration of MG5 cells. These results suggest that PTX-sensitive increase in cellular impedance with the assay is characteristic for ligands of GPCRs involved in microglial cell migration. We found using this assay that 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) is a new chemoattractant inducing microglial cell migration through the activation of Gαi. PMID:27480930

  7. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1–42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  8. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Gen-Lin; Luo, Zhen; Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Gen-Lin; Luo, Zhen; Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  10. Microglial responses to free-electron laser incisions in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.Z.; Edwards, G.S.; Reinsch, L.

    1995-12-31

    In the CNS, two distinct populations of ramified glia, microglia and astrocytes, are identified by two Ca{sup ++}-binding proteins, lipocortin 1 (LC1) and S100{beta}, respectively. In some forms of CNS trauma, the responses of these two populations are quite-different. The present study sought to characterize and compare the responses of microglia and astrocytes to cortical incisions made with the free-electron laser (FEL, 6.45 and 4.0 {mu}m wavelength) and with a scalpel. After 3 and 6 days recovery, rats were perfused with acidified glutaraldehyde; the activated glia were identified using immunohistochemistry and quantified using BIOQUANT. In a 200 {mu}m thick zone of gliosis located beneath the damaged necrotic tissue, similar response patterns were observed for both incision types. At either time point, S100-{beta}-positive glia showed only minor shape changes and slight increases relative to astrocytes in control regions. Conversely, the population density of microglia in the reaction zone increased approximately 2- and 3-fold at days 3 and 6, respectively. Mitotic figures are detected among the LC1-positive glia at day 3, indicating that the activated phagocytes arise from proliferating resident microglia rather than from hematogenous invaders. Thus, in this system, the glial response to CNS damage comprises primarily microglia rather than astrocytes. The data also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressive properties of LC1 may play important roles in recovery from CNS trauma and disease. Preliminary experiment show subdued glial responses to incisions made with FEL at 6.45 versus. 4.0 {mu}m wavelengths, suggesting that tissue damage is wavelength dependent.

  11. Dissecting the effects of endogenous brain IL-2 and normal versus autoreactive T lymphocytes on microglial responsiveness and T cell trafficking in response to axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi; Meola, Danielle; Petitto, John M

    2012-09-27

    IL-2 is essential for T-helper regulatory (Treg) cell function and self-tolerance, and dysregulation of both endogenous brain and peripheral IL-2 gene expression may have important implications for neuronal injury and repair. We used an experimental approach combining mouse congenic breeding and immune reconstitution to test the hypothesis that the response of motoneurons to injury is modulated by the combined effects of IL2-mediated processes in the brain that modulate its endogenous neuroimmunological milieu, and IL2-mediated processes in the peripheral immune system that regulate T cell function (i.e., normal versus autoreactive Treg-deficient T cells). This experimental strategy enabled us to test our hypothesis by disentangling the effect of normal versus autoreactive T lymphocytes from the effect of endogenous brain IL-2 on microglial responsiveness (microglial phagocytic clusters normally associated with dead motoneurons and MHC2(+) activated microglia) and T cell trafficking, using the facial nerve axotomy model of injury. The results demonstrate that the loss of both brain and peripheral IL-2 had an additive effect on numbers of microglial phagocytic clusters at day 14 following injury, whereas the autoreactive status of peripheral T cells was the primary factor that determined the degree to which T cells entered the injured brain and contributed to increased microglial phagocytic clusters. Changes in activated MHC2(+) microglial in the injured FMN were associated with loss of endogenous brain IL-2 and/or peripheral IL-2. This model may provide greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in determining if T cells entering the injured central nervous system (CNS) have damaging or proregenerative effects.

  12. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  13. Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways.

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Glombik, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Budziszewska, Boguslawa; Kubera, Marta; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Lason, Wladyslaw; Mika, Joanna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of microglia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of depression. Activated microglia produce a wide range of factors whose prolonged or excessive release may lead to brain disorders. Thus, the inhibition of microglial cells may be beneficial in the treatment of depressive diseases. Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant drug with proven clinical efficacy, but its mechanism of action remains still not fully understood. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether tianeptine modifies microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and which intracellular pathways are involved in the activity of this antidepressant. Our study shows that tianeptine attenuated the LPS-evoked inflammatory activation of microglia by decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Analyses of signaling pathways demonstrate that tianeptine led to the suppression of LPS-induced TLR4 expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, our study reveals the inhibitory impact of tianeptine on caspase-3-induced PKCδ degradation and consequently on the activation of NF-κB factor in microglial cells. Taken together, present results show anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine in microglial cultures stimulated by LPS. This study provides evidence that the inhibition of microglial activation may underlie the therapeutic activity of tianeptine. Our findings show the anti-inflammatory effect of tianeptine (TIA) in lipopolisaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. The beneficial tianeptine action is mediated through the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression as well as the TLR4-related pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), caspase-3-dependent protein kinase δ (PKC

  14. Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways.

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Glombik, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Budziszewska, Boguslawa; Kubera, Marta; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Lason, Wladyslaw; Mika, Joanna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of microglia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of depression. Activated microglia produce a wide range of factors whose prolonged or excessive release may lead to brain disorders. Thus, the inhibition of microglial cells may be beneficial in the treatment of depressive diseases. Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant drug with proven clinical efficacy, but its mechanism of action remains still not fully understood. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether tianeptine modifies microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and which intracellular pathways are involved in the activity of this antidepressant. Our study shows that tianeptine attenuated the LPS-evoked inflammatory activation of microglia by decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Analyses of signaling pathways demonstrate that tianeptine led to the suppression of LPS-induced TLR4 expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, our study reveals the inhibitory impact of tianeptine on caspase-3-induced PKCδ degradation and consequently on the activation of NF-κB factor in microglial cells. Taken together, present results show anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine in microglial cultures stimulated by LPS. This study provides evidence that the inhibition of microglial activation may underlie the therapeutic activity of tianeptine. Our findings show the anti-inflammatory effect of tianeptine (TIA) in lipopolisaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. The beneficial tianeptine action is mediated through the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression as well as the TLR4-related pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), caspase-3-dependent protein kinase δ (PKC

  15. Prior Binge Ethanol Exposure Potentiates the Microglial Response in a Model of Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Simon Alex; Geil, Chelsea Rhea; Nixon, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption results in neurodegeneration which some hypothesize is caused by neuroinflammation. One characteristic of neuroinflammation is microglial activation, but it is now well accepted that microglial activation may be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Recent work indicates that the Majchrowicz model of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration results in anti-inflammatory microglia, while intermittent exposure models with lower doses and blood alcohol levels produce microglia with a pro-inflammatory phenotype. To determine the effect of a repeated binge alcohol exposure, rats received two cycles of the four-day Majchrowicz model. One hemisphere was then used to assess microglia via immunohistochemistry and while the other was used for ELISAs of cytokines and growth factors. A single binge ethanol exposure resulted in low-level of microglial activation; however, a second binge potentiated the microglial response. Specifically, double binge rats had greater OX-42 immunoreactivity, increased ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1+) cells, and upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared with the single binge ethanol group. These data indicate that prior ethanol exposure potentiates a subsequent microglia response, which suggests that the initial exposure to alcohol primes microglia. In summary, repeated ethanol exposure, independent of other immune modulatory events, potentiates microglial activity. PMID:27240410

  16. Possible impact of microglial cells and the monocyte-macrophage system on suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Johann; Gos, Tomasz; Bogerts, Bernhard; Bielau, Hendrik; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2013-11-01

    Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis, increased blood levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL- 6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as well as an increased microglial density in certain brain areas, have been described in schizophrenia and depression. Interestingly, similar immune alterations have been observed in suicide patients regardless of their underlying psychiatric diagnosis. This review summarizes relevant data from previous studies that have examined peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid and human brains (using postmortem histology and in vivo positron emission tomography) to investigate immune mechanisms in suicidal patients. We discuss whether the observed findings indicate that microgliosis and monocyte-macrophage system activation may be a useful marker of disease acuity/severity or whether they instead indicate a distinct neurobiology of suicide. Notably, pathophysiological mechanisms could change during the long-term course of psychiatric diseases. Therefore, different patterns of immune activation may be observed when comparing newly diseased patients with those who are chronically ill.

  17. Microglial P2Y12 Receptors Regulate Microglial Activation and Surveillance during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Nan; Eyo, Ukpong B.; Murugan, Madhuvika; Peng, Jiyun; Matta, Sanjana; Dong, Hailong; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells are critical in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and several microglial receptors have been proposed to mediate this process. Of these receptors, the P2Y12 receptor is a unique purinergic receptor that is exclusively expressed by microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we set forth to investigate the role of P2Y12 receptors in microglial electrophysiological and morphological (static and dynamic) activation during spinal nerve transection (SNT)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. First, we found that a genetic deficiency of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12−/− mice) ameliorated pain hypersensitivities during the initiation phase of neuropathic pain. Next, we characterized both the electrophysiological and morphological properties of microglia in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn following SNT injury. We show dramatic alterations including a peak at 3 days post injury in microglial electrophysiology while high resolution two-photon imaging revealed significant changes of both static and dynamic microglial morphological properties by 7 days post injury. Finally, in P2Y12−/− mice, these electrophysiological and morphological changes were ameliorated suggesting roles for P2Y12 receptors in SNT-induced microglial activation. Our results therefore indicate that P2Y12 receptors regulate microglial electrophysiological as well as static and dynamic microglial properties after peripheral nerve injury, suggesting that the microglial P2Y12 receptor could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26576724

  18. Active immunotherapy facilitates Aβ plaque removal following through microglial activation without obvious T cells infiltrating the CNS.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sha; Xing, Xiao-Na; Cao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-15

    Immunization of AD mouse models with Aβ reduced Aβ deposits and improved memory and learning deficits, but some clinical trials of immunization with Aβ were halted due to brain inflammation which was presumably induced by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response. We have developed a "possibly safer" vaccine. Our results demonstrate that pcDNA3.1 vector encoding ten repeats of Aβ3-10 fragments elicited high titers of antibodies which reacted well with not only monomeric but also oligomeric and fibrillar forms of Aβ42 peptide. Induced antibodies strongly reacted with amyloid plaques in the brain, demonstrating functional activity of the antibodies. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence showed there was significantly less plaque deposition accomplied with less microglia activation as detected both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These data suggested that microglial activation is necessary for efficient removal of compact amyloid deposits with immunotherapy. No obvious inflammation T cell and Prussian blue positive cell was found indicated that inflammation T cell infiltration and microhemmorage can be avoided or at least reduced to the minimum level. PMID:25087756

  19. Vaccination with heat-shocked mononuclear cells as a strategy for treating neurodegenerative disorders driven by microglial inflammation.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Al-Harbi, Saleh A

    2013-11-01

    Naturally occurring T regulatory cells targeting epitopes derived from various heat shock proteins escape thymic negative selection and can be activated by vaccination with heat shock proteins; hence, vaccination with such proteins has exerted favorable effects on rodent models of autoimmune disorders. A more elegant way to achieve such vaccination, first evaluated clinically by Al-Harbi in the early 1990s, is to subject mononuclear cells to survivable heat shock ex vivo, incubate them at physiological temperature for a further 24-48 h, and then inject them subcutaneously; anecdotally, beneficial effects were observed with this strategy in a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. There is growing evidence that M1-activated microglia play a primary or secondary role in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in major depression. T regulatory cells, by polarizing microglial toward a reparative M2 phenotype, have the potential to aid control of such disorders. It would be appropriate to test the heat-shocked mononuclear cell vaccination strategy in animal models of neurodegeneration and major depression, and to evaluate this approach clinically if such studies yield encouraging results. PMID:23968572

  20. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wu, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Bo; He, Xi; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity. PMID:26256823

  1. Production of Nfa1-specific monoclonal antibodies that influences the in vitro cytotoxicity of Naegleria fowleri trophozoites on microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeong, Seok-Ryoul; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Park, Moon-Sung; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2007-10-01

    Naegleria fowleri, agent of fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, appears to induce cytotoxicity mechanically through its contact with the cell. The nfa1 gene cloned from a cDNA library of pathogenic N. fowleri by immunoscreening consists of 360 bp and expresses a 13.1-kDa recombinant protein (rNfa1) that demonstrated localization in the pseudopodia when examined using immunocytochemistry. To study the mechanisms involved in N. fowleri cytotoxicity, we developed a large volume of rNfa1-specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) against a 17-kDa His-tag fusion rNfa1 protein using a cell fusion technique. We established eight McAb-producing hybridoma cells. The antibodies were all immunoglobulin G2b and reacted strongly with a 17-kDa band representing the rNfa1 fusion protein in Western blotting, demonstrating immunoreactivity to the Nfa1 protein in pseudopodia (especially in the food cups) of N. fowleri trophozoites. A 51Cr-release assay indicated N. fowleri cytotoxicity by demonstrating that it eliminated 37.8, 60.6, and 98.8% of the target (microglial) cells 6, 12, and 24 h after co-incubation, respectively. When an anti-Nfa1 McAb was added to the coculture system, N. fowleri cytotoxicity decreased to 29.8, 44.1, and 66.3%, respectively.

  2. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wu, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Bo; He, Xi; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin via suppression of inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Cheol; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Wun-Jae; Jung, Won-Kyo; Seo, Su Kil; Choi, Il-Whan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2010-12-01

    Cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces the bioactive compound cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine). Although cordycepin has been shown to have pharmacological, immunological stimulating, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities, its activities and cellular mechanisms during microglial activation have yet to be elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of cordycepin on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia. We also investigated the effects of cordycepin on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and on phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). After LPS stimulation, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was detected in BV2 microglia. However, we found that cordycepin significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE₂, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a concentration-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, cordycepin suppressed NF-κB translocation by blocking IkappaB-α (IκB-α) degradation and inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK-1/2, JNK, and p38 kinase. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effect of cordycepin on LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediator production in BV2 microglia is associated with the suppression of the NF-κB, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, cordycepin may be useful in treating neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting inflammatory mediator production in activated microglia. PMID:20937401

  4. Fasudil inhibits LPS-induced migration of retinal microglial cells via regulating p38-MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Xu, Yue; Zhu, Liqiong; Rao, Pinhong; Wen, Jiamin; Sang, Yunyun; Shang, Fu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect and possible molecular mechanisms of fasudil on retinal microglial (RMG) cell migration. Methods Primary cultured RMG cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fasudil, and/or SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor). RMG cell motility was determined with the scratch wound assay and the Transwell migration assay. The phosphorylation of p38 and levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 were measured with western blot. Results In the scratch-induced migration assay, as well as in the Transwell migration assay, the results indicated that LPS stimulated the migratory potential of RMG cells and fasudil significantly reduced LPS-stimulated RMG cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner. However, fasudil had no effect on RMG cell migration in the absence of LPS stimulation. Moreover, fasudil reduced the level of phosphor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) in a concentration-dependent manner, without effects on the levels of phospho-p44/42 (p-ERK1/2) and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Cotreatment with SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) and fasudil resulted in the synergistic reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and p-p38-MAPK, as well as a reduction in the LPS-stimulated migration capabilities of the RMG cells, suggesting fasudil suppresses the LPS-stimulated migration of RMG cells via directly downregulating the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusions Our studies indicated that fasudil inhibited LPS-stimulated RMG cell migration via suppression of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27441000

  5. Involvement of PKA and HO-1 signaling in anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin in BV-2 microglial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, YoungHee

    2013-04-01

    Surfactin, one of the most powerful biosurfactants, is a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide. Here, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of surfactin in lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Surfactin significantly inhibited excessive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that surfactin inhibited LTA-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) activation. However, surfactin increases the phosphorylation of the STAT-3, a component of the homeostatic mechanism causing anti-inflammatory events. We also demonstrated that surfactin induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor-regulated factor-2 (Nrf-2) activation, and that the anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin are abrogated by small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 or Nrf-2. Interestingly, we found that surfactin increased the level of cAMP and induced phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in microglial cells. Furthermore, treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, blocked HO-1 induction by surfactin and abolished surfactin's suppressive effects on ROS and NO production. These results indicate that HO-1 and its upstream effector, PKA, play a pivotal role in the anti-neuroinflammatory response of surfactin in LTA-stimulated microglia. Therefore, surfactin might have therapeutic potential for neuroprotective agents to treat inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: ► Surfactin inhibits proinflammatory mediator synthesis in LTA-activated BV-2 cells. ► Surfactin suppresses NF-κB and STAT-1, but potentiates

  6. Neutralization capacity of measles virus H protein specific IgG determines the balance between antibody-enhanced infectivity and protection in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Iankov, Ianko D.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Griesmann, Guy E.; Carlson, Stephanie K.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Galanis, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies directed against measles virus (MV) surface glycoproteins prevent viral attachment and entry through the natural receptors. H protein specific IgG can enhance MV infectivity in macrophages via Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-dependent mechanism. H-specific IgM, anti-F antibodies and complement cascade activation are protective against antibody-mediated enhancement of MV infection. However, protective role of anti-H IgG against antibody-enhanced infection is not well understood. Here we designed a set of experiments to test the protective effect of H-specific IgG against FcγR-mediated infection in microglial cells. Microglial cells are also potential target of the antibody-mediated enhancement and spread of MV infection in the central nervous system. A partially neutralizing IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb) CL55, specific for MV H protein, at 10 μg/ml enhanced MV infection in mouse microglial cells by 13-14-fold. Infection-enhancing antibody concentrations induced large multinucleated syncytia formation 48-72 h post inoculation. We generated anti-H IgG MAb 20H6 with a strong neutralization capacity >1:80,000 at 1 mg/ml concentration in MV plaque-reduction neutralization assay. In contrast to the partially protective MAb CL55, enhancement of MV infectivity by MAb 20H6 required dilutions below the 1:120 serum titer considered protective against measles infection in humans. At a concentration of 10 μg/ml MAb 20H6 exhibited a dominant protective effect and prevented MAb CL55-mediated enhancement of MV infection and virus-mediated fusion. These results indicate that neutralization capacity of the H-specific IgG determines the balance between antibody enhancement and protection against MV infection in microglial cells. PMID:23266401

  7. Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Juknat, Ana; Pietr, Maciej; Kozela, Ewa; Rimmerman, Neta; Levy, Rivka; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel; Vogel, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Apart from their effects on mood and reward, cannabinoids exert beneficial actions such as neuroprotection and attenuation of inflammation. The immunosuppressive activity of cannabinoids has been well established. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We previously showed that the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) differ in their anti-inflammatory signalling pathways. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To characterize the transcriptional effects of CBD and THC, we treated BV-2 microglial cells with these compounds and performed comparative microarray analysis using the Illumina MouseRef-8 BeadChip platform. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to identify functional subsets of genes and networks regulated by CBD and/or THC. KEY RESULTS Overall, CBD altered the expression of many more genes; from the 1298 transcripts found to be differentially regulated by the treatments, 680 gene probe sets were up-regulated by CBD and 58 by THC, and 524 gene products were down-regulated by CBD and only 36 by THC. CBD-specific gene expression profile showed changes associated with oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, normally occurring under nutrient limiting conditions or proteasome inhibition and involving the GCN2/eIF2α/p8/ATF4/CHOP-TRIB3 pathway. Furthermore, CBD-stimulated genes were shown to be controlled by nuclear factors known to be involved in the regulation of stress response and inflammation, mainly via the (EpRE/ARE)-Nrf2/ATF4 system and the Nrf2/Hmox1 axis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These observations indicated that CBD, but much less than THC, induced a cellular stress response in microglial cells and suggested that this effect could underlie its anti-inflammatory activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012

  8. Differential plasticity of microglial cells in the rostrocaudal neuraxis of the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice following mating and stud male exposure.

    PubMed

    Okere, Chuma O

    2012-04-11

    The formation of an olfactory recognition memory by female mice for the stud male pheromones requires two fundamental conditions: incidence of mating and retention of the stud male with the female for a critical 6h interval following mating. This biologically critical recognition memory results from plasticity of reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). In this study, a microglia marker antibody (ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein, Iba1) was used to determine how mating and stud pheromones affect microglia in the AOB rostrocaudal axis in female mice. The results showed that compared with estrus and mating only, mating and pheromone exposure significantly increased Iba1 immunoreactivity in the AOB evidenced by increased complexity of ramified microglial processes characteristic of resting microglial morphological phenotype, particularly in the rostral AOB. The density of Iba1 staining after mating and stud pheromone exposure was higher in the rostral - compared to caudal - AOB and was most prevalent in the external plexiform layer, the site of reciprocal mitral-granule dendrodendritic synapses. While cells with activated phenotype were observed in caudal AOB during estrus, mating/pheromone exposure appeared to induce a morphological transformation to the resting microglia phenotype. Since previous evidence implicate the rostral AOB in processing pheromonal signals and microglial cells monitor active synapses, these observations have important functional implications for a potential role for microglia in processing pheromonal signals in the AOB during the formation of olfactory memory.

  9. Neochlorogenic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation and Pro-inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina; Choi, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Pyeongjae; Hur, Jinyoung

    2015-09-01

    Microglia is the resident innate immune cells that sense pathogens and tissue injury in the central nervous system. Microglia becomes activated in response to injury, infection, and other stimuli that threaten neuronal survival. Microglia activation plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. Neochlorogenic acid (NCA) is a natural polyphenolic compound found in dried fruits and other plants. Although previous studies have shown that phenolic acids including NCA have outstanding antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antipyretic activities, there has not yet been investigated for anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, for the first time we have examined the potential of NCA to inhibit microglial activation and pro-inflammatory responses in the brain. We found that lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and nitric oxide formation was suppressed by NCA in a dose-dependent manner in BV2 microglia. NCA also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 beta. Furthermore, phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B p65 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation were blocked by NCA. Taken together, these results suggest that NCA exerts neuroprotective effects through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways in activated microglia.

  10. Methamphetamine activates nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and induces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription in human microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Wires, Emily S; Alvarez, David; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Wang, Yun; Morales, Marisela; Karn, Jonathan; Harvey, Brandon K

    2012-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) primarily infects glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent evidence suggests that HIV-infected individuals who abuse drugs such as methamphetamine (METH) have higher viral loads and experience more severe neurological complications than HIV-infected individuals who do not abuse drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of METH on HIV expression from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter and on an HIV integrated provirus in microglial cells, the primary host cells for HIV in the CNS. Primary human microglial cells immortalized with SV40 T antigen (CHME-5 cells) were cotransfected with an HIV LTR reporter and the HIV Tat gene, a key regulator of viral replication and gene expression, and exposed to METH. Our results demonstrate that METH treatment induced LTR activation, an effect potentiated in the presence of Tat. We also found that METH increased the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a key cellular transcriptional regulator of the LTR promoter, and the activity of an NF-κB-specific reporter plasmid in CHME-5 cells. The presence of a dominant-negative regulator of NF-κB blocked METH-related activation of the HIV LTR. Furthermore, treatment of HIV-latently infected CHME-5 (CHME-5/HIV) cells with METH induced HIV expression and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. These results suggest that METH can stimulate HIV gene expression in microglia cells through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. This mechanism may outline the initial biochemical events leading to the observed increased neurodegeneration in HIV-positive individuals who use METH.

  11. DCG-IV but not other group-II metabotropic receptor agonists induces microglial BDNF mRNA expression in the rat striatum. Correlation with neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Venero, J L; Santiago, M; Tomás-Camardiel, M; Matarredona, E R; Cano, J; Machado, A

    2002-01-01

    We have previously described a neuroprotective action of (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2'3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), an agonist for group-II metabotropic receptors, on dopaminergic nerve terminals against the degeneration induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). This effect was accompanied by an up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the rat striatum. We have now analyzed the phenotypic nature of the BDNF mRNA-expressing cells in response to intrastriatal injection of DCG-IV. Dual in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microglial cells but not astrocytes were responsible for this induction. Subsequent analysis demonstrated that this effect was accompanied by striking loss of striatal glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA and massive appearance of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. A dose-response study demonstrated that doses of DCG-IV as low as 5 nmol was very toxic in terms GAD mRNA and apoptosis. 0.5 nmol of DCG-IV did not induce toxicity at all in terms of GAD mRNA and apoptosis. Activation of group-II metabotropic receptors in striatum with N-Acetyl-Asp-Glu (NAAG; a mGlu3 agonist) and (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (a mGlu2 and mGlu3 agonist) did not induce neither loss of GAD mRNA nor appearance of apoptosis (doses up to 20 nmol). In additional experiments, NAAG, in contrast to DCG-IV, failed to protect the striatal dopaminergic system against the degeneration induced by MPP+ as studied by microdialysis. Finally, we studied the mechanism by which DCG-IV is highly toxic. For that, selective antagonists of either metabotropic--(R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine and LY 341495--or ionotropic (N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA)--DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-5) glutamate receptors --were co-administered with DCG-IV. Only AP-5 highly protected the striatum against the degeneration induced by DCG-IV. Since DCG-IV also activates the NMDA receptor at

  12. Reticulocalbin-1 Facilitates Microglial Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora B.; Guo, Feiye; LeBlanc, Michelle E.; Zhang, Chenming; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is critical to the clearance of apoptotic cells, cellular debris and deleterious metabolic products for tissue homeostasis. Phagocytosis ligands directly recognizing deleterious cargos are the key to defining the functional roles of phagocytes, but are traditionally identified on a case-by-case basis with technical challenges. As a result, extrinsic regulation of phagocytosis is poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that microglial phagocytosis ligands can be systematically identified by a new approach of functional screening. One of the identified ligands is reticulocalbin-1 (Rcn1), which was originally reported as a Ca2+-binding protein with a strict expression in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results showed that Rcn1 can be secreted from healthy cells and that secreted Rcn1 selectively bound to the surface of apoptotic neurons, but not healthy neurons. Independent characterization revealed that Rcn1 stimulated microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic but not healthy neurons. Ingested apoptotic cells were targeted to phagosomes and co-localized with phagosome marker Rab7. These data suggest that Rcn1 is a genuine phagocytosis ligand. The new approach described in this study will enable systematic identification of microglial phagocytosis ligands with broad applicability to many other phagocytes. PMID:25992960

  13. Reticulocalbin-1 facilitates microglial phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora B; Guo, Feiye; LeBlanc, Michelle E; Zhang, Chenming; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is critical to the clearance of apoptotic cells, cellular debris and deleterious metabolic products for tissue homeostasis. Phagocytosis ligands directly recognizing deleterious cargos are the key to defining the functional roles of phagocytes, but are traditionally identified on a case-by-case basis with technical challenges. As a result, extrinsic regulation of phagocytosis is poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that microglial phagocytosis ligands can be systematically identified by a new approach of functional screening. One of the identified ligands is reticulocalbin-1 (Rcn1), which was originally reported as a Ca2+-binding protein with a strict expression in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results showed that Rcn1 can be secreted from healthy cells and that secreted Rcn1 selectively bound to the surface of apoptotic neurons, but not healthy neurons. Independent characterization revealed that Rcn1 stimulated microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic but not healthy neurons. Ingested apoptotic cells were targeted to phagosomes and co-localized with phagosome marker Rab7. These data suggest that Rcn1 is a genuine phagocytosis ligand. The new approach described in this study will enable systematic identification of microglial phagocytosis ligands with broad applicability to many other phagocytes.

  14. High resolution and dynamic imaging of biopersistence and bioreactivity of extra and intracellular MWNTs exposed to microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Carter, Daniel A.; Motskin, Michael; Pienaar, Ilse S.; Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Ryan, Mary P.; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are increasingly being developed both as neuro-therapeutic drug delivery systems to the brain and as neural scaffolds to drive tissue regeneration across lesion sites. MWNTs with different degrees of acid oxidation may have different bioreactivities and propensities to aggregate in the extracellular environment, and both individualised and aggregated MWNTs may be expected to be found in the brain. Before practical application, it is vital to understand how both aggregates and individual MWNTs will interact with local phagocytic immune cells, the microglia, and ultimately to determine their biopersistence in the brain. The processing of extra- and intracellular MWNTs (both pristine and when acid oxidised) by microglia was characterised across multiple length scales by correlating a range of dynamic, quantitative and multi-scale techniques, including: UV-vis spectroscopy, light microscopy, focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Dynamic, live cell imaging revealed the ability of microglia to break apart and internalise micron-sized extracellular agglomerates of acid oxidised MWNT, but not pristine MWNTs. The total amount of MWNTs internalised by, or strongly bound to, microglia was quantified as a function of time. Neither the significant uptake of oxidised MWNTs, nor the incomplete uptake of pristine MWNTs affected microglial viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine release or nitric oxide production. However, after 24 hrs exposure to pristine MWNTs, a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Small aggregates and individualised oxidised MWNTs were present in the cytoplasm and vesicles, including within multilaminar bodies, after 72 hours. Some evidence of morphological damage to oxidised MWNT structure was observed including highly disordered graphitic structures, suggesting possible biodegradation. This work demonstrates the utility of dynamic

  15. Miglustat Improves Purkinje Cell Survival and Alters Microglial Phenotype in Feline Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Veronika M.; Crooks, Alexandra; Ding, Wenge; Prociuk, Maria; O’Donnell, Patricia; Bryan, Caroline; Sikora, Tracey; Dingemanse, Jasper; Vanier, Marie T.; Walkley, Steven U.; Vite, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC disease) is an incurable cellular lipid trafficking disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and intralysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Treatment with miglustat, a small imino sugar that reversibly inhibits glucosylceramide synthase, which is necessary for glycosphingolipid synthesis, has been shown to benefit patients with NPC disease. The mechanism(s) and extent of brain cellular changes underlying this benefit are not understood. To investigate the basis of the efficacy of miglustat, cats with disease homologous to the juvenile-onset form of human NPC disease received daily miglustat orally beginning at 3 weeks of age. The plasma half-life of miglustat was 6.6 ± 1.1 hours, with a tmax, Cmax, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of 1.7 ± 0.6 hours, 20.3 ± 4.6 μg/ml, and 104.1 ± 16.6 μg hours/ml, respectively. Miglustat delayed the onset of neurological signs and increased the lifespan of treated cats, and was associated with decreased GM2 ganglioside accumulation in the cerebellum and improved Purkinje cell survival. Ex vivo examination of microglia from the brains of treated cats revealed normalization of CD1c and class II major histocompatibility complex expression, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results suggest that prolonged Purkinje cell survival, reduced glycosphingolipid accumulation, and/or the modulation of microglial immunophenotype and function contribute to miglustat-induced neurological improvement in treated cats. PMID:22487861

  16. High resolution and dynamic imaging of biopersistence and bioreactivity of extra and intracellular MWNTs exposed to microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Goode, Angela E; Gonzalez Carter, Daniel A; Motskin, Michael; Pienaar, Ilse S; Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Ryan, Mary P; Shaffer, Milo S P; Dexter, David T; Porter, Alexandra E

    2015-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are increasingly being developed both as neuro-therapeutic drug delivery systems to the brain and as neural scaffolds to drive tissue regeneration across lesion sites. MWNTs with different degrees of acid oxidation may have different bioreactivities and propensities to aggregate in the extracellular environment, and both individualised and aggregated MWNTs may be expected to be found in the brain. Before practical application, it is vital to understand how both aggregates and individual MWNTs will interact with local phagocytic immune cells, the microglia, and ultimately to determine their biopersistence in the brain. The processing of extra- and intracellular MWNTs (both pristine and when acid oxidised) by microglia was characterised across multiple length scales by correlating a range of dynamic, quantitative and multi-scale techniques, including: UV-vis spectroscopy, light microscopy, focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Dynamic, live cell imaging revealed the ability of microglia to break apart and internalise micron-sized extracellular agglomerates of acid oxidised MWNTs, but not pristine MWNTs. The total amount of MWNTs internalised by, or strongly bound to, microglia was quantified as a function of time. Neither the significant uptake of oxidised MWNTs, nor the incomplete uptake of pristine MWNTs affected microglial viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine release or nitric oxide production. However, after 24 h exposure to pristine MWNTs, a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Small aggregates and individualised oxidised MWNTs were present in the cytoplasm and vesicles, including within multilaminar bodies, after 72 h. Some evidence of morphological damage to oxidised MWNT structure was observed including highly disordered graphitic structures, suggesting possible biodegradation. This work demonstrates the utility of dynamic

  17. The role of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in pro-inflammatory responses of EMF-stimulated N9 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) through signal transduction involving the activator of transcription STAT3. Here, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in EMF-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory responses in more detail than the previous study. Methods N9 microglial cells were treated with EMF exposure or a sham treatment, with or without pretreatment with an inhibitor (Pyridone 6, P6) of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK). The activation state of microglia was assessed via immunoreaction using the microglial marker CD11b. Levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and NO were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the nitrate reductase method. Activation of JAKs and STAT3 proteins was evaluated by western blotting for specific tyrosine phosphorylation. The ability of STAT3 to bind to DNA was detected with an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results EMF was found to significantly induce phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in N9 microglia. In addition, EMF dramatically increased the expression of CD11b, TNF-α and iNOS, and the production of NO. P6 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and diminished STAT3 activity in EMF-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, expression of CD11b as well as gene expression and production of TNF-α and iNOS were suppressed by P6 at 12 h, but not at 3 h, after EMF exposure. Conclusions EMF exposure directly triggers initial activation of microglia and produces a significant pro-inflammatory response. Our findings confirm that

  18. Prevention of inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity by butylidenephthalide and its role in microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyong Nyon; Kim, Kyoo-Pil; Cho, Ki-Ho; Jung, Woo-Sang; Park, Jung-Mi; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Park, Su-Kyung; Park, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Eunjoo H

    2013-12-01

    Microglial cells are the prime effectors in immune and inflammatory responses of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathological conditions, the activation of these cells helps restore CNS homeostasis. However, chronic microglial activation endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory molecules and neurotoxins. Thus, negative regulators of microglial activation have been considered as potential therapeutic candidates to target neurodegeneration, such as that in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Ligusticum wallichii Franch) has been widely used for the treatment of vascular diseases in traditional oriental medicine. Butylidenephthalide (BP), a major bioactive component from L. chuanxiong, has been reported to have a variety of pharmacological activities, including vasorelaxant, anti-anginal, anti-platelet and anti-cancer effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether BP represses microglial activation. In rat brain microglia, BP significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, BP clearly blocked the effect of LPS on hippocampal cell death and inhibited LPS-induced NO production in culture medium. These results newly suggest that BP provide neuroprotection by reducing the release of various proinflammatory molecules from activated microglia. PMID:23400915

  19. Acrylamide induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Song, Ge; Zou, Chen; Liu, Gongguan; Wu, Wanqiang; Yuan, Tian; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-07-01

    Acrylamide (ACR), a potent neurotoxin, can be produced during food processing at high temperature. This study examined the redox-dependent apoptotic and inflammatory responses of ACR in an immortalized mouse microglia cell line BV2. The exposure of BV2 cells to ACR reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. ACR impaired cell energy metabolism by decreasing mitochondrial respiration, anaerobic glycolysis, and lowering expression of the complex I, III, and IV subunits. Mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, thus resulting in activation of the mitochondrion-driven apoptotic signaling. This was accompanied by (a) the modulation of redox-sensitive signaling, suppressed Akt activation and increased JNK and p38 activation, and (b) increased expression of NFκB and downstream inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide generation, thus supporting indirectly a proinflammatory effect of ACR. Nrf2 expression was also increased but not its translocation to the nucleus. Expectedly, the electrophilic attack of ACR on GSH resulted in substantial loss of GSH with a minor GSSG formation. These changes in the cell׳s redox status elicited by ACR resulted in increased H2O2 formation. The changes in mitochondrial functionality and complex subunit expression caused by ACR were reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Likewise, NAC restored the cell׳s redox status by increasing GSH levels with concomitant attenuation of H2O2 generation; these effects resulted in decreased apoptotic cell death and inflammatory responses. ACR-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction along with a more oxidized redox status seems to be critical events leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and inflammatory responses.

  20. Chronically active: activation of microglial proteolysis in ageing and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Sethe, Sebastian; Grune, Tilman

    2005-01-01

    One of the microglial cell functions is the removal of modified extracellular proteins in the brain. The connection between protein oxidation, proteolysis, and microglial activation is the topic of this review. The effect of various activation agents on microglial cells with regard to changes in substrate uptake, proteolytic capacity and degradation efficiency of different types of oxidized protein materials is reviewed. It is shown that different activation stimuli initiate substrate-specific modulation for uptake and proteolysis, influencing an array of factors including receptor expression, lysosomal pH, and proteasome subunit composition. Age-related alterations in activation and proteolytic capacity in microglial cells are also discussed. In ageing, proteolytic effectiveness is diminished, while microglial cells are chronically activated and lose the oxidative burst ability, possibly supporting a 'vicious circle' of macrophage-induced neurodegeneration.

  1. Lonicera japonica THUNB. Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-κB Signaling in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hong, Sa-Ik; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2015-07-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lonicera japonica THUNB. (LJ) and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that LJ significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, LJ inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both the protein and mRNA levels. In LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, LJ inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzymatic activities, and/or mRNA expression, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LJ significantly suppressed activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, LJ significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. Collectively, our findings indicated that the antineuroinflammatory properties of LJ in LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells is due to downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines downstream of inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  2. Lonicera japonica THUNB. Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-κB Signaling in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hong, Sa-Ik; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the current study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lonicera japonica THUNB. (LJ) and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that LJ significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, LJ inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both the protein and mRNA levels. In LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, LJ inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzymatic activities, and/or mRNA expression, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LJ significantly suppressed activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, LJ significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. Collectively, our findings indicated that the antineuroinflammatory properties of LJ in LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells is due to downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines downstream of inhibition of NF-κB activation. PMID:25897683

  3. Changes in phagocytosis and expression of microglial cells in craniocerebral injury mice models.

    PubMed

    Guo, F Y; Liu, T; Chen, J J; Gao, W; Yang, F; Zhou, X Y; Liao, Y L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in phagocytic function and expression quantities of CD11b and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) among microglia cells of craniocerebral injury mice. Modified Feeney method was used to establish the craniocerebral injury mice models. Twenty-one male SPF mice were divided into a control group and a trauma group. The scalp was incised and a bone window was opened in the control group without cerebral injury. In the trauma group, the mice were sacrificed after the craniocerebral injury at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h to make frozen sections of cerebral tissues. The phagocytic rate of microglia cells was observed by using fluorescent microsphere. The changes in the expression quantities of CD11b and TNF-α were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The phagocytic ability of the microglia cells after the craniocerebral injury increased at 1 h after injury compared with that of the control group (P less than 0.01). The expression of surface antigen CD11b of the microglia cells and the expression of TNF-α increased at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the injury compared with those of the control group (P less than 0.01). The phagocytic ability of the microglia cells increased. The expressions of CD11b and TNF-α were also gradually enhanced in the acute phase after craniocerebral injury, and then gradually decreased to the normal level. The expressions of CD11b and TNF-α indicated a high consistency with the changing trend of the phagocytic ability, suggesting that the microglia cells may participate in the regulation of the inflammatory process of the central nervous system through absorbing apoptotic cells and increasing and secreting inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors.

  4. Changes in phagocytosis and expression of microglial cells in craniocerebral injury mice models.

    PubMed

    Guo, F Y; Liu, T; Chen, J J; Gao, W; Yang, F; Zhou, X Y; Liao, Y L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in phagocytic function and expression quantities of CD11b and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) among microglia cells of craniocerebral injury mice. Modified Feeney method was used to establish the craniocerebral injury mice models. Twenty-one male SPF mice were divided into a control group and a trauma group. The scalp was incised and a bone window was opened in the control group without cerebral injury. In the trauma group, the mice were sacrificed after the craniocerebral injury at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h to make frozen sections of cerebral tissues. The phagocytic rate of microglia cells was observed by using fluorescent microsphere. The changes in the expression quantities of CD11b and TNF-α were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The phagocytic ability of the microglia cells after the craniocerebral injury increased at 1 h after injury compared with that of the control group (P less than 0.01). The expression of surface antigen CD11b of the microglia cells and the expression of TNF-α increased at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the injury compared with those of the control group (P less than 0.01). The phagocytic ability of the microglia cells increased. The expressions of CD11b and TNF-α were also gradually enhanced in the acute phase after craniocerebral injury, and then gradually decreased to the normal level. The expressions of CD11b and TNF-α indicated a high consistency with the changing trend of the phagocytic ability, suggesting that the microglia cells may participate in the regulation of the inflammatory process of the central nervous system through absorbing apoptotic cells and increasing and secreting inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. PMID:27358141

  5. Chronotopographical distribution patterns of cell death and of lectin-positive macrophages/microglial cells during the visual system ontogeny of the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies and of lectin-positive phagocytes were investigated in the developing visual system of the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, from the optic vesicle stage to adulthood. During early stages of development, TUNEL-staining was mainly found in the protruding dorsal part of the optic cup and in the presumptive optic chiasm. Furthermore, TUNEL-positive bodies were also detected during detachment of the embryonic lens. Coinciding with the developmental period during which ganglion cells began to differentiate, an area of programmed cell death occurred in the distal optic stalk and in the retinal pigment epithelium that surrounds the optic nerve head. The topographical distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies in the differentiating retina recapitulated the sequence of maturation of the various layers and cell types following a vitreal-to-scleral gradient. Lectin-positive cells apparently entered the retina by the optic nerve head when the retinal layering was almost complete. As development proceeded, these labelled cells migrated parallel to the axon fascicles of the optic fiber layer and then reached more external layers by radial migration. In the mature retina, lectin-positive cells were confined to the optic fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. No evident correlation was found between the chronotopographical pattern of distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies and the pattern of distribution of lectin-labelled macrophages/microglial cells during the shark′s visual system ontogeny. PMID:23758763

  6. Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Enhances PrP-Sc Accumulation in Cultured Sheep Microglial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is the prototype member of the family of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with conversion and accumulation of prion proteins in a number of neural and extraneural cell types. Although scrapie has been the focus of research investigations...

  7. Withania somnifera and Its Withanolides Attenuate Oxidative and Inflammatory Responses and Up-Regulate Antioxidant Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Grace Y; Li, Runting; Cui, Jiankun; Hannink, Mark; Gu, Zezong; Fritsche, Kevin L; Lubahn, Dennis B; Simonyi, Agnes

    2016-09-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, commonly known as Ashwagandha, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for promoting health and quality of life. Recent clinical trials together with experimental studies indicated significant neuroprotective effects of Ashwagandha and its constituents. This study is aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of this botanical and its two withanolide constituents, namely, Withaferin A and Withanolide A, using the murine immortalized BV-2 microglial cells. Ashwagandha extracts not only effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BV-2 cells, but also stimulates the Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway, leading to induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), both in the presence and absence of LPS. Although the withanolides were also capable of inhibiting LPS-induced NO production and stimulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, Withaferin A was tenfold more effective than Withanolide A. In serum-free culture, LPS can also induce production of long thin processes (filopodia) between 4 and 8 h in BV-2 cells. This morphological change was significantly suppressed by Ashwagandha and both withanolides at concentrations for suppressing LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, these results suggest an immunomodulatory role for Ashwagandha and its withanolides, and their ability to suppress oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells by simultaneously down-regulating the NF-kB and upregulating the Nrf2 pathways. PMID:27209361

  8. Amyloid β25-35 induced ROS-burst through NADPH oxidase is sensitive to iron chelation in microglial Bv2 cells.

    PubMed

    Part, Kristin; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Poska, Helen; Land, Tiit; Shimmo, Ruth; Zetterström Fernaeus, Sandra

    2015-12-10

    Iron chelation therapy and inhibition of glial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase can both represent possible routes for Alzheimer's disease modifying therapies. The metal hypothesis is largely focused on direct binding of metals to the N-terminal hydrophilic 1-16 domain peptides of Amyloid beta (Aβ) and how they jointly give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The cytotoxic effects of Aβ through ROS and metals are mainly studied in neuronal cells using full-length Aβ1-40/42 peptides. Here we study cellularly-derived ROS during 2-60min in response to non-metal associated mid domain Aβ25-35 in microglial Bv2 cells by fluorescence based spectroscopy. We analyze if Aβ25-35 induce ROS production through NADPH oxidase and if the production is sensitive to iron chelation. NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (DPI) is used to confirm the production of ROS through NADPH oxidase. We modulate cellular iron homeostasis by applying cell permeable iron chelators desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP). NADPH oxidase subunit gp91-phox level was analyzed by Western blotting. Our results show that Aβ25-35 induces strong ROS production through NADPH oxidase in Bv2 microglial cells. Intracellular iron depletion resulted in restrained Aβ25-35 induced ROS.

  9. Treatment with polyamine oxidase inhibitor reduces microglial activation and limits vascular injury in ischemic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Patel, C; Xu, Z; Shosha, E; Xing, J; Lucas, R; Caldwell, R W; Caldwell, R B; Narayanan, S P

    2016-09-01

    Retinal vascular injury is a major cause of vision impairment in ischemic retinopathies. Insults such as hyperoxia, oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to this pathology. Previously, we showed that hyperoxia-induced retinal neurodegeneration is associated with increased polyamine oxidation. Here, we are studying the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced injury and death of retinal vascular endothelial cells. New-born C57BL6/J mice were exposed to hyperoxia (70% O2) from postnatal day (P) 7 to 12 and were treated with the polyamine oxidase inhibitor MDL 72527 or vehicle starting at P6. Mice were sacrificed after different durations of hyperoxia and their retinas were analyzed to determine the effects on vascular injury, microglial cell activation, and inflammatory cytokine profiling. The results of this analysis showed that MDL 72527 treatment significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and enhanced vascular sprouting as compared with the vehicle controls. These protective effects were correlated with significant decreases in microglial activation as well as levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In order to model the effects of polyamine oxidation in causing microglial activation in vitro, studies were performed using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with conditioned-medium from rat retinal microglia stimulated with hydrogen peroxide. Conditioned-medium from activated microglial cultures induced cell stress signals and cell death in microvascular endothelial cells. These studies demonstrate the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and retinal inflammation in ischemic retinopathy, through mechanisms involving cross-talk between endothelial cells and resident retinal microglia. PMID:27239699

  10. Treatment with polyamine oxidase inhibitor reduces microglial activation and limits vascular injury in ischemic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, C.; Xu, Z.; Shosha, E.; Xing, J.; Lucas, R.; Caldwell, R.W.; Caldwell, R.B.; Narayanan, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vascular injury is a major cause of vision impairment in ischemic retinopathies. Insults such as hyperoxia, oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to this pathology. Previously, we showed that hyperoxia-induced retinal neurodegeneration is associated with increased polyamine oxidation. Here, we are studying the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced injury and death of retinal vascular endothelial cells. Newborn C57BL6/J mice were exposed to hyperoxia (70% O2) from postnatal day (P) 7 to 12 and were treated with the polyamine oxidase inhibitor MDL 72527 or vehicle starting at P6. Mice were sacrificed after different durations of hyperoxia and their retinas were analyzed to determine the effects on vascular injury, microglial cell activation, and inflammatory cytokine profiling. The results of this analysis showed that MDL 72527 treatment significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and enhanced vascular sprouting as compared with the vehicle controls. These protective effects were correlated with significant decreases in microglial activation as well as levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In order to model the effects of polyamine oxidation in causing microglial activation in vitro, studies were performed using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with conditioned-medium from rat retinal microglia stimulated with hydrogen peroxide. Conditioned-medium from activated microglial cultures induced cell stress signals and cell death in microvascular endothelial cells. These studies demonstrate the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and retinal inflammation in ischemic retinopathy, through mechanisms involving cross-talk between endothelial cells and resident retinal microglia. PMID:27239699

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of three-dimensional graphene foams cultured with microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Qin; Jiang, Ziyun; Li, Ning; Liu, Ping; Liu, Liwei; Tang, Mingliang; Cheng, Guosheng

    2014-08-01

    One of the key goals in nerve tissue engineering is to develop new materials which cause less or no neuroinflammation. Despite the rapid advances of using graphene as a neural interface material, it still remains unknown whether graphene could provoke neuroinflammation or not, and whether and how the topographical features of graphene influence the neuroinflammation induction. By immunofluorescence, Elisa technique, western blot, scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods, we investigated the pro- and/or anti-inflammatory responses of microglia in the graphene films (2D-graphene) or graphene foams (3D-graphene) culturing systems. Furthermore, the growth situations of the neural stem cells (NSCs) in the conditioned culture medium produced in the graphene substrates were evaluated. The results show that: 1) neither 2D nor 3D graphene induced distinct neuroinflammation when compared to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) substrates; 2) the topographical structures of the graphene might affect the material/cell interactions, leading to disparate effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation; 3) 3D graphene exhibited a remarkable capability of rescuing LPS-induced neuroinflammation probably through the restriction of microglia morphological transformation by the unique topographical features on the surface, showing the ability of anti-inflammation against external insults, while 2D graphene failed to. These results provide insights into the diverse biological effects of the material's topographical structures and open new opportunity for the applications of graphene in neuroscience. PMID:24875763

  12. Resolvin D1 and E1 promote resolution of inflammation in microglial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rey, C; Nadjar, A; Buaud, B; Vaysse, C; Aubert, A; Pallet, V; Layé, S; Joffre, C

    2016-07-01

    Sustained inflammation in the brain together with microglia activation can lead to neuronal damage. Hence limiting brain inflammation and activation of microglia is a real therapeutic strategy for inflammatory disease. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and resolvin E1 (RvE1) derived from n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are promising therapeutic compounds since they actively turn off the systemic inflammatory response. We thus evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of RvD1 and RvE1 in microglia cells in vitro. BV2 cells were pre-incubated with RvD1 or RvE1 before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. RvD1 and RvE1 both decreased LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) gene expression, suggesting their proresolutive activity in microglia. However, the mechanisms involved are distinct as RvE1 regulates NFκB signaling pathway and RvD1 regulates miRNAs expression. Overall, our findings support that pro-resolving lipids are involved in the resolution of brain inflammation and can be considered as promising therapeutic agents for brain inflammation. PMID:26718448

  13. Safflower Yellow regulates microglial polarization and inhibits inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated Bv2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Wang; Li, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yong-Fei; Ding, Zhi-Bin; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Liu, Jian-Chun; Jiang, Wei-Jia; Feng, Qian-Jin; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2016-03-01

    Activated microglia, especially polarized M1 cells, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radicals, thereby contributing directly to neuroinflammation and various brain disorders. Given that excessive or chronic neuroinflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) exacerbates neuronal damage, molecules that modulate neuroinflammation are candidates as neuroprotective agents. In this study, we provide evidence that Safflor yellow (SY), the main active component in the traditional Chinese medicine safflower, modulates inflammatory responses by acting directly on BV2 microglia. LPS stimulated BV2 cells to upregulate expression of TLR4-Myd88 and MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathways and to release IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. However, SY treatment inhibited expression of TLR4-Myd88 and p-38/p-JNK-NF-κB, downregulated expression of iNOS, CD16/32, and IL-12, and upregulated CD206 and IL-10. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SY exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on BV2 microglia, possibly through TLR-4/p-38/p-JNK/NF-κB signaling pathways and the conversion of microglia from inflammatory M1 to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. PMID:26634402

  14. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  15. [Microglial Phagocytosis in the Neurodegenerative Diseases].

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng-nan; Bao, Xiu-qi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the brain. Under endogenous or exogenous stimulates, they become activated and play an important role in the neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial phagocytosis is a process of receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of apoptotic cells. In addition, microglia can phagocyte brain-specific cargo, such as myelin debris and abnormal protein aggregation. However, recent studies have shown that microglia can also phagocyte stressed-but-viable neurons, causing loss of neurons in the brain. Thus, whether microglial phagocytosis is beneficial or not in neurodegenerative disease remains controversial. This article reviews microglial phagocytosis related mechanisms and its potential roles in neurodegenerative diseases, with an attempt to provide new insights in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27181903

  16. [Microglial Phagocytosis in the Neurodegenerative Diseases].

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng-nan; Bao, Xiu-qi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the brain. Under endogenous or exogenous stimulates, they become activated and play an important role in the neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial phagocytosis is a process of receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of apoptotic cells. In addition, microglia can phagocyte brain-specific cargo, such as myelin debris and abnormal protein aggregation. However, recent studies have shown that microglia can also phagocyte stressed-but-viable neurons, causing loss of neurons in the brain. Thus, whether microglial phagocytosis is beneficial or not in neurodegenerative disease remains controversial. This article reviews microglial phagocytosis related mechanisms and its potential roles in neurodegenerative diseases, with an attempt to provide new insights in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Exposure to electromagnetic field attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced microglial cell death by reducing intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS.

    PubMed

    Duong, Cao Nguyen; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this research was to demonstrate the protective effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the human microglial cell line, HMO6, against ischemic cell death induced by in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Materials and methods HMO6 cells were cultured for 4 h under OGD with or without exposure to EMF with different combinations of frequencies and intensities (10, 50, or 100 Hz/1 mT and 50 Hz/0.01, 0.1, or 1 mT). Cell survival, intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured. Results OGD caused significant HMO6 cell death as well as elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS levels. Among different combinations of EMF frequencies and intensities, 50 Hz/1 mT EMF was the most potent to attenuate OGD-induced cell death and intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS levels. A significant but less potent protective effect was also found at 10 Hz/1 mT, whereas no protective effect was found at other combinations of EMF. A xanthine oxidase inhibitor reversed OGD-induced ROS production and cell death, while NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial respiration chain complex II inhibitors did not affect cell death. Conclusions 50 Hz/1 mT EMF protects human microglial cells from OGD-induced cell death by interfering with OGD-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS levels, and xanthine oxidase is one of the main mediators involved in OGD-induced HMO6 cell death. Non-invasive treatment of EMF radiation may be clinically useful to attenuate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

  18. Effects of a brain-engraftable microglial cell line expressing anti-prion scFv antibodies on survival times of mice infected with scrapie prions.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Koji; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Takahito; Yano, Masashi; Miyata, Hironori; Ootsuyama, Akira; Sawada, Makoto; Matsuda, Haruo; Kaji, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2011-10-01

    We first verified that a single chain Fv fragment against prion protein (anti-PrP scFv) was secreted by HEK293T cells and prevented prion replication in infected cells. We then stably expressed anti-PrP scFv in brain-engraftable murine microglial cells and intracerebrally injected these cells into mice before or after infection with prions. Interestingly, the injection before or at an early time point after infection attenuated the infection marginally but significantly prolonged survival times of the mice. These suggest that the ex vivo gene transfer of anti-PrP scFvs using brain-engraftable cells could be a possible immunotherapeutic approach against prion diseases.

  19. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Guasti, Leonardo; Richardson, Denise; Jhaveri, Maulik; Eldeeb, Khalil; Barrett, David; Elphick, Maurice R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David; Michael, Gregory J; Chapman, Victoria

    2009-07-01

    Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days) significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P < 0.001). Minocycline treatment also significantly attenuated OX-42 immunoreactivity, a marker of activated microglia, in the ipsilateral (P < 0.001) and contralateral (P < 0.01) spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to vehicle controls. Minocycline treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased levels of 2-AG and significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of PEA in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord. Thus, activation of microglia affects spinal levels of endocannabinoids and related compounds in neuropathic pain states.

  20. Myelin-specific T cells induce interleukin-1beta expression in lesion-reactive microglial-like cells in zones of axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Grebing, Manuela; Nielsen, Helle H; Fenger, Christina D; T Jensen, Katrine; von Linstow, Christian U; Clausen, Bettina H; Söderman, Martin; Lambertsen, Kate L; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Finsen, Bente

    2016-03-01

    Infiltration of myelin-specific T cells into the central nervous system induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We have previously shown that myelin-specific T cells are recruited into zones of axonal degeneration, where they stimulate lesion-reactive microglia. To gain mechanistic insight, we used RNA microarray analysis to compare the transcript profile in hippocampi from perforant pathway axonal-lesioned mice with and without adoptively transferred myelin-specific T cells 2 days postlesion, when microglia are clearly lesion reactive. Pathway analysis revealed that, among the 1,447 differently expressed transcripts, the interleukin (IL)-1 pathway including all IL-1 receptor ligands was upregulated in the presence of myelin-specific T cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-1α, and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the T-cell-infiltrated hippocampi from axonal-lesioned mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed a T-cell-enhanced lesion-specific expression of IL-1β mRNA and protein, respectively, and induction of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, ASC, in CD11b(+) cells. Double in situ hybridization showed colocalization of IL-1β mRNA in a subset of CD11b mRNA(+) cells, of which many were part of cellular doublets or clusters, characteristic of proliferating, lesion-reactive microglia. Double-immunofluorescence showed a T-cell-enhanced colocalization of IL-1β to CD11b(+) cells, including lesion-reactive CD11b(+) ramified microglia. These results suggest that myelin-specific T cells stimulate lesion-reactive microglial-like cells to produce IL-1β. These findings are relevant to understand the consequences of T-cell infiltration in white and gray matter lesions in patients with MS.

  1. Ulinastatin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis and nitric oxide production through the downregulation of nuclear factor‑κB in BV2 mouse microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun-Hee; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju; Ahn, Hyun-Jong; Yoon, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2013-05-01

    Ulinastatin is an intrinsic serine-protease urinary trypsin inhibitor that can be extracted and purified from human urine. Urinary trypsin inhibitors are widely used to treat patients with acute inflammatory disorders, such as shock and pancreatitis. However, although the anti-inflammatory activities of urinary trypsin inhibitors have been investigated, the mechanisms underlying their actions are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ulinastatin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in relation with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation using BV2 mouse microglial cells. To accomplish this, we performed a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay (EMSA), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) immunoassay and nitric oxide (NO) detection. The results demonstrated that ulinastatin suppressed PGE2 synthesis and NO production by inhibiting the LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in BV2 mouse microglial cells. Ulinastatin suppressed the activation of NF-κB in the nucleus. These findings demonstrate that ulinastatin exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that possibly occur via the suppression of COX-2 and iNOS expression through the downregulation of NF-κB activity.

  2. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in perfluorooctane sulfonic acid-induced inflammatory reaction in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingying; Qian, Wenyi; Wang, Yixin; Gao, Rong; Wang, Jun; Xiao, Hang

    2015-12-01

    Microglial activation is closely related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by producing proinflammatory cytokines. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), known as an emerging persistent organic pollutant, is reported to disturb human immune homeostasis; however, whether it affects cytokine production or the immune response in the central nervous system remains unclear. The present study was aimed to explore whether PFOS contributed to inflammatory action and to investigate the corresponding mechanisms in BV2 microglia. PFOS-mediated morphologic changes, cytokine responses and signaling events were examined by light microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot assays. Our results indicated that PFOS increased BV2 cells activation and simultaneously increased tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 expression. In addition, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor (SP600125), as well as ERK1/2 blocker (PD98059), transcriptionally at least, displayed anti-inflammatory properties on PFOS-elicited cytokine responses. Moreover, the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB was specifically activated by PFOS as well. These results, taken together, suggested that PFOS exerts its functional effects on the response of microglial cell activation via, in part, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways with its subsequent influence on proinflammatory action.

  3. Auraptene and Other Prenyloxyphenylpropanoids Suppress Microglial Activation and Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Semba, Tomoki; Toyoda, Nobuki; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), hyperactivated inflammation in the brain, particularly microglial hyperactivation in the substantia nigra (SN), is reported to be one of the triggers for the delayed loss of dopaminergic neurons and sequential motor functional impairments. We previously reported that (1) auraptene (AUR), a natural prenyloxycoumain, suppressed inflammatory responses including the hyperactivation of microglia in the ischemic brain and inflamed brain, thereby inhibiting neuronal cell death; (2) 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), another natural prenyloxycoumain, exerted anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity; and (3) 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), a natural prenyloxycinnamic acid, also exerted anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using an intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD-like mouse model, we investigated whether AUR, 7-IP, and GOFA suppress microglial activation and protect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the SN. We successfully showed that these prenyloxyphenylpropanoids exhibited these prospective abilities, suggesting the potential of these compounds as neuroprotective agents for patients with PD. PMID:27763495

  4. Neurons and glial cells of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis directly respond to lipopolysaccharide and pyrogenic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ott, Daniela; Murgott, Jolanta; Rafalzik, Sandra; Wuchert, Florian; Schmalenbeck, Babette; Roth, Joachim; Gerstberger, Rüdiger

    2010-12-01

    During systemic immune challenge, the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) with its dense vascularization by fenestrated capillaries lacking blood-brain barrier function allows direct access of circulating pyrogens to brain tissue located in close vicinity to the preoptic area. We aimed to analyze direct responses of OVLT cells to exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1) or the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. A primary microculture of the OVLT was established from topographically excised rat pup brain tissue, with cellular identification by marker protein-specific immunocytochemistry. Employing the ratio calcium imaging technique, pyrogen-induced calcium signaling in single OVLT cells could be characterized. LPS--as opposed to FSL-1--stimulation caused fast, transient rises in intracellular calcium concentration in 17% of neurons, 9% of astrocytes, and <5% of microglial cells investigated. LPS additionally led to enhanced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β exclusively in microglial cells, as well as a time-dependent release of TNF-α and IL-6 from OVLT microcultures. TNF-α evoked calcium signals in 11% of neurons, 22% of astrocytes, and 5% of microglial cells tested. A considerable population of neurons (11%) but only few astrocytes and microglial cells responded to IL-6, whereas 8% of microglial cells and 3% of astrocytes or neurons were activated by IL-1β. The demonstration of direct cellular responses of OVLT-intrinsic cells to stimulations with LPS or cytokines reinforces the suggested role of this brain structure as a responsive brain site to circulating pyrogens. PMID:20883673

  5. Licochalcone E activates Nrf2/antioxidant response element signaling pathway in both neuronal and microglial cells: therapeutic relevance to neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sa Suk; Lim, Juhee; Bang, Yeojin; Gal, Jiyeong; Lee, Sang-Uk; Cho, Young-Chang; Yoon, Goo; Kang, Bok Yun; Cheon, Seung Hoon; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases, which do not play independently but work synergistically through complex interactions exacerbating neurodegeneration. Therefore, the mechanism that is directly implicated in controlling oxidative stress and inflammatory response could be an attractive strategy to prevent the onset and/or delay the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is the guardian of redox homeostasis by regulating a battery of antioxidant and phase II detoxification genes, which are relevant to defense mechanism against oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. In this study, we show that a recently identified Glycyrrhiza-inflata-derived chalcone, licochalcone E (Lico-E), attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglial BV2 cells and protects dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells from 6-hydroxydopamine cytotoxicity. Lico-E activates Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) system and up-regulates downstream NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of Lico-E are attenuated in siRNA-mediated Nrf2-silencing cells as well as in the presence with specific inhibitor of HO-1 or NQO1, respectively. Lico-E also has neuroprotective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice, with up-regulation of HO-1 and NQO1 in the substantia nigra of the brain. This study demonstrates that Lico-E is a potential activator of the Nrf2/ARE-dependent pathway and is therapeutically relevant not only to oxidative-stress-related neurodegeneration but also inflammatory responses of microglial cells both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. HNO suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 microglial cells via inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yebo; Wu, Zhiyuan; Cao, Xu; Ding, Lei; Wen, ZhengShun; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-09-01

    Both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are important gaseous mediators. We and others previously reported that these two gases react with each other to generate a new mediator, nitroxyl (HNO), and regulate cardiovascular functions. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that the interaction between the two gases also existed in microglia. The biological functions of HNO in microglial cells were further studied with Angeli's salt (AS), an HNO donor. We found that AS attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-evoked production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1β and TNFα) through downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). HNO significantly reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through suppression of phosphorylation p65 and IκBα. The above effects were abolished by l-cysteine, an HNO scavenger, but were not mimicked by nitrite, another product of AS during generating HNO. A Cys-179-to-Ala mutation in inhibitory κB kinase β (IKKβ) mimicked the effect of HNO on LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Interestingly, AS abolished the inflammation in cells overexpressing WT-IKKβ, but had no significant effect in cells overexpressing C179A-IKKβ. These data suggest that HNO may act on C179 to prevent IKKβ-dependent inflammation. Taken together, our data demonstrated for the first time that H2S interacts with NO to generate HNO in microglial cells. HNO produces anti-inflammatory effects through suppressing the IKKβ dependent NF-κB activation and p38 MAPK pathways. PMID:27507578

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27563334

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27563334

  9. Quercetin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells: Role of MAPKs on the Nrf2 Pathway and Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Grace Y.; Chen, Zihong; Jasmer, Kimberly J.; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Hannink, Mark; Simonyi, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    A large group of flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables have been suggested to elicit health benefits due mainly to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies with immune cells have demonstrated inhibition of these inflammatory responses through down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory pathway involving NF-κB and up-regulation of the anti-oxidative pathway involving Nrf2. In the present study, the murine BV-2 microglial cells were used to compare anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and cyanidin, two flavonoids differing by their alpha, beta keto carbonyl group. Quercetin was 10 folds more potent than cyanidin in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production as well as stimulation of Nrf2-induced heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression. In addition, quercetin demonstrated enhanced ability to stimulate HO-1 protein expression when cells were treated with LPS. In an attempt to unveil mechanism(s) for quercetin to enhance Nrf2/HO-1 activity under endotoxic stress, results pointed to an increase in phospho-p38MAPK expression upon addition of quercetin to LPS. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors for phospho-p38MAPK and MEK1/2 for ERK1/2 further showed that these MAPKs target different sites of the Nrf2 pathway that regulates HO-1 expression. However, inhibition of LPS-induced NO by quercetin was not fully reversed by TinPPIX, a specific inhibitor for HO-1 activity. Taken together, results suggest an important role of quercetin to regulate inflammatory responses in microglial cells and its ability to upregulate HO-1 against endotoxic stress through involvement of MAPKs. PMID:26505893

  10. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  12. Nicotine contributes to the neural stem cells fate against toxicity of microglial-derived factors induced by Aβ via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, De-Qi; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Ke-Wan; Lan, Yan-Xian; Zhu, Ning; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the molecules secreted from microglias play important roles in the cell fate determination of neural stem cells (NSCs), and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist treatment could reduce neuroinflammation in some neurodegenerative disease models, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not clear how nicotine plays a neuroprotective role in inflammation-mediated central nervous diseases, and its possible mechanisms in the process remain largely elusive. The aim of this study is to improve the survival microenvironment of NSCs co-cultured with microglias in vitro by weakening inflammation that mediated by accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). The viability, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis of NSCs and underlying mechanisms associated with Wnt signaling pathway were investigated. The results showed that Aβ could directly damage NSCs. Furthermore, concomitant to elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β derived from microglias, the NSCs had been damaged more severely with the upregulation of Axin 2, p-β-catenin and the downregulation of β-catenin, p-GSK-3β, microtubule-associated protein-2, choline acetyltransferase. However, addition of 10 μmol/L nicotine before microglias treated with Aβ was beneficial to protect the NSCs against neurotoxicity of microglial-derived factors induced by Aβ, which partially rescued proliferation, differentiation and inhibited apoptosis of NSCs via activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Taken together, these data imply that low concentration nicotine attenuates NSCs injury induced by microglial-derived factors via Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, treatment with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist provides a promising research field for neural stem cell fate and therapeutic intervention in neuroinflammation diseases.

  13. Dietary Sutherlandia and Elderberry Mitigate Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Damage and Attenuate p47phox and Phospho-ERK1/2 Expression in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Dennis Y.; Cui, Jiankun; Simonyi, Agnes; Engel, Victoria A.; Chen, Shanyan; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Applequist, Wendy L.; Folk, William R.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Albert Y.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sutherlandia (Sutherlandia frutescens) and elderberry (Sambucus spp.) are used to promote health and for treatment of a number of ailments. Although studies with cultured cells have demonstrated antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of these botanicals, little is known about their ability to mitigate brain injury. In this study, C57BL/6 J male mice were fed AIN93G diets without or with Sutherlandia or American elderberry for 2 months prior to a 30-min global cerebral ischemia induced by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCAs), followed by reperfusion for 3 days. Accelerating rotarod assessment at 24 h after BCCA occlusion showed amelioration of sensorimotor impairment in the mice fed the supplemented diets as compared with the ischemic mice fed the control diet. Quantitative digital pathology assessment of brain slides stained with cresyl violet at 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) revealed significant reduction in neuronal cell death in both dietary groups. Immunohistochemical staining for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 demonstrated pronounced activation of microglia in the hippocampus and striatum in the ischemic brains 3 days after I/R, and microglial activation was significantly reduced in animals fed supplemented diets. Mitigation of microglial activation by the supplements was further supported by the decrease in expression of p47phox, a cytosolic subunit of NADPH oxidase, and phospho-ERK1/2, a mitogen-activated protein kinase known to mediate a number of cytoplasmic processes including oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory responses. These results demonstrate neuroprotective effect of Sutherlandia and American elderberry botanicals against oxidative and inflammatory responses to cerebral I/R. PMID:25324465

  14. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. Involves NF-κB Suppression and Nrf2-Dependent HO-1 Induction in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV-2 cells and found that EUE inhibited LPS-mediated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory response factors. In addition, EUE inhibited the elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that EUE suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and their downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). EUE also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibited its binding to DNA. We next demonstrated that EUE induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. We determined that the significant up-regulation of HO-1 expression by EUE was a consequence of Nrf2 nuclear translocation; furthermore, EUE increased the DNA binding of Nrf2. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the ability of EUE to inhibit NO and PGE2 production, indicating the vital role of HO-1. Overall, our results indicate that EUE inhibits pro-inflammatory responses by modulating MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and GSK-3β, consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation. PMID:27068259

  15. Stimulation of microglial metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu2 triggers tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced neurotoxicity in concert with microglial-derived Fas ligand.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Deanna L; Jones, Fleur; Kubota, Eva S F Chen Seho; Pocock, Jennifer M

    2005-03-16

    Activated microglia may be detrimental to neuronal survival in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, strategies that reduce microglial neurotoxicity may have therapeutic benefit. Stimulation of group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors on rat primary microglia with the specific group II agonist 2S,2'R,3'R-2-(2',3'-dicarboxy-cyclopropyl)glycine for 24 h induced microglial activation and resulted in a neurotoxic microglial phenotype. These effects were attributable to preferential mGlu2 stimulation, because N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate, a specific mGlu3 agonist, did not induce microglial activation or neurotoxicity. Stimulation of microglial mGlu2 but not mGlu3 induced caspase-3 activation in cerebellar granule neurons in culture, using microglial-conditioned media as well as cocultures. Stimulation of microglial mGlu2 induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) release, which contributed to microglial neurotoxicity mediated via neuronal TNF receptor 1 and caspase-3 activation. Stimulation of microglial group I or III mGlu receptors did not induce TNFalpha release. TNFalpha was only neurotoxic in the presence of microglia or microglial-conditioned medium. The toxicity of TNFalpha could be prevented by coexposure of neurons to conditioned medium from microglia stimulated by the specific group III agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphono-butyric acid. The neurotoxicity of TNFalpha derived from mGlu2-stimulated microglia was potentiated by microglial-derived Fas ligand (FasL), the death receptor ligand. FasL was constitutively expressed in microglia and shed after mGlu2 stimulation. Our data suggest that selective and inverse modulation of microglial mGlu2 and mGlu3 may prove a therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. PMID:15772355

  16. Definition of a serum marker panel for glioblastoma discrimination and identification of Interleukin 1β in the microglial secretome as a novel mediator of endothelial cell survival induced by C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Nijaguna, Mamatha B; Schröder, Christoph; Patil, Vikas; Shwetha, Shivayogi D; Hegde, Alangar S; Chandramouli, Bangalore A; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Santosh, Vani; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2015-10-14

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant adult primary brain tumor. We profiled 724 cancer-associated proteins in sera of healthy individuals (n=27) and GBM (n=28) using antibody microarray. While 69 proteins exhibited differential abundance in GBM sera, a three-marker panel (LYAM1, BHE40 and CRP) could discriminate GBM sera from that of healthy donors with an accuracy of 89.7% and p<0.0001. The high abundance of C-reactive protein (CRP) in GBM sera was confirmed in 264 independent samples. High levels of CRP protein was seen in GBM but without a change in transcript levels suggesting a non-tumoral origin. Glioma-secreted Interleukin 6 (IL6) was found to induce hepatocytes to secrete CRP, involving JAK-STAT pathway. The culture supernatant from CRP-treated microglial cells induced endothelial cell survival under nutrient-deprivation condition involving CRP-FcγRIII signaling cascade. Transcript profiling of CRP-treated microglial cells identified Interleukin 1β (IL1β) present in the microglial secretome as the key mediator of CRP-induced endothelial cell survival. IL1β neutralization by antibody-binding or siRNA-mediated silencing in microglial cells reduced the ability of the supernatant from CRP-treated microglial cells to induce endothelial cell survival. Thus our study identifies a serum based three-marker panel for GBM diagnosis and provides leads for developing targeted therapies. Biological significance A complex antibody microarray based serum marker profiling identified a three-marker panel - LYAM1, BHE40 and CRP as an accurate discriminator of glioblastoma sera from that of healthy individuals. CRP protein is seen in high levels without a concomitant increase of CRP transcripts in glioblastoma. Glioma-secreted IL6 induced hepatocytes to produce CRP in a JAK-STAT signaling dependent manner. CRP induced microglial cells to release IL1β which in turn promoted endothelial cell survival. This study, besides defining a serum panel for glioblastoma

  17. Localization of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells

    SciTech Connect

    Babakhanian, Karlo; Bendayan, Moise; Bendayan, Reina . E-mail: r.bendayan@utoronto.ca

    2007-09-21

    P-Glycoprotein is a plasma membrane drug efflux protein implicated in extrusion of cytotoxic compounds out of a cell. There is now evidence that suggests expression of this transporter at several subcellular sites, including the nucleus, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus. This study investigated the localization and expression of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear membrane of rat brain microvessel endothelial (RBE4) and microglial (MLS-9) cell lines. Immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels using P-glycoprotein monoclonals antibodies demonstrated the localization of the protein at the nuclear envelope of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. Western blot analysis revealed a single band of 170-kDa in purified nuclear membranes prepared from isolated nuclei of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein is expressed at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells and suggest a role in multidrug resistance at this subcellular site.

  18. Regulation of rotenone-induced microglial activation by 5-lipoxygenase and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Lu; Yang, Yi; Xu, Dong-Min; Zhang, Si-Ran; Li, Chen-Tan; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Shu-Ying; Wei, Er-Qing; Zhang, Li-Hui

    2014-07-14

    The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) products cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory mediators. CysLTs mediate their biological actions through activating CysLT receptors (CysLT(1)R and CysLT(2)R). We have recently reported that 5-LOX and CysLT(1)R mediated PC12 cell injury induced by high concentrations of rotenone (0.3-10 μM), which was reduced by the selective 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton and CysLT(1)R antagonist montelukast. The purpose of this study was to examine the regulatory roles of the 5-LOX/CysLT(1)R pathway in microglial activation induced by low concentration rotenone. After mouse microglial BV2 cells were stimulated with rotenone (0.3-3 nM), phagocytosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokine were assayed as indicators of microglial activation. We found that rotenone (1 and 3 nM) increased BV2 microglial phagocytosis and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Zileuton and montelukast prevented rotenone (3 nM)-induced phagocytosis and cytokine release. Furthermore, rotenone significantly up-regulated 5-LOX expression, induced 5-LOX translocation to the nuclear envelope, and increased the production of CysLTs. These responses were inhibited by zileuton. Rotenone also increased CysLT(1)R expression and induced nuclear translocation of CysLT(1)R. In primary rat microglia, rotenone (10 nM) increased release of IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas zileuton (0.1 μΜ) and montelukast (0.01 μΜ) significantly inhibited this response. These results indicated that 5-LOX and CysLT(1)R might be key regulators of microglial activation induced by low concentration of rotenone. Interference of 5-LOX/CysLT(1)R pathway may be an effective therapeutic strategy for microglial inflammation.

  19. TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology.

    PubMed

    Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Través, Paqui G; Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D; Burrola, Patrick G; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg

    2016-04-14

    Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl regulate these microglial functions. We find that adult mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells specifically in neurogenic regions of the CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells generated during adult neurogenesis is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands Gas6 and protein S. Using live two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently upregulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease. PMID:27049947

  20. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients. PMID:27656625

  1. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients. PMID:27656625

  2. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients.

  3. Effects of aged garlic extract and FruArg on gene expression and signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hailong; Lu, Yuan; Qu, Zhe; Mossine, Valeri V.; Martin, Matthew B.; Hou, Jie; Cui, Jiankun; Peculis, Brenda A.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Fritsche, Kevin; Schmidt, Francis J.; Walter, Ronald B.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement on account of its protective effects against oxidative stress and inflammation. But less is known about specific molecular targets of AGE and its bioactive components, including N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). Our recent study showed that both AGE and FruArg significantly attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells. This study aims to unveil effects of AGE and FruArg on gene expression regulation in LPS stimulated BV-2 cells. Results showed that LPS treatment significantly altered mRNA levels from 2563 genes. AGE reversed 67% of the transcriptome alteration induced by LPS, whereas FruArg accounted for the protective effect by reversing expression levels of 55% of genes altered by LPS. Key pro-inflammatory canonical pathways induced by the LPS stimulation included toll-like receptor signaling, IL-6 signaling, and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway, along with elevated expression levels of genes, such as Il6, Cd14, Casp3, Nfkb1, Hmox1, and Tnf. These effects could be modulated by treatment with both AGE and FruArg. These findings suggests that AGE and FruArg are capable of alleviating oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory responses stimulated by LPS in BV-2 cells. PMID:27734935

  4. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids isolated from Rhus verniciflua in neuronal HT22 and microglial BV2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cho, Namki; Choi, Ji Hoon; Yang, Heejung; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Yong; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-06-01

    The neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Rhus verniciflua Stokes (Anacardiaceae) were investigated with mouse hippocampal and microglial cells. Bioactivity-guided isolation yielded 10 flavonoids including fustin (1), fisetin (2), sulfuretin (3), butein (4), butin (5), eriodictyol (6), morin hydrate (7), quercetin (8), kaempferol (9) and isoliquiritigenin (10). Among the isolated flavonoids, compounds 2-5 significantly protected the murine hippocampal HT22 cells against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations. In addition, these flavonoids significantly maintained antioxidative defense systems preserving the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the content of glutathione (GSH) decreased by glutamate insult. These compounds also showed significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV2 cells. Especially, compound 4 dose-dependently suppressed the expression of both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). These results suggest that these flavonoids possess therapeutic potentials as a multipotent agent against neurodegenerative diseases related to oxidative stress and pathological inflammatory responses.

  5. Inhibitory effect of ent-Sauchinone on amyloidogenesis via inhibition of STAT3-mediated NF-κB activation in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ent-Sauchinone is a polyphenolic compound found in plants belonging to the lignan family. ent-Sauchinone has been shown to modulate the expression of inflammatory factors through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. It is well known that neuroinflammation is associated with amyloidogenesis. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether ent-Sauchinone could have anti-amyloidogenic effects through the inhibition of NF-κB pathways via its anti-inflammatory property. Methods To investigate the potential effect of ent-Sauchinone on anti-neuroinflammation and anti-amyloidogenesis in in vitro studies, we used microglial BV-2 cells and cultured astrocytes treated with ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 hours. For the detection of anti-neuro-inflammatory responses, reative oxygen species (ROS) and Nitric oxide (NO) generation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were measured with assay kits and western blotting. β-secretase and β-secretase activities and β-amyloid levels were determined for measuring the anti-amyloidogenic effects of ent-Sauchinone by enzyme assay kits. NF-κB and STAT3 signals were detected with electromobility shift assay (EMSA) to study the related signaling pathways. The binding of ent-Sauchinone to STAT3 was evaluated by a pull-down assay and by a docking model using Autodock VINA software (Hoover’s Inc., Texas, United states). Results ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 μM) effectively decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-(1 μg/ml) induced inflammatory responses through the reduction of ROS and NO generations and iNOS and COX-2 expressions in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. ent-Sauchinone also inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis through the inhibition of β-secretase and β-secretase activity. NF- κB amyloid and STAT3, critical transcriptional factors regulating not only inflammation but also amyloidogenesis, were also inhibited in a

  6. Annexin-1 Mediates Microglial Activation and Migration via the CK2 Pathway during Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangxi; Gao, Yan; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Baoming; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yin; Luo, Zhenzhao; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Annexin-1 (ANXA1) has shown neuroprotective effects and microglia play significant roles during central nervous system injury, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine whether ANXA1 regulates microglial response to oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) treatment and to clarify the downstream molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD/R treatment enhanced the ANXA1 expression in neuron, the formyl peptide receptor (FPRs) expression in microglia, and the microglial activation in the CA1 region (cornu ammonis 1). These effects were reversed by the FPRs antagonist Boc1. The cell membrane currents amplitude of BV-2 microglia (the microglial like cell-line) was increased when treated with Ac2-26, the N-terminal peptide of ANXA1. Ac2-26 treatment enhanced BV-2 microglial migration whereas Boc1 treatment inhibited the migration. In BV-2 microglia, both the expression of the CK2 target phosphorylated α-E-catenin and the binding of casein kinase II (CK2) with α-E-catenin were elevated by Ac2-26, these effects were counteracted by the CK2 inhibitor TBB and small interfering (si) RNA directed against transcripts of CK2 and FPRs. Moreover, both TBB and siRNA-mediated inhibition of CK2 blocked Ac2-26-mediated BV-2 microglia migration. Our findings indicate that ANXA1 promotes microglial activation and migration during OGD/R via FPRs, and CK2 target α-E-catenin phosphorylation is involved in this process. PMID:27782092

  7. Tubby regulates microglial phagocytosis through MerTK.

    PubMed

    Caberoy, Nora B; Alvarado, Gabriela; Li, Wei

    2012-11-15

    Immunologically-silent microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cellular debris is critical for CNS homeostasis and innate immune balance. The beneficial and detrimental effects of microglial phagocytosis on neurons remain controversial. Phagocytosis ligands are the key to selecting extracellular cargos, initiating the engulfment process, defining phagocyte functional roles and regulating phagocyte activities with therapeutic potentials. Here we characterized tubby as a new ligand to regulate microglial phagocytosis through MerTK receptor, which is well known for its immunosuppressive signaling. Tubby at 0.1nM significantly induced microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic cells with a maximal activity at 10nM. Tubby activated MerTK with receptor autophosphorylation in a similar dose range. Excessive soluble MerTK extracellular domain blocked tubby-mediated microglial phagocytosis of plasma membrane vesicles as cellular debris. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the ingested cargos were co-localized with MerTK-dependent non-muscle myosin II, whose rearrangement is necessary for cargo engulfment. Phagosome biomarker Rab7 was colocalized with cargos, suggesting that internalized cargos were targeted to phagocytic pathway. Tubby stimulated phagocytosis by neonatal and aged microglia with similar activities, but not by MerTK(-/-) microglia. These results suggest that tubby is a ligand to facilitate microglial phagocytosis through MerTK for the maintenance of CNS homeostasis.

  8. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  9. Dynamic changes in global microRNAome and transcriptome reveal complex miRNA-mRNA regulated host response to Japanese Encephalitis Virus in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Bharti; Jain, Pratistha; Das, Shaoli; Ghosal, Suman; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Trivedi, Ashish Chandra; Basu, Anirban; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Microglia cells in the brain play essential role during Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) infection and may lead to change in microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA profile. These changes may together control disease outcome. Using Affymetrix microarray platform, we profiled cellular miRNA and mRNA expression at multiple time points during viral infection in human microglial (CHME3) cells. In silico analysis of microarray data revealed a phased pattern of miRNAs expression, associated with JEV replication and provided unique signatures of infection. Target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis identified anti correlation between differentially expressed miRNA and the gene expression at multiple time point which ultimately affected diverse signaling pathways including Notch signaling pathways in microglia. Activation of Notch pathway during JEV infection was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The expression of a subset of miRNAs that target multiple genes in Notch signaling pathways were suppressed and their overexpression could affect JEV induced immune response. Further analysis provided evidence for the possible presence of cellular competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) associated with innate immune response. Collectively, our data provide a uniquely comprehensive view of the changes in the host miRNAs induced by JEV during cellular infection and identify Notch pathway in modulating microglia mediated inflammation. PMID:26838068

  10. Inhibition of EGFR/MAPK signaling reduces microglial inflammatory response and the associated secondary damage in rats after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence indicates that reactive microglia-initiated inflammatory responses are responsible for secondary damage after primary traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling may be involved in cell activation. In this report, we investigate the influence of EGFR signaling inhibition on microglia activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and the neuronal microenvironment after SCI. Methods Lipopolysaccharide-treated primary microglia/BV2 line cells and SCI rats were used as model systems. Both C225 and AG1478 were used to inhibit EGFR signaling activation. Cell activation and EGFR phosphorylation were observed after fluorescent staining and western blot. Production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was tested by reverse transcription PCR and ELISA. Western blot was performed to semi-quantify the expression of EGFR/phospho-EGFR, and phosphorylation of Erk, JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Wet-dry weight was compared to show tissue edema. Finally, axonal tracing and functional scoring were performed to show recovery of rats. Results EGFR phosphorylation was found to parallel microglia activation, while EGFR blockade inhibited activation-associated cell morphological changes and production of IL-1β and TNFα. EGFR blockade significantly downregulated the elevated MAPK activation after cell activation; selective MAPK inhibitors depressed production of cytokines to a certain degree, suggesting that MAPK mediates the depression of microglia activation brought about by EGFR inhibitors. Subsequently, seven-day continual infusion of C225 or AG1478 in rats: reduced the expression of phospho-EGFR, phosphorylation of Erk and p38 MAPK, and production of IL-1β and TNFα; lessened neuroinflammation-associated secondary damage, like microglia/astrocyte activation, tissue edema and glial scar/cavity formation; and enhanced axonal outgrowth and functional

  11. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Qu, Zhe; Mossine, Valeri V; Nknolise, Dineo L; Li, Jilong; Chen, Zhenzhou; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C Michael; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Brown, Paula N; Fritsche, Kevin L; Hannink, Mark; Lubahn, Dennis B; Sun, Grace Y; Gu, Zezong

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Qu, Zhe; Mossine, Valeri V; Nknolise, Dineo L; Li, Jilong; Chen, Zhenzhou; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C Michael; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Brown, Paula N; Fritsche, Kevin L; Hannink, Mark; Lubahn, Dennis B; Sun, Grace Y; Gu, Zezong

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25420111

  13. Proteomic Analysis of the Effects of Aged Garlic Extract and Its FruArg Component on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Response in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mossine, Valeri V.; Nknolise, Dineo L.; Li, Jilong; Chen, Zhenzhou; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Brown, Paula N.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Hannink, Mark; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.; Gu, Zezong

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25420111

  14. Long-Term Upregulation of Inflammation and Suppression of Cell Proliferation in the Brain of Adult Rats Exposed to Traumatic Brain Injury Using the Controlled Cortical Impact Model

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Sandra A.; Tajiri, Naoki; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Grimmig, Bethany; Diamond, David; Sanberg, Paul R.; Bickford, Paula C.; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    The long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI), specifically the detrimental effects of inflammation on the neurogenic niches, are not very well understood. In the present in vivo study, we examined the prolonged pathological outcomes of experimental TBI in different parts of the rat brain with special emphasis on inflammation and neurogenesis. Sixty days after moderate controlled cortical impact injury, adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were euthanized and brain tissues harvested. Antibodies against the activated microglial marker, OX6, the cell cycle-regulating protein marker, Ki67, and the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin, DCX, were used to estimate microglial activation, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation, respectively, in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. Stereology-based analyses revealed significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. In parallel, significant decrements in Ki67-positive proliferating cells in SVZ and SGZ, but only trends of reduced DCX-positive immature neuronal cells in SVZ and SGZ were detected relative to sham control group. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain over time characterized by elevated inflammation and suppressed neurogenesis. Therapeutic intervention at the chronic stage of TBI may confer abrogation of these deleterious cell death processes. PMID:23301065

  15. Microglial action in glioma: a boon turns bane.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anirban; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2010-06-15

    Microglia has the potential to shape the neuroimmune defense with vast array of functional attributes. The cells prime infiltrated lymphocytes to retain their effector functions, play crucial role in controlling microenvironmental milieu and significantly participate in glioma. Reports demonstrate microglial accumulation in glioma and predict their assistance in glioma growth and spreading. Clarification of the 'double-edged' appearance of microglia is necessary to unfold its role in glioma biology. In this article the interpretation of microglial activities has been attempted to reveal their actual function in glioma. Contrary to the trendy acceptance of its glioma promoting infamy, accumulated evidences make an effort to view the state of affairs in favor of the cell. Critical scrutiny indicates that microglial immune assaults are intended to demolish the neoplastic cells in brain. But the weaponry of microglia has been tactically utilized by glioma in their favor as the survival strategy. Hence the defender appears as enemy in advanced glioma. PMID:20338195

  16. Microglial phagocytosis of living photoreceptors contributes to inherited retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lian; Zabel, Matthew K; Wang, Xu; Ma, Wenxin; Shah, Parth; Fariss, Robert N; Qian, Haohua; Parkhurst, Christopher N; Gan, Wen-Biao; Wong, Wai T

    2015-07-02

    Retinitis pigmentosa, caused predominantly by mutations in photoreceptor genes, currently lacks comprehensive treatment. We discover that retinal microglia contribute non-cell autonomously to rod photoreceptor degeneration by primary phagocytosis of living rods. Using rd10 mice, we found that the initiation of rod degeneration is accompanied by early infiltration of microglia, upregulation of phagocytic molecules in microglia, and presentation of "eat-me" signals on mutated rods. On live-cell imaging, infiltrating microglia interact dynamically with photoreceptors via motile processes and engage in rapid phagocytic engulfment of non-apoptotic rods. Microglial contribution to rod demise is evidenced by morphological and functional amelioration of photoreceptor degeneration following genetic ablation of retinal microglia. Molecular inhibition of microglial phagocytosis using the vitronectin receptor antagonist cRGD also improved morphological and functional parameters of degeneration. Our findings highlight primary microglial phagocytosis as a contributing mechanism underlying cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and implicate microglia as a potential cellular target for therapy.

  17. [Calcium-binding Iba-1/AIF-1 protein in rat brain cells].

    PubMed

    Kirik, O V; Sukhorukova, E G; Korzhevskiĭ, D E

    2010-01-01

    At present, calcium-binding Iba-1 protein is considered to be identical to AIF-1 protein and it is used as one of the selective microglia markers. However, the data on the cell populations capable of expressing Iba-1/AIF-1, are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to identify rat brain cells expressing Iba-1 and to define their structural characteristics. The methods of immunocytochemistry and confocal laser microscopy were used. Iba-1 protein was detected only in microglial cells, macrophages of brain meninges, supraependymal macrophages, superficial and stromal cells of the choroid plexus--all the cells possessing phagocytotic function. Comparison of the data obtained with the results of other studies allows to suggest that not all of commonly used antibodies against Iba-1/AIF-1 demonstrate the same product. It can not be excluded, that it can be associated with the presence of alternative splicing of Iba-1 mRNA.

  18. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD. PMID:26499517

  19. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  20. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-10-26

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD.

  1. Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors differentially regulate NF-kappaB activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine BV-2 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microglia, the resident macrophage-like cells in the brain, regulate innate immune responses in the CNS to protect neurons. However, excessive activation of microglia contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. Corticosteroids are potent modulators of inflammation and mediate their effects by binding to mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Here, the coordinated activities of GR and MR on the modulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in murine BV-2 microglial cells were studied. Methods BV-2 cells were treated with different corticosteroids in the presence or absence of MR and GR antagonists. The impact of the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) was determined by incubating cells with 11-dehydrocorticosterone, with or without selective inhibitors. Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), and 11β-HSD1 mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR and IL-6 protein expression by ELISA. NF-κB activation and translocation upon treatment with various corticosteroids were visualized by western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and translocation assays. Results GR and MR differentially regulate NF-κB activation and neuroinflammatory parameters in BV-2 cells. By converting inactive 11-dehydrocorticosterone to active corticosterone, 11β-HSD1 essentially modulates the coordinated action of GR and MR. Biphasic effects were observed for 11-dehydrocorticosterone and corticosterone, with an MR-dependent potentiation of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression and NF-κB activation at low/moderate concentrations and a GR-dependent suppression at high concentrations. The respective effects were confirmed using the MR ligand aldosterone and the antagonist spironolactone as well as the GR ligand dexamethasone and the antagonist RU-486. NF-κB activation could be blocked by spironolactone and the inhibitor of NF-κB translocation Cay-10512

  2. Stereological and somatotopic analysis of the spinal microglial response to peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of glia, and glia-neuronal signalling in enhancing nociceptive transmission has become an area of intense scientific interest. In particular, a role has emerged for activated microglia in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Following activation, spinal microglia proliferate and release many substances which are capable of modulating neuronal excitability within the spinal cord. Here, we the investigated the response of spinal microglia to a unilateral spared nerve injury (SNI) in terms of the quantitative increase in cell number and the spatial distribution of the increase. Design-based stereological techniques were combined with iba-1 immunohistochemistry to estimate the total number of microglia in the spinal dorsal horn in naïve and peripheral nerve-injured adult rats. In addition, by mapping the central terminals of hindlimb nerves, the somatotopic distribution of the microglial response was mapped. Following SNI there was a marked increase in the number of spinal microglia: The total number of microglia (mean ± SD) in the dorsal horn sciatic territory of the naïve rat was estimated to be 28,591 ± 2715. Following SNI the number of microglia was 82,034 ± 8828. While the pattern of microglial activation generally followed somatotopic boundaries, with the majority of microglia within the territory occupied by peripherally axotomised primary afferents, some spread was seen into regions occupied by intact, ‘spared’ central projections of the sural nerve. This study provides a reproducible method of assaying spinal microglial dynamics following peripheral nerve injury both quantitatively and spatially. PMID:17267172

  3. Retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 inhibits CXCL2 production from microglial BV-2 cells via attenuation of NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Moeka; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that retinoic acid receptor agonists such as Am80 exerts anti-inflammatory actions in the central nervous system, although detailed mechanisms of the action remain largely unknown. Our previous findings suggest that Am80 provides therapeutic effect on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice via suppression of expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2). Here we investigated the mechanisms of inhibitory action of Am80 on expression of CXCL2 and other pro-inflammatory factors in microglial BV-2 cells. Pretreatment with Am80 markedly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of CXCL2 mRNA and release of CXCL2 protein. Am80 had no effect on LPS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. On the other hand, Am80 prevented LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB complex. In addition, total expression levels of p65 and IκBα proteins, as well as of mRNAs encoding p65 and IκBα, were lowered by Am80. Dependence of CXCL2 expression on NF-κB was confirmed by the effect of an NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester that abolished LPS-induced CXCL2 expression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester also abolished LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α, which may be relevant to the inhibitory effect of Am80 on expression of these pro-inflammatory factors. We additionally found that Am80 attenuated LPS-induced up-regulation of CD14, a co-receptor for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These results suggest that inhibitory effect on TLR4 signaling mediated by NF-κB pathway underlies the anti-inflammatory action of retinoic acid receptor agonists in microglia. PMID:27351827

  4. Microglial activation of p38 contributes to scorpion envenomation-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qing-Shan; Jiang, Feng; Hua, Li-Ming; Fu, Jin; Jiao, Yun-Lu; Ji, Yong-Hua; Ding, Gang

    2013-10-25

    Intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of BmK I, a receptor site 3-specific modulator of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) from the venom of scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK), was shown to induce long-lasting and spontaneous nociceptive responses as demonstrated through experiments utilizing primary thermal and mirror-imaged mechanical hypersensitivity with different time course of development in rats. In this study, microglia was activated on both sides of L4-L5 spinal cord by i.pl. injection of BmK I. Meanwhile, the activation of p38/MAPK in L4-L5 spinal cord was found to be co-expressed with OX-42, the cell marker of microglia. The unilateral thermal and bilateral mechanical pain hypersensitivity of rat induced by BmK I was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner following pretreatment with SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of p-p38). Interestingly, microglia activity was also reduced in the presence of SB203580, which suggests that BmK I-induced microglial activation is mediated by p38/MAPK pathway. Combined with previously published literature, the results of this study demonstrate that p38-dependent microglial activation plays a role in scorpion envenomation-induced pain-related behaviors. PMID:24064352

  5. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gyoneva, Stefka; Davalos, Dimitrios; Biswas, Dipankar; Swanger, Sharon A.; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel; Loth, Francis; Akassoglou, Katerina; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, exist in either a “resting” state associated with physiological tissue surveillance or an “activated” state in neuroinflammation. We recently showed that ATP is the primary chemoattractor to tissue damage in vivo and elicits opposite effects on the motility of activated microglia in vitro through activation of adenosine A2A receptors. However, whether systemic inflammation affects microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo remains largely unknown. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of mice, we show that injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at levels that can produce both clear neuroinflammation and some features of sepsis significantly reduced the rate of microglial response to laser-induced ablation injury in vivo. Under pro-inflammatory conditions, microglial processes initially retracted from the ablation site, but subsequently moved toward and engulfed the damaged area. Analyzing the process dynamics in 3D cultures of primary microglia indicated that only A2A, but not A1 or A3 receptors, mediate process retraction in LPS-activated microglia. The A2A receptor antagonists caffeine and preladenant reduced adenosine-mediated process retraction in activated microglia in vitro. Finally, administration of preladenant before induction of laser ablation in vivo accelerated the microglial response to injury following systemic inflammation. The regulation of rapid microglial responses to sites of injury by A2A receptors could have implications for their ability to respond to the neuronal death occurring under conditions of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24807189

  6. Microglial activation and progressive brain changes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, L E; Di Biase, M A; Everall, I; Chana, G; Christopoulos, A; Skafidas, E; Cropley, V L; Pantelis, C

    2016-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that typically begins in adolescence and is characterized by perceptual abnormalities, delusions, cognitive and behavioural disturbances and functional impairments. While current treatments can be effective, they are often insufficient to alleviate the full range of symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities including grey and white matter volume loss and impaired connectivity. Recent findings suggest these abnormalities follow a neuroprogressive course in the earliest stages of the illness, which may be associated with episodes of acute relapse. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying these brain changes, with evidence of increased density and activation of microglia, immune cells resident in the brain, at various stages of the illness. We review evidence for microglial dysfunction in schizophrenia from both neuroimaging and neuropathological data, with a specific focus on studies examining microglial activation in relation to the pathology of grey and white matter. The studies available indicate that the link between microglial dysfunction and brain change in schizophrenia remains an intriguing hypothesis worthy of further examination. Future studies in schizophrenia should: (i) use multimodal imaging to clarify this association by mapping brain changes longitudinally across illness stages in relation to microglial activation; (ii) clarify the nature of microglial dysfunction with markers specific to activation states and phenotypes; (iii) examine the role of microglia and neurons with reference to their overlapping roles in neuroinflammatory pathways; and (iv) examine the impact of novel immunomodulatory treatments on brain structure in schizophrenia. PMID:26455353

  7. Microglial polarization and plasticity: evidence from organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Mancini, Melissa; De Simone, Roberta; Cilli, Piera; Minghetti, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that "functional plasticity" is not solely a neuronal attribute but a hallmark of microglial cells, the main brain resident macrophage population. Far from being a univocal phenomenon, microglial activation can originate a plethora of functional phenotypes, encompassing the classic M1 proinflammatory and the alternative M2 anti-inflammatory phenotypes. This concept overturns the popular view of microglial activation as a synonym of neurotoxicity and neurogenesis failure in brain disorders. The characterization of the alternative programs is a matter of intense investigation, but still scarce information is available on the course of microglial activation, on the reversibility of the different commitments and on the capability of preserving molecular memory of previous priming stimuli. By using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures as a model, we developed paradigms of stimulation aimed at shedding light on some of these aspects. We show that persistent stimulation of TLR4 signaling promotes an anti-inflammatory response and microglial polarization toward M2-like phenotype. Moreover, acute and chronic preconditioning regimens permanently affect the capability to respond to a later challenge, suggesting the onset of mechanisms of molecular memory. Similar phenomena could occur in the intact brain and differently affect the vulnerability of mature and newborn neurons to noxious signals. PMID:23918452

  8. Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between “ramified resting” and “activated amoeboid” has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology. PMID:23386810

  9. The selective mGluR5 agonist CHPG attenuates SO2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation through TSG-6/NF-κB pathway in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jun-Ling; Zhu, Wen-Li; Lu, Yu-Jie; Bai, Zheng-Fa; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zhao, Pei; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Ya-Bin; Li, Hua; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant and can cause harmful insults on neurons. Microglial activation has been implicated in the signaling cascades that contribute to neuronal cell death in various neurological disorders. In the present study, we found that SO2 derivatives decreased cell viability via inducing oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and apoptotic cell death in BV2 microglial cells. Pretreatment with (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG), an mGluR5 agonist, significantly attenuated the SO2-induced cytotoxicity, which was fully prevented by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP. CHPG increased the expression of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6), but decreased the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) after SO2 derivatives treatment in BV2 cells. In addition, knockdown of TSG-6 expression by specific targeted short interfering RNA (siRNA) partially reversed the protection induced by CHPG. Therefore, our findings reveal a mechanistic basis for exploring the association between SO2 exposure and neurological disorders, and also for opening up therapeutic approaches of ameliorating neuronal injury resulting from exposure in atmospheric polluting environment.

  10. Macrophageal/microglial cell activation and cerebral injury induced by excretory-secretory products secreted by Paragonimus westermani.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Shin, Myeong Heon; Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Won-Ki

    2006-02-01

    Cerebral paragonimiasis causes various neurological disorders including seizures, visual impairment and hemiplegia. The excretory-secretory product (ESP) released by Paragonimus westermani has a cysteine protease activity and plays important roles in its migration in the host tissue and modulation of host immune responses. To gain more insight into the pathogenesis of ESP in the brain, we investigated the inflammatory reaction and cerebral injury following microinjection of ESP into rat striatum. The size of injury was maximally observed 3 days after microinjection of ESP and then declined to control levels as astrocytes have repopulated the injury. ED1-positive monocytes and microglia were confluently found inside the injury. The mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) occurred as early as 9h after ESP injection and then declined to control levels within 1 day. The iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine largely decreased the expression of iNOS but did not reduce the size of lesion caused by ESP. Interestingly, however, heat inactivation of ESP caused a decrease of injury formation with no altered expression of iNOS. The data indicate that ESP produces brain tissue injury by recruiting activated monocytes/microglia via heat-labile protease activity.

  11. Tomato lectin histochemistry for microglial visualization.

    PubMed

    Villacampa, Nàdia; Almolda, Beatriz; González, Berta; Castellano, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    The use of different lectins for the study of microglial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) is a valuable tool that has been extensively used in the last years for the selective staining of this glial cell population, not only in normal physiological conditions, but also in a wide range of pathological situations where the normal homeostasis of the parenchyma is disturbed. In this chapter we accurately describe the methodology for the selective labelling of microglial cells by using the tomato lectin (TL), a protein lectin obtained from Lycopersicum esculentum with specific affinity for poly-N-acetyl lactosamine sugar residues which are found on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm of microglia. Here we describe how to perform this technique on vibratome, frozen, and paraffin sections for optical microscopy, as well as for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Using this methodology it is possible to visualize amoeboid microglia in the developing brain, ramified microglia in the adult, and activated/reactive microglia in the experimentally damaged brain. In addition, as TL also recognized sugar residues in endothelial cells, this technique is very useful for the study of the relationship established between microglia and the CNS vasculature. PMID:23813385

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Abrogates Microglial Oxidative Stress and TNF-α Responses to Spreading Depression

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Yelena Y.; Dibbern, Megan E.; Levasseur, Victoria A.; Kraig, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Spreading depression (SD), the most likely cause of migraine aura and perhaps migraine, occurs with increased oxidative stress (OS). SD increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS, in turn, can signal to increase neuronal excitability, which includes increased SD susceptibility (SDS). SD also elevates tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which increases neuronal excitability. Accordingly, we probed for the cellular origin of OS from SD and its relationship to TNF-α, which might promote SD, using rat hippocampal slice cultures. We observed significantly increased OS from SD in astrocytes and microglia but not in neurons or oligodendrocytes. Since insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mitigates OS from SD, we determined the cell types responsible for this effect. We found that IGF-1 significantly decreased microglial but not astrocytic OS from SD. We also show that IGF-1 abrogated the SD-induced TNF-α increase. Furthermore, TNF-α application increased microglial but not astrocytic OS, an effect abrogated by IGF-1. Next, we showed that SD increased SDS, and does so via TNF-α. This work suggests that microglia promote SD via increased and interrelated ROS and TNF-α signaling. Thus, IGF-1 mitigation of microglial ROS and TNF-α responses may be targets for novel therapeutics development to prevent SD, and perhaps migraine. PMID:23586526

  13. Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release

    PubMed Central

    Nunan, Robert; Sivasathiaseelan, Harri; Khan, Damla; Zaben, Malik; Gray, William

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the production of new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), occurs throughout adulthood in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where it supports learning and memory. The innate and adaptive immune systems are increasingly recognized as important modulators of hippocampal neurogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system regulates hippocampal neurogenesis are incompletely understood. In particular, the role of microglia, the brains resident immune cell is complex, as they have been reported to both positively and negatively regulate neurogenesis. Interestingly, neuronal activity can also regulate the function of the immune system. Here, we show that depleting microglia from hippocampal cultures reduces NSPC survival and proliferation. Furthermore, addition of purified hippocampal microglia, or their conditioned media, is trophic and proliferative to NSPCs. VIP, a neuropeptide released by dentate gyrus interneurons, enhances the proliferative and pro-neurogenic effect of microglia via the VPAC1 receptor. This VIP-induced enhancement is mediated by IL-4 release, which directly targets NSPCs. This demonstrates a potential neuro-immuno-neurogenic pathway, disruption of which may have significant implications in conditions where combined cognitive impairments, interneuron loss, and immune system activation occurs, such as temporal lobe epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24801739

  14. Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Robert; Sivasathiaseelan, Harri; Khan, Damla; Zaben, Malik; Gray, William

    2014-08-01

    Neurogenesis, the production of new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), occurs throughout adulthood in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where it supports learning and memory. The innate and adaptive immune systems are increasingly recognized as important modulators of hippocampal neurogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system regulates hippocampal neurogenesis are incompletely understood. In particular, the role of microglia, the brains resident immune cell is complex, as they have been reported to both positively and negatively regulate neurogenesis. Interestingly, neuronal activity can also regulate the function of the immune system. Here, we show that depleting microglia from hippocampal cultures reduces NSPC survival and proliferation. Furthermore, addition of purified hippocampal microglia, or their conditioned media, is trophic and proliferative to NSPCs. VIP, a neuropeptide released by dentate gyrus interneurons, enhances the proliferative and pro-neurogenic effect of microglia via the VPAC1 receptor. This VIP-induced enhancement is mediated by IL-4 release, which directly targets NSPCs. This demonstrates a potential neuro-immuno-neurogenic pathway, disruption of which may have significant implications in conditions where combined cognitive impairments, interneuron loss, and immune system activation occurs, such as temporal lobe epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Redox Control of Microglial Function: Molecular Mechanisms and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    McBean, Gethin; Cindric, Marina; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G.; Rada, Patricia; Zarkovic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic microglial over-activation and oxidative stress. It is now beginning to be recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by either microglia or the surrounding environment not only impact neurons but also modulate microglial activity. In this review, we first analyze the hallmarks of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes of microglia and their regulation by ROS. Then, we consider the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide synthases and the new findings that also indicate an essential role of glutathione (γ-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine) in redox homeostasis of microglia. The effect of oxidant modification of macromolecules on signaling is analyzed at the level of oxidized lipid by-products and sulfhydryl modification of microglial proteins. Redox signaling has a profound impact on two transcription factors that modulate microglial fate, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, master regulators of the pro-inflammatory and antioxidant responses of microglia, respectively. The relevance of these proteins in the modulation of microglial activity and the interplay between them will be evaluated. Finally, the relevance of ROS in altering blood brain barrier permeability is discussed. Recent examples of the importance of these findings in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases are also discussed. This review should provide a profound insight into the role of redox homeostasis in microglial activity and help in the identification of new promising targets to control neuroinflammation through redox control of the brain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1766–1801. PMID:24597893

  16. Redox control of microglial function: molecular mechanisms and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Ana I; McBean, Gethin; Cindric, Marina; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G; Rada, Patricia; Zarkovic, Neven; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2014-10-20

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic microglial over-activation and oxidative stress. It is now beginning to be recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by either microglia or the surrounding environment not only impact neurons but also modulate microglial activity. In this review, we first analyze the hallmarks of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes of microglia and their regulation by ROS. Then, we consider the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide synthases and the new findings that also indicate an essential role of glutathione (γ-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine) in redox homeostasis of microglia. The effect of oxidant modification of macromolecules on signaling is analyzed at the level of oxidized lipid by-products and sulfhydryl modification of microglial proteins. Redox signaling has a profound impact on two transcription factors that modulate microglial fate, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, master regulators of the pro-inflammatory and antioxidant responses of microglia, respectively. The relevance of these proteins in the modulation of microglial activity and the interplay between them will be evaluated. Finally, the relevance of ROS in altering blood brain barrier permeability is discussed. Recent examples of the importance of these findings in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases are also discussed. This review should provide a profound insight into the role of redox homeostasis in microglial activity and help in the identification of new promising targets to control neuroinflammation through redox control of the brain.

  17. Cholinergic modulation of microglial activation by alpha 7 nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Shytle, R Douglas; Mori, Takashi; Townsend, Kirk; Vendrame, Martina; Sun, Nan; Zeng, Jin; Ehrhart, Jared; Silver, Archie A; Sanberg, Paul R; Tan, Jun

    2004-04-01

    Almost all degenerative diseases of the CNS are associated with chronic inflammation. A central step in this process is the activation of brain mononuclear phagocyte cells, called microglia. While it is recognized that healthy neurons and astrocytes regulate the magnitude of microglia-mediated innate immune responses and limit excessive CNS inflammation, the endogenous signals governing this process are not fully understood. In the peripheral nervous system, recent studies suggest that an endogenous 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' regulates systemic inflammatory responses via alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR) found on blood-borne macrophages. These data led us to investigate whether a similar cholinergic pathway exists in the brain that could regulate microglial activation. Here we report for the first time that cultured microglial cells express alpha 7 nAChR subunit as determined by RT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescent, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Acetylcholine and nicotine pre-treatment inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha release in murine-derived microglial cells, an effect attenuated by alpha 7 selective nicotinic antagonist, alpha-bungarotoxin. Furthermore, this inhibition appears to be mediated by a reduction in phosphorylation of p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Though preliminary, our findings suggest the existence of a brain cholinergic pathway that regulates microglial activation through alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. Negative regulation of microglia activation may also represent additional mechanism underlying nicotine's reported neuroprotective properties.

  18. Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients, Impairs Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Nadjar, Agnes; Layé, Sophie; Leyrolle, Quentin; Gómez-Nicola, Diego; Domercq, María; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Sánchez-Zafra, Víctor; Savage, Julie C.; Hui, Chin-Wai; Deudero, Juan J. P.; Brewster, Amy L.; Anderson, Anne E.; Zaldumbide, Laura; Galbarriatu, Lara; Marinas, Ainhoa; Vivanco, Maria dM.; Matute, Carlos; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis in a large number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its role in the diseased brain is poorly explored. Recent findings suggest that in the adult hippocampal neurogenic niche, where the excess of newborn cells undergo apoptosis in physiological conditions, phagocytosis is efficiently executed by surveillant, ramified microglia. To test whether microglia are efficient phagocytes in the diseased brain as well, we confronted them with a series of apoptotic challenges and discovered a generalized response. When challenged with excitotoxicity in vitro (via the glutamate agonist NMDA) or inflammation in vivo (via systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides or by omega 3 fatty acid deficient diets), microglia resorted to different strategies to boost their phagocytic efficiency and compensate for the increased number of apoptotic cells, thus maintaining phagocytosis and apoptosis tightly coupled. Unexpectedly, this coupling was chronically lost in a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as well as in hippocampal tissue resected from individuals with MTLE, a major neurological disorder characterized by seizures, excitotoxicity, and inflammation. Importantly, the loss of phagocytosis/apoptosis coupling correlated with the expression of microglial proinflammatory, epileptogenic cytokines, suggesting its contribution to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. The phagocytic blockade resulted from reduced microglial surveillance and apoptotic cell recognition receptor expression and was not directly mediated by signaling through microglial glutamate receptors. Instead, it was related to the disruption of local ATP microgradients caused by the hyperactivity of the hippocampal network, at least in the acute phase of epilepsy. Finally, the uncoupling led to an accumulation of apoptotic newborn cells in the neurogenic niche that was due not to decreased survival but to delayed cell clearance

  19. Role of Microglial Activation in the Pathophysiology of Bacterial Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Goularte, Jessica A; Petronilho, Fabricia; Saigal, Priyanka; Badawy, Marwa; Quevedo, João

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infection associated with cognitive impairment in many survivors. The pathogen invades the central nervous system (CNS) by penetrating through the luminal side of the cerebral endothelium, which is an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. The replication of bacteria within the subarachnoid space occurs concomitantly with the release of their compounds that are highly immunogenic. These compounds known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) may lead to both an increase in the inflammatory response in the host and also microglial activation. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS which, when activated, can trigger a host of immunological pathways. Classical activation increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species, while alternative activation is implicated in the inhibition of inflammation and restoration of homeostasis. The inflammatory response from classical microglial activation can facilitate the elimination of invasive microorganisms; however, excessive or extended microglial activation can result in neuronal damage and eventually cell death. This review aims to discuss the role of microglia in the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis as well as the process of microglial activation by PAMPs and by endogenous constituents that are normally released from damaged cells known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). PMID:25744564

  20. Sesquiterpenes inhibiting the microglial activation from Laurus nobilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongqiang; Xie, Chunfeng; Wang, Hao; Jin, Da-Qing; Li, Shen; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-05-21

    The inhibitory reagents to inhibit the activation of microglial cells may be potentially useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The leaves of the plant Laurus nobilis belonging to the family Lauraceae, namely, bay leaves, have been used as a popular spice, and their extract showed moderate inhibition on microglial activation. A further phytochemical investigation of the leaves led to the isolation of two new (1, 2) and eight known (3-10) sesquiterpenes. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, and NOESY) spectroscopic data analyses and Chem3D modeling. The following biological studies disclosed that these isolated compounds showed inhibitory activities on LPS-induced microglial activation. The results of our phytochemical investigation, including two new sesquiterpenes (1 and 2) and the first report of two compounds (3 and 4) from this species, further revealed the chemical composition of bay leaves as a popular spice, and the biological studies implied that bay leaves, containing bioactive substances with the inhibition of microglial activation, were potentially beneficial to human health. PMID:24801989

  1. Sesquiterpenes inhibiting the microglial activation from Laurus nobilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongqiang; Xie, Chunfeng; Wang, Hao; Jin, Da-Qing; Li, Shen; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-05-21

    The inhibitory reagents to inhibit the activation of microglial cells may be potentially useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The leaves of the plant Laurus nobilis belonging to the family Lauraceae, namely, bay leaves, have been used as a popular spice, and their extract showed moderate inhibition on microglial activation. A further phytochemical investigation of the leaves led to the isolation of two new (1, 2) and eight known (3-10) sesquiterpenes. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, and NOESY) spectroscopic data analyses and Chem3D modeling. The following biological studies disclosed that these isolated compounds showed inhibitory activities on LPS-induced microglial activation. The results of our phytochemical investigation, including two new sesquiterpenes (1 and 2) and the first report of two compounds (3 and 4) from this species, further revealed the chemical composition of bay leaves as a popular spice, and the biological studies implied that bay leaves, containing bioactive substances with the inhibition of microglial activation, were potentially beneficial to human health.

  2. Microglial activation precedes dopamine terminal pathology in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    LaVoie, Matthew J; Card, J Patrick; Hastings, Teresa G

    2004-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated methamphetamine (METH)-induced toxicity to dopaminergic and serotonergic axons in rat striatum. Although several studies have identified the nature of reactive astrogliosis in this lesion model, the response of microglia has not been examined in detail. In this investigation, we characterized the temporal relationship of reactive microgliosis to neuropathological alterations of dopaminergic axons in striatum following exposure to methamphetamine. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine and survived 12 h, or 1, 2, 4, and 6 days after treatment. Immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate reactive changes in microglia throughout the brain of methamphetamine-treated rats, with a particular focus upon striatum. Pronounced morphological changes, indicative of reactive microgliosis, were evident in the brains of all methamphetamine-treated animals and were absent in saline-treated control animals. These included hyperplastic changes in cell morphology that substantially increased the size and staining intensity of reactive microglia. Quantitative analysis of reactive microglial changes in striatum demonstrated that these changes were most robust within the ventrolateral region and were maximal 2 days after methamphetamine administration. Analysis of tissue also revealed that microglial activation preceded the appearance of pathological changes in striatal dopamine fibers. Reactive microgliosis was also observed in extra-striatal regions (somatosensory and piriform cortices, and periaqueductal gray). These data demonstrate a consistent, robust, and selective activation of microglia in response to methamphetamine administration that, at least in striatum, precedes the appearance of morphological indicators of axon pathology. These observations raise the possibility that activated microglia may contribute to methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

  3. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases.

  4. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases. PMID:26043790

  5. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases. PMID:26043790

  6. Hexane fraction of Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus extract inhibits the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells via the NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Won; Yoon, Cheol-Ho; Park, Kwon Moo; Han, Hyung Soo; Park, Yong-Ki

    2009-06-01

    Excessive production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) from activated microglia contributes to uncontrolled inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. It seems possible that treatment with anti-inflammatory agents, including plants used in Oriental medicine, might delay the progression of neurodegeneration through the inhibition of microglial activation. The present study is focused on the inhibitory effect of the rhizome hexane fraction extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger hexan extract; GHE) on the production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE(2), and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells, a mouse microglial cell line. GHE significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. In addition, GHE attenuated the mRNA expressions and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines. The molecular mechanisms that underlie GHE-mediated attenuation are related to the inhibition of the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Our results indicate that GHE exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the transcription of inflammatory mediator genes through the MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. The anti-inflammatory properties of GHE may make it useful as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19233241

  7. Deciphering Resting Microglial Morphology and Process Motility from a Synaptic Prospect

    PubMed Central

    Hristovska, Ines; Pascual, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), were traditionally believed to be set into action only in case of injury or disease. Accordingly, microglia were assumed to be inactive or resting in the healthy brain. However, recent studies revealed that microglia carry out active tissue sampling in the intact brain by extending and retracting their ramified processes while periodically contacting synapses. Microglial morphology and motility as well as the frequency and duration of physical contacts with synaptic elements were found to be modulated by neuronal activity, sensory experience and neurotransmission; however findings have not been straightforward. Microglial cells are the most morphologically plastic element of the CNS. This unique feature confers them the possibility to locally sense activity, and to respond adequately by establishing synaptic contacts to regulate synaptic inputs by the secretion of signaling molecules. Indeed, microglial cells can hold new roles as critical players in maintaining brain homeostasis and regulating synaptic number, maturation and plasticity. For this reason, a better characterization of microglial cells and cues mediating neuron-to-microglia communication under physiological conditions may help advance our understanding of the microglial behavior and its regulation in the healthy brain. This review highlights recent findings on the instructive role of neuronal activity on microglial motility and microglia-synapse interactions, focusing on the main transmitters involved in this communication and including newly described communication at the tripartite synapse. PMID:26834588

  8. Donepezil Regulates 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-Induced Microglial Polarization in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng; Hou, Ruihua; Xu, Shujun; Wu, Chengyuan

    2015-10-21

    1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induces microglial activation and degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Donepezil is a well-known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used clinically to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MPP+ promotes microglial M1 polarization and suppresses M2 polarization and that this can be restored by donepezil. Results indicate that MPP+ treatment in microglial BV2 cells promotes microglial polarization toward the M1 state. However, pretreatment with donepezil inhibited MPP+-induced M1 polarization in microglia by suppressing the release of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Importantly, we found that MPP+ inhibited microglial M2 polarization by suppressing expression of Arg-1, Fizz1, and Ym1, which was also rescued by pretreatment with donepezil. In addition, IL-4-mediated induction of anti-inflammatory marker genes IL-10, IL-13, and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) were significantly attenuated by MPP+ in BV2 cells, which was restored by pretreatment with donepezil in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanistically, we found that the addition of MPP+ reduced the intensity of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) but not total STAT6 in IL-4-stimulated BV2 cells. Importantly, pretreatment of microglial BV2 cells with donepezil 3 h prior to administration of MPP+ rescued the reduction of STAT6 phosphorylation induced by MPP+.

  9. Morin downregulates nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and activating HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Seungheon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-06-01

    Morin possesses anti-inflammatory activity against septic shock and allergic responses, and prevents acute liver damage. However, the biological mechanism of action of morin in neuroinflammation remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated whether morin has the ability to attenuate expression of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Morin inhibited the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2, without any cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were inhibited both at the mRNA and protein levels in response to morin. Morin also attenuated LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and its promoter activity. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulated the expression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2, which suggests that morin-mediated NF-κB inhibition is the main signaling pathway responsible for the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. Additionally, morin increased induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, leading to the suppression of NO and PGE2 production. Our results indicate that morin downregulates the expression of proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS and COX-2, involved in the synthesis of NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and activation of HO-1. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that morin may have potential as a therapeutic for the prevention of neuroinflammation.

  10. Hippo/MST1 signaling mediates microglial activation following acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siqi; Yin, Jie; Zhou, Lujun; Yan, Feng; He, Qing; Huang, Li; Peng, Shengyi; Jia, Junying; Cheng, Jinbo; Chen, Hong; Tao, Wufan; Ji, Xunming; Xu, Yun; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major public health concern that causes high rates of disability and mortality in adults. Microglial activation plays a crucial role in ischemic stroke-induced alteration of the immune microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying the triggering of microglial activation by ischemic stroke remains to be elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase Hippo/MST1 plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced cell death in mammalian primary neurons and that the protein kinase c-Abl phosphorylates MST1 at Y433, which increases MST1 kinase activity. Microglial activation has been implicated as a secondary detrimental cellular response that contributes to neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke. Here, we are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that MST1 mediates stroke-induced microglial activation by directly phosphorylating IκBα at residues S32 and S36. We further demonstrate that Src kinase functions upstream of MST1-IκB signaling during microglial activation. Specific deletion of MST1 in microglia mitigates stroke-induced brain injury. Therefore, we propose that Src-MST1-IκB signaling plays a critical role in stroke-induced microglial activation. Together with our previous work demonstrating that MST1 is important for oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death, our results indicate that MST1 could represent a potent therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

  11. A Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Prevents Thrombin-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage via the Inhibition of Microglial Activation and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Tao, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Yang, Yang; Feng, Zhou; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Liming; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Thrombin mediates the life-threatening cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage that occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We previously found that the selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist JWH-133 reduced brain edema and neurological deficits following germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). We explored whether CB2R stimulation ameliorated thrombin-induced brain edema and BBB permeability as well as the possible molecular mechanism involved. A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats received a thrombin (20 U) injection in the right basal ganglia. JWH-133 (1.5 mg/kg) or SR-144528 (3.0 mg/kg) and vehicle were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected 1 h after surgery. Brain water content measurement, Evans blue (EB) extravasation, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used to study the effects of a CB2R agonist 24 h after surgery. The results demonstrated that JWH-133 administration significantly decreased thrombin-induced brain edema and reduced the number of Iba-1-positive microglia. JWH-133 also decreased the number of P44/P42(+)/Iba-1(+) microglia, lowered Evans blue extravasation, and inhibited the elevated matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-12 activities. However, a selective CB2R antagonist (SR-144528) reversed these effects. We demonstrated that CB2R stimulation reduced thrombin-induced brain edema and alleviated BBB damage. We also found that matrix metalloproteinase suppression may be partially involved in these processes. PMID:26376816

  12. Altered microglial phagocytosis in GPR34-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Julia; Grosche, Antje; Lede, Vera; Le Duc, Diana; Krügel, Katja; Matyash, Vitali; Szulzewsky, Frank; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Immig, Kerstin; Kettenmann, Helmut; Bechmann, Ingo; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2015-02-01

    GPR34 is a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the nucleotide receptor P2Y12 -like group. This receptor is highly expressed in microglia, however, the functional relevance of GPR34 in these glial cells is unknown. Previous results suggested an impaired immune response in GPR34-deficient mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we show that GPR34 deficiency results in morphological changes in retinal and cortical microglia. RNA sequencing analysis of microglia revealed a number of differentially expressed transcripts involved in cell motility and phagocytosis. We found no differences in microglial motility after entorhinal cortex lesion and in response to laser lesion. However, GPR34-deficient microglia showed reduced phagocytosis activity in both retina and acutely isolated cortical slices. Our study identifies GPR34 as an important signaling component controlling microglial function, morphology and phagocytosis.

  13. Altered microglial phagocytosis in GPR34-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Julia; Grosche, Antje; Lede, Vera; Le Duc, Diana; Krügel, Katja; Matyash, Vitali; Szulzewsky, Frank; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Immig, Kerstin; Kettenmann, Helmut; Bechmann, Ingo; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2015-02-01

    GPR34 is a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the nucleotide receptor P2Y12 -like group. This receptor is highly expressed in microglia, however, the functional relevance of GPR34 in these glial cells is unknown. Previous results suggested an impaired immune response in GPR34-deficient mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we show that GPR34 deficiency results in morphological changes in retinal and cortical microglia. RNA sequencing analysis of microglia revealed a number of differentially expressed transcripts involved in cell motility and phagocytosis. We found no differences in microglial motility after entorhinal cortex lesion and in response to laser lesion. However, GPR34-deficient microglia showed reduced phagocytosis activity in both retina and acutely isolated cortical slices. Our study identifies GPR34 as an important signaling component controlling microglial function, morphology and phagocytosis. PMID:25142016

  14. Functional importance of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in galanin-induced microglial migration.

    PubMed

    Ifuku, Masataka; Okuno, Yuko; Yamakawa, Yukiko; Izumi, Kyoko; Seifert, Stefanie; Kettenmann, Helmut; Noda, Mami

    2011-04-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide which is up-regulated following neuronal axotomy or inflammation. One subtype of GAL receptor (GalR2) is reported to be expressed in the brain's immune cell population, microglia. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GAL on microglial migration and compared the mechanism with that of bradykinin (BK). GAL significantly increased the migration of rat cultured microglia at 0.1 pM. The GAL-induced signal cascade was partly similar to that induced by BK. It was not dependent on G(i/o) protein but involved activation of protein kinase C, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. However, reverse-mode activation of the Na(+) /Ca(2+) -exchanger 1 was not involved in GAL-induced microglial migration, unlike BK-induced migration. Likewise, nominally-free extracellular Ca(2+) inhibited BK-induced migration but not GAL-induced migration. An inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist significantly inhibited GAL-induced migration. GAL-induced Ca(2+) signaling did not induce nitric oxide synthase expression, but up-regulated class II major histocompatibility complex expression. These results indicate that activation of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor and increase in intracellular Ca(2+) are important for GAL-induced migration and immunoreactivity in microglia. The differences in down-stream signal transduction induced by GAL and BK suggest that GAL and BK may control distinct microglial functions under pathological conditions.

  15. MUTYH promotes oxidative microglial activation and inherited retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nakatake, Shunji; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Morioka, Noriko; Tachibana, Takashi; Fujiwara, Kohta; Yoshida, Noriko; Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Yoshida, Shigeo; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited disease that causes blindness. The biological and cellular mechanisms by which oxidative stress mediates neuronal cell death are largely unknown. In a mouse model of RP (rd10 mice), we show that oxidative DNA damage activates microglia through MutY homolog–mediated (MUYTH-mediated) base excision repair (BER), thereby exacerbating retinal inflammation and degeneration. In the early stage of retinal degeneration, oxidative DNA damage accumulated in the microglia and caused single-strand breaks (SSBs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. In contrast, Mutyh deficiency in rd10 mice prevented SSB formation in microglia, which in turn suppressed microglial activation and photoreceptor cell death. Moreover, Mutyh-deficient primary microglial cells attenuated the polarization to the inflammatory and cytotoxic phenotype under oxidative stress. Thus, MUTYH-mediated BER in oxidative microglial activation may be a novel target to dampen the disease progression in RP and other neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with oxidative stress.

  16. Microglial phagocytosis of living photoreceptors contributes to inherited retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lian; Zabel, Matthew K; Wang, Xu; Ma, Wenxin; Shah, Parth; Fariss, Robert N; Qian, Haohua; Parkhurst, Christopher N; Gan, Wen-Biao; Wong, Wai T

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa, caused predominantly by mutations in photoreceptor genes, currently lacks comprehensive treatment. We discover that retinal microglia contribute non-cell autonomously to rod photoreceptor degeneration by primary phagocytosis of living rods. Using rd10 mice, we found that the initiation of rod degeneration is accompanied by early infiltration of microglia, upregulation of phagocytic molecules in microglia, and presentation of “eat-me” signals on mutated rods. On live-cell imaging, infiltrating microglia interact dynamically with photoreceptors via motile processes and engage in rapid phagocytic engulfment of non-apoptotic rods. Microglial contribution to rod demise is evidenced by morphological and functional amelioration of photoreceptor degeneration following genetic ablation of retinal microglia. Molecular inhibition of microglial phagocytosis using the vitronectin receptor antagonist cRGD also improved morphological and functional parameters of degeneration. Our findings highlight primary microglial phagocytosis as a contributing mechanism underlying cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and implicate microglia as a potential cellular target for therapy. PMID:26139610

  17. MUTYH promotes oxidative microglial activation and inherited retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nakatake, Shunji; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Morioka, Noriko; Tachibana, Takashi; Fujiwara, Kohta; Yoshida, Noriko; Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Yoshida, Shigeo; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited disease that causes blindness. The biological and cellular mechanisms by which oxidative stress mediates neuronal cell death are largely unknown. In a mouse model of RP (rd10 mice), we show that oxidative DNA damage activates microglia through MutY homolog–mediated (MUYTH-mediated) base excision repair (BER), thereby exacerbating retinal inflammation and degeneration. In the early stage of retinal degeneration, oxidative DNA damage accumulated in the microglia and caused single-strand breaks (SSBs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. In contrast, Mutyh deficiency in rd10 mice prevented SSB formation in microglia, which in turn suppressed microglial activation and photoreceptor cell death. Moreover, Mutyh-deficient primary microglial cells attenuated the polarization to the inflammatory and cytotoxic phenotype under oxidative stress. Thus, MUTYH-mediated BER in oxidative microglial activation may be a novel target to dampen the disease progression in RP and other neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27699246

  18. Microglial Priming and Alzheimer's Disease: A Possible Role for (Early) Immune Challenges and Epigenetics?

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Heinen, Yvonne; van Dam, Anne-Marie; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis that is, to a large extent, mediated by microglia. Given the tight interaction between the immune system and the brain, peripheral immune challenges can profoundly affect brain function. Indeed, both preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that an aberrant inflammatory response can elicit behavioral impairments and cognitive deficits, especially when the brain is in a vulnerable state, e.g., during early development, as a result of aging, or under disease conditions like AD. However, how exactly peripheral immune challenges affect brain function and whether this is mediated by aberrant microglial functioning remains largely elusive. In this review, we hypothesize that: (1) systemic immune challenges occurring during vulnerable periods of life can increase the propensity to induce later cognitive dysfunction and accelerate AD pathology; and (2) that "priming" of microglial cells is instrumental in mediating this vulnerability. We highlight how microglia can be primed by both neonatal infections as well as by aging, two periods of life during which microglial activity is known to be specifically upregulated. Lasting changes in (the ratios of) specific microglial phenotypes can result in an exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine response to subsequent inflammatory challenges. While the resulting changes in brain function are initially transient, a continued and/or excess release of such pro-inflammatory cytokines can activate various downstream cellular cascades known to be relevant for AD. Finally, we discuss microglial priming and the aberrant microglial response as potential target for treatment strategies for AD. PMID:27555812

  19. Activation of serotonin receptors promotes microglial injury-induced motility but attenuates phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Grietje; Matyash, Vitali; Pannasch, Ulrike; Mamer, Lauren; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Microglia, the brain immune cell, express several neurotransmitter receptors which modulate microglial functions. In this project we studied the impact of serotonin receptor activation on distinct microglial properties as serotonin deficiency not only has been linked to a number of psychiatric disease like depression and anxiety but may also permeate from the periphery through blood-brain barrier openings seen in neurodegenerative disease. First, we tested the impact of serotonin on the microglial response to an insult caused by a laser lesion in the cortex of acute slices from Cx3Cr1-GFP-/+ mice. In the presence of serotonin the microglial processes moved more rapidly towards the laser lesion which is considered to be a chemotactic response to ATP. Similarly, the chemotactic response of cultured microglia to ATP was also enhanced by serotonin. Quantification of phagocytic activity by determining the uptake of microspheres showed that the amoeboid microglia in slices from early postnatal animals or microglia in culture respond to serotonin application with a decreased phagocytic activity whereas we could not detect any significant change in ramified microglia in situ. The presence of microglial serotonin receptors was confirmed by patch-clamp experiments in culture and amoeboid microglia and by qPCR analysis of RNA isolated from primary cultured and acutely isolated adult microglia. These data suggest that microglia express functional serotonin receptors linked to distinct microglial properties. PMID:22198120

  20. Frataxin Deficiency Promotes Excess Microglial DNA Damage and Inflammation that Is Rescued by PJ34

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Shan, Yuxi; Raetz, Alan; David, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino

    2016-01-01

    An inherited deficiency in the frataxin protein causes neurodegeneration of the dorsal root ganglia and Friedreich's ataxia (FA). Frataxin deficiency leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in cell and animal models; however, the cause of the inflammatory changes, and especially what causes brain microglial activation is unclear. Here we investigated: 1) the mechanism by which frataxin deficiency activates microglia, 2) whether a brain-localized inflammatory stimulus provokes a greater microglial response in FA animal models, and 3) whether an anti-inflammatory treatment improves their condition. Intracerebroventricular administration of LPS induced higher amounts of microglial activation in the FA mouse model vs controls. We also observed an increase in oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G) and the DNA repair proteins MUTYH and PARP-1 in cerebellar microglia of FA mutant mice. We hypothesized that frataxin deficiency increases DNA damage and DNA repair genes specifically in microglia, activating them. siRNA-mediated frataxin knockdown in microglial BV2 cells clearly elevated DNA damage and the expression of DNA repair genes MUTYH and PARP-1. Frataxin knockdown also induced a higher level of PARP-1 in MEF cells, and this was suppressed in MUTYH-/- knockout cells. Administration of the PARP-1 inhibitor PJ34 attenuated the microglial activation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of LPS. The combined administration of LPS and angiotensin II provoke an even stronger activation of microglia and neurobehavioral impairment. PJ34 treatment attenuated the neurobehavioral impairments in FA mice. These results suggest that the DNA repair proteins MUTYH and PARP-1 may form a pathway regulating microglial activation initiated by DNA damage, and inhibition of microglial PARP-1 induction could be an important therapeutic target in Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:26954031

  1. Serum metabolites from walnut-fed aged rats attenuate stress-induced neurotoxicity in BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shift in equilibrium towards excess reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production from innate antioxidant defenses in brain is a critical factor in the declining neural function and cognitive deficit accompanying age. Previous studies from our laboratory have reported that walnuts, rich in poly...

  2. [Nle4, D-Phe7]-α-MSH Inhibits Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)2- and TLR4-Induced Microglial Activation and Promotes a M2-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Carniglia, Lila; Ramírez, Delia; Durand, Daniela; Saba, Julieta; Caruso, Carla; Lasaga, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an anti-inflammatory peptide, proved to be beneficial in many neuroinflammatory disorders acting through melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R). We previously determined that rat microglial cells express MC4R and that NDP-MSH, an analog of α-MSH, induces PPAR-γ expression and IL-10 release in these cells. Given the great importance of modulation of glial activation in neuroinflammatory disorders, we tested the ability of NDP-MSH to shape microglial phenotype and to modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. Primary rat cultured microglia were stimulated with NDP-MSH followed by the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 or the TLR4 agonist LPS. NDP-MSH alone induced expression of the M2a/M2c marker Ag1 and reduced expression of the M2b marker Il-4rα and of the LPS receptor Tlr4. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits p65 and c-Rel was induced by LPS and these effects were partially prevented by NDP-MSH. NDP-MSH reduced LPS- and Pam3CSK4-induced TNF-α release but did not affect TLR-induced IL-10 release. Also, NDP-MSH inhibited TLR2-induced HMGB1 translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm and TLR2-induced phagocytic activity. Our data show that NDP-MSH inhibits TLR2- and TLR4-mediated proinflammatory mechanisms and promotes microglial M2-like polarization, supporting melanocortins as useful tools for shaping microglial activation towards an alternative immunomodulatory phenotype. PMID:27359332

  3. Thrombin induces neurodegeneration and microglial activation in the cortex in vivo and in vitro: proteolytic and non-proteolytic actions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Yong; Park, Keun Woo; Jin, Byung Kwan

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the role of thrombin and its receptors in neurodegeneration and microglial activation. Immunocytochemical evidence indicated that intracortical injection of thrombin resulted in a significant loss of neurons and the activation of microglia in the rat cortex in vivo. Reverse transcription PCR and double-label immunocytochemistry further demonstrated the early and transient expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic factors as well as their colocalization within activated microglia. The thrombin-induced loss of cortical neurons was partially blocked by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and by NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, indicating that the activation of microglia is involved in the neurotoxicity of thrombin in the cortex in vivo. In addition, thrombin activated cortical microglia in culture, as indicated by the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and produced cell death in microglia-free, neuron-enriched cortical cultures. However, agonist peptides for thrombin receptors, including protease-activated receptor-1 (SFLLRN), -3 (TFRGAP), and -4 (GYPGKF), failed to activate microglia and were not neurotoxic in culture. Intriguingly, morphological and biochemical evidence indicated that thrombin-induced neurotoxicity but not microglial activation was prevented by hirudin, a specific inhibitor of thrombin. Collectively, the present data suggest that a non-proteolytic activity of thrombin activates microglia and that the proteolytic activity mediates its neurotoxicity. PMID:16777064

  4. Ontogeny of rat thymic dendritic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, A; Varas, A; Alonso, L; Gómez de Moral, M; Zapata, A G

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we have combined various in vivo and in vitro approaches to analyse the appearance and development throughout ontogeny and postnatal life of the dendritic cell (DC) populations of rat thymus. The in situ ultrastructural study demonstrated immature interdigitating cells (IDC)/DC in the thymus of 17-day-old embryonic rats, but thymic stromal cell cultures from 16-day-old fetal rats seemed to contain DC precursors which, after several days in culture, produced strongly class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-positive, mature DC. According to morphology and class II MHC expression we also defined three different DC populations in the late embryonic rat thymus; two of them, which remained in the adult rat thymus, could represent distinct developmental stages within the IDC/DC lineage. The third cell subset might be involved in a massive process of negative selection, presumably occurring at the end of fetal life in the rat thymus. In supporting the existence of thymic DC subpopulations, we also demonstrated a differential expression of various cell markers, including CD4, CD8, CD25, adhesion molecules and the antigen recognized by OX44 monoclonal antibody (mAb), on thymic DC during both embryonic and adult life. Their possible significance for the attributed functions to thymic DC are discussed extensively. Images Figure 1 Figures 3-5 Figures 6-9 PMID:7913915

  5. Microglial Hv1 proton channel promotes cuprizone-induced demyelination through oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junli; Tian, Daishi; Murugan, Madhuvika; Eyo, Ukpong B.; Dreyfus, Cheryl F.; Wang, Wei; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in inflammatory cells including microglia plays an important role in demyelination and free radical-mediated tissue injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanism underlying microglial ROS production and demyelination remains largely unknown. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in the brain. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of microglial Hv1 proton channels in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination, a model for MS. Following cuprizone exposure, wild-type mice presented obvious demyelination, decreased myelin basic protein expression, loss of mature oligodendrocytes, and impaired motor coordination in comparison to mice on a normal chow diet. However, mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1−/−) are partially protected from demyelination and motor deficits compared with those in wild-type mice. These rescued phenotypes in Hv1−/− mice in cuprizone-induced demyelination is accompanied by reduced ROS production, ameliorated microglial activation, increased oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (NG2) proliferation, and increased number of mature oligodendrocytes. These results demonstrate that the Hv1 proton channel is required for cuprizone-induced microglial oxidative damage and subsequent demyelination. Our study suggests that the microglial Hv1 proton channel is a unique target for controlling NOX-dependent ROS production in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:26173779

  6. Fractalkine receptor deficiency impairs microglial and neuronal responsiveness to chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Milior, Giampaolo; Lecours, Cynthia; Samson, Louis; Bisht, Kanchan; Poggini, Silvia; Pagani, Francesca; Deflorio, Cristina; Lauro, Clotilde; Alboni, Silvia; Limatola, Cristina; Branchi, Igor; Tremblay, Marie-Eve; Maggi, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Chronic stress is one of the most relevant triggering factors for major depression. Microglial cells are highly sensitive to stress and, more generally, to environmental challenges. However, the role of these brain immune cells in mediating the effects of stress is still unclear. Fractalkine signaling - which comprises the chemokine CX3CL1, mainly expressed by neurons, and its receptor CX3CR1, almost exclusively present on microglia in the healthy brain - has been reported to critically regulate microglial activity. Here, we investigated whether interfering with microglial function by deleting the Cx3cr1 gene affects the brain's response to chronic stress. To this purpose, we housed Cx3cr1 knockout and wild-type adult mice in either control or stressful environments for 2weeks, and investigated the consequences on microglial phenotype and interactions with synapses, synaptic transmission, behavioral response and corticosterone levels. Our results show that hampering neuron-microglia communication via the CX3CR1-CX3CL1 pathway prevents the effects of chronic unpredictable stress on microglial function, short- and long-term neuronal plasticity and depressive-like behavior. Overall, the present findings suggest that microglia-regulated mechanisms may underlie the differential susceptibility to stress and consequently the vulnerability to diseases triggered by the experience of stressful events, such as major depression.

  7. Microglial Hv1 proton channel promotes cuprizone-induced demyelination through oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junli; Tian, Daishi; Murugan, Madhuvika; Eyo, Ukpong B; Dreyfus, Cheryl F; Wang, Wei; Wu, Long-Jun

    2015-10-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in inflammatory cells including microglia plays an important role in demyelination and free radical-mediated tissue injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanism underlying microglial ROS production and demyelination remains largely unknown. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in the brain. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of microglial Hv1 proton channels in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination, a model for MS. Following cuprizone exposure, wild-type mice presented obvious demyelination, decreased myelin basic protein expression, loss of mature oligodendrocytes, and impaired motor coordination in comparison to mice on a normal chow diet. However, mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1(-/-) ) are partially protected from demyelination and motor deficits compared with those in wild-type mice. These rescued phenotypes in Hv1(-/-) mice in cuprizone-induced demyelination is accompanied by reduced ROS production, ameliorated microglial activation, increased oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (NG2) proliferation, and increased number of mature oligodendrocytes. These results demonstrate that the Hv1 proton channel is required for cuprizone-induced microglial oxidative damage and subsequent demyelination. Our study suggests that the microglial Hv1 proton channel is a unique target for controlling NOX-dependent ROS production in the pathogenesis of MS.

  8. Sweepers in the CNS: Microglial Migration and Phagocytosis in the Alzheimer Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mariko; Suzumura, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Microglia are multifunctional immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), accumulation of glial cells, gliosis, occurs in the lesions. The role of accumulated microglia in the pathophysiology of AD is still controversial. When neuronal damage occurs, microglia exert diversified functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and production of various cytokines and chemokines. Among these, microglial phagocytosis of unwanted neuronal debris is critical to maintain the healthy neuronal networks. Microglia express many surface receptors implicated in phagocytosis. It has been suggested that the lack of microglial phagocytosis worsens pathology of AD and induces memory impairment. The present paper summarizes recent evidences on implication of microglial chemotaxis and phagocytosis in AD pathology and discusses the mechanisms related to chemotaxis toward injured neurons and phagocytosis of unnecessary debris.

  9. Homologous recombination in rat germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Takehashi, Masanori; Sanbo, Makoto; Morioka, Yuka; Tanaka, Takashi; Morimoto, Hiroko; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Shinohara, Takashi

    2011-07-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only stem cells in the body with germline potential, which makes them an attractive target for germline modification. We previously showed the feasibility of homologous recombination in mouse SSCs and produced knockout (KO) mice by exploiting germline stem (GS) cells, i.e., cultured spermatogonia with SSC activity. In this study, we report the successful homologous recombination in rat GS cells, which can be readily established by their ability to form germ cell colonies on culture plates whose surfaces are hydrophilic and neutrally charged and thus limit somatic cell binding. We established a drug selection protocol for GS cells under hypoxic conditions. The frequency of the homologous recombination of the Ocln gene was 4.2% (2 out of 48 clones). However, these GS cell lines failed to produce offspring following xenogeneic transplantation into mouse testes and microinsemination, suggesting that long-term culture and drug selection have a negative effect on GS cells. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate the feasibility of gene targeting in rat GS cells and pave the way toward the generation of KO rats.

  10. Receptors, Ion Channels, and Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Microglial Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Christian; Attwell, David

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS, play a pivotal role in brain injury and disease. Microglia are extremely motile; their highly ramified processes constantly survey the brain parenchyma, and they respond promptly to brain damage with targeted process movement toward the injury site. Microglia play a key role in brain development and function by pruning synapses during development, phagocytosing apoptotic newborn neurons, and regulating neuronal activity by direct microglia-neuron or indirect microglia-astrocyte-neuron interactions, which all depend on their process motility. This review highlights recent discoveries about microglial dynamics, focusing on the receptors, ion channels, and signaling pathways involved. PMID:25855789

  11. Connexins and Pannexins: New Insights into Microglial Functions and Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo-Gómez, Rosario; Labra, Valeria C.; Orellana, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, microglia adopt a resting phenotype associated with the production of anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. In response to a wide variety of insults, these cells shift to an activated phenotype that is necessary for the proper restoration of brain homeostasis. However, when the intensity of a threat is relatively high, microglial activation worsens the progression of damage rather than providing protection, with potentially significant consequences for neuronal survival. Coordinated interactions among microglia and other brain cells, including astrocytes and neurons, are critical for the development of timely and optimal inflammatory responses in the brain parenchyma. Tissue synchronization is in part mediated by connexins and pannexins, which are protein families that form different plasma membrane channels to communicate with neighboring cells. Gap junction channels (which are exclusively formed by connexins in vertebrates) connect the cytoplasm of contacting cells to coordinate electrical and metabolic coupling. Hemichannels (HCs) and pannexons (which are formed by connexins and pannexins, respectively) communicate the intra- and extracellular compartments and serve as diffusion pathways for the exchange of ions and small molecules. In this review article, we discuss the available evidence concerning the functional expression and regulation of connexin- and pannexin-based channels in microglia and their contributions to microglial function and dysfunction. Specifically, we focus on the possible implications of these channels in microglia-to-microglia, microglia-to-astrocyte and neuron-to-microglia interactions in the inflamed brain. PMID:27713688

  12. Opposite effects of bone marrow-derived cells transplantation in MPTP-rat model of Parkinson's disease: a comparison study of mononuclear and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Capitelli, Caroline Santos; Lopes, Carolina Salomão; Alves, Angélica Cristina; Barbiero, Janaína; Oliveira, Lucas Felipe; da Silva, Valdo José Dias; Vital, Maria Aparecida Barbato Frazão

    2014-01-01

    The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) animal model is a useful tool to study Parkinson's disease (PD) and was used in the present study to investigate the potential beneficial as well as deleterious effects of systemic bone-marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) or mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation. MPTP administration resulted in a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and motor impairment in the open field test 24 h after surgery. Three and 7 days after receiving the lesion, the injured animals showed remaining motor impairment compared to the sham groups along with a significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The MPTP-lesioned rats treated with BMMCs immediately after lesioning exhibited motor impairment similar to the MPTP-saline group, though they presented a significantly higher loss of TH-ir cells in the SNpc compared to the MPTP-saline group. This increased loss of TH-ir cells in the SNpc was not observed when BMMC transplantation was performed 24 h after MPTP administration. In contrast, in the MPTP animals treated early with systemic BM-MSCs, no loss of TH-ir cells was observed. BMMCs and BM-MSCs previously labeled with CM-DiI cell tracker were found in brain sections of all transplanted animals. In addition, cells expressing CD45, an inflammatory white blood cell marker, were found in all brain sections analyzed and were more abundant in the MPTP-BMMC animals. In these animals, Iba1+ microglial cells showed also marked morphological changes indicating increased microglial activation. These results show that systemic BMMC transplantation did not ameliorate or prevent the lesion induced by MPTP. Instead, BMMC transplantation in MPTP-lesioned rats accelerated dopaminergic neuronal damage and induced motor impairment and immobility behavior. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when considering cell therapy using BMMCs to treat PD. However, systemic

  13. Microglial tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) triggers neuronal apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flavin, M P; Zhao, G; Ho, L T

    2000-02-15

    Several CNS disorders feature microglial activation. Microglia are known to have both restorative and cytotoxic capabilities. Neuronal apoptosis has been noted after an acute insult such as ischemia. Microglia may participate in this event. We previously showed that conditioned medium (CM) harvested from peritoneal macrophages or from activated microglia triggered apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. We wished to characterize the factor responsible for triggering neuronal death. Quiescent microglia produced CM that did not disrupt hippocampal neurons. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia produced CM which resulted in neuronal death. This effect was blocked by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, by tPA STOP, and by co-incubation with tPA antibody. Recombinant human tPA exaggerated the neurotoxic effects of microglial CM, while tPA alone was toxic only at very high concentrations. This in vitro system, which probably excludes any significant impact of microglial free radicals, suggests that microglial tPA may contribute significantly to hippocampal neuronal death.

  14. Regulation of microglial migration, phagocytosis, and neurite outgrowth by HO-1/CO signaling.

    PubMed

    Scheiblich, Hannah; Bicker, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    Clearance of infected and apoptotic neuronal corpses during inflammatory conditions is a fundamental process to create a favorable environment for neuronal recovery. Microglia are the resident immune cells and the predominant phagocytic cells of the CNS, showing a multitude of cellular responses upon activation. Here, we investigated in functional assays how the CO generating enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) influences BV-2 microglial migration, clearance of debris, and neurite outgrowth of human NT2 neurons. Stimulation of HO-1 activity attenuated microglial migration in a scratch wound assay, and phagocytosis in a cell culture model of acute inflammation comprising lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia and apoptosis-induced neurons. Application of a CO donor prevented the production of NO during LPS stimulation, and reduced microglial migration and engulfment of neuronal debris. LPS-activated microglia inhibited neurite elongation of human neurons without requiring direct cell-cell surface contact. The inhibition of neurite outgrowth was totally reversed by application of exogenous CO or increased internal CO production through supply of the substrate hemin to HO. Our results point towards a vital cytoprotective role of HO-1/CO signaling after microglial activation. In addition, they support a therapeutic potential of CO releasing chemical agents in the treatment of excessive inflammatory conditions in the CNS.

  15. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of surface antigens including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and complement type 3 (CR3) receptors on microglial cells in the corpus callosum in postnatal rat brain were investigated. When LPS was injected intravenously (i.v.) in 1-d-old rats, the immunostaining of callosal amoeboid microglial cells with OX-18 directed against MHC class I antigen was enhanced 24 h after the injection in comparison with the controls. The expression of MHC class II (Ia) antigen on the same cell type as shown by its immunoreactivity with OX-6 was also elicited especially after 2 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of LPS. Thus 7 d after a single i.p. injection of LPS into 1-d-old rats, only a few OX-6 positive cells showing a moderate staining reaction were observed in the corpus callosum. The immunoreactivity diminished 14 d after the injection. However, in rats receiving 2 successive i.p. injections of LPS at 1 and 4 d of age and killed 7 d after the 1st injection, a significant number of intensely stained OX-6 positive amoeboid microglial cells were observed in the corpus callosum. The expression of MHC class II antigens induced by 2 injections of LPS was sustained at least until d 14 when the callosal ramified microglial cells, known to be derived from gradual metamorphic transformation of amoeboid microglia, still exhibited intense immunoreactivity with OX-6. The effect of LPS on the expression of CR3 on amoeboid microglial cells was not obvious after a single injection, but the immunoreactivity with OX-42 was also augmented in rats given 2 i.p. administration of LPS into rats at 1 an 4 d of age. It is concluded from this study that the expression of MHC class I and class II antigens on amoeboid microglial cells in corpus callosum was upregulated and induced respectively after i.v. or i.p. injection of LPS into early postnatal rats. Although relatively fewer in number when compared with OX-18 and OX-42

  16. Isoflurane attenuates mouse microglial engulfment induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ possibly by inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jung-Hee; Wang, Zhi; Fan, Dan; Han, Sung-Hee; Do, Sang-Hwan; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2016-09-28

    Microglial engulfment is a basic function to clean up dead and injured cells and invaders, such as bacteria. This study was designed to assess the effects of isoflurane on the microglial engulfment induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in these effects. C8-B4 microglial cells were exposed to 1, 2, and 3% isoflurane at 2 h after the initiation of LPS (100 ng/ml) and IFN-γ (1 ng/ml) stimulation. Fluorescent immunostaining was performed to assess the percentage of cells with engulfment of fluorescent microspheres after stimulation for 24 h. P38 and phosphorylated p38 were determined by Western blotting. Isoflurane concentration dependently decreased microglial engulfment stimulated by LPS and IFN-γ. LPS and IFN-γ increased the phosphorylated p38 in microglial cells. This upregulation was decreased by isoflurane. SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, abolished the LPS-induced and IFN-γ-induced increase of engulfment activity, whereas anisomycin, a p38 MAPK activator, partly reversed the isoflurane-decreased microglial engulfment activity. These results suggest that isoflurane reduces LPS-induced and IFN-γ-induced microglial engulfment and that these effects may be mediated by inhibiting p38 MAPK. PMID:27513199

  17. Protective effects of bupivacaine against kainic acid-induced seizure and neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan Ming; Wu, Chia Chan; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Su Jane

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of glutamate is a critical element in the neuropathology of epilepsy, and bupivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, has been shown to inhibit the release of glutamate in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals. This study investigated whether bupivacaine produces antiseizure and antiexcitotoxic effects using a kainic acid (KA) rat model, an animal model used for temporal lobe epilepsy, and excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments. The results showed that administering bupivacaine (0.4 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to rats 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of KA (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and reduced the seizure score. In addition, bupivacaine attenuated KA-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the inhibition of microglial activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, bupivacaine shortened the latency of escaping onto the platform in the Morris water maze learning performance test. Collectively, these data suggest that bupivacaine has therapeutic potential for treating epilepsy.

  18. Microglial Priming and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Possible Role for (Early) Immune Challenges and Epigenetics?

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Heinen, Yvonne; van Dam, Anne-Marie; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis that is, to a large extent, mediated by microglia. Given the tight interaction between the immune system and the brain, peripheral immune challenges can profoundly affect brain function. Indeed, both preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that an aberrant inflammatory response can elicit behavioral impairments and cognitive deficits, especially when the brain is in a vulnerable state, e.g., during early development, as a result of aging, or under disease conditions like AD. However, how exactly peripheral immune challenges affect brain function and whether this is mediated by aberrant microglial functioning remains largely elusive. In this review, we hypothesize that: (1) systemic immune challenges occurring during vulnerable periods of life can increase the propensity to induce later cognitive dysfunction and accelerate AD pathology; and (2) that “priming” of microglial cells is instrumental in mediating this vulnerability. We highlight how microglia can be primed by both neonatal infections as well as by aging, two periods of life during which microglial activity is known to be specifically upregulated. Lasting changes in (the ratios of) specific microglial phenotypes can result in an exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine response to subsequent inflammatory challenges. While the resulting changes in brain function are initially transient, a continued and/or excess release of such pro-inflammatory cytokines can activate various downstream cellular cascades known to be relevant for AD. Finally, we discuss microglial priming and the aberrant microglial response as potential target for treatment strategies for AD. PMID:27555812

  19. Neurons and astroglia govern microglial endotoxin tolerance through macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated ERK1/2 signals.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shijun; Li, Chia-Ling; Chen, Shih-Heng; Hu, Chih-Fen; Chung, Yi-Lun; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Qingshan; Lu, Ru-Band; Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-07-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a reduced responsiveness of innate immune cells like macrophages/monocytes to an endotoxin challenge following a previous encounter with the endotoxin. Although ET in peripheral systems has been well studied, little is known about ET in the brain. The present study showed that brain immune cells, microglia, being different from peripheral macrophages, displayed non-cell autonomous mechanisms in ET formation. Specifically, neurons and astroglia were indispensable for microglial ET. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted from these non-immune cells was essential for governing microglial ET. Neutralization of M-CSF deprived the neuron-glia conditioned medium of its ability to enable microglia to form ET when microglia encountered two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments. Recombinant M-CSF protein rendered enriched microglia refractory to the second LPS challenge leading to microglial ET. Activation of microglial M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR; also known as CSF1R) and the downstream ERK1/2 signals was responsible for M-CSF-mediated microglial ET. Endotoxin-tolerant microglia in neuron-glia cultures displayed M2-like polarized phenotypes, as shown by upregulation of M2 marker Arg-1, elevated production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, and decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1β). Endotoxin-tolerant microglia protected neurons against LPS-elicited inflammatory insults, as shown by reduced neuronal damages in LPS pre-treatment group compared with the group without LPS pre-treatment. Moreover, while neurons and astroglia became injured during chronic neuroinflammation, microglia failed to form ET. Thus, this study identified a distinct non-cell autonomous mechanism of microglial ET. Interactions of M-CSF secreted by neurons and astroglia with microglial M-CSFR programed microglial ET. Loss of microglial ET could be an important

  20. Neurons and astroglia govern microglial endotoxin tolerance through macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated ERK1/2 signals

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shijun; Li, Chia-Ling; Chen, Shih-Heng; Hu, Chih-Fen; Chung, Yi-Lun; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Qingshan; Lu, Ru-Band; Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a reduced responsiveness of innate immune cells like macrophages/monocytes to an endotoxin challenge following a previous encounter with the endotoxin. Although ET in peripheral systems has been well studied, little is known about ET in the brain. The present study showed that brain immune cells, microglia, being different from peripheral macrophages, displayed non-cell autonomous mechanisms in ET formation. Specifically, neurons and astroglia were indispensable for microglial ET. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted from these non-immune cells was essential for governing microglial ET. Neutralization of M-CSF deprived the neuron-glia conditioned medium of its ability to enable microglia to form ET when microglia encountered two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments. Recombinant M-CSF protein rendered enriched microglia refractory to the second LPS challenge leading to microglial ET. Activation of microglial M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR; also known as CSF1R) and the downstream ERK1/2 signals was responsible for M-CSF-mediated microglial ET. Endotoxin-tolerant microglia in neuron-glia cultures displayed M2-like polarized phenotypes, as shown by upregulation of M2 marker Arg-1, elevated production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, and decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1β). Endotoxin-tolerant microglia protected neurons against LPS-elicited inflammatory insults, as shown by reduced neuronal damages in LPS pre-treatment group compared with the group without LPS pre-treatment. Moreover, while neurons and astroglia became injured during chronic neuroinflammation, microglia failed to form ET. Thus, this study identified a distinct non-cell autonomous mechanism of microglial ET. Interactions of M-CSF secreted by neurons and astroglia with microglial M-CSFR programed microglial ET. Loss of microglial ET could be an important

  1. Neurons and astroglia govern microglial endotoxin tolerance through macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated ERK1/2 signals.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shijun; Li, Chia-Ling; Chen, Shih-Heng; Hu, Chih-Fen; Chung, Yi-Lun; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Qingshan; Lu, Ru-Band; Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-07-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a reduced responsiveness of innate immune cells like macrophages/monocytes to an endotoxin challenge following a previous encounter with the endotoxin. Although ET in peripheral systems has been well studied, little is known about ET in the brain. The present study showed that brain immune cells, microglia, being different from peripheral macrophages, displayed non-cell autonomous mechanisms in ET formation. Specifically, neurons and astroglia were indispensable for microglial ET. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted from these non-immune cells was essential for governing microglial ET. Neutralization of M-CSF deprived the neuron-glia conditioned medium of its ability to enable microglia to form ET when microglia encountered two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments. Recombinant M-CSF protein rendered enriched microglia refractory to the second LPS challenge leading to microglial ET. Activation of microglial M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR; also known as CSF1R) and the downstream ERK1/2 signals was responsible for M-CSF-mediated microglial ET. Endotoxin-tolerant microglia in neuron-glia cultures displayed M2-like polarized phenotypes, as shown by upregulation of M2 marker Arg-1, elevated production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, and decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1β). Endotoxin-tolerant microglia protected neurons against LPS-elicited inflammatory insults, as shown by reduced neuronal damages in LPS pre-treatment group compared with the group without LPS pre-treatment. Moreover, while neurons and astroglia became injured during chronic neuroinflammation, microglia failed to form ET. Thus, this study identified a distinct non-cell autonomous mechanism of microglial ET. Interactions of M-CSF secreted by neurons and astroglia with microglial M-CSFR programed microglial ET. Loss of microglial ET could be an important

  2. Lack of the scavenger receptor CD36 alters microglial phenotypes after neonatal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; Faustino, Joel; Woo, Moon-Sook; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2016-01-01

    The stage of brain development at the time of stroke has a major impact on the pathophysiological mechanisms of ischemic damage, including the neuroinflammatory response. Microglial cells have been shown to contribute to acute and sub-chronic injury in adult stroke models, whereas in neonatal rodents we showed that microglial cells serve as endogenous neuroprotectants early following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), limiting neuroinflammation and injury. In the neonate, microglial depletion or lack of the scavenger receptor CD36 exacerbates injury. In this study we asked if lack of CD36 affects microglial phenotypes after neonatal stroke. Using RT-PCR we characterized the patterns of gene expression in microglia isolated from injured regions following acute tMCAO in postnatal day 10 mice and showed that expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, including Toll-like receptors (TLR), remains largely unaffected in activated microglia in injured regions. Using multiple biochemical assays we demonstrated that lack of CD36 alters several functions of microglia in acutely injured neonatal brain: it further enhances accumulation of the chemokine MCP-1, affects the number of CD11b+/CD45+ cells, along with protein expression of its co-receptor, TLR2, but does not affect accumulation of superoxide in microglia or the cytokines TNFα and IL-1β in injured regions. PMID:26223273

  3. Targeting Microglial Activation in Stroke Therapy: Pharmacological Tools and Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Won, S.J.; Xu, Y.; Swanson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by critical reductions in blood flow to brain or spinal cord. Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, and they respond to stroke by assuming an activated phenotype that releases cytotoxic cytokines, reactive oxygen species, proteases, and other factors. This acute, innate immune response may be teleologically adapted to limit infection, but in stroke this response can exacerbate injury by further damaging or killing nearby neurons and other cell types, and by recruiting infiltration of circulating cytotoxic immune cells. The microglial response requires hours to days to fully develop, and this time interval presents a clinically accessible time window for initiating therapy. Because of redundancy in cytotoxic microglial responses, the most effective therapeutic approach may be to target the global gene expression changes involved in microglial activation. Several classes of drugs can do this, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, minocycline and other PARP inhibitors, corticosteroids, and inhibitors of TNFα and scavenger receptor signaling. Here we review the pre-clinical studies in which these drugs have been used to suppress microglial activation after stroke. We also review recent advances in the understanding of sex differences in the CNS inflammatory response, as these differences are likely to influence the efficacy of drugs targeting post-stroke brain inflammation. PMID:24372213

  4. Galantamine-induced amyloid-{beta} clearance mediated via stimulation of microglial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Saeki, Mana; Terada, Maki; Kagitani, Sachiko; Kitamura, Risa; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Maelicke, Alfred; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shimohama, Shun

    2010-12-17

    Reduction of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease (AD), and microglial Aβ phagocytosis is noted as an Aβ clearance system in brains. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for symptomatic treatment of AD. Galantamine also acts as an allosterically potentiating ligand (APL) for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). APL-binding site is located close to but distinct from that for acetylcholine on nAChRs, and FK1 antibody specifically binds to the APL-binding site without interfering with the acetylcholine-binding site. We found that in human AD brain, microglia accumulated on Aβ deposits and expressed α7 nAChRs including the APL-binding site recognized with FK1 antibody. Treatment of rat microglia with galantamine significantly enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis, and acetylcholine competitive antagonists as well as FK1 antibody inhibited the enhancement. Thus, the galantamine-enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis required the combined actions of an acetylcholine competitive agonist and the APL for nAChRs. Indeed, depletion of choline, an acetylcholine-competitive α7 nAChR agonist, from the culture medium impeded the enhancement. Similarly, Ca(2+) depletion or inhibition of the calmodulin-dependent pathways for the actin reorganization abolished the enhancement. These results suggest that galantamine sensitizes microglial α7 nAChRs to choline and induces Ca(2+) influx into microglia. The Ca(2+)-induced intracellular signaling cascades may then stimulate Aβ phagocytosis through the actin reorganization. We further demonstrated that galantamine treatment facilitated Aβ clearance in brains of rodent AD models. In conclusion, we propose a further advantage of galantamine in clinical AD treatment and microglial nAChRs as a new therapeutic target. PMID:20947502

  5. Deficiency of the microglial receptor CX3CR1 impairs postnatal functional development of thalamocortical synapses in the barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Hoshiko, Maki; Arnoux, Isabelle; Avignone, Elena; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Audinat, Etienne

    2012-10-24

    Accumulative evidence indicates that microglial cells influence the normal development of brain synapses. Yet, the mechanisms by which these immune cells target maturating synapses and influence their functional development at early postnatal stages remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the role of CX3CR1, a microglial receptor activated by the neuronal chemokine CX3CL1 (or fractalkine) which controls key functions of microglial cells. In the whisker-related barrel field of the mouse somatosensory cortex, we show that the recruitment of microglia to the sites where developing thalamocortical synapses are concentrated (i.e., the barrel centers) occurs only after postnatal day 5 and is controlled by the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway. Indeed, at this developmental stage fractalkine is overexpressed within the barrels and CX3CR1 deficiency delays microglial cell recruitment into the barrel centers. Functional analysis of thalamocortical synapses shows that CX3CR1 deficiency also delays the functional maturation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors which normally occurs at these synapses between the first and second postnatal week. These results show that reciprocal interactions between neurons and microglial cells control the functional maturation of cortical synapses. PMID:23100431

  6. Apocyanin, a Microglial NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Prevents Dopaminergic Neuronal Degeneration in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neha; Nehru, Bimla

    2016-07-01

    Microglia-associated inflammatory processes have been strongly implicated in the development and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, microglia are activated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and become chronic source of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex is responsible for extracellular as well as intracellular production of ROS by microglia and its expression is upregulated in PD. Therefore, targeting NADPH oxidase complex activation using an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, i.e., apocyanin seems to be an effective approach. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of apocyanin in a LPS-induced PD model. LPS (5 μg) was injected intranigral and apocyanin was administered daily at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.) during the experiment. LPS when injected into the substantia nigra (SN) reproduced the characteristic hallmark features of PD in rats. It elicited an inflammatory response characterized by glial cell activation (Iba-1, GFAP). Furthermore, LPS upregulated the gene expression of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), iNOS, and gp91PHOX and resulted in an elevated total ROS production as well as NADPH oxidase activity. Subsequently, this resulted in dopaminergic loss as depicted by decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression with substantial loss in neurotransmitter dopamine and its metabolites, whereas treatment with apocyanin significantly reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1-positive cells in LPS-treated animals. It also mitigated microglial activation-induced inflammatory response and elevation in NADPH oxidase activity, thus reducing the extracellular as well as intracellular ROS production. The present study indicated that targeting NADPH oxidase can inhibit microglial activation and reduce a broad spectrum of toxic factors generation (i.e., cytokines, ROS, and reactive nitrogen species [RNS

  7. Rat neurosphere cells protect axotomized rat retinal ganglion cells and facilitate their regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J; Zwart, Isabel; Samaranayake, Asanka Nuwan; Al-Allaf, Faisal; Girdlestone, John; Mehmet, Huseyin; Navarrete, Roberto; Navarrete, Cristina; Jen, Ling-Sun

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the ability of a population of rat neural stem and precursor cells derived from rat embryonic spinal cord to protect injured neurons in the rat central nervous system (CNS). The neonatal rat optic pathway was used as a model of CNS injury, whereby retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were axotomized by lesion of the lateral geniculate nucleus one day after birth. Neural stem and precursor cells derived from expanded neurospheres (NS) were transplanted into the lesion site at the time of injury. Application of Fast Blue tracer dye to the lesion site demonstrated that significant numbers of RGCs survived at 4 and 8 weeks in animals that received a transplant, with an average of 28% survival, though in some individual cases survival was greater than 50%. No RGCs survived in animals that received a lesion alone. Furthermore, labeled RGCs were also observed when Fast Blue was applied to the superior colliculus (SC) at 4 weeks, suggesting that neurosphere cells also facilitated RGC to regenerate to their normal target. Transplanted cells did not migrate or express neural markers after transplantation, and secreted several neurotrophic factors in vitro. We conclude that NS cells can protect injured CNS neurons and promote their regeneration. These effects are not attributable to cell replacement, and may be mediated via secretion of neurotrophic factors. Thus, neuroprotection by stem cell populations may be a more viable approach for treatment of CNS disorders than cell replacement therapy.

  8. Resveratrol attenuates hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Qingrui; Gao, Yan; Liu, Guangheng; Xiu, Meng; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Dexiang

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in Polygonum cuspidatum and has been found to afford neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation in the brain. Activated microglia can secrete various pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic mediators, which may contribute to hypoxic brain injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of resveratrol in attenuating hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity via its anti-inflammatory actions through in vitro models of the BV-2 microglial cell line and primary microglia. We found that resveratrol significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced microglial activation and reduced subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. In addition, resveratrol inhibited the hypoxia-induced degradation of IκB-alpha and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB protein. Hypoxia-induced ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation was also strongly inhibited by resveratrol, whereas resveratrol had no effect on hypoxia-stimulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Importantly, treating primary cortical neurons with conditioned medium (CM) from hypoxia-stimulated microglia induced neuronal apoptosis, which was reversed by CM co-treated with resveratrol. Taken together, resveratrol exerts neuroprotection against hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity through its anti-inflammatory effects in microglia. These effects were mediated, at least in part, by suppressing the activation of NF-ĸB, ERK and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26225925

  9. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Matthew K. Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

  10. Suppression of Alzheimer-associated inflammation by microglial prostaglandin-E2 EP4 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Woodling, Nathaniel S; Wang, Qian; Priyam, Prachi G; Larkin, Paul; Shi, Ju; Johansson, Jenny U; Zagol-Ikapitte, Irene; Boutaud, Olivier; Andreasson, Katrin I

    2014-04-23

    A persistent and nonresolving inflammatory response to accumulating Aβ peptide species is a cardinal feature in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In response to accumulating Aβ peptide species, microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, generate a toxic inflammatory response that accelerates synaptic and neuronal injury. Many proinflammatory signaling pathways are linked to progression of neurodegeneration. However, endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways capable of suppressing Aβ-induced inflammation represent a relatively unexplored area. Here we report that signaling through the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) EP4 receptor potently suppresses microglial inflammatory responses to Aβ42 peptides. In cultured microglial cells, EP4 stimulation attenuated levels of Aβ42-induced inflammatory factors and potentiated phagocytosis of Aβ42. Microarray analysis demonstrated that EP4 stimulation broadly opposed Aβ42-driven gene expression changes in microglia, with enrichment for targets of IRF1, IRF7, and NF-κB transcription factors. In vivo, conditional deletion of microglial EP4 in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 (APP-PS1) mice conversely increased inflammatory gene expression, oxidative protein modification, and Aβ deposition in brain at early stages of pathology, but not at later stages, suggesting an early anti-inflammatory function of microglial EP4 signaling in the APP-PS1 model. Finally, EP4 receptor levels decreased significantly in human cortex with progression from normal to AD states, suggesting that early loss of this beneficial signaling system in preclinical AD development may contribute to subsequent progression of pathology.

  11. Quetiapine Inhibits Microglial Activation by Neutralizing Abnormal STIM1-Mediated Intercellular Calcium Homeostasis and Promotes Myelin Repair in a Cuprizone-Induced Mouse Model of Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanzhi; Liu, Shubao; Tian, Yanping; Wu, Xiyan; He, Yangtao; Li, Chengren; Namaka, Michael; Kong, Jiming; Li, Hongli; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been considered as a crucial process in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and psychiatric disorders. Several antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been shown to display inhibitory effects on microglial activation in vitro, possibly through the suppression of elevated intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. However, the exact underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of quetiapine (Que), an atypical APD, on microglial activation. We utilized a chronic cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination mouse model to determine the direct effect of Que on microglial activation. Our results showed that treatment with Que significantly reduced recruitment and activation of microglia/macrophage in the lesion of corpus callosum and promoted remyelination after CPZ withdrawal. Our in vitro studies also confirmed the direct effect of Que on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of microglial N9 cells, whereby Que significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Moreover, we demonstrated that pretreatment with Que, neutralized the up-regulation of STIM1 induced by LPS and declined both LPS and thapsigargin (Tg)-induced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Finally, we found that pretreatment with Que significantly reduced the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit from cytoplasm to nuclei in LPS-activated primary microglial cells. Overall, our data suggested that Que may inhibit microglial activation by neutralization of the LPS-induced abnormal STIM1-mediated intercellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:26732345

  12. Pharmacological targeting of CSF1R inhibits microglial proliferation and prevents the progression of Alzheimer’s-like pathology

    PubMed Central

    Olmos-Alonso, Adrian; Schetters, Sjoerd T. T.; Sri, Sarmi; Askew, Katharine; Mancuso, Renzo; Vargas-Caballero, Mariana; Holscher, Christian; Perry, V. Hugh

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation and activation of microglial cells is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions. This mechanism is regulated by the activation of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), thus providing a target that may prevent the progression of conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, the study of microglial proliferation in Alzheimer’s disease and validation of the efficacy of CSF1R-inhibiting strategies have not yet been reported. In this study we found increased proliferation of microglial cells in human Alzheimer’s disease, in line with an increased upregulation of the CSF1R-dependent pro-mitogenic cascade, correlating with disease severity. Using a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s-like pathology (APPswe, PSEN1dE9; APP/PS1 mice) we define a CSF1R-dependent progressive increase in microglial proliferation, in the proximity of amyloid-β plaques. Prolonged inhibition of CSF1R in APP/PS1 mice by an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor (GW2580) resulted in the blockade of microglial proliferation and the shifting of the microglial inflammatory profile to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Pharmacological targeting of CSF1R in APP/PS1 mice resulted in an improved performance in memory and behavioural tasks and a prevention of synaptic degeneration, although these changes were not correlated with a change in the number of amyloid-β plaques. Our results provide the first proof of the efficacy of CSF1R inhibition in models of Alzheimer’s disease, and validate the application of a therapeutic strategy aimed at modifying CSF1R activation as a promising approach to tackle microglial activation and the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26747862

  13. Pharmacological targeting of CSF1R inhibits microglial proliferation and prevents the progression of Alzheimer's-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Alonso, Adrian; Schetters, Sjoerd T T; Sri, Sarmi; Askew, Katharine; Mancuso, Renzo; Vargas-Caballero, Mariana; Holscher, Christian; Perry, V Hugh; Gomez-Nicola, Diego

    2016-03-01

    The proliferation and activation of microglial cells is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions. This mechanism is regulated by the activation of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), thus providing a target that may prevent the progression of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the study of microglial proliferation in Alzheimer's disease and validation of the efficacy of CSF1R-inhibiting strategies have not yet been reported. In this study we found increased proliferation of microglial cells in human Alzheimer's disease, in line with an increased upregulation of the CSF1R-dependent pro-mitogenic cascade, correlating with disease severity. Using a transgenic model of Alzheimer's-like pathology (APPswe, PSEN1dE9; APP/PS1 mice) we define a CSF1R-dependent progressive increase in microglial proliferation, in the proximity of amyloid-β plaques. Prolonged inhibition of CSF1R in APP/PS1 mice by an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor (GW2580) resulted in the blockade of microglial proliferation and the shifting of the microglial inflammatory profile to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Pharmacological targeting of CSF1R in APP/PS1 mice resulted in an improved performance in memory and behavioural tasks and a prevention of synaptic degeneration, although these changes were not correlated with a change in the number of amyloid-β plaques. Our results provide the first proof of the efficacy of CSF1R inhibition in models of Alzheimer's disease, and validate the application of a therapeutic strategy aimed at modifying CSF1R activation as a promising approach to tackle microglial activation and the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Pomegranate Polyphenols and Extract Inhibit Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cell Activity and Microglial Activation In Vitro and in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease123

    PubMed Central

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia. This study aimed to determine whether a dietary intervention could attenuate microgliosis. Memory was assessed in 12-mo-old male amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice via Barnes maze testing followed by division into either a control-fed group provided free access to normal chow and water or a treatment group provided free access to normal chow and drinking water supplemented with pomegranate extract (6.25 mL/L) for 3 mo followed by repeat Barnes maze testing for both groups. Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P < 0.05) and their control-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). Brains of the 3-mo study pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P < 0.05) and lower nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) transcriptional activity (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Brains of the 3-mo pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P < 0.05) and Aβ plaque deposition (P < 0.05) compared with 12-mo-old mice. An additional behavioral study again used 12-mo-old male APP/PS1 mice tested by T-maze followed by division into a control group provided with free access to normal chow and sugar supplemented drinking water or a treatment group provided with normal chow and pomegranate extract–supplemented drinking water (6.25 mL/L) for 1 mo followed by repeat T-maze testing in both groups. One month of pomegranate feeding increased spontaneous alternations versus control-fed mice (P < 0.05). Cell culture experiments verified that 2 polyphenol components of pomegranate extract, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated NFAT activity in a reporter

  15. Minocycline Transiently Reduces Microglia/Macrophage Activation but Exacerbates Cognitive Deficits Following Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in the Neonatal Rat.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Lauren A; Huh, Jimmy W; Raghupathi, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Elevated microglial/macrophage-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid of infant victims of abusive head trauma (AHT) suggest that these cells play a role in the pathophysiology of the injury. In a model of AHT in 11-day-old rats, 3 impacts (24 hours apart) resulted in spatial learning and memory deficits and increased brain microglial/macrophage reactivity, traumatic axonal injury, neuronal degeneration, and cortical and white-matter atrophy. The antibiotic minocycline has been effective in decreasing injury-induced microglial/macrophage activation while simultaneously attenuating cellular and functional deficits in models of neonatal hypoxic ischemia, but the potential for this compound to rescue deficits after impact-based trauma to the immature brain remains unexplored. Acute minocycline administration in this model of AHT decreased microglial/macrophage reactivity in the corpus callosum of brain-injured animals at 3 days postinjury, but this effect was lost by 7 days postinjury. Additionally, minocycline treatment had no effect on traumatic axonal injury, neurodegeneration, tissue atrophy, or spatial learning deficits. Interestingly, minocycline-treated animals demonstrated exacerbated injury-induced spatial memory deficits. These results contrast with previous findings in other models of brain injury and suggest that minocycline is ineffective in reducing microglial/macrophage activation and ameliorating injury-induced deficits following repetitive neonatal traumatic brain injury. PMID:26825312

  16. Blast exposure causes dynamic microglial/macrophage responses and microdomains of brain microvessel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huber, B R; Meabon, J S; Hoffer, Z S; Zhang, J; Hoekstra, J G; Pagulayan, K F; McMillan, P J; Mayer, C L; Banks, W A; Kraemer, B C; Raskind, M A; McGavern, D B; Peskind, E R; Cook, D G

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to blast overpressure (BOP) is associated with behavioral, cognitive, and neuroimaging abnormalities. We investigated the dynamic responses of cortical vasculature and its relation to microglia/macrophage activation in mice using intravital two-photon microscopy following mild blast exposure. We found that blast caused vascular dysfunction evidenced by microdomains of aberrant vascular permeability. Microglial/macrophage activation was specifically associated with these restricted microdomains, as evidenced by rapid microglial process retraction, increased ameboid morphology, and escape of blood-borne Q-dot tracers that were internalized in microglial/macrophage cell bodies and phagosome-like compartments. Microdomains of cortical vascular disruption and microglial/macrophage activation were also associated with aberrant tight junction morphology that was more prominent after repetitive (3×) blast exposure. Repetitive, but not single, BOPs also caused TNFα elevation two weeks post-blast. In addition, following a single BOP we found that aberrantly phosphorylated tau rapidly accumulated in perivascular domains, but cleared within four hours, suggesting it was removed from the perivascular area, degraded, and/or dephosphorylated. Taken together these findings argue that mild blast exposure causes an evolving CNS insult that is initiated by discrete disturbances of vascular function, thereby setting the stage for more protracted and more widespread neuroinflammatory responses.

  17. Microglial Contact Prevents Excess Depolarization and Rescues Neurons from Excitotoxicity123

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Go; Wake, Hiroaki; Akiyoshi, Ryohei; Miyamoto, Akiko; Eto, Kei; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Moorhouse, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microglia survey and directly contact neurons in both healthy and damaged brain, but the mechanisms and functional consequences of these contacts are not yet fully elucidated. Combining two-photon imaging and patch clamping, we have developed an acute experimental model for studying the role of microglia in CNS excitotoxicity induced by neuronal hyperactivity. Our model allows us to simultaneously examine the effects of repetitive supramaximal stimulation on axonal morphology, neuronal membrane potential, and microglial migration, using cortical brain slices from Iba-1 eGFP mice. We demonstrate that microglia exert an acute and highly localized neuroprotective action under conditions of neuronal hyperactivity. Evoking repetitive action potentials in individual layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons elicited swelling of axons, but not dendrites, which was accompanied by a large, sustained depolarization of soma membrane potential. Microglial processes migrated to these swollen axons in a mechanism involving both ATP and glutamate release via volume-activated anion channels. This migration was followed by intensive microglial wrapping of affected axons and, in some cases, the removal of axonal debris that induced a rapid soma membrane repolarization back to resting potentials. When the microglial migration was pharmacologically blocked, the activity-induced depolarization continued until cell death ensued, demonstrating that the microglia–axon contact served to prevent pathological depolarization of the soma and maintain neuronal viability. This is a novel aspect of microglia surveillance: detecting, wrapping, and rescuing neuronal soma from damage due to excessive activity. PMID:27390772

  18. Age related changes in microglial phenotype vary between CNS regions: grey versus white matter differences.

    PubMed

    Hart, Adam D; Wyttenbach, Andreas; Perry, V Hugh; Teeling, Jessica L

    2012-07-01

    Subtle regional differences in microglial phenotype exist in the adult mouse brain. We investigated whether these differences were amplified during ageing and following systemic challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We studied microglial morphology and phenotype in young (4mo) and aged (21mo) C57/BL6 mice using immunohistochemistry and quantified the expression levels of surface molecules on microglia in white and grey matter along the rostral-caudal neuraxis. We detected significant regional, age dependent differences in microglial phenotypes, with the microglia of white matter and caudal areas of the CNS exhibiting greater upregulation of CD11b, CD68, CD11c, F4/80 and FcγRI than grey matter and rostral CNS areas. Upregulation of CD11c with age was restricted to the white matter, as was the appearance of multinucleated giant cells. Systemic LPS caused a subtle upregulation of FcγRI after 24 h, but the other markers examined were not affected. Burrowing behaviour and static rod assays were used to assess hippocampal and cerebellar integrity. Aged mice exhibited exaggerated and prolonged burrowing deficits following systemic LPS injection, while in the absence of an inflammatory challenge aged mice performed significantly worse than young mice in the static rod test. Taken together, these findings show that the effects of age on microglial phenotype and functional integrity vary significantly between CNS compartments, as do, albeit to a lesser extent, the effects of systemic LPS.

  19. Iron overload in cultured rat myocardial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauminger, E. R.; Iancu, T. C.; Link, G.; Pinson, A.; Hershko, C.

    1987-03-01

    In order to characterize the nature of iron deposits associated with iron overload in heart cells, Mössbauer spectroscopy and ultrastructural studies were performed in iron loaded heart cell cultures obtained from newborn rats grown in a medium containing 20 μg iron/ml. Maximal uptake of iron after 24 hrs was about 15%. Not more than 20% of the iron in these cells was stored in ferritin and the rest was found in smaller trivalent iron aggregates. With time there was a shift from smaller to larger aggregates. In chase samples there was only a very limited spontaneous release of iron from heart cells. Desferrioxamine, an iron chelating drug, removed a major part of the smaller aggregates, but did not remove ferritin iron.

  20. Early Postnatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Leads to Enhanced Neurogenesis and Impaired Communicative Functions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xuemei; Roller, Anna; Carter, Kathleen; Paul, Ian; Bhatt, Abhay J.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. More specifically, we found that microglial M1 markers iNOS and MHC-II were induced at relatively low levels in a regionally restricted manner, whereas M2 markers CD206 and TGFβ were strongly upregulated in a sub-set of activated microglia in multiple white and gray matter structures. This unique microglial response was associated with a marked decrease in naturally occurring apoptosis, but an increase in cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. LPS exposure also leads to a significant increase in oligodendrocyte lineage population without causing discernible hypermyelination. Moreover, LPS-exposed rats exhibited significant impairments in communicative and cognitive functions. These findings suggest a possible role of M2-like microglial activation in abnormal neural development that may underlie ASD-like behavioral impairments. PMID:27723799

  1. Neuronal expression of CD22: novel mechanism for inhibiting microglial proinflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Mott, Ryan T; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Town, Terrence; Mori, Takashi; Vendrame, Martina; Zeng, Jin; Ehrhart, Jared; Mullan, Michae; Tan, Jun

    2004-05-01

    Although considered an immunologically privileged site, the central nervous system (CNS) can display significant inflammatory responses, which may play a pathogenic role in a number of neurological diseases. Microglia appear to be particularly important for initiating and sustaining CNS inflammation. These cells exist in a quiescent form in the normal CNS, but acquire macrophage-like properties (including active phagocytosis, upregulation of proteins necessary for antigen presentation, and production of proinflammatory cytokines) after stimulation with inflammatory substances such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recent studies have focused on elucidating the role of neurons in the regulation of microglial inflammatory responses. In the present study, we demonstrate, using neuron-microglial cocultures, that neurons are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by microglia. This inhibition appears to be dependent on secretion of substances at axon terminals, as treatment with the presynaptic calcium channel blocker omega-conotoxin abolishes this inhibitory effect. Moreover, we show that conditioned medium from neuronal cultures similarly inhibits microglial TNF-alpha production, which provides additional evidence that neurons secrete inhibitory substances. We previously demonstrated that the transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase CD45 plays an important role in negatively regulating microglial activation. The recent characterization of CD22 as an endogenous ligand of this receptor led us to investigate whether neurons express this protein. Indeed, we were able to demonstrate CD22 mRNA and protein expression in cultured neurons and mouse brain, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and antibody-based techniques. Furthermore, we show that neurons secrete CD22, which functions as an inhibitor of microglial proinflammatory cytokine production.

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency impairs microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, Labchan; Tegenge, Million Adane; Shrestha, Shiva; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Malik, Adeel; Mithal, Aditya; Hosmane, Suneil; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-12-01

    Microglia are rapidly activated in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to a variety of injuries, including inflammation, trauma, and stroke. In addition to modulation of the innate immune response, a key function of microglia is the phagocytosis of dying cells and cellular debris, which can facilitate recovery. Despite emerging evidence that axonal debris can pose a barrier to regeneration of new axons in the CNS, little is known of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie clearance of degenerating CNS axons. We utilize a custom micropatterned microfluidic system that enables robust microglial-axon co-culture to explore the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. We find that pharmacologic and genetic disruption of TLR4 blocks induction of the Type-1 interferon response and inhibits phagocytosis of axon debris in vitro. Moreover, TLR4-dependent microglial clearance of unmyelinated axon debris facilitates axon outgrowth. In vivo, microglial phagocytosis of CNS axons undergoing Wallerian degeneration in a dorsal root axotomy model is impaired in adult mice in which TLR4 has been deleted. Since purinergic receptors can influence TLR4-mediated signaling, we also explored a role for the microglia P2 receptors and found that the P2X7R contributes to microglial clearance of degenerating axons. Overall, we identify TLR4 as a key player in axonal debris clearance by microglia, thus creating a more permissive environment for axonal outgrowth. Our findings have significant implications for the development of protective and regenerative strategies for the many inflammatory, traumatic, and neurodegenerative conditions characterized by CNS axon degeneration.

  3. Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in athymic (nude) rats.

    PubMed

    Grzelak, I; Olszewski, W L; Fossum, S; Engeset, A

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo natural killer (NK) cell activity of congenitally athymic, nude (ATH) rats and of normal, euthymic (EUTH) rats was compared. We found: a) a higher level of in vitro NK cell activity in blood, spleen and lymph nodes of ATH rats compared with their heterozygous littermates, b) in the spleen the number of NK lytic units per organ was not higher in ATH compared with EUTH whereas it was significantly higher in lymph nodes, c) a lack of age-dependence of in vitro NK cell activity tested in culture with heat inactivated fetal calf serum, d) a higher rate of in vivo elimination of target tumor cells in 4-week ATH rats compared with EUTH rats, e) an age-dependent decrease in the rate of in vivo target cell elimination in both groups, and finally, f) an age-dependent increase in the inhibitory effect of autologous serum on NK cell activity in vitro in both groups. These findings show that the blood and lymphoid organs of athymic rats contain a substantially higher proportion of NK cells, active both in vitro and in vivo against K562 tumor cells, than their euthymic littermates. In the spleen this increased proportion can be attributed to the lack of T cells, whereas in the ATH rat lymph nodes there is an absolute increase in NK cell activity, and that the decrease of cytotoxicity in vivo with age reflects the increasing inhibitory properties of autologous serum both in nude and in normal rats.

  4. Frequency Responses of Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cloherty, Shaun L.; Hung, Yu-Shan; Kameneva, Tatiana; Ibbotson, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    There are 15–20 different types of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in the mammalian retina, each encoding different aspects of the visual scene. The mechanism by which post-synaptic signals from the retinal network generate spikes is determined by each cell’s intrinsic electrical properties. Here we investigate the frequency responses of morphologically identified rat RGCs using intracellular injection of sinusoidal current waveforms, to assess their intrinsic capabilities with minimal contributions from the retinal network. Recorded cells were classified according to their morphological characteristics (A, B, C or D-type) and their stratification (inner (i), outer (o) or bistratified) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Most cell types had low- or band-pass frequency responses. A2, C1 and C4o cells were band-pass with peaks of 15–30 Hz and low-pass cutoffs above 56 Hz (A2 cells) and ~42 Hz (C1 and C4o cells). A1 and C2i/o cells were low-pass with peaks of 10–15 Hz (cutoffs 19–25 Hz). Bistratified D1 and D2 cells were also low-pass with peaks of 5–10 Hz (cutoffs ~16 Hz). The least responsive cells were the B2 and C3 types (peaks: 2–5 Hz, cutoffs: 8–11 Hz). We found no difference between cells stratifying in the inner and outer IPL (i.e., ON and OFF cells) or between cells with large and small somas or dendritic fields. Intrinsic physiological properties (input resistance, spike width and sag) had little impact on frequency response at low frequencies, but account for 30–40% of response variability at frequencies >30 Hz. PMID:27341669

  5. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina

    PubMed Central

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and “hot spot” extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26469804

  6. HIV-1 Tat Protein Increases Microglial Outward K+ Current and Resultant Neurotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianuo; Xu, Peng; Collins, Cory; Liu, Han; Zhang, Jingdong; Keblesh, James P.; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    Microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Increasing evidence indicates the voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are involved in the regulation of microglia function, prompting us to hypothesize Kv channels may also be involved in microglia-mediated neurotoxic activity in HIV-1-infected brain. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the involvement of Kv channels in the response of microglia to HIV-1 Tat protein. Treatment of rat microglia with HIV-1 Tat protein (200 ng/ml) resulted in pro-inflammatory microglial activation, as indicated by increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, which were accompanied by enhanced outward K+ current and Kv1.3 channel expression. Suppression of microglial Kv1.3 channel activity, either with Kv1.3 channel blockers Margatoxin, 5-(4-Phenoxybutoxy)psoralen, or broad-spectrum K+ channel blocker 4-Aminopyridine, or by knockdown of Kv1.3 expression via transfection of microglia with Kv1.3 siRNA, was found to abrogate the neurotoxic activity of microglia resulting from HIV-1 Tat exposure. Furthermore, HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis was attenuated with the application of supernatant collected from K+ channel blocker-treated microglia. Lastly, the intracellular signaling pathways associated with Kv1.3 were investigated and enhancement of microglial Kv1.3 was found to correspond with an increase in Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. These data suggest targeting microglial Kv1.3 channels may be a potential new avenue of therapy for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders. PMID:23738010

  7. Titration of murine leukemia viruses with rat cell line RFL.

    PubMed

    Koga, M

    1977-08-01

    Normal rat embryo cell (RFL) from syncytia after infection with murine leukemia virus. The assay for counting the number of syncytium foci produced in RFL cells is a sensitive method for a direct infectivity assay of murine leukemia virus.

  8. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  9. Microglial activation, recruitment and phagocytosis as linked phenomena in ferric oxide nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Mo-Tao; Li, Ming; Wang, Hua-Jian; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Feng, Wei-Yue; Zhao, Yu-Liang

    2011-08-10

    Microglia as the resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) play a pivotal role in the innate immune responses of CNS. Understanding the reactions of microglia cells to nanoparticle exposure is important in the exploration of neurobiology of nanoparticles. Here we provide a systemic mapping of microglia and the corresponding pathological changes in olfactory-transport related brain areas of mice with Fe(2)O(3)-nanoparticle intranasal treatment. We showed that intranasal exposure of Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticle could lead to pathological alteration in olfactory bulb, hippocampus and striatum, and caused microglial proliferation, activation and recruitment in these areas, especially in olfactory bulb. Further experiments with BV2 microglial cells showed the exposure to Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles could induce cells proliferation, phagocytosis and generation of ROS and NO, but did not cause significant release of inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Our results indicate that microglial activation may act as an alarm and defense system in the processes of the exogenous nanoparticles invading and storage in brain.

  10. Cell culture models using rat primary alveolar type I cells

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Montgomery, David W.; Merkle, Carrie J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of cell culture models using primary alveolar type I (AT I) cells. The purpose of this study was to develop cell culture models using rat AT I cells and microvascular endothelial cells from the lung (MVECL). Two types of model systems were developed: single and co-culture systems; additionally a 3-dimensional model system was developed. Pure AT I cell (96.3 ±2.7%) and MVECL (97.9 ±1.1 %) preparations were used. AT I cell morphology, mitochondrial number and distribution, actin filament arrangement and number of apoptotic cells at confluence, and telomere attrition were characterized. AT I cells maintained their morphometric characteristics through at least population doubling (PD) 35, while demonstrating telomere attrition through at least PD 100. Furthermore, AT I cells maintained the expression of their specific markers, T1α and AQ-5, through PD 42. For the co-cultures, AT I cells were grown on the top and MVECL were grown on the bottom of fibronectin coated 24 well Transwell Fluroblok™ filter inserts. Neither cell type transmigrated the 1 micron pores. Additionally AT I cells were grown in a thick layer of Matrigel® to create a 3-dimensional model in which primary AT I cells form ring-like structures that resemble an alveolus. The development of these model systems offers the opportunities to investigate AT I cell cells and their interactions with MVECL in response to pharmacological interventions and in the processes of disease, repair and regeneration. PMID:21624488

  11. Pavlovian Conditioning of Rat Mucosal Mast Cells to Secrete Rat Mast Cell Protease II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Glenda; Marshall, Jean; Perdue, Mary; Siegel, Shepard; Bienenstock, John

    1989-01-01

    Antigen (egg albumin) injections, which stimulate mucosal mast cells to secrete mediators, were paired with an audiovisual cue. After reexposure to the audiovisual cue, a mediator (rat mast cell protease II) was measured with a sensitive and specific assay. Animals reexposed to only the audiovisual cue released a quantity of protease not significantly different from animals reexposed to both the cue and the antigen; these groups released significantly more protease than animals that had received the cue and antigen in a noncontingent manner. The results support a role for the central nervous system as a functional effector of mast cell function in the allergic state.

  12. Transepithelial chemotaxis of rat peritoneal exudate cells.

    PubMed

    Evans, C W; Taylor, J E; Walker, J D; Simmons, N L

    1983-12-01

    The migration of peritoneal exudate (PE) cells into plain Millipore filters mounted in Boyden chambers occurs under random, chemokinetic and chemotactic conditions. Significant migration of such cells in vivo, however, involves both transendothelial and transepithelial penetration and occurs predominantly under pathological conditions where chemotactic agents are presumed to be present in gradient form. When Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells are grown as a confluent monolayer on the Millipore filter of a Boyden chamber, transepithelial migration is seen only under chemotactic conditions thus modelling in vivo behaviour more effectively. The MDCK cell line exists as 2 variant strains which model different regions of the mammalian nephron. Strain I MDCK cells share features of the distal and collecting tubules and have relatively high junctional resistance (greater than 1k omega cm2). Strain II MDCK cells model the proximal segment of the nephron and have relatively low junctional resistance (c. 70 omega cm2). We have found that PE cells penetrate the less resistant strain II MDCK monolayer at a faster rate (as assessed by leading front migration) than they penetrate the tighter strain I monolayer. We have also utilized the electrophysiological features of MDCK monolayers to monitor transepithelial penetration. Our electrophysiological data indicate that rat PE cells penetrate MDCK monolayers of either strain by a transjunctional route with consequent reversible dissolution of the junctional complex. This extracellular path of PE cell migration was confirmed by ultrastructural observations. The extent of junctional dissolution and the delay in re-establishment of monolayer integrity (as assessed by electrophysiological means) are related to the concentration of PE cells added to the MDCK monolayer. Brief treatment (10 min) of the MDCK monolayer with the cation chelating agent EDTA also disrupts monolayer integrity, although its re-establishment is

  13. Macroglia-microglia interactions via TSPO signaling regulates microglial activation in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minhua; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Lian; Ma, Wenxin; Rodriguez, Ignacio R; Fariss, Robert N; Wong, Wai T

    2014-03-01

    Chronic retinal inflammation in the form of activated microglia and macrophages are implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases of the retina, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. However, molecular biomarkers and targeted therapies for immune cell activation in these disorders are currently lacking. To address this, we investigated the involvement and role of translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker of microglial and astrocyte gliosis in brain degeneration, in the context of retinal inflammation. Here, we find that TSPO is acutely and specifically upregulated in retinal microglia in separate mouse models of retinal inflammation and injury. Concomitantly, its endogenous ligand, diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI), is upregulated in the macroglia of the mouse retina such as astrocytes and Müller cells. In addition, we discover that TSPO-mediated signaling in microglia via DBI-derived ligands negatively regulates features of microglial activation, including reactive oxygen species production, TNF-α expression and secretion, and microglial proliferation. The inducibility and effects of DBI-TSPO signaling in the retina reveal a mechanism of coordinated macroglia-microglia interactions, the function of which is to limit the magnitude of inflammatory responses after their initiation, facilitating a return to baseline quiescence. Our results indicate that TSPO is a promising molecular marker for imaging inflammatory cell activation in the retina and highlight DBI-TSPO signaling as a potential target for immodulatory therapies.

  14. Papaverine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation by suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yalong; Mu, Yalin; Wang, Kun; Xu, Ke; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Yu; Luo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of papaverine (PAP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and its possible mechanisms. Materials and methods BV2 microglial cells were first pretreated with PAP (0, 0.4, 2, 10, and 50 μg/mL) and then received LPS stimulation. Transcription and production of proinflammatory factors (IL1β, TNFα, iNOS, and COX-2) were used to evaluate microglial activation. The transcriptional changes undergone by M1/M2a/M2b markers were used to evaluate phenotype transformation of BV2 cells. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were used to detect the location and expression of P65 and p-IKK in the presence or absence of PAP pretreatment. Results Pretreatment with PAP significantly inhibited the expression of IL1β and TNFα, and suppressed the transcription of M1/M2b markers Il1rn, Socs3, Nos2 and Ptgs2, but upregulated the transcription of M2a markers (Arg1 and Mrc1) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PAP pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of p-IKK and inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65 after LPS stimulation. Conclusion PAP not only suppressed the LPS-induced microglial activity by inhibiting transcription/production of proinflammatory factors, but also promoted the transformation of activated BV2 cells from cytotoxic phenotypes (M1/M2b) to a neuroprotective phenotype (M2a). These effects were probably mediated by NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, it would be a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27013863

  15. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. PMID:27601894

  16. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD.

  17. Crocin Upregulates CX3CR1 Expression by Suppressing NF-κB/YY1 Signaling and Inhibiting Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bochang; Huo, Fuquan; Zhu, Zhongqiao; Xu, Zhiguo; Dang, Xiaojie; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Xinguang

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve fibers. Microglial activation has been shown to be deleterious to RGCs and may participate in the progression of glaucoma. Crocin, one of the major active ingredients in saffron, has been found to inhibit microglial activation. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether crocin can inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and to clarify the mechanisms involved. The influence of crocin on primary RGCs and LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells survival was determined by the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays, or by flow cytometry. BV2 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of crocin for 2 h followed by 1 μg/mL LPS stimulation. Microglial markers and pro-inflammatory mediators were assessed by real-time PCR, western blot and ELISA. Furthermore, CX3CR1 expression was detected and the underlying mechanism was examined. The concentrations of crocin ranged from 0.1 to 1 μM, and did not show any cytotoxicity in RGC and BV2 cells. After crocin pretreatment, the expression of microglial markers (CD11b and Iba-1) and pro-inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and TNF-α) induced by LPS were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, CX3CR1 expression was remarkably increased by crocin via the suppression of NF-κB/Yin Yang 1 (YY1) signaling in BV2 cells. In conclusion, crocin effectively suppresses microglial activation and upregulates CX3CR1 expression by suppressing NF-κB/YY1 signaling. PMID:27084772

  18. Microglial Signaling in Chronic Pain with a Special Focus on Caspase 6, p38 MAP Kinase, and Sex Dependence.

    PubMed

    Berta, T; Qadri, Y J; Chen, G; Ji, R R

    2016-09-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells in the spinal cord and brain. Mounting evidence suggests that activation of microglia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic pain, including chronic orofacial pain. In particular, microglia contribute to the transition from acute pain to chronic pain, as inhibition of microglial signaling reduces pathologic pain after inflammation, nerve injury, and cancer but not baseline pain. As compared with inflammation, nerve injury induces much more robust morphologic activation of microglia, termed microgliosis, as shown by increased expression of microglial markers, such as CD11b and IBA1. However, microglial signaling inhibitors effectively reduce inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain, arguing against the importance of morphologic activation of microglia in chronic pain sensitization. Importantly, microglia enhance pain states via secretion of proinflammatory and pronociceptive mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 1β and 18, and brain-derived growth factor. Mechanistically, these mediators have been shown to enhance excitatory synaptic transmission and suppress inhibitory synaptic transmission in the pain circuits. While early studies suggested a predominant role of microglia in the induction of chronic pain, further studies have supported a role of microglia in the maintenance of chronic pain. Intriguingly, recent studies show male-dominant microglial signaling in some neuropathic pain and inflammatory pain states, although both sexes show identical morphologic activation of microglia after nerve injury. In this critical review, we provide evidence to show that caspase 6-a secreted protease that is expressed in primary afferent axonal terminals surrounding microglia-is a robust activator of microglia and induces profound release of tumor necrosis factor α from microglia via activation of p38 MAP kinase. The authors also show that microglial caspase 6/p38 signaling is male dominant in some

  19. Suppression of Alzheimer-Associated Inflammation by Microglial Prostaglandin-E2 EP4 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Woodling, Nathaniel S.; Wang, Qian; Priyam, Prachi G.; Larkin, Paul; Shi, Ju; Johansson, Jenny U.; Zagol-Ikapitte, Irene; Boutaud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A persistent and nonresolving inflammatory response to accumulating Aβ peptide species is a cardinal feature in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In response to accumulating Aβ peptide species, microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, generate a toxic inflammatory response that accelerates synaptic and neuronal injury. Many proinflammatory signaling pathways are linked to progression of neurodegeneration. However, endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways capable of suppressing Aβ-induced inflammation represent a relatively unexplored area. Here we report that signaling through the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) EP4 receptor potently suppresses microglial inflammatory responses to Aβ42 peptides. In cultured microglial cells, EP4 stimulation attenuated levels of Aβ42-induced inflammatory factors and potentiated phagocytosis of Aβ42. Microarray analysis demonstrated that EP4 stimulation broadly opposed Aβ42-driven gene expression changes in microglia, with enrichment for targets of IRF1, IRF7, and NF-κB transcription factors. In vivo, conditional deletion of microglial EP4 in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 (APP-PS1) mice conversely increased inflammatory gene expression, oxidative protein modification, and Aβ deposition in brain at early stages of pathology, but not at later stages, suggesting an early anti-inflammatory function of microglial EP4 signaling in the APP-PS1 model. Finally, EP4 receptor levels decreased significantly in human cortex with progression from normal to AD states, suggesting that early loss of this beneficial signaling system in preclinical AD development may contribute to subsequent progression of pathology. PMID:24760848

  20. Botanical Polyphenols Mitigate Microglial Activation and Microglia-Induced Neurotoxicity: Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Dennis Y; Simonyi, Agnes; Cui, Jiankun; Lubahn, Dennis B; Gu, Zezong; Sun, Grace Y

    2016-09-01

    Microglia play a significant role in the generation and propagation of oxidative/nitrosative stress, and are the basis of neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Upon stimulation by endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), these cells release pro-inflammatory factors which can exert harmful effects on surrounding neurons, leading to secondary neuronal damage and cell death. Our previous studies demonstrated the effects of botanical polyphenols to mitigate inflammatory responses induced by LPS, and highlighted an important role for cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) upstream of the pro-inflammatory pathways (Chuang et al. in J Neuroinflammation 12(1):199, 2015. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0419-0 ). In this study, we investigate the action of botanical compounds and assess whether suppression of cPLA2 in microglia is involved in the neurotoxic effects on neurons. Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to test the neurotoxicity of conditioned medium from stimulated microglial cells, and WST-1 assay was used to assess for the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells. Botanicals such as quercetin and honokiol (but not cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, 3CG) were effective in inhibiting LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and phosphorylation of cPLA2. Conditioned medium from BV-2 cells stimulated with LPS or IFNγ caused neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells. Decrease in cell viability could be ameliorated by pharmacological inhibitors for cPLA2 as well as by down-regulating cPLA2 with siRNA. Botanicals effective in inhibition of LPS-induced NO and cPLA2 phosphorylation were also effective in ameliorating microglial-induced neurotoxicity. Results demonstrated cytotoxic factors from activated microglial cells to cause damaging effects to neurons and potential use of botanical polyphenols to ameliorate the neurotoxic effects. PMID:27339657

  1. Effects of melatonin on cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHOONG HYUN; PARK, JOON HA; AHN, JI HYEON; WON, MOO-HO

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, has previously been associated with cognitive impairment and neuronal cell damage. Melatonin is a well-known free radical scavenger and antioxidant; therefore, the present study investigated the protective effects of melatonin against CCH-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal cell death in a CCH rat model, which was generated via permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). The rats in the 2VO group exhibited markedly increased escape latencies in a Morris water maze test, as compared with the rats in the sham group. In addition, increased neuronal cell damage was detected in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 2VO rats, as compared with the rats in the sham group. Treatment of the 2VO rats with melatonin significantly reduced the escape latency and neuronal cell damage, and was associated with reduced levels of malondialdehyde, microglial activation, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the ischemic hippocampus. The results of the present study suggest that melatonin may attenuate CCH-induced cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuronal cell damage by decreasing oxidative stress, microglial activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ischemic hippocampus. PMID:27284307

  2. Systemic administration of minocycline inhibits formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rat.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ik-Hyun; Chung, Young Min; Park, Chul-Kyu; Park, Seong-Hae; Lee, Haeyeong; Li, Hai Ying; Kim, Donghoon; Piao, Zheng Gen; Choi, Se-Young; Lee, Sung Joong; Park, Kyungpyo; Kim, Joong Soo; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae

    2006-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that spinal microglial activation is involved in formalin-induced pain and that minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, attenuate behavioral hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain models. We investigated whether minocycline could have any anti-nociceptive effect on inflammatory pain, after intraperitonial administration of minocycline, 1 h before formalin (5%, 50 microl) injection into the plantar surface of rat hindpaw. Minocycline (15, 30, and 45 mg/kg) significantly decreased formalin-induced nociceptive behavior during phase II, but not during phase I. The enhancement in the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the L4-5 spinal dorsal horn (DH) and the magnitude of paw edema induced by formalin injection during phase II were significantly reduced by minocycline. Minocycline inhibited synaptic currents of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in the spinal DH, whereas membrane electrical properties of dorsal root ganglion neurons were not affected by minocycline. Analysis with OX-42 antibody revealed the inhibitory effect of minocycline on microglial activation 3 days after formalin injection. These results demonstrate the anti-nociceptive effect of minocycline on formalin-induced inflammatory pain. In addition to the well-known inhibitory action of minocycline on microglial activation, the anti-edematous action in peripheral tissue, as well as the inhibition of synaptic transmission in SG neurons, is likely to be associated with the anti-nociceptive effect of minocycline.

  3. Morphological and Phagocytic Profile of Microglia in the Developing Rat Cerebellum1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    VanRyzin, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Microglia are being increasingly recognized as playing important roles in neurodevelopment. The cerebellum matures postnatally, undergoing major growth, but the role of microglia in the developing cerebellum is not well understood. Using the laboratory rat we quantified and morphologically categorized microglia throughout the vermis and across development using a design-based unbiased stereology method. We found that microglial morphology changed from amoeboid to ramified during the first 3 postnatal weeks in a region specific manner. These morphological changes were accompanied by the sudden appearance of phagocytic cups during the third postnatal week from P17 to P19, with an approximately fourfold increase compared with the first week, followed by a prompt decline at the end of the third week. The microglial phagocytic cups were significantly higher in the granular layer (∼69%) than in the molecular layer (ML; ∼31%) during a 3 d window, and present on ∼67% of microglia with thick processes and ∼33% of microglia with thin processes. Similar proportions of phagocytic cups associated to microglia with either thick or thin processes were found in the ML. We observed cell nuclei fragmentation and cleaved caspase-3 expression within some microglial phagocytic cups, presumably from dying granule neurons. At P17 males showed an approximately twofold increase in microglia with thin processes compared with females. Our findings indicate a continuous process of microglial maturation and a nonuniform distribution of microglia in the cerebellar cortex that implicates microglia as an important cellular component of the developing cerebellum. PMID:26464992

  4. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood or amniotic epithelial stem cells alleviates mechanical allodynia after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Min-Soo; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Park, Sang-Bum; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), and a variety of different stem cell types have been grafted into humans suffering from spinal cord trauma or into animal models of spinal injury. Although several studies have reported functional motor improvement after transplantation of stem cells into injured spinal cord, the benefit of these cells for treating SCI-induced neuropathic pain is not clear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of transplanting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) or amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) on SCI-induced mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) in T13 spinal cord hemisected rats. Two weeks after SCI, hUCB-MSCs or hAESCs were transplanted around the spinal cord lesion site, and behavioral tests were performed to evaluate changes in SCI-induced MA and TH. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were also performed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects on SCI-induced inflammation and the nociceptive-related phosphorylation of the NMDA NR1 receptor subunit. While transplantation of hUCB-MSCs showed a tendency to reduce MA, transplantation of hAESCs significantly reduced MA. Neither hUCB-MSC nor hAESC transplantation had any effect on SCI-induced TH. Transplantation of hAESCs also significantly reduced the SCI-induced increase in NMDA receptor NR1 subunit phosphorylation (pNR1) expression in the spinal cord. Both hUCB-MSCs and hAESCs reduced the SCI-induced increase in spinal cord expression of the microglial marker, F4/80, but not the increased expression of GFAP or iNOS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the transplantation of hAESCs into the injured spinal cord can suppress mechanical allodynia, and this effect seems to be closely associated with the modulation of spinal cord microglia activity and NR1 phosphorylation.

  5. Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Neuroinflammation and Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, David M.; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Hernandez, Diana G.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are closely associated with the development of severe psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet preclinical studies on pathological changes after combined TBI with PTSD are lacking. In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. Additional immunohistochemical results revealed a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Further examination of neurogenic niches revealed a significant downregulation of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, but not DCX-positive neuronally migrating cells in the neurogenic subgranular zone and subventricular zone for both TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Comparisons of levels of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis between TBI alone and TBI+PTSD revealed that PTSD did not exacerbate the neuropathological hallmarks of TBI. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain, which, under the conditions of the present approach, was not intensified by PTSD, at least within our time window and within the examined areas of the brain. Although the PTSD manipulation employed here did not exacerbate the pathological effects of TBI, the observed long-term inflammation and suppressed

  6. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kun; Schindler, Matthew K; McQuail, Joseph A; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Riddle, David R

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like brain irradiation and

  7. Sleep Deprivation Aggravates Median Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Enhances Microglial Activation by Suppressing Melatonin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Design: Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Participants: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Measurements: Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. Results: In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. Citation: Huang CT, Chiang RP, Chen CL, Tsai YJ. Sleep

  8. Allergy Enhances Neurogenesis and Modulates Microglial Activation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara; Mrowetz, Heike; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Weiss, Richard; Aigner, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Allergies and their characteristic TH2-polarized inflammatory reactions affect a substantial part of the population. Since there is increasing evidence that the immune system modulates plasticity and function of the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the effects of allergic lung inflammation on the hippocampus—a region of cellular plasticity in the adult brain. The focus of the present study was on microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, and on hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e., the generation of new neurons. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with a clinically relevant allergen derived from timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5). As expected, allergic sensitization induced high serum levels of allergen-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgE) and of TH2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13). Surprisingly, fewer Iba1+ microglia were found in the granular layer (GL) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and also the number of Iba1+MHCII+ cells was lower, indicating a reduced microglial surveillance and activation in the hippocampus of allergic mice. Neurogenesis was analyzed by labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and determining their fate 4 weeks later, and by quantitative analysis of young immature neurons, i.e., cells expressing doublecortin (DCX). The number of DCX+ cells was clearly increased in the allergy animals. Moreover, there were more BrdU+ cells present in the hippocampus of allergic mice, and these newly born cells had differentiated into neurons as indicated by a higher number of BrdU+NeuN+ cells. In summary, allergy led to a reduced microglia presence and activity and to an elevated level of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This effect was apparently specific to the hippocampus, as we did not observe these alterations in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/olfactory bulb (OB) system, also a region of high cellular plasticity and adult neurogenesis. PMID:27445696

  9. Duloxetine Inhibits Microglial P2X4 Receptor Function and Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shota; Zhang, Jiaming; Kometani, Miho; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Kohno, Keita; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) are a family of ATP-gated non-selective cation channels. We previously demonstrated that activation of P2X4R in spinal microglia is crucial for neuropathic pain, a highly debilitating chronic pain condition, suggesting that P2X4R is a potential therapeutic target for treating neuropathic pain. Thus, the identification of a compound that has a potent inhibitory effect on P2X4R is an important clinical challenge. In the present study, we screened a chemical library of clinically approved drugs and show for the first time that duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has an inhibitory effect on rodent and human P2X4R. In primary cultured microglial cells, duloxetine also inhibited P2X4R-, but not P2X7R-, mediated responses. Moreover, intrathecal administration of duloxetine in a model of neuropathic pain produced a reversal of nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia, a cardinal symptom of neuropathic pain. In rats that were pretreated with a serotonin-depleting agent and a noradrenaline neurotoxin, the antiallodynic effect of duloxetine was reduced, but still remained. Based on these results, we suggest that, in addition to duloxetine’s primary inhibitory action on serotonin and noradrenaline transporters, an inhibitory effect on P2X4R may be involved at least in part in an antiallodynic effect of intrathecal duloxetine in a model of neuropathic pain. PMID:27768754

  10. Combination Cell Therapy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Stem Cells for Brain Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. Method and Materials The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. Result The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. Conclusions The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats. PMID:26019759

  11. Immature rat Leydig cells are intrinsically less sensitive than adult Leydig cells to ethane dimethanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Kelce, W R; Zirkin, B R; Ewing, L L

    1991-11-01

    Leydig cells from immature rat testes appear to be insensitive to doses of ethane-1,2-dimethanesulfonate (EDS) which eliminate Leydig cells from adult rat testes. We sought to determine whether this differential response to EDS is intrinsic to the Leydig cell or mediated by other intra- or extratesticular differences between adult and immature rats. To differentiate among these possibilities, Leydig cells were exposed to EDS (1) in vivo, (2) through in vitro testicular perfusion, or (3) in highly purified Leydig cell primary cultures. Four days after ip injections of 85 mg EDS/kg body wt Leydig cells were eliminated from testes of adult, but not immature rats. Total androgen production by testes perfused in vitro with 94 micrograms EDS/ml was dramatically reduced in adult, but not immature rats. Highly purified adult, but not immature, rat Leydig cells were far more sensitive to the effects of EDS on luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen production (functional effects; apparent EC50 = 94 for adult and 407 micrograms/ml for immature rat Leydig cells) and on [35S]methionine incorporation (cytotoxic effects; apparent EC50 = 140 for adult and 1000 micrograms/ml for immature rat Leydig cells). Finally, the in vitro effects of EDS were both cell type and chemical specific. Since the differential response of adult and immature rat Leydig cells to EDS was manifest in vivo, during in vitro testicular perfusion, and in highly purified Leydig cell primary cultures, we conclude that immature rat Leydig cells are intrinsically less sensitive to the specific cytotoxic effects of EDS than adult rat Leydig cells.

  12. Attenuation of microglial and neuronal activation in the brain by ICV minocycline following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Melissa; Stebbing, Martin; Kompa, Andrew R; Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Krum, Henry; Badoer, Emilio

    2014-10-01

    Following myocardial infarction, microglia, the immune cells in the central nervous system, become activated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) suggesting inflammation in this nucleus. Little is known about other brain nuclei. In the present study, we investigated whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the periaqueductal grey (PAG), regions known to have important cardiovascular regulatory functions, also show increased microglial activation and whether this coincides with increased neuronal activity. We also investigated whether minocycline inhibited microglial activation and whether this also affected neuronal activity and cardiac function. Compared to controls there was a significant increase in the proportion of activated microglia and neuronal activation in the PVN, RVLM, NTS and PAG, 12weeks following myocardial infarction (P<0.001). Intracebroventricular infusion of minocycline (beginning one week prior to infarction) significantly attenuated the increase in microglial activation by at least 50% in the PVN, RVLM, PAG and NTS, and neuronal activation was significantly reduced by 50% in the PVN and virtually abolished in the PAG, RVLM and NTS. Cardiac function (percent fractional shortening) was significantly reduced by 55% following myocardial infarction but this was not ameliorated by minocycline treatment. The results suggest that following myocardial infarction, inflammation occurs in brain nuclei that play key roles in cardiovascular regulation and that attenuation of this inflammation may not be sufficient to ameliorate cardiac function.

  13. The association between laminin and microglial morphology in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tam, Wing Yip; Au, Ngan Pan Bennett; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that contribute to primary innate immune responses. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. The majority of microglial studies have focused on the ramified or amoeboid morphology; however, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia have recently received much attention. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia form trains with end-to-end alignment in injured brains and retinae, which is proposed as an important mechanism in CNS repair. We previously established a cell culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia simply by growing primary microglia on scratched poly-D-lysine (PDL)/laminin-coated surfaces. Here, we investigated the role of laminin in morphological changes of microglia. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains were transiently formed on scratched surfaces without PDL/laminin coating, but the microglia alignment disappeared after 3 days in culture. Amoeboid microglia digested the surrounding laminin, and the gene and protein expression of laminin-cleaving genes Adam9 and Ctss was up-regulated. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transformation from bipolar/rod-shaped into amoeboid microglia increased the expression of Adam9 and Ctss, and the expression of these genes in LPS-treated amoeboid-enriched cultures remained unchanged. These results indicate a strong association between laminin and morphological transformation of microglia, shedding new light on the role of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in CNS repair. PMID:27334934

  14. The association between laminin and microglial morphology in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Wing Yip; Au, Ngan Pan Bennett; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that contribute to primary innate immune responses. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. The majority of microglial studies have focused on the ramified or amoeboid morphology; however, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia have recently received much attention. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia form trains with end-to-end alignment in injured brains and retinae, which is proposed as an important mechanism in CNS repair. We previously established a cell culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia simply by growing primary microglia on scratched poly-D-lysine (PDL)/laminin-coated surfaces. Here, we investigated the role of laminin in morphological changes of microglia. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains were transiently formed on scratched surfaces without PDL/laminin coating, but the microglia alignment disappeared after 3 days in culture. Amoeboid microglia digested the surrounding laminin, and the gene and protein expression of laminin-cleaving genes Adam9 and Ctss was up-regulated. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transformation from bipolar/rod-shaped into amoeboid microglia increased the expression of Adam9 and Ctss, and the expression of these genes in LPS-treated amoeboid-enriched cultures remained unchanged. These results indicate a strong association between laminin and morphological transformation of microglia, shedding new light on the role of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in CNS repair. PMID:27334934

  15. Obesity diminishes synaptic markers, alters microglial morphology, and impairs cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Fasolino, Maria; Kane, Gary A; LaMarca, Elizabeth A; Kirschen, Gregory W; Karatsoreos, Ilia N; McEwen, Bruce S; Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-12-22

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting overall physical and emotional well-being. Despite compelling data suggesting an association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction, this phenomenon has received relatively little attention. Neuroimaging studies in obese humans report reduced size of brain regions involved in cognition, but few studies have investigated the cellular processes underlying cognitive decline in obesity or the influence of obesity on cognition in the absence of obesity-related illnesses. Here, a rat model of diet-induced obesity was used to explore changes in brain regions important for cognition. Obese rats showed deficits on cognitive tasks requiring the prefrontal and perirhinal cortex. Cognitive deficits were accompanied by decreased dendritic spine density and synaptic marker expression in both brain regions. Microglial morphology was also changed in the prefrontal cortex. Detrimental changes in the prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex occurred before metabolic syndrome or diabetes, suggesting that these brain regions may be particularly vulnerable to early stage obesity.

  16. A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.

    PubMed

    Cinquin, Philippe; Gondran, Chantal; Giroud, Fabien; Mazabrard, Simon; Pellissier, Aymeric; Boucher, François; Alcaraz, Jean-Pierre; Gorgy, Karine; Lenouvel, François; Mathé, Stéphane; Porcu, Paolo; Cosnier, Serge

    2010-05-04

    Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs), are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators. However, GBFCs cannot be implanted in animals, mainly because the enzymes they rely on either require low pH or are inhibited by chloride or urate anions, present in the Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF). Here we present the first functional implantable GBFC, working in the retroperitoneal space of freely moving rats. The breakthrough relies on the design of a new family of GBFCs, characterized by an innovative and simple mechanical confinement of various enzymes and redox mediators: enzymes are no longer covalently bound to the surface of the electron collectors, which enables use of a wide variety of enzymes and redox mediators, augments the quantity of active enzymes, and simplifies GBFC construction. Our most efficient GBFC was based on composite graphite discs containing glucose oxidase and ubiquinone at the anode, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and quinone at the cathode. PPO reduces dioxygen into water, at pH 7 and in the presence of chloride ions and urates at physiological concentrations. This GBFC, with electrodes of 0.133 mL, produced a peak specific power of 24.4 microW mL(-1), which is better than pacemakers' requirements and paves the way for the development of a new generation of implantable artificial organs, covering a wide range of medical applications.

  17. Differential protective effects of serum metabolites from young and old walnut-fed rats against stress-induced neurotoxicity in BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and/or polyphenols have been shown to improve neurochemical and behavioral function. Walnuts contain high amounts of omega fatty acids such as alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and linolenic (LA), as well as polyphenols and minerals. Previous studies from ou...

  18. Establishment of bipotent progenitor cell clone from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yousuke; Yada, Erica; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation, cloning and characterization of adipogenic progenitor cells from rat skeletal muscle. Among the obtained 10 clones, the most highly adipogenic progenitor, 2G11 cells, were further characterized. In addition to their adipogenicity, 2G11 cells retain myogenic potential as revealed by formation of multinucleated myotubes when co-cultured with myoblasts. 2G11 cells were resistant to an inhibitory effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on adipogenesis, while adipogenesis of widely used preadipogenic cell line, 3T3-L1 cells, was suppressed almost completely by the same treatment. In vivo transplantation experiments revealed that 2G11 cells are able to possess both adipogenicity and myogenicity in vivo. These results indicate the presence of bipotent progenitor cells in rat skeletal muscle, and suggest that such cells may contribute to ectopic fat formation in skeletal muscle.

  19. Effect of exposure to 1,800 MHz electromagnetic fields on heat shock proteins and glial cells in the brain of developing rats.

    PubMed

    Watilliaux, Aurélie; Edeline, Jean-Marc; Lévêque, Philippe; Jay, Thérèse M; Mallat, Michel

    2011-08-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones by children raise issues about the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the immature Central Nervous System (CNS). In the present study, we quantified cell stress and glial responses in the brain of developing rats one day after a single exposure of 2 h to a GSM 1,800 MHz signal at a brain average Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the range of 1.7 to 2.5 W/kg. Young rats, exposed to EMF on postnatal days (P) 5 (n = 6), 15 (n = 5) or 35 (n = 6), were compared to pseudo-exposed littermate rats (n = 6 at all ages). We used western blotting to detect heat shock proteins (HSPs) and cytoskeleton- or neurotransmission-related proteins in the developing astroglia. The GSM signal had no significant effect on the abundance of HSP60, HSC70 or HSP90, of serine racemase, glutamate transporters including GLT1 and GLAST, or of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in either total or soluble tissue extracts. Imunohistochemical detection of CD68 antigen in brain sections from pseudo-exposed and exposed animals did not reveal any differences in the morphology or distribution of microglial cells. These results provide no evidence for acute cell stress or glial reactions indicative of early neural cell damage, in developing brains exposed to 1,800 MHz signals in the range of SAR used in our study.

  20. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  1. Phenotypic transition of microglia into astrocyte-like cells associated with disease onset in a model of inherited ALS

    PubMed Central

    Trias, Emiliano; Díaz-Amarilla, Pablo; Olivera-Bravo, Silvia; Isasi, Eugenia; Drechsel, Derek A.; Lopez, Nathan; Bradford, C. Samuel; Ireton, Kyle E.; Beckman, Joseph S.; Barbeito, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Microglia and reactive astrocytes accumulate in the spinal cord of rats expressing the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked SOD1 G93A mutation. We previously reported that the rapid progression of paralysis in ALS rats is associated with the appearance of proliferative astrocyte-like cells that surround motor neurons. These cells, designated as Aberrant Astrocytes (AbA cells) because of their atypical astrocytic phenotype, exhibit high toxicity to motor neurons. However, the cellular origin of AbA cells remains unknown. Because AbA cells are labeled with the proliferation marker Ki67, we analyzed the phenotypic makers of proliferating glial cells that surround motor neurons by immunohistochemistry. The number of Ki67 +AbA cells sharply increased in symptomatic rats, displaying large cell bodies with processes embracing motor neurons. Most were co-labeled with astrocytic marker GFAP concurrently with the microglial markers Iba1 and CD163. Cultures of spinal cord prepared from symptomatic SOD1 G93A rats yielded large numbers of microglia expressing Iba1, CD11b, and CD68. Cells sorted for CD11b expression by flow cytometry transformed into AbA cells within two weeks. During these two weeks, the expression of microglial markers largely disappeared, while GFAP and S100β expression increased. The phenotypic transition to AbA cells was stimulated by forskolin. These findings provide evidence for a subpopulation of proliferating microglial cells in SOD1 G93A rats that undergo a phenotypic transition into AbA cells after onset of paralysis that may promote the fulminant disease progression. These cells could be a therapeutic target for slowing paralysis progression in ALS. PMID:24399933

  2. Microglial proliferation in the brain of chronic alcoholics with hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Claude V.; Sheahan, Pamela J.; Graeber, Manuel B.; Sheedy, Donna L.; Kril, Jillian J.; Sutherland, Greg T.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of chronic alcoholism and patients show neurological symptoms ranging from mild cognitive dysfunction to coma and death. The HE brain is characterized by glial changes, including microglial activation, but the exact pathogenesis of HE is poorly understood. During a study investigating cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of chronic alcoholics, a single case with widespread proliferation throughout their adjacent grey and white matter was noted. This case also had concomitant HE raising the possibility that glial proliferation might be a pathological feature of the disease. In order to explore this possibility fixed postmortem human brain tissue from chronic alcoholics with cirrhosis and HE (n = 9), alcoholics without HE (n = 4) and controls (n = 4) were examined using immunohistochemistry and cytokine assays. In total, 4/9 HE cases had PCNA- and a second proliferative marker, Ki-67-positive cells throughout their brain and these cells co-stained with the microglial marker, Iba1. These cases were termed ‘proliferative HE’ (pHE). The microglia in pHEs displayed an activated morphology with hypertrophied cell bodies and short, thickened processes. In contrast, the microglia in white matter regions of the non-proliferative HE cases were less activated and appeared dystrophic. pHEs were also characterized by higher interleukin-6 levels and a slightly higher neuronal density . These findings suggest that microglial proliferation may form part of an early neuroprotective response in HE that ultimately fails to halt the course of the disease because underlying etiological factors such as high cerebral ammonia and systemic inflammation remain. PMID:24346482

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in B-cell-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, A M; Santoro, F; Afchain, D; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of neonatally initiated injections of anti-mu rabbit antiserum on immunity of rats against Trypanosoma cruzi infection was investigated in vivo. Anti-mu treatment resulted in a loss of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG2a synthesis and, subsequently, of antibody production. These rats so treated were shown to be significantly more susceptible to the acute phase of the infection than the control rats treated with normal rabbit serum, as measured by increased parasitemia and mortality. These results indicate the essential role of antibodies, probably in association with complement or effector cells or both, in immunity to acute Chagas' disease. PMID:6783543

  4. Time Course, Distribution and Cell Types of Induction of Transforming Growth Factor Betas following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pál, Gabriella; Vincze, Csilla; Renner, Éva; Wappler, Edina A.; Nagy, Zoltán; Lovas, Gábor; Dobolyi, Arpád

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-β1–3) are cytokines that regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of various cell types. The present study describes the induction of TGF-β1–3 in the rat after focal ischemia at 3 h, 24 h, 72 h and 1 month after transient (1 h) or permanent (24 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using in situ hybridization histochemistry and quantitative analysis. Double labeling with different markers was used to identify the localization of TGF-β mRNA relative to the penumbra and glial scar, and the types of cells expressing TGF-βs. TGF-β1 expression increased 3 h after MCAO in the penumbra and was further elevated 24 h after MCAO. TGF-β1 was present mostly in microglial cells but also in some astrocytes. By 72 h and 1 month after the occlusion, TGF-β1 mRNA-expressing cells also appeared in microglia within the ischemic core and in the glial scar. In contrast, TGF-β2 mRNA level was increased in neurons but not in astrocytes or microglial cells in layers II, III, and V of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex 24 h after MCAO. TGF-β3 was not induced in cells around the penumbra. Its expression increased in only a few cells in layer II of the cerebral cortex 24 h after MCAO. The levels of TGF-β2 and -β3 decreased at subsequent time points. Permanent MCAO further elevated the levels of all 3 subtypes of TGF-βs suggesting that reperfusion is not a major factor in their induction. TGF-β1 did not co-localize with either Fos or ATF-3, while the co-localization of TGF-β2 with Fos but not with ATF-3 suggests that cortical spreading depolarization, but not damage to neural processes, might be the mechanism of induction for TGF-β2. The results imply that endogenous TGF-βs are induced by different mechanisms following an ischemic attack in the brain suggesting that they are involved in distinct spatially and temporally regulated inflammatory and neuroprotective processes. PMID:23056426

  5. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced priming of microglial pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthew G; Thompson, Brittany M; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Acute and chronic stress sensitizes or "primes" the neuroinflammatory response to a subsequent pro-inflammatory challenge. While prior evidence shows that glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in stress-induced potentiation of neuroinflammatory responses, it remains unclear whether stress-induced GCs sensitize the response of key CNS immune substrates (i.e. microglia) to pro-inflammatory stimuli. An ex vivo approach was used to address this question. Here, stress-induced GC signaling was manipulated in vivo and hippocampal microglia challenged with the pro-inflammatory stimulus LPS ex vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were either pretreated in vivo with the GC receptor antagonist RU486 or adrenalectomized (ADX). Animals were then exposed to an acute stressor (inescapable tailshock; IS) and 24 h later hippocampal microglia were isolated and challenged with LPS to probe for stress-induced sensitization of pro-inflammatory responses. Prior exposure to IS resulted in a potentiated pro-inflammatory cytokine response (e.g. IL-1β gene expression) to LPS in isolated microglia. Treatment in vivo with RU486 and ADX inhibited or completely blocked this IS-induced sensitization of the microglial pro-inflammatory response. The present results suggest that stress-induced GCs function to sensitize the microglial pro-inflammatory response (IL-1β, IL-6, NFκBIα) to immunologic challenges.

  6. Therapeutic targeting of Krüppel-like factor 4 abrogates microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation occurs as a result of microglial activation in response to invading micro-organisms or other inflammatory stimuli within the central nervous system. According to our earlier findings, Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a zinc finger transcription factor, is involved in microglial activation and subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 as well as proinflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-treated microglial cells. Our current study focuses on finding the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activities of honokiol in lipopolysaccharide-treated microglia with emphasis on the regulation of Klf4. Methods For in vitro studies, mouse microglial BV-2 cell lines as well as primary microglia were treated with 500 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide as well as 1 μM and 10 μM of honokiol. We cloned full-length Klf4 cDNA in pcDNA3.1 expression vector and transfected BV-2 cells with this construct using lipofectamine for overexpression studies. For in vivo studies, brain tissues were isolated from BALB/c mice treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of lipopolysaccharide either with or without 2.5 or 5 mg/kg body weight of honokiol. Expression of Klf4, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B was measured using immunoblotting. We also measured the levels of cytokines, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in different conditions. Results Our findings suggest that honokiol can substantially downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia. In addition, honokiol downregulates lipopolysaccharide-induced upregulation of both Klf4 and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B in these cells. We also found that overexpression of Klf4 in BV-2 cells suppresses the anti-inflammatory action of honokiol. Conclusions

  7. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 downregulation correlates with thalamic neuronal death following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rat.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masashi; Kurokawa, Haruna; Shimada, Akinori; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Miyata, Hajime; Morita, Takehito

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent seizures without interictal resumption (status epilepticus) have been reported to induce neuronal death in the midline thalamic region that has functional roles in memory and decision-making; however, the pathogenesis underlying status epilepticus-induced thalamic neuronal death is yet to be determined. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as cerebral blood flow measurement using 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer on midline thalamic region in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 75, male, 7 weeks after birth, body weight 250-300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (n = 55) or normal saline solution (n = 20). Histological study using paraffin-embedded specimens revealed neuronal death showing ischemic-like changes and Fluoro-Jade C positivity with calcium deposition in the midline thalamic region of epileptic rats. The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells showing swollen cytoplasm and long processes. Double immunofluorescence study demonstrated co-expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within microglial cells, and loss of EAAT2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. These microglial alterations and astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation were also observed in tissue without obvious neuronal death in kainic acid-treated rats. These results suggest the possible role of glutamate excitotoxicity in neuronal death in the midline thalamic region following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus due to astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation following microglial activation showing upregulation of IL-1β and iNOS.

  8. Disruption of Fractalkine Signaling Leads to Microglial Activation and Neuronal Damage in the Diabetic Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Sandra M.; Mendiola, Andrew S.; Yang, Ya-Chin; Adkins, Sarina L.; Torres, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Fractalkine (CX3CL1 or FKN) is a membrane-bound chemokine expressed on neuronal membranes and is proteolytically cleaved to shed a soluble chemoattractant domain. FKN signals via its unique receptor CX3CR1 expressed on microglia and other peripheral leukocytes. The aim of this study is to determine the role of CX3CR1 in inflammatory-mediated damage to retinal neurons using a model of diabetic retinopathy. For this, we compared neuronal, microglial, and astroglial densities and inflammatory response in nondiabetic and diabetic (Ins2Akita) CX3CR1-wild-type and CX3CR1-deficient mice at 10 and 20 weeks of age. Our results show that Ins2Akita CX3CR1-knockout mice exhibited (a) decreased neuronal cell counts in the retinal ganglion cell layer, (b) increased microglial cell numbers, and (c) decreased astrocyte responses comparable with Ins2Akita CX3CR1-Wild-type mice at 20 weeks of age. Analyses of the inflammatory response using PCR arrays showed several inflammatory genes differentially regulated in diabetic tissues. From those, the response in Ins2Akita CX3CR1-deficient mice at 10 weeks of age revealed a significant upregulation of IL-1β at the transcript level that was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in soluble retinal extracts. Overall, IL-1β, VEGF, and nitrite levels as a read out of nitric oxide production were abundant in Ins2Akita CX3CR1-deficient retina. Notably, double immunofluorescence staining shows that astrocytes act as a source of IL-1β in the Ins2Akita retina, and CX3CR1-deficient microglia potentiate the inflammatory response via IL-1β release. Collectively, these data demonstrate that dysregulated microglial responses in absence of CX3CR1 contribute to inflammatory-mediated damage of neurons in the diabetic retina. PMID:26514658

  9. Cancer stem cells and microglia in the processes of glioblastoma multiforme invasive growth

    PubMed Central

    Bryukhovetskiy, Igor; Manzhulo, Igor; Mischenko, Polina; Milkina, Elena; Dyuizen, Inessa; Bryukhovetskiy, Andrey; Khotimchenko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The development of antitumor medication based on autologous stem cells is one of the most advanced methods in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. However, there are no objective criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of this medication on cancer stem cells (CSCs). One possible criterion could be a change in the number of microglial cells and their specific location in the tumor. The present study aimed to understand the interaction between microglial cells and CSCs in an experimental glioblastoma model. C6 glioma cells were used to create a glioblastoma model, as they have the immunophenotypic characteristics of CSCs. The glioma cells (0.2×106) were stereotactically implanted into the brains of 60 rats. On the 10th, 20th and 30th days after implantation, the animals were 15 of the animals were sacrificed, and the obtained materials were analyzed by morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. Implantation of glioma cells into the rat brains caused rapid development of tumors characterized by invasive growth, angiogenesis and a high rate of proliferation. The maximum concentration of microglia was observed in the tumor nodule between days 10 and 20; a high proliferation rate of cancer cells was also observed in this area. By day 30, necrosis advancement was observed and the maximum number of microglial cells was concentrated in the invasive area; the invasive area also exhibited positive staining for CSC marker antibodies. Microglial cells have a key role in the invasive growth processes of glioblastoma, as demonstrated by the location of CSCs in the areas of microglia maximum concentration. Therefore, the present study indicates that changes in microglia position and corresponding suppression of tumor growth may be objective criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of biomedical treatment against CSCs.

  10. Cancer stem cells and microglia in the processes of glioblastoma multiforme invasive growth

    PubMed Central

    Bryukhovetskiy, Igor; Manzhulo, Igor; Mischenko, Polina; Milkina, Elena; Dyuizen, Inessa; Bryukhovetskiy, Andrey; Khotimchenko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The development of antitumor medication based on autologous stem cells is one of the most advanced methods in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. However, there are no objective criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of this medication on cancer stem cells (CSCs). One possible criterion could be a change in the number of microglial cells and their specific location in the tumor. The present study aimed to understand the interaction between microglial cells and CSCs in an experimental glioblastoma model. C6 glioma cells were used to create a glioblastoma model, as they have the immunophenotypic characteristics of CSCs. The glioma cells (0.2×106) were stereotactically implanted into the brains of 60 rats. On the 10th, 20th and 30th days after implantation, the animals were 15 of the animals were sacrificed, and the obtained materials were analyzed by morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. Implantation of glioma cells into the rat brains caused rapid development of tumors characterized by invasive growth, angiogenesis and a high rate of proliferation. The maximum concentration of microglia was observed in the tumor nodule between days 10 and 20; a high proliferation rate of cancer cells was also observed in this area. By day 30, necrosis advancement was observed and the maximum number of microglial cells was concentrated in the invasive area; the invasive area also exhibited positive staining for CSC marker antibodies. Microglial cells have a key role in the invasive growth processes of glioblastoma, as demonstrated by the location of CSCs in the areas of microglia maximum concentration. Therefore, the present study indicates that changes in microglia position and corresponding suppression of tumor growth may be objective criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of biomedical treatment against CSCs. PMID:27602106

  11. Transition between columnar absorptive cells and goblet cells in the rat jejunal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kurosumi, K; Shibuichi, I; Tosaka, H

    1981-11-01

    Electron microscopic observation of the jejunal epithelium of rats demonstrated morphological evidence of a transition between columnar absorptive cells and growing goblet cells. The columnar cells in both the villi and crypts have features suggestive of absorptive functions. They are provided with apical invaginations continuous to the intermicrovillous space. Absorbed lipid is observed in small vesicles in the terminal web layer, and chylomicrons derived here from are contained in large vacuoles near the Golgi apparatus. Ferritin particles artificially infused into the gut lumen were absorbed into the vacuoles in the subapical zone of columnar cells of suckling rats. Growing goblet cells situated in the crypt epithelium contain surface invaginations and lysosomes which are the same in structure as those found in absorptive cells nearby. Fat droplets evidently absorbed by the growing goblet cell were observed among immature mucus droplets. Artificially infused ferritin particles were found in vacuoles and lysosomes near the Golgi apparatus of some goblet cells of suckling rats. Some goblet cells on the intestinal villi of suckling rats looked immature and their microvilli and cytoplasmic matrix were clear like those of columnar absorptive cells. The transition between these goblet cells with clear cytoplasm and the mature goblet cells with dark cytoplasm was observed. These morphological evidences indicate that some of columnar cells already differentiated to absorptive cells are capable of transforming into mucus-producing (goblet) cells. It is suggested that not only undifferentiated columnar cells in the crypt base but also considerably differentiated columnar cells with absorptive function can differentiate into goblet cells.

  12. Vitamin K2 suppresses rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan-xia; Li, Yi-pei; Gao, Feng; Hu, Qing-song; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Guang-hui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Increasing evidence has shown that environmental factors such as rotenone and paraquat induce neuroinflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the repression by menaquinone-4 (MK-4), a subtype of vitamin K2, of rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro. Methods: A microglial cell line (BV2) was exposed to rotenone (1 μmol/L) with or without MK-4 treatment. The levels of TNF-α or IL-1β in 100 μL of cultured media of BV2 cells were measured using ELISA kits. BV2 cells treated with rotenone with or without MK4 were subjected to mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays. The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) of BV2 cells that were exposed to rotenone with or without MK-4 treatment, and the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. Results: In rotenone-treated BV2 cells, MK-4 (0.5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the upregulation in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the cells, as well as the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cultured media. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced p38 activation, ROS production, and caspase-1 activation in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) also restored the mitochondrial membrane potential that had been damaged by rotenone. Exposure to CM from rotenone-treated BV2 cells markedly decreased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. However, this rotenone-activated microglia-mediated death of SH-SY5Y cells was significantly attenuated when the BV2 cells were co-treated with MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin K2 can directly suppress rotenone-induced activation of microglial BV2 cells in vitro by repressing ROS production and p38 activation. PMID:27498777

  13. Apoptosis of postovulatory cumulus granulosa cells of the rat.

    PubMed

    Szołtys, M; Tabarowski, Z; Pawlik, A

    2000-12-01

    The process of apoptosis in the postovulatory cumulus granulosa cells was investigated in pregnant rats. Mature female Wistar rats, exhibiting a regular 4-day oestrous cycle, were placed with males on the day of pro-oestrus. The following day, on which spermatozoa were found in vaginal smears, was designated day 1 of pregnancy. The animals were killed just before ovulation (24.00 hours), on days 1 (5.00, 11.00, and 18.00 hours), and 2 ( 11.00 hours) of pregnancy. Excised ovaries and oviducts were submitted to a routine histological procedure and paraplast sections were subjected to detection of apoptotic cells using the TUNEL method. The cumulus granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles (24.00 hours) were negative for apoptotic staining. However, 5 h later a positive staining was observed in the oviduct ampulla and included the cumulus granulosa cells lying in the peripheral parts of postovulatory cumuli oophori, and the oviductal epithelial cells of this region. On the evening of day 1 almost all cumulus granulosa cells showed strong immunostaining while on day 2 at 11.00 hours only immunonegative clusters of remnants of cumulus granulosa cells were present in the distended ampulla region, while naked, two or more cell embryos were present in the further parts of oviduct. These results indicate that in the rat apoptosis of cumulus granulosa cells starts shortly after ovulation in the peripheral region. Epithelial ampullary cells surrounding ovulated cumuli show a massive apoptosis. PMID:11131018

  14. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Various techniques for separating the hormone-producing cell types from the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The purity, viability, and responsiveness of the separated cells depend on the physiological state of the donor, the tissue dissociation procedures, the staining technique used for identification of cell type, and the cell separation technique. The chamber-gradient setup and operation, the characteristics of the gradient materials, and the separated cell analysis of velocity sedimentation techniques (in particular Staput and Celsep) are described. Consideration is given to the various types of materials used in density gradient centrifugation and the operation of a gradient generating device. The use of electrophoresis to separate rat pituitary cells is discussed.

  15. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tanya A.; Wang, Jieru; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker’s RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced by the IL-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that IL-1 produced by infected cells induces uninfected cells to express chemokines. Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation. PMID:17804032

  16. Establishment of a rat nasal epithelial tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Hood, A T; Currie, D; Garte, S J

    1987-04-01

    A new cell line designated NAS 2BL has been established from a rat nasal tumor induced by inhalation of the direct-acting carcinogen methylmethane sulfonate. The cells are epithelial in morphology, have a generation time of 34 h, require 10% fetal bovine serum for optimal growth, and exhibit keratinization at confluence. The karyotype is aneuploid, with several marker chromosomes, and the cells are transformed by the criterion of nude mouse tumorigenicity.

  17. Vaginal bacterial flora activates rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska - Błaszczyk, E.; Wasiela, M.

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen strains of physiological and pathological vaginal bacteria were tested for their ability to secrete histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. We noticed that Mycoplasma hominis-induced histamine release was very high (up to 53.6%). The stimulation of rat mast cells with Staphylococccus cohnii, Staphylococcus coagulase(-) (two strains), Ureaplasma urealyticum, Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides capillosus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae resulted in lower but significant histamine secretion (11.2%-17.5%). Other bacteria strains (Staphylococcus epidermidids, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces naeslundii (two strains) and Lactobacillus fermentum (two strains) caused very low (4.2% - 8.8%) histamine release.

  18. The PPARalpha Agonist Fenofibrate Preserves Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Inhibits Microglial Activation After Whole-Brain Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanan, Sriram; Kooshki, Mitra; Zhao Weiling; Hsu, F.-C.; Riddle, David R.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) leads to cognitive impairment months to years after radiation. Numerous studies suggest that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial activation are involved in the pathogenesis of WBI-induced brain injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate would prevent the detrimental effect of WBI on hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods and Materials: For this study, 129S1/SvImJ wild-type and PPARalpha knockout mice that were fed either regular or 0.2% wt/wt fenofibrate-containing chow received either sham irradiation or WBI (10-Gy single dose of {sup 137}Cs gamma-rays). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine to label the surviving cells at 1 month after WBI, and the newborn neurons were counted at 2 months after WBI by use of bromodeoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei double immunofluorescence. Proliferation in the subgranular zone and microglial activation were measured at 1 week and 2 months after WBI by use of Ki-67 and CD68 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Whole-brain irradiation led to a significant decrease in the number of newborn hippocampal neurons 2 months after it was performed. Fenofibrate prevented this decrease by promoting the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus. In addition, fenofibrate treatment was associated with decreased microglial activation in the dentate gyrus after WBI. The neuroprotective effects of fenofibrate were abolished in the knockout mice, indicating a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism or mechanisms. Conclusions: These data highlight a novel role for PPARalpha ligands in improving neurogenesis after WBI and offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

  19. Huperzine A protects neural stem cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells and microglia co-culture system

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ning; Lin, Jizong; Wang, Kewan; Wei, Meidan; Chen, Qingzhuang; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to explore whether Huperzine A (HupA) could protect neural stem cells against amyloid beta-peptide Aβ induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells (NSCs) and microglia co-culture system. Methods: Rat NSCs and microglial cells were isolated, cultured and identified with immunofluorescence Assays (IFA). Co-culture systems of NSCs and microglial cells were employed using Transwell Permeable Supports. The effects of Aβ1-42 on NSCs were studied in 4 groups using co-culture systems: NSCs, Aβ+NSCs, co-culture and Aβ+co-culture groups. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry were utilized to assess the differences of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NSCs between the groups. LQ test was performed to assess the amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α secreted, and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to assess apoptosis of NSCs and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in each group. Results: IFA results showed that isolated rat NSCs were nestin-positive and microglial cells were CD11b/c-positive. Among all the groups, the Aβ+co-culture group has the lowest BrdU expression level, the lowest MAP2-positive, ChAT-positive cell counts and the highest NSC apoptosis rate. Smaller amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α were being secreted by microglial cells in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group compared with those in the Aβ+ co-culture group. Also the Bcl-2: Bax ratio was much higher in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group than in the Aβ+co-culture group. Conclusions: HupA inhibits cell apoptosis through restraining microglia’s inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42. PMID:26261518

  20. Glioblastoma-derived Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (MCSF) Induces Microglial Release of Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein 1 (IGFBP1) to Promote Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nijaguna, Mamatha Bangalore; Patil, Vikas; Urbach, Serge; Shwetha, Shivayogi D; Sravani, Kotha; Hegde, Alangar S; Chandramouli, Bangalore A; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Marin, Philippe; Santosh, Vani; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2015-09-18

    Glioblastoma (grade IV glioma/GBM) is the most common primary adult malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. To characterize molecular determinants of tumor-stroma interaction in GBM, we profiled 48 serum cytokines and identified macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) as one of the elevated cytokines in sera from GBM patients. Both MCSF transcript and protein were up-regulated in GBM tissue samples through a spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK)-dependent activation of the PI3K-NFκB pathway. Ectopic overexpression and silencing experiments revealed that glioma-secreted MCSF has no role in autocrine functions and M2 polarization of macrophages. In contrast, silencing expression of MCSF in glioma cells prevented tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells elicited by the supernatant from monocytes/microglial cells treated with conditioned medium from glioma cells. Quantitative proteomics based on stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture showed that glioma-derived MCSF induces changes in microglial secretome and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) as one of the MCSF-regulated proteins secreted by microglia. Silencing IGFBP1 expression in microglial cells or its neutralization by an antibody reduced the ability of supernatants derived from microglial cells treated with glioma cell-conditioned medium to induce angiogenesis. In conclusion, this study shows up-regulation of MCSF in GBM via a SYK-PI3K-NFκB-dependent mechanism and identifies IGFBP1 released by microglial cells as a novel mediator of MCSF-induced angiogenesis, of potential interest for developing targeted therapy to prevent GBM progression.

  1. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  2. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event. PMID:10334486

  3. Butylbenzyl phthalate induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Kurohmaru, Masamichi

    2016-02-01

    Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), a suspected endocrine disruptor, adversely affects male reproductive function. In this study, morphological alterations of prepubertal rat testes caused by single administration of BBP, were examined by light microscopy. Three-week-old male rats were given a single dose of 500 mg/kg BBP by oral gavage and sacrificed at 3, 12, and 24 h after administration. Histopathological examination revealed progressive detachment and sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the lumen, and a significant increase in the number of TUNEL-positive (apoptotic) spermatogenic cells in the treated groups, compared to the control. Semithin sections confirmed the apoptotic cells by their prominent basophilia, condensed chromatin, and shrunken cytoplasm, hallmarks of apoptotic cell death. Immunohistochemistry identified disruption of Sertoli cell vimentin and actin filaments in the treated groups. To elucidate the recovery effects of BBP, rats were treated in the same way and were sacrificed at D1-12h after administration. The apoptotic index returned to normal at D9. While, the testes revealed lower weight gain until D12. These results show for the first time that BBP induces collapse of vimentin filaments in Sertoli cells which may lead to disruption of Sertoli-spermatogenic cell physical interaction and induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis. PMID:26747412

  4. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Data concerned with analyzing the cellular organization of the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The preparation of the cell suspensions and the methods used to separate pituitary cell types are described. Particular emphasis is given to velocity sedimentation at unit gravity, density gradient centrifugation, affinity methods, fluorescence activated cell sorting, and density gradient and continuous-flow electrophoresis. The difficulties encountered when attempting to compare data from different pituitary cell separation studies are discussed, and results from various experiments are presented. The functional capabilities of the separated cell populations can be tested in various culture systems.

  5. TREM2-mediated early microglial response limits diffusion and toxicity of amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaming; Ulland, Tyler K.; Ulrich, Jason D.; Song, Wilbur; Tzaferis, John A.; Hole, Justin T.; Yuan, Peng; Mahan, Thomas E.; Shi, Yang; Gilfillan, Susan; Cella, Marina; Grutzendler, Jaime; DeMattos, Ronald B.; Cirrito, John R.; Holtzman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial receptor that recognizes changes in the lipid microenvironment, which may occur during amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Rare TREM2 variants that affect TREM2 function lead to an increased risk of developing AD. In murine models of AD, TREM2 deficiency prevents microglial clustering around Aβ deposits. However, the origin of myeloid cells surrounding amyloid and the impact of TREM2 on Aβ accumulation are a matter of debate. Using parabiosis, we found that amyloid-associated myeloid cells derive from brain-resident microglia rather than from recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. To determine the impact of TREM2 deficiency on Aβ accumulation, we examined Aβ plaques in the 5XFAD model of AD at the onset of Aβ-related pathology. At this early time point, Aβ accumulation was similar in TREM2-deficient and -sufficient 5XFAD mice. However, in the absence of TREM2, Aβ plaques were not fully enclosed by microglia; they were more diffuse, less dense, and were associated with significantly greater neuritic damage. Thus, TREM2 protects from AD by enabling microglia to surround and alter Aβ plaque structure, thereby limiting neuritic damage. PMID:27091843

  6. Janus-faced microglia: beneficial and detrimental consequences of microglial phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Abiega, Oihane; Shahraz, Anahita; Neumann, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Microglia are the resident brain macrophages and they have been traditionally studied as orchestrators of the brain inflammatory response during infections and disease. In addition, microglia has a more benign, less explored role as the brain professional phagocytes. Phagocytosis is a term coined from the Greek to describe the receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of dead cells and microbes. In addition, microglia phagocytoses brain-specific cargo, such as axonal and myelin debris in spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, amyloid-β deposits in Alzheimer's disease, and supernumerary synapses in postnatal development. Common mechanisms of recognition, engulfment, and degradation of the different types of cargo are assumed, but very little is known about the shared and specific molecules involved in the phagocytosis of each target by microglia. More importantly, the functional consequences of microglial phagocytosis remain largely unexplored. Overall, phagocytosis is considered a beneficial phenomenon, since it eliminates dead cells and induces an anti-inflammatory response. However, phagocytosis can also activate the respiratory burst, which produces toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phagocytosis has been traditionally studied in pathological conditions, leading to the assumption that microglia have to be activated in order to become efficient phagocytes. Recent data, however, has shown that unchallenged microglia phagocytose apoptotic cells during development and in adult neurogenic niches, suggesting an overlooked role in brain remodeling throughout the normal lifespan. The present review will summarize the current state of the literature regarding the role of microglial phagocytosis in maintaining tissue homeostasis in health as in disease. PMID:23386811

  7. System xC- is a mediator of microglial function and its deletion slows symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

    PubMed

    Mesci, Pinar; Zaïdi, Sakina; Lobsiger, Christian S; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Escartin, Carole; Seilhean, Danielle; Sato, Hideyo; Mallat, Michel; Boillée, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease and evidence from mice expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing SOD1 mutations suggest that neurodegeneration is a non-cell autonomous process where microglial cells influence disease progression. However, microglial-derived neurotoxic factors still remain largely unidentified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. With excitotoxicity being a major mechanism proposed to cause motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, our hypothesis was that excessive glutamate release by activated microglia through their system [Formula: see text] (a cystine/glutamate antiporter with the specific subunit xCT/Slc7a11) could contribute to neurodegeneration. Here we show that xCT expression is enriched in microglia compared to total mouse spinal cord and absent from motor neurons. Activated microglia induced xCT expression and during disease, xCT levels were increased in both spinal cord and isolated microglia from mutant SOD1 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice. Expression of xCT was also detectable in spinal cord post-mortem tissues of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and correlated with increased inflammation. Genetic deletion of xCT in mice demonstrated that activated microglia released glutamate mainly through system [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, xCT deletion also led to decreased production of specific microglial pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic factors including nitric oxide, TNFa and IL6, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective markers such as Ym1/Chil3 were increased, indicating that xCT regulates microglial functions. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice, xCT deletion surprisingly led to earlier symptom onset but, importantly, this was followed by a significantly slowed progressive disease phase, which resulted in more surviving motor neurons. These results are consistent with a deleterious contribution of microglial-derived glutamate during symptomatic

  8. C cells evolve at the same rhythm as follicular cells when thyroidal status changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Lacave, Inés; Borrero, María J; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; de Miguel, Manuel; Morillo, Jesús; Guerrero, Juan M; García-Marín, Rocío; Conde, Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    C cells are primarily known for producing calcitonin, a hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic hormone. Nevertheless, besides their role in calcium homeostasis, C cells may be involved in the intrathyroidal regulation of follicular cells, suggesting a possible interrelationship between the two endocrine populations. If this premise is true, massive changes induced by different agents in the activity of follicular cells may also affect calcitonin-producing cells. To investigate the behaviour of C cells in those circumstances, we have experimentally induced two opposite functional thyroid states. We hyperstimulated the follicular cells using a goitrogen (propylthiouracil), and we suppressed thyroid hormone synthesis by oral administration of thyroxine. In both scenarios, we measured T4, TSH, calcitonin, and calcium serum levels. We also completely sectioned the thyroid gland, specifically immunostained the C cells, and rigorously quantified this endocrine population. In hypothyroid rats, not only follicular cells but also C cells displayed hyperplastic and hypertrophic changes as well as increased calcitonin levels. When exogenous thyroxine was administered to the rats, the opposite effect was noted as a decrease in the number and size of C cells, as well as decreased calcitonin levels. Additionally, we noted that the two cell types maintain the same numerical relation (10 ± 2.5 follicular cells per C cell), independent of the functional activity of the thyroid gland. Considering that TSH serum levels are increased in hypothyroid rats and decreased in thyroxine-treated rats, we discuss the potential involvement of thyrotropin in the observed results. PMID:19245497

  9. beta2 Adrenergic receptor activation induces microglial NADPH oxidase activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/protein kinase A-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Snyder, Amanda; Wu, Hung-Ming; Li, Yachen; Wilson, Belinda; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2009-11-15

    Activation of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) on immune cells has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, however, the pro-inflammatory properties of beta2AR activation remain unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that salmeterol, a long-acting beta2AR agonist, selectively induces dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity through its ability to activate microglia. Salmeterol selectively increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the major superoxide-producing enzyme in microglia. A key role of PHOX in mediating salmeterol-induced neurotoxicity was demonstrated by the inhibition of DA neurotoxicity in cultures pretreated with diphenylene-iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of PHOX activity. Mechanistic studies revealed the activation of microglia by salmeterol results in the selective phosphorylation of ERK, a signaling pathway required for the translocation of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47(phox) to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found ERK inhibition, but not protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, significantly abolished salmeterol-induced superoxide production, p47(phox) translocation, and its ability to mediate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that beta2AR activation induces microglial PHOX activation and DA neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/PKA-independent pathway.

  10. Loss of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-3 enhances cell migration in rat lung tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mai; Okabe, Kyoko; Yamawaki, Yasuna; Teranishi, Miki; Honoki, Kanya; Mori, Toshio; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of the Lpar3 expression due to aberrant DNA methylation occurred in rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 inhibited cell migration of rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 may act as a negative regulator of rat lung tumor cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) indicates several biological effects, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. LPA interacts with G protein-coupled transmembrane LPA receptors. In our previous report, we detected that loss of the LPA receptor-1 (Lpar1) expression is due to its aberrant DNA methylation in rat tumor cell lines. In this study, to assess an involvement of the other LPA receptor, Lpar3, in the pathogenesis of rat lung tumor cells, we measured the expression levels of the Lpar3 gene and its DNA methylation status by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing analyses, respectively. RLCNR lung adenocarcinoma cells showed reduced expression of the Lpar3, compared with normal lung tissues. In the 5' upstream region of the Lpar3, normal lung tissues were unmethylated. By contrast, RLCNR cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expressions of the Lpar3. Based on these results, we generated the Lpar3-expressing RLCNR-a3 cells and measured the cell migration ability. Interestingly, the cell migration of RLCNR-a3 cells was significantly lower than that of RLCNR cells. This study suggests that loss of the Lpar3 due to aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the progression of rat lung tumor cells.

  11. Characterization of a transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, R R; Agarwal, P; Prasanna, G; Vopat, K; Lambert, W; Sheedlo, H J; Pang, I H; Shade, D; Wordinger, R J; Yorio, T; Clark, A F; Agarwal, N

    2001-01-31

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the psi2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed cells. Expression of Thy-1 (a marker for RGC), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a positive marker for Muller cells), HPC-1/syntaxin (a marker for amacrine cells), 8A1 (a marker for horizontal and ganglion cells) and neurotrophins was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. One of the retinal cell clones, designated RGC-5, was positive for Thy-1, Brn-3C, Neuritin, NMDA receptor, GABA-B receptor, and synaptophysin expression and negative for GFAP, HPC-1, and 8A1, suggesting that it represented a putative RGC clone. The results of RT-PCR analysis were confirmed by immunocytochemistry for Thy-1 and GFAP. Upon further characterization by immunoblotting, the RGC-5 clone was positive for Thy-1, negative for GFAP, 8A1 and syntaxin. RGC 5 cells were also positive for the expression of neurotrophins and their cognate receptors. To establish the physiological relevance of RGC-5, the effects of serum/trophic factor deprivation and glutamate toxicity were analyzed to determine if these cells would undergo apoptosis. The protective effects of neurotrophins on RGC-5 after serum deprivation was also investigated. Apoptosis was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluoresceinated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Serum deprivation resulted in apoptosis and supplementation with both BDNF and NT-4 in the growth media, protected the RGC-5 cells from undergoing apoptosis. On differentiation with succinyl concanavalin A (sConA), RGC-5 cells became sensitive to glutamate toxicity, which could be reversed by inclusion of ciplizone (MK801

  12. Rat hepatitis E virus derived from wild rats (Rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jirintai, Suljid; Tanggis; Mulyanto; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-06-24

    Although rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. A recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat HEV in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat HEV in human cells. When liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat HEV replicated efficiently in PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7 and HepG2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group (G1-G3). The rat HEV particles released from cultured cells harbored lipid-associated membranes on their surface that were depleted by treatment with detergent and protease, with the buoyant density in sucrose shifting from 1.15-1.16 g/ml to 1.27-1.28 g/ml. A Northern blotting analysis revealed genomic RNA of 7.0 kb and subgenomic RNA of 2.0 kb in the infected cells. The subgenomic RNA of G1-G3 each possessed the extreme 5'-end sequence of GUAGC (nt 4933-4937), downstream of the highly conserved sequence of GAAUAACA (nt 4916-4923). The establishment of culture systems for rat HEV would allow for extended studies of the mechanisms of viral replication and functional roles of HEV proteins. Further investigation is required to clarify the zoonotic potential of rat HEV.

  13. Neurodegeneration and inflammation in hippocampus in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced in rats by one--time administration of encephalitogenic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, I; Swiątkiewicz, M; Zaremba, M; Cudna, A; Piechal, A; Pyrzanowska, J; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E; Członkowska, A

    2013-09-17

    Cognitive dysfunction is relatively frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and it happens from the early stages of the disease. There is increasing evidence that the grey matter may be involved in autoimmune inflammation during relapses of MS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a single transfer of encephalitogenic T cells, mimicking a relapse of MS, may cause hippocampal damage and memory disturbances in rats. Lewis rats were injected with anti-MBP CD4+ T cells, that induced one-phase autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with full recovery from motor impairments at 10-15 days. The spatial learning and memory were tested by the Morris water maze test in control and EAE animals, 30 and 90 days post-induction (dpi). The neural injury and inflammation was investigated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analyses. There was a marked decrease in the number of CA1 and CA4 pyramidal neurons 5 dpi. The loss of neurons then aggravated till the 90 dpi. An increase in microglial and astroglial activation and in pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in the hippocampus, were present 30 and 90 dpi. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels were also significantly elevated. The water maze test, however, did not reveal memory deficits. The present data indicate that a single transfer of autoimmune T cells results in preserved inflammation and probable on-going neuronal injury in the hippocampus, long after recovery from motor disturbances. These findings suggest that any relapse of the MS may start the neurodegenerative process in the hippocampus, which is not necessarily connected with memory deficits.

  14. CD14 is a key organizer of microglial responses to CNS infection and injury.

    PubMed

    Janova, Hana; Böttcher, Chotima; Holtman, Inge R; Regen, Tommy; van Rossum, Denise; Götz, Alexander; Ernst, Anne-Sophie; Fritsche, Christin; Gertig, Ulla; Saiepour, Nasrin; Gronke, Konrad; Wrzos, Claudia; Ribes, Sandra; Rolfes, Simone; Weinstein, Jonathan; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Pukrop, Tobias; Kopatz, Jens; Stadelmann, Christine; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Weber, Martin S; Prinz, Marco; Brück, Wolfgang; Eggen, Bart J L; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Priller, Josef; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, sense infection and damage through overlapping receptor sets. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and multiple injury-associated factors. We show that its co-receptor CD14 serves three non-redundant functions in microglia. First, it confers an up to 100-fold higher LPS sensitivity compared to peripheral macrophages to enable efficient proinflammatory cytokine induction. Second, CD14 prevents excessive responses to massive LPS challenges via an interferon β-mediated feedback. Third, CD14 is mandatory for microglial reactions to tissue damage-associated signals. In mice, these functions are essential for balanced CNS responses to bacterial infection, traumatic and ischemic injuries, since CD14 deficiency causes either hypo- or hyperinflammation, insufficient or exaggerated immune cell recruitment or worsened stroke outcomes. While CD14 orchestrates functions of TLR4 and related immune receptors, it is itself regulated by TLR and non-TLR systems to thereby fine-tune microglial damage-sensing capacity upon infectious and non-infectious CNS challenges. PMID:26683584

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation protects against rat pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guohua; Liu, Hongmei; Gu, Naibing; Zhang, Huilan; Xu, Yongjian; Zhang, Zhenxiang

    2008-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by loss of alveolar structure. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to differentiate into alveolar epithelial cells. However, the effect of MSCs transplantation on pulmonary emphysema is unknown. To address this question, cultured bone marrow MSCs from male donor rats were infused into female recipients treated with irradiation and instillation of papain. We found that the emphysematous changes in rats received MSCs transplantation were ameliorated when compared with the rats without MSCs transplantation. Y chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical staining for SP-C, confirmed that MSCs engrafted in recipient lungs and differentiated into type II alveolar epithelial cells. Additionally, MSCs transplantation reduced the extent of irradiation and papain-induced alveolar cell apoptosis, likely due to the up-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax gene. We conclude that MSCs transplantation protects against the irradiation and papain-induced pulmonary emphysema. The mechanisms of protection may involve the engraftment of MSCs in the lungs, differentiation of MSCs into type II alveolar epithelial cells and suppression of alveolar cell apoptosis.

  16. Target cell toxicity of inhaled spermidine in rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J. R.; Smith, L. L.; Hext, P. M.; Brammer, A.; Soames, A. R.; Wyatt, I.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were exposed for a single 6-h period to varying concentrations of aerosols of the polyamine, spermidine trihydrochloride. They were subsequently killed at 6 h, 1, 2, 5, 9 and 14 days after the start of exposure. The lungs were examined for histopathological alterations at both light and electron microscopic level and assays of lung spermidine burdens performed. In rats killed at the 6-h termination period, lung spermidine levels had increased approximately 1.5-fold although concentrations in animals killed on days 1 and 2 showed only marginal increases. Concentrations peaked again on day 5 and henceforth decreased until control spermidine levels were again achieved on day 14. Exposure of rat lungs to spermidine resulted in a specific dose-dependent necrosis of Clara cells of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar Type II cells. At the lowest dose used (6 mg/m3) specific necrosis of the Clara cells was seen at the earliest time interval studied, i.e. 6 h, but these cells were rapidly lost and subsequently replaced without evidence of significant cell proliferation by the 2-day sacrifice period. At all higher dose levels additional necrosis of the alveolar Type II cells occurred which was not reversible but which progressed through alveolitis to a fully developed subchronic pneumonitis by 14 days. Images Fig. 4 p624-a Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2206983

  17. Cannabinoid effects on β amyloid fibril and aggregate formation, neuronal and microglial-activated neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Janefjord, Emelie; Mååg, Jesper L V; Harvey, Benjamin S; Smid, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid (CB) ligands have demonstrated neuroprotective properties. In this study we compared the effects of a diverse set of CB ligands against β amyloid-mediated neuronal toxicity and activated microglial-conditioned media-based neurotoxicity in vitro, and compared this with a capacity to directly alter β amyloid (Aβ) fibril or aggregate formation. Neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were exposed to Aβ1-42 directly or microglial (BV-2 cells) conditioned media activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of the CB1 receptor-selective agonist ACEA, CB2 receptor-selective agonist JWH-015, phytocannabinoids Δ(9)-THC and cannabidiol (CBD), the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide or putative GPR18/GPR55 ligands O-1602 and abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD). TNF-α and nitrite production was measured in BV-2 cells to compare activation via LPS or albumin with Aβ1-42. Aβ1-42 evoked a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability in SH-SY5Y cells but negligible TNF-α and nitrite production in BV-2 cells compared to albumin or LPS. Both albumin and LPS-activated BV-2 conditioned media significantly reduced neuronal cell viability but were directly innocuous to SH-SY5Y cells. Of those CB ligands tested, only 2-AG and CBD were directly protective against Aβ-evoked SH-SY5Y cell viability, whereas JWH-015, THC, CBD, Abn-CBD and O-1602 all protected SH-SY5Y cells from BV-2 conditioned media activated via LPS. While CB ligands variably altered the morphology of Aβ fibrils and aggregates, there was no clear correlation between effects on Aβ morphology and neuroprotective actions. These findings indicate a neuroprotective action of CB ligands via actions at microglial and neuronal cells.

  18. Electrophysiological fingerprints of OFF bipolar cells in rat retina.

    PubMed

    Vielma, Alex H; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Retinal bipolar cells (BCs) divide photoreceptor output into different channels for the parallel extraction of temporal and chromatic stimulus properties. In rodents, five types of OFF BCs have been differentiated, based on morphological and functional criteria, but their electrophysiological characterization remains incomplete. This study analyzed OFF BCs with the patch clamp technique in acute slices of rat retina. Their specific voltage-dependent currents and glutamate responses are shown to represent individual fingerprints which define the signal processing and filtering properties of each cell type and allow their unequivocal identification. Two additions to the rat BC repertoire are presented: OFF BC-2', a variation of BC-2 with wider axonal arbours and prominent Na(+) currents, is described for the first time in rodents, and OFF BC-3b, previously identified in mouse, is electrophysiologically characterized in rat. Moreover, the glutamate responses of rat OFF BCs are shown to be differentially sensitive to AMPA- and kainate-receptor blockers and to modulation by nitric oxide (NO) through a cGMP-dependent mechanism. These results contribute to our understanding of the diversity and function of bipolar cells in mammals. PMID:27457753

  19. Electrophysiological fingerprints of OFF bipolar cells in rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Vielma, Alex H.; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Retinal bipolar cells (BCs) divide photoreceptor output into different channels for the parallel extraction of temporal and chromatic stimulus properties. In rodents, five types of OFF BCs have been differentiated, based on morphological and functional criteria, but their electrophysiological characterization remains incomplete. This study analyzed OFF BCs with the patch clamp technique in acute slices of rat retina. Their specific voltage-dependent currents and glutamate responses are shown to represent individual fingerprints which define the signal processing and filtering properties of each cell type and allow their unequivocal identification. Two additions to the rat BC repertoire are presented: OFF BC-2′, a variation of BC-2 with wider axonal arbours and prominent Na+ currents, is described for the first time in rodents, and OFF BC-3b, previously identified in mouse, is electrophysiologically characterized in rat. Moreover, the glutamate responses of rat OFF BCs are shown to be differentially sensitive to AMPA- and kainate-receptor blockers and to modulation by nitric oxide (NO) through a cGMP-dependent mechanism. These results contribute to our understanding of the diversity and function of bipolar cells in mammals. PMID:27457753

  20. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  1. Lead-induced cell death in testes of young rats.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, N; Sinha, N; Narayan, R; Saxena, D K

    2001-01-01

    Lead is a well-documented testicular toxicant. The present work was planned to study the occurrence of germ cell death after lead administration. Young growing rats were treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body weight of lead for 2 weeks. Cell death was assessed by employing in situ TUNEL staining, DNA electrophoresis and morphological examination of the tubules. The results showed that Pb induced significant numbers of germ cells to undergo apoptosis in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated with 20 mg kg(-1) body weight. However, DNA fragmentation was not detected at any of the doses. The level of lead accumulation in the testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:11481659

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Scolopendra Pharmacopuncture on the Development and Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain in Rats: Possible Involvement of Spinal Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjin; Ji, Byeong Uk; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Min Young; Kim, Sungchul; Kim, Seung Tae; Koo, Sungtae

    2015-10-01

    Scolopendra extracts were used for pharmacopuncture at the Kidney 1 acupoint to investigate the role of Scolopendra pharmacopuncture (SPP) in both the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation in rats and the contribution of spinal glial cells. A single treatment and five once-daily treatments with SPP were given to evaluate its effects on the development and maintenance stages of neuropathic pain, respectively, which was followed by behavioral tests. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting tests were also carried out. A single treatment of SPP delayed spinal nerve ligation-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and induced a profound decrease in the expression of ionized calcium binding adaptor protein in the lumbar spinal cord. Repeated SPP treatments reliably suppressed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at later time points, and these results correlated mainly with decreases in glial fibrillary acidic protein. Intriguingly, ionized calcium binding adaptor protein expression was also reduced after repeated SPP. These results illustrate that neuropathic pain in the development and maintenance stages is alleviated by SPP treatment, which may be ascribed principally to deactivations of microglia and astroglia, respectively. Additionally, microglial inactivation seems to be partially involved in preventing neuropathic pain in the maintenance stage. PMID:26433800

  3. Alterations of rat hepatoma cell genomes induced by copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Renault, E; Deschatrette, J

    1997-01-01

    Copper deficiency imposed on a variant rat hepatoma cell line inhibits cell growth and results in genesis of stable well-differentiated, tumorigenic revertants. The treatment caused a substantial increase in DNA content (up to 20%) of G1 and G2/M cells and inhibition of cell proliferation. This phenomenon was correlated with an enhancement of DNA replication. The excess DNA was unstable and rapidly lost with reinitiation of cell growth and mitosis. Minute and double-minute extrachromosomal material was detected by metaphase analysis, suggesting widespread DNA amplification in copper-deficient conditions. Although transitory, these genetic events were associated with genesis of drug-resistant cells and induction of tumorigenicity of the variant hepatoma cells. The data reveal a novel aspect of the consequences of trace element deficiency.

  4. The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25404894

  5. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin P.; Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS. PMID:26883795

  6. Transition between columnar absorptive cells and goblet cells in the rat jejunal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kurosumi, K; Shibuichi, I; Tosaka, H

    1981-11-01

    Electron microscopic observation of the jejunal epithelium of rats demonstrated morphological evidence of a transition between columnar absorptive cells and growing goblet cells. The columnar cells in both the villi and crypts have features suggestive of absorptive functions. They are provided with apical invaginations continuous to the intermicrovillous space. Absorbed lipid is observed in small vesicles in the terminal web layer, and chylomicrons derived here from are contained in large vacuoles near the Golgi apparatus. Ferritin particles artificially infused into the gut lumen were absorbed into the vacuoles in the subapical zone of columnar cells of suckling rats. Growing goblet cells situated in the crypt epithelium contain surface invaginations and lysosomes which are the same in structure as those found in absorptive cells nearby. Fat droplets evidently absorbed by the growing goblet cell were observed among immature mucus droplets. Artificially infused ferritin particles were found in vacuoles and lysosomes near the Golgi apparatus of some goblet cells of suckling rats. Some goblet cells on the intestinal villi of suckling rats looked immature and their microvilli and cytoplasmic matrix were clear like those of columnar absorptive cells. The transition between these goblet cells with clear cytoplasm and the mature goblet cells with dark cytoplasm was observed. These morphological evidences indicate that some of columnar cells already differentiated to absorptive cells are capable of transforming into mucus-producing (goblet) cells. It is suggested that not only undifferentiated columnar cells in the crypt base but also considerably differentiated columnar cells with absorptive function can differentiate into goblet cells. PMID:7325782

  7. CXCR7 suppression modulates microglial chemotaxis to ameliorate experimentally-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianhong; Zhu, Jinying; Luo, Sheng; Cheng, Ying; Zhou, Saijun

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), widely used as an animal model of MS, classically manifests as an ascending paralysis that is characterized by extensive infiltration of the CNS by inflammatory cells. Although several studies uncover the significant role of microglia in the development of EAE, the cellular mechanisms of microglia that govern EAE pathogenesis remain unknown. In the current study, we report that CXCR7 expression is dynamic regulated in activated microglia during CNS autoimmunity and positively correlates with the clinical severity of EAE. In addition, microglial chemotaxis is mediated by CXCR7 during CNS autoimmunity, signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation, whereas p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) JNK are not involved. Most importantly, CXCR7 neutralizing treatment ameliorates the clinical severity of EAE along with ERK1/2 phosphorylation reduction. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CXCR7 suppression modulates microglial chemotaxis to ameliorate EAE.

  8. Essential roles of mitochondrial depolarization in neuron loss through microglial activation and attraction toward neurons.

    PubMed

    Nam, Min-Kyung; Shin, Hyun-Ah; Han, Ji-Hye; Park, Dae-Wook; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2013-04-10

    As life spans increased, neurodegenerative disorders that affect aging populations have also increased. Progressive neuronal loss in specific brain regions is the most common cause of neurodegenerative disease; however, key determinants mediating neuron loss are not fully understood. Using a model of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, we found only 25% cell loss in SH-SY5Y (SH) neuronal mono-cultures, but interestingly, 85% neuronal loss occurred when neurons were co-cultured with BV2 microglia. SH neurons overexpressing uncoupling protein 2 exhibited an increase in neuron-microglia interactions, which represent an early step in microglial phagocytosis of neurons. This result indicates that ΔΨm loss in SH neurons is an important contributor to recruitment of BV2 microglia. Notably, we show that ΔΨm loss in BV2 microglia plays a crucial role in microglial activation and phagocytosis of damaged SH neurons. Thus, our study demonstrates that ΔΨm loss in both neurons and microglia is a critical determinant of neuron loss. These findings also offer new insights into neuroimmunological and bioenergetical aspects of neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Alginate-Derived Oligosaccharide Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Promotes Microglial Phagocytosis of β-Amyloid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Shi, Xu-Yang; Bi, De-Cheng; Fang, Wei-Shan; Wei, Gao-Bin; Xu, Xu

    2015-09-16

    Alginate from marine brown algae has been widely applied in biotechnology. In this work, the effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide (AdO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and microglial phagocytosis of Aβ were studied. We found that pretreatment of BV2 microglia with AdO prior to LPS/Aβ stimulation led to a significant inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We further demonstrated that AdO remarkably attenuated the LPS-activated overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in BV2 cells. In addition to the impressive inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation, we also found that AdO promoted the phagocytosis of Aβ through its interaction with TLR4 in microglia. Our results suggested that AdO exerted the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and the promotion effect on microglial phagocytosis, indicating its potential as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  10. Dexamethasone retrodialysis attenuates microglial response to implanted probes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kozai, Takashi D Y; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea S; Vazquez, Alberto L; Michael, Adrian C; Cui, X Tracy

    2016-05-01

    Intracortical neural probes enable researchers to measure electrical and chemical signals in the brain. However, penetration injury from probe insertion into living brain tissue leads to an inflammatory tissue response. In turn, microglia are activated, which leads to encapsulation of the probe and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This inflammatory tissue response alters the electrical and chemical microenvironment surrounding the implanted probe, which may in turn interfere with signal acquisition. Dexamethasone (Dex), a potent anti-inflammatory steroid, can be used to prevent and diminish tissue disruptions caused by probe implantation. Herein, we report retrodialysis administration of dexamethasone while using in vivo two-photon microscopy to observe real-time microglial reaction to the implanted probe. Microdialysis probes under artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) perfusion with or without Dex were implanted into the cortex of transgenic mice that express GFP in microglia under the CX3CR1 promoter and imaged for 6 h. Acute morphological changes in microglia were evident around the microdialysis probe. The radius of microglia activation was 177.1 μm with aCSF control compared to 93.0 μm with Dex perfusion. T-stage morphology and microglia directionality indices were also used to quantify the microglial response to implanted probes as a function of distance. Dexamethasone had a profound effect on the microglia morphology and reduced the acute activation of these cells. PMID:26923363

  11. Interrelated striated elements in vestibular hair cells of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Bourne, C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of interrelated striated organelles in types I and II vestibular hair cells of the rat which appear to be less developed in cochlear hair cells have been revealed by unusual fixation procedures, suggesting that contractile elements may play a role in sensory transduction in the inner ear, especially in the vestibular system. Included in the series of interrelated striated elements are the cuticular plate and its basal attachments to the hair cell margins, the connections of the strut array of the kinociliary basal body to the cuticular plate, and striated organelles associated with the plasma membrane and extending below the apical junctional complexes.

  12. Microglial voltage-gated sodium channels modulate cellular response in Alzheimer's disease--a new perspective on an old problem.

    PubMed

    Cătălin, Bogdan; Mitran, Smaranda; Ciorbagiu, Mihai; Osiac, Eugen; Bălşeanu, Tudor Adrian; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Dinescu, Sorin Nicolae; Albu, Carmen Valeria; Mirea, Cecil Sorin; Vîlcea, Ionică Daniel; Iancău, Maria; Sfredel, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) determines gradual loss of cognition and memory function, eventually leading to clinical manifest dementia. The pathogenic mechanisms of AD remain elusive and treatment options unsatisfactory, targeting only symptoms like memory loss, behavior changes, sleep disorders and seizures. These therapies are not stopping the disease's progression, at their best they can only delay it. Accumulating evidence suggests that AD is associated with a microglial dysfunction. Microglia are resident immune cells that provide continuous surveillance within the brain. When excessively activated, microglial response can also have detrimental effects via the exacerbation of inflammatory processes and release of neurotoxic substances. Recently, it was recognized that microglia express voltage-gated ion channels, in particularly voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). Pharmacological block of VGSC has been attempted symptomatically in AD to control the epileptic features often associated with AD, as well as to relieve detrimental behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The success of VGSC treatment in AD was unexpectedly variable, ranging from very beneficial to plain detrimental. This variability could not be satisfactorily explained solely by the neuronal effects. This article will try to discuss possible implication of microglial VGSC dysfunction in AD according to available data, own personal experience of the authors and propose a new way to investigate its possible implications. PMID:25826483

  13. Stem cell therapy in intracerebral hemorrhage rat model

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Marcos F; Horn, Ana P

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a very complex pathology, with many different not fully elucidated etiologies and prognostics. It is the most severe subtype of stroke, with high mortality and morbidity rates. Unfortunately, despite the numerous promising preclinical assays including neuroprotective, anti-hypertensive, and anti-inflammatory drugs, to this moment only symptomatic treatments are available, motivating the search for new alternatives. In this context, stem cell therapy emerged as a promising tool. However, more than a decade has passed, and there is still much to be learned not only about stem cells, but also about ICH itself, and how these two pieces come together. To date, rats have been the most widely used animal model in this research field, and there is much more to be learned from and about them. In this review, we first summarize ICH epidemiology, risk factors, and pathophysiology. We then present different methods utilized to induce ICH in rats, and examine how accurately they represent the human disease. Next, we discuss the different types of stem cells used in previous ICH studies, also taking into account the tested transplantation sites. Finally, we summarize what has been achieved in assays with stem cells in rat models of ICH, and point out some relevant issues where attention must be given in future efforts. PMID:25914768

  14. Effects of spaceflight on rat pituitary cell function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.; Viktorov, I.; Motter, K.; Mukherjee, P.; Shellenberger, K.; Vasques, M.

    1992-01-01

    The secretory capacity of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) cells prepared from rats flown in space on the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 was evaluated in several post-flight tests on earth. The results showed statistically significant and repeatable decrements in hormone release, especially when biological assays (rather than immunological assays) were used in the tests. Significant and repeatable intracellular changes in GH cells from the flight animals were also found; most important were increases in the GH-specific cytoplasmic staining intensities and cytoplasmic areas occupied by hormone. Tail suspension of rats for 14 days, an established model for mimicking musculo-skeletal changes seen in spaceflown rats, results in some changes in GH and PRL cell function that were similar to those from spaceflown animals. Our results add to a growing body of data that described deconditioning of physiological systems in spaceflight and provide insights into the time frame that might be required for readaptation of the GH/PRL cell system upon return to earth.

  15. The adaptive immune system restrains Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis by modulating microglial function.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samuel E; Abud, Edsel M; Lakatos, Anita; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Yeung, Stephen T; Davtyan, Hayk; Fote, Gianna M; Lau, Lydia; Weinger, Jason G; Lane, Thomas E; Inlay, Matthew A; Poon, Wayne W; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting "Rag-5xfAD" mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology. Gene expression analysis of the brain implicates altered innate and adaptive immune pathways, including changes in cytokine/chemokine signaling and decreased Ig-mediated processes. Neuroinflammation is also greatly exacerbated in Rag-5xfAD mice as indicated by a shift in microglial phenotype, increased cytokine production, and reduced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, immune-intact 5xfAD mice exhibit elevated levels of nonamyloid reactive IgGs in association with microglia, and treatment of Rag-5xfAD mice or microglial cells with preimmune IgG enhances Aβ clearance. Last, we performed bone marrow transplantation studies in Rag-5xfAD mice, revealing that replacement of these missing adaptive immune populations can dramatically reduce AD pathology. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that adaptive immune cell populations play an important role in restraining AD pathology. In contrast, depletion of B cells and their appropriate activation by T cells leads to a loss of adaptive-innate immunity cross talk and accelerated disease progression. PMID:26884167

  16. The adaptive immune system restrains Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis by modulating microglial function.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samuel E; Abud, Edsel M; Lakatos, Anita; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Yeung, Stephen T; Davtyan, Hayk; Fote, Gianna M; Lau, Lydia; Weinger, Jason G; Lane, Thomas E; Inlay, Matthew A; Poon, Wayne W; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting "Rag-5xfAD" mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology. Gene expression analysis of the brain implicates altered innate and adaptive immune pathways, including changes in cytokine/chemokine signaling and decreased Ig-mediated processes. Neuroinflammation is also greatly exacerbated in Rag-5xfAD mice as indicated by a shift in microglial phenotype, increased cytokine production, and reduced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, immune-intact 5xfAD mice exhibit elevated levels of nonamyloid reactive IgGs in association with microglia, and treatment of Rag-5xfAD mice or microglial cells with preimmune IgG enhances Aβ clearance. Last, we performed bone marrow transplantation studies in Rag-5xfAD mice, revealing that replacement of these missing adaptive immune populations can dramatically reduce AD pathology. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that adaptive immune cell populations play an important role in restraining AD pathology. In contrast, depletion of B cells and their appropriate activation by T cells leads to a loss of adaptive-innate immunity cross talk and accelerated disease progression.

  17. Rat full term amniotic fluid harbors highly potent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mun-Fun, Hoo; Ferdaos, Nurfarhana; Hamzah, Siti Nurusaadah; Ridzuan, Noridzzaida; Hisham, Nurul Afiqah; Abdullah, Syahril; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Cheah, Pike See; Thilakavathy, Karrupiah; Yazid, Mohd Nazri; Nordin, Norshariza

    2015-10-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) are commonly isolated from mid-term amniotic fluid (AF) of animals and human collected via an invasive technique, amniocentesis. Alternatively, AFSCs could be collected at full-term. However, it is unclear whether AFSCs are present in the AF at full term. Here, we aimed to isolate and characterize stem cells isolated from AF of full term pregnant rats. Three stem cell lines have been established following immuno-selection against the stem cell marker, c-kit. Two of the new lines expressed multiple markers of pluripotency until more than passage 90. Further, they spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of the three primary germ layers through the formation of good quality embryoid bodies (EBs), and can be directly differentiated into neural lineage. Their strong stemness and potent neurogenic properties highlight the presence of highly potent stem cells in AF of full-term pregnancies, which could serve as a potential source of stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  18. Nuclear asynchrony in multinucleate rat kangaroo cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Paweletz, N

    1984-11-01

    Multinucleate (MN) cells were induced in PtK1 cells by colcemid treatment. A large percentage of cells developed nuclear asynchrony both in relation to DNA synthesis and mitosis within one cell cycle. Asynchrony could be traced even in metaphase and anaphase cells in which interphase nuclei, PCC of S-phase nuclei and less condensed prophase-like chromosomes could be observed along with normally condensed chromosomes. The occurrence of such abnormalities in these large MN cells may be explained on the basis of an uneven distribution of inducer molecules of DNA synthesis and mitosis due to cytoplasmic compartmentation. The less condensed form of all the chromosomes except chromosome 4 could be traced in asynchronous metaphase. The failure of the less condensed chromosomes to undergo complete condensation does not always appear to result from late entry of nuclei containing these chromosomes into G2 phase. It is likely that chromosome 4 carries gene(s) for chromosome condensation, as this chromosome itself never appears in a less condensed form. The inducers for chromosome condensation may not always be available at equal concentrations to all chromosomes located in separate nuclei, thus they may sometimes fail to undergo complete condensation before other nuclei reach the end of prophase, when the nuclear envelopes of all nuclei present in the cell break down simultaneously.

  19. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-03-05

    After injection of 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle.

  20. Spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal injury induced by DFP in rats: A model for delayed neuronal cell death following acute OP intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yonggang; Lein, Pamela J.; Liu Cuimei; Bruun, Donald A.; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Ford, Gregory; Ford, Byron D.

    2011-06-15

    Organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins cause acute cholinergic toxicity and seizures resulting in delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. Testing novel strategies for protecting against delayed effects of acute OP intoxication has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of cellular injury after acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, im) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg, im) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg, ip) administration. All DFP-treated animals exhibited moderate to severe seizures within minutes after DFP injection but survived up to 72 h. AChE activity was significantly depressed in the cortex, hippocampus, subcortical brain tissue and cerebellum at 1 h post-DFP injection and this inhibition persisted for up to 72 h. Analysis of neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) labeling revealed delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus, cortex, amygdala and thalamus, but not the cerebellum, starting at 4 h and persisting until 72 h after DFP treatment, although temporal profiles varied between brain regions. At 24 h post-DFP injection, the pattern of FJB labeling corresponded to TUNEL staining in most brain regions, and FJB-positive cells displayed reduced NeuN immunoreactivity but were not immunopositive for astrocytic (GFAP), oligodendroglial (O4) or macrophage/microglial (ED1) markers, demonstrating that DFP causes a region-specific delayed neuronal injury mediated in part by apoptosis. These findings indicate the feasibility of this model for testing neuroprotective strategies, and provide insight regarding therapeutic windows for effective pharmacological intervention following acute OP intoxication. - Research Highlights: > DFP induced neuronal FJB labeling starting at 4-8 h after treatment > The pattern of DFP-induced FJB labeling closely corresponded to TUNEL staining > FJB

  1. Somatostatin binding to dissociated cells from rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, B.; Prieto, J.C.; Arilla, E. )

    1990-11-01

    A method has been developed for the study of somatostatin (SS) binding to dissociated cells from rat cerebral cortex. Binding of {sup 125}I (Tyr11)SS to cells obtained by mechanical dissociation of rat cerebral cortex was dependent on time and temperature, saturable, reversible and highly specific. Under conditions of equilibrium, i.e., 60 min at 25 degrees C, native SS inhibited tracer binding in a dose-dependent manner. The Scatchard analysis of binding data was linear and yielded a dissociation constant of 0.60 +/- 0.08 nM with a maximal binding capacity of 160 +/- 16 fmol/mg protein. The binding of {sup 125}I (Tyr11)SS was specific as shown in experiments on tracer displacement by the native peptides, SS analogues, and unrelated peptides.

  2. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-11-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  3. Human neuromelanin: an endogenous microglial activator for dopaminergic neuron death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zecca, Luigi; Wilson, Belinda; Ren, RW; Wang, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that neuroinflammation caused by over-activation of microglial in the substantia nigra is critical in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing data demonstrates that environmental factors such as rotenone, paraquat play pivotal roles in the death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, potential role and mechanism of neuromelanin (NM), a major endogenous component in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, on microglial activation and associated dopaminergic neurotoxicity were investigated. Using multiple well-established primary mesencephalic cultures, we tested whether human NM (HNM) could activate microglia, thereby provoking dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The results demonstrated that in primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, HNM caused dopaminergic neuronal damage characterized by the decreased dopamine uptake and reduced numbers and shorted dendrites of dopaminergic neurons. HNM-induced degeneration was relatively selective to dopaminergic neurons since the other types of neurons determined by either gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake and total neuronal numbers after staining showed smaller decrease. We demonstrated that HNM produced modest dopaminergic neurotoxicity in neuron-enriched cultures; in contrast, much greater neurotoxicity was observed in the presence of microglia. HNM-induced microglial activation was shown by morphological changes and production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. These results suggest that HNM, once released from damaged dopaminergic neurons, can be an potent endogenous activator involved in the reactivation of microglia, which may mediate disease progression. Thus, inhibition of reactive microglia can be a useful strategy for PD therapy. PMID:23276965

  4. HIV-1 TAT Inhibits Microglial Phagocytosis of Aβ Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Brian; Zhou, Yuyan; Hou, Huayan; Rrapo, Elona; Fernandez, Francisco; Tan, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) is a subcortical neuropsychiatric syndrome that has increased in prevalence in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Several studies demonstrated increased amyloidosis in brains of HIV patients and suggested that there may be a significant number of long-term HIV survivors with co-morbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the future. We show HIV-1 Tat protein inhibits microglial uptake of Aβ1-42 peptide, a process that is enhanced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and rescued by the STAT1 inhibitor (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). It is hypothesized that reduced Aβ uptake occurs through IFN-γ mediated STAT1 activation. This process promotes a switch from a phagocytic to an antigen presenting phenotype in microglia through activation of class II transactivator (CIITA). Additionally, we show that HIV-1 Tat significantly disrupts apolipoprotein-3 (Apo-E3) promoted microglial Aβ uptake. As Tat has been shown to directly interact with the low density lipoprotein (LRP) receptor and thus inhibit the uptake of its ligands including apolipoprotein E4 (Apo-E4) and Aβ peptide in neurons, we further hypothesize that a similar inhibition of LRP may occur in microglia. Future studies will be required to fully characterize the mechanisms underlying IFN-γ enhancement of HIV-1 Tats disruption of microglial phagocytosis of Aβ and Apo-E3. PMID:18784813

  5. Microglial phospholipase D4 deficiency influences myelination during brain development.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Terumasa; Otani, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is expressed in activated microglia that transiently appear in white matter during postnatal brain development. Previous knockdown experiments using cultured microglia showed PLD4 involvement in phagocytosis and proliferation. To elucidate the role of PLD4 in vivo, PLD4-deficient mice were generated and the cerebella were examined at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P7, when PLD4 expression is highest in microglia. Wild type microglia showed strong immunoreactivity for microglial marker CD68 at P5, whereas CD68 signals were weak in PLD4-deficient microglia, suggesting that loss of PLD4 affects microglial activation. At P5 and P7, immunostaining for anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibody indicated a mild but significant delay in myelination in PLD4-deficient cerebellum. Similar change was also observed in the corpus callosum at P7. However, this difference was not apparent at P10, suggesting that microglial PLD4-deficiency primarily influences the early myelination stage. Thus, microglia may have a transient role in myelination via a PLD4-related mechanism during development. PMID:27477458

  6. Microglial phospholipase D4 deficiency influences myelination during brain development.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Terumasa; Otani, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is expressed in activated microglia that transiently appear in white matter during postnatal brain development. Previous knockdown experiments using cultured microglia showed PLD4 involvement in phagocytosis and proliferation. To elucidate the role of PLD4 in vivo, PLD4-deficient mice were generated and the cerebella were examined at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P7, when PLD4 expression is highest in microglia. Wild type microglia showed strong immunoreactivity for microglial marker CD68 at P5, whereas CD68 signals were weak in PLD4-deficient microglia, suggesting that loss of PLD4 affects microglial activation. At P5 and P7, immunostaining for anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibody indicated a mild but significant delay in myelination in PLD4-deficient cerebellum. Similar change was also observed in the corpus callosum at P7. However, this difference was not apparent at P10, suggesting that microglial PLD4-deficiency primarily influences the early myelination stage. Thus, microglia may have a transient role in myelination via a PLD4-related mechanism during development.

  7. Bone marrow cell transplantation is associated with fibrogenic cells apoptosis during hepatic regeneration in cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Nunes de Carvalho, Simone; da Cunha Lira, Dalvaci; Costa Cortez, Erika Afonso; de Andrade, Daniela Caldas; Thole, Alessandra Alves; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; de Carvalho, Lais

    2013-04-01

    Liver fibrosis is accompanied by hepatocyte death and proliferation of α-SMA(+) fibrogenic cells (activated hepatic stellate cells and myofibroblasts), which synthesize extracellular matrix components that contribute to disorganization of the hepatic parenchyma and loss of liver function. Therefore, apoptosis of these fibrogenic cells is important to hepatic regeneration. This study aimed to analyze the effect of cell therapy using bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC) transplantation on α-SMA expression and on apoptosis of hepatic cells during liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Livers were collected from normal rats, fibrotic rats after 14 and 21 days of BDL, and rats that received BMMNC at 14 days of BDL and were analyzed after 7 days. Apoptosis in fibrogenic cells was analyzed by immunoperoxidase, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting, and liver regeneration was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. Results showed that caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression were significantly increased in the BMMNC-treated group. Additionally, confocal microscopy analysis showed cells coexpressing α-SMA and caspase-3 in these animals, suggesting fibrogenic cell death. These results suggest a novel role for BMMNC in liver regeneration during fibrotic disease by stimulating fibrogenic cells apoptosis and hepatocyte proliferation, probably through secretion of specific cytokines that modulate the hepatic microenvironment toward an antifibrogenic balance.

  8. Construction of AAV-rat-IL4 and Evaluation of its Modulating Effect on Aβ (1-42)-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokines in Primary Microglia and the B92 Cell Line by Quantitative PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Ravanshad, Mehrdad; Namayandeh, Mandana; Zare, Maryam; Asaei, Sadaf; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-4 (IL-4), as the most prominent anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in modulating microglial activation and inflammatory responses in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a chronic inflammatory disorder. Objectives The current study aimed to develop a new recombinant Adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector that delivers IL-4 and then assess the counterbalancing effect of the new construct along with recombinant IL-4 (rIL-4) protein in in-vitro models of AD. Materials and Methods The rAAV-IL4 was originally prepared and then employed along with rIL-4 protein to counter Amyloid β (1-42)-induced proinflammatory cytokines in a primary microglia cell culture and the B92 rat microglia continuous cell line, using relative Real-Time PCR assay. Results Aβ (1-42) stimulated the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL1β, TNFα, and IL18 in both the primary microglia cell culture and the B92 cell line. Both the rAAV-IL4 construct and the rIL-4 protein were found to inhibit production of the most important Aβ (1-42)-induced proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs in the two types of cells with different patterns. Conclusions It seems that the new construct can serve as an appropriate option in the modulation of Aβ-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and microglia activation in patients affected by AD. PMID:27217922

  9. Adrenocorticotropin receptors in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Payet, N; Escher, E

    1985-07-01

    The results presented here demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of ACTH receptors in the zona glomerulosa of adrenal glands. We obtained the surprising result that the glomerulosa cells carry a higher concentration of ACTH receptors than the fasciculata cells. The analog [Phe2,Nle4]ACTH was iodinated by the iodogen method and separated by HPLC; it was obtained carrier-free and has a specific activity of 600 muCi/micrograms, retaining full biological potency. After 30 min of incubation at 22 C for concentrations of 2 X 10(-11) M [125I]ACTH, specific binding values were 4.85 +/- 0.44% (n = 15) and 1.85 +/- 0.18% (n = 15), respectively, for 50,000 glomerulosa or fasciculata cells. For the glomerulosa, our results indicated a density of 6.5 X 10(4), receptors/cell of the high affinity type (Kd1 = 7.6 X 10(-11) M) and 1.0 X 10(6) receptors of the low affinity type (Kd2 = 1.2 X 10(-9) M). In the zona fasciculata, we found 7.2 X 10(3) receptors of high affinity (Kd1 = 1.1 X 10(-11) M) per cell and 6.3 X 10(5) of low affinity (Kd2 = 2.9 X 10(-9) M). The dissociation constant for the high affinity site of the glomerulosa cells was in excellent correlation with the half-maximal stimulation dose of ACTH for aldosterone and corticosterone (Kd1 = 7.6 X 10(-11) M vs. ED50 of 8 X 10(-11) and 3 X 10(-11) M). Results from primary cultures showed a decrease in binding capacity after 1 day in culture and then an increase to the initial value after 3 days in culture.

  10. Expression of Aquaporin-6 in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun Young; Lee, Eung Suk; Ohn, Young-Hoon; Park, Tae Kwann

    2016-08-01

    Several aquaporins (AQPs) have been identified to be present in the eyes, and it has been suggested that they are involved in the movement of water and small solutes. AQP6, which has low water permeability and transports mainly anions, was recently discovered in the eyes. In the present study, we investigate the localization of AQP6 in the rat retina and show that AQP6 is selectively localized to the ganglion cell layer and the outer plexiform layer. Along with the gradual decrease in retinal ganglion cells after a crushing injury of optic nerve, immunofluorescence signals of AQP6 gradually decreased. Confocal microscope images confirmed AQP6 expression in retinal ganglion cells and Müller cells in vitro. Therefore, AQP6 might participate in water and anion transport in these cells. PMID:26526333

  11. Cyclin C stimulates β-cell proliferation in rat and human pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Palomares, Margarita; López-Acosta, José Francisco; Villa-Pérez, Pablo; Moreno-Amador, José Luis; Muñoz-Barrera, Jennifer; Fernández-Luis, Sara; Heras-Pozas, Blanca; Perdomo, Germán; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Activation of pancreatic β-cell proliferation has been proposed as an approach to replace reduced functional β-cell mass in diabetes. Quiescent fibroblasts exit from G0 (quiescence) to G1 through pRb phosphorylation mediated by cyclin C/cdk3 complexes. Overexpression of cyclin D1, D2, D3, or cyclin E induces pancreatic β-cell proliferation. We hypothesized that cyclin C overexpression would induce β-cell proliferation through G0 exit, thus being a potential therapeutic target to recover functional β-cell mass. We used isolated rat and human islets transduced with adenovirus expressing cyclin C. We measured multiple markers of proliferation: [3H]thymidine incorporation, BrdU incorporation and staining, and Ki67 staining. Furthermore, we detected β-cell death by TUNEL, β-cell differentiation by RT-PCR, and β-cell function by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, we have found that cyclin C increases rat and human β-cell proliferation. This augmented proliferation did not induce β-cell death, dedifferentiation, or dysfunction in rat or human islets. Our results indicate that cyclin C is a potential target for inducing β-cell regeneration. PMID:25564474

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells from rat olfactory bulbs can differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Li, I-Hsun; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lien, Shiu-Bii; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Ma, Kuo-Hsing

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are widely distributed in different tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissues, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amnionic fluid. Recently, MSC-like cells were also found to exist in rat olfactory bulb and are capable of inducing differentiation into mesenchymal lineages - osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. However, whether these cells can differentiate into myocardial cells is not known. In this study, we examined whether olfactory bulb-derived MSCs could differentiate into myocardial cells in vitro. Fibroblast-like cells isolated from the olfactory bulb of neonatal rats were grown under four conditions: no treatment; in the presence of growth factors (neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin); co-cultured with cardiomyocytes; and co-cultured with cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. Cell differentiation into myocardial cells was monitored by RT-PCR, light microscopy immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and contractile response to pharmacological treatments. The isolated olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells expressed CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD166 but not CD34 and CD45, consistent with the characteristics of MSCs. Long cylindical cells that spontaneously contracted were only observed following 7 days of co-culture of MSCs with rat cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. RT-PCR and western blot analysis indicated that the cylindrical cells expressed myocardial markers, such as Nkx2.5, GATA4, sarcomeric α-actinin, cardiac troponin I, cardiac myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide and connexin 43. They also contained sarcomeres and gap junction and were sensitive to pharmacological treatments (adrenal and cholinergic agonists and antagonists). These findings indicate that rat olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells with MSC characteristics can differentiate into myocardial-like cells.

  13. Distinct activation profiles in microglia of different ages: a systematic study in isolated embryonic to aged microglial cultures.

    PubMed

    Lai, A Y; Dibal, C D; Armitage, G A; Winship, I R; Todd, K G

    2013-12-19

    Microglia have been implicated in disease progression for several age-related brain disorders. However, while microglia's contribution to the progression of these disorders is accepted, the effect of aging on their endogenous cellular characteristics has received limited attention. In fact, a comprehensive study of how the structure and function of microglia changes as a function of developmental age has yet to be performed. Here, we describe the functional response characteristics of primary microglial cultures prepared from embryonic, neonatal (Neo), 2-3month-old, 6-8month-old, 9-11month-old, and 13-15month-old rats. Microglial morphology, glutamate (GLU) uptake, and release of trophic and inflammatory factors were assessed under basal conditions and in microglia activated with adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) or lipopolysaccharide. We found that microglia from different age groups were both morphologically and functionally distinct. Upon activation by ATP, Neo microglia were the most reactive, upregulating nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor release as well as GLU uptake. This upregulation translated into neurotoxicity in microglia-neuron co-cultures that were not observed with microglia of different developmental ages. Interestingly, 13-15month-old microglia exhibited similar activation profiles to Neo microglia, whereas microglia from younger adults and embryos were activated less by ATP. Our data also identify age-dependent differences in purinergic receptor subtype expression that contribute to the regulation of neuronal survival. Combined, our data demonstrate that microglial activation and purinergic receptor profiles vary non-linearly with developmental age, a potentially important finding for studies examining the role of microglia in neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Colocalization of HCN Channel Subunits in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Greenberg, Kenneth P.; Krempely, Kalen S.; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The current-passing pore of mammalian hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated ("HCN") channels is formed by subunit isoforms denoted HCN1-4. In various brain areas, antibodies directed against multiple isoforms bind to single neurons and the current ("Ih") passed during hyperpolarizations differs from that of heterologously expressed homomeric channels. By contrast, retinal rod, cone, and bipolar cells appear to use homomeric HCN channels. Here, we assess the generality of this pattern by examining HCN1 and HCN4 immunoreactivity in rat retinal ganglion cells, measuring Ih in dissociated cells, and testing whether HCN1 and HCN4 protein coimmunoprecipitate. Nearly half of the ganglion cells in whole-mounted retinae bound antibodies against both isoforms. Consistent with colocalization and physical association, 8-bromo-cAMP shifted the voltage-sensitivity of Ih less than that of HCN4 channels and more than that of HCN1 channels, and HCN1 coimmunoprecipitated with HCN4 from membrane fraction proteins. Lastly, the immunopositive somata ranged in diameter from the smallest to the largest in rat retina, the dendrites of immunopositive cells arborized at various levels of the inner plexiform layer and over fields of different diameters, and Ih activated with similar kinetics and proportions of fast and slow components in small, medium, and large somata. These results show that different HCN subunits colocalize in single retinal ganglion cells, identify a subunit that can reconcile native Ih properties with the previously reported presence of HCN4 in these cells, and indicate that Ih is biophysically similar in morphologically diverse retinal ganglion cells and differs from Ih in rods, cones, and bipolar cells. PMID:21456027

  15. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  16. Recycling of 5'-nucleotidase in a rat hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, R A; du Maine, A P; Geuze, H J; van der Ende, A; Strous, G J

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular movement of cell surface 5'-nucleotidase was studied in H4S cells, a rat hepatoma cell line. Surface labelled cells were incubated for various periods at 37 degrees C and treated with neuraminidase at 0 degrees C. Removal of sialic acid residues from glycoproteins results in a change of their isoelectric points. Analysis with isoelectric focusing was then used to distinguish between cell surface and intracellular 5'-nucleotidase. Incubation of 125I-surface-labelled cells at 37 degrees C resulted in a gradual decrease of labelled 5'-nucleotidase at the plasma membrane until, at 60 to 90 min, a steady state was reached with 52% of the label on the cell surface and 48% intracellular. Pretreatment of the cells with the weak base primaquine had no influence on this distribution while at the same time uptake of iron via the transferrin receptor was inhibited. Using immunoelectron microscopy 5'-nucleotidase was found on the cell surface, in multivesicular endosomes and the Golgi complex. Preincubation of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide caused a reduction of labelling in the Golgi complex, whereas the label in the other compartments was retained. These results lead to the conclusion that 5'-nucleotidase does not recycle through the Golgi complex and that in contrast to the transferrin receptor the recycling of 5'-nucleotidase is not inhibited by primaquine. Images PMID:2850162

  17. Communication between mast cells and rat submucosal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anna; Althaus, Mike; Diener, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Histamine is a mast cell mediator released e.g. during food allergy. The aim of the project was to identify the effect of histamine on rat submucosal neurons and the mechanisms involved. Cultured submucosal neurons from rat colon express H1, H2 and H3 receptors as shown by immunocytochemical staining confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from submucosal homogenates as starting material. Histamine evoked a biphasic rise of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in cultured submucosal neurons, consisting in a release of intracellularly stored Ca(2+) followed by an influx from the extracellular space. Although agonists of all three receptor subtypes evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, experiments with antagonists revealed that mainly H1 (and to a lesser degree H2) receptors mediate the response to histamine. In coculture experiments with RBL-2H3 cells, a mast cell equivalent, compound 48/80, evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of neighbouring neurons. Like the response to native histamine, the neuronal response to the mast cell degranulator was strongly inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine and reduced by the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine. In rats sensitized against ovalbumin, exposure to the antigen induced a rise in short-circuit current (I sc) across colonic mucosa-submucosa preparations without a significant increase in paracellular fluorescein fluxes. Pyrilamine strongly inhibited the increase in I sc, a weaker inhibition was observed after blockade of protease receptors or 5-lipoxygenase. Consequently, H1 receptors on submucosal neurons seem to play a pivotal role in the communication between mast cells and the enteric nervous system. PMID:25224285

  18. Obesity diminishes synaptic markers, alters microglial morphology, and impairs cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Fasolino, Maria; Kane, Gary A.; LaMarca, Elizabeth A.; Kirschen, Gregory W.; Karatsoreos, Ilia N.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting overall physical and emotional well-being. Despite compelling data suggesting an association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction, this phenomenon has received relatively little attention. Neuroimaging studies in obese humans report reduced size of brain regions involved in cognition, but few studies have investigated the cellular processes underlying cognitive decline in obesity or the influence of obesity on cognition in the absence of obesity-related illnesses. Here, a rat model of diet-induced obesity was used to explore changes in brain regions important for cognition. Obese rats showed deficits on cognitive tasks requiring the prefrontal and perirhinal cortex. Cognitive deficits were accompanied by decreased dendritic spine density and synaptic marker expression in both brain regions. Microglial morphology was also changed in the prefrontal cortex. Detrimental changes in the prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex occurred before metabolic syndrome or diabetes, suggesting that these brain regions may be particularly vulnerable to early stage obesity. PMID:26644559

  19. Obesity diminishes synaptic markers, alters microglial morphology, and impairs cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Fasolino, Maria; Kane, Gary A; LaMarca, Elizabeth A; Kirschen, Gregory W; Karatsoreos, Ilia N; McEwen, Bruce S; Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-12-22

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting overall physical and emotional well-being. Despite compelling data suggesting an association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction, this phenomenon has received relatively little attention. Neuroimaging studies in obese humans report reduced size of brain regions involved in cognition, but few studies have investigated the cellular processes underlying cognitive decline in obesity or the influence of obesity on cognition in the absence of obesity-related illnesses. Here, a rat model of diet-induced obesity was used to explore changes in brain regions important for cognition. Obese rats showed deficits on cognitive tasks requiring the prefrontal and perirhinal cortex. Cognitive deficits were accompanied by decreased dendritic spine density and synaptic marker expression in both brain regions. Microglial morphology was also changed in the prefrontal cortex. Detrimental changes in the prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex occurred before metabolic syndrome or diabetes, suggesting that these brain regions may be particularly vulnerable to early stage obesity. PMID:26644559

  20. Embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells fuse with microglia and mature neurons.

    PubMed

    Cusulin, Carlo; Monni, Emanuela; Ahlenius, Henrik; Wood, James; Brune, Jan Claas; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-12-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a novel strategy to restore function in the diseased brain, acting through multiple mechanisms, for example, neuronal replacement, neuroprotection, and modulation of inflammation. Whether transplanted NSCs can operate by fusing with microglial cells or mature neurons is largely unknown. Here, we have studied the interaction of a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem (NS) cell line with rat and mouse microglia and neurons in vitro and in vivo. We show that NS cells spontaneously fuse with cocultured cortical neurons, and that this process requires the presence of microglia. Our in vitro data indicate that the NS cells can first fuse with microglia and then with neurons. The fused NS/microglial cells express markers and retain genetic and functional characteristics of both parental cell types, being able to respond to microglia-specific stimuli (LPS and IL-4/IL-13) and to differentiate to neurons and astrocytes. The NS cells fuse with microglia, at least partly, through interaction between phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of NS cells and CD36 receptor on microglia. Transplantation of NS cells into rodent cortex results in fusion with mature pyramidal neurons, which often carry two nuclei, a process probably mediated by microglia. The fusogenic role of microglia could be even more important after NSC transplantation into brains affected by neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation. It remains to be elucidated how the occurrence of the fused cells will influence the functional outcome after NSC transplantation in the diseased brain.

  1. Resveratrol potently reduces prostaglandin E2 production and free radical formation in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia

    PubMed Central

    Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; de Oliveira, Antonio C Pinheiro; Gräf, Sybille; Bhatia, Harsharan S; Hüll, Michael; Muñoz, Eduardo; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2007-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammatory responses are triggered by diverse ethiologies and can provide either beneficial or harmful results. Microglial cells are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammation, releasing several mediators, which contribute to the neuronal demise in several diseases including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Attenuation of microglial activation has been shown to confer protection against different types of brain injury. Recent evidence suggests that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory and potent antioxidant properties. It has been also shown that resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity. Previous findings have demonstrated that this compound is able to reduce neuronal injury in different models, both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol is able to reduce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary rat microglia. Methods Primary microglial cell cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of neonatal rats. Microglial cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of resveratrol (1–50 μM). After 24 h incubation, culture media were collected to measure the production of PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2α using enzyme immunoassays. Protein levels of COX-1, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) were studied by Western blotting after 24 h of incubation with LPS. Expression of mPGES-1 at the mRNA level was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Results Our results indicate that resveratrol potently reduced LPS-induced PGE2 synthesis and the formation of 8-iso-PGF2α, a measure of free radical production. Interestingly, resveratrol dose-dependently reduced the expression (mRNA and protein) of mPGES-1, which is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 by activated

  2. Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pineda, David; Ampurdanés, Coral; Medina, Manel G; Serratosa, Joan; Tusell, Josep Maria; Saura, Josep; Planas, Anna M; Navarro, Pilar

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory responses mediated by glial cells play a critical role in many pathological situations related to neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many other physiological and pathological events as microglial activation. Here, we found that tPA is required for Aβ-mediated microglial inflammatory response and tumor necrosis factor-α release. We further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for tPA-mediated microglial activation. We found that tPA induces a catalytic-independent rapid and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p38 signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK resulted in a strong inhibition of microglial activation, whereas Akt inhibition led to increased inflammatory response, suggesting specific functions for each signaling pathway in the regulation of microglial activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors are involved in tPA signaling and inflammatory response in glial cells. This study provides new evidences supporting that tPA plays a cytokine-like role in glial activation by triggering receptor-mediated intracellular signaling circuits and opens new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays a pathogenic role.

  3. Inhibition of microglial activation by elderberry extracts and its phenolic components

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Chen, Zihong; Jiang, Jinghua; Zong, Yijia; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Greenlief, C. Michael; Rottinghaus, George E.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is one of the oldest medicinal plants noted for its cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) pomace as well as some of the anthocyanins (cyanidin chloride and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) in bv-2 mouse microglial cells. Main methods The bv-2 cells were pretreated with elderberry pomace (extracted with ethanol or ethyl acetate) or its anthocyanins and flavonols and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ (IFNγ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (indicating oxidative stress and inflammatory response) were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Key findings Analysis of total monomeric anthocyanin (as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents) indicated five-fold higher amount in the freeze-dried ethanol extract as compared to that of the oven-dried extract; anthocyanin was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts. Elderberry ethanol extracts (freeze-dried or oven-dried) showed higher anti-oxidant activities and better ability to inhibit LPS or IFNγ-induced NO production as compared with the ethyl acetate extracts. The phenolic compounds strongly inhibited LPS or IFNγ-induced ROS production, but except for quercetin, they were relatively poor in inhibiting NO production. Significance These results demonstrated difference in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of elderberry extracts depending on solvents used. Results further identified quercetin as the most active component in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses on microglial cells. PMID:25744406

  4. HSP60 mediates the neuroprotective effects of curcumin by suppressing microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Feijia; Li, Fan; Li, Yunhong; Hou, Xiaolin; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Jiao; Zhang, Rui; Lang, Bing; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and has been widely used to treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of curcumin are not well known. In the present study, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 mouse microglia cells was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the culture medium and western blotting of cell lysates. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression and release of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in the BV2 cells. The level of heat shock factor (HSF)-1 was upregulated in LPS-activated BV2 microglia, indicating that the increased expression of HSP60 was driven by HSF-1 activation. However, the increased HSF-1 level was downregulated by curcumin. Extracellul