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Sample records for rat nouveau-ne carence

  1. La carence en vitamine D chez l'adulte au Gabon: cas isolé ou problème méconnu?

    PubMed Central

    Ntyonga-Pono, Marie-Pierrette

    2014-01-01

    La carence en vitamine D chez l'adulte est un sujet d'actualité à cause de ses multiples effets et de son extension de par le monde. Cependant elle est peu explorée au Gabon et en Afrique centrale en général. Le but de cet article qui rapporte trois cas documentés de carence en vitamine D chez l'adulte au Gabon, est d'attirer l'attention sur l'existence de ce problème même en zone équatoriale ensoleillée. Vu les implications de cette carence dans diverses pathologies osseuses, cardio-vasculaires, métaboliques, infectieuses, auto-immunes, néoplasiques..., des recherches plus approfondies sont nécessaires pour cerner le problème et prendre des mesures appropriées. PMID:25815104

  2. Carence en fer, anémie et anémie ferriprive chez les donneurs de sang à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Nzengu-Lukusa, Franck; Yuma-Ramazani, Sylvain; Sokolua-Mvika, Eddy; Dilu-Keti, Angèle; Malenga-Nkanga, Blanchard; Shuli, Jean Baptiste; Nzongola-Nkasu, Donatien Kayembe; Mbayo-Kalumbu, Ferdinand; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), plus d'un million de don de sang ont été réalisés entre 2007 et 2011. Cependant, aucun bilan portant sur la carence en fer et l'anémie ferriprive, conséquence d'un don de sang chez les donneurs de sang (DS), n'est disponible dans ce pays. L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer la prévalence de la carence en fer, de l'anémie et de l'anémie ferriprive chezles DS au Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine (CNTS) à Kinshasa en RDC. Méthodes Entre Décembre 2012 et Août 2013, une étude transversale a été menée au CNTS où des DS éligibles au don de sang ont été inclus. Les informations socio démographiques et des prélèvements sanguins ont été collectés de manière simultanée au don de sang. La ferritine sérique a été dosée pour évaluer la carence en fer en utilisant la technique ELISA. L'hémogramme a été réalisé en vue d’évaluer et mettre au point l'anémie. Résultats Au total 386 DS ont été inclus dans cette étude. La prévalence de la carence en fer et de l'anémie ferriprive étaient respectivement de 63,2% (244/386) et 25,9% (100/386) des DS. Une anémie a été trouvée chez 36.5% (141/386) au moment du don de sang. Conclusion La carence en fer, l'anémie et l'anémie ferriprive demeurent très fréquentes chez les DS à Kinshasa. Ces résultats suggèrent la révision des tests biologiques utilisés dans le recrutement des DS au CNTS. Par ailleurs le dosage de la ferritine s'impose en routine chez les DS rég PMID:27303590

  3. Pseudo-HELLP syndrome par carence en folates et/ou en vitamine B12: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Mechaal; Bouassida, Mahdi; Dhouib, Firas; Bouzeidi, Kaled

    2014-01-01

    Plusieurs pathologies médicales peuvent interférer avec la grossesse et mimer le tableau biologique de HELLP syndrome. L’évolution naturelle de ce syndrome est d'une particulière gravité pour la mère et le fœtus, il convient d’éliminer rapidement les autres diagnostics afin d’éviter une extraction fœtale prématurée injustifiée. Nous rapportons le cas d'une parturiente qui s'est présentée avec un tableau évocateur d'un HELLP syndrome, rapporté finalement à une carence en folates et en vitamine B12. PMID:25404961

  4. Rats! Oh No, Not Rats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gary E.

    1987-01-01

    Examples of problems encountered in a new library building--including rats and humidity--and a description of the library's collections provide a framework for this presentation of the California State Library's emergency management planning. Current preservation efforts are documented and the library's disaster and security plans are described.…

  5. Rats! Oh No, Not Rats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gary E.

    1987-01-01

    Examples of problems encountered in a new library building--including rats and humidity--and a description of the library's collections provide a framework for this presentation of the California State Library's emergency management planning. Current preservation efforts are documented and the library's disaster and security plans are described.…

  6. No evidence of rat hepatitis E virus excretion into urine of rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Johne, Reimar; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-08-31

    To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted into the urine of rats, we infected three Wistar and six nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat HEV RNA in serum, fecal and urine samples. We detected rat HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all rats but not in the urine. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.

  7. What is Desert RATS?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The mission manager and test coordinators for the 2011 mission explain why Desert RATS was started 14 years ago, questions being studied in this year's activities, technologies being tested and the...

  8. Anhedonia in postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, Brittany M.; Laggart, Jillian D.; Craft, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a debilitating illness, yet little is known about its causes. The purpose of this study was to examine a major symptom of depression during the postpartum period, anhedonia, by comparing sucrose preference in female rats that had undergone actual pregnancy or hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP) to their respective controls. Whereas HSP rats showed significantly less preference than vehicle-control rats for 1% sucrose solution during the first three weeks of the “postpartum” period, previously pregnant females showed only slightly depressed sucrose preference for the first 1–2 days postpartum, compared to non-pregnant controls. Habituation to 1% sucrose during the pregnancy period, which increased preference upon later testing in previously pregnant rats tested on postpartum day 2, did not significantly increase preference in HSP rats, suggesting that depressed preference in the latter group was not due to neophobia. Pre-treatment with desipramine did not prevent suppressed sucrose preference in HSP rats, and preference was even further suppressed following chronic sertraline treatment. These results suggest that estradiol withdrawal following HSP may cause anhedonia during the early “postpartum” period. In contrast, females that have undergone actual pregnancy are less likely to show this effect, suggesting that postpartum hormonal changes other than the dramatic decline in estradiol may buffer its negative mood effects. PMID:19850056

  9. [Fatal rat bites].

    PubMed

    Yanai, O; Goldin, L; Hiss, J

    1999-04-15

    We present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. Domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. Bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. There is little information about death due to house rat bites. Since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. An 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in her mother's bed in a rat-infested home. The infant's clothing was covered with blood, parts of her face were missing and marks of gnawing were present on her neck and extremities. There was subcutaneous bleeding around the wounds indicating that they were inflicted while the child was alive. Autopsy findings revealed profound blood loss. We conclude that a combination of low socio-economic status, severe failure to thrive, and poor hygiene in a rat-infested environment contributed to the fatal outcome in this attack.

  10. Rat on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  11. Rat on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  12. Culturing rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C

    2001-01-01

    Cultured neurons are widely used to investigate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons may be grown as described under a wide variety of conditions to suit differing experimental procedures, including electrophysiology, morphological analysis of neurite development, and various biochemical and molecular analyses.

  13. Behavior modulation of rats to a robotic rat in multi-rat interaction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Sugahara, Yusuke; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2015-09-28

    In this paper, we study the behavioral response of rats to a robotic rat during multi-rat interaction. Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a robotic rat called WR-5 is put together with three laboratory rats. WR-5 is following one rat (target), while avoiding the other two rats (outside observers) during interaction. The behavioral characteristics of each target rat is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing, body grooming and mounting actions. Additionally, the frequency of being mounted by other rats is also measured. Experimental results show that the target becomes more active after interaction. The rat species, with more active behavioral characteristics, is more susceptible to being adjusted by the robot. The increased time spent by the outside observers in the vicinity of the robot indicates that a biomimetic robot has the promise for modulating rat behavior even without direct interaction. Thus, this study provide a novel approach to shaping the sociality of animals living in groups.

  14. Rat retinal transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Kozhevnikova, Oyuna S.; Korbolina, Elena E.; Ershov, Nikita I.; Kolosova, Natalia G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly, remains poorly understood due to the paucity of animal models that fully replicate the human disease. Recently, we showed that senescence-accelerated OXYS rats develop a retinopathy similar to human AMD. To identify alterations in response to normal aging and progression of AMD-like retinopathy, we compared gene expression profiles of retina from 3- and 18-mo-old OXYS and control Wistar rats by means of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We identified 160 and 146 age-regulated genes in Wistar and OXYS retinas, respectively. The majority of them are related to the immune system and extracellular matrix turnover. Only 24 age-regulated genes were common for the two strains, suggestive of different rates and mechanisms of aging. Over 600 genes showed significant differences in expression between the two strains. These genes are involved in disease-associated pathways such as immune response, inflammation, apoptosis, Ca2+ homeostasis and oxidative stress. The altered expression for selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. To our knowledge, this study represents the first analysis of retinal transcriptome from young and old rats with biologic replicates generated by RNA-Seq technology. We can conclude that the development of AMD-like retinopathy in OXYS rats is associated with an imbalance in immune and inflammatory responses. Aging alters the expression profile of numerous genes in the retina, and the genetic background of OXYS rats has a profound impact on the development of AMD-like retinopathy. PMID:23656783

  15. Rat Genome and Model Resources.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Mary; Smith, Jennifer R; Bryda, Elizabeth; Kuramoto, Takashi; Saba, Laura; Dwinell, Melinda

    2017-07-01

    Rats remain a major model for studying disease mechanisms and discovery, validation, and testing of new compounds to improve human health. The rat's value continues to grow as indicated by the more than 1.4 million publications (second to human) at PubMed documenting important discoveries using this model. Advanced sequencing technologies, genome modification techniques, and the development of embryonic stem cell protocols ensure the rat remains an important mammalian model for disease studies. The 2004 release of the reference genome has been followed by the production of complete genomes for more than two dozen individual strains utilizing NextGen sequencing technologies; their analyses have identified over 80 million variants. This explosion in genomic data has been accompanied by the ability to selectively edit the rat genome, leading to hundreds of new strains through multiple technologies. A number of resources have been developed to provide investigators with access to precision rat models, comprehensive datasets, and sophisticated software tools necessary for their research. Those profiled here include the Rat Genome Database, PhenoGen, Gene Editing Rat Resource Center, Rat Resource and Research Center, and the National BioResource Project for the Rat in Japan. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. URINARY CALCULI IN GERMFREE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Bengt E.; Norman, Arne

    1962-01-01

    In a colony of germfree rats 50 per cent of the males had urinary calculi composed of calcium citrate and calcium oxalate. Genetically closely related conventional animals on the same sterilized diet did not present a single case of stone formation. The tendency to calculus formation disappeared when germfree animals were contaminated with the intestinal flora from conventional rats. The calculus formation can readily be explained by the high calcium, high citrate, and high pH of the urine. This pattern was changed to that of conventional rats when the germfree rats were infected with intestinal microorganisms. PMID:13903130

  17. Gravitational Biology: The Rat Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Morphology of brain, pituitary and thyroid in the rats exposed to altered gravity; Biochemical Properties of B Adrenoceptors After Spaceflight (LMS-STS78) or Hindlimb Suspension in Rats; Influence of Hypergravity on the Development of Monoaminergic Systems in the Rat Spinal Cord; A Vestibular Evoked Potentials (VsEPs) Study of the Function of the Otolith Organs in Different Head Orientations with respect to Earth Gravity Vector in the Rat; Quantitative Observations on the Structure of Selected Proprioceptive Components in Adult Rats that Underwent About Half of their Fetal Development in Space; Effects of a Nine-Day Shuttle Mission on the Development of the Neonatal Rat Nervous System, A Behavioral Study; Muscle Atrophy Associated to Microgravity in Rat, Basic Data For Countermeasures; Simulated Weightlessness by Unloading in the Rat, Results of a Time Course Study of Biochemical Events Occurring During Unloading and Lack of Effect of a rhBNP-2 Treatment on Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Content in Unloading Rats; and Cytological Mechanism of the Osteogenesis Under Microgravity Conditions.

  18. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Pluta, Helena; Popik, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter) emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional-cognitive changes

  19. Rat Endovascular Perforation Model

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal models of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided a wealth of information on the mechanisms of brain injury. The Rat endovascular perforation model (EVP) replicates the early pathophysiology of SAH and hence is frequently used to study early brain injury following SAH. This paper presents a brief review of historical development of the EVP model, details the technique used to create SAH and considerations necessary to overcome technical challenges. PMID:25213427

  20. Prevention of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcomas in rats pre-inoculated with endogenous rat retrovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.C.; Demarais, J.T.; Djurickovic, D.B.; Huebner, R.J.

    1981-04-01

    Weanling Fischer 344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of a 1000-fold concentrated preparation of endogenous nontransforming rat retrovirus. Ten days later, the rats were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 3-methylcholanthrene. The rats inoculated with the endogenous rat retrovirus were significantly protected against the development of cancer, whereas uninoculated rats and rats given one of several murine tetroviruses or baboon retrovirus were not protected.

  1. War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

    The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

  2. Do rats have orgasms?

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2016-01-01

    Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  3. Do rats have orgasms?

    PubMed Central

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  4. Generation of Hprt-disrupted rat through mouse←rat ES chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Isotani, Ayako; Yamagata, Kazuo; Okabe, Masaru; Ikawa, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    We established rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from a double transgenic rat line which harbours CAG-GFP for ubiquitous expression of GFP in somatic cells and Acr3-EGFP for expression in sperm (green body and green sperm: GBGS rat). By injecting the GBGS rat ES cells into mouse blastocysts and transplanting them into pseudopregnant mice, rat spermatozoa were produced in mouse←rat ES chimeras. Rat spermatozoa from the chimeric testis were able to fertilize eggs by testicular sperm extraction combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (TESE-ICSI). In the present paper, we disrupted rat hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene in ES cells and produced a Hprt-disrupted rat line using the mouse←rat ES chimera system. The mouse←rat ES chimera system demonstrated the dual advantages of space conservation and a clear indication of germ line transmission in knockout rat production. PMID:27062982

  5. Rat myocardial protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Steer, J H; Hopkins, B E

    1981-07-01

    1. Myocardial protein degradation rates were determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated left hemi-atria in vitro. 2. After two 20 min preincubations the rate of tyrosine release from hemi-atria was constant for 4 h. 3. Skeletal muscle protein degradation was determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated hemi-diaphragm (Fulks, Li & Goldberg, 1975). 4. Insulin (10(-7) M) inhibited tyrosine release from hemi-atria and hemi-diaphragm to a similar extent. A 48 h fast increased tyrosine release rate from hemi-diaphragm and decreased tyrosine release rate from hemi-atria. Hemi-diaphragm tyrosine release was inhibited by 15 mmol/l D-glucose but a variety of concentrations of D-glucose (0, 5, 15 mmol/l) had no effect on tyrosine release from hemi-atria. Five times the normal plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine had no effect on tyrosine release from either hemi-atria or hemi-diaphragm.

  6. Postural development in rats.

    PubMed

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  7. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  8. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Kilham Rat Virus Infection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, James F.; Hetrick, Frank M.

    1970-01-01

    The Kilham rat virus (RV) was found to produce mortality in newborn rats after intracerebral, intravenous, or subcutaneous administration of virus. Both infectious virus and viral hemagglutinins were detected in a variety of tissues and in the blood and urine of experimentally infected rats. Contact control rats housed with infected littermates did not develop disease but did produce antibody to RV. Horizontal virus transmission was also evidenced by the seroconversion of antibody-negative mothers whose litters were infected with RV. The level of maternal antibody was found to be the determining factor in the susceptibility or refractiveness of newborn rats to RV infection. If the mother had no detectable hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody titer (less than 10) or a low antibody titer (10 or 20), her offspring were highly susceptible to RV. However, the litters of rats with HI titers of 40 or greater were afforded protection when challenged with RV; the higher the maternal antibody level the more solid was the protection conferred. Vertical transmission of RV was also demonstrated. Litters born of mothers infected with RV several days before delivery died within 7 to 9 days of a disease identical to that seen in infected newborns and virus was recovered from a variety of tissues. Results of mother-litter exchange experiments also indicated vertical transmission (rather than transmission through milk) occurs, since litters of infected mothers developed the disease when nursed by normal mothers, whereas litters of normal mothers remained normal although they were nursed by infected mothers. PMID:16557835

  10. Online tools for understanding rat physiology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rat models have been used to investigate physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms for decades. With the availability of the rat genome and other online resources, tools to identify rat models that mimic human disease are an important step in translational research. Despite the large number of papers published each year using rat models, integrating this information remains a problem. Resources for the rat genome are continuing to grow rapidly, while resources providing access to rat phenotype data are just emerging. An overview of rat models of disease, tools to characterize strain by phenotype and genotype, and steps being taken to integrate rat physiological data is presented in this article. Integrating functional and physiological data with the rat genome will build a solid research platform to facilitate innovative studies to unravel the mechanisms resulting in disease. PMID:20056729

  11. Hormonal changes in antiorthostatic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.; Popovic, P.; Honeycutt, C.

    1982-01-01

    Hypokinesia, especially hypokinesia with negative tilt ('antiorthostatic hypokinesia'), mimics some of the effects of weightlessness. It is shown that cardiac output is increased during early exposure of rats to antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The increase of the stroke volume and of the cardiac output observed in the antiorthostatic hypokinetic rats is probably the consequence of a blood volume shift toward the chest brought forth by head-down positioning of the animals. It is also possible that struggling of the animals to escape from the harness and an increased metabolism contribute to the elevation of cardiac output. In order to study this hypothesis 'stress hormones' were measured in the antiorthostatic rats. Plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin were measured in the arterial blood (0.3 ml) sampled before, during and after hypokinesia from chronic aortic cannulas of the rats.

  12. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality.

  13. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction

    PubMed Central

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Summary Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality. PMID:24596690

  14. The rat adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Tischler, A S

    1989-01-01

    Adult adrenal medullary cells, in many strains of rats, develop diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and neoplasia under a variety of conditions. Both endogenous and exogenous factors affect the development of these proliferative changes. The former include the animals' strain, age, and sex. The latter include drugs and other environmental agents, diet, and perhaps stress. Adrenal medullary neoplasms which arise under diverse circumstances often closely resemble each other both morphologically and functionally, and exhibit characteristics of immature chromaffin cells. Recent data indicate that normal, mature-appearing epinephrine- and norepinephrine-type chromaffin cells are able to divide, and suggest that signals which regulate chromaffin cell function also regulate cell proliferation. Prolongation of these signals or superimposed abnormalities might initiate pathological proliferative states. It remains to be determined whether the mechanisms which promote or prevent cell proliferation in the adult adrenal are related to those involved in normal development.

  15. Spatial integration with rats.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, V D; Rodrigo, T; Mackintosh, N J

    2006-11-01

    Rats were trained to find the hidden platform in a Morris pool, whose location was defined by reference to a small number of landmarks around the circumference of the pool. In each of three experiments, an experimental group was trained on alternate trials with two different subsets of three of the available landmarks, with the two subsets sharing one landmark in common. When tested with landmarks drawn from both of their training configurations, but without the landmark common to the two sets, they had no difficulty in locating the platform. In Experiment 1, they performed at least as well as a group trained with all the available landmarks present on every trial. In Experiment 2, they performed significantly better than a group trained with two different subsets of landmarks that shared no one landmark in common.

  16. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L.H.; Oakley, D.A.

    1989-06-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans.

  17. Senescence-accelerated OXYS rats

    PubMed Central

    Stefanova, Natalia A; Kozhevnikova, Oyuna S; Vitovtov, Anton O; Maksimova, Kseniya Yi; Logvinov, Sergey V; Rudnitskaya, Ekaterina A; Korbolina, Elena E; Muraleva, Natalia A; Kolosova, Nataliya G

    2014-01-01

    Senescence-accelerated OXYS rats are an experimental model of accelerated aging that was established from Wistar stock via selection for susceptibility to cataractogenic effects of a galactose-rich diet and via subsequent inbreeding of highly susceptible rats. Currently, we have the 102nd generation of OXYS rats with spontaneously developing cataract and accelerated senescence syndrome, which means early development of a phenotype similar to human geriatric disorders, including accelerated brain aging. In recent years, our group found strong evidence that OXYS rats are a promising model for studies of the mechanisms of brain aging and neurodegenerative processes similar to those seen in Alzheimer disease (AD). The manifestation of behavioral alterations and learning and memory deficits develop since the fourth week of age, i.e., simultaneously with first signs of neurodegeneration detectable on magnetic resonance imaging and under a light microscope. In addition, impaired long-term potentiation has been demonstrated in OXYS rats by the age of 3 months. With age, neurodegenerative changes in the brain of OXYS rats become amplified. We have shown that this deterioration happens against the background of overproduction of amyloid precursor protein (AβPP), accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein in the hippocampus and cortex. The development of AMD-like retinopathy in OXYS rats is also accompanied by increased accumulation of Aβ in the retina. These published data suggest that the OXYS strain may serve as a spontaneous rat model of AD-like pathology and could help to decipher the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24552807

  18. Social facial touch in rats.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jason; Mende, Carolin; Brecht, Michael

    2011-12-01

    We know much about how rats use their whiskers to discriminate simple tactile properties, but little about how they are used in natural settings. Here we studied whisker motion during social interactions between rats in order to gain a better understanding of natural whisker use in this model system for sensorimotor integration. In the first set of experiments, an intruder was placed in a second rat's home cage. Anogenital sniffing immediately ensued; later in the trial, facial interactions occurred at least as frequently. Whereas much previous work has focused on the importance of anogenital sniffing during social interactions, these facial interactions were accompanied by some of the most intense whisker behaviors described to date. Whisker trimming increased biting but reduced boxing. In addition, whiskers were more protracted and whisking amplitude was larger in aggressive than in nonaggressive interactions. In a second set of experiments, rats interacted facially across a gap. As rats approached each other, whisking amplitude decreased and whiskers were more protracted. Whisker trimming disrupted facial alignment and reduced the frequency of interactions, indicating that whisker use, and possibly whisker protraction, is important for rats to orient themselves with respect to one another. We also found that females whisked with smaller amplitude when interacting with males than with females, and that they held their whiskers less protracted than males. The natural whisker use described here should further our understanding of this important somatosensory system during social interactions.

  19. Management of an outbreak of rat theilovirus.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Melissa C

    2010-05-01

    Rat theilovirus is a commonly reported infection in research rat colonies. The author's institution experienced an outbreak of rat theilovirus in a breeding colony of unique outbred rats. To manage this outbreak, the institution chose to use a 'test and cull' strategy because this approach is reported to be successful in mouse colonies infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, a related virus. Here the author describes the outbreak and subsequent management of rat theilovirus. The strategy successfully cleared the virus from the rat colony.

  20. Nicotine withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Laura E; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Ghozland, Sandy; Markou, Athina; Koob, George F

    2004-06-01

    Previous research with animal models has demonstrated that adolescent rats display heightened sensitivity to the reinforcing and stimulant effects of nicotine relative to adult rats. Little work has focused on the response of adolescent rats to measures of nicotine withdrawal. To test the hypothesis that adolescent rats may be differentially sensitive to withdrawal relative to their adult counterparts, the present study was designed to compare precipitated withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats following chronic nicotine administration. Adult and adolescent rats were prepared with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps that delivered either saline or nicotine (9 mg/kg per day, salt; N =12 per group). All rats were challenged with the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 mg/kg) on day 7 of chronic nicotine treatment. Twenty minutes after the injection, overt somatic signs of withdrawal (i.e., eye blinks, writhes, body shakes, teeth chatter, gasps, and ptosis) were recorded for 10 min. Adult rats were observed on postnatal day 73-77, and adolescent rats were tested on postnatal day 36-40. The results revealed a robust increase in mecamylamine-induced withdrawal signs in adult rats receiving chronic nicotine relative to adult rats receiving saline. In contrast, mecamylamine did not precipitate withdrawal signs in adolescent rats receiving chronic nicotine. These results indicate that there is decreased sensitivity to the somatic aspects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent rats that may maximize the reinforcing effects of nicotine during adolescence by minimizing the aversive effects of abstinence.

  1. Placenta hominis protects osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Chae, H J; Choi, K H; Chae, S W; Kim, H M; Shin, T K; Lee, G Y; Jeong, G S; Park, H R; Choi, H I; Kim, S B; Yoo, S K; Kim, H R

    2006-01-01

    In China, Japan, and Korea, placenta hominis extracts (PHEs) are used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis. The anti-osteoporotic effect of PHEs was studied. The trabecular bone area and thickness in OVX rats decreased by 50% from those in sham-operated rats; these decreases were completely inhibited by administration of PHEs for 7 weeks. Osteoclast numbers and the osteoblast surface were enhanced in OVX rats, but PHEs had no effect on these phenomena. Serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in OVX rats increased compared to those in sham-operated rats, but the increases were not affected by the administration of PHEs. Thyroxine (T4) level was stimulated in OVX rats. The extracts inhibited the T4 level in the OVX rats. These results strongly suggest that PHEs be effective in preventing the development of bone loss induced by OVX in rats.

  2. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  3. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  4. Adenohypophysitis in rat pituitary allografts

    PubMed Central

    Rotondo, Fabio; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Asa, Sylvia L; Lombardero, Matilde; Berczi, Istvan; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2010-01-01

    The histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations in 81 pituitary allografts from Lewis rats transplanted beneath the renal capsule of Wistar rats were investigated. Intrasellar pituitaries of rats bearing allografts were also examined. Recipient rats were sacrificed at various time points after transplantation. Two days after transplantation, the central portion of the allografts demonstrated ischaemic necrosis. A week later, massive mononuclear cell infiltrates consisting primarily of lymphocytes and to a lesser extent, macrophages, plasma cells and granulocytes became prominent. At about three to four weeks after transplantation, the mononuclear cell infiltrate diminished; the surviving adenohypophysial cells, mainly prolactin (PRL) cells, increased in number and necrosis was replaced by connective tissue. No histological changes were noted in the intrasellar pituitaries of rats bearing allografts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the surviving adenohypophysial cells were mainly PRL-producing cells. Electron microscopy revealed adenohypophysial cell destruction, a spectrum of inflammatory cells and, in late phase, accumulation of fibroblasts and collagen fibres. PRL cells were the prominent cell types; they increased in number. It appears that pituitary allografts are ‘foreign’ and evoke an immune response, suggesting that they may be used as an experimental animal model for morphological investigation of the development and progression of adenohypophysitis, a rare disease occurring mainly in young women often associated with pregnancy. PMID:20586813

  5. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  6. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  7. Hematopoiesis in antiorthostatic, hypokinesic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Rats exposed to antiorthostatic, hypokinesia showed the following effects which are comparable to those seen in man during or after space flight: weight loss, reduced food and water consumption, transient increases in peripheral hematocrit and RBC count, decreasing MCV and reduced reticulocyte count. In addition, the hemoglobin P50 was shifted to the right. A significant shortening of RBC t1/2 was only seen after suspension. Changes in leukocyte and platelet numbers in suspended rats were also comparable to those in man during space flight, but leukocyte PHA sensitivity in rats showed no consistent alteration. The results demonstrate that this model reproduces many of the hematological effects of space flight and has potential as a tool in understanding the hematopoietic response to zero gravity.

  8. Using rats for vision research.

    PubMed

    Reinagel, P

    2015-06-18

    A wide variety of species are used for the study of visual neuroscience. This is beneficial because fundamental mechanisms and theoretical principles of vision are likely to be highly conserved, while different species exhibit different visual capacities and present different technical advantages for experiments. Eight years ago my laboratory adopted the hooded rat as our primary preparation for vision research. To some this may be surprising, as nocturnal rodents have often been presumed to have poor vision and weak visual behavior. This commentary will provide my personal perspective on how I came to work with rats; discuss an example research project for which rats have been advantageous; and comment on the opportunities and challenges of the preparation.

  9. Hematopoiesis in antiorthostatic, hypokinesic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Rats exposed to antiorthostatic, hypokinesia showed the following effects which are comparable to those seen in man during or after space flight: weight loss, reduced food and water consumption, transient increases in peripheral hematocrit and RBC count, decreasing MCV and reduced reticulocyte count. In addition, the hemoglobin P50 was shifted to the right. A significant shortening of RBC t1/2 was only seen after suspension. Changes in leukocyte and platelet numbers in suspended rats were also comparable to those in man during space flight, but leukocyte PHA sensitivity in rats showed no consistent alteration. The results demonstrate that this model reproduces many of the hematological effects of space flight and has potential as a tool in understanding the hematopoietic response to zero gravity.

  10. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  11. Swimming-based pica in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that voluntary or forced running in activity wheels yields pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats (Nakajima, 2016; Nakajima and Katayama, 2014). The present study provides experimental evidence that a single 40-min session of swimming in water also generates pica in rats, while showering rats with water does not produce such behavior. Because kaolin intake has been regarded as a measure of nausea in rats, this finding suggests that swimming activity, as well as voluntary or forced running, induces nausea in rats.

  12. Struvite Urolithiasis in Long-Evans Rats.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jassia; Borjeson, Tiffany M; Parry, Nicola M A; Fox, James G

    2015-12-01

    Struvite urinary calculi, which are composed of magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate, can cause complications including sepsis and renal failure. Struvite calculi were identified within the urinary bladder and renal pelvis of 2 Long-Evans rats that died within days after arrival from a commercial vendor. The remaining rats in the shipment were screened by physical examination, radiography, and ultrasonography, revealing an additional 2 animals that were clinically affected. These rats were euthanized, necropsied, and yielded similar findings to those from the first 2 rats. In addition, urine samples had an alkaline pH and contained numerous bacteria (predominantly Proteus mirabilis), leukocytes, and crystals. All calculi were composed completely of struvite. Another 7 rats in the shipment had alkaline urine with the presence of blood cells; 6 of these rats also had abundant struvite crystals, and P. mirabilis was cultured from the urine of 3 rats. Further investigation by the vendor identified 2 of 100 rats with struvite calculi from the same colony. Although no specific cause could be implicated, the fact that all the affected rats came from the same breeding area suggests a genetic or environmental triggering event; a contribution due to diet cannot be ruled out. Our findings suggest that the affected rats had metabolic disturbances coupled with bacterial infection that predisposed them to develop struvite calculi. During sudden increases of struvite urinary calculi cases in rats, urine cultures followed by appropriate surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy is warranted. Additional factors, including diet, merit attention as well.

  13. Susceptibility of laboratory rats against genotypes 1, 3, 4, and rat hepatitis E viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2013-04-12

    To determine whether or not rats are susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, each of group containing three laboratory rats (Wistar) were experimentally inoculated with genotypes 1, 3, 4 and rat HEV by intravenous injection. Serum and stool samples were collected and used to detect HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The virus infection was monitored up to 3 months after inoculation. None of the serum or stool samples collected from the rats inoculated with G1, G3, or G4 HEV indicated positive sign for virus replication. Although no alteration was observed in ALT level, rat HEV RNA was detected in stools from both of the rats inoculated with rat HEV, and both rats were positive for anti-rat HEV IgG and IgM from 3 weeks after inoculation. These results demonstrated that rats are susceptible to rat HEV but not to G1, G3, and G4 HEV. We also confirm that the nude rats were useful for obtaining a large amount of rat HEV and that the rat HEV was transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

  14. In vivo tropisms and kinetics of rat theilovirus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats.

    PubMed

    Drake, Michael T; Besch-Williford, Cindy; Myles, Matthew H; Davis, Justin W; Livingston, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Rat theilovirus (RTV) is a cardiovirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. While RTV is a prevalent viral pathogen of rats used in biomedical research, the pathogenesis and characterization of RTV infections is not well understood. In the studies reported herein, we used immunohistochemistry to identify viral antigens in enterocytes of the small intestines of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Fecal viral shedding in immunocompromised and immunocompetent rats following oral gavage with RTV1 was high for the first 2 weeks of infection with persistent shedding of high viral loads being observed in immunocompromised nude rats but not in immunocompetent rats. RTV was also detected in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen of immunocompromised rats but not immunocompetent rats. In addition, the magnitude of serum antibody responses differed between immunocompetent rat strains with Brown Norway and SD rats having a significantly higher antibody response than CD or Fischer 344 rats. These data suggest that RTV1 has a tropism for the epithelial cells of the small intestine, immunocompetent rats have differing serum antibody responses to RTV infection, and sustained fecal shedding and extraintestinal dissemination of RTV1 occurs in rats deficient in T cell-dependent adaptive immunity. RTV infection in immunocompromised and immunocompetent rats has merit as a model for further studies of theilovirus pathogenesis following oral viral exposure.

  15. Cloning of rat homeobox genes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakoyama, Yasuhiko; Mizuta, Ikuko; Ogasawara, Naotake

    1994-10-01

    We report the isolation of nine rat cognates of mouse homeoboxes within the four Hox gene clusters and a rat homologue of mouse IPF1 homeobox, RHbox No. 13A. The sequences of nine cloned homeoboxes are highly similar to those of the mouse and human homeoboxes in the Hox clusters. The restriction enzyme sites and map distances between each of the homeoboxes on the rat genome are nearly identical to those of mouse and human. Thus, we conclude that the isolated homeoboxes are the rat homologues of mouse homeoboxes within the four Hox clusters. A novel homeobox RHbox No. 13A is different from the Drosophila Antennapedia (Antp) sequence but is highly similar to the XlHbox8 (Xenopus laevis) and HtrA2 (Helobdella triserialis) homeoboxes. Forty-two amino acids of the last two-thirds of the RHbox No. 13A, XlHbox8, and mouse IPF1 homeodomains completely matched. In addition, these four homeodomains contain a unique His residue in the recognition helix of a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. This His residue is not found in any of the previously published mammalian homeodomain sequences except mouse IPF1. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Whiskers aid anemotaxis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan S. W.; Graff, Matthew M.; Bresee, Chris S.; Man, Yan B.; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of terrestrial mammals suggests that they can follow the wind (anemotaxis), but the sensory cues underlying this ability have not been studied. We identify a significant contribution to anemotaxis mediated by whiskers (vibrissae), a modality previously studied only in the context of direct tactile contact. Five rats trained on a five-alternative forced-choice airflow localization task exhibited significant performance decrements after vibrissal removal. In contrast, vibrissal removal did not disrupt the performance of control animals trained to localize a light source. The performance decrement of individual rats was related to their airspeed threshold for successful localization: animals that found the task more challenging relied more on the vibrissae for localization cues. Following vibrissal removal, the rats deviated more from the straight-line path to the air source, choosing sources farther from the correct location. Our results indicate that rats can perform anemotaxis and that whiskers greatly facilitate this ability. Because air currents carry information about both odor content and location, these findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive significance of the interaction between sniffing and whisking in rodents. PMID:27574705

  17. Whiskers aid anemotaxis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan S W; Graff, Matthew M; Bresee, Chris S; Man, Yan B; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2016-08-01

    Observation of terrestrial mammals suggests that they can follow the wind (anemotaxis), but the sensory cues underlying this ability have not been studied. We identify a significant contribution to anemotaxis mediated by whiskers (vibrissae), a modality previously studied only in the context of direct tactile contact. Five rats trained on a five-alternative forced-choice airflow localization task exhibited significant performance decrements after vibrissal removal. In contrast, vibrissal removal did not disrupt the performance of control animals trained to localize a light source. The performance decrement of individual rats was related to their airspeed threshold for successful localization: animals that found the task more challenging relied more on the vibrissae for localization cues. Following vibrissal removal, the rats deviated more from the straight-line path to the air source, choosing sources farther from the correct location. Our results indicate that rats can perform anemotaxis and that whiskers greatly facilitate this ability. Because air currents carry information about both odor content and location, these findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive significance of the interaction between sniffing and whisking in rodents.

  18. Dithiobiuret toxicity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Raising the daily dose of dithiobiuret (DTB) in male rats from 0.5 to 1 to 5 mg/kg shortened the latency to the onset of flaccid muscle tone and associated diminished performance in a treadmill test from 7 to 5 to 3 days, respectively. Concomitant with the development of flaccid muscle tone gastrocnemius muscle contractions elicited by high frequency motor nerve stimulation were lower in peak tension and tended to fade more rapidly in DTB-treated rats than in control rats. Remarkably, rats treated with highly daily doses (10-16 mg/kg) of DTB were resistant to the expected development of DTB-induced flaccid muscle tone, and tetanic contractile abnormalities but a corresponding refractoriness to body weight loss, decreased fed and water intake, diuresis, and depression in water balance was not present. This nonselectivity of the refractory responses supported the results of a histopathological study indicating that DTB-induced neuromuscular toxicity was unlikely to be secondary to effect on other organ systems. It is not known whether the ultimate neurotoxin is DTB or a metabolite. In this regard, two pathways for the metabolism of DTB were proposed based on the results of thin-layer chromatography of urine samples from rats treated with either /sup 14/C- or /sup 35/S-DTB. One pathway involved the reversible oxidation of DTB to the disulfide-containing compound thiuret, and the other involved the replacement of a sulfur atom with oxygen to form monothiobiuret. Thiuret, but not monothiobiuret, possessed comparable toxicity to STB. This further suggested that redox cycling between DTB and thiuret could be an important contributing factor to the toxicity of DTB.

  19. Trace elements and rat pouchitis.

    PubMed

    Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Walas, Stanisław; Kościński, Tomasz; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Drews, Michał; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    The procedure of restorative proctocolectomy is associated with a complete removal of the colon and slight reduction of ileum length, which together can lead to systemic shortages of trace elements. Inflammatory changes in the pouch mucosa may also have some impact. However, there is no data on trace elements in pouchitis. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to assess the effect of acute pouchitis on the status of selected trace elements in rats. Restorative proctocolectomy with the construction of intestinal J-pouch was performed in twenty-four Wistar rats. Three weeks after the surgery, pouchitis was induced. Eight untreated rats created the control group. Liver concentrations of selected micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Se) were measured in both groups six weeks later, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Liver concentrations of trace elements did not differ between the study and the control groups. However, copper, cobalt and selenium concentrations [μg/g] were statistically lower (p<0.02, p<0.05 and p<0.04, respectively) in rats with severe pouchitis (n=9) as compared with rats with mild pouchitis (n=7) [median (range): Cu--7.05 (3.02-14.57) vs 10.47 (5.16-14.97); Co--0.55 (0.37-0.96) vs 0.61 (0.52-0.86); Se--1.17 (0.69-1.54) vs 1.18 (0.29-1.91)]. In conclusion, it seems that acute pouchitis can lead to a significant deficiency of trace elements.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in hybrids rats.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Fernández, Rosa; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-12-06

    Laboratory rat strains descend from Wistar rats as a consequence of artificial selection. Previously we reported that the medial posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) was sexually dimorphic in Wistar and Long-Evans strains while the medial anterior division (BSTMA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) only showed sex differences in the ancestor Wistar strain. The lateral posterior division (BSTLP) was isomorphic in both strains. The present work studies the number of neurons in the BSTMP, BSTMA, BSTLP and LC of male and female Wistar and Long-Evans rats (F(0)) and their hybrid F(1) and F(2) generations. The BSTMP is sexually dimorphic in the F(0), F(1) and F(2) generations while sex differences in the LC are only seen in F(0) Wistar rats but not in the F(0) Long-Evans or the F(1) and F(2) hybrid generations. Sex differences in the BSTMA are seen in F(0) Wistar but not in F(0) Long-Evans rats and completely disappear in the F(2) generations. The number of neurons in the LC of both males and females decreased in heterozygotic individuals (F(1)) but increased in homozygotic (F(2)). However, the number of neurons in the BSTMP changes significantly over the generations, although the ratio of neurons (female/male) is stable and unaffected in homo- or heterozygosis. Thus, the mechanism that regulates the neuronal female/male ratio would be different from the one that controls the number of neurons. The facts that sex differences in the BSTMP are not affected by homo- or heterozygosis and that they are seen in several mammalian orders suggest the existence of a "fixed" type of brain sex differences in the Mammalia Class.

  1. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  2. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise.

    PubMed

    Muths, E; Reichman, O J

    1996-08-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly "stronger" bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  3. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoro, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: 'phenotype to gene' and 'gene to phenotype'. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies.

  4. Wound Healing Delay in the ZDSD Rat

    PubMed Central

    A. SUCKOW, MARK; A. GOBBETT, TROY; G. PETERSON, RICHARD

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of diabetic delayed wound healing are essential to the development of strategies to improve clinical approaches for human patients. The Zucker diabetic Sprague Dawley (ZDSD) rat has proved to be an accurate model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes and we evaluated the utility of the ZDSD rat as a model for delayed wound healing associated with diabetes and obesity. Groups of ZDSD and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were placed on a diabetogenic diet and evaluated two weeks later for hyperglycemia, as a sign of diabetes. Rats with blood glucose levels of >300 mg/dl were considered diabetic and those with blood glucose of <180 mg/dl were considered non-diabetic. All SD rats were non-diabetic. A full-thickness excisional skin wound was created in anesthetized rats using a punch biopsy and wound diameter measured on days 1, 4, 7, 9 and 11. Blood glucose levels and body weights were measured periodically before and after wounding. Diabetic ZDSD rats had significantly greater blood glucose levels than non-diabetic ZDSD and SD rats within 10 days of being placed on the diabetogenic diet. Furthermore, diabetic ZDSD rats initially weighed more than non-diabetic ZDSD and SD rats, however, by the end of the study there was no significant difference in body weight between the ZDSD groups. By day nine, wounds in ZDSD rats were significantly larger than those in SD rats and this persisted until the end of the study at day fourteen. Wounds from all groups were characterized histologically by abundant fibroblast cells, collagen deposition and macrophages. These results demonstrate delayed wound healing in both diabetic and non-diabetic ZDSD rats and suggest that obesity or metabolic syndrome are important factors in wound healing delay. PMID:28064221

  5. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoto, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: ‘phenotype to gene’ and ‘gene to phenotype’. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies. PMID:25312505

  6. Electroacupuncture enhances extragonadal aromatization in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Tian, Zhanzhuang; Cheng, Lina; Chen, Boying

    2004-01-01

    Background Repeated electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation is known to stimulate the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and to enhance the circulation level of estrogen in the ovariectomized rats. To explore the source of the increased circulation estrogen, the extragonadal aromatization was detected. Methods Female rats were divided into five groups: 1) intact (INT), 2) intact with EA in specific points (INT+EA), 3) ovariectomized (OVX), 4) ovariectomized with EA in specific points (OVX+EA) and 5) ovariectomized with EA in non-specific points (OVX+C). Radiometric assay, Western blot and RT-PCR were adopted to determine the extragonadal aromatization in subcutaneous abdominal (SA) adipose and liver tissues of rats. The blood concentrations of estrogen, testosterone and corticosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The aromatase activities of the SA adipose and liver tissues in the OVX+EA rats increased significantly (p < 0.01) compared with those in the INT, INT+EA and OVX rats. The 58-kDa aromatase protein and aromatase mRNA expressions normalized to β-actin in the OVX+EA rats' SA adipose tissues showed higher levels than those from corresponding tissues in the INT and INT+EA rats (p < 0.05). And the ratios of aromatase mRNA and protein to β-actin in the OVX+EA rats' liver tissues increased significantly compared with those in the OVX rats (p < 0.05). Furthermore, blood estrogen and corticosterone concentrations showed significant increase in the OVX+EA rats compared with the concentrations in the OVX and OVX+C rats (p < 0.05), but no statistical disparity occurred on the blood testosterone concentrations between the OVX+EA rats and the OVX ones. Conclusion Both the subcutaneous abdominal adipose and the liver tissues contributed to the effects of electroacupuncture on the extragonadal aromatization to promote the blood concentrations of estrogen in the ovariectomized rats. PMID:15113414

  7. CONCLUSIONS ET RECOMMANDATIONS À L’ISSUE DE LA CONSULTATION DE L’OMS SUR LA LUTTE CONTRE LA CARENCE MARTIALE CHEZ LE NOURRISSON ET LE JEUNE ENFANT DANS LES PAYS D’ENDÉMIE PALUSTRE

    PubMed Central

    Allen, L.; Black, R.E.; Brandes, N.; Brittenham, G.; Chazot, G.; Chunming, C.; Crawley, J.; de Benoist, B.; Dalmiya, N.; Darnton-Hill, I.; Dewey, K.; El-Arifeen, S.; Fontaine, O.; Geissler, C.; Haberle, H.; Harvey, P.; Hasler, J.; Hershko, C.; Hurrell, R.; Juma, M.A.; Lönnerdal, B.; Lozoff, B.; Lynch, S.; Salgado, H. Martines; McLean, E.; Metz, J.; Oppenheimer, S.; Premji, Z.; Prentice, A.; Ramsan, M.; Ratledge, C.; Stoltzfus, R.; Tielsch, J.; Winachagoon, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cet article présentent les résultats d'une Consultation d'Experts dont l'objectif était d'évaluer l'efficacité et l'innocuité des suppléments de fer administrés aux nourrissons et aux jeunes enfants dans les zones d’endémie palustre, ainsi que les conséquences d’une telle mesure pour la santé publique. Les participants à cette Consultation, qui s’est déroulée à Lyon (France) les 12–14 juin 2006, se sont entendus sur plusieurs questions importantes concernant l’administration d’une supplémentation martiale aux nourrissons et aux jeunes enfants dans les zones d’endémie palustre. Les conclusions du présent rapport s’appliquent plus particulièrement aux pays où le paludisme est endémique. PMID:18630054

  8. Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-12

    E-1 Figures 1 Rat #001 Kidney , Vehicle Control, Day 1 Post-Injection...5 2 Control and Treated Rats, Kidney ......................................................................... 6 3 Rat...078, Kidney , 20 mg/kg Day 14 ...................................................................... 7 4 Liver, Glycogen Depletion

  9. Histomorphometric analysis of rat skeleton following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Doty, S. B.; Maese, A. C.; Walsh, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in orbit for 7 days aboard the space shuttle. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the long bones and lumbar vertebrae of flight rats and compared with data derived from ground-based control rats. Trabecular bone mass was not altered during the 1st wk of weightlessness. Strong trends were observed in flight rats for decreased periosteal bone formation in the tibial diaphysis, reduced osteoblast size in the proximal tibia, and decreased osteoblast surface and number in the lumbar vertebra. For the most part, histological indexes of bone resorption were normal in flight rats. The results indicate that 7 days of weightlessness are not of sufficient duration to induce histologically detectable loss of trabecular bone in rats. However, cortical and trabecular bone formation appear to be diminished during the 1st wk of spaceflight.

  10. False context fear memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sarah E.; Holmes, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control rats in A. In Experiment 2, rats were pre-exposed to A or C, subjected to an immediate shock in B and tested in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in B and control rats did not freeze in either A or B. The false fear memory to the pre-exposed A was contingent on its similarity with the shocked B. In Experiment 3, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in C and rats pre-exposed to C did not freeze when tested either in A or C. In Experiment 4, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze more when tested in A than rats whose pre-exposure to A began with an immediate shock. The results were discussed in terms of a dual systems explanation of context fear conditioning: a hippocampal-dependent process that forms a unitary representation of context and an amygdala-based process which associates this representation with shock. PMID:26373831

  11. Coprophagy in young laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Nováková, V; Babický, A

    1989-01-01

    Coprophagy (ingestion of maternal faeces) was found in young laboratory rats between the ages of 16 and 28 days. The degree of this activity during the given period was not constant; a multiple increase on about the 25th day was followed by an abrupt drop and complete cessation coincided with the time of spontaneous weaning. Coprophagy did not appear in prematurely weaned young (at 16 days) which were given faeces and was protracted in undernourished young whose weaning time was prolonged. Young weaned rats without having ingested maternal faeces displayed relative hyperphagy for solid food. This early hyperphagy had later consequences for the feeding behaviour of adult males, which looked for food and consumed it more intensively in a new environment and also hoarded it. Defensive behaviour was not affected.

  12. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  13. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs. PMID:27436999

  14. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs.

  15. Hyperammonemia in anorectic tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Chance, W T; Cao, L; Nelson, J L; Foley-Nelson, T; Fischer, J E

    1988-01-01

    Plasma ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated by 150% in anorectic rats bearing methylcholanthrene sarcomas. Assessment of ammonia levels in blood draining these sarcomas indicated nearly a 20-fold increase as compared with venous blood in control rats, suggesting the tumor mass as the source of this increase in ammonia. Infusing increasing concentrations of ammonium salts produced anorexia and alterations in brain amino acids in normal rats that were similar to those observed in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Therefore, these results suggest that ammonia released by tumor tissue may be an important factor in the etiology of cancer anorexia.

  16. Hyperammonemia in anorectic tumor-bearing rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, W.T.; Cao, L.; Nelson, J.L.; Foley-Nelson, T.; Fischer, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated by 150% in anorectic rats bearing methylcholanthrene sarcomas. Assessment of ammonia levels in blood draining these sarcomas indicated nearly a 20-fold increase as compared with venous blood in control rats, suggesting the tumor mass as the source of this increase in ammonia. Infusing increasing concentrations of ammonium salts produced anorexia and alterations in brain amino acids in normal rats that were similar to those observed in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Therefore, these results suggest that ammonia released by tumor tissue may be an important factor in the etiology of cancer anorexia.

  17. HEART RATE CONDITIONING IN THE RAT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PULSE RATE, CONDITIONED RESPONSE), (*CONDITIONED RESPONSE, PULSE RATE), HEART , FEAR, ANXIETY, EMOTIONS, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE, RATS

  18. Toxicity and repellency to rats of actidione

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Traub, R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Newman, D.

    1950-01-01

    The antibiotic actidione was found to be highly repellent to laboratory rats and to significantly reduce gnawing attacks upon treated paperboards. Rats refused to accept food or water containing this material even under conditions of acute starvation and died of starvation and thirst,rather than accept water containing l.0 mg. of actidione per liter. The compound is highly toxic to .rats with the minimum .lethal dose by oral administration being approximately l.0 mg./Kg body weight. Paperboard treated with the compound resisted gnawing attacks by specially trained and motivated rats for periods of two hundred hours, although similar .untreated boards were pierced within thirty-to sixty minutes.

  19. Ultrasonic output from the excised rat larynx

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Aaron M.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Russell, John A.; Hammer, Michael J.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2010-01-01

    The source of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by rats is thought to be within the larynx. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the rat larynx is capable of producing ultrasounds with the full range of frequencies reported in vivo. Acoustic output of excised rat larynges with and without vocal fold constriction was measured. At biologically-reasonable airflow rates and pressures, only larynges with a constriction produced the full range of ultrasounds reported in vivo, providing support for the hypothesis that a constriction within the larynx is likely the source of rat USVs. PMID:20707418

  20. Immunochemistry of Rat Lung Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Memorial Institute 1640 (RPMI) tissue culture medium. The extra tissue surrounding the organs is dissected free and discarded; this procedure is done in a...concentration of 0.5 x 106 cells/ml in a total volume of 3 ml/culture using the following medium: Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 (RPMI 1640...test tubes containing sterile Roswel] Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) tissue culture medium 1640. Lymphocytes from rat spleens were isolated, counted and

  1. Methanethiol metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, R.F.; Draves, K.

    1983-03-01

    Methanethiol is associated with hepatic failure in humans and the synergistic action of methanethiol, ammonia and octanoate is sufficient to account for the coma of experimental hepatic necrosis. The sulfur atom of methanethiol is eliminated from the body as urinary sulfate at a rate which is approximated by a hyperbola such that 94% is excreted within 21 h after administration. Rats in octanoate or hepatic coma excreted only little sulfate in their urine.

  2. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade rat

    PubMed Central

    Veuthey, Tania; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The Belgrade rat is an animal model of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 in iron distribution to red blood cells as well as duodenal iron absorption. The Belgrade rat’s pathology has extended our knowledge of hepatic iron handling, pulmonary and olfactory iron transport as well as brain iron uptake and renal iron handling. For example, relationships between iron and manganese metabolism have been discerned since both are essential metals transported by DMT1. Pathophysiologic features of the Belgrade rat provide us with a unique and interesting animal model to understand iron homeostasis. PMID:24795636

  3. Do rats learn conditional independence?

    PubMed Central

    Timberlake, William

    2017-01-01

    If acquired associations are to accurately represent real relevance relations, there is motivation for the hypothesis that learning will, in some circumstances, be more appropriately modelled, not as direct dependence, but as conditional independence. In a serial compound conditioning experiment, two groups of rats were presented with a conditioned stimulus (CS1) that imperfectly (50%) predicted food, and was itself imperfectly predicted by a CS2. Groups differed in the proportion of CS2 presentations that were ultimately followed by food (25% versus 75%). Thus, the information presented regarding the relevance of CS2 to food was ambiguous between direct dependence and conditional independence (given CS1). If rats learnt that food was conditionally independent of CS2, given CS1, subjects of both groups should thereafter respond similarly to CS2 alone. Contrary to the conditionality hypothesis, subjects attended to the direct food predictability of CS2, suggesting that rats treat even distal stimuli in a CS sequence as immediately relevant to food, not conditional on an intermediate stimulus. These results urge caution in representing indirect associations as conditional associations, accentuate the theoretical weight of the Markov condition in graphical models, and challenge theories to articulate the conditions under which animals are expected to learn conditional associations, if ever. PMID:28386451

  4. Estradiol-sertraline synergy in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stacy L; Craft, Rebecca M; Seitz, Patricia K; Stutz, Sonja J; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Thomas, Mary L

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated estradiol (E(2)) modulation of the antidepressant effects of a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) and a tricyclic antidepressant (imipramine) as measured by the forced swim test (FST) followed by assessment of gene and protein expression for the 5-HT transporter (SERT) and multiple 5-HT receptors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and two-thirds of the rats received E(2) implants (OVE). 4 weeks later, implants were withdrawn in half of the OVE rats (OVW) to capture a time point when E(2) levels were rapidly declining. Rats in each hormone group were treated with vehicle, sertraline (10 mg/kg) or imipramine (10 mg/kg), 24, 5 and 1h before the FST. Immediately after the FST, midbrain, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex tissue was removed and frozen for analysis of gene expression via quantitative real-time PCR (midbrain tissue) and protein expression via Western blot (prefrontal cortex and hippocampal tissue). In the FST, sertraline decreased immobility and increased swimming in OVE rats, as well as increased swimming in OVW rats. In contrast, no sertraline effect was observed in OVX rats. Rats treated with imipramine showed increased climbing but no changes in immobility or swimming. No changes in protein expression were detected in any treatment group. However, in vehicle-treated rats, E(2) increased midbrain SERT mRNA expression, with no effect on midbrain mRNA for the 5-HT receptors. In sertraline-treated rats, E(2) decreased 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA, and E(2)-withdrawal increased 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA. In imipramine-treated rats, E(2) (and E(2)-withdrawal) did not affect mRNA expression for any of the target genes. Thus, E(2) synergized behaviorally and neurochemically with an SSRI but not a tricyclic antidepressant.

  5. PBPK MODELING OF DELTAMETHRIN IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin is cleared nearly twice as rapidly in human liver microsomes compared to rat liver microsomes. A species difference such as this could influence the toxic potency of deltamethrin between rats and humans. PBPK modeling is a tool that can be ut...

  6. Spatial Memory in Rats after 25 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Babb, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the time course of spatial-memory decay in rats using an eight-arm radial maze. It is well established that performance remains high with retention intervals as long as 4 h, but declines to chance with a 24-h retention interval (Beatty, W. W., & Shavalia, D. A. (1980b). Spatial memory in rats: time course of working memory and…

  7. Anticariogenic effects of tea in rats.

    PubMed

    Rosen, S; Elvin-Lewis, M; Beck, F M; Beck, E X

    1984-05-01

    Teas varying in fluoride and tannin concentration were evaluated in rats for anticariogenic activity. There was a direct correlation between fluoride in tea and the inhibition of sulcal caries in rats, whereas no relationship was observed between tannin and this type of lesion. Teas also had a significant effect on caries progression and imparted a black stain to the teeth.

  8. Transgenic Rat Models of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Carreira, João Casaca; Jahanshahi, Ali; Zeef, Dagmar; Kocabicak, Ersoy; Vlamings, Rinske; von Hörsten, Stephan; Temel, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Several animal models for Huntington's disease (HD) have been created in order to investigate mechanisms of disease, and to evaluate the potency of novel therapies. Here, we describe the characteristics of the two transgenic rat models: transgenic rat model of HD (fragment model) and the Bacterial Artificial Chromosome HD model (full-length model). We discuss their genetic, behavioural, neuropathological and neurophysiological features.

  9. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  10. The rat cortex in stereotaxic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Schober, W

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of Nissl-preparations the cortex of albino rats has been mapped cytoarchitectonically. 13 frontal sections through the cortex are illustrated with coordinates. Therewith exists a stereotaxic atlas of the cortex of the rat and one can realize exactly experimental investigations in the different cortical areas.

  11. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  12. PBPK MODELING OF DELTAMETHRIN IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin is cleared nearly twice as rapidly in human liver microsomes compared to rat liver microsomes. A species difference such as this could influence the toxic potency of deltamethrin between rats and humans. PBPK modeling is a tool that can be ut...

  13. Spatial Memory in Rats after 25 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Babb, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the time course of spatial-memory decay in rats using an eight-arm radial maze. It is well established that performance remains high with retention intervals as long as 4 h, but declines to chance with a 24-h retention interval (Beatty, W. W., & Shavalia, D. A. (1980b). Spatial memory in rats: time course of working memory and…

  14. Sorafenib inhibits liver regeneration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kasper Jarlhelt; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Kannerup, Anne-Sofie; Sasanuma, Hideki; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Ladekarl, Morten; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2013-01-01

    Background Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative properties, approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The effect of Sorafenib on liver regeneration in healthy rats was investigated. Methods Sixty Wistar rats received either Sorafenib (group S; 15 mg/kg) or placebo for 14 days prior to resection and until sacrifice. After a 70% partial hepatectomy, the rats were euthanized on post-operative days (POD) 2, 4 or 8. Hepatocyte proliferation was estimated by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 antigen using stereological methods on sections prepared by systematic uniform random sampling. Results Seven animals (12%) died after surgery. Death rates were similar in treated rats and controls. At hepatectomy, the body weight was significantly lower in group S rats. The liver weight and regeneration rates were lower in group S rats on PODs 2, 4 and 8. Hepatocyte proliferation was significantly lower in group S animals on PODs 2 and 4. Alanine aminotransferase ALAT was significantly higher in the Sorafenib-treated group on PODs 2, 4 and 8. Alkaline phosphatase ALP and bilirubin levels were similar in the two groups, although bilirubin was elevated in group S rats on POD 8. Conclusion In this rat model, Sorafenib did not increase post-hepatectomy mortality, but was associated with a significant impaired liver weight gain, regeneration rates and hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:23461776

  15. Stimulus Over-Selectivity in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Evelyn; Reed, Phil

    2005-01-01

    The present study explored whether a similar phenomenon to stimulus over-selectivity occurred in rats, in the hope of establishing a non-human model for the autism. Rats were serially presented with two-15 seconds, two-element compound stimuli prior to the delivery of food, in an appetitive classical conditioning procedure. Each compound stimulus…

  16. Study of Calcium Dobesilate in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Tejerina; Ruiz; Sanz; Ganado

    1999-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 74% of diabetic patients die of vascular complications. Previous reports have shown that endothelium-dependent relaxation of diabetic vasculature is more sensitive to free radical-induced injury. Calcium dobesilate (DOBE) has been successfully used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The aims of this study were to investigate the in vivo and ex vitro effects of DOBE on both contractile and relaxing responses in isolated diabetic rat aorta. Four groups of rats were used: Wistar rats (Group 0); spontaneously diabetic rats (BB/wor rats) (Group 1); BB/wor rats treated with DOBE 50 mg/kg/day (Group 2); and BB/wor rats treated with 500 mg/kg/day (Group 3). At 180 days after the development of diabetes, the animals were killed and the thoracic aorta were isolated, cleaned off, and mounted in an organ chamber. Two groups of experiments were carried out. In the first group (in vitro), incubation with DOBE 10(-4) in aortic rings isolated from BB/wor rats decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (NA) 10(-6) M (1.21 +/- 0.11 g vs 0.67 +/- 0.01 g P < 0.01, n = 8 in diabetic rings with or without the presence of DOBE 10(-4) M, respectively), and this decrease was prevented by propranolol 10(-6) M (1.20 +/- 0.6 g). DOBE 10(-5) and 10(-4) M increased the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in BB/wor rats [the maximal relaxation with ACh 10(-5) M was 50.0 +/- 5.1 vs 72.0 +/- 11.0 (p < 0.05, n = 8) and 69.0 +/- 7.8 (p < 0.05, n = 8) in BB/wor rats and after the incubation with DOBE 10(-5) and 10(-4) M, respectively], however, incubation with DOBE did not modify the endothelium-independent relaxation in these rats. In the second part of the study (ex vitro), we found an increase in the endothelium-dependent relaxation in arteries from diabetic rats treated with DOBE (Groups 2) compared with Group 1 (BB/wor rats) although we did not find any improvement in the endothelium-independent relaxation. Thus, in

  17. Rat defensive behavior: burying noxious food.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, D M; MacLennan, A J; Pinel, J P

    1979-01-01

    In Experiment 1, rats living in chambers containing bedding material were injected with a toxicosis-producing dose of lithium chloride shortly after their initial taste of sweetened condensed milk. They consumed no additional milk and used the bedding to bury the spout through which the milk had been delivered, although they did not bury a concurrently available water spout. In another control condition, rats did not bury a spout containing a novel solution (saccharin) not paired with toxicosis. In Experiment 2, rats did not bury a milk spout until milk consumption was followed by toxicosis. In Experiment 3, rats buried a spout containing Tabasco pepper sauce but not a concurrently available water spout. Thus, burying the food source appears to be an integral component of the rat's defensive reaction to noxious food. PMID:572863

  18. Rat defensive behavior: burying noxious food.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, D M; MacLennan, A J; Pinel, J P

    1979-05-01

    In Experiment 1, rats living in chambers containing bedding material were injected with a toxicosis-producing dose of lithium chloride shortly after their initial taste of sweetened condensed milk. They consumed no additional milk and used the bedding to bury the spout through which the milk had been delivered, although they did not bury a concurrently available water spout. In another control condition, rats did not bury a spout containing a novel solution (saccharin) not paired with toxicosis. In Experiment 2, rats did not bury a milk spout until milk consumption was followed by toxicosis. In Experiment 3, rats buried a spout containing Tabasco pepper sauce but not a concurrently available water spout. Thus, burying the food source appears to be an integral component of the rat's defensive reaction to noxious food.

  19. Cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Martina; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The number of rat strains increased considerably in the last decade and will increase continuously during the next years. This requires enough space for maintaining vital strains and techniques for cryobanking, which can be applied not only in specialised rat resource centres but also in regular animal houses. Here we describe an easy and fast method for the cryopreservation and transplantation of frozen-thawed ovaries of the rat. With dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant rat ovaries can be stored at -196 degrees C for unlimited time. For revitalisation thawed ovaries have to be orthotopically transplanted into appropriate ovarectomised recipients. Reestablishment of the reproductive cycle in the recipients can be confirmed by vaginal cytology shortly after transplantation. The recipients are able to produce 2-3 litters after mating with males of an appropriate strain. Cyropreservation of ovaries thus can be considered a reliable method to preserve scientifically and economically important stocks and strains of rats that are currently not required.

  20. Experimental oxalate urolith formation in rats.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, G H; Belling, G B; Bulman, F H

    1979-06-01

    Urinary calculi composed of calcium oxalate were produced in male hooded Wistar rats fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet over 16 weeks. This basic diet was modified by doubling the phosphate content or loading with vitamin C or D3 in three treatment groups. The number of rats developing oxalate stones was not altered by the addition of vitamin D3 or phosphate, but there was a significant increase in total weight of stone formed and histological evidence of extensive renal damage in rats on the high vitamin D3 diet. The addition of vitamin C to the vitamin B6 deficient rats resulted in a reduction in the number of rats with uroliths and a fall in urinary oxalate excretion, while similarly loaded vitamin B6 supplemented controls were free of oxalate calculi. It is concluded that the oxalate urolithiasis induced by vitamin B6 deficiency was exacerbated by added vitamin D3 and reduced by vitamin C.

  1. Hypolipidemic action of taurine in rats.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, V M; Cherian, K M; Mulky, M J

    1992-05-01

    The effect of taurine on the serum and liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels was studied in rats fed cholesterol plus cholic acid. Four groups of 4 weeks old rats were fed control diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD), HCD + 1% taurine or HCD + 2% taurine for 8 weeks. Addition of taurine in HCD diet showed a significant reduction not only in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels but also in liver total cholesterol, lipid and triglyceride contents compared to the animals fed HCD alone. Histological examination of organs of these animals showed severe fatty vacuolation in livers and signet ring type vacuolation in kidneys of rats fed HCD. Taurine showed ameliorating effect on these abnormalities. The animals fed taurine in HCD also showed increased bile and sterol excretion in faeces compared to rats fed HCD alone. Taurine showed significant hypocholesterolemia in rats probably by enhancing the catabolism of cholesterol and reducing the absorption of dietary cholesterol.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography of the Norway Rat

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Lan, Zhenjiang; Kohn, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Central Eastern Asia, foremost the area bordering northern China and Mongolia, has been thought to be the geographic region where Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) have originated. However recent fossil analyses pointed to their origin in southern China. Moreover, whereas analyses of fossils dated the species' origin as ∼1.2–1.6 million years ago (Mya), molecular analyses yielded ∼0.5–2.9 Mya. Here, to study the geographic origin of the Norway rat and its spread across the globe we analyzed new and all published mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b (cyt-b; N = 156) and D-loop (N = 212) sequences representing wild rats from four continents and select inbred strains. Our results are consistent with an origin of the Norway rat in southern China ∼1.3 Mya, subsequent prehistoric differentiation and spread in China and Asia from an initially weakly structured ancestral population, followed by further spread and differentiation across the globe during historic times. The recent spreading occurred mostly from derived European populations rather than from archaic Asian populations. We trace laboratory strains to wild lineages from Europe and North America and these represent a subset of the diversity of the rat; leaving Asian lineages largely untapped as a resource for biomedical models. By studying rats from Europe we made the observation that mtDNA diversity cannot be interpreted without consideration of pest control and, possibly, the evolution of rodenticide resistance. However, demographic models explored by forward-time simulations cannot fully explain the low mtDNA diversity of European rats and lack of haplotype sharing with their source from Asia. Comprehensive nuclear marker analyses of a larger sample of Norway rats representing the world are needed to better resolve the evolutionary history of wild rats and of laboratory rats, as well as to better understand the evolution of anticoagulant resistance. PMID:24586325

  3. Is fructose sweeter than glucose for rats?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I

    1996-11-01

    Because it is generally thought that the intensity of the taste of fructose is greater than that of glucose for rats, it seemed surprising when sham-fed rats drank substantially less of a mixture of 6% fructose plus saccharin than of a mixture of 6% glucose plus saccharin. At least 3 different factors contribute to this effect. First, the taste of fructose is less attractive to rats than is the taste of glucose; sham-fed rats strongly preferred glucose over fructose (no saccharin was used in this experiment). The second factor is experience. Rats having substantial previous experience with glucose, but not with fructose, consistently preferred glucose over fructose. Conversely, rats having substantial previous experience with fructose, but not with glucose, initially showed no consistent preference but subsequently tended to prefer glucose. The third factor is an interaction between saccharin and the type of sugar. Rats given only one solution at a time drink approximately as much fructose as glucose when the solutions contain no saccharin. The addition of 0.25% saccharin to 6% glucose stimulated intake, whereas the addition of the same amount of saccharin to 6% fructose did not stimulate intake. As a result, rats ingested substantially more of a mixture of 0.25% saccharin plus 6% glucose than they did of a comparable mixture of saccharin and fructose, even though rats ingest similar amounts of fructose and glucose without saccharin in single-bottle tests. Because the differential effect of saccharin on intake appeared within 2 h in naive rats, and did not greatly change over a 3-day period, it is probably not attributable to conditioning. These results suggest that these sugars have qualitatively different tastes.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Lan, Zhenjiang; Kohn, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Central Eastern Asia, foremost the area bordering northern China and Mongolia, has been thought to be the geographic region where Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) have originated. However recent fossil analyses pointed to their origin in southern China. Moreover, whereas analyses of fossils dated the species' origin as ∼ 1.2-1.6 million years ago (Mya), molecular analyses yielded ∼ 0.5-2.9 Mya. Here, to study the geographic origin of the Norway rat and its spread across the globe we analyzed new and all published mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b (cyt-b; N = 156) and D-loop (N = 212) sequences representing wild rats from four continents and select inbred strains. Our results are consistent with an origin of the Norway rat in southern China ∼ 1.3 Mya, subsequent prehistoric differentiation and spread in China and Asia from an initially weakly structured ancestral population, followed by further spread and differentiation across the globe during historic times. The recent spreading occurred mostly from derived European populations rather than from archaic Asian populations. We trace laboratory strains to wild lineages from Europe and North America and these represent a subset of the diversity of the rat; leaving Asian lineages largely untapped as a resource for biomedical models. By studying rats from Europe we made the observation that mtDNA diversity cannot be interpreted without consideration of pest control and, possibly, the evolution of rodenticide resistance. However, demographic models explored by forward-time simulations cannot fully explain the low mtDNA diversity of European rats and lack of haplotype sharing with their source from Asia. Comprehensive nuclear marker analyses of a larger sample of Norway rats representing the world are needed to better resolve the evolutionary history of wild rats and of laboratory rats, as well as to better understand the evolution of anticoagulant resistance.

  5. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration.

  6. Identity Matching-to-Sample with Olfactory Stimuli in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Tracy; Pitts, Raymond C.; Galizio, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Identity matching-to-sample has been difficult to demonstrate in rats, but most studies have used visual stimuli. There is evidence that rats can acquire complex forms of olfactory stimulus control, and the present study explored the possibility that identity matching might be facilitated in rats if olfactory stimuli were used. Four rats were…

  7. Rat Control Lesson Plan for Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media Learning Corp., Rochester, NY.

    This teacher guide was developed to assist teachers of elementary children in their preparation to teach some lessons on rat control. The overall objectives include determining the level of student understanding about rats, developing student attitudes toward rats, developing the student's ability to identify the rat's weapons, identifying those…

  8. Hepatotoxicity of acetaldehyde in rats.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Younes, M; Urch, T; Breining, H; Pentz, R

    1987-11-01

    The ability of acetaldehyde to initiate hepatotoxicity as evidenced by enzyme leakage, hepatic fat accumulation and histological alterations was studied in rats. Neither oral nor intraperitoneal treatment with acetaldehyde had any hepatotoxic effect, even following aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition by disulfiram. This is probably due to the inability of exogenously added acetaldehyde to penetrate liver cell membranes. In contrast, acetaldehyde derived metabolically from ethanol was capable of inducing moderate hepatotoxicity when it accumulated upon pretreatment with disulfiram. Acetaldehyde may thus be partly responsible for alcohol-induced liver damage.

  9. Experimental mammary carcinogenesis - Rat models.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Antonieta; Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Colaço, Bruno; Oliveira, Paula A

    2017-03-15

    Mammary cancer is one of the most common cancers, victimizing more than half a million of women worldwide every year. Despite all the studies in this field, the current therapeutic approaches are not effective and have several devastating effects for patients. In this way, the need to better understand the mammary cancer biopathology and find effective therapies led to the development of several rodent models over years. With this review, the authors intended to provide the readers with an overview of the rat models used to study mammary carcinogenesis, with a special emphasis on chemically-induced models.

  10. Variation in rat sciatic nerve anatomy: implications for a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Asato, F; Butler, M; Blomberg, H; Gordh, T

    2000-03-01

    We discovered a variation of rat sciatic nerve anatomy as an incidental finding during the anatomical exploration of the nerve lesion site in a rat neuropathic pain model. To confirm the composition and distribution of rat sciatic nerve, macroscopic anatomical investigation was performed in both left and right sides in 24 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In all rats, the L4 and L5 spinal nerves were fused tightly to form the sciatic nerve. However, the L6 spinal nerve did not fuse with this nerve completely as a part of the sciatic nerve, but rather sent a thin branch to it in 13 rats (54%), whereas in the remaining 11 rats (46%), L6 ran separately along with the sciatic nerve. Also, the L3 spinal nerve sent a thin branch to the L4 spinal nerve or sciatic nerve in 6 rats (25%). We conclude that the components of sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats vary from L3 to L6; however, the major components are L4 and L5 macroscopically. This finding is in contrast to the standard textbooks of rat anatomy which describe the sciatic nerve as having major contributions from L4, L5, and L6.

  11. Naturally occurring anti-tissue antibodies in rat sera

    PubMed Central

    Weir, D. M.; Pinckard, R. N.; Elson, C. J.; Suckling, Deirdre E.

    1966-01-01

    Seventy per cent of normal rat sera have been shown to contain heat labile serum component(s) active against various rat organ homogenates as demonstrated by haemolytic complement fixation and passive haemagglutination tests. The main antigenic activity in rat liver has been found in the mitochondrial fractions. It was also demonstrated by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique that both guinea-pig complement and high molecular weight rat globulins were fixed to rat organ sections. Chemotactic activity has also been observed with rat serum and rat liver mitochondria and it is suggested that these naturally occurring antibodies may be implicated in the removal of tissue breakdown products. PMID:5338951

  12. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  13. Analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in Norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. Testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. However, a genetic test for the roof rat (Rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. Moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the Norway rat (R. norvegicus). Results We report the coding sequence, introns and 5' and 3' termini for the vkorc1 gene of roof rats (R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorus) from Uganda, Africa. Newly designed PCR primers now enable genetic testing of the roof rat and Norway rat. Only synonymous and noncoding polymorphisms were found in roof rats from Uganda. Both nominal subspecies of roof rats were indistinguishable from each other but were distinct from R. losea and R. flavipectus; however, the roof rat also shares at least three coding sequence polymorphisms with R. losea and R. flavipectus. Many of recently published vkorc1 synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Norway rats are likely SNPs from roof rats and/or other Rattus species. Tests applied to presumably genuine Norway rat vkorc1 SNPs are consistent with a role for selection in two populations carrying the derived Phe63Cys and Tyr139Cys mutations. Conclusion Geographic mapping of vkorc1 SNPs in roof rats should be facilitated by our report. Our assay should be applicable to most species of Rattus, which are intermediate in genetic distance from roof and Norway rats. Vkorc1-mediated resistance due to non-synonymous coding SNPs is not segregating in roof rats from Uganda. By using the roof rat sequence as a reference vkorc1, SNPs now can be assigned to the correct rat species with more confidence. Sampling designs and genotyping strategies employed so far have helped detect candidate mutations

  14. Analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in Norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Juan C; Song, Ying; Moore, Anthony; Borchert, Jeff N; Kohn, Michael H

    2010-05-24

    Certain mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. Testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. However, a genetic test for the roof rat (Rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. Moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the Norway rat (R. norvegicus). We report the coding sequence, introns and 5' and 3' termini for the vkorc1 gene of roof rats (R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorus) from Uganda, Africa. Newly designed PCR primers now enable genetic testing of the roof rat and Norway rat. Only synonymous and noncoding polymorphisms were found in roof rats from Uganda. Both nominal subspecies of roof rats were indistinguishable from each other but were distinct from R. losea and R. flavipectus; however, the roof rat also shares at least three coding sequence polymorphisms with R. losea and R. flavipectus. Many of recently published vkorc1 synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Norway rats are likely SNPs from roof rats and/or other Rattus species. Tests applied to presumably genuine Norway rat vkorc1 SNPs are consistent with a role for selection in two populations carrying the derived Phe63Cys and Tyr139Cys mutations. Geographic mapping of vkorc1 SNPs in roof rats should be facilitated by our report. Our assay should be applicable to most species of Rattus, which are intermediate in genetic distance from roof and Norway rats. Vkorc1-mediated resistance due to non-synonymous coding SNPs is not segregating in roof rats from Uganda. By using the roof rat sequence as a reference vkorc1, SNPs now can be assigned to the correct rat species with more confidence. Sampling designs and genotyping strategies employed so far have helped detect candidate mutations underlying vkorc1-mediated

  15. Ontogeny of morphine withdrawal in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jones, K L; Barr, G A

    1995-12-01

    The present studies examined behavioral changes during precipitated morphine withdrawal in 7- to 42-day-old rat pups. One group of rats was injected with morphine sulfate (10.0 mg/kg) twice daily for 6.5 days. Another group of 7-day-old rats received a lower dose of morphine (3.0 mg/kg). Controls were saline injected or untreated litters (7-day-old pups only). On Day 7, a target pup was injected with saline or naltrexone (0.3-10.0 mg/kg). Preweaning pups were observed in a warm chamber with the litter. Forty-two-day-old rats were tested individually. Morphine-treated pups tested with naltrexone showed significant alterations in behavior that varied at different ages. For example, rolling, stretching, and head and paw moves were observed at the younger ages, whereas burrowing, diarrhea, jumps, teeth chatter, and wet dog shakes occurred in the older rats. These data indicate that morphine-abstinent rats demonstrate withdrawal signs that are within the developmental repertoire of the rat.

  16. Condylar Mineralization Following Mandibular Distraction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z.J.; King, G.J.; Herring, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of mandibular distraction on condyles is poorly understood. To examine how condylar mineralization is affected, we performed distraction in 128 one-month-old rapidly and 126 three-month-old slowly growing rats. The rate of distraction was 0.0 mm (sham), 0.2 mm (slow), 0.4 mm (moderate), or 0.6 mm (rapid). From 7 to 9 rats from each rate (n = 29-32) were killed at 4 time periods (D6, D10, D24, and D38) following osteotomy. Calcein and alizarin were injected 6 and 3 days, respectively, prior to death. Methacrylate-embedded sagittal condylar sections were examined under epifluorescence, and mineral apposition rates were measured. Results indicated that: (1) rapidly growing rats showed higher mineral apposition rates (p < 0.01-0.001) than did slowly growing rats; (2) mineral apposition rates were lower in distracted sides at all times in rapidly growing rats (p < 0.05-0.01), while this side-dependency was seen only at D24 in slowly growing rats (p < 0.05); and (3) distraction rates had little effect on mineral apposition rates. Thus, mandibular distraction decreases condylar mineral apposition rates, but only in rapidly growing rats, which is related to surgery and its functional consequences, not to the distraction rate. PMID:16798868

  17. Muscle bioenergetics in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, M; Kaminsky, P; Walker, P M; Straczek, J; Barbe, F; Duc, M; Burlet, C

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the energetic metabolism in obese Zucker rats, using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at rest and during a 2-Hz muscle stimulation and subsequent recovery. Animals were anesthetized with ketamine (150 mg/kg ip). Fed obese rats and 2-day-fasted obese rats were compared with their normally fed and 2-day-fasted lean litter mates. No differences were found between the two groups for ATP, total creatine, phosphocreatine (PCr), and intracellular pH. Starvation in lean rats resulted in a significant fall in inorganic phosphate (Pi), increased resting ADP level, and decreased PCr and ADP recovery after stimulation. The obese rats exhibited a decreased PCr/Pi and increased ADP at rest and a decreased PCr resynthesis and ADP metabolization rate after stimulation. Muscle stimulation in fasted obese rats induced higher PCr depletion and more pronounced acidosis. These results suggest an in vivo mitochondrial metabolism dysfunction in fasted lean as well as in fed and fasted obese rats.

  18. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-03-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using /sup 15/N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats.

  19. Cardiac lesions in rats fed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Corner, A H; Davey, K; Kramer, J K; Mahadevan, S; Sauer, F D

    1975-01-01

    Fully refined rapeseed oils containing different amounts of erucic acid (1.6%, 4.3% and 22.3%) were fed, at 20% by weight of diet, to weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for periods up to 112 days. Transient myocardial lipidosis characterized by accumulation of fat droplets in myocardial fibers was marked in male and female rats fed oxidized and unoxidized rapeseed oil containing 22.3% erucic acid, moderate with rapeseed oil containing 4.3% erucic acid and very slight in rats fed rapeseed oil containing 1.6% erucic acid. Peak intensity of myocardial lipidosis occurred at three to seven days and regressed thereafter. Focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis occurred in male rats fed rapeseed oils containing different levels of erucic acid for 112 days. The incidence of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was markedly lower in female rats, and the incidence of these lesions in either sex was not affected by the state of oxidation of these oils. In a second experiment, male rats were fed diets containing crude, partially refined or fully refined rapeseed oils. There was no correlation between the number of foci of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and the state of refinement of the oils, but there were generally fewer lesions in rats fed those oils having the lowest levels of erucic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1170010

  20. Carbohydrate-conditioned odor preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Lucas, F; Sclafani, A

    1995-06-01

    The effectiveness of odor cues to support nutrient-conditioned flavor preferences in rats was studied. When the rats drank fluid, the CS+ odor was paired with intragastric (IG) infusions of Polycose, and the CS- odor with IG water. In Experiment 1, rats trained with almond and anise odors presented with plain drinking water failed to acquire a CS+ odor preference. In contrast, rats in Experiment 2 formed a strong aversion to anise (or almond) paired with lithium chloride, which indicated that the odors were distinguishable to the rats. Experiment 3 showed that providing unique tastes (bitter or sour) in combination with the odors during training potentiated odor conditioning. The rats displayed a strong preference for the odor+taste CS+ and for the odor component alone. Experiment 4 showed that with another pair of odor (peppermint and vanilla), CS+ preferences could be conditioned in the absence of taste cues during training. These results demonstrate that rats can acquire strong nutrient-conditioned odor preferences.

  1. Grapefruit juice modulates bone quality in rats.

    PubMed

    Deyhim, Farzad; Mandadi, Kranthi; Faraji, Bahram; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-03-01

    Hypogonadism and oxidative stress increase the risk for developing osteoporosis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of drinking grapefruit juice on bone quality in orchidectomized (ORX) and non-ORX rats. Fifty-six 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups--non-ORX rats (sham), sham + grapefruit juice, ORX, and ORX + grapefruit juice--and treated for 60 days. Thereafter, all rats were sacrificed to determine the plasma antioxidant status, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and indices of bone turnover, bone quality, and calcium and magnesium concentrations in the bone, urine, and feces. Orchidectomy decreased (P < .05) antioxidant status, bone quality, and bone mineral contents and increased (P < .05) indices of bone turnover, urinary deoxypridinoline, calcium, and magnesium, and fecal calcium excretions. In contrast to the ORX group, ORX rats that drank grapefruit juice had an increase (P < .05) in antioxidant status, bone density, and bone mineral contents, delayed femoral fracture, and slowed down (P < .05) bone turnover rate and tended to have a decrease (P = .08) in urinary deoxypridinoline. In sham-treated animals, drinking grapefruit juice increased (P < .05) bone density and tended to increase the femoral strength. The concentration of IGF-I in the plasma was not affected across treatments. In conclusion, drinking grapefruit juice positively affected bone quality by enhancing bone mineral deposition in ORX rats and by improving bone density in non-ORX rats via an undefined mechanism.

  2. Pulpal and periodontal diseases increase triglyceride levels in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Azuma, Mariane Maffei; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Bomfim, Suely Regina Mogami; Narciso, Luís Gustavo; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate triglyceride and cholesterol levels in diabetic rats and their relationship with pulpal and periodontal diseases. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into the following eight groups comprising ten animals each: normal rats (G1), rats with pulpal diseases (G2), rats with periodontal diseases (G3), rats with both pulpal and periodontal diseases (G4), diabetic rats (G5), diabetic rats with pulpal diseases (G6), diabetic rats with periodontal diseases (G7), and diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases (G8). Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin, periapical lesions were induced by exposing pulpal tissue to the oral environment, and periodontal diseases were induced by periodontal ligature. The animals were killed after 30 days, and lipid profile was enzymatically measured using Trinder's method. The total assessed values were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The triglyceride levels of diabetic rats with periodontal disease and of diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases were significantly higher than those of normal rats and nondiabetic group rats, respectively. The differences in the cholesterol levels among the groups were not significant. We found that the association of pulpal and periodontal diseases with diabetes increased triglyceride levels in rats. Changes in lipid profile may be related to the presence of oral infections and diabetes.

  3. Photoperiodic response in the male laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Wallen, E P; DeRosch, M A; Thebert, A; Losee-Olson, S; Turek, F W

    1987-08-01

    Normally photoperiodic laboratory rats can be induced to respond reproductively to a change in the length of the day by various experimental manipulations. One such paradigm that results in significant gonadal regression involves the treatment of rats with exogenous testosterone during exposure to short days. Studies were undertaken to assess various aspects of this model system including 1) the testicular response of testosterone-treated rats exposed to various photoperiods, 2) the time course for testicular regression under a short photoperiod, and 3) the role of the pineal gland as a mediator of the effects of day length on the neuroendocrine-gonadal axis. Photoperiods ranging in length from 2 to 22 h/24 h had no effect on testicular size in untreated rats. In contrast, while near normal testicular weights were maintained in laboratory rats treated with testosterone and exposed to 10 or more h of light per day, testicular regression occurred in rats implanted with testosterone-filled capsules and exposed to photoperiods of 8 or fewer h of light per day. Maximal testicular regression was reached in about 9 wk in testosterone-treated rats exposed to 6L:18D. Removal of the pineal gland totally blocked the inhibitory effects of exposure to short day lengths in testosterone-treated rats. These studies define some of the characteristics of an extant, but dormant, system for photoperiodic time measurement in the common laboratory rat and implicate a role for the pineal gland in this system. These experiments offer evidence that neuroendocrine factors that regulate continuous vs. seasonal reproductive patterns are malleable. Such flexibility in the photoperiodic response may also contribute to the evolution of seasonal to non-seasonal species and vice versa.

  4. Antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Caletti, Greice; Olguins, Danielly B; Pedrollo, Elis F; Barros, Helena M T; Gomez, Rosane

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that diabetic individuals present more depressive behaviors than non-diabetic individuals. Taurine, one of the most abundant free amino acids in the central nervous system, modulates a variety of biological functions and acts as an agonist at GABAA receptors. Our objective was to assess the antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats. Additionally, we studied the effect of taurine on weight gain, water and food intake, and blood glucose levels in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (CTR) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ) groups and were administered daily 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of taurine (n = 10 per subgroup) intraperitoneally. After 28 days of treatment, the animals were exposed to the forced swimming test, and their behaviors were recorded. Weight gain, water and food intake, and blood glucose levels were measured weekly. Our results showed that STZ rats had a higher immobility duration than CTR rats, and taurine decreased this depressive-like behavior in STZ rats at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg. Both of these doses of taurine also decreased water intake and improved weight gain in STZ rats. All doses of taurine decreased the water intake in CTR rats. Taurine, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, decreased food intake and blood glucose levels in STZ rats. Because taurine is a GABA agonist and both amino acids are lower in the plasma of diabetic and depressive individuals, we hypothesize that taurine may represent a new adjuvant drug for the treatment of depression in diabetic individuals.

  5. Detection of rat hepatitis E virus in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 11 European countries.

    PubMed

    Ryll, René; Bernstein, Samuel; Heuser, Elisa; Schlegel, Mathias; Dremsek, Paul; Zumpe, Maxi; Wolf, Sandro; Pépin, Michel; Bajomi, Daniel; Müller, Gabi; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Spahr, Carina; Lang, Johannes; Groschup, Martin H; Ansorge, Hermann; Freise, Jona; Guenther, Sebastian; Baert, Kristof; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Pikula, Jiri; Knap, Nataša; Tsakmakidis, Ιoannis; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Zanet, Stefania; Imholt, Christian; Heckel, Gerald; Johne, Reimar; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-09-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway rats and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12.4%) rats at the majority of sites in 11 of 12 countries. In contrast, a real-time RT-PCR specific for human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 and a nested broad-spectrum (NBS) RT-PCR with subsequent sequence determination did not detect any infections with these genotypes. Only in a single Norway rat from Belgium a rabbit HEV-like genotype 3 sequence was detected. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a clustering of all other novel Norway and Black rat-derived sequences with ratHEV sequences from Europe, the USA and a Black rat-derived sequence from Indonesia within the proposed ratHEV genotype 1. No difference in infection status was detected related to age, sex, rat species or density of human settlements and zoological gardens. In conclusion, our investigation shows a broad geographical distribution of ratHEV in Norway and Black rats from Europe and its presence in all settlement types investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coping style and stress hormone responses in genetically heterogeneous rats: comparison with the Roman rat strains.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morán, Sira; Palència, Marta; Mont-Cardona, Carme; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Martínez-Membrives, Esther; López-Aumatell, Regina; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the stress-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone and prolactin responses of the National Institutes of Health genetically heterogeneous rat stock (N/Nih-HS rats) in comparison with responses of the relatively high and low stress-prone Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High-Avoidance (RHA-I) rat strains. The same rats were also compared (experiment 1) with respect to their levels of unconditioned anxiety (elevated zero-maze test), novelty-induced exploratory behavior, conditioned fear and two-way active avoidance acquisition. In experiment 2, naive rats from these three strains/stocks were evaluated for "depressive-like" behavior in the forced swimming test. N/Nih-HS and RLA-I rats showed significantly higher post-stress ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin levels than RHA-I rats. N/Nih-HS rats also presented the highest context-conditioned freezing responses, extremely poor two-way avoidance acquisition and very low novelty-induced exploratory behavior. Experiment 2 showed that, compared to RHA-I rats, N/Nih-HS and RLA-I rats displayed significantly less struggling (escape-directed) and increased immobility responses in the forced swimming test. Factor analysis of data from experiment 1 showed associations among behavioral and hormonal responses, with a first factor comprising high loadings of elevated zero-maze variables and lower loadings of conditioned fear, two-way avoidance acquisition and hormonal measures, while a second factor mainly grouped conditioned fear and two-way avoidance acquisition with novelty-induced exploration and post-stress prolactin. Thus, regarding their anxiety/fearfulness, passive coping style, "depressive-like" and stress-induced hormonal responses the N/Nih-HS rats resemble the phenotype profiles of the relatively high-anxious and stress-prone RLA-I rat strain.

  7. Characterization of Rat Prothymocyte with Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Rat Lymphocyte Membrane Antigenic Determinants,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    4 Polymorphic determinant on rat la B cells, 20% of thymocytes Ox-6 Monomorphic : determinant on rat Is B cells, 20% ofthymocytes Ox-7 Rat Thy 1. 1...RT7.1 marker on Lewis thymus-derived lymphocytes by fluorescence-activated cell analysis. From these studies, the population of Lewis bone marrow cells...designated as 10 or 2% PBS. Phycoery- thrins and coviugaton reagents were purchased froni Molecular Proi (junction City, Oft). Anesthetics utilizd in this

  8. Hypothalamic thermosensitivity in capsaicin-desensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cormarèche-Leydier, M; Shimada, S G; Stitt, J T

    1985-01-01

    In rats, we tested the hypothesis that capsaicin desensitization reduces hypothalamic warm thermosensitivity. We locally heated and cooled the hypothalamus using water-perfused thermodes while observing thermoregulatory variables. In untreated rats, a small dose of capsaicin had profound effects on thermoregulation. However, desensitizing rats to capsaicin had no effect on hypothalamic thermosensitivity for metabolic rate or changes in body temperature due to displacements of hypothalamic temperature. Contrary to current opinion, we conclude that capsaicin desensitization does not alter hypothalamic thermosensitivity to warm or cold. PMID:4020699

  9. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle growth, protein metabolism, and amino acid metabolism were studied in various groups of rats. Certain groups were adrenaliectomized; some rats were suspended while others (the controls) were weight bearing. Results show that: (1) metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating glucocorticoids; (2) metabolic changes in the soleus muscle due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of steroid receptors; and (3) not all metabolic responses of the soleus muscle to unloading are due to the elevated levels of glucocorticoids or the increased sensitivity of this muscle to these hormones.

  10. Origins of blood acetate in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, B M; Williamson, D H

    1977-01-01

    A novel enzymimc cycling assay for the determination of acetate in biological material is described. Measurements of the acetate concentration in blood and liver samples from rats of various ages and nutritional states with this assay are reported. The contribution of the intestine, the liver and the rest of the body to maintaining the concentration of acetate in the circulation is examined. Evidence is presented that the gut flora constitute the main source of acetate in blood of fed adult rats, though endogenous production of acetate is of significance in other situations. The streptozotocin-diabetic rat has an elevated blood acetate concentration. PMID:597244

  11. Malignant neoplasms in rats fed lasiocarpine.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. S.; Reddy, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Lasiocarpine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, was fed at a dietary concentration of 50/10(6) for 55 weeks, to 20 male F-344 rats. Malignant tumours developed in 17/20 animals between 48 and 59 weeks. Forty-five percent (9/20) developed angiosarcomas of the liver and 35% (7/20) had hepatocellular carcinomas. Other tumours included malignant adnexas tumour of the skin (1 rat) and lympohoma (1 rat). Lung metastases were observed in 4 animals with angiosarcoma of the liver and one animal with hepatocellular carcinoma. From one animal, angiosarcoma was successfully transplanted through 4 generations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:204322

  12. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masami; Watanabe, Minoru; Yokomi, Izuru; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sudo, Katsuko; Satoh, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Tsuneo; Seki, Azusa; Amano, Hitoshi; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Ryu, Kakei; Shibata, Shunichi; Nagayama, Motohiko; Tanuma, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

  13. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Masami; WATANABE, Minoru; YOKOMI, Izuru; MATSUMOTO, Naoki; SUDO, Katsuko; SATOH, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Tsuneo; SEKI, Azusa; AMANO, Hitoshi; OHURA, Kiyoshi; RYU, Kakei; SHIBATA, Shunichi; NAGAYAMA, Motohiko; TANUMA, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats. PMID:25736479

  14. Derivation of embryonic stem cells from Brown Norway rats blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; Lv, Zhuo; Liu, Lei; Wang, Liu; Tong, Man; Zhou, Qi

    2010-07-01

    Knockout Brown Norway (BN) rat could be a useful disease model for human disorders, however, a failure to derive embryonic stem (ES) cells disturbs the further development of the model. In this study, we reported a case of successful derivation of the BN rat ES cells with the derivation efficiency comparable to that of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The BN rat ES cells expressed the key transcription factors, and were able to form embryonic bodies (EBs) when being differentiated in vitro. After injecting the BN rat ES cells into the SD rat blastocysts, high-contribution chimeric rats were generated and could survive to their adulthood. Our success in generating pluripotent rat ES cells will benefit the generation of the knockout rats in the future.

  15. Properties of Flicker ERGs in Rat Models with Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    An, Jing; Guo, Qun; Li, Li; Zhang, Zuoming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the characteristics of rod and cone functions in rat models for congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) and retinal cone dysfunction (RCD). Methods. Rod and cone function were isolated by recording the rod-/cone-driven flicker and blue light flicker electroretinograms (ERGs). Results. During dark adaptation, the amplitudes of flicker ERGs in CSNB rats were lower than those in control rats; the responses of RCD rats were similar to control rats. During light adaptation, the amplitudes of flicker ERGs in CSNB rats were reduced; whereas the responses of RCD rats were not detected. Blue flicker ERGs were not observed in CSNB rats at lower frequencies. The cone driven critical flicker frequencies (CFFs) in control rats were 62 Hz. The rod driven CFF of RCD rats was 20 Hz; whereas the rod-/cone-driven CFF of CSNB rats both were about 25 Hz. Conclusions. The function of the rod system was damaged completely, the cones were the source of vision in CSNB rats. Rod system function is excellent in RCD rat. The rods of albinism rats are sensitive to frequencies less than 20 Hz; whereas the cones are sensitive to frequencies up to 62 Hz. PMID:24555124

  16. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  17. Age, weight and decompression sickness in rats.

    PubMed

    Buzzacott, Peter; Theron, Michael; Mazur, Aleksandra; Wang, Qiong; Lambrechts, Kate; Eftedal, Ingrid; Ardestani, Simin Berenji; Guerrero, François

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if, after controlling for weight, age is associated with decompression sickness (DCS) in rats. Following compression-decompression, male rats aged 11 weeks were observed for DCS. After two weeks recovery, surviving rats were re-dived using the same compression-decompression profile. In this experiment, there was a clear difference between DCS outcome at ages 11 or 13 weeks in matched rats (p = 0.002). Even with weight included in the model, age was significantly associated with DCS (p = 0.01), yet after removal of weight the association was much stronger (p = 0.002). We believe that age is likely to be found associated with the probability of DCS in a larger dataset with a wider range of parameters, after accounting for the effect of weight.

  18. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  19. Corona Discharge Influences Ozone Concentrations Near Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Gaither, Kari A.; Anantatmula, Shantha M.; Mong, Gary M.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Lessor, Delbert L.

    2004-02-26

    Ozone is produced by corona discharge in air. Its production is enhanced near grounded water. Whether grounded animals behave like grounded water, producing more ozone was investigated. Rats were exposed to corona discharge in a plastic cage. The concentration of ozone in the gas phase was monitored. The ozone concentration exceeded ambient levels only in the presence of corona discharge and either rats or water. When water or rats were exposed to corona discharge, ozone levels were more than 10 times higher than controls. Ozone levels increased rapidly with applied voltage. There was also a correlation between the distance of the corona needle to the rats and the amount of ozone produced. As the distance increased, ozone production decreased. These results are discussed in relation to the potential exposure of mammals to ozone in the vicinity of corona discharge and electric fields.

  20. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  1. 2011 Desert RATS Sights and Sounds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Watch scenes from the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test, as NASA scientists and engineers drive the Space Exploration Vehicle, assemble equipment in the Habitat D...

  2. Milk composition of rats feeding restricted litters.

    PubMed Central

    Grigor, M R; Allan, J; Carne, A; Carrington, J M; Geursen, A

    1986-01-01

    Milk samples were taken from rats feeding ten pups and from both the suckled and non-suckled glands of rats feeding two pups. The lipid, protein and lactose concentrations were similar in the milks from the secreting glands, but the fluid from the non-suckled glands contained less lactose and lipid but significantly higher total protein and transferrin concentrations. The fatty acid compositions of the milk from the three sources were very similar. The mammary tissue from the rats feeding ten pups had a higher DNA content/g wet wt. than either the suckled or non-suckled mammary tissue of the rats feeding two pups. The specific activities of several lipogenic enzymes were significantly lower in the non-suckled mammary tissue. PMID:3707536

  3. Hypergravity induced prolactin surge in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megory, E.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Acute initial exposure to hypergravity (HG) was previously found to induce prolonged diestrous in rats, which was followed by return to normal estrous cycling upon more prolonged exposure to continuous HG. Bromergocryptine was found to prevent this prolonged diestrous. In this study it is found that in female rats 20 h of 3.14 G exposure (D-1 1200 h until D-2 0800 h) can induce prolactin surge at D-2 1600 h. Shorter exposure time (8 h), or exposure during a different part of the estrous cycle (19 h: from D-1 0700 h until D-2 0200 h) could not elicit this prolactin surge. Similar exposure of male rats of HG did not alter significantly their prolactin levels. It is possible that the hypothalamus of male and female rats responds differently to stimulation by HG.

  4. Hypergravity induced prolactin surge in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megory, E.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Acute initial exposure to hypergravity (HG) was previously found to induce prolonged diestrous in rats, which was followed by return to normal estrous cycling upon more prolonged exposure to continuous HG. Bromergocryptine was found to prevent this prolonged diestrous. In this study it is found that in female rats 20 h of 3.14 G exposure (D-1 1200 h until D-2 0800 h) can induce prolactin surge at D-2 1600 h. Shorter exposure time (8 h), or exposure during a different part of the estrous cycle (19 h: from D-1 0700 h until D-2 0200 h) could not elicit this prolactin surge. Similar exposure of male rats of HG did not alter significantly their prolactin levels. It is possible that the hypothalamus of male and female rats responds differently to stimulation by HG.

  5. The rat brain hippocampus proteome.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Michael; Tsangaris, George T; Maris, Antony; Lubec, Gert

    2005-05-05

    The hippocampus is crucial in memory storage and retrieval and plays an important role in stress response. In humans, the CA1 area of hippocampus is one of the first brain areas to display pathology in Alzheimer's disease. A comprehensive analysis of the hippocampus proteome has not been accomplished yet. We applied proteomics technologies to construct a two-dimensional database for rat brain hippocampus proteins. Hippocampus samples from eight months old animals were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The database comprises 148 different gene products, which are in the majority enzymes, structural proteins and heat shock proteins. It also includes 39 neuron specific gene products. The database may be useful in animal model studies of neurological disorders.

  6. Rat growth during chronic centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Female weanling rats were chronically centrifuged at 4.15 G with controls at terrestrial gravity. Samples were sacrificed for body composition studies at 0, 28, 63, 105 and 308 days of centrifugation. The centrifuged group approached a significantly lower mature body mass than the controls (251 and 318g) but the rate of approach was the same in both groups. Retirement to 1G on the 60th day resulted in complete recovery. Among individual components muscle, bone, skin, CNS, heart, kidneys, body water and body fat were changed in the centrifuged group. However, an analysis of the growth of individual components relative to growth of the total fat-free compartment revealed that only skin (which increased in mass) was responding to centrifugation per se.

  7. How rats combine temporal cues.

    PubMed

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  8. Neptunium-237 inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Ruemmler, P S; Buschbom, R L

    1986-12-01

    Groups of rats were exposed to aerosols of 237Np nitrate to determine clearance rates, retention and distribution at various intervals after inhalation. Initial lung burdens (ILB) after 237Np inhalation by three treatment groups were 0.12, 0.19 and 0.37 mu Ci/kg, respectively. Radiochemical analyses of animals killed at 4, 8, 14, 28 and 90 d, as well as data for others maintained until they became moribund, showed that their lung clearance followed a three-compartment model, clearance half-times for which were 1, 35, and 10,000 d, respectively. Only 3% of the ILB was retained after 90 d; 12% of that burden had translocated to the skeleton at 750 d; the half-time for skeletal retention was 2500 d. A single tumor was the only malignancy detected in the lungs of the 35 animals allowed to survive the early phase of the study.

  9. Sleep homeostasis in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Mark S; Middlemis-Brown, Jessica E; Johnson, Eric D

    2004-12-01

    Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited rapid increases in sleep pressure, as evidenced by increased attempts to enter sleep and subsequent increases in sensory threshold; this increased sensory threshold was not due to sensory adaptation of peripheral receptors. In addition, myoclonic twitching was suppressed during the 30-min deprivation period, leading to rebound twitching during recovery sleep. These results provide the earliest demonstration of the homeostatic regulation of sleep in an altricial mammal.

  10. Rat growth during chronic centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Female weanling rats were chronically centrifuged at 4.15 G with controls at terrestrial gravity. Samples were sacrificed for body composition studies at 0, 28, 63, 105 and 308 days of centrifugation. The centrifuged group approached a significantly lower mature body mass than the controls (251 and 318g) but the rate of approach was the same in both groups. Retirement to 1G on the 60th day resulted in complete recovery. Among individual components muscle, bone, skin, CNS, heart, kidneys, body water and body fat were changed in the centrifuged group. However, an analysis of the growth of individual components relative to growth of the total fat-free compartment revealed that only skin (which increased in mass) was responding to centrifugation per se.

  11. Methamphetamine enhances sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Winland, Carissa; Haycox, Charles; Bolton, Jessica L; Jampana, Sumith; Oakley, Benjamin J; Ford, Brittany; Ornelas, Laura; Burbey, Alexandra; Marquette, Amber; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of methamphetamine (MA) on sexual behavior in female rats. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized, hormone-primed rats were injected with MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline prior to a test for mate choice wherein females could mate with two males simultaneously. Female rats treated with saline returned to their preferred mate faster after receiving intromissions and visited their preferred mate at a higher rate than their non-preferred mate. In contrast, MA-treated female rats spent a similar amount of time with their preferred and non-preferred mate and failed to return to their preferred mate faster than to their non-preferred mate following intromissions. Two weeks later, the females received the same drug treatment but were tested for partner preference wherein females could spend time near a male or female stimulus rat. All subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus. However, the MA-treated rats visited the male stimulus more frequently and spent less time near the female stimulus than the saline-treated rats. Similar to Experiment 1, female rats in Experiment 2 were tested for mate choice and then two weeks later tested for partner preference; however, females received three daily injections of MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Females treated chronically with MA returned to both males faster following intromissions than females treated with saline, independent of preference (i.e., preferred mate and non-preferred mate). Furthermore, MA-treated rats were more likely to leave either male (i.e., preferred or non-preferred mate) than saline-treated rats after receiving sexual stimulation. Although MA-treated subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus, they spent less time near either when compared to saline-treated subjects. The present results demonstrate that MA affects sexual behavior in female rats partly by increasing locomotion and partly by directly affecting sexual

  12. Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Shan, Haozhe; Molasky, Nora M. R.; Murray, Teresa M.; Williams, Jasper Z.; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research with humans, the biological mechanisms that motivate an individual to help others remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the roots of pro-sociality in mammals, we established the helping behavior test, a paradigm in which rats are faced with a conspecific trapped in a restrainer that can only be opened from the outside. Over the course of repeated test sessions, rats exposed to a trapped cagemate learn to open the door to the restrainer, thereby helping the trapped rat to escape (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011). The discovery of this natural behavior provides a unique opportunity to probe the motivation of rodent helping behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of biological influences on human pro-sociality. To determine if an affective response motivates door-opening, rats receiving midazolam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, were tested in the helping behavior test. Midazolam-treated rats showed less helping behavior than saline-treated rats or rats receiving no injection. Yet, midazolam-treated rats opened a restrainer containing chocolate, highlighting the socially specific effects of the anxiolytic. To determine if midazolam interferes with helping through a sympatholytic effect, the peripherally restricted beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist nadolol was administered; nadolol did not interfere with helping. The corticosterone response of rats exposed to a trapped cagemate was measured and compared to the rats’ subsequent helping behavior. Rats with the greatest corticosterone responses showed the least helping behavior and those with the smallest responses showed the most consistent helping at the shortest latency. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the interaction between stress and pro-social behavior. Finally, we observed that door-opening appeared to be reinforcing. A novel analytical tool was designed to interrogate the pattern of door-opening for signs that a rat’s behavior on one

  13. Male rats play a repeated donation game.

    PubMed

    Li, Grace; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-05-15

    While previous studies have demonstrated direct and generalized reciprocity in female Norway rats [26], the present study determined if unrelated male laboratory rats respond on behalf of a partner in an iterated sequential game. Pairs of rats worked for food reward in an operant chamber, where participants alternated as Donor and Responder in successive trials. In each trial, the Donor chose between variable and constant reward levers, where the constant reward lever delivered 1 pellet, and the variable reward lever triggered insertion of Responder lever(s); the Donor received 2 pellets when the Responder made any response. In forced-choice constant (FC) trials, the Responder also received 1 pellet for responding on the constant reward lever. In forced-choice variable (FV) trials, the Responder received no pellets for responding on the variable reward lever. In free-choice (FR) trials, the Responder chose between constant (1 pellet) and variable reward levers (0 pellets). With their cagemate, rats earned 61.4±2.0 pellets (64.0±2.1% of 96 possible pellets). As Donor in FC trials, rats preferred the variable reward lever, and the Responder responded frequently. In FV trials, Donor preference for the variable reward lever declined as Responder lever responses decreased. In FR trials, rats alternated responding on variable and constant reward levers as Donor and Responder, respectively. When paired with a new partner, there was no effect on Donor responses, but responses by the Responder decreased in the FV block. Similar effects were observed when paired with a maximally-cooperative stooge. Importantly, rats did not adjust their behavior as Donor to receive more pellets. Results suggest that unrelated male rats will work on behalf of a partner, and that their behavior is sensitive to familiarity, and to cooperative responses by their partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coprophagy in iron-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Neale, R J

    1982-04-01

    An attempt was made to prevent coprophagy in iron-deficient rats using plastic anal cups. Considerable damage to the anal cups occurred as a result of gnawing over periods up to 4 days. Haemoglobin iron determinations in rats with and without cups suggested that the cups had been partially successful in preventing recycling of dietary iron, and that coprophagy may be a significant factor in interpretation of haemoglobin regeneration studies on rodents.

  15. Can You Find the Rat Holes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Using its rock abrasion tool, otherwise known as 'Rat,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dotted the slope of 'Endurance Crater' with dimples that give scientists a glimpse into its layered geologic history. This image from the rover's navigation camera, taken on sol 169 (July 15, 2004), highlights the prolific work of the robotic 'rodent.' How many Rat holes can you identify? You will be able to check your answer against an image to be posted soon with all the holes identified.

  16. Hindlimb unweighting affects rat vascular capacitance function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, S. L.; Tamhidi, L.; Berkowitz, D. E.; Shoukas, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity is associated with an impaired stroke volume and, therefore, cardiac output response to orthostatic stress. We hypothesized that a decreased venous filling pressure due to increased venous compliance may be an important contributing factor in this response. We used a constant flow, constant right atrial pressure cardiopulmonary bypass procedure to measure total systemic vascular compliance (C(T)), arterial compliance (C(A)), and venous compliance (C(V)) in seven control and seven 21-day hindlimb unweighted (HLU) rats. These compliance values were calculated under baseline conditions and during an infusion of 0.2 microg*kg(-1)*min(-1) norepinephrine (NE). The change in reservoir volume, which reflects changes in unstressed vascular volume (DeltaV(0)) that occurred upon infusion of NE, was also measured. C(T) and C(V) were larger in HLU rats both at baseline and during the NE infusion (P < 0.05). Infusion of NE decreased C(T) and C(V) by 20% in both HLU and control rats (P < 0.01). C(A) was also significantly decreased in both groups of rats by NE (P < 0.01), but values of C(A) were similar between HLU and control rats both at baseline and during the NE infusion. Additionally, the NE-induced DeltaV(0) was attenuated by 53% in HLU rats compared with control rats (P < 0.05). The larger C(V) and attenuated DeltaV(0) in HLU rats could contribute to a decreased filling pressure during orthostasis and thus may partially underlie the mechanism leading to the exaggerated fall in stroke volume and cardiac output seen in astronauts during an orthostatic stress after exposure to microgravity.

  17. Plasma ACTH in Rats Following Medical Adrenalectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mims, Robert B.; Beard, Wilma

    1977-01-01

    We have previously reported that surgically adrenalectomized nonstressed rats showed delayed secretion of the expected increase in plasma ACTH concentrations following adrenalectomy.1 However, increased plasma ACTH concentrations were always detected when these animals were subjected to severe stress, and their responsiveness increased again seven days or more following surgical adrenalectomy. We are now reporting similar results which were obtained following prolonged systemic glucocorticoid administration (medical adrenalectomy) in similar groups of rats. PMID:195076

  18. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V. Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Quantity discrimination involves distinguishing which of two quantities is greater. This discrimination between larger and smaller quantities has only been demonstrated in rats post extensive training. We tested whether domestic rats could perform quantity discrimination without explicit training. We found that rats could distinguish the greater amount in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. Rats could not distinguish between 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. We also found that as the ratio between quantities became finer the choice of the larger quantity decreased. We conclude that rats can perform quantity discrimination without extensive training and that their quantity discrimination ability is influenced by the ratio between quantities. Abstract Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats’ natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats’ ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats (n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t-tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber’s law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats’ ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination. PMID:27527223

  19. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    superovulated rats that results in our ability to recover about half of frozen embryos as viable pups after transfer into pseudopregnant recipient rats. This...However, there are many advantages to using morulae collected from females superovulated by treatment with FSH and LH. Most notably, the numbers of...potential for a higher number of embryos per female, superovulation , if successful, represents a large savings in animal costs and investigator time

  20. A digital rat atlas of sectional anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Bai, Xueling; Liao, Yinping; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a digital rat alias of sectional anatomy made by milling. Two healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat weighing 160-180 g were used for the generation of this atlas. The rats were depilated completely, then euthanized by Co II. One was via vascular perfusion, the other was directly frozen at -85 °C over 24 hour. After that, the frozen specimens were transferred into iron molds for embedding. A 3% gelatin solution colored blue was used to fill the molds and then frozen at -85 °C for one or two days. The frozen specimen-blocks were subsequently sectioned on the cryosection-milling machine in a plane oriented approximately transverse to the long axis of the body. The surface of specimen-blocks were imaged by a scanner and digitalized into 4,600 x2,580 x 24 bit array through a computer. Finally 9,475 sectional images (arterial vessel were not perfused) and 1,646 sectional images (arterial vessel were perfused) were captured, which made the volume of the digital atlas up to 369.35 Gbyte. This digital rat atlas is aimed at the whole rat and the rat arterial vessels are also presented. We have reconstructed this atlas. The information from the two-dimensional (2-D) images of serial sections and three-dimensional (3-D) surface model all shows that the digital rat atlas we constructed is high quality. This work lays the foundation for a deeper study of digital rat.

  1. Hindlimb unweighting affects rat vascular capacitance function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, S. L.; Tamhidi, L.; Berkowitz, D. E.; Shoukas, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity is associated with an impaired stroke volume and, therefore, cardiac output response to orthostatic stress. We hypothesized that a decreased venous filling pressure due to increased venous compliance may be an important contributing factor in this response. We used a constant flow, constant right atrial pressure cardiopulmonary bypass procedure to measure total systemic vascular compliance (C(T)), arterial compliance (C(A)), and venous compliance (C(V)) in seven control and seven 21-day hindlimb unweighted (HLU) rats. These compliance values were calculated under baseline conditions and during an infusion of 0.2 microg*kg(-1)*min(-1) norepinephrine (NE). The change in reservoir volume, which reflects changes in unstressed vascular volume (DeltaV(0)) that occurred upon infusion of NE, was also measured. C(T) and C(V) were larger in HLU rats both at baseline and during the NE infusion (P < 0.05). Infusion of NE decreased C(T) and C(V) by 20% in both HLU and control rats (P < 0.01). C(A) was also significantly decreased in both groups of rats by NE (P < 0.01), but values of C(A) were similar between HLU and control rats both at baseline and during the NE infusion. Additionally, the NE-induced DeltaV(0) was attenuated by 53% in HLU rats compared with control rats (P < 0.05). The larger C(V) and attenuated DeltaV(0) in HLU rats could contribute to a decreased filling pressure during orthostasis and thus may partially underlie the mechanism leading to the exaggerated fall in stroke volume and cardiac output seen in astronauts during an orthostatic stress after exposure to microgravity.

  2. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  3. Hypergravity modulates behavioral nociceptive responses in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumei, Y.; Shimokawa, R.; Toda, K.; Kawauchi, Y.; Makita, K.; Terasawa, M.; Ohya, K.; Shimokawa, H.

    Hypergravity (2G) exposure elevated the nociceptive threshold (pain suppression) concomitantly with evoked neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. Young Wistar male rats were exposed to 2G by centrifugal rotation for 10 min. Before and after 2G exposure, the nociceptive threshold was measured as the withdrawal reflex by using the von Frey type needle at a total of 8 sites of each rat (nose, four quarters, upper and lower back, tail), and then rats were sacrificed. Fos expression was examined immunohistochemically in the hypothalamic slices of the 2G-treated rats. When rats were exposed to 2G hypergravity, the nociceptive threshold was significantly elevated to approximately 150 to 250% of the 1G baseline control levels in all the examination sites. The 2G hypergravity remarkably induced Fos expression in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. The analgesic effects of 2G hypergravity were attenuated by naloxone pretreatment. Data indicate that hypergravity induces analgesic effects in rats, mediated through hypothalamic neuronal activity in the endogenous opioid system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  4. Thermoregulation in hypergravity-acclimated rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Conrad B.; Patterson, Susan L.; Horowitz, John M.; Oyama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acclimation to hypergravity on thermoregulatory responses of rats was determined by comparing data on core temperature, T(c), tail temperature, and O2 consumption in rats raised at 1 G (C) and at 2.1 G. It was found that, when C rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 9 C concurrently with exposure to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell by about 6 C, while in rats acclimated to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell only by 1 C. Results of O2 consumption measurements showed that C rats exposed simultaneously to cold and hypergravity were not activating their thermogenic mechanism sufficiently to prevent a fall in T(c). In other experiments, rats acclimated to either 1 or 2.1 G were found to lack the ability to maintain their T(c) when exposed to a 5.8-G field or when cold-stressed at 1 G for extended times.

  5. Sexually Dimorphic Risk Mitigation Strategies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pellman, Blake A.; Schuessler, Bryan P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety—in both normal and pathological forms—is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal’s behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky “closed economy” system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging. Rats lived for an extended period (∼2 months) in enlarged chambers that consisted of a safe, bedded nest and a risky foraging area where footshocks could be delivered unpredictably. We observed that male and female rats used different strategies for responding to the threat of footshock. Whereas male rats increased the size of meals consumed to reduce the overall time spent foraging, female rats sacrificed their metabolic needs in order to avoid shocks. Ovarian hormone fluctuations were shown to exert slight but reliable rhythmic effects on risky decision-making in gonadally intact female rats. However, this did not produce significant differences in approach–avoidance trade-offs between ovariectomized and intact female groups, suggesting that male–female sex differences are not due to the activational effects of gonadal hormones but, rather, are likely to be organized during early development. PMID:28197550

  6. Oxalate metabolism in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Rattan, V; Thind, S K; Jethi, R K; Sidhu, H; Nath, R

    1993-06-01

    Male weanling rats were maintained on magnesium-deficient diet for 30 d and compared with pair-fed control rats fed magnesium-supplemented diet. Magnesium deficiency led to slow growth and finally to a significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.001) accompanied by a significant hypomagnesaemia, hypomagnesuria and hyperoxaluria (P < 0.001 in each case) in experimental rats as compared to the control rats. Magnesium deficiency altered the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver and kidney mitochondria by significantly decreasing glyoxylate oxidation (by 26 per cent in liver and 17 per cent in kidney) and activity of alpha-ketoglutarate:glyoxylate carboligase enzyme (by 35 per cent in liver and 27 per cent in kidney) in the experimental animals. A significant increase in the specific activities of glycolic acid oxidase (P < 0.001) and glycolic acid dehydrogenase (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in alanine transaminase (P < 0.01) was also observed in magnesium-deficient rats. No change in liver and kidney lactate dehydrogenase was observed. Thus magnesium deficiency in rats leads to accumulation of glyoxylate in the tissues, a part of which is converted into oxalate, thereby promoting hyperoxaluria.

  7. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

  8. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-02-08

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production.

  9. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (τ <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Interpretation of male rat renal tubule tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P

    1993-01-01

    Based on an analysis of recent scientific studies, a Technical Panel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Assessment Forum recently advised EPA risk assessors against using information on certain male rat renal tubule tumors to assess human risk under conditions specified in a new Forum report. Risk assessment approaches generally assume that chemicals producing tumors in laboratory animals are a potential cancer hazard to humans. For most chemicals, including classical rodent kidney carcinogens such as N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine, this extrapolation remains appropriate. Some chemicals, however, induce accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g), a low molecular weight protein, in the male rat kidney. The alpha 2u-g accumulation initiates a sequence of events that appears to lead to renal tubule tumor formation. Female rats and other laboratory mammals administered the same chemicals do not accumulate low molecular weight protein in the kidney, and they do not develop renal tubule tumors. Because humans appear to be more like other laboratory animals than like the male rat, in this special situation, the male rat is not a good model for assessing human risk. The Forum report stresses the need for full scrutiny of a substantial set of data to determine when it is reasonable to presume that renal tumors in male rats are linked to a process involving alpha 2u-g accumulation and to select appropriate procedures for estimating human risks under such circumstances. PMID:7517352

  11. Sexually Dimorphic Risk Mitigation Strategies in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Blake A; Schuessler, Bryan P; Tellakat, Mohini; Kim, Jeansok J

    2017-01-01

    The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging. Rats lived for an extended period (∼2 months) in enlarged chambers that consisted of a safe, bedded nest and a risky foraging area where footshocks could be delivered unpredictably. We observed that male and female rats used different strategies for responding to the threat of footshock. Whereas male rats increased the size of meals consumed to reduce the overall time spent foraging, female rats sacrificed their metabolic needs in order to avoid shocks. Ovarian hormone fluctuations were shown to exert slight but reliable rhythmic effects on risky decision-making in gonadally intact female rats. However, this did not produce significant differences in approach-avoidance trade-offs between ovariectomized and intact female groups, suggesting that male-female sex differences are not due to the activational effects of gonadal hormones but, rather, are likely to be organized during early development.

  12. Hypergravity suppresses bone resorption in ovariectomized rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Tesshu; Kawaguchi, Amu; Okabe, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamichi, Yuko; Nakamura, Midori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

    2011-04-01

    The effects of gravity on bone metabolism are unclear, and little has been reported about the effects of hypergravity on the mature skeleton. Since low gravity has been shown to decrease bone volume, we hypothesized that hypergravity increases bone volume. To clarify this hypothesis, adult female rats were ovariectomized and exposed to hypergravity (2.9G) using a centrifugation system. The rats were killed 28 days after the start of loading, and the distal femoral metaphysis of the rats was studied. Bone architecture was assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone mineral density was measured using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). Hypergravity increased the trabecular bone volume of ovariectomized rats. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that hypergravity suppressed both bone formation and resorption and increased bone volume in ovariectomized rats. Further, the cell morphology, activity, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts exposed to hypergravity were evaluated in vitro. Hypergravity inhibited actin ring formation in mature osteoclasts, which suggested that the osteoclast activity was suppressed. However, hypergravity had no effect on osteoblasts. These results suggest that hypergravity can stimulate an increase in bone volume by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

  13. Behaviour of rats exposed to trichloroethylene vapour.

    PubMed

    Silverman, A P; Williams, H

    1975-11-01

    Rats were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) vapour for about five five-day weeks at concentrations from 100 to 1 000 ppm, and at 100 ppm for 12 1/2 weeks. The social behaviour of paired male rats was observed periodically in the home cage for five minutes after they had been exposed to TCE. The principal finding was a consistent reduction of up to 24% in the total acitivity. A single day's exposure to TCE was sufficient at the highest concentration. At 100 ppm, a similar decline in activity was significant after 1 1/2 weeks' exposure in one experiment and 8 1/2 weeks' in another. The decline in activity was fairly uniform and not usually because of specific reductions in particular kinds of behaviour. However, exploration of the cage and submission to, or escape from, the other rat were sometimes specifically reduced. In an 'exploration-thirst' test, rats were deprived of water overnight and placed on two or three occasions in a previously unfamiliar cage. Rats exposed to 100, 200, or 1 000 ppm TCE found water and began drinking sooner than their controls without altering the rate of movement about the cage. These results suggest lowered performance in a familiar situation where rats are usually very active and some loss of inhibitory control in an unfamiliar one. At the present threshold limit value, repeated exposure to TCE eventually had effects similar to those of one day's exposure to a higher concentration, but only after a widely variable delay.

  14. Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats Exposed to Dichloroacetate

    PubMed Central

    Calcutt, Nigel A.; Lopez, Veronica L.; Bautista, Arjel D.; Mizisin, Leah M.; Torres, Brenda R.; Shroads, Albert L.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of dichloroacetate (DCA) for treating patients with mitochondrial diseases is limited by the induction of peripheral neuropathy. The mechanisms of DCA-induced neuropathy are not known. Oral DCA treatment (50–500 mg/kg/day for up to 16 weeks) induced tactile allodynia in both juvenile and adult rats; concurrent thermal hypoalgesia developed at higher doses. Both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA developed nerve conduction slowing that was more pronounced in adult rats. No overt axonal or glial cell abnormalities were identified in peripheral nerves or spinal cord of any DCA-treated rats but morphometric analysis identified a reduction of mean axonal caliber of peripheral nerve myelinated fibers. DCA treatment also caused accumulation of oxidative stress markers in the nerves. These data indicate that behavioral, functional and structural indices of peripheral neuropathy may be induced in both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA at doses similar to those in clinical use. DCA-induced peripheral neuropathy primarily afflicts axons and involves both metabolic and structural disorders. The DCA-treated rat may provide insight into the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy and facilitate development of adjuvant therapeutics to prevent this disorder that currently restricts the clinical use of DCA. PMID:19680144

  15. Transient dehydration of lungs in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The fluid balance in the lungs of rats exposed to head-down tilt is examined. Six Munich-Wister rats were suspended for 7 days and 10 Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days using the technique of Morey (1979). The water contents of the lungs of the suspended and a control group are calculated and compared. The data reveal that the two-days suspended rats had dehydrated lungs; however, the lungs of the 14-day suspended and control group rats were similar. It is noted that the dehydration in the 2-day suspended rats is caused by general dehydration not the head-tilt position.

  16. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J; Friedman, R; Tassinari, L

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  17. Effects of BCL-2 over-expression on B cells in transgenic rats and rat hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Iscache, Anne-Laure; Ménoret, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Pedros, Christophe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Buelow, Roland; Anegon, Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    The rat is an important biomedical experimental model that benefited from the recent development of new transgenic and knockout techniques. With the goal to optimize rat mAb production and to analyze the impact of Bcl-2 on B-cell development, we generated bcl-2 transgenic rats. Transgenic rats showed Bcl-2 over-expression in B cells, increased B cell numbers in lymphoid organs, elevated production of immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonged B-cell survival in vitro. Transgenic rats remained healthy, reproduced normally and did not develop autoimmunity. Fusions with bcl-2 transgenic splenocytes did not result in increased hybridoma generation. A comparison of on- and off-rates of 39 mAbs generated with bcl-2 transgenic and wild-type animals revealed no significant differences. Over-expression of Bcl-2 in hybridomas did not change cell proliferation but resulted in increased Ig production. Bcl-2 transgenic rats will be a useful tool for the generation of rat mAbs, the analysis of B cells in different pathophysiological models, such as autoimmunity, cancer or organ transplantation, and the study of rat B-cell biology.

  18. Rat leucocyte response to the bites of rat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J A; Jerse, A E; Azad, A F

    1989-09-01

    The host response to bites of the oriental rat flea, Xenopyslla cheopis Rothschild, was investigated by examining rat blood leucocyte kinetics, histopathology, and the effect that the host response had upon subsequent flea feeding and longevity. Test rats were subjected to controlled exposures of fleas, and leucocyte data from test rats were compared to those of unexposed controls. Of the five leucocyte types examined, only the basophil appeared to play a role in the host blood response to flea bites. Significant increases in blood basophil levels occurred 2-3 d after exposure but subsided to control levels within a week. However, flea feeding did not produce histopathology at the flea feeding sites nor did the basophilic blood response of rats affect subsequent feeding or longevity of the fleas.

  19. Safety of oral sulfates in rats and dogs contrasted with phosphate-induced nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Russell W; Russell, Robert G; Padgett, Eric L; Reno, Frederick E; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2009-01-01

    An oral sulfate salt solution (OSS), under development as a bowel cleansing agent for colonoscopy in humans, is studied in rats and dogs. In rats, amaximumpractical oral OSS dose (5 g/kg/d) is compared with an oral sodium phosphate (OSP) solution, both at about 7 times the clinical dose. OSS induces the intended effects of loose stools and diarrhea. In rats, higher urine sodium and potassium accompany higher clearance rates, considered adaptive to the osmotic load of OSS. OSS for 28 days is well tolerated in rats and dogs. In contrast, OSP causes increased mortality, reduced body weight and food consumption, severe kidney tubular degeneration, and calcium phosphate deposition in rats. These are accompanied by mineralization in the stomach and aorta, along with cardiac and hepatic degeneration and necrosis. The greater safety margin of OSS over OSP at similarmultiples of the clinical dose indicates its suitability for human use.

  20. Endothelial dysfunction in cold-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiming; Zhu, Shanjun; Zhu, Jijun; van der Giet, Markus; Tepel, Martin

    2002-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction can be observed in preatherosclerotic conditions. However, its pathogenetic role in hypertension is still controversial. Endothelial-dependent changes of blood pressure (BP) and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were evaluated in cold-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were exposed to cold stress for 8 weeks. Exposure to cold stress significantly increased the systolic BP in rats. The infusion of acetylcholine significantly lowered mean arterial BP in control rats by 48 +/- 2% and by 32 +/- 1% in cold-induced hypertensive rats. The acetylcholine-induced reduction of mean arterial BP was significantly attenuated in cold-induced hypertensive rats (control rats, 45 +/- 2 mm Hg; cold-induced hypertensive rats, 34 +/- 3 mm Hg; P < .05). Administration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester for 1 week significantly increased BP in control rats, whereas no effect could be observed in cold-induced hypertensive rats. In cold-induced hypertensive rats eNOS in aortic vessels was significantly reduced compared to control rats. In this nongenetic, nonsurgical animal model of cold-induced hypertensive rats an endothelial dysfunction can be observed due to reduced eNOS.

  1. Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Kelly, Diane A.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Šumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. Conclusions/Significance The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology. PMID:19829697

  2. Reduced T cell response in carcinogen-sensitive Donryu rats compared with carcinogen-resistant DRH rats.

    PubMed

    Mise-Omata, S; Sugiura, T; Higashi, K; Yamashita, U

    1999-12-01

    Carcinogen-resistant DRH rats were developed from carcinogen-sensitive Donryu rats, which showed a high incidence of hepatic tumors when they were exposed to 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-amino-azobenzene (3'-MeDAB4) or other aminoazo hepatocarcinogens. In order to study the mechanism of the difference of carcinogenesis, we studied the immunological competence of Donryu rats compared with that of DRH rats. Anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antibody and KLH-specific delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) responses after immunization with KLH were reduced in Donryu rats compared with DRH rats. Proliferative responses of spleen cells to KLH and nonspecific mitogens such as conconavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were significantly lower in Donryu rats than in DRH rats. Upon the cross-linking of T cell receptor (TCR) complex using anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (Mab), spleen cells from Donryu rats proliferated poorly. Two other strains of rats, SD and Wistar, exhibited high responsiveness, comparable to that of DRH rats, indicating that the responsiveness of Donryu rats was impaired. The production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) upon stimulation with Con A and the responsiveness of Con A blasts to exogenous IL-2 were also attenuated in Donryu rats. In contrast to T cell responsiveness, natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen was increased in Donryu rats. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the expression of CD4 and CD8 on T cells was decreased in Donryu rats, though the expression of other T cell markers such as CD2, CD3 and CD5 was not different. These results indicate that Donryu rats, which have been used in many years for cancer research in Japan, have impaired immunological surveillance mechanisms. This is likely to be one of the factors accounting for the high sensitivity to chemical carcinogens and the high susceptibility to transplanted tumor cells of Donryu rats.

  3. OSMOTICALLY LYSED RAT LIVER MITOCONDRIA

    PubMed Central

    Vasington, Frank D.; Greenawalt, John W.

    1968-01-01

    Osmotically lysed rat liver mitochondria have been utilized for a study of the biochemical and ultrastructural properties in relation to divalent ion accumulation. Osmotic lysis of mitochondria by suspension and washing in cold, distilled water results in the extraction of about 50% of the mitochondrial protein, the loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane, an increase in respiration, and a marked decrease in the ability to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, except for a decrease in the ability to accumulate Sr2+ by an ATP-supported process, these lysed mitochondria retain full capacity to accumulate massive amounts of divalent cations by respiration-dependent and ATP-supported mechanisms. The decreased ability of osmotically lysed mitochondria to accumulate Sr2+ by an ATP-energized process does not appear to be due to a loss or inactivation of a specific Sr2+-activated ATPase. The energy-dependent accumulation processes in lysed mitochondria show an increased sensitivity to inhibition by monovalent cations. Extraction of cytochrome c from osmotically lysed mitochondria results in a complete loss of phosphorylation and the respiration-dependent accumulation of Ca2+; a lesser, but significant, decrease in the ATP-supported accumulation of Ca2+ also was observed. The addition of cytochrome c fully restores the respiration-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ to the level present in unextracted, osmotically lysed mitochondria. The ATP-supported process is not affected by the addition of cytochrome c to extracted mitochondria, indicating that cytochrome c is not involved in ion transport energized by ATP. The osmotically lysed mitochondria are devoid of outer membranes and contain relatively little matrix substance. The accumulation of Ca2+ and Pi by lysed mitochondria under massive loading conditions is accompanied by the formation of electron-opaque deposits within the lysed mitochondria associated with the inner membranes. This finding suggests that the

  4. Effect of simulated weightlessness on energy metabolism in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Results of measurements of food uptake and body weight changes occurring in rats suspended from a harness so that the antigravity muscles were not used for locomotion are presented. The rats were tested in pairs, with both in a harness but only one suspended off its hind legs; this section lasted 7 days. A second phase of the experiment involved feeding the nonsuspended rat the same amount of food the experimental rat had consumed the previous day. All rats experienced decreased in body weight and food intake in the first stage, while in the second stage the suspended rat lost more weight. The total oxygen uptake, CO2 output, and rate of C-14O2 production were depressed in the suspended rats, then returned to normal levels once the rats were back on the ground. It is concluded that the gross metabolic processes are unaffected by simulated weightlessness.

  5. National BioResource Project-Rat and related activities.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Okajima, Ryoko; Maedomari, Naoki; Kumafuji, Kenta; Tagami, Fumi; Neoda, Yuki; Otsuki, Mito; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Ken-ichi; Voigt, Birger; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    In order to establish a system to facilitate the systematic collection, preservation, and provision of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) and their derivates, the National BioResource Project-Rat (NBRP-Rat) was launched in July 2002. By the end of 2008, more than 500 rat strains had been collected and preserved as live animals, embryos, or sperm. These rat resources are supplied to biomedical scientists in Japan as well as in other countries. This review article introduces NBRP-Rat and highlights the phenome project, recombinant inbred strains, BAC clone libraries, and the ENU-mutant archive, named the Kyoto University Rat Mutant Archive (KURMA). The future direction of rat resources are also discussed.

  6. Expression of oxytocin receptor in diabetic rat penis.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Wang, T; Guo, S; Rao, K; Liu, J; Ye, Z

    2012-05-01

    Oxytocin receptor (OTR) expressed in the rat penis and mediated the contractility of the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle both in vitro and in vivo, and OTR could maintain penile detumescence; however, the expression of OTR in diabetic rat penis remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression of OTR in diabetic rat penis. The experimental rats were randomly divided into control group and STZ-diabetic rats group. The expressions of mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry respectively. Erectile function was evaluated by measuring intracavernous pressure following electrostimulation of the cavernous nerves. mRNA and protein expression of OTR significantly increased in diabetic rats group compared with the control group. Erectile function of diabetic rats group significantly decreased compared with the control group. Our data showed that the expression of OTR significantly increased in diabetic rats group and OTR may involve in the development of diabetic erectile dysfunction.

  7. Effect of simulated weightlessness on energy metabolism in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Results of measurements of food uptake and body weight changes occurring in rats suspended from a harness so that the antigravity muscles were not used for locomotion are presented. The rats were tested in pairs, with both in a harness but only one suspended off its hind legs; this section lasted 7 days. A second phase of the experiment involved feeding the nonsuspended rat the same amount of food the experimental rat had consumed the previous day. All rats experienced decreased in body weight and food intake in the first stage, while in the second stage the suspended rat lost more weight. The total oxygen uptake, CO2 output, and rate of C-14O2 production were depressed in the suspended rats, then returned to normal levels once the rats were back on the ground. It is concluded that the gross metabolic processes are unaffected by simulated weightlessness.

  8. High prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus in wild rats in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guan, Dawei; Su, Juan; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji; Li, Tian-Cheng; Ke, Chang Wen

    2013-08-30

    Serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in Zhanjiang city in China from December 2011 to September 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) by exploring rat HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. By an ELISA based on recombinant rat HEV-like particles (HEV-LPs), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. The IgG-positive rates in Rattus norvegicus, Bandicota indica, Rattus flavipectus, Rattus rattoides losea, and Rattus rattus hainanus, were 27.8% (64/230), 23.0% (40/174), 19.9% (34/171), 21.5% (26/121), and 11.8% (2/17), while the IgM-positive rates were 8.3% (19/230), 6.9% (12/174), 8.2% (14/171), 10.7% (13/121), and 5.9% (1/17), respectively. The IgG-positive rate of the rats captured in rural areas, 24.1% (84/348), was higher than that in the central area of Zhanjiang city, 15.1% (32/212). The highest IgG-positive rates, as high as 45.3% (39/86), were detected in wild rats trapped in the garbage dump. Twelve of the 59 IgM-positive serum samples were positive for HEV RNA, which was detected in all of the wild rat species except R. rattus hainanus. A phylogenetic analysis of the partial genome of rat HEV ORF1 indicated that all of the 12 HEV strains belong to rat HEV, and no other genotype HEV were detected. The rat HEV from Zhangjiang city could be classified into three separated clusters, suggesting that the infection due to rat HEV with a variety of genome entities occurs extensively among wild rats in China.

  9. Behavioral Toxicological Studies of Pesticides in Laboratory Rats,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Behavior, *Toxicology, *Pesticides, *Rats, Symposia, Laboratory tests, Toxicity, Insecticides, Exposure( General ), Dosage, Perception, Motor reactions, Learning, Military psychology , Military medicine

  10. Nigella Sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Seif, Ansam Aly

    2014-01-14

    Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to increased risk of fracture. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen after menopause and the development of osteoporosis. About 33% of women over 50 will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis. Nigella Sativa (NS) has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and joint diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Nigella Sativa on osteoporosis produced by ovariectomy in rats. Female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months were divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized supplemented with nigella sativa (OVX-NS) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. After 12 weeks, plasma levels of calcium (Ca(+2)), phosphorous (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrates, nitric oxide surrogate, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Histological examination of the liver and the tibia was conducted. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. OVX rats showed significant decrease in plasma Ca(+2), accompanied by a significant increase in plasma ALP, amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, MDA, nitrates, TNF-α and IL-6. These changes were reversed by NS supplementation in OVX-NS group to be near SHAM levels. Histological examination of the tibias revealed discontinuous eroded bone trabeculae with widened bone marrow spaces in OVX rats accompanied by a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bone thickness compared to Sham rats. These parameters were markedly reversed in OVX-NS rats. Histological examination of the liver showed mononuclear cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels at the portal area in OVX rats which were not found in OVX-NS rats. Nigella

  11. Nigella Sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to increased risk of fracture. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen after menopause and the development of osteoporosis. About 33% of women over 50 will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis. Nigella Sativa (NS) has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and joint diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Nigella Sativa on osteoporosis produced by ovariectomy in rats. Methods Female Wistar rats aged 12–14 months were divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized supplemented with nigella sativa (OVX-NS) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. After 12 weeks, plasma levels of calcium (Ca+2), phosphorous (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrates, nitric oxide surrogate, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Histological examination of the liver and the tibia was conducted. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results OVX rats showed significant decrease in plasma Ca+2, accompanied by a significant increase in plasma ALP, amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, MDA, nitrates, TNF-α and IL-6. These changes were reversed by NS supplementation in OVX-NS group to be near SHAM levels. Histological examination of the tibias revealed discontinuous eroded bone trabeculae with widened bone marrow spaces in OVX rats accompanied by a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bone thickness compared to Sham rats. These parameters were markedly reversed in OVX-NS rats. Histological examination of the liver showed mononuclear cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels at the portal area in OVX rats which were not found

  12. INORGANIC CATIONS IN RAT KIDNEY

    PubMed Central

    Tandler, C. J.; Kierszenbaum, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    For localization of pyroantimonate-precipitable cations, rat kidney was fixed by perfusion with a saturated aqueous solution of potassium pyroantimonate (pH about 9.2, without addition of any conventional fixative). A remarkably good preservation of the tissue and cell morphology was obtained as well as a consistent and reproducible localization of the insoluble antimonate salts of magnesium, calcium, and sodium. All proximal and distal tubules and glomeruli were delimited by massive electron-opaque precipitates localized in the basement membrane and, to a lesser extent, in adjacent connective tissue. In the intraglomerular capillaries the antimonate precipitate was encountered in the basement membranes and also between the foot processes. In addition to a more or less uniform distribution in the cytoplasm and between the microvilli of the brush border, antimonate precipitates were found in all cell nuclei, mainly between the masses of condensed chromatin. The mitochondria usually contained a few large antimonate deposits which probably correspond to the so-called "dense granules" observed after conventional fixations. PMID:4106544

  13. Chronotoxicity of nedaplatin in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yimin; Sugimoto, Koh-Ichi; Kawai, Yoshiko; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Gemba, Munekazu; Fujimura, Akio

    2004-07-01

    Chronotoxicologic profiles of nedaplatin, a platinum compound, were evaluated in rats maintained under a 12 light/12 dark cycle with light from 07:00h to 19:00 h. Nedaplatin (5 mg/kg) was injected intravenously, once a week for 5 weeks at 08:00h or 20:00h. The suppression of body weight gain and reduction of creatinine clearance were significantly greater with the 20:00h than 08:00h treatment. Accumulation of nedaplatin in the renal cortex and bone marrow were also greater with 20:00 h treatment. There were significant relationships between the nedaplatin content in the kidney and bone marrow and degree of injury to each. These results suggest that the nedaplatin-induced toxicity depends on its dosing-time, and it is greater with treatment at 20:00 h, during the active phase. The dosing-time dependency in the accumulation of nedaplatin in the tissue of the organs might be involved in this chronotoxicologic phenomenon.

  14. Cardiopulmonary Changes with Moderate Decompression in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R.; Little, T.; Doursout, M.-F.; Butler, B. D.; Chelly, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed to 616 kPa for 120 min then decompressed at 38 kPa/min to assess the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to moderate decompression stress. In one series of experiments the rats were chronically instrumented with Doppler ultrasonic probes for simultaneous measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, left and right ventricular wall thickening fraction, and venous bubble detection. Data were collected at base-line, throughout the compression/decompression protocol, and for 120 min post decompression. In a second series of experiments the pulmonary responses to the decompression protocol were evaluated in non-instrumented rats. Analyses included blood gases, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and hemoglobin concentration, pulmonary edema, BAL and lung tissue phospholipids, lung compliance, and cell counts. Venous bubbles were directly observed in 90% of the rats where immediate post-decompression autopsy was performed and in 37% using implanted Doppler monitors. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and right ventricular wall thickening fractions were significantly decreased post decompression, whereas systemic vascular resistance was increased suggesting a decrease in venous return. BAL Hb and total protein levels were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression, pleural and plasma levels were unchanged. BAL white blood cells and neutrophil percentages were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression and pulmonary edema was detected. Venous bubbles produced with moderate decompression profiles give detectable cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in the rat.

  15. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  16. Distal interstitial epididymitis in young rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Guenther; Belote, Duane A; Suttie, Andrew W; Buetow, Bernard S; Muhumuza, Luke

    2015-04-01

    A sporadic, diffuse, interstitial mixed cell epididymitis of unknown etiology was noted in the epididymal cauda and distal corpus of young control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats from 2 different suppliers were examined as part of routine toxicology studies. The incidence of this finding was 5/5 (study 1), 2/7 (study 2), and 2/7 (study 3). Although 2 of these studies partially overlapped temporally, none of the affected animals from any study was maintained concurrently with affected animals from any of the other 2 studies, and infectious causes, control article toxicity, or autoimmune processes were considered unlikely etiologies. Inflammation similar to that noted in the epididymides of these young rats was not present in other tissues and was not noted in study cohorts sacrificed at ages older than approximately 11 weeks or in rats of similar age from other concurrent studies. Similar findings were noted sporadically in historical control data, and consequently an age-related finding of unknown etiology and occurring in sporadic clusters is reported in SD rats ≤11 weeks old.

  17. Immunopathological features of rat Staphylococcus aureus arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bremell, T; Lange, S; Holmdahl, R; Rydén, C; Hansson, G K; Tarkowski, A

    1994-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial species found in nongonococcal bacterial arthritis in humans. We present the first description, to our knowledge, of an outbreak of spontaneous staphylococcal arthritis in a rat colony. In a group of 10 rats, 9 displayed arthritis. Clinically, the most obvious findings were arthritis of one or both hindpaws and malaise. Bacteriophage typing showed the common phage type 85 in isolates recovered from the joints, blood, and bedding of rats and from the nose and cheeks of one person from the staff of the animal facility. The S. aureus strain proved to produce staphylococcal enterotoxin A and exhibited strong binding to collagen types I and II and bone sialoprotein, which are potentially important virulence factors. When the recovered S. aureus strain was injected intravenously into healthy rats, severe septic arthritis was induced in almost all of the animals. The arthritic lesions were characterized by infiltration of phagocytic cells and T lymphocytes into the synovium. Many of the synovial cells strongly expressed major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Increased levels of interleukin 6 in serum as well as a prominent polyclonal B-cell activation were noted throughout the disease course. Pretreatment of S. aureus-injected rats in vivo with an antibody to the alpha beta T-cell receptor significantly decreased the severity of the arthritis. Our results indicate that alpha beta + T lymphocytes contribute to an erosive and persistent course of S. aureus arthritis. Images PMID:8188356

  18. The queer life of a lab rat.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The laboratory rat is an important, if neglected, actor in the history of sexuality. From the 1920s and 1940s, a series of reports emerged from American psychology laboratories detailing instances of spontaneous "reversals" in sexual behavior within their rat colonies. Frank Beach, then at the American Museum of Natural History, developed a model for the "nature" of sexuality that stressed that all organisms had the neurological capacity to perform behavior of either sex. Beach enrolled his emerging specialty, behavioral endocrinology, in support of Alfred Kinsey's controversial findings. Both scientists highlighted the multitude of potential sexual outlets pursued by organisms and the prevalence of nonprocreative sexual behaviors. This article draws on elements of queer theory to elucidate how the landscape of the comparative psychologist's rat colony with its organisms, apparatus, practices, and rituals served an integral function in the redefinition of sex in the 20th century. Queer theory calls into question easy proclamations about what counts as natural or normal by drawing attention to the presumed binaries that frequently govern the classification of sex. The maintenance of the colony required the careful management of sex with its obstruction devices, hypersexualized indicator animals, segregation cages, and castrated rats injected with hormones. Moreover, Beach's own writings indicate how his own domestic life became entangled with the sex lives of the rats. An irony animates this Rockefeller-funded sexology: Research funded to elucidate the mechanisms underlying heterosexuality came to question its innateness and universality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Radioimmunoimaging of pneumocystis carinii infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Shane, L.B.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Lipszyc, H.; Walzer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinil pneumonia (PCP) is seen in patients with impaired immunity due to chemotherapeutic suppression or to a primary disorder, congenital or AIDS. Although radiogallium imaging has been helpful in the workup of PCP, it is non-specific. Since there is no early specific non-invasive method to diagnose PCP, the authors are developing an imaging technique using radiolabeled antibodies. Fulminant PCP was induced in rats by injecting cortisone, 20mg 2-3 times/wk for 8 wks. PC cells isolated from rat lung were injected into rabbits. The antiserum thus derived was separated and purified using Protein-A bound sepharose column with identification of IgG by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both rabbit antipneumocystis antibodies and purified IgG(Sigma) were iodinated with I-131 to a high specific activity (3-5..mu..Ci/ug) using a lactoperoxidase method. /sup 131/I-labeled specific and non-specific IgG were injected into rats with PC infection and imaged with an Anger camera. After sacrifice, I-131 activity/gram tissue (lung, liver, heart) was determined and expressed as organ ratios. An increased uptake of specific antibody in lungs of rats with PCP was demonstrated by organ counting and imaging. This increase was not seen in normal controls or rats injected with non-specific IgG. These data provide a basis for radioimmunoimaging of infectious diseases.

  20. Osteoformin accelerates fresh fracture healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lian Xiang; Mainous, Elgene G; Zeng, YaPing; Buford, William L

    2007-12-01

    Negatively charged resins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. In previous studies, the negatively charged polypeptide polyaspartate, which has been named Osteoformin, has been shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation in vitro. The objective of the current study was to investigate the potential effect of Osteoformin on experimental femoral fracture healing in vivo. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The femurs of anesthetized rats were stabilized with intramedullary pins and subjected to closed midshaft transverse facture by bending to failure. In experimental rats, fracture sites were injected with 100 microg of Osteoformin dissolved in 0.1 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at day 1 and day 7 after surgery; in controls groups, fracture sites received 0.1 mL PBS at the intervals indicated above. Between 2 and 4 weeks after fracture, the animals were sacrificed and the healing femurs were removed for radiographic and histologic analysis. Osteoformin decreased the healing time of fresh fractures in rats, as indicated by histologic and radiographic assessments. The results of this study show that Osteoformin improves femoral fracture healing in rats.

  1. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Niraj; Verbeken, Erik; Ramaekers, Kaat; Dallmeier, Kai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans). As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains). Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies. PMID:27483350

  2. Glutamine synthetase induced spinal seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Won; Yoon, Young Sul; Matsumoto, Masato; Huang, Wencheng; Ceraulo, Phil; Young, Wise

    2003-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system. It is responsible for converting glutamate to glutamine, consuming one ATP and NH3 in the process. Glutamate is neurotoxic when it accumulates in extracellular fluids. We investigated the effects of GS in both a spinal cord injury (SCI) model and normal rats. 0.1-ml of low (2- micro M) and high (55- micro M) concentrations of GS were applied, intrathecally, to the spinal cord of rats under pentobarbital anesthesia. Immediately after an intrathecal injection into the L1-L3 space, the rats developed convulsive movements. These movements initially consisted of myoclonic twitches of the paravertebral muscles close to the injection site, repeated tonic and clonic contractions and extensions of the hind limbs (hind limb seizures) that spread to the fore limbs, and finally rotational axial movements of the body. An EMG of the paravertebral muscles, fore and hind limbs, showed the extent of the muscle activities. GS (2- micro M) caused spinal seizures in the rats after the SCI, and GS (6- micro M) produced seizures in the uninjured anesthetized rats. Denatured GS (70 degrees C, 1 hour) also produced spinal seizures, although higher concentrations were required. We suggest that GS may be directly blocking the release of GABA, or the receptors, in the spinal cord.

  3. Modeling Alzheimer's disease in transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo, Sonia; Cuello, A Claudio

    2013-10-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. At the diagnostic stage, the AD brain is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss. Despite the large variety of therapeutic approaches, this condition remains incurable, since at the time of clinical diagnosis, the brain has already suffered irreversible and extensive damage. In recent years, it has become evident that AD starts decades prior to its clinical presentation. In this regard, transgenic animal models can shed much light on the mechanisms underlying this "pre-clinical" stage, enabling the identification and validation of new therapeutic targets. This paper summarizes the formidable efforts to create models mimicking the various aspects of AD pathology in the rat. Transgenic rat models offer distinctive advantages over mice. Rats are physiologically, genetically and morphologically closer to humans. More importantly, the rat has a well-characterized, rich behavioral display. Consequently, rat models of AD should allow a more sophisticated and accurate assessment of the impact of pathology and novel therapeutics on cognitive outcomes.

  4. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of hexamethylenediamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, F R; Levinskas, G J; Ben-Dyke, R; Hogan, G K

    1987-10-01

    Four groups of 15 male and 15 female Sprague-Dawley-derived (CD) rats each were exposed to aqueous hexamethylenediamine (HMD) aerosols for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks at mean analytical concentrations of 0, 12.8, or 51 mg/m3. Because of exposure-related deaths in a group of male and female rats similarly exposed to 215 mg/m3 HMD, this group was terminated during the seventh week of the study. Signs of respiratory and conjunctival irritation were observed in rats at both the 51 and 215 mg/m3 HMD test levels. Body weight gain was significantly reduced in both sexes exposed to 215 mg/m3 HMD. At the 5-week study interval, slight hemopoietic stimulation of peripheral blood parameters was observed in rats of both sexes exposed to 215 mg/m3 HMD. Treatment-related microscopic lesions were seen only in rats exposed to 215 mg/m3 MD and were confined to the trachea, nasal passages, and lungs. The no-effect level in this study is considered to be 12.8 mg/m3 HMD.

  5. Microdialysis of triamcinolone acetonide in rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Cioli; Nagaraja, Nelamangala V; Webb, Alistair I; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare plasma and muscle concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in the rat by microdialysis. Microdialysis experiments were carried out at steady state in rats after an initial I.V. bolus 50 mg/kg of the phosphate ester of TA (TAP) followed by 23 mg/kg/h infusion. In vivo recovery was calculated by retrodialysis. The concentration determined at steady state in microdialysate, corrected for recovery, was 2.73 +/- 0.42 microg/mL compared to 21.9 +/- 2.3 microg/mL in plasma. The pharmacokinetics of TA in plasma was described by an open two-compartment model with a terminal half-life of 2.7 h. The clearance of TA in rats determined by compartmental analysis was 0.94 L/h/kg. The measured microdialysate levels of TA in muscle, corrected for recovery, were comparable to the predicted free drug levels in the peripheral compartment. Protein binding in rat plasma, measured by ultrafiltration, was 90.1%. The microdialysis in vivo recovery in muscle was similar to the in vitro recovery under stirred conditions. The results show the applicability of microdialysis to measure free tissue concentrations of TA in rats.

  6. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  7. Thalidomide decreases intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Ying; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Chau, Ga-Yang; Loong, Che-Chuan; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2009-03-13

    Increased intrahepatic resistance (IHR) within cirrhotic liver is caused by increased endotoxemia, cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), and disrupted microvasculatures. We evaluated the effects of thalidomide-related inhibition of TNF-alpha upon the hepatic microcirculation of cirrhosis in rats. Portal venous pressure (PVP), hepatic TNF-alpha, expression of thromboxane synthase (TXS), and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) were measured in bile-duct-ligated (BDL) rats receiving 1 month of thalidomide (BDL-thalido rats). Portal perfusion pressure (PPP), IHR, and hepatic TXA(2) production were measured in the isolated liver perfusion system. Intravital microscopy was used to examine hepatic microvascular disruptions. In BDL-thalido rats, PVP, PPP, IHR, hepatic TXA(2) and TNF-alpha, hydroxyproline content, expression of TXS and LCA, and LPS-induced leukocyte recruitment were significantly decreased. Conversely, hepatic microvascular density and perfused sinusoids were significantly increased. Thalidomide decreased PVP and IHR by reducing hepatic TXA(2) and improving hepatic microvascular disruptions in rats with biliary cirrhosis.

  8. Left ventricular volumetric conductance catheter for rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Takaki, M; Yamaguchi, H; Tachibana, H; Suga, H

    1996-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) volume (V) is an essential parameter for assessment of the cardiac pump function. Measurement of LVV in situ by a conductance catheter method has been widely used in dogs and humans but not yet in small experimental animals such as rats. We instituted a miniaturized six-electrode conductance catheter (3-F) for rat LVV measurement and its signal processing apparatus. We compared stroke volumes (SVs) simultaneously measured with this conductance catheter introduced into the LV through the apex and an electromagnetic flow probe placed on the ascending aorta during gradual decreases in LVV by an inferior vena caval occlusion. A high and linear correlation (r = 0.982) was obtained between these differently measured by SVs pooled from six rats. In another group of three rats, LV pressure was simultaneously measured with a 3-F catheter-tip micromanometer introduced into the LV through the apex. We obtained the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume (P-V) relationship (Emax) by a gradual ascending aortic occlusion. After administration of propranolol, Emax obviously decreased with no change in volume intercept of the P-V relationship. The conductance volumetry proved to be useful in rats.

  9. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  10. On the rat model of human osteopenias and osteoporoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Harold M.; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The idea that rats cannot model human osteopenias errs. The same mechanisms control gains in bone mass (longitudinal bone growth and modeling drifts) and losses (BMU-based remodeling), in young and aged rats and humans. Furthermore, they respond similarly in rats and man to mechanical influences, hormones, drugs and other agents.

  11. Correction of hyperphosphatemia suppresses cardiac remodeling in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki-Nakazawa, Ai; Mizobuchi, Masahide; Ogata, Hiroaki; Kumata, Chiaki; Kondo, Fumiko; Ono, Naoko; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Uda, Susumu; Kinugasa, Eriko; Akizawa, Tadao

    2014-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. To examine the effects of correction of hyperphosphatemia, we investigated the association between phosphate metabolism and cardiac remodeling in uremic rats. Four groups were studied for 8 weeks: (1) control (sham), (2) 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats fed a normal phosphate regular diet (Nx + NP), (3) Nx rats fed a high phosphate (1.2 %) diet (Nx + HP), and (4) Nx rats fed a high phosphate diet containing 2 % lanthanum carbonate (Nx + HP + La). The relationship between phosphate metabolism and cardiac remodeling was analyzed. Nx + HP rats showed a significant increase in serum phosphate and PTH compared with Nx + NP rats, while Nx + HP + La rats showed slight decreases in these levels. Both Nx + HP and Nx + HP + La rats showed a significant increase in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) compared with Nx + NP rats. Urinary phosphate excretion showed a similar trend to that of FGF23. Nx + HP rats showed a significant increase in LV weight and matrix deposition compared with Nx + NP rats, and this increase was also significantly suppressed in Nx + HP + La rats. Serum phosphate levels and PTH were significantly correlated with LV weight and matrix deposition, but FGF23 levels did not show the correlation. FGF23 had a high correlation with urinary phosphate excretion. These results suggest that correction of hyperphosphatemia by lanthanum carbonate could suppress cardiac remodeling independently of changes in FGF23.

  12. On the rat model of human osteopenias and osteoporoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Harold M.; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The idea that rats cannot model human osteopenias errs. The same mechanisms control gains in bone mass (longitudinal bone growth and modeling drifts) and losses (BMU-based remodeling), in young and aged rats and humans. Furthermore, they respond similarly in rats and man to mechanical influences, hormones, drugs and other agents.

  13. Photoperiodic control of reproduction in olfactory-bulbectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R J; Zucker, I

    1981-05-01

    30-day-old male rats were (1) sham-operated or subjected to (2) removal of the olfactory bulbs, (3) olfactory bulbectomy and blinding (4) olfactory bulbectomy and pinealectomy or (5) olfactory bulbectomy, blinding and pinealectomy. Animals were exposed from 30 to 110 days of age to long-day (14 h of light per day) or short-day (8 h of light per day) photoperiods. The reproductive system of neurologically-intact rats was not affected by exposure to short days. Nor did bulbectomy affect the reproductive system of rats exposed to long days. However, bulbectomized, short-day rats had significantly lower body weights, reduced testicular and seminal vesicle weights and lower plasma testosterone levels than did bulbectomized, long-day rats. The effects of short-day exposure on bulbectomized rats were prevented by pinealectomy. Short-day exposure and blinding exerted similar effects in bulbectomized rats. The testes of rats from all groups contained elongated spermatids; blinding and short-day treatment had no effect on spermatogenesis. Neither mating behavior nor the number of young sired was influenced by photoperiod in bulbectomized or intact rats. Removal of the olfactory bulbs unmasks photoperiodic responsiveness in rats; the antigonadal effects of short-day exposure are mediated by the pineal gland in bulbectomized rats as in species traditionally designated photoperiodic. The mechanisms by which bulbectomy renders rats responsive to short days are considered.

  14. Rat-to-Human Transmission of Cowpox Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Niesters, Hubert G.M.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We isolated Cowpox virus (CPXV) from the ulcerative eyelid lesions of a 14-year-old girl, who had cared for a clinically ill wild rat that later died. CPXV isolated from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) showed complete homology with the girl’s virus. Our case is the first proven rat-to-human transmission of cowpox. PMID:12498670

  15. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  16. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h) mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i)) phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  17. Establishment of rat embryonic stem cells and making of chimera rats.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinobu; Kawamata, Masaki; Teratani, Takumi; Shimizu, Taku; Tamai, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Hiromasa; Hayashi, Katsuyuki; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2008-07-30

    The rat is a reference animal model for physiological studies and for the analysis of multigenic human diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, neurological disorders, and cancer. The rats have long been used in extensive chemical carcinogenesis studies. Thus, the rat embryonic stem (rES) cell is an important resource for the study of disease models. Attempts to derive ES cells from various mammals, including the rat, have not succeeded. Here we have established two independent rES cells from Wister rat blastocysts that have undifferentiated characters such as Nanog and Oct3/4 genes expression and they have stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA) -1, -3, -4, and TRA-1-81 expression. The cells were successfully cultured in an undifferentiated state and can be possible over 18 passages with maintaining more than 40% of normal karyotype. Their pluripotent potential was confirmed by the differentiation into derivatives of the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Most importantly, the rES cells are capable of producing chimera rats. Therefore, we established pluripotent rES cell lines that are widely used to produce genetically modified experimental rats for study of human diseases.

  18. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Tadashi; Pei, Xiang Yuan; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takanashi-Yanobu, Rieko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Kanai, Takao; Satoh, Jo; Kimura, Noriko; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23691528

  19. [Effect of prednisolon on trachea smooth muscle of normal rats and rats with fibrosing alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Fedin, A N; Nekrasova, E A; Frolova, S A; Danilov, L N; Lebedeva, E S; Il'kovich, M M

    2007-01-01

    Effect of prednisolone on isolated preparations of trachea of normal rats and rats with fibrosing alveolitis was studied. Prednisolone at a concentration of 0.4 microg/l decreased responses of smooth muscle on stimulation of preganglionar nerve fibers at trachea areas with intramural ganglia in rats with acute alveolitis by 48%, while in normal rats--by 19% of control. In trachea preparations without ganglia, prednisolone at a dose of 10 microg/l decreased responses of muscle to the nerve fiber stimulation by 21.3%. The higher prednisolone doses were less efficient: 0.1-10 microg/l glucocorticoid practically did not affect the smooth muscle responses produced by stimulation of muscle cells. In rats with fibrosing alveolitis, 10 microg/l prednisolone restored the smooth muscle responses to control values in preparations of trachea with intramural ganglia. After the prednisolone treatment, amplitude of the rat trachea muscle contraction in response to the nerve fiber electric stimulation did not differ statistically significantly from control and 0.1-10 microg/l prednisolone did not change the response value. The conclusion is made that prednisolone affected the diseased rats more efficiently than the healthy animals. The character of the glucocorticoid effect depends on the presence of intramural ganglia in the trachea wall.

  20. Investigation of anti-cancer mechanisms by comparative analysis of naked mole rat and rat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The naked mole rats (NMRs) are small-sized underground rodents with plenty of unusual traits. Their life expectancy can be up to thirty years, more than seven times longer than laboratory rat. Furthermore, they are resistant to both congenital and experimentally induced cancer genesis. These peculiar physiological and pathological characteristics allow them to become a suitable model for cancer and aging research. Results In this paper, we carried out a genome-wide comparative analysis of rat and NMR using the recently published genome sequence of NMR. First, we identified all the rat-NMR orthologous genes and specific genes within each of them. The expanded and contracted numbers of protein families in NMR were also analyzed when compared to rat. Seven cancer-related protein families appeared to be significantly expanded, whereas several receptor families were found to be contracted in NMR. We then chose those rat genes that were inexistent in NMR and adopted KEGG pathway database to investigate the metabolic processes in which their proteins may be involved. These genes were significantly enriched in two rat cancer pathways, "Pathway in cancer" and "Bladder cancer". In the rat "Pathway in cancer", 9 out of 14 paths leading to evading apoptosis appeared to be affected in NMR. In addition, a significant number of other NMR-missing genes enriched in several cancer-related pathways have been known to be related to a variety of cancers, implying that many of them may be also related to tumorigenesis in mammals. Finally, investigation of sequence variations among orthologous proteins between rat and NMR revealed that significant fragment insertions/deletions within important functional domains were present in some NMR proteins, which might lead to expressional and/or functional changes of these genes in different species. Conclusions Overall, this study provides insights into understanding the possible anti-cancer mechanisms of NMR as well as searching for

  1. Investigation of anti-cancer mechanisms by comparative analysis of naked mole rat and rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Luonan

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole rats (NMRs) are small-sized underground rodents with plenty of unusual traits. Their life expectancy can be up to thirty years, more than seven times longer than laboratory rat. Furthermore, they are resistant to both congenital and experimentally induced cancer genesis. These peculiar physiological and pathological characteristics allow them to become a suitable model for cancer and aging research. In this paper, we carried out a genome-wide comparative analysis of rat and NMR using the recently published genome sequence of NMR. First, we identified all the rat-NMR orthologous genes and specific genes within each of them. The expanded and contracted numbers of protein families in NMR were also analyzed when compared to rat. Seven cancer-related protein families appeared to be significantly expanded, whereas several receptor families were found to be contracted in NMR. We then chose those rat genes that were inexistent in NMR and adopted KEGG pathway database to investigate the metabolic processes in which their proteins may be involved. These genes were significantly enriched in two rat cancer pathways, "Pathway in cancer" and "Bladder cancer". In the rat "Pathway in cancer", 9 out of 14 paths leading to evading apoptosis appeared to be affected in NMR. In addition, a significant number of other NMR-missing genes enriched in several cancer-related pathways have been known to be related to a variety of cancers, implying that many of them may be also related to tumorigenesis in mammals. Finally, investigation of sequence variations among orthologous proteins between rat and NMR revealed that significant fragment insertions/deletions within important functional domains were present in some NMR proteins, which might lead to expressional and/or functional changes of these genes in different species. Overall, this study provides insights into understanding the possible anti-cancer mechanisms of NMR as well as searching for new cancer-related candidate

  2. Weight control and restraint of laboratory rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Van Breda Kolff, K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of restrained and confined rats in some procedures used in combustion toxicology introduces the problems of obtaining rats of the appropriate size for the apparatus, and of identifying any artifacts resulting from the use of restraint alone. Feeding studies indicate that controlled feeding of fast-growing strains such as the Sprague-Dawley can hold rat size essentially constant for significant periods of time. The undesirable aspects are the need to cage the animals individually, with resultant psychological as well as metabolic effects. Restraint studies of slow-growing strains such as the Fischer 344 indicate that denying access to food and water for periods of several hours at a time interrupts normal gain only temporarily.

  3. Small intestine biopotentials in rats after hypokinesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, P.; Stanciu, C.

    To study the effect of hypokinesia on rats small intestine (jejunum and ileum) biopotentials it was first necessary to characterize it. Biopotentials were recorded by intracellular placed microelectrodes from oral and caudal segments of the small intestine. The character of rats small intestine biopotentials differs from that of other species (man, cat, rabbit, dog, e.a.), the slow waves (SW) being smaller and the frequency of basal electrical rhythm higher (31.23 c/min orally and 24.50 caudally). Spike potentials are inscribed on the descending slope of SW but frequently delayed in each successive wave with a regular interval. Hypokinesia obtained by keeping rats in small cages for two weeks create only little changes in intestine biopotentials. The only clear difference was the increase of the slow waves amplitude. The other parameters were not specifically changed.

  4. Opportunity Leaves a Trail of 'Rat' Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool, known informally as the 'Rat,' has nibbled seven holes into the slope of 'Endurance Crater.' This image from the rover's navigation camera was released previously (PIA06716) without the Rat holes labeled so that viewers could try to find the holes themselves. Here, the holes have been identified. Starting from the uppermost pictured (closest to the crater rim) to the lowest, the Rat hole targets are: 'Tennessee,' 'Cobblehill,' 'Virginia,' 'London,' 'Grindstone,' 'Kettlestone,' and 'Drammensfjorden.' These holes were drilled on sols 138 (June 13, 2004), 143 (June 18), 145 (June 20), 148 (June 23), 151 (June 26), 153 (June 28) and 161 (July 7), respectively. Each hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter.

  5. Renin responses to hemorrhage in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roarty, T.P.; Chadwick. K.J.; Raff, H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated the role of beta adrenergic inhibition on the renin response to graded hemorrhage (hem) in conscious rats. Chronic femoral arterial (for measurement of mean arterial pressure - MAP) and venous (for drug infusion) catheters were implanted at least 5 days before experimentation. Hem was administered in < 2 min. 10 rats (CTL) were exposed to a total of 21 episodes of hemorrhage. 13 rats (B-block) were given 1 mg/kg propranolol hydrochloride iv 20 min prior to hem (24 episodes total). Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Pre-hem PRA levels were measured in the first 1 ml of hem blood. Hem resulted in hem volume-dependent decreases in blood pressure and increase-response to hemorrhage.

  6. Renin responses to hemorrhage to conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roarty, T.P.; Chadwick, K.J.; Raff, H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated the role of beta adrenergic inhibition on the renin response to graded hemorrhage (hem) in conscious rats. Chronic femoral arterial (for measurement of mean arterial pressure - MAP) and venous (for drug infusion) catheters were implanted at least 5 days before experimentation. Hem was administered in < 2 min. 10 rats (CTL) were exposed to a total of 21 episodes of hemorrhage. 13 rats (B-block) were given 1 mg/kg propranolol hydrochloride iv 20 min prior to hem (24 episodes total). Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Pre-hem PRA levels were measured in the first 1 ml of hem blood. Hem resulted in hem volume-dependent decreases in blood pressure and increases in PRA. B-block did not significantly alter the mean renin response to hemorrhage.

  7. Toxicological studies on tienilic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Oker-Blom, C; Mäkinen, J; Gothoni, G

    1980-07-01

    The subacute oral toxicity of tienilic acid in male and female Sprague--Dawley rats has been studied. Animals were given tienilic acid 0, 30, 120 and 480 mg/kg body weight as a 3% gum arabic suspension for 28 days. At 30 mg tienilic acid blood pressure and serum uric acid decreased. At the two higher dose-levels a slight decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in S-GPT was noticed and there was a significant increase in the liver weight and serum magnesium concentration of male rats, while the liver weight of female rats increased only slightly. On microscopic examination, unicellular necrosis of small groups of liver cells was noted, together with focal round-cell infiltration and some stasis of the two higher dose-levels in some animals. Tienilic acid had no noticeable effects on other organs or parameters.

  8. Vitelline cyst in the rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    Oshikata, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Azusa; Kumabe, Shino; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Katoku, Koshirou; Mitsuishi, Mikio; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Congenital vitelline duct anomalies other than Meckel’s diverticulum are rare in animals. A cyst of approximately 8 mm in diameter was observed on the antimesenteric surface of the ileal serosa in a 10-week-old female Crl:CD(SD) rat. Microscopically, the cyst closely resembled the ileum, but it did not communicate with the ileal lumen. We diagnosed this case as a vitelline cyst derived from the vitelline duct based on the location where it developed and its histological behavior. In rats, only Meckel’s diverticulum has been reported with a congenital anomaly of the vitelline duct, and no other spontaneous anomalies including a vitelline cyst have been reported. This case may be the first report concerning a vitelline cyst in the rat ileum. PMID:26538812

  9. Placentophagia in Weanling Female Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Kaitlyn M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Placentophagia is common in parturient mammals and offers physiological and behavioral advantages for mothers. In natural environments, weanlings are often present during the birth of younger siblings, but it is unknown if weanling rats are placentophagic or prefer placenta over other substances. To examine this, primiparous rats were remated during the postpartum estrus and weanling females remained in the nest during their mother’s next parturition. Continuous observation revealed that 58% of weanlings were placentophagic. To determine if this placentophagia occurs away from parturient mothers, weanling females still living in their natal nest were offered placenta, liver, or cake frosting in a novel chamber. They ingested more placenta and liver than frosting. Thus, many weanling female laboratory rats are placentophagic during birth of younger siblings but do not selectively prefer placenta when tested outside their natal nest. Consequences of placentophagia by weanlings are unknown, but it may promote their alloparenting or postpartum mothering. PMID:24604548

  10. Circadian rhythms of pineal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Binkley, S A

    1983-01-01

    In pineal glands melatonin is synthesized daily. Melatonin synthesis in rats kept in most light-dark cycles occurs during the subjective night. This rhythm, which persists in constant dark, is a circadian rhythm which may be a consequence of another circadian rhythm in the pineal gland, of N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT). The NAT rhythm has been studied extensively in rats as a possible component of the system timing circadian rhythms. The NAT rhythm is driven by neural signals transmitted to the pineal gland by the sympathetic nervous system. Environmental lighting exerts precise control over the timing of the NAT rhythm. In rats, there is enough data to describe a daily time course of events in the pineal gland and to describe a pineal "life history." Hypothetical schemes for generation of the NAT rhythm and for its control by light are presented.

  11. Promotion of rat hepatocarcinogenesis by praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Shirai, T; Joong, K D; Hakoi, K; Thamavit, W; Pairojkul, C; Hoshiya, T; Hasegawa, R; Ito, N

    1991-10-01

    Praziquantel, the widely used anti-helminthic agent, was investigated for hepatocarcinogenesis-promoting potential using a medium-term liver bioassay system for carcinogens. F344 male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg) and then starting 2 weeks later, received praziquantel in the diet at concentrations of 1.5 or 0.5%, or intragastrically at a dose of 1,500 mg/kg once a week for 6 weeks. Control groups received DEN or praziquantel alone. All rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at week 3 and killed at week 8. Development of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci in the liver was significantly increased in terms of both number and area with the 1.5% dose, while only area was affected by the 0.5% dose. The results thus indicate that praziquantel at high dose has promoting potential in rat hepatocytic tumorigenesis.

  12. Body temperature regulation and thermoneutrality in rats.

    PubMed

    Poole, S; Stephenson, J D

    1977-04-01

    Various concepts of thermoneutrality were considered for a proposed study of the role of hypothalamic amines in temperature regulation of rats. The classic definition, the ambient temperature over which metabolic rate is minimum and constant, gave a range of approximately 28 to 32 degrees C. However, within this temperature range rats were inactive, the inactivity apparently representing a behavioural response to heat stress and itself responsible for the reduced metabolic rate; certain thermoregulatory effectors were also activated to increase heat loss. Therefore an alternative range, 18.0 +/- 1.9 (mean +/- S.D.) to 28.1 +/- 1.0 degrees C, was defined in which rats displayed normal activity, behavioural thermoregulations being absent.

  13. Immunologically induced peliosis hepatis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Husztik, E.; Lázár, G.; Szabó, E.

    1984-01-01

    Peliosis hepatis has been induced immunologically with anti-rat glomerular basal membrane rabbit serum in rats pre-sensitized with a rare earth metal complex, neodymium pyrocatechin disulphonate (NPD). This is the first experimental evidence that peliosis hepatis may develop as a result of an immunological process. It is noteworthy that in this experimental form of peliosis hepatis and in that observed earlier in rats treated with basic polyglutamic acid derivatives, severe defibrination was detected and, as in most human cases, not only the liver but other organs were also involved in the peliotic lesions. Since the rare earth metal compounds, among them the pyrocatechin disulphonate complex of neodymium, depress the reticulo-endothelial activity, a role of the reticulo-endothelial system in the pathogenesis of this experimental form of peliosis hepatis is suggested. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6547617

  14. Immunologically induced peliosis hepatis in rats.

    PubMed

    Husztik, E; Lázár, G; Szabó, E

    1984-06-01

    Peliosis hepatis has been induced immunologically with anti-rat glomerular basal membrane rabbit serum in rats pre-sensitized with a rare earth metal complex, neodymium pyrocatechin disulphonate (NPD). This is the first experimental evidence that peliosis hepatis may develop as a result of an immunological process. It is noteworthy that in this experimental form of peliosis hepatis and in that observed earlier in rats treated with basic polyglutamic acid derivatives, severe defibrination was detected and, as in most human cases, not only the liver but other organs were also involved in the peliotic lesions. Since the rare earth metal compounds, among them the pyrocatechin disulphonate complex of neodymium, depress the reticulo-endothelial activity, a role of the reticulo-endothelial system in the pathogenesis of this experimental form of peliosis hepatis is suggested.

  15. Weight control and restraint of laboratory rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Van Breda Kolff, K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of restrained and confined rats in some procedures used in combustion toxicology introduces the problems of obtaining rats of the appropriate size for the apparatus, and of identifying any artifacts resulting from the use of restraint alone. Feeding studies indicate that controlled feeding of fast-growing strains such as the Sprague-Dawley can hold rat size essentially constant for significant periods of time. The undesirable aspects are the need to cage the animals individually, with resultant psychological as well as metabolic effects. Restraint studies of slow-growing strains such as the Fischer 344 indicate that denying access to food and water for periods of several hours at a time interrupts normal gain only temporarily.

  16. Neighborhood Sanitation: Rat Complaints and Rat Control on the Near West Side, Newark, New Jersey and North Hill, Akron, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margulis, Harry L.

    1978-01-01

    Analyses suggest that monthly rate of change in rat complaints is best explained by procedures which increase agency visibility, time-dependent cycles dictated by agency operation and intervention, and dynamics of a rat population. Effective rat control occurs when blocks are environmentally improved and annual cycle links weakened. (Author/MA)

  17. [Berberine inhibits cardiac fibrosis of diabetic rats].

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Shen, Yongjie; He, Jinfeng; Liu, Guoling; Song, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore the effect of berberine on cardiac fibrosis of diabetic rats by observing the expressions of serum transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) , collagen type 1 (Col1) and collagen type 3 (Col3) in myocardial tissues of diabetic rats after berberine treatment. Methods The diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptococci (STZ). Forty-three diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic model group (n=9), berberine treated groups of different doses [50, 100, 150 mg/(kg.d), gavage administration for 12 weeks; n=9, 9, 8 respectively], and metformin group as positive control (n=8); other 8 normal rats served as a negative control group. After the last administration, fasting blood glucose, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured; rats' heart were taken to calculate the heart mass index (HMI); ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of TGF-β1 and CTGF; collagenous fibers in cardiac tissues were tested by Masson staining; collagen volume fraction (CVF) was measured by image analysis; Col1 and Col3 in cardiac tissues were determined by Western blotting. Results Compared with the normal control group, the fasting blood glucose, LVSP, LVEDP absolute value, HMI, the degree of cardiac fibrosis, the expressions of TGF-β1, CTGF, Col1 and Col3 significantly increased in the model group. All indexes mentioned above were reduced obviously in berberine treated groups of 100 and 150 mg/(kg.d). Conclusion Berberine improves cardiac fibrosis in diabetic rats through down-regulating the expressions of TGF-β1 and CTGF and reducing the synthesis and deposition of Col1 and Col3.

  18. Pinealectomy aggravates acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, Jolanta; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Szklarczyk, Joanna; Nawrot-Porąbka, Katarzyna; Leja-Szpak, Anna; Jaworek, Andrzej K; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin, a pineal indoleamine, protects the pancreas against acute damage; however, the involvement of the pineal gland in the pancreatoprotective action of melatonin is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of pinealectomy on the course of acute caerulein-induced pancreatitis (AP) in rats. AP was induced by a subcutaneous infusion of caerulein (25 μg/kg) into pinealectomized or sham-operated animals. Melatonin (5 or 25 mg/kg) was given via intraperitoneal (ip) injection 30 min prior to the induction of AP. The pancreatic content of the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4HNE) and the activity of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), were measured in each group of rats. Melatonin blood levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In the sham-operated rats, AP was confirmed with histological examination and manifested as pancreatic edema and an increase in the blood lipase level (by 1,500%). In addition, the pancreatic content of MDA+ 4HNE was increased by 200%, and pancreatic glutathione peroxydase (GSH-Px) activity was reduced by 40%. Pinealectomy significantly aggravated the histological manifestations of AP, reduced the GSH-Px activity and markedly augmented the levels of MDA+ 4HNE in the pancreas of rats with or without AP as compared to sham-operated animals. Melatonin was undetectable in the blood of the pinealectomized rats with or without AP. Treatment with melatonin (25 mg/kg, ip) prevented the development of AP in the sham-operated rats and significantly reduced pancreatic inflammation in the animals previously subjected to pinealectomy. In conclusion, pineal melatonin contributes to the pancreatic protection through the activation of the antioxidative defense mechanism in pancreatic tissue as well as its direct antioxidant effects.

  19. Novel immunoassay for TSH measurement in rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Thalita G; Melo, Maria Clara de C; Kasamatsu, Teresa S; Oliveira, Kelen C; Souza, Janaina Sena de; Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues da; Giannocco, Gisele; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus R; Chiamolera, Maria Izabel; Vieira, José Gilberto

    2017-09-18

    Measuring thyroid hormones is an important aspect for the study of metabolism and for monitoring diseases in both human and animal models. The traditional method for hormone measurement in rats is the radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the RIA is associated with some practical disadvantages, including the use of radioactive material, the need for specialized equipment and expert staff, the short shelf-life of kits according to the half-life of the radioisotope and high costs. The objective of this study was to develop a new cost-effective method for measuring TSH levels in rats that avoids the use of radioactive material. We developed an in-house competitive immunoassay using a reference standard, polyclonal antibody produced in rabbits and biotinylated antigen. This method was tested in 64 Wistar rats that were divided into a control group (n = 41) and a group with hypothyroidism (n = 23). Our assay demonstrated an analytical sensitivity of 0.24 ng/mL (n = 12) and an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 8.9% for sera with TSH levels of 1.5 ng/mL and 13.2% for sera with TSH levels of 17.5 ng/mL (n = 14). The inter-assay CV was 13.5% for sera with TSH levels of 1.4 ng/mL and 14.5% for TSH levels of 18.2 ng/mL (n = 5). The analysis of mean TSH levels in control rats (5.06 ± 0.5701) and hypothyroid rats (51.09 ± 5.136) revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between the groups. This method showed good sensitivity, can be automated and is low-cost compared with RIA. Our method offers a viable alternative for TSH measurement in rats.

  20. Acclimation to decompression sickness in rats.

    PubMed

    Montcalm-Smith, E A; McCarron, R M; Porter, W R; Lillo, R S; Thomas, J T; Auker, C R

    2010-03-01

    Protection against decompression sickness (DCS) by acclimation to hyperbaric decompression has been hypothesized but never proven. We exposed rats to acclimation dives followed by a stressful "test" dive to determine whether acclimation occurred. Experiments were divided into two phases. Phase 1 rats were exposed to daily acclimation dives of hyperbaric air for 30 min followed by rapid decompression on one of the following regimens: 70 ft of seawater (fsw) for 9 days (L70), 70 fsw for 4 days (S70), 40 fsw for 9 days (L40), 40 fsw for 4 days (S40), or unpressurized sham exposure for 9 days (Control). On the day following the last exposure, all were subjected to a "test" dive (175 fsw, 60 min, rapid decompression). Both L70 and S70 rats had significantly lower incidences of DCS than Control rats (36% and 41% vs. 62%, respectively). DCS incidences for the other regimens were lower than in Control rats but without statistical significance. Phase 2 used the most protective regimen from phase 1 (L70); rats were exposed to L70 or a similar regimen with a less stressful staged decompression. Another group was exposed to a single acclimation dive (70 fsw/30 min) on the day before the test dive. We observed a nonsignificant trend for the rapidly decompressed L70 dives to be more protective than staged decompression dives (44% vs. 51% DCS incidence). The single acclimation dive regimen did not provide protection. We conclude that protection against DCS can be attained with acclimating exposures that do not themselves cause DCS. The deeper acclimation dive regimens (70 fsw) provided the most protection.

  1. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a

  2. [Effect of astaxanthin on preeclampsia rat model].

    PubMed

    Xuan Rong-rong; Gao Xin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Hai-min

    2014-10-01

    The effect of astaxanthin on N(Ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced preeclampsia disease rats was investigated. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): blank group, L-NAME group and astaxanthin group. From day 5 to 20, astaxanthin group rats were treated with astaxanthin (25 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) x bw(-1)) from pregnancy (day 5). To establish the preeclamptic rat model, L-NAME group and astaxanthin group rats were injected with L-NAME (125 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) x bw(-1)) from days 10-20 of pregnancy. The blood pressure and urine protein were recorded. Serum of each group was collected and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities were analyzed. Pathological changes were observed with HE stain. The expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), ROCK II (Rho-associated protein kinase II), HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and Caspase 3 were analyzed with immunohistochemistry. L-NAME induced typical preeclampsia symptoms, such as the increased blood pressure, urinary protein, the content of MDA, etc. Astaxanthin significantly reduced the blood pressure (P < 0.01), the content of MDA (P < 0.05), and increased the activity of SOD (P < 0.05) of preeclampsia rats. The urinary protein, NO, and NOS were also decreased. HE stain revealed that after treated with astaxanthin, the thickness of basilal membrane was improved and the content of trophoblast cells and spiral arteries was reduced. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that the expressions of NF-κB, ROCK II and Caspase 3 in placenta tissue were effectively decreased, and HO-1 was increased. Results indicated that astaxanthin can improve the preeclampsia symptoms by effectively reducing the oxidative stress and inflammatory damages of preeclampsia. It revealed that astaxanthin may be benefit for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia disease.

  3. Interpretation of male rat renal tubule tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, I.S.; Baetcke, K.P.

    1993-12-01

    Based on an analysis of recent scientific studies, a Technical Panel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Risk Assessment Forum recently advised EPA risk assessors against using information on certain male rat renal tubule tumors to assess human risk under conditions specified in a new Forum report. Risk assessment approaches generally assume that chemicals producing tumors in laboratory animals are a potential cancer hazard to humans. For most chemicals, including classical rodent kidney carcinogens such as N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine, this extrapolation remains appropriate. Some chemicals, however, induce accumulation of {alpha}{sub 2u}-globulin ({alpha}{sub 2u}-g), a low molecular weight protein, in the male rat kidney. The {alpha}{sub 2u}-g accumulation initiates a sequence of events that appears to lead to renal tubule tumor formation. Female rats and other laboratory mammals administered the same chemicals do not accumulate low molecular weight protein in the kidney, and they do not develop renal tubule tumors. Because humans appear to be more like other laboratory animals than like the male rat, in this special situation, the male rat is not a good model for assessing human risk. The Forum report stresses the need for full scrutiny of a substantial set of data to determine when it is reasonable to presume that renal tumors in male rats are linked to a process involving {alpha}{sub 2u}-g accumulation and to select appropriate procedures for estimating human risks under such circumstances. 92 refs.

  4. [Electromagnetic Shielding Alters Behaviour of Rats].

    PubMed

    Temuryants, N A; Kostyuk, A S; Tumanyants, K N

    2015-01-01

    It has been found that long-term electromagnetic shielding (19 hours per day for 10 days) leads to an increase in the duration of passive swimming time in male rats, decrease the duration of active swimming in the "forced swim" test as well as decrease of libido. On the other hand animals kept under the "open field" conditions do not show significant deviations from their normal behavior. Therefore, one could conclude that moderate electromagnetic shielding causes a depression-like state in rats.

  5. Metabolic disposition of piperine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bhat, B G; Chandrasekhara, N

    1987-04-01

    After oral administration of piperine (170 mg/kg) to rats, the metabolites in bile and urine were examined by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Four metabolites of piperine, viz. piperonylic acid, piperonyl alcohol, piperonal and vanillic acid were identified in the free form in 0-96 h urine whereas only piperic acid was detected in 0-6 h bile. Based on these results, a pathway for the biotransformation of piperine in rats is proposed.

  6. Fenbendazole treatment and litter size in rats.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Nancy A; Bieszczak, Jeremiah R; Verhulst, Steven; Disney, Kimberly E; Montgomery, Kyle E; Toth, Linda A

    2006-11-01

    Fenbendazole is commonly used in laboratory animal medicine as an anthelmintic for elimination of pinworms. It is generally regarded as a safe drug with minimal side effects. In our facility, 2 breeding colonies of rats were treated with fenbendazole to eliminate pinworms. Analysis of the breeding records revealed that feeding Sprague-Dawley rats a diet containing fenbendazole on a continuous basis for 7 consecutive weeks was associated with a significant reduction in litter size. Although the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, the finding prompts caution when using fenbendazole to treat valuable breeding colonies or strains that are poor breeders.

  7. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Detection of bilirubin conjugates in faeces of germfree rats.

    PubMed

    Saxerholt, H; Midtvedt, T; Gustafsson, B E

    1983-10-01

    The presence of bilirubin conjugates in faeces from germfree (GF) and conventional (CONV) rats was tested after using affinity chromatography and Porapak Q chromatography as clean-up procedures. The bilirubin conjugates were detected as their ethyl anthranilate azopigments after separation by thin layer chromatography (tlc). Azopigments prepared from bile of GF and CONV rats served as a reference material for the tlc analysis. After tlc of the faecal azopigment preparations it was concluded that GF rat faeces contains bilirubin conjugates, while faeces from CONV rats is devoid of conjugated bilirubin. The findings suggest that the main bilirubin conjugates present in faeces from GF rats are of the glucuronic acid type.

  9. Disturbed patterns of behaviour in morphine tolerant and abstinent rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Mitchell, E.; Stolerman, I. P.

    1971-01-01

    1. Eating, drinking and spontaneous motor activity were studied in rats receiving large daily doses of morphine. These forms of behaviour were largely suppressed when the rats were made abstinent and were restored when morphine was given again. 2. Compensation for depressions of behaviour during abstinence did not seem sufficient to account for all the stimulant effects of morphine in tolerant rats. Morphine also had slight stimulant actions in non-tolerant rats. 3. In tolerant rats, the repeated pairing of the effects of morphine with the re-emergence of behaviour such as eating and drinking may intensify the rewarding value of the drug. PMID:5105387

  10. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  11. Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kano, K; Ube, M; Taniguchi, K

    2001-05-01

    The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively.

  12. Rat hepatitis E virus: geographical clustering within Germany and serological detection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Johne, Reimar; Dremsek, Paul; Kindler, Eveline; Schielke, Anika; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Gregersen, Henrike; Wessels, Ute; Schmidt, Katja; Rietschel, Wolfram; Groschup, Martin H; Guenther, Sebastian; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2012-07-01

    Zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in industrialised countries is thought to be caused by transmission from wild boar, domestic pig and deer as reservoir hosts. The detection of HEV-specific antibodies in rats and other rodents has suggested that these animals may represent an additional source for HEV transmission to human. Recently, a novel HEV (ratHEV) was detected in Norway rats from Hamburg, Germany, showing the typical genome organisation but a high nucleotide and amino acid sequence divergence to other mammalian and to avian HEV strains. Here we describe the multiple detection of ratHEV RNA and HEV-specific antibodies in Norway rats from additional cities in north-east and south-west Germany. The complete genome analysis of two novel strains from Berlin and Stuttgart confirmed the association of ratHEV to Norway rats. The present data indicated a continuing existence of this virus in the rat populations from Berlin and Hamburg. The phylogenetic analysis of a short segment of the open reading frame 1 confirmed a geographical clustering of the corresponding sequences. Serological investigations using recombinant ratHEV and genotype 3 capsid protein derivatives demonstrated antigenic differences which might be caused by the high amino acid sequence divergence in the immunodominant region. The high amount of animals showing exclusively ratHEV RNA or anti-ratHEV antibodies suggested a non-persistent infection in the Norway rat. Future studies have to prove the transmission routes of the virus in rat populations and its zoonotic potential. The recombinant ratHEV antigen generated here will allow future seroepidemiological studies to differentiate ratHEV and genotype 3 infections in humans and animals.

  13. MWF rats with spontaneous albuminuria inherit a reduced efficiency of nephron induction during early nephrogenesis in comparison to SHR rats.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Leonard; Schulz, Angela; Unland, Johannes; Schulz, Herbert; Hubner, Norbert; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2012-10-01

    A congenital nephron deficit has been linked to the progression of arterial hypertension and to the development of chronic kidney disease. The Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) inbred rat develops hypertension, progressive albuminuria, and exhibits an inherited nephron deficit of about 27% compared to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with low-grade albuminuria. Introgression of rat chromosome (RNO)6 from SHRs into MWF rats markedly suppresses albuminuria and abolishes the nephron deficit in 4-week-old MWF-6 rats. Differences in early nephrogenesis may account for the nephron deficit in MWF rats. We compared ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and nephron induction in E15.5-E16.0 stage-matched rat embryos between MWF rats, SHRs, and consomic MWF-6 rats. Comparative analysis of three-dimensional reconstructions of the ureteric bud tree suggested normal qualitative branching morphogenesis. Surprisingly, the number of ureteric bud tips was higher in MWF rats compared to SHRs (+22%; P = 0.004). However, the nephron number induced per ureteric bud tip was markedly lower in MWF rats compared to SHRs (-46%; P < 0.0001). This deficit was partially corrected in MWF-6 rats (+18% vs. MWF; P = 0.02). In gene expression analysis of 59 candidate genes involved in kidney development, hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was significantly reduced in embryonic kidneys of MWF and MWF-6 rats (approximately -70%; P < 0.004) compared to SHRs. These results suggest a reduced efficiency of nephron induction in MWF rats during the early stages of nephrogenesis that is partially dependent on genetic loci on RNO6. In addition, Hgf that maps to RNO4 may represent an interesting candidate gene that contributes to the nephron deficit in MWF rats.

  14. Renal Function and Hemodynamic Study in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kwang; Kang, Sung Kyew

    1995-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the renal function and hemodynamic changes in obesity and hyperinsulinemia which are characteristics of type II diabetes. Methods Studies were carried out in two groups of female Zucker rats. Group 1 rats were obese Zucker rats with hereditary insulin resistance. Group 2 rats were lean Zucker rats and served as controls. In comparison with lean Zucker rats, obese Zucker rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia but normoglycemia. Micropuncture studies and morphologic studies were performed in these rats. Results Functional studies showed that obese Zucker rats exhibited increases in kidney weight and GFR(obese Zucker, 1.23±.07)ml/min; lean Zucker, 0.93±.03ml/min). Micropuncture studies revealed that the increase in GFR in obese Zucker rats was attributable to the increases in the single nephron plasma flow rate and glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure. The glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient was the same in both groups. Morphologic studies revealed that the increase in GFR in obese Zucker rats was associated with an increase in glomerular volume. Conclusions These results suggest that obesity and hyperinsulinemia, which are the characteristics of type II diabetes, can be associated with glomerular hyperfiltration and glomerular capillary hypertension. PMID:7626557

  15. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P

    1995-11-01

    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats.

  16. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Tian, Tian; Xiao, Bo; Li, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The current work examines the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology to provide an experimental basis for radiation protection. Electromagnetic radiation was generated by a Helmholtz coil constructed from copper wire. There were six rats altogether: three rats in the experimental group, and three rats in the control group. The rats in the experimental group were continuously exposed to radiation for 10 hours every day, and rats in the control group remained in a normal environment. After 30 days, the characteristics of hemorheology of the two groups were compared. The average plasma viscosity, whole blood high shear velocity, and whole blood low shear viscosity were lower in rats in the experimental group than in rats in the control group, while the whole blood shear viscosity was higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Results suggest that long term exposure to electromagnetic radiation does have certain impacts on the cardiovascular system, deeming it necessary to take preventative measures.

  17. [Preventive effects of pueraria on presbycusis in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wangyan; Yao, Qi; Liu, Weihong; Zhang, Bibo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bo

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Pueraria on presbycusis in rats. Thirty-two 24-26 month old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, and were treated with different dosages of Pueraria (1, 2, 4, 0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) separately for 4 weeks. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to detect the change of hearing threshold of rats. Hemorheological items of rats were checked in each group. Compared with control group, the hearing threshold and hemorheological items of rats was significantly improved after treated with Pueraria (P<0.05). In addition, 2 g/(kg x d) was found to be the best dosage of Pueraria for rats, which can achieve ideal effect with minimum side effect. Pueraria could improve tiny circulation, has good preventive effect on presbycusis of rats.

  18. Core temperature of tailless rats exposed to centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, C. B.; Oyama, J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the tail in the altered thermoregulation of rats during acute exposure to hypergravity was investigated, using groups of rats of two ages: 55 days (young) and 138 days (old). Rectal and foot temperature changes were measured in intact and tailless rats subjected to 1 h centrifugation of 2.8 G, with preceding (1 h) and following (1-3 h) 1 G periods. At 22 C, the loss of body heat from the tail per se does not measurably contribute to the hypothermia induced by hypergravity. However, the heat loss from the feet was greater in the tailless rats than in the intact rats from the young group of animals, although there was no significant difference between the tailless and intact rats in the old animal group. It is concluded that the inhibition of heat production is a significant factor in the hypothermia of centrifuged tailless rats, as it has been previously shown to be in the intact animals.

  19. STUDIES ON BARTONELLA MURIS ANEMIA OF ALBINO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Perla, David; Marmorston-Gottesman, J.

    1930-01-01

    Autoplastic splenic transplants were made in adult albino rats 4 weeks and 7 weeks prior to splenectomy and the protective effects against infection with the Bartonella muris anemia observed. 1. One-fourth of the spleen left in situ will protect adult albino rats against the Bartonella muris anemia. 2. Autotransplantation of splenic tissue in adult rats is successful in over 90 per cent of instances. 3. Autoplastic splenic transplants performed 7 weeks prior to splenectomy afford protection against Bartonella muris anemia in more than 50 per cent of instances, whereas 4 week old transplants do not protect. 4. A comparative histological study of the transplants of protected and unprotected rats reveals a regeneration of the pulp cells in the protected rats and an exhaustion destruction of the pulp in the unprotected rats. 5. The reticular cells play a specific rôle in protecting the adult albino rat against Bartonella muris anemia. PMID:19869746

  20. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in wild rats, United States.

    PubMed

    Lack, Justin B; Volk, Kylie; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A

    2012-08-01

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been a subject of considerable debate. Seroprevalence studies suggest widespread HEV infection in commensal Rattus spp. rats, but experimental transmission has been largely unsuccessful and recovery of zoonotic genotype 3 HEV RNA from wild Rattus spp. rats has never been confirmed. We surveyed R. rattus and R. norvegicus rats from across the United States and several international populations by using a hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR approach. We isolated HEV RNA in liver tissues from 35 of 446 rats examined. All but 1 of these isolates was relegated to the zoonotic HEV genotype 3, and the remaining sequence represented the recently discovered rat genotype from the United States and Germany. HEV-positive rats were detected in urban and remote localities. Genetic analyses suggest all HEV genotype 3 isolates obtained from wild Rattus spp. rats were closely related.

  1. Core temperature of tailless rats exposed to centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, C. B.; Oyama, J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the tail in the altered thermoregulation of rats during acute exposure to hypergravity was investigated, using groups of rats of two ages: 55 days (young) and 138 days (old). Rectal and foot temperature changes were measured in intact and tailless rats subjected to 1 h centrifugation of 2.8 G, with preceding (1 h) and following (1-3 h) 1 G periods. At 22 C, the loss of body heat from the tail per se does not measurably contribute to the hypothermia induced by hypergravity. However, the heat loss from the feet was greater in the tailless rats than in the intact rats from the young group of animals, although there was no significant difference between the tailless and intact rats in the old animal group. It is concluded that the inhibition of heat production is a significant factor in the hypothermia of centrifuged tailless rats, as it has been previously shown to be in the intact animals.

  2. [Teratogenicity study of sodium chlorite in rats by oral administration].

    PubMed

    Sakemi, K; Usami, M; Kurebayashi, H; Ohno, Y

    1999-01-01

    The teratogenicity of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) was assessed in Wistar rats (Crj: Wistar). Sodium chlorite dissolved in distilled water was given to pregnant Wistar rats by gavage once a day from day 6 through 15 of pregnancy at doses of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The pregnant rats were sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy, and their fetuses were examined for malformations. Sodium chlorite caused decreased food consumption, anemia, sedation, hematuria, and death in the pregnant rats at 100 mg/kg, but no fetal effects, such as malformations or growth retardation, were observed even at 100 mg/kg. It was concluded that sodium chlorite has no teratogenicity in rats when administered orally. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was 50 mg/kg/day for pregnant rats and 100 mg/kg/day or more for rat fetuses.

  3. Aging effects on oxidative phosphorylation in rat adrenocortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L

    2014-06-01

    Does aging in itself lead to alteration in adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation? Mitochondria from Fischer 344 (F344) rats (6 and 24 months old), Brown Norway rats (6 and 32 months old) and F344-Brown Norway hybrid rats (6 and 30 months old) were compared. Mitochondria were isolated from extirpated adrenal cortex. The yields of mitochondria were quantitatively similar in all rat strains irrespective of age. In order to assess the activity of each mitochondrial complex, several different substrates were tested and the rate of oxidative phosphorylation measured. Aging does not affect mitochondrial activity except in the F344 rat adrenal cortex where the maximal ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation decreased with age. We hypothesize that impaired synthesis of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex with age in F344 rats might be due to decreased adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We conclude that aging results in adrenocortical mitochondria effects that are non-uniform across different rat strains.

  4. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?

    PubMed

    Olivier, B; Chan, J S W; Pattij, T; de Jong, T R; Oosting, R S; Veening, J G; Waldinger, M D

    2006-01-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over time individual rats display a very stable sexual behavior that is either slow, normal or fast as characterized by the number of ejaculations performed. These sexual endophenotypes are postulated as rat counterparts of premature (fast rats) or retarded ejaculation (slow rats). Psychopharmacology in these endophenotypes helps to delineate the underlying mechanisms and pathology. This is illustrated by the effects of serotonergic antidepressants and serotonergic compounds on sexual and ejaculatory behavior of rats. These preclinical studies and models contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of ejaculation and boost the development of novel drug targets to treat ejaculatory disorders such as premature and retarded ejaculation.

  5. Derivation of rat embryonic stem cells and generation of protease-activated receptor-2 knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nakata, Mitsugu; Sasada, Reiko; Ooshima, Yuki; Yano, Takashi; Shinozawa, Tadahiro; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro; Takeyama, Michiyasu; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Tadatoshi

    2012-08-01

    One of the remarkable achievements in knockout (KO) rat production reported during the period 2008-2010 is the derivation of authentic embryonic stem (ES) cells from rat blastocysts using a novel culture medium containing glycogen synthase kinase 3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors (2i medium). Here, we report gene-targeting technology via homologous recombination in rat ES cells, demonstrating its use through production of a protease-activated receptor-2 gene (Par-2) KO rat. We began by generating germline-competent ES cells from Dark Agouti rats using 2i medium. These ES cells, which differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro, can produce chimeras with high ES cell contribution when injected into blastocysts. We then introduced a targeting vector with a neomycin-resistant gene driven by the CAG promoter to disrupt Par-2. After a 7-day drug selection, 489 neomycin-resistant colonies were obtained. Following screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping and quantitative PCR analysis, we confirmed three homologous recombinant clones, resulting in chimeras that transmitted the Par-2 targeted allele to offspring. Par-2 KO rats showed a loss of Par-2 messenger RNA expression in their stomach cells and a lack of PAR-2 mediated smooth muscle relaxation in the aorta as indicated by pharmacological testing. Compared with mice, rats offer many advantages in biomedical research, including a larger body size; consequently, they are widely used in scientific investigation. Thus, the establishment of a gene-targeting technology using rat ES cells will be a valuable tool in human disease model production and drug discovery.

  6. Witnessing traumatic events causes severe behavioral impairments in rats

    PubMed Central

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing a traumatic event but not directly experiencing it can be psychologically quite damaging. In North America alone, ~30% of individuals who witness a traumatic event develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effects of direct trauma are evident, consequences of indirect or secondary trauma are often ignored. Also unclear is the role of social support in the consequences of these experiences. The social defeat paradigm, which involves aggressive encounters by a large Long–Evans male rat (resident) towards a smaller Sprague–Dawley male rat (intruder), is considered a rodent model of PTSD. We have modified this model to create a trauma witness model (TWM) and have used our TWM model to also evaluate social support effects. Basically, when an intruder rat is placed into the home cage of a resident rat, it encounters an agonistic behavior resulting in intruder subordination. The socially defeated intruder is designated the SD rat. A second rat, the cage mate of the SD, is positioned to witness the event and is the trauma witnessing (TW) rat. Experiments were performed in two different experimental conditions. In one, the SD and TW rats were cagemates and acclimatized together. Then, one SD rat was subjected to three sessions of social defeat for 7 d. TW rat witnessed these events. After each social defeat exposure, the TW and SD rats were housed together. In the second, the TW and SD rats were housed separately starting after the first defeat. At the end of each protocol, depression-anxiety-like behavior and memory tests were conducted on the SD and TW rats, blood withdrawn and specific organs collected. Witnessing traumatic events led to depression- and anxiety-like behavior and produced memory deficits in TW rats associated with elevated corticosterone levels. PMID:24887568

  7. Survey for zoonotic pathogens in Norway rat populations from Europe.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Elisa; Fischer, Stefan; Ryll, René; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hoffmann, Donata; Spahr, Carina; Imholt, Christian; Alfa, Dewi Murni; Fröhlich, Andreas; Lüschow, Dörte; Johne, Reimar; Ehlers, Bernhard; Essbauer, Sandra; Nöckler, Karsten; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-02-01

    The Norway rat Rattus norvegicus is an important reservoir of various zoonotic pathogens, such as cowpox virus and Leptospira, but also for agents of no or unknown zoonotic potential. We describe a survey of 426 Norway rats originating from five European countries and different habitats for Leptospira spp., rickettsiae, orthopoxvirus (OPV), avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B (aMPV) and rat polyomavirus (rat PyV). Leptospira DNA was detected in 60 out of 420 (14.3%) rats, and Rickettsia DNA was found in three out of 369 (0.8%) rats investigated. PCR-based typing resulted in the identification of L. interrogans sequence type 17, which corresponds to the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Rickettsia helvetica respectively. Rat PyV DNA was detected in 103 out of 421 (24.5%) rats. OPV DNA and aMPV RNA were detected in none of the rats, but OPV-specific antibodies were detected in three out of 388 (0.8%) rats. The frequency of single Leptospira and rat PyV infections and coinfections was, independent of sex, greater for adults compared with juveniles/subadults and greater at rural sites compared with urban areas. Study results indicate a broad geographical distribution of Leptospira DNA in rats within Europe, underlining the need to investigate further the potential mechanisms leading to increased prevalence in rural habitats and to assess the relevance to public health. In contrast, rickettsia and OPV infections rarely occurred in wild rat populations. The potential influence of rat PyV on the susceptibility to infections with other pathogens should be investigated in future studies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Subretinal transplantation of rat MSCs and erythropoietin gene modified rat MSCs for protecting and rescuing degenerative retina in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y; Cui, L; Qu, Z; Lu, L; Wang, F; Wu, Y; Zhang, J; Gao, F; Tian, H; Xu, L; Xu, G; Li, W; Jin, Y; Xu, G-T

    2013-11-01

    For degenerative retinal diseases, like the acquired form exemplified by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), there is currently no cure. This study was to explore a stem cell therapy and a stem cell based gene therapy for sodium iodate (SI)-induced retinal degeneration in rats. Three cell types, i.e., rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) alone, erythropoietin (EPO) gene modified rMSCs (EPO-rMSCs) or doxycycline (DOX) inducible EPO expression rMSCs (Tet-on EPO-rMSCs), were transplanted into the subretinal spaces of SI-treated rats. The rMSCs were prepared for transplantation after 3 to 5 passages or modified with EPO gene. During the 8 weeks after the transplantation, the rats treated with rMSCs alone or with two types of EPO-rMSCs were all monitored with fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and electroretinogram. The transplantation efficiency of donor cells was examined for their survival, integration and differentiation. Following the transplantation, labeled donor cells were observed in subretinal space and adopted RPE morphology. EPO concentration in vitreous and retina of SI-treated rats which were transplanted with EPO-rMSCs or Tet-on EPO-rMSCs was markedly increased, in parallel with the improvement of retinal morphology and function. These findings suggest that rMSCs transplantation could be a new therapy for degenerative retinal diseases since it can protect and rescue RPE and retinal neurons, while EPO gene modification to rMSCs could be an even better option.

  9. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  10. A phytooxysterol, 28-homobrassinolide modulates rat testicular steroidogenesis in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, R; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Rani, S Judith Amala; Srikumar, K; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2013-05-01

    Steroidogenesis in testicular cells depends upon the availability of cholesterol within testicular mitochondria besides the activities of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [17b-HSD]), and the tissue levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), androgen-binding protein (ABP), and testosterone (T). Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by endogenous oxycholesterols acting through nuclear hormone receptors. Plant oxysterols, such as 28-homobrassinolide (28-HB), available to human through diet, was shown to exhibit antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic male rat. Its role in rat testicular steroidogenesis and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was therefore assessed using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Administration of 28-HB (333 µg/kg body weight) by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days to experimental rats diminished LPO, increased antioxidant enzyme, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities, and elevated StAR and ABP expression and T level in rat testis. We report that 28-HB induced steroidogenesis in normal and diabetic rat testis.

  11. Rats do not eat alone in public: Food-deprived rats socialize rather than competing for baits

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Tamar; Zadicario, Pazit; Eilam, David

    2017-01-01

    Limited resources result in competition among social animals. Nevertheless, social animals also have innate preferences for cooperative behavior. In the present study, 12 dyads of food-deprived rats were tested in four successive trials, and then re-tested as eight triads of food-deprived rats that were unfamiliar to each other. We found that the food-deprived dyads or triads of rats did not compete for the food available to them at regular spatially-marked locations that they had previously learnt. Rather, these rats traveled together to collect the baits. One rat, or two rats in some triads, lead (ran ahead) to collect most of the baits, but "leaders" differed across trials so that, on average, each rat ultimately collected similar amounts of baits. Regardless of which rat collected the baits, the rats traveled together with no substantial difference among them in terms of their total activity. We suggest that rats, which are a social species that has been found to display reciprocity, have evolved to travel and forage together and to share limited resources. Consequently, they displayed a sort of 'peace economy' that on average resulted in equal access to the baits across trials. For social animals, this type of dynamics is more relaxed, tolerant, and effective in the management of conflicts. Rather than competing for the limited available food, the food-deprived rats socialized and coexisted peacefully. PMID:28278246

  12. Prior access to a sweet is more protective against cocaine self-administration in female rats than in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cason, Angie M; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-03-15

    It is well established that female rats are more sensitive than male rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (Lynch, 2008 [42] for review). We hypothesized that greater preference for cocaine would support greater avoidance of a cocaine-paired taste cue in female vs. male rats. Moreover, at least in male rats, greater avoidance of the taste cue is associated with greater cocaine self-administration (Grigson and Twining, 2002 [3]). Thus, we anticipated that female rats would not only demonstrate greater avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue, but greater drug-taking as well. We tested these hypotheses by examining avoidance of a saccharin cue in male and female rats following several pairings with self-administered saline or cocaine (0.16, 0.33, or 0.66 mg/infusion). Contrary to expectations, the results showed that female rats exhibited less avoidance of the cocaine-associated saccharin cue than male rats and self-administered less, rather than more, cocaine, Thus, while female rats reportedly take more drug than male rats when the drug is presented in the absence of an alternative reward, they take less drug than male rats when the opportunity to self-administer cocaine is preceded by access to a palatable sweet. Females, then, may not simply be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of drug, but also to the reinforcing properties of natural rewards and this increase in sensitivity to sweets may serve to protect against drug-taking behavior.

  13. High-impact exercise strengthens bone in osteopenic ovariectomized rats with the same outcome as Sham rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Akiko; Sogo, Naota; Nagasawa, Seigo; Shimizu, Takuya; Umemura, Yoshihisa

    2003-09-01

    The effect of jump exercise on middle-aged osteopenic rats was investigated. Forty-two 9-mo-old female rats were either sham-operated (Sham) or ovariectomized (OVX). Three months after surgery, the rats were divided into the following groups: Sham sedentary, Sham exercised, OVX sedentary, and OVX exercised. Rats in the exercise groups jumped 10 times/day, 5 days/wk, for 8 wk, with a jumping height of 40 cm. Less than 1 min was required for the jump training. After the experiment, the right tibia and femur were dissected, and blood was obtained from each rat. OVX rats were observed to have increased body weights and decreased bone mass in their tibiae and femurs. Jump-exercised rats, on the other hand, had significantly increased tibial bone mass, strength, and cortical areas. The bone mass and strength of OVX exercised rats increased to approximately the same extent as Sham exercised rats, despite estrogen deficiency or osteopenia. Our data suggest that jump exercise has beneficial effects on lower limb bone mass, strength, bone mineral density, and morphometry in middle-aged osteopenic rats, as well as in Sham rats.

  14. Prior access to a sweet is more protective against cocaine self-administration in female rats than male rats

    PubMed Central

    Cason, Angie M.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that female rats are more sensitive than male rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (Lynch, 2008 for review). We hypothesized that greater preference for cocaine would support greater avoidance of a cocaine-paired taste cue in female vs. male rats. Moreover, at least in male rats, greater avoidance of the taste cue is associated with greater cocaine self-administration (Grigson & Twining, 2002). Thus, we anticipated that female rats would not only demonstrate greater avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue, but greater drug-taking as well. We tested these hypotheses by examining avoidance of a saccharin cue in male and female rats following several pairings with self-administered saline or cocaine (0.16, 0.33, or 0.66 mg/infusion). Contrary to expectations, the results showed that female rats exhibited less avoidance of the cocaine-associated saccharin cue than male rats and self-administered less, rather than more, cocaine, Thus, while female rats reportedly take more drug than male rats when the drug is presented in the absence of an alternative reward, they take less drug than male rats when the opportunity to self-administer cocaine is preceded by access to a palatable sweet. Females, then, may not simply be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of drug, but also to the reinforcing properties of natural rewards and this increase in sensitivity to sweets may serve to protect against drug-taking behavior. PMID:23474135

  15. Rats do not eat alone in public: Food-deprived rats socialize rather than competing for baits.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Omri; Dorfman, Alex; Ram, Tamar; Zadicario, Pazit; Eilam, David

    2017-01-01

    Limited resources result in competition among social animals. Nevertheless, social animals also have innate preferences for cooperative behavior. In the present study, 12 dyads of food-deprived rats were tested in four successive trials, and then re-tested as eight triads of food-deprived rats that were unfamiliar to each other. We found that the food-deprived dyads or triads of rats did not compete for the food available to them at regular spatially-marked locations that they had previously learnt. Rather, these rats traveled together to collect the baits. One rat, or two rats in some triads, lead (ran ahead) to collect most of the baits, but "leaders" differed across trials so that, on average, each rat ultimately collected similar amounts of baits. Regardless of which rat collected the baits, the rats traveled together with no substantial difference among them in terms of their total activity. We suggest that rats, which are a social species that has been found to display reciprocity, have evolved to travel and forage together and to share limited resources. Consequently, they displayed a sort of 'peace economy' that on average resulted in equal access to the baits across trials. For social animals, this type of dynamics is more relaxed, tolerant, and effective in the management of conflicts. Rather than competing for the limited available food, the food-deprived rats socialized and coexisted peacefully.

  16. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. Methods We generated transgenic (Tg) rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Results Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Conclusions Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities. PMID:23110844

  17. ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

  18. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  19. Pack rats (Neotoma spp.): Keystone ecological engineers?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential role of two species of pack rats (Neotoma albigula and Neotoma micropus) as keystone ecological engineers was examined by estimating the species diversity of invertebrates living in the nest middens, and nitrogen mineralization rates in soils associated with the middens. Although pack-...

  20. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Keiko; Izumo, Nobuo; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Manabe, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Yamada, Kazuo; Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Vasu, Mahesh Mundalil; Shimmura, Chie; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Kameno, Yosuke; Takahashi, Taro; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mori, Norio

    2012-10-30

    Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. We generated transgenic (Tg) rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  1. Excretion of bisphenol A into rat milk.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Ken; Watanabe, Toshi

    2010-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. This study analyzed the BPA concentration in rat milk, in order to assess the risk of BPA transfer to the offspring via milk. The rats ingested BPA by oral administration or by drinking the water in a polycarbonate bottle, and the milk samples were collected using an automated experimental milker. The BPA concentration in the samples of milk, drinking water, and food was analyzed by LC/MS. In the case of milk samples obtained from rats injected with BPA at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h prior to milking, the BPA concentrations were 0.462 +/- 0.182 ppm, 0.138 +/- 0.0185 ppm, 0.080 +/- 0.0197 ppm, and 0.0232 +/- 0.0051 ppm, respectively. Also, in the cases of the water sample left in polycarbonate bottle and the milk sample obtained from rats provided it as drinking water, the concentrations of BPA were 0.000332 +/- 0.00015 ppm and 0.0184 +/- 0.0050 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the BPA administered to the dams was transferred to their milk, and that BPA concentration in milk was higher at the early period after the single bolus dose. Additionally, these results reveal that sequential elution of BPA from polycarbonate containers in a much diluted form would undergo bioaccumulation in dams and likely be transferred to pups via milk in a much concentrated form.

  2. Naltrexone-induced hypothermia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ary, M; Chesarek, W; Sorensen, S M; Lomax, P

    1976-10-01

    Naltrexone, in relatively high doses, has been reported to cause a fall in body temperature in human ex-heroin addicts who had been abstinent for at least 6 weeks. The underlying mechanism of this hypothermic effect has been investigated in rats. The first consideration was that the temperature change was a reflection of delayed withdrawal but rats implanted with a morphine pellet 45 days earlier showed no significant change in temperature after a dose of naltrexone that caused marked withdrawal hypothermia in dependent rats implanted 3 days previously. A fall in core temperature was only induced in rats after doses of 80 and 160 mg/kg i.p. of naltrexone. Behavioral thermoregulatory studies revealed that the animals correct the falling body temperature by increased exposure to a radiant heat source indicating that the central thermostats had not been significantly affected by the drug. These data suggest that the major component in the hypothermic effect of naltrexone is activation of efferent heat loss pathways or peripheral heat loss mechanisms. Due to current suggestions that opiate receptors might represent the receptors for an endogenous transmitter the results are discussed in relation to this consideration. When compared to the sites and mechanism of action of opiates on thermoregulation the results with naltrexone lend little support to the hypothesis that the fall in temperature is due to displacement of an endogenous substance from central opiate receptors.

  3. Development of a Rat Model of Hypothermia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Fall and MAJ Len Murray and their animal care technicians, SGT Jeffrey Hunter, SPC Robert Powers and SPC Melissa Valliere vi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... Bastille . Tissue-specific extravasation of albumin-bound Evans blue in hypothermic and rewarmed rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 80:233-243, 2002

  4. Hormonal changes around the parturition in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Suzuki, H; Hattori, Y; Noda, K

    1981-09-01

    Concentrations of serum oxytocin, cortisol, progesterone and estradiol in pregnant rats were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. The levels of these hormones increased in pregnancy. Around the parturition, oxytocin or estradiol did not show any change, cortisol increased, and progesterone decreased prominently. The trigger of initiation of labor was discussed.

  5. MODELING OPERANT BEHAVIOR IN THE PARKINSONIAN RAT

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Reilly, Mark P.; Sanabria, Federico; Posadas-Sánchez, Diana; Chavez, Claudia L.; Banerjee, Nikhil; Killeen, Peter; Castañeda, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR; Killeen, 1994) is a quantitative model of operant behavior that contains 3 parameters representing motor capacity (δ), motivation (a), and short term memory (λ). The present study applied MPR to characterize the effects of bilateral infusions of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat, a model of Parkinson’s disease. Rats were trained to lever press under a 5-component fixed ratio (5, 15, 30, 60, and 100) schedule of food reinforcement. Rats were tested for 15 days prior to dopamine lesions and again for 15 days post-lesion. To characterize functional loss relative to lesion size, rats were grouped according to the extent and the degree of lateralization of their dopamine loss. Response rates decreased as a function of dopamine depletion, primarily at intermediate ratios. MPR accounted for 98% of variance in pre- and post-lesion response rates. Consistent with reported disruptions in motor behavior induced by dopaminergic lesions, estimates of δ increased when dopamine was severely depleted. There was no support for different estimates of a based on pre- and post-lesion performance of any lesion group, suggesting that dopamine loss has negligible effects on incentive motivation. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of combining operant techniques with a theoretical model to better understand the effects of a neurochemical manipulation. PMID:19073222

  6. METABOLISM AND DOSIMETRY OF VINCLOZOLIN IN RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vinclozolin (V) is an agricultural fungicide. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, M1and M2 are antiandrogenic by interacting with the androgen r...

  7. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  8. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  9. Dermal absorption of inorganic germanium in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Kawaai, Takae; Konomi, Aki; Uchida, Yuka

    2008-11-01

    So-called germanium 'health' products including dietary supplements, cosmetics, accessories, and warm bath service containing germanium compounds and metalloid are popular in Japan. Subchronic and chronic oral exposure of germanium dioxide (GeO(2)), popular chemical form of inorganic germanium causes severe germanium toxicosis including death and kidney dysfunction in humans and experimental animals. Intestinal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate is almost complete in humans and animals. However, it is not known whether germanium is cutaneously absorbed. We tested dermal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate using male F344/N rats. Three groups of rats were treated with a 3-h topical application of hydrophilic ointment containing graded level of neutralized GeO(2) (pH 7.4): 0, 0.21 and 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g. Germanium concentration in blood and tissues sampled from rats after topical application of inorganic germanium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Animals topically applied 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g ointment had significantly higher germanium concentrations in plasma, liver, and kidney than those of rats that received no topical germanium. The results indicate that skin is permeable to inorganic germanium ion or germanate and recurrent exposure of germanium compounds may pose a potential health hazard.

  10. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    production of embryos for cryopreservation can be accomplished by superovulation regimens in which FSH and LH are administered to the female rat prior to...when transferred into pseudopregnant recipients. In the past year, we have determined that the superovulation and cryopreservation procedures that we

  11. The Helsinki Rat Microsurgical Sidewall Aneurysm Model

    PubMed Central

    Marbacher, Serge; Marjamaa, Johan; Abdelhameed, Essam; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Frösen, Juhana

    2014-01-01

    Experimental saccular aneurysm models are necessary for testing novel surgical and endovascular treatment options and devices before they are introduced into clinical practice. Furthermore, experimental models are needed to elucidate the complex aneurysm biology leading to rupture of saccular aneurysms. Several different kinds of experimental models for saccular aneurysms have been established in different species. Many of them, however, require special skills, expensive equipment, or special environments, which limits their widespread use. A simple, robust, and inexpensive experimental model is needed as a standardized tool that can be used in a standardized manner in various institutions. The microsurgical rat abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm model combines the possibility to study both novel endovascular treatment strategies and the molecular basis of aneurysm biology in a standardized and inexpensive manner. Standardized grafts by means of shape, size, and geometry are harvested from a donor rat's descending thoracic aorta and then transplanted to a syngenic recipient rat. The aneurysms are sutured end-to-side with continuous or interrupted 9-0 nylon sutures to the infrarenal abdominal aorta. We present step-by-step procedural instructions, information on necessary equipment, and discuss important anatomical and surgical details for successful microsurgical creation of an abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm in the rat. PMID:25350840

  12. Portal copper transport in rats by albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.T.; Leinart, A.S.; Cousins, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    The distribution of newly absorbed copper among serum proteins obtained from the portal circulation of rats was examined by conventional and high-performance gel filtration chromatography, affinity chromatography, and Western blotting. Within 10-30 min after being administered by gavage or directly into the intestine, /sup 67/Cu and /sup 64/Cu, respectively, were recovered in the albumin fraction. By 8 h after administration of the radionuclides, virtually all of the radioactivity was found with ceruloplasmin. Affigel blue fractionation and subsequent Superose-6 chromatography further demonstrated that all of the copper in the albumin-containing fractions was in fact bound to this protein rather than high molecular weight moieties. Vascular perfusion of the isolated rat intestine, where /sup 64/Cu was infused into the lumen, showed that newly absorbed /sup 64/Cu in the vascular perfusate collected from the cannulated portal vein was associated with albumin. Uptake of radioactivity by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells from medium containing rat serum with /sup 67/Cu bound to albumin was demonstrated. In vitro binding of /sup 64/Cu to serum proteins that were transferred to nitrocellulose by Western blotting techniques showed that albumin is essentially the only protein that binds appreciable amounts of copper. The data suggest that albumin is the plasma protein that is responsible for the initial transport of copper after absorption.

  13. The Forminalized Rat: A Convenient Microbial Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments built around the bacteria found in the intestinal tract of formalinized rats as a model for discussing microbial ecology. Describes methods of examination of intestinal content, student tasks, and discussion questions; also gives a challenge problem to solve.

  14. Seasonal variations of cardiac output in rats.

    PubMed

    Back, G; Strubelt, O

    1975-11-15

    Cardiac output of rats shows seasonal variations with low values in spring and summer and high ones in autumn and winter. The stroke volume was much more implicated in these changes than the heart rate. The seasonal changes of cardiac output are probably due to changes of thyroid function.

  15. Gastrointestinal absorption of Np in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, R.; Volf, V.

    1985-11-01

    The effect of Np mass and the acidity of the administered Np solutions as well as the age, sex and nutritional status of the animals injected or gavaged with 239Np or 237Np were determined. The latter factor proved to be dominant for absorption of Np from the gut. Thus in fasting weanling and young adult male rats, the absorption of 239Np was sixfold higher (0.18% and 0.12%, respectively) than in fed ones (0.03% and 0.02%, respectively). Absorption by fasted adult females was 0.05% of the administered 239Np, about half of that of adult males. Raising the Np-mass gavaged to fasted female rats to 1 and 10 mg 237Np/kg resulted in an absorption of 0.23% and 0.26%, respectively. Thus, an increased absorption of Np in adult rats seems to be expected only if a large mass is ingested. No dependence of the absorption of Np on nitric acid concentration was found. The data obtained after oral administration of 238Pu and 239Np to adult rats suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for fractional absorption of soluble Np compounds from the gut should be decreased, whereas the f1 factor for soluble Pu compounds should be raised.

  16. Some Toxic Effects of Dieldrin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. M.; Heath, D. F.

    1964-01-01

    The oral toxicity of dieldrin in rats depends upon its concentration in the vehicle (arachis oil). It is increased by a previous restriction of diet, leading to a loss of weight. Two equal doses given within three weeks of each other are more toxic than the sum of the two given as a single dose. PMID:14249896

  17. Skeletal Alterations in Rats During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during space flight were a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, a decreased trabecular bone volume, and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  18. NAT THE RAT - PUPIL'S BOOK. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROJAS, PAULINE M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXPERIMENTAL EDITION OF "NAT THE RAT" REPRESENTS LEVEL TWO OF THE "MIAMI LINGISTIC READERS" DESIGNED TO BE USED IN TEACHING BEGINNING READING TO PUPILS WHOSE PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE WAS OTHER THAN ENGLISH. THE FIVE MAJOR CHARACTERS IN THE STORY ARE INTRODUCED ON THE FIRST FIVE PAGES OF THE PUPILS' BOOK. ILLUSTRATIONS (BLACK AND…

  19. Digital replantation teaching model in rats.

    PubMed

    Ad-El, D D; Harper, A; Hoffman, L A

    2000-01-01

    Replant surgery is a complex procedure that requires advanced microsurgical skills and is usually performed as an emergency operation, lasting many hours. For these reasons, teaching replantation is difficult. Although teaching models exist, they are often too general or complicated for routine use and do not simulate the stages and the pitfalls of human replant surgery. We have designed a model that is simple and imitates human replant surgery. After reviewing the rat anatomy, students dissect and replant a rat hind limb that has been sharply amputated by the instructor. They follow the same principles of "real" surgery like debridement, minimizing ischemia time, and stable fixation before anatomosis of vessels. After marking the structures, bony fixation followed by vessel and nerve anastomosis are performed. Muscle is reattached to the skin and limb vascularity evaluated. After we designed this model, plastic surgery residents performed the technique on 10 rats. An 80% limb viability rate was achieved. This model is simple to perform, simulates all the relevant structures and pitfalls of human surgery, and the rats are relatively cheap and can be used for other parallel projects.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND CARDIAC INFARCTS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Wilgram, George F.

    1959-01-01

    Marked obesity was induced in rats by feeding a high fat, egg yolk-rich diet. The obese rats were hyperlipemic and showed an increased incidence of lipomatous coronary lesions, but did not develop severe atheromatous lesions. Spontaneous vascular lesions of several kinds have been observed in aging rats. Among them, plaques containing a fibrin-like material seem to be conspicuous. However, these lesions differ from the experimentally induced changes, which were more fatty. Atherosclerosis, as it is defined in human pathology, has not been observed to develop spontaneously in rats. Experimental induction of marked hyperlipemia and hypercholesterolemia by feeding a high fat egg yolk-rich diet (supplemented with cholesterol, choleate, and thiouracil), and use of viosterol to cause vascular injury, led to severe atherosclerosis, coronary occlusion, and myocardial infarction. A consideration of all the findings reported here leads to renewed support of the concept that atherosclerosis has a combination of causes (Aschoff, Anitschkow, Page). Of all the etiological factors considered here, elevation of blood lipides and vascular injury are thought to be the most important ones. PMID:13620855

  1. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  2. The effect of ACTH on suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, the causes of brain shrinkage induced by synthetic ACTH treatment in epileptic children were investigated using suckling rats. Synthetic ACTH was injected subcutaneously once a day for 5 days into suckling rats aged 15 days. Saline was injected into control subjects in the same way. Rats were sacrificed before the injection, immediately after the repeated injections, and 5 and 14 days from the end of the course of repeated injections. The weight, volume and water content of the brains were measured and the protein, DNA, sodium and potassium contents of the brains were also determined. The mean weight and volume of the brains after 5-day injection of ACTH were slightly smaller compared to those of control rats. No natural increase in brain protein with growth was found from the start of ACTH injections to 14 days after finishing the course of repeated injections. The DNA, sodium and potassium contents of the brains significantly increased immediately after the repeated injections of 5 days. It was suggested that the brain shrinkage of epileptics induced by ACTH treatment might be caused by decreased water content and not cellular degradation.

  3. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-01-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents. PMID:26424254

  4. Microvascular effects of copper deficiency in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schuschke, D.A.; Saari, J.T.; Ackermann, D.M.; Miller, F.N. )

    1989-02-15

    We have studied the microcirculatory responses in copper deficient rats using the rat cremaster muscle preparation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a copper supplemented diet (CuS, 5 ppm) or a copper deficient diet (CuD, O ppm) for five weeks prior to experimentation. The rats (240-300g) were anesthetized with pentobarbital and the cremaster (with intact nerve and blood supply) were spread in a tissue bath filled with krebs solution. In vivo television microscopy was used to observe the microcirculation. Fluorescein isothiocyanate tagged to bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) was injected i.a. 30 min prior to the start of experimentation. In the CuS animals photoactivation of the intravascular FITC-BSA caused significant platelet aggregation and reduction in red blood cell column diameter (RBCCD) by 30 min and stasis of flow by 60 min. In CuD animals there was no reduction in RBCCD and only minor platelet aggregation after 60 min of photoactivation. Topical administration of compound 48/80 (1.0 and 10.0 {mu}g/ml) induced a significantly greater macromolecular leakage (increased interstitial fluorescence of FITC-BSA) in the CuD animals than in the control, CuS animals. These results suggest that copper deficiency results in marked alterations of the regulatory mechanisms governing thrombosis and inflammation.

  5. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE RAT CEREBELLUM

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, Robert M.

    1964-01-01

    This paper describes the fine structure of the granule cells, stellate neurons, astrocytes, Bergmann glia, oligodendrocytes, and microglia of the rat cerebellum after fixation by perfusion with buffered 1 per cent osmium tetroxide. Criteria are given for differentiating the various cell types, and the findings are correlated with previous light microscope and electron microscope studies of the cerebellum. PMID:14222815

  6. Lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Harrod, S B; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2004-05-01

    Previous results indicate that pretreatment with lobeline attenuates methamphetamine (METH) self-administration in rats, but not by acting as a substitute reinforcer. Given these findings, it has been suggested that lobeline may serve as a useful pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant abuse. However, because lobeline produces emesis and nausea in humans, the present study examined whether lobeline has direct effects on taste avoidance behavior in rats within the same dose range shown previously to decrease METH self-administration. Two experiments utilized a Pavlovian conditioning procedure to determine if lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) in rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats consumed either novel milk or salt solutions, respectively, and within 10 min, were injected with lobeline (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) or METH (0.3-3.0 mg/kg). A single-bottle test conducted 48 h after flavor-drug pairings indicated that the dose of lobeline that reduced METH self-administration in a previous study (i.e., 3.0 mg/kg) also produced reliable CTA for milk and salt solution. These findings suggest a need to develop lobeline analogs that reduce METH self-administration, but do not produce CTA following the consumption of a novel solution.

  7. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  8. NAT THE RAT - PUPIL'S BOOK. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROJAS, PAULINE M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXPERIMENTAL EDITION OF "NAT THE RAT" REPRESENTS LEVEL TWO OF THE "MIAMI LINGISTIC READERS" DESIGNED TO BE USED IN TEACHING BEGINNING READING TO PUPILS WHOSE PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE WAS OTHER THAN ENGLISH. THE FIVE MAJOR CHARACTERS IN THE STORY ARE INTRODUCED ON THE FIRST FIVE PAGES OF THE PUPILS' BOOK. ILLUSTRATIONS (BLACK AND…

  9. Baroreflex Function in Rats after Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasser, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans to decreased gravitational forces during spaceflight results in a number of adverse cardiovascular consequences, often referred to as cardiovascular deconditioning. Prominent among these negative cardiovascular effects are orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity. Rat hindlimb unweighting is an animal model which simulates weightlessness, and results in similar cardiovascular consequences. Cardiovascular reflexes, including arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, are required for normal adjustment to both orthostatic challenges and exercise. Therefore, the orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity associated with exposure to microgravity may be due to cardiovascular reflex dysfunction. The proposed studies will test the general hypothesis that hindlimb unweighting in rats results in impaired autonomic reflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. Specifically, we hypothesize that the ability to reflexly increase sympathetic nerve activity in response to decreases in arterial pressure or blood volume will be blunted due to hindlimb unweighting. There are 3 specific aims: (1) To evaluate arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in conscious rats subjected to 14 days of hindlimb unweighting; (2) To examine the interaction between arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in conscious hindlimb unweighted rats; (3) to evaluate changes in afferent and/or central nervous system mechanisms in baroreflex regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. These experiments will provide information related to potential mechanisms for orthostatic and exercise intolerance due to microgravity.

  10. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  11. Skeletal alterations in rats during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during space flight were a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, a decreased trabecular bone volume, and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  12. Learning curve in hemifacial transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Climov, M; Măciuceanu Zarnescu, M B; Stefănescu, A; Zamfirescu, D; Lascăr, I

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to emphasize the learning curve of hemifacial transplantation in rats by comparison between 2 operators: medical student trained in basic microsurgery and an experienced microsurgeon. A total number of 15 hemifacial transplants between Brown Norway as donors and Wistar as receiver rats were performed by two operators: experienced microsurgeon (group II, n=5) and the medical student (group III, n=10). Warm ischemia time and operative time were used as instrument for comparison. All the rats received immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine A in monotherapy for 30 days. Results were processed statistically using Microsoft Excel. Transplantation procedure duration time performed by experienced microsurgeon began from 420 min and decreased to 330 min after 5 transplantations, with confidence interval (95% probability)382 ± 37.9 min and the warm ischemia time decreased from 140 min to 50 min, confidence interval of the warm ischemia time being 90 ± 33.52 min. After transplantation the rats were treated with cyclosporine A and monitored for 30 days. Medical student tended to equalize the operative time and warm ischemia time, approximately, after 9 transplantations, from 660 min to 330 min and warm ischemia time from 190 min to 60 min. The confidence interval (95%) of the procedure by duration of the surgery was 467 ± 80.66 min and 133.5 ± 31.44 min for the warm ischemia time. Most of the rats (n=11) survived in both transplanted groups (group II and group III) performed by microsurgeon and student. By analyzing learning curves using two parameters (operative time and warm ischemia time) and survival rates no statistically significant difference was found (p 0.05). Hemifacial transplantation model in rats is a useful tool for preparing experimental and clinical application of the facial transplantation. It is a good model for training young specialists for future transplantation surgery. It is important to notice that the medical

  13. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Background Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods Wild brown rats (117 individuals) and black rats (44 individuals) were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp.), three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) fraterna), and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus). Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species) and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species) at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris) or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris). We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats. PMID

  14. Coordination strategies for limb forces during weight-bearing locomotion in normal rats, and in rats spinalized as neonates

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F; Davies, Michelle R; Graziani, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Some rats spinally transected as neonates (ST rats) achieve weight-supporting independent locomotion. The mechanisms of coordinated hindlimb weight support in such rats are not well understood. To examine these in such ST rats and normal rats, rats with better than 60% of weight supported steps on a treadmill as adults were trained to cross an instrumented runway. Ground reaction forces, coordination of hindlimb and forelimb forces and the motions of the center of pressure were assessed. Normal rats crossed the runway with a diagonal trot. On average hindlimbs bore about 80% of the vertical load carried by forelimbs, although this varied. Forelimbs and hindlimb acted synergistically to generate decelerative and propulsive rostrocaudal forces, which averaged 15% of body weight with maximums of 50% . Lateral forces were very small (<8% of body weight). Center of pressure progressed in jumps along a straight line with mean lateral deviations <1 cm. ST rats hindlimbs bore about 60% of the vertical load of forelimbs, significantly less compared to intact (p<0.05). ST rats showed similar mean rostrocaudal forces, but with significantly larger maximum fluctuations of up to 80% of body weight (p<0.05). Joint force-plate recordings showed forelimbs and hindlimb rostrocaudal forces in ST rats were opposing and significantly different from intact rats (p<0.05). Lateral forces were ~20% of body weight and significantly larger than in normal rats (p<0.05). Center of pressure zig-zagged, with mean lateral deviations of ~ 2cm and a significantly larger range (p<0.05). The haunches were also observed to roll more than normal rats. The locomotor strategy of injured rats using limbs in opposition was presumably less efficient but their complex gait was statically stable. Because forelimbs and hindlimbs acted in opposition, the trunk was held compressed. Force coordination was likely managed largely by the voluntary control in forelimbs and trunk. PMID:18612631

  15. [Distribution of deltamethrin in acute poisoned rats].

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Yan, Peng; Wei, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Yu-Jin

    2013-02-01

    To establish an animal model in acute poisoned rat by deltamethrin and an analysis method for determination of deltamethrin by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and to study the distribution of deltamethrin in rats in order to provide the references for forensic medicine identification about such cases. Rats were administered with deltamethrin of different doses(512 and 1,024 mg/kg) and killed 1.5 h later to be dissected rapidly for tissues (blood, hearts, livers, lungs, kidneys and brains etc.). Samples were dehydrated by anhydrous sodium sulfate and extracted with petroleum ether and acetone (V:V=4:1). The level of deltamethrin was determined by GC-ECD. There was a good separate between deltamethrin and endogenous impurities. The limit of quantification for deltamethrin in blood and liver were 0.1 microg/mL and 0.1 microg/g (S/N> or =10), respectively. The recovery rate of deltamethrin in blood was 91.55%-134.37% and both inter-day and intra-day precisions were less than 5.67%. The distribution of deltamethrin in poisoned rats with 512 mg/kg was as follow: lungs > livers > hearts > kidneys > blood > brains and with 1 024 mg/kg dose was lungs > blood > hearts > kidneys > brains > livers (P<0.05). The GC-ECD method is sensitive for determination of deltamethrin. The distribution of deltamethrin in rats has a dose-dependent manner. The study suggests that samples of blood, hearts, livers, lungs, kidneys and brains are suitable for deltamethrin poisoned analysis.

  16. Polyamine and intestinal properties in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Deloyer, P; Dandrifosse, G; Bartholomeus, C; Romain, N; Klimek, M; Salmon, J; Gérard, P; Goessens, G

    1996-10-01

    We questioned whether polyamines coming from the diet or produced by intestinal microflora or by intracellular metabolism influence intestinal functions. Therefore, we compared pathogen-free rats and germ-free rats receiving a diet with low polyamine content and either treated or not treated with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and/or methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). Wet weight, protein content, DNA content, sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48), maltase (EC 3.2.1.20) and lactase (EC 3.2.1.23) specific activities, amounts of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured in the mucosa of the proximal and distal intestine. Body weight was also determined. Rats without microflora had a higher specific activity of maltase and higher amounts of spermidine and spermine but lower lactase specific activity than pathogen-free animals; the low-polyamine diet given to germ-free rats had little effect on the functional variables measured (decrease of maltase and lactase specific activities) and did not modify the amounts of polyamines. DFMO and/or MGBG administered to germ-free rats receiving a low-polyamine diet induced modifications of most of the variables studied. Body weight and wet weight of proximal and distal intestine decreased, disaccharidase specific activities decreased, and amounts of polyamines changed according to the inhibitor used. Thus, our results showed that the deprivation of polyamine supply from microflora or from the diet failed, under our experimental conditions, to affect the intestinal properties analysed but exogenous and endogenous polyamine restriction altered general properties of the organism as well as intestinal functions.

  17. Ontogeny of the rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)-prazosin, (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine and (/sup 125/I)-pindolol binding to washed particle membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor number occur shortly before birth and at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors which falls 10-20 fold at birth. The number of hepatic beta adrenoceptors decreases 30-50% during the third week after birth increases slightly at weaning, then decreases gradually in the adult. Hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor number increases 3-5 fold at weaning to become the predominant adrenoceptor in the adult rat liver. The basis for the fall in alpha-2 number at birth remains unclear. The fall in beta receptor number at the end of the second week post-natally appears dependent on increased insulin and corticosterone secretion as well as increased NE release form nerve terminals. The basis for the increase in beta number at weaning and the sex-dependent loss of beta function but not receptor number in the adult rat remains unknown. The dramatic increases in alpha-1 number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function. These findings suggest that hepatic adrenoceptor number adapts from the low carbohydrate diet of the suckling rat to the high carbohydrate diet of the adult at weaning.

  18. Hypercholesterolemia downregulates autophagy in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Giricz, Zoltán; Koncsos, Gábor; Rajtík, Tomáš; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Csonka, Csaba; Szobi, Adrián; Adameová, Adriana; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-23

    We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow (NORM; n = 9) or with 2% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid-enriched diet (CHOL; n = 9) for 12 weeks. CHOL rats exhibited a 41% increase in plasma total cholesterol level over that of NORM rats (4.09 mmol/L vs. 2.89 mmol/L) at the end of diet period. Animals were sacrificed, hearts were excised and briefly washed out. Left ventricles were snap-frozen for determination of markers of autophagy, mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and necroptosis by Western blot. Isolated hypercholesterolemia was associated with a significant reduction in expression of cardiac autophagy markers such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Rubicon and RAB7 as compared to controls. Phosphorylation of ribosomal S6, a surrogate marker for mTOR activity, was increased in CHOL samples. Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, increased in CHOL hearts, while no difference in the expression of necroptotic marker RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL was detected between treatments. This is the first comprehensive analysis of autophagy and programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis in hearts of hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data show that isolated hypercholesterolemia suppresses basal cardiac autophagy and that the decrease in autophagy may be a result of an activated mTOR pathway. Reduced autophagy was accompanied by increased apoptosis, while cardiac necroptosis was not modulated by isolated hypercholesterolemia. Decreased basal autophagy and elevated apoptosis may be responsible for the

  19. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection.

  20. Laser welding of rat's facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong; Lee, Chang Hyun

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare regeneration of the severed nerves that were repaired by laser welding with those repaired by microsurgical suturing and evaluate the value in use of laser nerve welding in the head and neck area. In 12 rats the buccal branches of the facial nerves on the both sides were transected, and CO2 laser welding of the epineurium was performed on the right side and microsurgical suture technique was applied on the left side. In six rats Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the nerve anastomosis site at postoperative week 4. Another six rats were treated exactly in the same way in postoperative week 8. Six normal rats were used as controls. Intact facial nerve was observed after injection of CTb as well. Neurons of facial nuclei labeled positively by CTb were detected immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. CTb-positive neurons in the control group were 1311 +/- 258 (n = 6). CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with laser nerve welding were 1174 +/- 122 in postoperative week 4 and 1562 +/- 565 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with microsurgical suture were 1066 +/- 89 in postoperative week 4 and 1443 +/- 531 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons were seen significantly more in the group with laser welding than in the group with microsurgical suture in postoperative week (P = 0.028), but there was not much difference in postoperative week 8 (P = 0.463). None of 12 rats showed dehiscence at the nerve anastomosis done by laser welding. This study shows that nerve regeneration is more apparent in the nerve repaired by laser welding than in that repaired by microsurgical suture.

  1. [Functional recovery in hemifacial transplants in rats].

    PubMed

    González-García, E; Landín-Jarillo, L; Piqueras-Del Rey, A

    There are a number of different options open to the surgeon for the reconstruction of the face and scalp, but when tissue loss is very extensive, good aesthetic and functional recovery is not possible. Not only must the damaged tissues be replaced, but motor and sensorial functioning also has to be restored. To evaluate the functional recovery of hemifacial allografts in rats. Twenty-one hemifacial flaps were transplanted from Long-Evans rats to Wistar-Lewis rats, under immunosuppression monotherapy with tacrolimus. Prior to the operation, anatomical and allograft viability studies were conducted. Two groups of transplanted rats were formed: with or without nerve repair. In the nerve repair group, end-to-end suture was employed to repair the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve and the buccolabial, upper mandibular marginal and zygomatico-orbital branches of the facial nerve. Sensory recovery was evaluated by filming traction of the whiskers, whereas motor recovery was assessed by blind tests using electromyography studies of the mystacial muscles and electroneurography of the facial nerve. At eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and biopsy samples were taken from the mystacial region. The facial flap was successfully lifted in 10 cases. In the nerve repair group both clinical and electrophysiological recovery were observed at six weeks, whereas biopsy samples taken in the eighth week showed recovery of the nerve fascicles. The hemifacial flap can be transplanted. By repairing the nerves of the allograft, it is possible to achieve its functional recovery, as can be confirmed clinically, electrophysiologically and histopathologically. To date, this is the first evidence of functional recovery following a hemifacial transplant in rats.

  2. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model

    PubMed Central

    Carusillo Theriault, Brianna; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Karimy, Jason K.; Keledjian, Kaspar; Stokum, Jesse A.; Sarkar, Amrita; Coksaygan, Turhan; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    Background In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes) dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI) and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS) at embryonic day (E) 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks. Results mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2) and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9) for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls. Conclusions In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development. PMID:28158198

  3. Reduction of dimethylarsinic acid to the highly toxic dimethylarsinous acid by rats and rat liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Németi, Balázs; Gregus, Zoltán

    2013-03-18

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs(V)), the major urinary metabolite of inorganic arsenic, is weakly cytotoxic, whereas its reduced form, dimethylarsinous acid (DMAs(III)), is highly toxic. Although glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and arsenic methyltransferase have been shown or thought to catalyze DMAs(V) reduction, their role in DMAs(V) reduction in vivo, or in cell extracts is uncertain. Therefore, the reduction of DMAs(V) to DMAs(III) in rats and in rat liver cytosol was studied to better understand its mechanism. To assess DMAs(V) reduction in rats, a novel procedure was devised based on following the accumulation of red blood cell (RBC)-bound dimethylarsenic (DMAs), which represents DMAs(III), in the blood of DMAs(V)-injected anesthetized rats. These studies indicated that rats reduced DMAs(V) to DMAs(III) to a significant extent, as in 90 min 31% of the injected 50 μmol/kg DMAs(V) dose was converted to DMAs(III) that was sequestered by the circulating erythrocytes. Pretreatment of rats with glutathione (GSH) depletors (phorone or BSO) delayed the elimination of DMAs(V) and the accumulation of RBC-bound DMAs, whereas the indirect methyltransferase inhibitor periodate-oxidized adenosine was without effect. Assessment of DMAs(V)-reducing activity of rat liver cytosol revealed that reduction of DMAs(V) required cytosolic protein and GSH and was inhibited by thiol reagents, GSSG and dehydroascorbate. Although thioredoxin reductase (TRR) inhibitors (aurothioglucose and Sb(III)) inhibited cytosolic DMAs(V) reduction, recombinant rat TRR plus NADPH, alone or when added to the cytosol, failed to support DMAs(V) reduction. On ultrafiltration of the cytosol through a 3 kDa filter, the reducing activity in the retentate was lost but was largely restored by NADPH. Such experiments also suggested that the reducing enzyme was larger than 100 kDa and was not GSTO1. In summary, reduction of DMAs(V) to the highly toxic DMAs(III) in rats and rat liver cytosol is a GSH

  4. Hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria in portacaval-shunted rats.

    PubMed

    Steele, R D

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a portacaval shunt-induced alteration in liver function on nitrogen metabolism was studied in rats. Within a few days after surgery, portacaval-shunted rats grew with an average daily gain in body weight equal to sham-operated control rats. Within 1 week after surgery, portacaval-shunted rats excreted 20% more orotic acid in their urine compared to control rats. The difference increased to 37% after 3 weeks. Plasma ammonia levels were elevated by 78% in portacaval-shunted rats compared to control rats after 2 weeks. Portacaval-shunted rats injected with a challenging load of ammonium chloride (5 mmol/kg) excreted half as much orotic acid in their urine over a 24-hour period as similarly injected controls. The simultaneous injection of 1.5 mmol/kg of arginine prevented the ammonia-induced increase in orotic acid excretion in both shunted and control rats. However, feeding rats diets supplemented with 1% arginine did not prevent the chronic hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria produced by the construction of portacaval shunts. Similar experiments with diets supplemented with 1% sodium benzoate to induce alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion were also without effect. These results are in contrast to recent clinical studies reporting the effectiveness of sodium benzoate in treating hyperammonemia in patients with urea cycle enzyme defects.

  5. Toxoplasmosis accelerates acquisition of epilepsy in rats undergoing chemical kindling.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Jalal; Sayyah, Mohammad; Choopani, Samira; Asgari, Tara; Golkar, Majid; Gharagozli, Kourosh

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders worldwide with no distinguishable cause in 60% of patients. One-third of the world population has been infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This intracellular parasite has high tropism for excitable cells including neurons. We assessed impact of acute and chronic T. gondii infection on epileptogenesis in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in male rats. T. gondii cysts were administered to rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The presence of T. gondii cysts in the brain of rats was verified by hematoxylin-eosin staining. One and eight weeks after cysts injection, as acute and chronic phases of infection, PTZ (30mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to the rats every other day until manifestation of generalized seizures. Histologic findings confirmed cerebral toxoplasmosis in rats. The rats with acute or chronic Toxoplasma infection became kindled by lower number of PTZ injections (14.8±1 and 13.6±1 injections, respectively) compared to corresponding uninfected rats (18.7±1 and 16.9±1 injections, p<0.05). Toxoplasma infection increased the rate of kindling in rats. The chronically-infected rats achieved focal and also generalized seizures earlier than the rats with acute infection. Toxoplasmosis might be considered as a risk factor for acquisition of epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin decreases wheel running activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Yumiko; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Toda, Satomi; Taniguchi, Yasuko; Futami, Akari; Sato, Fukiko; Kuroda, Masashi; Sebe, Mayu; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Gotoh, Koro; Ueno, Masaki; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which voluntary exercise is regulated. In this study, we examined how the central nervous system regulates exercise. We used SPORTS rats, which were established in our laboratory as a highly voluntary murine exercise model. SPORTS rats showed lower levels of serum ghrelin compared with those of the parental line of Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin decreased wheel-running activity in SPORTS rats. In addition, daily injection of the ghrelin inhibitor JMV3002 into the lateral ventricles of Wistar rats increased wheel-running activity. Co-administration of obestatin inhibited ghrelin-induced increases in food intake but did not inhibit ghrelin-induced suppression of voluntary exercise in rats. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of SPORTS rats was not difference that in control rats. We created an arcuate nucleus destruction model by administering monosodium glutamate (MSG) to neonatal SPORTS rats. Injection of ghrelin into MSG-treated rats decreased voluntary exercise but did not increase food intake, suggesting that wheel-running activity is not controlled by the arcuate nucleus neurons that regulate feeding. These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates voluntary activity independent of arcuate nucleus neurons.

  7. Sodium status influences chronic amphotericin B nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, A; Ohnishi, T; Stevenhead, W; Robinson, R D; Glick, A; O'Day, D M; Sabra, R; Jackson, E K; Branch, R A

    1989-01-01

    The nephrotoxic potential of amphotericin B (5 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally for 3 weeks) has been investigated in salt-depleted, normal-salt, and salt-loaded rats. In salt-depleted rats, amphotericin B decreased creatinine clearance linearly with time, with an 85% reduction by week 3. In contrast, in normal-salt rats creatinine clearance was decreased but to a lesser extent at week 2 and 3, and in salt-loaded rats creatinine clearance did not change for 2 weeks and was decreased by 43% at week 3. All rats in the sodium-depleted group had histopathological evidence of patchy tubular cytoplasmic degeneration in tubules that was not observed in any normal-salt or salt-loaded rat. Concentrations of amphotericin B in plasma were not significantly different among the three groups at any time during the study. However, at the end of 3 weeks, amphotericin B levels in the kidneys and liver were significantly higher in salt-depleted and normal-salt rats than those in salt-loaded rats, with plasma/kidney ratios of 21, 14, and 8 in salt-depleted, normal-salt, and salt-loaded rats, respectively. In conclusion, reductions in creatinine clearance and renal amphotericin B accumulation after chronic amphotericin B administration were enhanced by salt depletion and attenuated by sodium loading in rats. PMID:2802551

  8. Acoustic hypersensitivity in adult rats after neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Carlos Eduardo; Angst, Marie-Josée; Guiberteau, Thierry; Brasse, David; O'Brien, Terence John; Sandner, Guy

    2010-02-11

    Rats with a bilateral neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) are used as models of neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia. In view of their decreased number of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that they would show increased reactivity to acoustic stimuli. We systematically characterized the acoustic reactivity of NVHL rats and sham operated controls. They were behaviourally observed during a loud white noise. A first cohort of 7 months' old rats was studied. Then the observations were reproduced in a second cohort of the same age after characterizing the reactivity of the same rats to dopaminergic drugs. A third cohort of rats was studied at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months. In subsets of lesioned and control rats, inferior colliculus auditory evoked potentials were recorded. A significant proportion of rats (50-62%) showed aberrant audiogenic responses with explosive wild running resembling the initial phase of audiogenic seizures. This was not correlated with their well-known enhanced reactivity to dopaminergic drugs. The proportion of rats showing this strong reaction increased with rats' age. After the cessation of the noise, NVHL rats showed a long freezing period that did neither depend on the size of the lesion nor on the rats' age. The initial negative deflection of the auditory evoked potential was enhanced in the inferior colliculus of only NVHL rats that displayed wild running. Complementary anatomical investigations using X-ray scans in the living animal, and alizarin red staining of brain slices, revealed a thin layer of calcium deposit close to the medial geniculate nuclei in post-NVHL rats, raising the possibility that this may contribute to the hyper-reactivity to sounds seen in these animals. The findings of this study provide complementary information with potential relevance for the hyper-reactivity noted in patients with schizophrenia, and therefore a tool to investigate the underlying biology of this endophenotype.

  9. Dysfunctional play and dopamine physiology in the Fischer 344 rat

    PubMed Central

    Siviy, Stephen M.; Crawford, Cynthia A.; Akopian, Garnik; Walsh, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile Fischer 344 rats are known to be less playful than other inbred strains, although the neurobiological substrate(s) responsible for this phenotype is uncertain. In the present study, Fischer 344 rats were compared to the commonly used outbred Sprague-Dawley strain on several behavioral and physiological parameters in order to ascertain whether the lack of play may be related to compromised activity of brain dopamine (DA) systems. As expected, Fischer 344 rats were far less playful than Sprague-Dawley rats, with Fischer 344 rats less likely to initiate playful contacts with a playful partner and less likely to respond playfully to these contacts. We also found that Fischer 344 rats showed less of a startle response and greater pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), especially at higher pre-pulse intensities. The increase in PPI seen in the Fischer 344 rat could be due to reduced DA modulation of sensorimotor gating and neurochemical measures were consistent with Fischer 344 rats releasing less DA than Sprague-Dawley rats. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) revealed Fischer 344 rats had less evoked DA release in dorsal and ventral striatal brain slices and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed Fischer 344 rats to have less DA turnover in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We also found DA-dependent forms of cortical plasticity were deficient in the striatum and prefrontal cortex of the Fischer 344 rat. Taken together, these data indicate that deficits in play and enhanced PPI of Fischer 344 rats may be due to reduced DA modulation of corticostriatal and mesolimbic/mesocortical circuits critical to the execution of these behaviors. PMID:21335036

  10. Study of the effects of ozone in emphysematous rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dormans, J.A.; van Bree, L.; Boere, A.J.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of short-term exposure to ozone on control and elastase-induced emphysematous rats were examined to investigate whether emphysema would change the pulmonary susceptibility to oxidant air pollution. Emphysema was induced in rats after a single intratracheal instillation of 0.2 IU elastase/g body weight. Histologically, panacinar emphysema was apparent at 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk, that is, the total duration of the experiment. The diagnosis was confirmed by morphometry: the mean linear intercepts (MLI) of elastase-treated rats were significantly increased at all observation times, whereas the internal surface areas (ISA) of the elastase-treated rats were significantly decreased. In addition, pulmonary function tests provided supportive evidence for the diagnosis of emphysema. Respiratory system compliance and functional residual capacity showed a significant increase in elastase-treated rats. No differences in inspiratory capacity or in forced vital capacity between control rats and elastase-treated rats were observed. The above data are indicative for a rat model for elastase-induced emphysema. Short-term exposure to ozone of elastase-treated rats revealed panacinar emphysema, including an inflammatory response in the centroacinar region. No differences in MLI as well as in ISA between ozone-exposed rats (with or without emphysema) and their respective controls were observed. Short-term exposure to ozone induced an identical, significant increase in protein content, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in lungs of normal and emphysematous rats. Moreover, these results strongly suggest that emphysematous rats are not more susceptible to ozone than nonemphysematous rats.

  11. Comparison Of Cardiovascular Characteristics In Normotensive And Hypertensive Rat Strains.

    PubMed

    Zemancíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive rats serve as valuable tools for studies of dysregulations in cardiovascular functions before and during pathological elevation of blood pressure. They exhibit many defects in structure and function of heart and vessels which are often related to severity of hypertension. The relationship of blood pressure level and manifestation of aberrations in selected cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were determined in 20-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in their F1 offspring borderline hypertensive rats (BHR), and also in normotensive Wistar rats which are genetically less compatible with the other mentioned rat strains. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured in conscious rats by the non-invasive tail-cuff method. At the end of the treatment, rats were sacrificed, relative weight of their left heart ventricle and liver were determined and plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides were measured. Thoracic aorta and superior mesenteric artery were isolated and prepared for isometric tension recording. Neurogenic contractions were elicited by electrical stimulation of perivascular adrenergic nerves. The level of systolic blood pressure in WKY rats (106.0 ± 0.4 mmHg), BHR (149.5 ± 2.5 mmHg) and SHR (186.4 ± 3.9 mmHg) corresponded with the impairment of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of isolated thoracic aorta and with the increase in sensitivity of contractile responses to exogenous noradrenaline and to electrical stimulation of perivascular adrenergic nerves in mesenteric artery. However, rats of the normotensive strain Wistar (118.1 ± 2.0 mmHg) exhibited arterial contractions similar to those obtained in hypertensive rats. Wistar rats had also the highest relative liver weight and plasma triglyceride concentration. These observations indicate that when comparing non-related rat strains the higher magnitude of arterial contractions and abnormal lipid parameters may not

  12. Metabolic responses to head-down suspension in hypophysectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Tipton, C. M.; Evans, J.; Linderman, J. K.; Gosselink, K.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Rats exposed to head-down suspension (HDS) exhibit reductions in maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) and atrophy of select hindlimb muscles. This study tested the hypothesis that an endocrine-deficient rat exposed to HDS would not exhibit reductions in VO2max or hindlimb muscle mass. Hypophysectomized (HYPX) and sham-operated (SHAM) rats were tested for VO2max before and after 28 days of HDS or cage control (CC) conditions. No significant reductions in VO2max were observed in HYPX rats. In contrast, SHAM-HDS rats exhibited a significant reduction in absolute (-16%) and relative (-29%) measures of aerobic capacity. Time course experiments revealed a reduction in VO2max in SHAM-HDS rats within 7 days, suggesting that cardiovascular adjustments to HDS occurred in the 1st wk. HDS was associated with atrophy of the soleus (-42%) in SHAM rats, whereas HYPX rats exhibited atrophy of the soleus (-36%) and plantaris (-13%). SHAM-HDS rats had significantly lower (-38%) soleus citrate synthase activities per gram muscle mass than SHAM-CC, but no significant differences existed between HYPX-HDS and -CC rats. HDS rats had an impaired ability to thermoregulate, as indicated by significantly greater temperature increases per unit run time, compared with their CC counterparts. Pretreatment plasma epinephrine levels were significantly lower in HYPX than in SHAM rats. Norepinephrine concentration was similar for all groups except HYPX-HDS, in which it was significantly higher. HDS had no significant effect on thyroxine or triiodothyronine. SHAM-HDS rats had significantly lower concentrations of testosterone and growth hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Dysfunctional play and dopamine physiology in the Fischer 344 rat.

    PubMed

    Siviy, Stephen M; Crawford, Cynthia A; Akopian, Garnik; Walsh, John P

    2011-07-07

    Juvenile Fischer 344 rats are known to be less playful than other inbred strains, although the neurobiological substrate(s) responsible for this phenotype is uncertain. In the present study, Fischer 344 rats were compared to the commonly used outbred Sprague-Dawley strain on several behavioral and physiological parameters in order to ascertain whether the lack of play may be related to compromised activity of brain dopamine (DA) systems. As expected, Fischer 344 rats were far less playful than Sprague-Dawley rats, with Fischer 344 rats less likely to initiate playful contacts with a playful partner and less likely to respond playfully to these contacts. We also found that Fischer 344 rats showed less of a startle response and greater pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), especially at higher pre-pulse intensities. The increase in PPI seen in the Fischer 344 rat could be due to reduced DA modulation of sensorimotor gating and neurochemical measures were consistent with Fischer 344 rats releasing less DA than Sprague-Dawley rats. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) revealed Fischer 344 rats had less evoked DA release in dorsal and ventral striatal brain slices and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed Fischer 344 rats to have less DA turnover in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We also found DA-dependent forms of cortical plasticity were deficient in the striatum and prefrontal cortex of the Fischer 344 rat. Taken together, these data indicate that deficits in play and enhanced PPI of Fischer 344 rats may be due to reduced DA modulation of corticostriatal and mesolimbic/mesocortical circuits critical to the execution of these behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Encoding of sound envelope transients in the auditory cortex of juvenile rats and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Jiang, Cuiping; Zhang, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    Accurate neural processing of time-varying sound amplitude and spectral information is vital for species-specific communication. During postnatal development, cortical processing of sound frequency undergoes progressive refinement; however, it is not clear whether cortical processing of sound envelope transients also undergoes age-related changes. We determined the dependence of neural response strength and first-spike latency on sound rise-fall time across sound levels in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of juvenile (P20-P30) rats and adult (8-10 weeks) rats. A1 neurons were categorized as "all-pass", "short-pass", or "mixed" ("all-pass" at high sound levels to "short-pass" at lower sound levels) based on the normalized response strength vs. rise-fall time functions across sound levels. The proportions of A1 neurons within each of the three categories in juvenile rats were similar to that in adult rats. In general, with increasing rise-fall time, the average response strength decreased and the average first-spike latency increased in A1 neurons of both groups. At a given sound level and rise-fall time, the average normalized neural response strength did not differ significantly between the two age groups. However, the A1 neurons in juvenile rats showed greater absolute response strength, longer first-spike latency compared to those in adult rats. In addition, at a constant sound level, the average first-spike latency of juvenile A1 neurons was more sensitive to changes in rise-fall time. Our results demonstrate the dependence of the responses of rat A1 neurons on sound rise-fall time, and suggest that the response latency exhibit some age-related changes in cortical representation of sound envelope rise time.

  15. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure.

    PubMed

    Kuijk, Ewart W; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-02-26

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah(-/-) Il2rg(-/-) rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat.

  16. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  17. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  18. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  19. Trophic Garnishes: Cat–Rat Interactions in an Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Gregory E.; Gardner-Santana, Lynne C.; Holt, Robert D.; Chen, Jessica; Shields, Timothy M.; Roy, Manojit; Schachterle, Stephen; Klein, Sabra L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Community interactions can produce complex dynamics with counterintuitive responses. Synanthropic community members are of increasing practical interest for their effects on biodiversity and public health. Most studies incorporating introduced species have been performed on islands where they may pose a risk to the native fauna. Few have examined their interactions in urban environments where they represent the majority of species. We characterized house cat (Felis catus) predation on wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), and its population effects in an urban area as a model system. Three aspects of predation likely to influence population dynamics were examined; the stratum of the prey population killed by predators, the intensity of the predation, and the size of the predator population. Methodology/Principal Findings Predation pressure was estimated from the sizes of the rat and cat populations, and the characteristics of rats killed in 20 alleys. Short and long term responses of rat population to perturbations were examined by removal trapping. Perturbations removed an average of 56% of the rats/alley but had no negative long-term impact on the size of the rat population (49.6±12.5 rats/alley and 123.8±42.2 rats/alley over two years). The sizes of the cat population during two years (3.5 animals/alley and 2.7 animals/alley) also were unaffected by rat population perturbations. Predation by cats occurred in 9/20 alleys. Predated rats were predominantly juveniles and significantly smaller (144.6 g±17.8 g) than the trapped rats (385.0 g±135.6 g). Cats rarely preyed on the larger, older portion of the rat population. Conclusions/Significance The rat population appears resilient to perturbation from even substantial population reduction using targeted removal. In this area there is a relatively low population density of cats and they only occasionally prey on the rat population. This occasional predation primarily removes the juvenile proportion of

  20. Glomerular ultrafiltration in the pseudopregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Baylis, C

    1982-09-01

    Whole kidney and single nephron indices of glomerular ultrafiltration were measured by clearance and micropuncture techniques in anesthetized virgin, 9-day pregnant, and 9-day pseudopregnant Munich-Wistar rats. Whole kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) were elevated in pregnant and pseudopregnant rats compared with virgins (0.78 +/- 0.05, 0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.03 ml/min, P less than 0.005 and P less than 0.001; 32.1 +/- 2.5, 30.0 +/- 2.8 vs. 22.1 +/- 2.0 nl/min, P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Total renal plasma flow rate (RPF) and single glomerular plasma flow rate (QA) were also increased in pregnant and pseudopregnant rats compared to virgins (3.05 +/- 0.19, 2.90 +2- 0.24 vs. 2.28 +/- 0.21 ml/min, P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05; 109.0 +/- 15.8, 100.4 +/- 12.8 vs. 68.0 +/- 6.9 nl/min, both P less thn 0.05). There was little difference in the other determinants of ultrafiltration among the three groups. Plasma volume was measured in separate experiments and was higher in pregnant and pseudopregnant rats compared with virgins (9.4 +/- 0.2, 9.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.4 +/- 0.3 ml, P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively). The gestational increase in GFR in the rat occurs as the result of increased RPF, which is due to both plasma volume expansion and renal vasodilation. Since the changes in renal hemodynamics seen in pseudopregnancy were almost identical to those occurring in pregnant rats, the early stimulus to increased GFR must be maternal and not fetoplacental in origin.

  1. [Neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane in rats].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, A; Ishidao, T; Kasai, T; Arashidani, K; Hori, H

    1999-03-01

    Neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) used as an alternative solvent of fluorocarbons was experimentally studied. Eight rats in the experimental group were exposed to 1-BP at 1500 ppm for six hours a day, five days a week for four weeks in an exposure chamber. Another eight rats in the control group were exposed to room air in a similar exposure chamber as those in the experimental group. During the latter half of the fourth week of exposure, all the rats in the experimental group showed a loss of body weight and ataxic gait compared with control rats. At the end of the fourth week, the rats in both groups were perfused through the ascending aorta and fixed. The cerebellum, medulla oblongata, spinal cord and peripheral nerve were processed for histopathological studies. No statistically significant difference in the frequency of axonal degeneration in both peroneal and sural nerves was found between the experimental and control groups. In the cerebellum, the frequency of degeneration of Purkinje cells in both the vermis and hemisphere was higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the frequency of myelin ovoids in the fifth thoracic and in the third cervical posterior columns of the spinal cord between control and experimental groups. There was also no significant difference in the frequency of axonal swelling in the nucleus gracilis of the medulla oblongata between control and experimental groups. Ataxic gait was considered to be induced by degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum due to 1-BP exposure. However, degenerative findings of nerve fibers in the peripheral nerve, spinal posterior column and nucleus gracilis of the medulla oblongata due to 1-BP exposure were not evident. At the end of the fourth week of exposure, rats in the experimental group showed loss of body weight and markedly decreased motor activities, and it was considered that they would die if we continued the exposure

  2. Prevention of anemia alleviates heart hypertrophy in copper deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lure, M.D.; Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G. Univ. of Maryland, College Park Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC )

    1991-03-11

    The present investigation was designed to examine the role of anemia in the cardiomegaly and myocardial pathology of copper deficiency. Weanling rats were fed a copper deficient diet containing either starch (ST) or fructose (FRU) for five weeks. Six rats consuming the FRU diet were intraperitoneally injected once a week with 1.0 ml/100g bw of packed red blood cells (RBC) obtained from copper deficient rats fed ST. FRU rats injected with RBC did not develop anemia. Additionally, none of the injected rats exhibited heart hypertrophy or gross pathology and all survived. In contrast, non-injected FRU rats were anemic, exhibited severe signs of copper deficiency which include heart hypertrophy with gross pathology, and 44% died. Maintaining the hematocrit with RBC injections resulted in normal heart histology and prevented the mortality associated with the fructose x copper interaction. The finding suggest that the anemia associated with copper deficiency contributes to heart pathology.

  3. Cellular Compensatory Mechanisms in the CNS of Dysmyelinated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecien, Jacek M

    2010-01-01

    Loss or absolute lack of myelin in the CNS results in remarkable compensation at the cellular level. In this study on the natural progression of neuropathology in the CNS in 2 related but distinct long-lived dysmyelinated rats, total lack of myelin was associated with remarkable glial cell proliferation and ineffective myelinating activity throughout life in Long Evans Bouncer (LE-bo) rats; conversely, in Long Evans Shaker (LES) rats, futile myelinating activity ceased when rats were advanced in age. Progressively severe astrogliosis separates individual axons from each other and coincides with widespread, abundant axonal sprouting throughout the life in both rat strains. Severely dysmyelinated Long Evans rats can serve as excellent models to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroglial compensation to lack or loss of myelin in vivo and to study axonal plasticity in the adult demyelinated CNS. PMID:20579436

  4. Cysteamine depletes prolactin in young and old hyperprolactinemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, J.W.; Estes, K.S.; Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-05-01

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of cysteamine on serum and anterior pituitary concentrations of prolactin in hyperprolactinemic female rats. Serum prolactin was elevated in young (4 to 5 months old) rats by implantation of 17 beta-estradiol while 26- to 28-month-old rats were in constant estrus and exhibited an age-related hyperprolactinemia. At 4 h after treatment with cysteamine (90 mg/kg body wt) serum and anterior pituitary prolactin concentrations were reduced in young animals by 98 and 85%, respectively. In old constant-estrous rats, cysteamine reduced serum prolactin by 92% and anterior pituitary prolactin by 82%. In young pseudopregnant rats, cysteamine induced a prompt resumption of estrous cycles. These studies indicate that cysteamine is an effective depletor of serum and pituitary prolactin in hyperprolactinemic rats.

  5. Spatial memory in the desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti).

    PubMed

    Langley, C M

    1994-03-01

    Desert kangaroo rats (Dipodomys deserti) forage for seed distributed in patches in the desert environment and may remember patch locations. In Experiment 1, 7 desert kangaroo rats that had discovered the location of a plastic token in 1 box accurately dug for a token hidden in the same location in a 2nd identical box. Results of Experiment 2 indicated that the rats primarily remembered the spatial location of the token within the box in relation to extramaze objects and the walls of the experimental box. Female rats also remembered the chip's location in relation to objects inside the box, but males did not. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rats' ability to locate the buried token did not depend on detection of the odor of the token. In the discussion I propose that spatial memory in kangaroo rats may have evolved as a result of an overall change in the ontogeny of the species rather than as a specialized adaptation for foraging efficiency.

  6. Burying by rats in response to aversive and nonaversive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Cleary, James; Monaghan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that rats bury a variety of conditioned and unconditioned aversive stimuli. Such burying has been considered as a species-typical defensive reaction. In the present studies, rats buried spouts filled with Tabasco sauce, or condensed milk to which a taste aversion was conditioned, but did not bury water-filled spouts or spouts filled with a palatable novel food (apple juice) to which a taste aversion was not conditioned. However, in other experiments rats consistently and repeatedly buried Purina Rat Chow, Purina Rat Chow coated with quinine, and glass marbles. This indicates that a variety of stimuli, not all aversive or novel, evoke burying by rats. Whereas the behavior may reasonably be considered as a species-typical defensive behavior in some situations, the wide range of conditions that occasion burying suggests that the behavior has no single biological function. PMID:16812198

  7. Burying by rats in response to aversive and nonaversive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Poling, A; Cleary, J; Monaghan, M

    1981-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that rats bury a variety of conditioned and unconditioned aversive stimuli. Such burying has been considered as a species-typical defensive reaction. In the present studies, rats buried spouts filled with Tabasco sauce, or condensed milk to which a taste aversion was conditioned, but did not bury water-filled spouts or spouts filled with a palatable novel food (apple juice) to which a taste aversion was not conditioned. However, in other experiments rats consistently and repeatedly buried Purina Rat Chow, Purina Rat Chow coated with quinine, and glass marbles. This indicates that a variety of stimuli, not all aversive or novel, evoke burying by rats. Whereas the behavior may reasonably be considered as a species-typical defensive behavior in some situations, the wide range of conditions that occasion burying suggests that the behavior has no single biological function.

  8. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Scholey, J W; Meyer, T W

    1989-01-01

    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In group 2 diabetic rats infusion of insulin to achieve acute blood glucose control normalized the glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient while increasing the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, so that SNGFR remained elevated. Persistent elevation of SNGFR despite normalization of the transcapillary pressure gradient was also observed in group 3 diabetic rats infused with insulin plus sufficient dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia. These studies indicate that glomerular capillary hypertension in diabetes is an acutely reversible consequence of insulin deficiency and not the result of renal hypertrophy. PMID:2649514

  9. Therapeutic effect of Captopril on rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jie

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the intervention treatment with different doses of Captopril on TNF-αcontents in serum of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rats, and to provide the theoretical proofs for clinical application of Captopril in treatments of rheumatoid diseases. Fifty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely, Group A, Group B, Group C, Group D, Group E with 10 rats in each group. Injection of Freund's complete adjuvant was employed to establish adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats. Group A was model group; after model establishment, rats were treated with 20 mL normal saline as placebo (ip.). Rats in Group B were treated with 8 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (ip.). Rats in Group C, D and E were intraperitoneally injected with 30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Captopril respectively. Rats in each group were subjected to continuous treatment for 3 weeks, and then sacrificed. Eyeballs of rats were excised and blood was collected. TNF-αcontent in serum were detected using ELISA; each group rats were compared for the hind legs arthrocele. Right ankle tissues of rats were collected to prepare section, and microscopic observation of pathological changes was performed. TNF-αcontent in serum of Group A rats was significantly higher than that of rats in other 4 groups (P<0.05). TNF-αcontent in serum of Group B rats was significantly lower compared with that of rats in Groups C, D and E. The highest TNF-αcontent in serum of rats treated with Captopril was found in Group C, followed by Groups D and E (P<0.05). Right ankle arthrocele of rats in Groups B, C, D and E in early stage showed no statistical difference compared with that of Group A rats (P>0.05). From Day 8, ankle arthrocele of rats in Groups B, C, D and E was obviously relieved compared with that of Group A rats; the anti-inflammatory effects were gradually enhanced with the extension of medication time. Treatments of Groups C, D and E showed significant activities against tardive

  10. Taurine in the osmoregulation of the Brattleboro rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nieminen, M.J.; Tuomisto, L.; Solatunturi, E.; Eriksson, L.; Paasonen, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The function of taurine in mammalian osmoregulation was studied in the Brattleboro rat with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI). DI rats are chronically dehydrated because of their inability to synthesize vasopressin. One day of water deprivation did not affect the water balance in rats with normal vasopressin synthesis, whereas DI rats were markedly dehydrated and lost considerably body weight. Taurine content and /sup 3/H-taurine accumulation by platelets were significantly higher in DI rats, with a further increase after one day of water deprivation. In DI rats, water deprivation also evoked a clear taurine increase in skeletal muscle and in the brain. These findings indicate that taurine has an osmoregulatory function in mammals.

  11. Sleep deprivation in the rat: III. Total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Everson, C A; Bergmann, B M; Rechtschaffen, A

    1989-02-01

    Ten rats were subjected to total sleep deprivation (TSD) by the disk apparatus. All TSD rats died or were sacrificed when death seemed imminent within 11-32 days. No anatomical cause of death was identified. All TSD rats showed a debilitated appearance, lesions on their tails and paws, and weight loss in spite of increased food intake. Their yoked control (TSC) rats remained healthy. Since dehydration was ruled out and several measures indicated accelerated use rather than failure to absorb nutrients, the food-weight changes in TSD rats were attributed to increased energy expenditure (EE). The measurement of EE, based upon caloric value of food, weight, and wastes, indicated that all TSD rats increased EE, with mean levels reaching more than twice baseline values.

  12. Inhibitory effects of TRK-530 on rat adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, M; Funaba, Y; Itoh, M; Kawabe, N; Nakadate-Matsushita, T

    1998-05-01

    TRK-530 is a novel bisphosphonate derivative. We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of TRK-530 on adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats. When TRK-530 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg was administered for 2 weeks to AA rats, it inhibited destructive changes in arthritic joints such as paw edema, bone loss and joint degeneration. TRK-530 also inhibited splenomegaly and suppressed the increase in serum sialic acid which is measured as a systemic parameter of inflammation. To clarify the inhibitory mechanism of TRK-530, interleukin-1 (IL-1)-like activities of resident peritoneal macrophages in AA rats given TRK-530 were compared with those of control rats. We found that TRK-530 inhibited IL-1-like activity induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide 6 weeks after administration when the IL-1-like activities of control rats were still at high levels. These findings suggest that TRK-530 exerts anti-inflammatory activities in AA rats.

  13. Intrastriatal chromospheres' transplant reduces nociception in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Paz, Alejandra; Drucker-Colín, René; Milán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Ambriz-Tututi, Mónica

    2017-09-08

    The present study evaluates the possible antinociceptive effect of chromosphere transplants in rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a model of Parkinson's disease. Male adult Wistar rats received 40μg/0.5μl of 6-OHDA or 0.5μl of vehicle into the left substantia nigra (SNc). Rats were evaluated for mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and formalin. Rats with altered nociceptive threshold were transplanted with chromospheres. After transplant, rats were evaluated every week. Our results confirm that 6-OHDA injection into rat's SNc reduces mechanical, thermal, and chemical thresholds. Interestingly, chromospheres' transplant reverted 6-OHDA-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. The antinociceptive effect induced by chromospheres was dopamine D2- and opioid-receptor dependent since sulpiride or naltrexone reverted its effect. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The emerging role for rat models in gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Dwinell, Melinda R.; Lazar, Jozef; Geurts, Aron M.

    2011-01-01

    Rat models have been used for many decades to study physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Prior to the release of the rat genome and new technologies for targeting gene manipulation, the rat had been the underdog in the genomics era, despite the abundance of physiological data compared to the mouse. The overarching goal of biomedical research is to improve health and advance medical science. Translating human disease gene discovery and validation in the rat, through the use of emerging technologies and integrated tools and databases, is providing power to understand the genetics, environmental influences, and biology of disease. In this review, we will briefly outline the rat models, bioinformatic tools, and technologies that are changing the landscape of translational research. The strategies used to translate disease traits to genes to function, and ultimately, to improve human health will be discussed. Finally, our perspectives on how rat models will continue to positively impact biomedical research will be provided. PMID:21732192

  15. Effect of isometamidium hydrochloride on Trypanosoma evansi infections in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Upendra; Jas, Ruma; Ghosh, J D

    2009-12-01

    Effect of Isometamidium treatment of rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi was studied under experimental condition. The infection resulted in 100 per cent mortality by 7 day post treatment (DPT) in the infected untreated rats (Gr.II) and Isometamidium-HCl exerted 90 percent anti-trypanosomal efficacy. Haematological studies of all the groups on 3 day post infection (DPI) and on 7 DPT showed that T. evansi infection significantly decreased haematological values, however Isometamidium treatment significantly (P < 0.05) improved Hb and PCV without any significant changes in TEC and TLC values. Serum AST and ALT activities were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the treated rats compared to healthy rats. Treatment with Isometamidium-HCl significantly improved blood glucose level but decreased creatinine level compared to pretreatment values. There was no significant change in BUN level of treated rats but the value was higher (P < 0.01) compared to healthy rats.

  16. Leucocyte function in rats with naturally occurring gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Ohura, K; Shinohara, M; Ogata, K; Nishiyama, A; Mori, M

    1990-01-01

    The severity of gingivitis in relation to abnormal macrophage chemotaxis and superoxide (O2-) production was investigated in rats with naturally occurring gingivitis (plaque-susceptible rats). Macrophage chemotaxis was measured by the membrane filter method; zymosan-activated serum was used as a chemo-attractant. O2- production was measured by the reduction of cytochrome c method. Opsonized zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 were used as stimulants. The macrophage chemotaxis and O2- production in the plaque-susceptible rats with deep pockets were significantly lower than those in the susceptible rats with shallow pockets or the normal group. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the severity of gingivitis in plaque-susceptible rats and macrophage chemotaxis or O2- production. These findings suggest that impairement of the host defence mechanisms due to the reduction in macrophage chemotaxis and O2- production is related to the progression of periodontal disease in plaque-susceptible rats.

  17. Prazosin lowers plasma triglyceride concentration in rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M; Dall'Aglio, E

    1982-01-01

    Prazosin was administered by intraperitoneal injection (0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg) to normal chow-fed male rats for 14 days. Mean +/- SEM plasma triglyceride levels were lower (p less than 0.001) in the prazosin-treated rats (74 +/- 12 mg/dl and 72 +/- 9 mg/dl) than in saline-injected control rats (115 +/- 11 mg/dl). This effect was associated with commensurate reductions in very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion in prazosin-treated rats. No changes were noted in either plasma total or high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, prazosin was capable of reducing by approximately 50% the elevation in plasma triglyceride concentration produced by a high glucose diet in control rats. The mechanism of the observed effect of prazosin on very low density lipoprotein metabolism in the rat remains to be defined.

  18. The effect of diet fat on rat adipocyte glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Ip, C; Tepperman, H M; De Witt, J; Tepperman, J

    1977-05-01

    Rats were fed either a high fat diet (67% of calories as lard) or high glucose diet (67% of calories as glucose) for 7-8 days. Basal and insulin stimulated net uptake of D glucose (D-L) and 2 deoxy D glucose uptake by free fat cells of fat rats were depressed. Net transport of D glucose (D-L) by purified adipocyte plasma membranes of fat red rats was also diminished. Incubation of fat cells from glucose fed rats with insulin before homogenization for membrane preparation increased net D glucose transport by subsequently purified membranes in two experiments to a greater extent than in similar preparations from rat fed rats. These experiments suggest that fat feeding modifies the plasma membranes of fat cells so that both glucose transport and the stimulatory effect of insulin on the process are decreased.

  19. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Worst Friend: the Rat.

    PubMed

    Fox, James G

    2015-12-01

    Historically, the rat has been considered a scourge to mankind, for example, rats infected with the plague bacillus that caused the Black Death, which accounted for millions of deaths in Europe during the Middle Ages. At least three pandemics (in the 5th and 6th, 8th through 14th, and 19th through 21st centuries) of plague ravaged civilizations, and the disease undoubtedly plagued humankind prior to recorded history. Also, numerous other diseases are spread to humans by rats; thus, a quote from Hans Zinsser's text Rats, Lice, and History, "Man and rat will always be pitted against each other as implacable enemies," conveys the general revulsion that society holds for the wild rat.

  20. Discriminative and reinforcing stimulus properties of music for rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Y; Yanagi, J; Watanabe, S

    2009-02-01

    We trained rats to discriminate music by Bach from that by Stravinsky using operant conditioning. The rats successfully learned the discrimination and transferred their discrimination to novel music by the same artists. Then, we trained rats on concurrent-chain schedule in which the terminal links were associated with different music, Bach or Stravinsky. The rats did not show strong preference for either style of music, although one subject showed a preference for Bach and another subject preferred Stravinsky. Finally, we examined the validity of the concurrent-chain procedure as a method of preference measurement with conspecific vocalization evoked by an aversive experience. Most of the rats preferred white noise to the conspecific vocalization. Therefore, music has a discriminative stimulus property but not a clear reinforcing property for rats.

  1. Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1989-01-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

  2. Germline transmission of a novel rat embryonic stem cell line derived from transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Men, Hongsheng; Bauer, Beth A; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2012-09-20

    Germline-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are important resources for the creation of mutant rat models using ES-cell-based gene targeting technology. The ability to isolate germline-competent ES cell lines from any rat strain, including genetically modified strains, would allow for more sophisticated genetic manipulations without extensive breeding. Sprague Dawley (SD) males carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene were used as the founder animals for the derivation of ES cell lines. A number of ES cell lines were established and subjected to rigorous quality control testing that included assessment of pluripotency factor expression, karyotype analysis, and pathogen/sterility testing. Two male ES cell lines, SD-Tg.EC1/Rrrc and SD-Tg.EC8/Rrrc, were injected into blastocysts recovered from a cross of Dark Agouti (DA) males with SD females. Resulting chimeric animals were bred with wild-type SD mates to verify the germline transmissibility of the ES cell lines by identifying pups carrying the ES cell line-derived EGFP transgene. While both ES cell lines gave rise to chimeric animals, only SD-Tg.EC1 was germline competent. This confirms the feasibility of deriving germline-competent ES cell lines from transgenic rat strains and provides a novel ES cell line with a stable green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter for future genetic manipulations to create new rat models.

  3. Rat umbilical cord blood cells attenuate hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Keiko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Mizutani, Yuka; Ito, Miharu; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Higashi, Yujiro

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCBC) have a favorable effect on hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury. However, the efficacy of using hUCBCs to treat this injury has been variable and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigated its effectiveness using stereological analysis in an allogeneic system to examine whether intraperitoneal injection of cells derived from UCBCs of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats could ameliorate brain injury in neonatal rats. Three weeks after the HI event, the estimated residual brain volume was larger and motor function improved more in the cell-injected rats than in the control (PBS-treated) rats. The GFP-positive cells were hardly detectable in the brain (0.0057% of injected cells) 9 days after injection. Although 60% of GFP-positive cells in the brain were Iba1-positive, none of these were positive for NeuroD or DCX. While the number of proliferating cells increased in the hippocampus, that of activated microglia/macrophages decreased and a proportion of M2 microglia/macrophages increased in the ipsilateral hemisphere of cell-injected rats. These results suggest that intraperitoneal injection of cells derived from UCBCs could ameliorate HI injury, possibly through an endogenous response and not by supplying differentiated neurons derived from the injected stem cells. PMID:28281676

  4. The Metabolism and Toxicity of Menthofuran in Rat Liver Slices and in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khojasteh, S. Cyrus; Oishi, Shimako; Nelson, Sidney D.

    2010-01-01

    Menthofuran is a monoterpene present in mint plants that is oxidized by mammalian cytochrome P450 (CYP)1 to hepatotoxic metabolites. Evidence has been presented that p-cresol and other unusual oxidative products are metabolites of menthofuran in rats, and that p-cresol may be responsible in part for the hepatotoxicity caused by menthofuran (Madyastha and Raj, Drug Metabolism and Disposition 20, 295–301, 1992). In the present study, several oxidative metabolites of menthofuran were characterized in rat and human liver microsomes, and in rat liver slices exposed to cytotoxic concentrations of menthofuran. Metabolites that were identified were monohydroxylation products of the furanyl and cyclohexyl groups, mintlactones and hydroxymintlactones, a reactive γ-ketoenal, and a glutathione conjugate. A similar spectrum of metabolites was found in urine 24 hr after the administration of hepatotoxic doses of menthofuran to rats. In no case was p-cresol (or any of the other reported unusual oxidative metabolites of menthofuran) detected above background concentrations that were well below concentrations of p-cresol that cause cytotoxicity in rat liver slices. Thus, the major metabolites responsible for the hepatotoxic effects of menthofuran appear to be a γ-ketoenal and/or epoxides formed by oxidation of the furan ring. PMID:20945912

  5. City rats: insight from rat spatial behavior into human cognition in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-09-01

    The structure and shape of the urban environment influence our ability to find our way about in the city. Understanding how the physical properties of the environment affect spatial behavior and cognition is therefore a necessity. However, there are inherent difficulties in empirically studying complex and large-scale urban environments. These include the need to isolate the impact of specific urban features and to acquire data on the physical activity of individuals. In the present study, we attempted to overcome the above obstacles and examine the relation between urban environments and spatial cognition by testing the spatial behavior of rats. This idea originated from the resemblance in the operative brain functions and in the mechanisms and strategies employed by humans and other animals when acquiring spatial information and establishing an internal representation, as revealed in past studies. Accordingly, we tested rats in arenas that simulated a grid urban layout (e.g. Manhattan streets) and an irregular urban layout (e.g. Jerusalem streets). We found that in the grid layout, rat movement was more structured and extended over a greater area compared with their restricted movement in the irregular layout. These movement patterns recall those of humans in respective urban environments, illustrating that the structure and shape of the environment affect spatial behavior similarly in humans and rats. Overall, testing rats in environments that simulate facets of urban environments can provide new insights into human spatial cognition in urban environments.

  6. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. Progress is described in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; (3) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration. 59 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Bacterial formation of omega-muricholic acid in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sacquet, E C; Raibaud, P M; Mejean, C; Riottot, M J; Leprince, C; Leglise, P C

    1979-01-01

    In the feces of conventional rats, the amount of omega-muricholic and hyodeoxycholic acids vary according to the diet. To understand this phenomenon, we investigated the bacterial formation of these bile acids. The present paper reports the first isolation, from conventional rat feces, of a strain of Clostridium group III which transforms beta-muricholic acid, the main bile acid in germfree rats, into omega-muricholic acid. PMID:485143

  8. Acute Inhalation of Explosively Disseminated Carbon Fibers in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    aerosol is respirable and if it adversely affects rodents. Groups of 344 male Fischer rats were exposed to one of the three concentrations of carbon...inhalation XM81 grenade Aerosol 113 Respirable diameter Carbon fibers IF PRICE CODE Explosive dissemination Fischer 344 rats 17. SECURITY CLASSVICATION 11...description of the grenade components is in Appendix A. 2.2 Animal Utilization/Husbandry/Necropsy. Male Fischer 344 rats were purchased from Charles River

  9. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  10. Distraction of skeletal muscle: evolution of a rat model.

    PubMed

    Green, Stuart A; Horton, Eric; Baker, Michael; Utkan, Ali; Caiozzo, Vincent

    2002-10-01

    To better study the effects of limb lengthening on skeletal muscle, the authors developed a rat model that uses a miniature external skeletal fixator applied to the tibia of an adult Sprague-Dawley rat. The mounting and lengthening protocols follow the principles developed by Ilizarov. With the initial version of the fixator, the rats had progressive equinus contractures develop because the calf muscles resisted elongation. By incorporating a footplate in the distraction apparatus, tibial lengthening can be achieved without concomitant equinus.

  11. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-01-01

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant. PMID:15726100

  12. Generation of TALEN-mediated FH knockout rat model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Zhirui; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Long; Xu, Benling; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Hongquan; Ji, Zhenyu; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-09-20

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are valuable tools for precise genome engineering of laboratory animals. Here we utilized this technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a fumarate hydratase (FH) gene knockout rat model, in which there was an 11 base-pair deletion in the first exon of the FH gene in 111 rats. 18 live-born targeted mutation offsprings were produced from 80 injected zygotes with 22.5% efficiency, indicating high TALEN knockout success in rat zygots. Only heterozygous deletion was observed in the offsprings. Sixteen pairs of heterozygous FH knockout (FH+/-) rats were arranged for mating experiments for six months without any homozygous KO rat identified. Sequencing from the pregnant rats embryo samples showed no homozygous FH KO, indicating that homozygous FH KO is embryonically lethal. Comparatively, the litter size was decreased in both male and female FH+/- KO rats. There was no behaviour difference between the FH+/- KO and the control rats except that the FH+/- KO male rats showed significantly higher body weight in the 16-week observation period. Clinical haematology and biochemical examinations showed hematopoietic and kidney dysfunction in the FH+/- KO rats. Small foci of anaplastic lesions of tubular epithelial cells around glomeruli were identified in the FH+/- kidney, and these anaplastic cells were comparatively positive for Ki67, p53 and Sox9, and such findings are most probably related to the kidney dysfunction reflected by the biochemical examinations of the rats. In conclusion, we have successfully established an FH+/- KO rat model, which will be useful for further functional FH studies.

  13. An investigation of sterile immunity against toxoplasmosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Freyre, A; Falcón, J; Mendez, J; Correa, O; Morgades, D; Rodríguez, A

    2004-01-01

    The non-persistent BK strain was examined for its ability to induce sterile immunity in Wistar rats. Groups of 2-9 Wistar rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 5 x 10(4) BK strain tachyzoites per rat. Two months later, 46 rats were dosed by gavage with 2 x 10(1) cysts of the C, ME-49, Prugniaud, C-56, Elg, M-7741 or M3 strains. Another 26 rats were inoculated with 10(3) oocysts of the ME49, M7741, Bear or Hopa-Hopa strains of Toxoplasma gondii. After 2 months, the rats were euthanized and their brains screened microscopically for toxoplasma tissue cysts and bioassayed in mice if negative. As judged by bioassay, the BK strain of Toxoplasma induced statistically significant protection against reinfection only when rats were challenged with cysts of the C and Prugniaud strains or with oocysts of the ME49 strain. Nonetheless, cysts were detected microscopically only in 23% of brains of immunized rats challenged with oocysts of the Bear and Hopa-Hopa strains of Toxoplasma and none of those challenged with tissue cysts of any strain. Tissue cysts were detected in 43 and 48% of non-immunized control rats infected with tissue cysts and oocysts, respectively. The overall infection in control rats (microscopy and bioassay) was 70 and 72% for rats inoculated with cysts and oocysts, respectively. These results are consistent with the divergent results obtained by other investigators with regard to protection after challenge with different complete strains (cyst and oocysts forming) of the parasite, of rats immunized with incomplete strains.

  14. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in pituitary-grafted Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    Esquifino, Ana I; Cano, Pilar; Zapata, Agustín; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of susceptible rats with dopaminergic agonists that reduce prolactin release decreases both severity and duration of clinical signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). To assess to what extent the presence of an ectopic pituitary (that produces an increase in plasma prolactin levels mainly derived from the ectopic gland) affects EAE, 39 male Lewis rats were submitted to pituitary grafting from littermate donors. Another group of 38 rats was sham-operated by implanting a muscle fragment similar in size to the pituitary graft. All rats received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) plus spinal cord homogenate (SCH) and were monitored daily for clinical signs of EAE. Animals were killed by decapitation on days 1, 4, 7, 11 or 15 after immunization and plasma was collected for prolactin RIA. In a second experiment, 48 rats were immunized by s.c. injection of a mixture of SCH and CFA, and then received daily s.c. injections of bromocriptine (1 mg/kg) or saline. Groups of 8 animals were killed on days 8, 11 or 15 after immunization and plasma prolactin was measured. Only sham-operated rats exhibited clinical signs of the disease when assessed on day 15 after immunization. A progressive decrease in plasma prolactin levels was observed in pituitary-grafted rats, attaining a minimum 15 days after immunization, whereas plasma prolactin levels were increased during the course of the disease in sham-operated rats. Plasma prolactin levels were higher in pituitary-grafted rats than in sham-operated rats 1 day after immunization, but lower on days 7, 11 and 15 after immunogen injection. Further supporting a correlation of suppressed prolactin levels with absence of clinical signs of EAE, rats that were administered the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine showed very low plasma prolactin levels and did not exhibit any clinical sign of EAE. These results indicate that low circulating prolactin levels coincide with absence of

  15. Generation of TALEN-mediated FH knockout rat model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Zhirui; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Long; Xu, Benling; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Hongquan; Ji, Zhenyu; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are valuable tools for precise genome engineering of laboratory animals. Here we utilized this technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a fumarate hydratase (FH) gene knockout rat model, in which there was an 11 base-pair deletion in the first exon of the FH gene in 111 rats. 18 live-born targeted mutation offsprings were produced from 80 injected zygotes with 22.5% efficiency, indicating high TALEN knockout success in rat zygots. Only heterozygous deletion was observed in the offsprings. Sixteen pairs of heterozygous FH knockout (FH+/−) rats were arranged for mating experiments for six months without any homozygous KO rat identified. Sequencing from the pregnant rats embryo samples showed no homozygous FH KO, indicating that homozygous FH KO is embryonically lethal. Comparatively, the litter size was decreased in both male and female FH+/− KO rats. There was no behaviour difference between the FH+/− KO and the control rats except that the FH+/− KO male rats showed significantly higher body weight in the 16-week observation period. Clinical haematology and biochemical examinations showed hematopoietic and kidney dysfunction in the FH+/− KO rats. Small foci of anaplastic lesions of tubular epithelial cells around glomeruli were identified in the FH+/− kidney, and these anaplastic cells were comparatively positive for Ki67, p53 and Sox9, and such findings are most probably related to the kidney dysfunction reflected by the biochemical examinations of the rats. In conclusion, we have successfully established an FH+/− KO rat model, which will be useful for further functional FH studies. PMID:27556703

  16. Leptin Influences Healing in the Sprague Dawley Rat Fracture Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengcheng; Cai, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Leptin plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, and its level is related to bone callus formation in the fracture repair process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant leptin on the healing process of femoral fractures in rats. Material/Methods Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with an average body weight of 389 g (range: 376–398 g) and an average age of 10 weeks were included in this animal research, and all rats were randomly divided into two major groups. Then standardized femur fracture models were implemented in all SD rats. Rats in the control group were treated with only 0.5 mL of physiological saline, and rats in the experimental group were treated with recombinant leptin 5 μg/kg/d along with the same 0.5 mL of physiological saline for 42 days intraperitoneally. At the same time, each major group was evenly divided into three parallel subgroups for each parallel bone evaluation separately at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks. Each subgroup included eight rats. Results The total radiological evaluation results showed that the healing progress of femoral fracture in the experimental group was superior to that in the control group from the fourth week. At the sixth week, experimental group rats began to present significantly better femoral fracture healing progress than that of the control group rats. Results of biomechanics show the ultimate load (N) and deflection ultimate load (mm) of the experimental group rats was significantly increased compared with that of the control group rats from the fourth week. Conclusions Our results suggest that leptin may have a positive effect on SD rat femur fracture healing. PMID:28088810

  17. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  18. Methylmercury toxicity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Tamashiro, H.; Arakaki, M.; Akagi, H.; Hirayama, K.; Smolensky, M.H.

    1986-05-01

    Information is scant on both environmental and individual factors as potentiators of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in human beings and other animal species. Hypertension is quite common among the inhabitants of MeHg-polluted areas. It is of special interest to learn what is the health consequence among the hypertensives who have been exposed to MeHg for a prolonged period of time. This study was designed to delineate the toxicity of MeHg in animals having high blood pressure using the laboratory model of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). This paper presents the mortality as well as distribution of mercury in the tissues of SHR and control rats treated orally with methylmercury chloride for 10 consecutive days.

  19. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, Boris H.; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea (ex vivo). Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a Sprague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images (over regions of interest, 1 X 1 mm-2 X 8 mm) were obtained with a spatial resolution of 10 - 15 micrometers . The osseous borders of the lateral membranous labyrinth overlying the cochlea and the scala vestibuli, media, and tympani, which were well demarcated by the modiolus, Reissner's and the basilar membranes, were clearly identified. OCT can be used to image internal structures in the cochlea without violating the osseous labyrinth using simple surgical exposure of the promontory, and may potentially be used to diagnose inner ear pathology in vivo in both animal and human subjects labyrinth.

  20. Secretin: specific binding to rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Fremeau, R.T. Jr.; Jensen, R.T.; Charlton, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Moody, T.W.

    1983-08-01

    The binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin to rat brain membranes was investigated. Radiolabeled secretin bound with high affinity (KD . 0.2 nM) to a single class of noninteracting sites. Binding was specific, saturable, and reversible. Regional distribution studies indicated that the specific binding was greatest in the cerebellum, intermediate in the cortex, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, and lowest in the midbrain and medulla/pons. Pharmacological studies indicated that only secretin, but not other peptides, inhibits binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin with high affinity. Also, certain guanine nucleotides inhibited high affinity binding. These data indicate that rat brain membranes possess high affinity binding sites specific for secretin and that with the use of (/sup 125/I) secretin the kinetics, stoichiometry, specificity, and distribution of secretin receptors can be directly investigated.

  1. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  2. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  3. Serotonergic innervation of the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Campos, M B; Vitale, M L; Calandra, R S; Chiocchio, S R

    1990-03-01

    The presence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was determined by h.p.l.c. in perchloric extracts of each isolated compartment of the adult rat testis. The testicular capsule, interstitial cells and interstitial fluid contained 5-HT, but 5-HT was not detected in the tubular compartment. In a group of adult rats, one testis was unilaterally denervated, and the contralateral testis used as control. The superior spermatic nerve, arising from the renal plexus, was excised and 1 week after surgery 5-HT content was measured in the capsule and interstitial fluid of both testes. Denervation caused a significant fall (34%) in 5-HT content. These results indicate that at least part of the testicular 5-HT derives from a serotonergic innervation of the gonad.

  4. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  5. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Richardson, Heather N; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each.

  6. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  7. RATS: the photometric data reduction automatic pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granata, V.; Montalto, M.; Contri, L.; Claudi, R.; Piotto, G.

    2006-02-01

    The automatic photometric pipeline provides a real time images reduction and directly the light curves of object in the field within the RATS project (RAdial Velocities Transit Search). The light curves themselves will be analyzed in order to catch light dimming due to a transit. For this purpose, the algorithm needs as input files a list of fits images taken at Schmidt Telescope of Asiago (INAF, Italy), a reference master list of stars and three files with the optional parameters for the DAOPHOT photometry package (Stetson 1987, PASP, 99, 191). The master list is previously obtained from a photometric characterization of the field (for more details: http://www.rats.it and Claudi et al. 2006, in Observatoire de Haute Provence Colloquium, Tenth Anniversary of 51 Peg-b: Status of and prospects for hot Jupiter studies, 22-25 August 2005, eds. Arnold, L., Bouchy, F. and Moutou, C., 350).

  8. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  9. Zinc feeding and fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Samanta, K; Pal, B

    1986-01-01

    Supplementation of the diet of adult male rats with 4,000 ppm zinc as ZnSO4 for 30 to 32 days increased the zinc content in the testis and sperm by 25 and 18 per cent respectively, but did not change the same in accessory reproductive tissues, e.g. epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The incidence of conception from mating between normal females and zinc fed males was lower as compared to mating between normal females and control males. This observation indicated reduced fertility of the males resulting from additional zinc ingestion. Motility of the sperm collected from the epididymis (tail) of the zinc treated rats was found to be inhibited. It has been suggested that excess zinc in the sperm was responsible for their poor motility and hence a reduced fertilising capacity.

  10. Antiorthostatic hypokinesia and circulation in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Circulatory mechanisms that occur during exposure to head-down hypokinesia as well as during readaptation to control conditions were studied on unanesthetized unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to hypokinesia for seven days. The heart rate was slightly elevated, and the right atrial pressure increased to 4 mm Hg, but returned to 0 mm Hg after three days of exposure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 118 to 100 mm Hg during early exposure to antiorthostatic hypokinesia. Cardiac output and stroke volume of resting rats increased during early exposure to hypokinesia but decreased continuously during the next seven days. The results indicate that antiorthostatic hypokinesia induces circulatory changes similar to those seen in astronauts after several days of exposure to 0 g forces.

  11. Amantadine stimulates sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M R; Santos, R

    1995-08-01

    The effects of amantadine on sexual behavior, penile erection, and seminal emission of male rats was studied. Amantadine significantly decreased latency of mounts in all doses (1.25 to 50 mg/kg), and decreased the number of mounts and intromission latency at the highest doses used. The lowest dose of amantadine significantly increased ejaculation latency and intromission frequency, while higher doses significantly reduced it, which indicates a biphasic response of the drug. Additionally, seminal emission, erections, and genital grooming were significantly induced by amantadine. Amantadine-induced seminal emissions were impaired by spinal cord transection, which suggests the involvement of supraspinal structures in the drug action. Haloperidol and atropine sulphate significantly reduced seminal emissions and penile erections induced by amantadine. These results demonstrate that amantadine stimulates sexual behavior and genital reflexes in male rats and suggest a facilitatory effect of the drug that probably involves different mechanisms of action.

  12. Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas P.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a 7-day spaceflight (aboard NASA's SL-3) on the size and the metabolism of single fibers from several rat muscles was investigated along with the specificity of these responses as related to the muscle type and the size of fibers. It was found that the loss of mass after flight was varied from 36 percent in the soleus to 15 percent in the extensor digitorum longus. Results of histochemical analyses showed that the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in muscles of flight-exposed rats was maintained at the control levels, whereas the alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was either maintained or increased. The analyses of the metabolic profiles of ATPase, SDH, and GPD indicated that, in some muscles, there was an increase in the poportion of fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.

  13. Tumorigenesis by oxygenated nitrosopiperidines in rats.

    PubMed

    Lijinsky, W; Taylor, H W

    1975-09-01

    Three oxygenated N-nitrosopiperidines--nitroso-3-piperidinol, nitroso-4-piperidinol, and nitroso-4-piperidone--were prepared and given in drinking water at equivalent molar doses to Sprague-Dawley rats. All were potent carcinogens, 100% of the rats developed tumors in all treatment groups. Nitroso-3-piperidinol resembled nitrosopiperidine in inducing a high incidence of tumors of the nasal cavity and upper alimentary tract, and a few liver tumors. Nitroso-4-piperidinol and nitroso-4-piperidone caused a high incidence of tumors of the nasal cavity but very few tumors of the upper alimentary tract. After treatment with the 4-substituted compounds, a high incidence of liver tumors was observed in females but not in males.

  14. Amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis in lactating rats fed on a liquid diet.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, T; García de la Asunción, J; Puertes, I R; Viña, J R

    1990-01-01

    1. Amino acid metabolism was studied in control virgin rats, lactating rats and virgin rats protein-pair-fed with the lactating rats (high-protein virgin rats). 2. Urinary excretion of nitrogen and urea was higher in lactating than in control virgin rats, and in high-protein virgin rats it was higher than in lactating rats. 3. The activities of urea-cycle enzymes (units/g) were higher in high-protein virgin than in lactating rats, except for arginase. In lactating rats the activities of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase and argininosuccinate synthase were lower than in control virgin rats. When the liver size is considered, the activities in lactating rats were similar to those in high-protein virgin rats, except for arginase. 4. N-Acetylglutamate content was higher in high-protein virgin rats than in the other two groups. 5. The rate of urea synthesis from precursors by isolated hepatocytes was higher in high-protein virgin rats than in the other two groups. 6. The flooding-dose method (L-[4-3H]phenylalanine) for measuring protein synthesis was used. The absolute synthesis rates of mammary gland, liver and small-intestinal mucosa were higher in lactating rats than in the other two groups, and in high-protein virgin rats than in control virgin rats 7. These results show that the increased needs for amino acids during lactation are met by hyperphagia and by a nitrogen-sparing mechanism. PMID:2396994

  15. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  16. MODELING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND PHARMACOKINETICS IN RAT PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PBPK model predictions of internal dosimetry in young rats were compared to adult animals for benzene, chloroform (CHL), methylene chloride, methyl ethly ketone (MEK), perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene.

  17. Fasting prevents acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein in rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, M; Tani, S; Okabayashi, Y; Fujii, M; Nakamura, T; Fujisawa, T; Koide, M; Itoh, H

    1990-07-01

    We examined the effect of fasting on the course of experimental acute pancreatitis induced in rats by four subcutaneous injections of 20 micrograms/kg body weight of cerulein at hourly intervals. Rats were either fasted from 24 hr before to 9 hr after the first cerulein injection or fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Twenty-four hours of fasting reduced cerulein-induced increases in serum levels of amylase and anionic trypsin(ogen) to 50 and 70% of those in fed rats, respectively. Increases in pancreatic wet weight after cerulein injections were also less in fasted rats than in fed rats. Pancreatic content of trypsin was significantly decreased after a 24-hr fast, and no further changes were induced by cerulein injections. The histological signs of acute pancreatitis were greatly alleviated by fasting. However, 24 hr of fasting did not alter the sensitivity and responsiveness of the exocrine pancreas to cerulein in both in vivo and in vitro. Plasma CCK bioactivity and immunoreactive secretin concentration in 24-hr-fasted rats were significantly lower than those in fed rats. Administration of CCK receptor antagonist, loxiglumide, 12 hr prior to the induction of acute pancreatitis reduced the increase in serum amylase activity in fed rats to nearly the same levels as that in fasted rats and alleviated histological signs of pancreatitis to some extent. These present observations suggest that fasting lessens the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by reducing endogenous CCK release.

  18. Toxicological analysis in rats subjected to heroin and morphine overdose.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Joakim J; Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Alkass, Kanar; Gustavsson, Anna; Zahlsen, Kolbjørn; Spigset, Olav; Druid, Henrik

    2006-09-30

    In heroin overdose deaths the blood morphine concentration varies substantially. To explore possible pharmacokinetic explanations for variable sensitivity to opiate toxicity we studied mortality and drug concentrations in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with heroin, 21.5 mg/kg, or morphine, 223 mg/kg, causing a 60-80% mortality among drug-naïve rats. Additional groups of rats were pre-treated with morphine for 14 days, with or without 1 week of subsequent abstinence. Brain, lung and blood samples were analyzed for 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. i.v. morphine administration to drug-naïve rats resulted in both rapid and delayed deaths. The brain morphine concentration conformed to an exponential elimination curve in all samples, ruling out accumulation of morphine as an explanation for delayed deaths. This study found no support for formation of toxic concentration of morphine-6-glucuronide. Spontaneous death among both heroin and morphine rats occurred at fairly uniform brain morphine concentrations. Morphine pre-treatment significantly reduced mortality upon i.v. morphine injection, but the protective effect was less evident upon i.v. heroin challenge. The morphine pre-treatment still afforded some protection after 1 week of abstinence among rats receiving i.v. morphine, whereas rats given i.v. heroin showed similar death rate as drug-naïve rats.

  19. Spaceflight alters bone mechanics and modeling drifts in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Vajda, E G; Wronski, T J; Halloran, B P; Bachus, K N; Miller, S C

    2001-08-01

    Alterations in bone metabolism may be a particularly serious consequence of spaceflight and a major obstacle to long-term space exploration. The effects of spaceflight on bone mechanics are unclear. This study examined the effects of spaceflight on bone mechanics in a growing rat model during a 17-d mission aboard the space shuttle (STS-78). There were 18 rats that were divided into 3 experimental groups: flight rats (n = 6), ground-based control rats housed in an animal enclosure module (AEM, n = 6), and ground-based control rats housed in standard vivarium caging (n = 6). At the conclusion of the mission, rat femurs were tested in three-point bending followed by static and dynamic bone histomorphometry. Maximum stress was unaffected by spaceflight, but flexural rigidity was significantly decreased in flight animals. Much of the decrease appeared to be the result of decreases in tissue properties (elastic modulus) rather than structural changes within the bone. No significant differences in cortical bone mass or geometry were observed. In contrast, endocortical resorption was significantly decreased in flight rats accompanied by a nonsignificant decrease in periosteal bone formation, suggesting alterations in bone modeling drifts during spaceflight. For nearly all measured indices, ground-based AEM rats displayed values intermediate to flight and ground-based vivarium rats. Spaceflight can impair tissue properties in femoral cortical bone during growth without significant decreases in bone mass or geometry.

  20. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco; Haaning, Line Lindegaard; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2014-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae, the 5′-3′ exonuclease Rat1p partakes in transcription termination. Although Rat1p-mediated RNA degradation has been suggested to play a role for this activity, the exact mechanisms by which Rat1p helps release RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from the DNA template are poorly understood. Here we describe a function of Rat1p in regulating phosphorylation levels of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNAPII subunit, Rpb1p, during transcription elongation. The rat1-1 mutant exhibits highly elevated levels of CTD phosphorylation as well as RNAPII distribution and transcription termination defects. These phenotypes are all rescued by overexpression of the CTD phosphatase Fcp1p, suggesting a functional relationship between the absence of Rat1p activity, elevated CTD phosphorylation, and transcription defects. We also demonstrate that rat1-1 cells display increased RNAPII transcription kinetics, a feature that may contribute to the cellular phenotypes of the mutant. Consistently, the rat1-1 allele is synthetic lethal with the rpb1-E1103G mutation, causing increased RNAPII speed, and is suppressed by the rpb2-10 mutation, causing slowed transcription. Thus, Rat1p plays more complex roles in controlling transcription than previously thought. PMID:24501251

  1. MODELING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND PHARMACOKINETICS IN RAT PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PBPK model predictions of internal dosimetry in young rats were compared to adult animals for benzene, chloroform (CHL), methylene chloride, methyl ethly ketone (MEK), perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene.

  2. The effect of magnesium depletion on thyroid function in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.M.; Root, A.W.; Duckett, G.E.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Yunice, A.A.; Kepford, G.

    1984-08-01

    The effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) depletion on thyroid function were studied in young male rats. The rats were fed a semipurified diet containing either 12 ppm Mg (deficient rats) or 662 ppm Mg (control rats) for 14 to 28 days. Results showed that the Mg-deficient rats had decreased body weight gain, lowered concentrations of plasma thyroxine (T4) and Mg, but increased weight of the thyroid gland when expressed in proportion to the body weight (milligrams/100 g). There was no difference in the accumulation (uptake) of 131I, 24 hours after Na131I injection, between the Mg-deficient and Mg-supplemented rats. The protein-bound 131I (PB131I) level and the ratio of PB131I to total 131I in plasma was significantly reduced in Mg-deficient rats. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after thyrotropin-releasing hormone injection (TRH, 50 ng/100 g body weight) increased fivefold at 30 minutes, but declined to near the basal level at 2 hours in both groups. No consistent difference in TSH response was observed between the two treatments. Serum T4 response to TRH challenge was significantly reduced in Mg-deficient as compared to Mg-adequate rats at all time intervals. The reduction of T4 level could be due to an impaired T4 synthesis or release in Mg-deficient rats.

  3. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  4. Effect of cadmium on bone repair in young rats.

    PubMed

    Gur, E; Waner, T; Barushka-Eizik, O; Oron, U

    1995-07-01

    The effect of cadmium (Cd) in drinking water on repair of bone at a site of hole injury to the tibia of young rats was followed using quantitative methods. The rats (3-4 wk old) were given 20 ppm and 200 ppm Cd for 5 wk and compared to a control group. A slight reduction (about 10%) in body weight and water and food consumption was observed in cadmium-exposed rats as compared to control rats. Clinical chemistry tests in the blood and histology of kidney, liver, and bone did not indicate changes related to Cd toxicity. A significant reduction (43%) in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (46%) enzymatic activity was observed at 4 and 7 d postinjury respectively, in the site of injury in the rats receiving 200 ppm Cd in drinking water as compared to control rats. Calcium accumulation in the newly formed repair tissue at the site of injury was also significantly reduced (53%) at 13 d postinjury in the Cd-treated (200 ppm) rats as compared to control rats. It is concluded that Cd probably exhibits an effect on the bone repair process as reflected by reduction in ALP activity (osteoblastic cells) and mineralization at the site of injury in the tibia of young rats.

  5. Generation of transgenic rats through induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Gui; Li, Tianda; Feng, Chunjing; Fu, Rui; Yuan, Yan; Zhou, Quan; Li, Xin; Wan, Haifeng; Wang, Liu; Li, Wei; Xiao, Yamei; Zhao, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Qi

    2013-09-20

    The rat is an important animal model for human disease research. Using inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and MAPK signaling pathways, rat embryonic stem cells and rat induced pluripotent stem cells (riPSCs) have been derived. However, unlike rat embryonic stem cells, germ line competent riPSCs have only been derived from Wistar rats at low efficiency. Here, we found that an optimized induction medium containing knock-out serum replacement and vitamin C improved the rate and efficiency of riPSCs generation from Dark Agouti rat fibroblasts and Sertoli cells. riPSCs maintained an undifferentiated status for >30 passages and could differentiate into various cells types including germ cells when injected into rat blastocysts. Moreover, transgenic riPSCs could be generated through the PiggyBac transposon, which could be used to generate transgenic rats through germ line transmission. riPSCs can be used as a novel tool in genetic and genomic studies of the rat.

  6. [Effect of sulindac on improving autistic behaviors in rats].

    PubMed

    Qin, Liyan; Dai, Xufang

    2015-08-01

    To test the effect of sulindac on autistic behaviors in a rat model and explore the possible mechanisms. Autistic rat models were established by a single intraperitoneal injection of sodium valproate (VPA) at 12.5 days of pregnancy. The pregnant rats were treated with oral sulindac at a daily dose of 80 mg/kg until weaning of the newborn rats (23 days after being born), which were divided into control, VPA treatment, sulindac treatment, and VPA+ sulindac treatment groups. The social interaction and neuroethology of the newborn rats were evaluated at 35 days, and the levels of β-catenin and phosphorylated Gsk3β in the brain tissues were investigated by Western blotting. Compared with the control rats, the rats treated with VPA showed lower social interaction, longer moving time in central area, and reduced standing times. Treatment with sulindac alone resulted in no obvious changes in the social interaction or neuroethology of the newborn rats, but sulindac treatment corrected VPA-induced autistic-like behaviors. Sulindac also attenuated VPA-triggered p-Gsk3β downregulation and β-catenin upregulation in the prefrontal lobe, seahorse and cerebellum. Sulindac can improve the behaviors of autistic rats possibly by suppressing Wnt signaling pathway.

  7. Strain differences in toxic effects of long-lasting isoflurane anaesthesia between Wistar rats and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, J M; Jilma, B

    2008-11-01

    We investigated if long-lasting (5 h) anaesthesia with isoflurane has different pharmacological effects in two different rat strains: Wistar and Sprague Dawley. The mean blood pressure was 34% higher in Sprague Dawley rats as compared to the Wistar rats (p = 0.04). In Wistar rats, the pH value decreased to 7.1, lactate increased by 53%, creatinine increased 2.7-fold, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase increased more than 4-fold and lactate dehydrogenase increased 9-fold (p < 0.05). There were no changes in laboratory parameters in Sprague Dawley rats. This indicates that the Wistar rats were more sensitive to a 5 h anaesthesia with isoflurane after a premedication with ketamin/xylazine in the described study design.

  8. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Barfield and Geyer to hypothesize that the calls reflect similar motivational states, namely, withdrawal or contact avoid- ance. 9 Ultrasounds also occur...signal reflects a state of social withdrawal . They also suggest that the emission of the call may be correlated with the male’s absolute refractory peri...Ashida, V., Makino, H., and Hata, H. Inhibition of shock-elicited ultrasonic vocalization by opioid peptides in the rat: A psychotropic effect

  9. Venous resistance increases during rat anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sen; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Wei; Takano, Hiromichi; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2008-06-01

    Anaphylactic shock is a sudden, life-threatening allergic reaction associated with severe hypotension. The increased venous resistance accounts for the anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized dogs. However, the change in peripheral vascular resistances during anaphylactic hypotension in other animals such as rats is not known. We measured the mean circulatory filling pressure using the mechanical occlusion method of inflation of the right atrial balloon along with systemic arterial pressure (Psa), central venous pressure, and portal venous pressure. Cardiac output was also measured with the thermodilution method. From these hemodynamic variables, we calculated the total peripheral and venous (Rv) resistances during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats. These hemodynamic variables were compared with those in the hemorrhagic shock. After an intravenous injection of 0.6 mg antigen ovalbumin in sensitized rats, Psa decreased from 119 +/- 4 to 43 +/- 2 mmHg, cardiac output decreased from 84.5 +/- 5.7 to 37.8 +/- 2.1 mL min, central venous pressure decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.1 to 0.1 +/- 0.1 mmHg, and mean circulatory filling pressure also decreased from 6.0 +/- 0.2 to 5.2 +/- 0.3 mmHg. Thus, the Rv increased from 0.06 +/- 0.05 to 0.15 +/- 0.02 mmHg mL(-1) min(-1), but total peripheral resistance did not significantly change. Portal venous pressure also increased from 5.6 +/- 0.5 to 21.5 +/- 0.9 mmHg. Hematocrit markedly increased from the baseline values of 43% +/- 1% to 55% +/- 1% at 15 min after antigen. During hemorrhagic shock, Psa decreased in the manner similar to anaphylactic shock; however, Rv did not significantly change, and portal venous pressure decreased. In conclusion, in rat anaphylactic shock, a substantial increase in Rv presumably due to hepatic venoconstriction may decrease venous return, resulting in systemic hypotension.

  10. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Introduction 6 6. Body 9 7. Key Research Accomplishments 15 8. Reportable Outcomes 15 9. Conclusions 16 10. References 17 11. Bibliography 20 12. Personnel 20...seen in human breast cancer (2-4). Third, a high percentage of the resulting rat mammary cancers are hormonally responsiveness, closely mimicking that...13, 17), activated c-neu (18-20), wild type c-neu (21), deregulated growth hormone (22), and deregulated transforming growth factor a (23-25) has

  11. Radiation-induced heart disease in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lauk, S.; Kiszel, Z.; Buschmann, J.; Trott, K.R.

    1985-04-01

    After local irradiation of the rat heart with X ray doses of over 10 Gy (single dose), animals developed symptoms of radiation-induced heart disease, which at higher doses would lead to fatal cardiac failure. The LD 50 at 1 year was between 15 Gy and 20 Gy. The pericardium and epicardium responded to irradiation with exudative pericarditis after 4 months. Focal myocardial damage was secondary to progressive capillary damage.

  12. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Wu, Shou-Mian; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Ou-Yang, Sheng

    2014-08-08

    It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure.

  13. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Methods Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. Results The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. Conclusions The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure. PMID:25102951

  14. D-RATS 2011: RAFT Protocol Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview presentation on the protocol used during the D-RATS2011 field test for file transfer from the field-test robots at Black Point Lava Flow AZ to Johnson Space Center, Houston TX over a simulated time-delay. The file transfer actually uses a commercial implementation of an open communications standard. The focus of the work lies on how to make the state of the distributed system observable.

  15. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Consigny, Paul M. Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew Stolarik, DeAnne

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  16. Proteomic profiling of the rat hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in numerous mechanisms highly relevant to the maintenance of body homeostasis, such as the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Impairment of these mechanisms has been associated with the metabolic disturbances involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Since rodent species constitute important models for metabolism studies and the rat hypothalamus is poorly characterized by proteomic strategies, we performed experiments aimed at constructing a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profile of rat hypothalamus proteins. Results As a first step, we established the best conditions for tissue collection and protein extraction, quantification and separation. The extraction buffer composition selected for proteome characterization of rat hypothalamus was urea 7 M, thiourea 2 M, CHAPS 4%, Triton X-100 0.5%, followed by a precipitation step with chloroform/methanol. Two-dimensional (2-D) gels of hypothalamic extracts from four-month-old rats were analyzed; the protein spots were digested and identified by using tandem mass spectrometry and database query using the protein search engine MASCOT. Eighty-six hypothalamic proteins were identified, the majority of which were classified as participating in metabolic processes, consistent with the finding of a large number of proteins with catalytic activity. Genes encoding proteins identified in this study have been related to obesity development. Conclusion The present results indicate that the 2-DE technique will be useful for nutritional studies focusing on hypothalamic proteins. The data presented herein will serve as a reference database for studies testing the effects of dietary manipulations on hypothalamic proteome. We trust that these experiments will lead to important knowledge on protein targets of nutritional variables potentially able to affect the complex central nervous system control of energy homeostasis. PMID:22519962

  17. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with /sup 45/Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO/sub 3/ and CaCl/sub 2/ than from CaC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  18. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.P.; Huang, F.L.

    1986-11-05

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca/sup 2 +/, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein.

  19. Toxicity evaluation of crankcase oil in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arise, R.O.; Tella, A.C.; Akintola, A.A.; Akiode, S.O.; Malomo, S.O.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crankcase oil on the cellular and functional integrity of rat skin. Thirty (30) rats were randomly grouped into six viz groups A-F. Group A (base-line control) received 2 ml of distilled water. 2.5 %, 5.0 %, 7.5 %, and 10.0 % v/v of the crankcase oil were prepared using unused oil as solvent and 2 ml of the concentrations were topically administered to groups C-F respectively for seven consecutive days. Group B served as positive control and received 2 ml of the unused oil. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration, and blood and part of the skin were collected. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde level in the blood and skin samples collected were evaluated. Elemental analysis of the crankcase oil was also carried out. The result revealed high lead, iron and chromium levels. Blood lead concentration of rats was significantly (P<0.05) high after seven days of administration. ALP level in skin and serum increased significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of crankcase oil. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in skin ACP activity while it increased significantly (P<0.05) in the serum. Similar results were observed in the SOD levels of the serum and the skin. The level increased significantly (P<0.05) in groups D-F when compared with controls. The MDA concentration of both serum and skin were significantly (P<0.05) elevated. This suggests toxic potential of used lubricating oil and its potential predisposition to cancer. PMID:27366138

  20. Toxicity evaluation of crankcase oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Arise, R O; Tella, A C; Akintola, A A; Akiode, S O; Malomo, S O

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crankcase oil on the cellular and functional integrity of rat skin. Thirty (30) rats were randomly grouped into six viz groups A-F. Group A (base-line control) received 2 ml of distilled water. 2.5 %, 5.0 %, 7.5 %, and 10.0 % v/v of the crankcase oil were prepared using unused oil as solvent and 2 ml of the concentrations were topically administered to groups C-F respectively for seven consecutive days. Group B served as positive control and received 2 ml of the unused oil. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration, and blood and part of the skin were collected. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde level in the blood and skin samples collected were evaluated. Elemental analysis of the crankcase oil was also carried out. The result revealed high lead, iron and chromium levels. Blood lead concentration of rats was significantly (P<0.05) high after seven days of administration. ALP level in skin and serum increased significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of crankcase oil. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in skin ACP activity while it increased significantly (P<0.05) in the serum. Similar results were observed in the SOD levels of the serum and the skin. The level increased significantly (P<0.05) in groups D-F when compared with controls. The MDA concentration of both serum and skin were significantly (P<0.05) elevated. This suggests toxic potential of used lubricating oil and its potential predisposition to cancer.

  1. Chronic Paraspinal Muscle Injury Model in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Tack Geun; Kim, Young Baeg

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to establish an animal model of chronic paraspinal muscle injury in rat. Methods Fifty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into experimental group (n=30), sham (n=15), and normal group (n=9). Incision was done from T7 to L2 and paraspinal muscles were detached from spine and tied at each level. The paraspinal muscles were exposed and untied at 2 weeks after surgery. Sham operation was done by paraspinal muscles dissection at the same levels and wound closure was done without tying. Kyphotic index and thoracolumbar Cobb's angle were measured at preoperative, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the first surgery for all groups. The rats were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the first surgery, and performed histological examinations. Results At 4 weeks after surgery, the kyphotic index decreased, but, Cobb's angle increased significantly in the experimental group (p<0.05), and then that were maintained until the end of the experiment. However, there were no significant differences of the kyphotic index and Cobb's angle between sham and normal groups. In histological examinations, necrosis and fibrosis were observed definitely and persisted until 12 weeks after surgery. There were also presences of regenerated muscle cells which nucleus is at the center of cytoplasm, centronucleated myofibers. Conclusion Our chronic injury model of paraspinal muscles in rats shows necrosis and fibrosis in the muscles for 12 weeks after surgery, which might be useful to study the pathophysiology of the degenerative thoracolumbar kyphosis or degeneration of paraspinal muscles. PMID:27651859

  2. A high-resolution anatomical rat atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xueling; Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Jie; Li, Anan; Han, Dao; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the availability of a high-resolution atlas of the adult rat. The atlas is composed of 9475 cryosectional images captured in 4600 × 2580 × 24-bit TIFF format, constructed using serial cryosection-milling techniques. Cryosection images were segmented, labelled and reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) computerized models. These images, 3D models, technical details, relevant software and further information are available at our website, http://vchibp.vicp.net/vch/mice/. PMID:17062027

  3. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Martin, B R; Ebner, J S; Krueger, C A

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO3 and CaCl2 than from CaC2O4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  4. Improved purification of rat intestinal lactase.

    PubMed

    Nsi-Emvo, E; Launay, J F; Raul, F

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and improved method to obtain purified lactase from rat intestine is described. The purification procedure involved only two chromatographic steps. The degree of purification was far above (500 fold) the values reached with classical methods. Rabbit antisera raised to the purified lactase were characterized using conventional immunological techniques. The specificity of the lactase antibodies was confirmed by the lack of interference on maltase, aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities measured after papain extraction of the membrane proteins.

  5. Attention and stimulus processing in the rat.

    PubMed

    Muir, J L

    1996-06-01

    There is little doubt that rats are an essential species in laboratory testing. Given the substantial amount of anatomical and pharmacological information which is available for this species, rats are the animal of choice for many initial neurobiological investigations of the basic mechanisms of learning and memory as well as for pharmacological screening. Indeed, the study of brain-behaviour interactions is greatly facilitated in the rat given the ease with which brain transmitter systems and structures can be selectively manipulated, in contrast to the technical difficulties involved in undertaking such techniques in non-human primates. However, when considering the processing of information that occurs during cognitive processes such as learning and memory it is important to remember that fundamental to such processes are mechanisms of attention. When considering the concept of attentional functioning, it is important to keep in mind that attention is not a unitary construct but consists of several distinct mechanisms: vigilance, divided attention and selective attention, not all of which have been adequately modelled in the rat. Furthermore, attentional processes are also involved in learning operant discrimination tasks and appear to be quite different from those involved in maintaining high levels of trained performance. Consideration of discrimination learning is important given that firstly, during such learning the animal must select from the environment those stimuli which are relevant and secondly, that this type of learning is obviously inherent in many other tests used to assess cognitive function, such as delayed matching-to-sample procedures. Such issues will therefore form the basis of the following discussion.

  6. Fate of circulating renin in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Iwao, H.; Nakamura, N.; Ikemoto, F.; Yamamoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    Highly purified /sup 125/I-labeled rat renal renin (/sup 125/I-renin) was given intravenously to conscious rats to study the fate of circulating renin. Specific antirat renin antiserum was used to identify the labeled renin molecules. In sham-operated rats, the disappearance of /sup 125/I-renin from the plasma showed two exponential components with a half-life of 6.7 +/- 0.4 min for the rapid component and 65.1 +/- 5.7 min for the slow component. The metabolic clearance rate was 11.4 +/- 1.0 ml X min-1 X kg-1. In bilaterally nephrectomized rats, the metabolic clearance rate of /sup 125/I-renin was reduced by 55%, but the half-life of the slow component remained unchanged. Seventy percent hepatectomy caused a 54% decrement in the metabolic clearance and prolonged the half-life of the slow component. Five minutes after injection of /sup 125/I-renin, approximately 59 and 11% of the administered /sup 125/I-renin had accumulated in the liver and the kidneys, respectively, and at later time points the /sup 125/I-renin was highly concentrated in these organs. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the liver and kidney extracts demonstrated that /sup 125/I-renin was catabolized by these organs. Biliary excretion of /sup 125/I-renin was negligible. Urinary excretion of /sup 125/I-renin up to 120 min was approximately 2% of the injected dose. We conclude that both the liver and the kidney are responsible for the clearance of circulating renin, with participation of the liver being predominant.

  7. Cadmium stimulates glucose metabolism in rat adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, A.; Wada, O.; Ono, T.; Ono, H.

    1986-07-01

    Cd/sup 2 +/ caused an increase in CO/sub 2/ formation from glucose in rat adipocytes. The apparent Km value for glucose was 2.02 mM for control condition, with Cd/sup 2 +/, and with insulin. Cd/sup 2 +/ stimulates glucose metabolism even though specific diffusion of glucose is blocked. A possible site effected by Cd/sup 2 +/ is discussed.

  8. Facial Indicators of Positive Emotions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Kathryn; Lampe, Jessica Frances; Hintze, Sara; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, research in animal welfare science has mainly focused on negative experiences like pain and suffering, often neglecting the importance of assessing and promoting positive experiences. In rodents, specific facial expressions have been found to occur in situations thought to induce negatively valenced emotional states (e.g., pain, aggression and fear), but none have yet been identified for positive states. Thus, this study aimed to investigate if facial expressions indicative of positive emotional state are exhibited in rats. Adolescent male Lister Hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus, N = 15) were individually subjected to a Positive and a mildly aversive Contrast Treatment over two consecutive days in order to induce contrasting emotional states and to detect differences in facial expression. The Positive Treatment consisted of playful manual tickling administered by the experimenter, while the Contrast Treatment consisted of exposure to a novel test room with intermittent bursts of white noise. The number of positive ultrasonic vocalisations was greater in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment, indicating the experience of differentially valenced states in the two treatments. The main findings were that Ear Colour became significantly pinker and Ear Angle was wider (ears more relaxed) in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment. All other quantitative and qualitative measures of facial expression, which included Eyeball height to width Ratio, Eyebrow height to width Ratio, Eyebrow Angle, visibility of the Nictitating Membrane, and the established Rat Grimace Scale, did not show differences between treatments. This study contributes to the exploration of positive emotional states, and thus good welfare, in rats as it identified the first facial indicators of positive emotions following a positive heterospecific play treatment. Furthermore, it provides improvements to the photography technique and image analysis for the

  9. [Cycloferon in treating duodenal ulcers in rats].

    PubMed

    Bul'on, V V; Khnychenko, L K; Sapronov, N S; Kuznetsova, N N; Anikin, V B; arinenko, R Iu; Kovalenko, A L; Alekseeva, L E

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of using cycloferon (interferon inductor) for a complex treatment (in combination with the main drug solcoseryl possessing pronounced therapeutic properties) of duodenum ulcers was experimentally studied in male rats. The experiments showed a considerable difference in the interferon status of animals with model duodenum ulcers treated with cycloferon, solcoseryl, their combination, and placebo (control). The healing effect of solcoseryl administered in combination with cycloferon exceeded that of each component administered separately.

  10. Facial Indicators of Positive Emotions in Rats.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Kathryn; Lampe, Jessica Frances; Hintze, Sara; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, research in animal welfare science has mainly focused on negative experiences like pain and suffering, often neglecting the importance of assessing and promoting positive experiences. In rodents, specific facial expressions have been found to occur in situations thought to induce negatively valenced emotional states (e.g., pain, aggression and fear), but none have yet been identified for positive states. Thus, this study aimed to investigate if facial expressions indicative of positive emotional state are exhibited in rats. Adolescent male Lister Hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus, N = 15) were individually subjected to a Positive and a mildly aversive Contrast Treatment over two consecutive days in order to induce contrasting emotional states and to detect differences in facial expression. The Positive Treatment consisted of playful manual tickling administered by the experimenter, while the Contrast Treatment consisted of exposure to a novel test room with intermittent bursts of white noise. The number of positive ultrasonic vocalisations was greater in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment, indicating the experience of differentially valenced states in the two treatments. The main findings were that Ear Colour became significantly pinker and Ear Angle was wider (ears more relaxed) in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment. All other quantitative and qualitative measures of facial expression, which included Eyeball height to width Ratio, Eyebrow height to width Ratio, Eyebrow Angle, visibility of the Nictitating Membrane, and the established Rat Grimace Scale, did not show differences between treatments. This study contributes to the exploration of positive emotional states, and thus good welfare, in rats as it identified the first facial indicators of positive emotions following a positive heterospecific play treatment. Furthermore, it provides improvements to the photography technique and image analysis for the

  11. Forced swim test behavior in postpartum rats.

    PubMed

    Craft, R M; Kostick, M L; Rogers, J A; White, C L; Tsutsui, K T

    2010-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether depression-like behavior can be observed in gonadally intact females that have experienced normal pregnancy. When tested on the forced swim test (FST) on postpartum days 1-7, previously pregnant rats spent slightly more time immobile, significantly less time swimming and diving, and defecated more than virgin controls. Subchronic treatment with nomifensine (DA reuptake inhibitor, 2.5mg/kg) but not sertraline (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg) or desipramine (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility on postpartum day 2. In rats pre-exposed to the FST in mid-pregnancy, neither subchronic nor chronic treatment with desipramine or sertraline decreased immobility on postpartum day 2; in contrast, chronic desipramine significantly decreased immobility in virgin controls. These results indicate that postpartum female rats, compared to virgin controls, show a reduction in some "active coping behaviors" but no significant increase in immobility when tested during the early postpartum period, unlike ovariectomized females that have undergone hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP). Additionally, immobility that is increased by FST pre-exposure is not readily prevented by treatment with standard antidepressant medications in postpartum females. Depression-like behaviors previously observed in females that have undergone HSP may result from the more dramatic changes in estradiol, prolactin or corticosterone that occur during the early "postpartum" period, compared to the more subtle changes in these hormones that occur in actual postpartum females.

  12. Neuropharmacological effects of deltamethrin in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Mandal, T. K.; Dey, S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of deltamethrin on some of the neuropharmacological paradigms in a rat brain such as the motor co-ordination test using a rotarod, the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion as well as the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) level. Albino Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals. Different neuropharmacological paradigms such as the motor co-ordination by the rotarod, pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and the PTZ-induced convulsion were examined after administering deltamethrin orally at two doses, 150 mg/kg (LD50) and 15 mg/kg (1/10 LD50). The GABA level in the rat brain was estimated by HPLC after a single oral dose of 150mg/kg deltamethrin. Deltamethrin significantly reduced the motor coordination, decreased the onset time and increased the sleeping time duration induced by pentobarbitone. In addition, it also decreased the onset time and increased the duration of convulsions induced by PTZ at 150 mg/kg (LD50) and 15 mg/kg (1/10 LD50), respectively. Further deltamethrin administration decreased the GABA levels in the cerebellum as well as in the whole brain (except the cerebellum) significantly at the LD50 dose level. There was some correlation between the effect of deltamethrin on the central GABA levels and its neuropharmacological effects. PMID:16645337

  13. Obesity and abdominal wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes Pessole; Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Fernandes, Rodrigo dos Santos; Biondo-Simões, Rachel; Mello, Flavia Stica Ritzdorf de; Noronha, Lucia de

    2010-02-01

    Treatment for obesity essentially has to do with weight loss, which can be achieved through surgical procedures. Despite the considerable rise in the number of such procedures, the relationship between obesity and the healing process has not been totally clarified. To investigate abdominal wound healing in obese Wistar rats on the seventh and fourteenth days following a laparotomy. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups, the control and experiment group. The control group were fed on either a standard diet for the species and the experiment group were put on a high calorie diet. After 116 days, all the animals were submitted to a laparotomy followed by laparorrhaphy. After euthanasia on the seventh or fourteenth day, fragments of the abdominal wound containing the scar were submitted to histopathological and tensiometric analysis. The average weight of the animals from the experiment group was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001). The difference in the resistance of the cutaneous scars was not significant. The aponeurotic scars were more resistant in the control group after seven days (p=0.011) and fourteen days (p=0.040). There was no difference in terms of intensity of the inflammatory reaction and the collagen density was similar in both groups. In rats, obesity lowered the resistance of the aponeurotic scars but not the skin scars. It did not interfere with the delayed inflammatory response and the collagen density.

  14. Effects of optimism on motivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Golebiowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Jakub; Kubik, Jakub; Popik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    In humans, optimism is a cognitive construct related to motivation; optimists exert effort, whereas pessimists disengage from effort. In this study, using a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm we took the unique opportunity to investigate whether "optimism" as a trait is correlated with motivation in rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening, CBS), we identified rats displaying "pessimistic" and "optimistic" traits. Subsequently, we investigated the trait differences in the motivation of these rats to gain reward and to avoid punishment using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement paradigm. Although "optimistic" and "pessimistic" animals did not differ in their motivation to avoid punishment, the "optimistic" rats were significantly more motivated to gain reward than their "pessimistic" conspecifics. For the first time, we showed an association between cognitive judgment bias and motivation in an animal model. Because both investigated processes are closely related to mental health and wellbeing, our results may be valuable for preclinical modeling of many psychiatric disorders.

  15. Prebiotics and oxidative stress in constipated rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanning; Zong, Yanhong; Qi, Jinsheng; Liu, Kun

    2011-10-01

    Constipation can adversely affect children's health, with disorders of host immunity and enhanced oxidative stress. As nondigestible carbohydrates, prebiotics can affect the host with constipation; however, whether the prebiotics have effects on the content of intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in constipation has not been fully clarified. In the present study, constipation was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by diphenoxylate, and the prebiotics dissolved in milk were used as an intervention. The indicators of intestinal peristalsis, including the time of passing black stool initially, the grains of black stool in 24 hours, and the advance rate of ponceau, were measured. The content of intestinal sIgA was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The contents of SOD and MDA in serum and intestinal tissue were analyzed by their detection kits. The changes in intestinal peristalsis show obvious constipation. The content of intestinal sIgA decreases, the content of SOD decreases, but the content of MDA increases in constipated rats. Prebiotics can attenuate the constipation-caused abnormal indicators significantly. Prebiotics can attenuate decreased intestinal immunity and enhanced oxidative stress, in addition to reduced intestinal peristalsis and of the constipated rats.

  16. Calcium deficiency cannot induce obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Paradis, S; Cabanac, M

    2005-06-30

    If intake of a required nutrient--here calcium--affects body weight, the effect must be mediated by a change in the body weight set-point. Thus, the controversial 'anti-obesity' influence of high calcium intake should decrease the body weight set-point. Diets differing in calcium content were assigned to three groups of rats. The effects of the diets on body weight, BMI, fat content, plasma calcium, body weight set-point, food intake, and preference for various calcium solutions were measured after 6 weeks of calcium deprivation or supplementation, and again after a further 6 weeks of recovery on a regular diet. After 6 weeks, the low-calcium diet had induced calcium deficiency but had failed to raise the body weight set-point. Nor had it produced obesity or fat accumulation. After 6 weeks of recovery, body weight and fat content were no higher in calcium-deprived rats than in the control or supplemented rats. In this experiment, low-calcium intake failed to cause obesity and did not raise the body weight set-point. The results indicate that calcium intake probably does not affect body weight.

  17. Detection of catalase in rat heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Radi, R; Turrens, J F; Chang, L Y; Bush, K M; Crapo, J D; Freeman, B A

    1991-11-15

    The presence of heme-containing catalase in rat heart mitochondria (20 +/- 5 units/mg) was demonstrated by biochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. Intact rat heart mitochondria efficiently consumed exogenously added H2O2. The rate of H2O2 consumption was not influenced by succinate, glutamate/malate, or N-ethylmaleimide but was significantly inhibited by cyanide. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition by mitochondria yielded molecular oxygen in a 2:1 stoichiometry, consistent with a catalytic mechanism. Mitochondrial fractionation studies and quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that most catalase was matrix-associated. Electrophoretic analysis and Western blotting of the mitochondrial matrix fraction indicated the presence of a protein with similar electrophoretic mobility to bovine and rat liver catalase and immunoreactive to anti-catalase antibody. Myocardial tissue has a lower catalase-specific activity and a greater mitochondrial H2O2 production/g of tissue than most organs. Thus catalase, representing 0.025% of heart mitochondrial protein, is important for detoxifying mitochondrial derived H2O2 and represents a key antioxidant defense mechanism for myocardial tissue.

  18. Neurofilament expression in cultured rat adenohypophysial cells.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J L; Salinas, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate in cultured rat adenohypophysial cells: a) the presence of neurofilaments of 200 kDa (NF-H), b) the effect of thyroid hormone (T(3)) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on the expression of NF-H and c) the possible role of NF-H on thyrotropin (TSH) secretion. The presence of NF-H was observed by immunocytochemistry in cultured rat adenohypophysial cells. The exposure to T(3) for 12 h produced a significant increase in NF-H expression; whereas incubation with TRH or T(3)+TRH resulted in no change. The cells treated with T(3) or TRH or T(3)+TRH for 24 h showed no alteration. However, incubation for 48 h with TRH or T(3)+TRH caused significant decrease in NF-H expression. Incubation with NF-H antibodies produced a significant inhibition of calcium-induced TSH release in digitonin-permeabilized adenohypophysial cells. These results provide evidence that NF-H is present in cultured rat adenohypophysial cells, and that T(3) and TRH can modify NF-H expression. It can be suggested that in cultured adenohypophysial cells, NF-H may play a role in the secretory process.

  19. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  20. Deformation-based brain morphometry in rats.

    PubMed

    Gaser, Christian; Schmidt, Silvio; Metzler, Martin; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krumbein, Ines; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Witte, Otto W

    2012-10-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based morphometry provides in vivo evidence for macro-structural plasticity of the brain. Experiments on small animals using automated morphometric methods usually require expensive measurements with ultra-high field dedicated animal MRI systems. Here, we developed a novel deformation-based morphometry (DBM) tool for automated analyses of rat brain images measured on a 3-Tesla clinical whole body scanner with appropriate coils. A landmark-based transformation of our customized reference brain into the coordinates of the widely used rat brain atlas from Paxinos and Watson (Paxinos Atlas) guarantees the comparability of results to other studies. For cross-sectional data, we warped images onto the reference brain using the low-dimensional nonlinear registration implemented in the MATLAB software package SPM8. For the analysis of longitudinal data sets, we chose high-dimensional registrations of all images of one data set to the first baseline image which facilitate the identification of more subtle structural changes. Because all deformations were finally used to transform the data into the space of the Paxinos Atlas, Jacobian determinants could be used to estimate absolute local volumes of predefined regions-of-interest. Pilot experiments were performed to analyze brain structural changes due to aging or photothrombotically-induced cortical stroke. The results support the utility of DBM based on commonly available clinical whole-body scanners for highly sensitive morphometric studies on rats.

  1. Caffeine impairs gastrointestinal function in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Christopher; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques

    2015-07-01

    Feeding intolerance is commonly documented in premature infants. Caffeine is routinely utilized for apnea of prematurity treatment and known to reduce the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) muscle tone, but the caffeine effect on the newborn gastrointestinal function is unknown. We hypothesized that caffeine impairs esophageal and gastrointestinal motor function. As such, we investigated the drug effect on the tissue's mechanical properties and the newborn rat's in vivo gastric emptying rate. The effects of caffeine on LES, gastric fundal and antrum, as well as ileal and colonic muscle force potential and relaxation response, were measured in newborn and adult rats. The caffeine-induced (10 mg/kg i.p.) newborn gastric emptying rate changes were evaluated following 3 h of fasting. Caffeine relaxed the precontracted LES and fundal muscle (P < 0.01), reduced the gastric and intestinal muscle contraction (P < 0.01), and delayed the pups' gastric emptying time (P < 0.01). The caffeine-induced muscle relaxant effect was independent of age and mediated via ryanodine receptors. Caffeine administration to newborn rats at a dose comparable to the one therapeutically used for preterm neonates impairs LES and gastrointestinal motor function. Further clinical investigation on the possible contribution of caffeine to neonatal feeding intolerance is warranted.

  2. Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat.

    PubMed

    Aderibigbe, A O; Emudianughe, T S; Lawal, B A

    1999-09-01

    The leaves of Mangifera indica are used as an antidiabetic agent in Nigerian folk medicine. To determine whether or not there is a scientific basis for this use, the effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves on blood glucose level was assessed in normoglycaemic, glucose - induced hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract given orally (1 g/kg) did not alter the blood glucose levels in either normoglycaemic or STZ-induced diabetic rats. In glucose - induced hyperglycaemia, however, antidiabetic activity was seen when the extract and glucose were administered simultaneously and also when the extract was given to the rats 60 min before the glucose. The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract was compared with that of an oral dose of chlorpropamide (200 mg/kg) under the same conditions. The results of this study indicate that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Mangifera indica possess hypoglycaemic activity. This action may be due to an intestinal reduction of the absorption of glucose. However, other different mechanisms of action cannot be excluded.

  3. [Chronic organophosphorus intoxication and aging in rats].

    PubMed

    Okuwaki, K

    1990-08-01

    Possible acceleration of aging due to the administration of organophosphorus pesticide (OP) was studied. Fenthion (6 mg/kg/day) was subcutaneously administered dorsally to rats over a period of 12 weeks. The amounts of fluorescent lipid peroxidation products (FLPP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in various tissues. Microscopic examination was added only in the lens. The amount of FLPP in the retina-choroid, lens, kidney and heart of the rats was found to be increased (lens; p less than 0.01, kidney; p less than 0.05). The activity of SOD in the retina-choroid, optic nerve, liver and heart increased temporarily, but eventually returned to control levels. The lens preparations at the end of the 12-week administration period showed irregular bow configuration and epithelial nuclear dislocation in the bow area. FLPP are fluorescent products produced by peroxide lipids and their amounts increase with aging. Increase in the amounts of these products and microscopic findings for the lens were indications of the progress of aging. There is thus the possibility that the inducement of SOD production may decrease with aging. It was concluded that the organophosphorus pesticide may accelerate the aging of rats.

  4. Transport pathways in rat lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Simon, S A; Robb, R; Schiffman, S S

    1988-02-01

    Measurements of ion transport across isolated lingual epithelium of rat were correlated with electrophysiological recordings from taste nerves. At hyperosmotic concentrations of NaCl, sodium ions enter the mucosal membrane of the isolated epithelium partially through an amiloride-inhibitable pathway and exit the serosal membrane through a Na+-K+-ATPase. At hyposmotic concentrations of KCl, potassium ions enter the mucosal membrane through a K+ pathway that is inhibited by 4-aminopyridine and exit at the serosal membrane through a K+ pathway that is inhibited by BaCl2. The inhibition of sodium transport by amiloride and potassium transport by 4-aminopyridine is consistent with previously published electrophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve bundle (CT) and recordings from nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) obtained here. The responses to NaCl are greater than the responses to KCl at equimolar concentrations over the entire concentration range both in epithelial and neural measurements. At hyposmotic concentrations of NaCl the epithelial responses include inward sodium and outward chloride components. Isolated rat tongue is only slightly stimulated by D-glucose or sucrose as are the CT and NTS responses. These data suggest that events in taste transduction can be understood, in part, by measuring the epithelial responses of isolated rat tongue.

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of thioureas in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.M.; Powell, G.M.; Curtis, C.G. ); Upshall, D.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Administration of {alpha}-naphthylthiourea (ANTU) to rats causes damage to pulmonary endothelial cells and possibly mesothelial lining cells that together may account for the massive pleural effusion characteristic of thiourea toxicity. Using {sup 35}S-thiourea as a model compound, the extent of binding of {sup 35}S to lung proteins correlated well with the extent of edema, suggesting that the extent of binding of thiourea metabolites is a measure of lung toxicity. ANTU and phenylthiourea (PTU) compete for {sup 35}S binding to lung slices, suggesting that these toxins may act in a similar way. Binding of {sup 35}S in lung slices from resistant rats is much less than in controls, and resistance cannot be explained by differences in either whole body metabolism or redistribution of thiourea in vivo. Lung glutathione levels (in vitro and in vivo) in normal and resistant rats following thiourea administration were essentially the same. However, at doses of thiourea that cause pleural effusion, there was an increase in total lung glutathione.

  6. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used.

  7. Laser scattering by transcranial rat brain illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2012-06-01

    Due to the great number of applications of Low-Level-Laser-Therapy (LLLT) in Central Nervous System (CNS), the study of light penetration through skull and distribution in the brain becomes extremely important. The aim is to analyze the possibility of precise illumination of deep regions of the rat brain, measure the penetration and distribution of red (λ = 660 nm) and Near Infra-Red (NIR) (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light and compare optical properties of brain structures. The head of the animal (Rattus Novergicus) was epilated and divided by a sagittal cut, 2.3 mm away from mid plane. This section of rat's head was illuminated with red and NIR lasers in points above three anatomical structures: hippocampus, cerebellum and frontal cortex. A high resolution camera, perpendicularly positioned, was used to obtain images of the brain structures. Profiles of scattered intensities in the laser direction were obtained from the images. There is a peak in the scattered light profile corresponding to the skin layer. The bone layer gives rise to a valley in the profile indicating low scattering coefficient, or frontal scattering. Another peak in the region related to the brain is an indication of high scattering coefficient (μs) for this tissue. This work corroborates the use of transcranial LLLT in studies with rats which are subjected to models of CNS diseases. The outcomes of this study point to the possibility of transcranial LLLT in humans for a large number of diseases.

  8. [Research of modified rat laryngeal transplantation model].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Peng, Han-wei; Zeng, Zong-yuan; Guo, Zhu-ming

    2006-07-01

    To study modified rat laryngeal transplantation model. Eighty isogeneic histocompatible F344 rats were randomized into control and experimental groups. Strome model of laryngeal transplantation was established in the the control group, and in the experimental group, the ascending pharyngeal artery was preserved and the base of the tongue, larynx and pharyngolarynx were harvested as a complex allograft followed by end-to-end anastomosis of the both allograft common carotid arteries with the recipient common carotid artery and the anterior jugular vein, respectively. The arterial and nenous patency rate and allograft viability rate were compared between the two groups. The artery and vein patency rates and graft survival rate were 30%, 15%, and 30% in the control group, and 75%, 65%, and 80% in the experimental group, respectively, showing significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). In modified rat laryngeal transplantation model, the allograft viability rate and vessel patency rate are improved, which provides a good model for immunological study of larynx transplantation.

  9. Parathyroid autotransplantation in rats having hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Erikoglu, Mehmet; Colak, Bayram; Toy, Hatice; Gurbilek, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Re-implantation techniques of extracted parathyroid tissue were developed in order to prevent temporary hypocalcemia. During thyroid surgery; inadvertently removed or devascularized parathyroid gland is usually implanted in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. In this experimental study using rats with hypoparathyroidism, our aim was to investigate whether the excised parathyroid tissue could be seeded in the liver and in the peritoneum, instead of the SCM muscle. In our study, four different groups, each consisting of 10 Wistar albino rats were used (Control group, sternocleidomastoid muscle group, liver group, peritoneum group). Parathyroidectomy was performed and the parathyroid tissue was seeded into the sternocloid mastoid muscle, liver and peritoneum. After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone were measured in rats’ blood samples. The autotransplanted parathyroid tissue was then excised and examined. In all groups, parathyroid tissues were analyzed histopathologically according to calcification, necrosis, tissue loss, foreign body reaction, inflammation and fibrosis. Regarding Ca, Mg, PO4, ALP; There were no difference between the groups. When we compared control group with the other groups; a difference was observed in the levels of PTH (P<0.05). In pathological examination; regarding tissue loss; there was a difference between liver and peritoneum groups (P<0.05). In our study, we expected better result in plantings inside liver and peritone compared to SKM. However, there were no difference between the groups. PMID:26629152

  10. Photoperiodicity in the male albino laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Wallen, E P; Turek, F W

    1981-01-29

    Animals inhabiting areas where there are drastic changes in the environment often reproduce only during limited time periods to ensure that young are raised in optimal environmental conditions. The lack of a well defined breeding season in many domesticated animals, presumably because the selective pressures for seasonal breeding have been minimized, suggests that the neuroendocrine events controlling seasonal cyclicity have been bred out of these animals. Little is known about the underlying neuroendocrine changes which may occur during the evolution of a species from a seasonal to a nonseasonal breeder. Whereas the changing photoperiod is the primary environmental cue which initiates and/or terminates the reproductive season in many animals, this is not so in the albino rat Rattus norvegicus, a model nonseasonal breeder. Nevertheless, daylength can influence various reproductive parameters in laboratory rats, suggesting that some of the neuroendocrine components that controlled seasonal breeding previously are still extant in this species. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of daylength on the responsiveness of the neuroendocrine--gonadal axis to the negative-feedback effects of testosterone. This paradigm was chosen because of the important role played by photic-induced changes in steroid feedback sensitivity in the control of seasonal reproduction. We report here that although daylength has very little effect on neuroendocrine--gonadal function in the intact male laboratory rat, it seems that some component(s) of a photoperiodic system involving the pineal gland has been preserved.

  11. Bone healing under experimental anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Giglio, M J; Gorustovich, A; Guglielmotti, M B

    2000-01-01

    The effects of anemia on different physiological parameters have been the object of permanent study. There are no studies in the literature on the effects of this disorder on the process on bone healing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, histologically and histomorphometrically, the process of osteogenesis in the post-extraction alvcolus of the lower molar, and in the peri-implant environment of rats. Twenty male Wistar rats (body weight (b.w.): 60 +/- 7 g) were grouped into two experimental sets. The control group (n:10) was given 0.5 mL saline solution i.p. The anemic group (n:10) was injected with 6 mg/100 g of b.w. or 3 mg/100 g b.w. phenylhidrazine, a well known hemolytic agent. Under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia the rats were submitted to extraction of the first lower molars, and to implantation in the tibia in keeping with the "laminar test" procedure. Other parameters, i.e. body weight (b.w.), food intake (FI), hematocrit (Htc), and hemoglobinemia (Hb) were monitored every 48 hs. The results showed a reduction in b.w., FI, Htc and Hb in the experimental group. The histological and histomorphometrical data show that the condition of anemia affects osteogenesis quali-quantitatively in the post-extraction alveolus and peri-implant microenvironment. Both bone reparative situations showed that ostegenesis is "sensitive" to anemia and/or the associated conditions, causing a delay in bone healing.

  12. Metabolism of the lignan dehydrodiisoeugenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE), a major active lignan from the seed and aril of the fruit of Myristica fragrans Houtt., functions as a potential anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nuclear factor kappa B activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages. However, the metabolism of DDIE remains unknown. This report describes the metabolic fate of DDIE in liver microsomes, urine, and feces of rats treated with DDIE. DDIE metabolites were isolated by sequential column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography from liver microsomes incubations, urine, and feces. Nine metabolites ( M-1 to M-9), including 5 new metabolites, were determined spectroscopically using ultra-violet (UV), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and circular dichroism (CD). Analysis of the isolated metabolites showed that DDIE undergoes four major pathways of metabolism in the rat: oxidation (including hydroxylation, hydroformylation, and acetylation), demethylation, ring-opening, and dehydrogenation. In contrast to the metabolites from liver microsomes, the major metabolites In vivo were generated from DDIE by multiple metabolic reactions. Given these results, we describe a metabolic pathway for DDIE in the rat that gives insight into the metabolism of DDIE and the mechanism of DDIE bioactivity in humans.

  13. Effects of optimism on motivation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rygula, Rafal; Golebiowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Jakub; Kubik, Jakub; Popik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    In humans, optimism is a cognitive construct related to motivation; optimists exert effort, whereas pessimists disengage from effort. In this study, using a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm we took the unique opportunity to investigate whether “optimism” as a trait is correlated with motivation in rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening, CBS), we identified rats displaying “pessimistic” and “optimistic” traits. Subsequently, we investigated the trait differences in the motivation of these rats to gain reward and to avoid punishment using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement paradigm. Although “optimistic” and “pessimistic” animals did not differ in their motivation to avoid punishment, the “optimistic” rats were significantly more motivated to gain reward than their “pessimistic” conspecifics. For the first time, we showed an association between cognitive judgment bias and motivation in an animal model. Because both investigated processes are closely related to mental health and wellbeing, our results may be valuable for preclinical modeling of many psychiatric disorders. PMID:25762910

  14. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  15. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat.

    PubMed

    Bautista, A R P L; Moreira, E L T; Batista, M S; Miranda, M S; Gomes, I C S

    2004-04-01

    Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as was recommended by the OECD guideline. In this study, annatto administered by gavage at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg/day decreased male body weight gain, but had no effect on either food intake or food conversion efficiency. Haematological and plasma biochemical examination as well necropsy performed at the end of administration (29th day) and observation (43rd day) periods revealed no alterations related with annatto administration. Kidney apoptosis occurred in 20% treated female rats in restricted areas without proliferation or tubular segments modification. The precise nature of apoptosis was not investigated in the present study. These findings suggest that annatto was no toxic to the rat.

  16. Visual Categorization of Natural Movies by Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. PMID:25100598

  17. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments.

  18. INTESTINAL TRIGLYCERIDE ABSORPTION IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Cardell, Robert R.; Badenhausen, Susan; Porter, Keith R.

    1967-01-01

    This report provides information on the morphology of fat absorption in rat intestinal epithelial cells. Three types of experiments were performed: (a) intubation of corn oil into fasted rats, (b) injection of physiological fatty-chyme prepared from fat-fed donor rats into ligated segments of jejunum of fasted animals, and (c) administration of electron-opaque particles in corn oil and markers given concurrently with the fat. These results support the hypothesis that fat is absorbed by selective diffusion of monoglycerides and fatty acids from micelles rather than by pinocytosis of unhydrolized triglycerides. Evidence is presented that the pits between the microvilli, previously believed to function in the transport of fat, are not involved in this process. Instead they appear to contribute their contents to lysosomes in the apical cytoplasm. Arguments are offered that the monoglycerides and fatty acids diffuse from the micelle while the latter is associated with the microvillous membrane of the absorptive cell. These micellar components penetrate the plasma membrane and diffuse into the cytoplasmic matrix where they encounter the SER. Triglyceride synthesis occurs in the SER and results in the deposition of fat droplets within its lumina. The synthesis of triglycerides and their sequestration into the SER establishes an inward diffusion gradient of monoglycerides and fatty acids. PMID:6033529

  19. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol and blood pressure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

  1. Alterations of reward mechanisms in bulbectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Grecksch, Gisela; Becker, Axel

    2015-06-01

    The positive association between alcoholism and depression is a common clinical observation. We investigated the relationship between depression and reward mechanisms using a validated animal model for depressive-like behaviour, the olfactory bulbectomy in rats. The effects of bilateral olfactory bulbectomy on reward mechanisms were studied in two different experimental paradigms - the voluntary self-administration of ethanol and the conditioned place preference to alcohol injection and compared to the effects of ethanol on locomotor activity and body core temperature. The voluntary ethanol intake was increased significantly in bulbectomised rats in a drinking experiment and also after a period of abstinence. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced in all animals. However, bulbectomised rats needed a higher dose of alcohol to produce CPP. The sedative effect of ethanol on locomotor activity was reduced in bulbectomised animals. Measurement of body temperature revealed a dose-dependent hypothermic effect of ethanol in both groups. These results suggest that the reward mechanisms may be altered in this animal model as a common phenomenon associated with depression. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that the addictive and/or rewarding properties of some drugs of abuse may be modified in depression.

  2. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anzueto Hernandez, L.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-07-01

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve.

  3. Solcoseryl stimulates behavioural activity of rats.

    PubMed

    Braszko, J J; Winnicka, M M; Wiśniewski, K

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Solcoseryl (S), a protein-free extract of calves' blood given intraperitoneally (i.p.) on the behavioural measures of activity of the central nervous system of male Wistar rats was examined. The drug (1.0 ml/kg i.p.) given 60 min before testing the animals in electromagnetic motimeter significantly enhanced overall and vertical motility of rats. S at the doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg did not significantly influence the activity of rats in "open field". 1.0 ml/kg of S given 15, 45 and 60 min before thiopental (30 mg/kg i.p.) did not change the onset and time of sleep following the latter drug, except for the significant shortening of the time of sleep of animals injected with S 15 min before thiopental. S at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg did not change stereotypies produced by apomorphine (2.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine (6.5 mg/kg i.p.) but decreased intensity of haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) catalepsy.

  4. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  5. Acoustic noise improves motor learning in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Eckernäs, Daniel; Holmblad, Olof; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat model of ADHD displays impaired motor learning. We used this characteristic to study if the recently described acoustic noise benefit in learning in children with ADHD is also observed in the SH rat model. SH rats and a Wistar control strain were trained in skilled reach and rotarod running under either ambient noise or in 75 dBA white noise. In other animals the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on motor learning was assessed with the same paradigms. To determine if acoustic noise influenced spontaneous motor activity, the effect of acoustic noise was also determined in the open field activity paradigm. We confirm impaired motor learning in the SH rat compared to Wistar SCA controls. Acoustic noise restored motor learning in SH rats learning the Montoya reach test and the rotarod test, but had no influence on learning in Wistar rats. Noise had no effect on open field activity in SH rats, but increased corner time in Wistar. MPH completely restored rotarod learning and performance but did not improve skilled reach in the SH rat. It is suggested that the acoustic noise benefit previously reported in children with ADHD is shared by the SH rat model of ADHD, and the effect is in the same range as that of stimulant treatment. Acoustic noise may be useful as a non-pharmacological alternative to stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD.

  6. Rat hepatitis E virus derived from wild rats (Rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jirintai, Suljid; Tanggis; Mulyanto; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-06-24

    Although rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. A recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat HEV in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat HEV in human cells. When liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat HEV replicated efficiently in PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7 and HepG2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group (G1-G3). The rat HEV particles released from cultured cells harbored lipid-associated membranes on their surface that were depleted by treatment with detergent and protease, with the buoyant density in sucrose shifting from 1.15-1.16 g/ml to 1.27-1.28 g/ml. A Northern blotting analysis revealed genomic RNA of 7.0 kb and subgenomic RNA of 2.0 kb in the infected cells. The subgenomic RNA of G1-G3 each possessed the extreme 5'-end sequence of GUAGC (nt 4933-4937), downstream of the highly conserved sequence of GAAUAACA (nt 4916-4923). The establishment of culture systems for rat HEV would allow for extended studies of the mechanisms of viral replication and functional roles of HEV proteins. Further investigation is required to clarify the zoonotic potential of rat HEV.

  7. Patterns of motor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Johansen, Espen Borgå

    2016-12-01

    Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats. A total number of 42 rats (23 SHR/NCrl and 19 WKY/NHsd, male and female) were tested. At PND 51, the animals' movements were video-recorded during an operant test procedure that lasted 90 min. Total activity level and velocity (mean and maximum), standard deviation (SD) and root mean square successive differences (RMSSD) were calculated. In addition, we used Fourier analysis, autocorrelations and two measures of complexity to characterize the time series; sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. The SHR/NCrl rats showed increased total activity levels in addition to increased mean and maximum velocity of movements. The variability measures, SD and RMSSD, were markedly lower in the SHR/NCrl compared to the WKY/NHsd rats. At the same time, the SHR/NCrl rats displayed a higher complexity of the time series, particularly with regard to the total activity level as evidenced by analyses of sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Autocorrelation analyses also showed differences between the two strains. In the Fourier analysis, the SHR/NCrl rats had an increased variance in the high frequency part of the spectrum, corresponding to the time period of 9-17 s. The findings show that in addition to increased total activity and velocity of movement, the organization of behavior is different in SHR/NCrl relative to WKY/NHsd controls. Compared to controls, behavioral variability is reduced in SHR/NCrl at an aggregate level, and, concomitantly, more complex and unpredictable from moment-to-moment. These finding emphasize the importance of the measures and methods used when characterizing behavioral variability. If valid for ADHD, the

  8. Rickettsial pathogens in the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Macronyssidae) from Egyptian rats (Rattus spp.).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    We collected and tested 616 tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) from rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and R. rattus (Linnaeus)) throughout 14 governorates in Egypt and tested DNA extracts from pools of these mites for Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three different mite-associated bacterial agents, including one Bartonella and two Rickettsia spp., were detected in eight pools of mites. Further research could demonstrate the vector potential of mites and pathogenicity of these agents to humans or animals.

  9. [Effects of human and rat interferons-alpha on the behavior of rats of different ages. Comparative study of the homology of amino acid sequences].

    PubMed

    Loseva, E V; Loginova, N A; Nekliudov, V V; Mats, V N; Kurskaia, O V; Pasikova, N V

    2009-01-01

    Effects of chronic intranasal administration of human and rat interferons alpha on feeding and defensive behavior of rats were studied. Natural leukocyte human interferon "Lokferon" (a mixture of alpha interferon subtypes) and recombinant rat interferon alpha of the first subtype were used in the dose of 350 ME per rat daily. In addition, using the databases NCBI and EBI, we quantitatively estimated homology of amino-acid sequences between different subtypes of human and rat interferons. Both human (mostly in young rats) and rat interferons (mostly in old rats) increased rat feeding behavior after food conditioning to an audio tone. In old (but not in young) rats, both human and rat interferons worsened the ability of time interval assessment. In young (but not old) rats, both interferon kinds improved avoidance conditioning. The degree of homology between different human and rat interferons varied from 72% to 77%. Thus, generally, the effects of rat and human alpha interferons (350 ME) on rat conditioning were similar. This may be due to high degree of homology of amino-acid sequences between the two interferons.

  10. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P <0.05), male rats singly-reared (full fed, P <0.05; 12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05), female rats group-reared (12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05) and female rats singly reared (full fed, P <0.05; 12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05) displayed reduced amounts of time exploring the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. In conclusion, control rats learned the autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  11. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2017-05-03

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Lepr(fa) (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats.

  12. Genotoxicity of nimesulide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Debojyoti; Panda, Sushen K; Sahoo, Gyana R; Parija, Subas C

    2014-04-01

    It is mandatory for all new drugs to be tested for their potential genotoxicity in addition to general toxicity testing. Some old drugs have not been tested adequately for their genotoxic effects because these were in use before the local regulations were enforced. According to the material safety database, the toxicological effect of nimesulide is not yet fully understood. The present study therefore aimed to explore the genotoxic potential of nimesulide in Wistar albino rats. Nimesulide at the dose level of 50 (Gr-50), 100 (Gr-100) and 200 (Gr-200) mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was given orally. Each rat in treated groups (Gr-50 to Gr-200; n = 10) and negative control group (Gr-NC; n = 10) were administered orally (p.o.) with nimesulide and normal saline, respectively, for 14 days. Similarly, rats of positive control (Gr-PC; n = 10) were administered with cyclophosphamide (CPA; 20 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. CPA served as positive control, whereas normal saline served as as negative control. Approximately 1-2 mL of blood was collected from retro-orbital sinus for comet assay and subsequently rats were sacrificed to aspirate the femoral bone marrow for the micronucleus test. Structural chromosomal aberration, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and comet tail length were calculated using micronucleus assay and comet assay, respectively, which served as markers of genotoxicity. In the present study, it was observed that a significant increase in (1) different classified structural chromosomal aberrations with increase in nimesulide dose, such as gaps (50 mg/kg), gaps, breaks and pulverizations (100 mg/kg) and gaps, breaks, fragments, rings and pulverizations (200 mg/kg) and (2) % MnPCE and comet tail length was observed in animals treated with CPA (p < 0.001) or 200 mg of nimesulide (p < 0.05), as compared to negative control. In conclusion, nimesulide (200 mg/kg b.w.) produced a

  13. Intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolongs survival in anhepatic rats.

    PubMed

    Arkadopoulos, N; Lilja, H; Suh, K S; Demetriou, A A; Rozga, J

    1998-11-01

    To examine whether hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen can function as an ectopic liver, we performed hepatocyte transplantation in rats that were rendered anhepatic. Total hepatectomy was performed by using a novel single-stage technique. Following hepatectomy, Group 1 rats (n = 16) were monitored until death to determine survival time without prior intervention. Group 2 anhepatic rats (n = 20) were sacrificed at various times to measure blood hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) levels. Group 3 (n = 16) rats received intrasplenic injection of isolated hepatocytes (2.5 x 10(7) cells/rat) followed by total hepatectomy after 3 days. Group 4 (n = 12) sham-transplanted rats received intrasplenic saline infusion, and after 3 days they were rendered anhepatic. Group 2, 3, and 4 rats were maintained on daily Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg; intramuscularly). Group 1 anhepatic rats survived for 22.4 +/- 5.2 hours (standard deviation). The anhepatic state was associated with a progressive and statistically significant rise in blood HGF and TGF-beta1 levels. Rats that received hepatocyte transplantation before total hepatectomy had a significantly longer survival time than sham-transplanted anhepatic controls (34.1 +/- 8.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 4.8 hrs, P < .01). Additionally, at 12 hours post-hepatectomy, transplanted rats had significantly lower blood ammonia, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and TGF-beta1 levels when compared with sham-transplanted controls. In conclusion, intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolonged survival, improved blood chemistry, and lowered blood TGF-beta1 levels in rats rendered anhepatic.

  14. Blunted central bromocriptine-induced tachycardia in conscious, malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saad; Araújo Lima, Paula F; Interaminense, Leylliane F L; Duarte, Gloria Pinto

    2003-04-01

    Bromocriptine-induced tachycardia, persisting after adrenalectomy, is mediated by central dopamine D2 receptor stimulation through activation of the sympathetic outflow to the heart. The present study investigated the effects of malnutrition during pregnancy on bromocriptine-induced tachycardia in adult conscious rats. Malnourished rats were obtained by feeding dams a multideficient diet (providing 8% protein) during mating and pregnancy. Birth weight was significantly reduced in malnourished rats when compared to control rats born to dams fed standard commercially diet (23% protein) during mating and pregnancy. Baseline mean aortic pressure and heart rate in malnourished rats were comparable to those of well-nourished rats. Tachycardia (33+/-9 beats/min.), but not the hypotensive response to intravenous bromocriptine (150 microg/kg) was significantly reduced in malnourished rats, compared with control rats (70+/-10 beats/min.). In malnourished rats, pretreatment with intravenous domperidone (500 microg/kg) blocked the bromocriptine-induced hypotension, without affecting the tachycardia. Neither cardiac vagal (40+/-6 beats/min.) nor sympathetic tone (76+/-6 beats/min.) was significantly altered by multideficient diet-induced malnutrition (51+/-6 and 67+/-10 beats/min., respectively). In isolated perfused heart preparations from malnourished rats, positive inotropic response to isoproterenol (10-8 to 10-4 M) was not significantly different compared to that in control rats. In summary, malnutrition during foetal life blunted the bromocriptine-induced tachycardia, an effect that could be related to central dopamine D2 receptor desensitization rather than to impairment of autonomic regulation of the heart or cardiac beta-adrenoceptor desensitization.

  15. An acute method to test leptin responsiveness in rats.

    PubMed

    Desai, Bhavna N; Harris, Ruth B S

    2014-06-01

    Continuous subcutaneous administration of leptin normalizes blood glucose levels in rodent models of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes independent of changes in food intake, body weight, and plasma insulin. We tested whether an acute intravenous leptin infusion changed blood glucose in normal and diet-induced leptin-resistant rats to determine whether this measure could be used as a marker of leptin sensitivity. Leptin-responsive chow-fed rats and diet-induced leptin-resistant male Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with thoracic jugular vein catheters. Four days after surgery, conscious rats were infused intravenously with either saline for 32 min, low-dose (LD) leptin (1.9 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) followed by high-dose (HD) leptin (3.8 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) for 16 min each, or only HD leptin for 16 min. There was no change in blood glucose after an acute intravenous infusion of either LD leptin or HD leptin alone for 16 min. An intravenous infusion of LD followed by HD leptin for 16 min each significantly decreased serum glucose in leptin-responsive rats but not in leptin-resistant rats. Leptin infusions increased serum leptin in all rat groups but had no effect on plasma glucagon or 12-h weight gain and energy intake in any group of rats. These results show that leptin has an acute glucose-lowering effect that reflects the leptin responsiveness of the rat. This effect is consistent across controls and different leptin-resistant rat models, and the acute nonlethal test provides a novel method of testing leptin responsiveness in rats. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. An acute method to test leptin responsiveness in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous administration of leptin normalizes blood glucose levels in rodent models of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes independent of changes in food intake, body weight, and plasma insulin. We tested whether an acute intravenous leptin infusion changed blood glucose in normal and diet-induced leptin-resistant rats to determine whether this measure could be used as a marker of leptin sensitivity. Leptin-responsive chow-fed rats and diet-induced leptin-resistant male Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with thoracic jugular vein catheters. Four days after surgery, conscious rats were infused intravenously with either saline for 32 min, low-dose (LD) leptin (1.9 μg·kg−1·min−1) followed by high-dose (HD) leptin (3.8 μg·kg−1·min−1) for 16 min each, or only HD leptin for 16 min. There was no change in blood glucose after an acute intravenous infusion of either LD leptin or HD leptin alone for 16 min. An intravenous infusion of LD followed by HD leptin for 16 min each significantly decreased serum glucose in leptin-responsive rats but not in leptin-resistant rats. Leptin infusions increased serum leptin in all rat groups but had no effect on plasma glucagon or 12-h weight gain and energy intake in any group of rats. These results show that leptin has an acute glucose-lowering effect that reflects the leptin responsiveness of the rat. This effect is consistent across controls and different leptin-resistant rat models, and the acute nonlethal test provides a novel method of testing leptin responsiveness in rats. PMID:24671244

  17. The hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a quantitative microanatomical study.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, M; Strocchi, P; Vitaioli, L; Amenta, F

    2000-01-01

    The influence of hypertension on the morphology of hippocampus was assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats of two, four and six months and in age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Values of systolic pressure were slightly increased in two-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats in comparison with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats and augmented progressively with age in spontaneously hypertensive rats. No microanatomical changes were observed in the hippocampus of spontaneously hypertensive rats of two months in comparison with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats, whereas a decrease of white matter volume was observed in the CA(1) subfield and in the dentate gyrus of four-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the hippocampus of six-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats a reduction of grey matter volume both in the CA(1) subfield and in the dentate gyrus, a loss of neurons affecting to a greater extent the CA(1) subfield and an increase of glial fibrillary acid protein-immunoreactive astrocytes was found. The occurrence of apoptosis and/or necrosis identified using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick end labelling technique was also observed in the CA(1) subfield and to a lesser extent in the dentate gyrus. The only change noticeable in the CA(3) subfield of six-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats was a slight increase in the number of glial fibrillary acid protein-immunoreactive astrocytes. These findings indicate the occurrence of neuronal loss and of astrocyte changes in the hippocampus of spontaneously hypertensive rats of six months, being the CA(1) subfield the area most affected. The relevance of these neurodegenerative changes in hypertension and the possible occurrence of apoptosis and/or necrosis as expression of hypertensive brain damage is discussed.

  18. Cell Therapy for Liver Disease Using Bioimaging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Junko; Enosawa, Shin; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Advances in stem cell research suggest that cell therapy is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. The use of individualized and minimally invasive cell therapy is desirable to avoid rejection and reduce patient burden. While allo-hepatocyte transplantation has been performed for metabolic hepatic disease, auto-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has shifted toward mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for liver cirrhosis. In this article, an overview of cell transplantation research for liver disease is provided through our recent rat studies. We have developed various kinds of rat imaging models and have evaluated the effect of cell therapy for liver disease. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) of the Alb-DsRed2 rat were transplanted via the portal vein (PV) in acute and chronic liver damage models. The number of Alb-DsRed2+ albumin-producing cells increased, and the size of the cells increased in the chronic liver damage model as well as in the acute liver damage model. Luciferase transgenic (luc-Tg) rat hepatocytes were transplanted into the hepatectomized LEW rat via the PV. Luminescence intensity lasted for 2 months in the hepatectomized rat. BMCs obtained from green fluorescent protein (GFP) Tg rats were transplanted repeatedly via the PV using an implanted catheter with a port. Repeated BMT via the PV reduced the liver fibrosis. Adipocyte-derived MSCs from the luc-Tg rat were transplanted into the hepatectomized rat model via the PV after ischemic reperfusion. MSCs inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis and promoted liver regeneration. Transplanting the optimal number of cells by an effective and safe way is important for clinical application. Bioimaging rats are a powerful tool for cell transplantation research because it makes observation of the in vivo kinetics of transplanted cells possible. Cell transplantation research using bioimaging rats contributes greatly to evaluating effective methods of cell therapy. PMID:28174669

  19. Inhibition of thromboxane synthesis attenuates insulin hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Keen, H L; Brands, M W; Smith, M J; Shek, E W; Hall, J E

    1997-10-01

    Chronic insulin infusion in rats increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but the mechanisms for these actions are not known. This study tested whether thromboxane synthesis inhibition (TSI) would attenuate the renal and blood pressure responses to sustained hyperinsulinemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and MAP was measured 24 h/day. After 4 days of baseline measurements, endogenous synthesis of thromboxane was suppressed in 7 rats by infusing the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, U63557A, intravenously (30 microg/kg/min) for the remainder of the experiment; 7 other rats received vehicle. Baseline MAP was not significantly different between vehicle and TSI rats (96 +/- 1 v 99 +/- 1 mm Hg). After 3 days of U63557A or vehicle, a 5-day control period was started, followed by a 7-day infusion of insulin (1.5 mU/kg/min, intravenously). Glucose (22 mg/kg/min, intravenously) was infused along with insulin to prevent hypoglycemia. In the control period, MAP was not different between vehicle and TSI rats (99 +/- 2 v 100 +/- 1 mm Hg), but MAP increased throughout the 7-day infusion period only in the vehicle rats with an average increase in blood pressure of 7 +/- 2 mm Hg. In the control period, GFR was lower in vehicle rats compared with TSI rats (2.5 +/- 0.1 v 3.1 +/- 0.2 mL/min, P = .06), and the decrease to 81% +/- 4% and 91% +/- 6% of control, respectively, during insulin was significant only in the vehicle rats. All variables returned toward control during a 6-day recovery period. These results suggest that full expression of hypertension and renal vasoconstriction during hyperinsulinemia in rats is dependent on a normal ability to synthesize thromboxane.

  20. Weak and nondiscriminative responses to conspecifics in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    von Heimendahl, Moritz; Rao, Rajnish P; Brecht, Michael

    2012-02-08

    Little is known about how hippocampal neurons in rodents respond to and represent conspecifics. To address this question, we let rats interact while quantifying hippocampal neuronal activation patterns with extracellular recordings and immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression. A total of 319 single putative pyramidal neurons was recorded in dorsal hippocampus. In sessions with multiple stimulus rats, no cell responded differentially to individual rats (N = 267 cells). We did find, however, that the presence of other rats induced a significant enhancement or suppression of firing in a fraction of neurons (n = 22 of 319; 7%). As expected, a large fraction of neurons (n = 170; 53%) had place fields. There was no evidence for place-independent responses to rats. Rather, the modulations were linked to the spatial responses. While neurons did not discriminate between individual rats, they did discriminate between rats and inanimate objects. Surprisingly, neuronal responses were more strongly modulated by objects than by rats, even though subjects spent more time near their conspecifics. Consistent with the low fraction of rat-modulated cells, social encounters did not induce c-Fos expression in the hippocampus, while there was a social interaction-specific expression in the basolateral amygdala. In both interacting and non-interacting rats, the fraction of c-Fos-expressing cells in the hippocampus was very low. Our investigation of social coding in the rat hippocampus, along with other recent work, showed that social responses were rare and lacked individual specificity, altogether speaking against a role of rodent dorsal hippocampus in social memory.

  1. Variable reactive hyperemia in normotensive strains of rat.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, J Brett; Pollock, David M

    2014-06-18

    Previous studies from our laboratory report variation in nitric oxide (NO)-dependent arterial pressure within the same strain of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rat dependent upon the commercial vendor supplying the rats. Clinical assessment of endothelial NO activity and endothelial function in general has used postocclusion, flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether the reactive hyperemic response was different between two normotensive strains from two different suppliers, Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from Charles River (CR) and Harlan Laboratories (H), respectively. Rats were anesthetized and the femoral artery was occluded for 5 min, with femoral blood flow measured continuously by use of an ultrasonic perivascular flow probe. The average area under the reactive hyperemic response curve (3-min duration) was not different between SD rats from CR (80 ± 23 mL/min∙s; n = 6) and H (94 ± 16 mL/min∙s; n = 6). As previously reported, blood pressures were higher in the SD rats from H versus CR. WKY rats from both suppliers had significantly larger hyperemia; 371 ± 67 versus 281 ± 71 mL/min∙s (n = 5) for the CR and H WKY rats, respectively, but again, were not different between vendors. Blood pressures in WKY rats were similar between vendors. These results suggest that differences in NO bioactivity are not discernable with an adapted FMD protocol in the rat and that normotensive strains of rat can have large differences in reactive hyperemia despite having similar blood pressures.

  2. Variable reactive hyperemia in normotensive strains of rat

    PubMed Central

    Heimlich, J. Brett; Pollock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies from our laboratory report variation in nitric oxide (NO)‐dependent arterial pressure within the same strain of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rat dependent upon the commercial vendor supplying the rats. Clinical assessment of endothelial NO activity and endothelial function in general has used postocclusion, flow‐mediated dilation (FMD). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether the reactive hyperemic response was different between two normotensive strains from two different suppliers, Sprague–Dawley (SD) and Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats from Charles River (CR) and Harlan Laboratories (H), respectively. Rats were anesthetized and the femoral artery was occluded for 5 min, with femoral blood flow measured continuously by use of an ultrasonic perivascular flow probe. The average area under the reactive hyperemic response curve (3‐min duration) was not different between SD rats from CR (80 ± 23 mL/min∙s; n = 6) and H (94 ± 16 mL/min∙s; n = 6). As previously reported, blood pressures were higher in the SD rats from H versus CR. WKY rats from both suppliers had significantly larger hyperemia; 371 ± 67 versus 281 ± 71 mL/min∙s (n = 5) for the CR and H WKY rats, respectively, but again, were not different between vendors. Blood pressures in WKY rats were similar between vendors. These results suggest that differences in NO bioactivity are not discernable with an adapted FMD protocol in the rat and that normotensive strains of rat can have large differences in reactive hyperemia despite having similar blood pressures. PMID:24944292

  3. Warfarin resistance in a French strain of rats.

    PubMed

    Lasseur, Romain; Longin-Sauvageon, Christiane; Videmann, Bernadette; Billeret, Mikaëline; Berny, Philippe; Benoit, Etienne

    2005-01-01

    A warfarin-resistant strain and a warfarin-susceptible strain of wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained in enclosures of the National Veterinary School of Lyon (France) were studied to determine the mechanism of the resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. A low vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity has been reported for many resistant rat strains. As recently suggested, mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene are the genetic basis of anticoagulant resistance in wild populations of rats from various locations in Europe. Here we report, for our strain, one of the seven described mutations (Tyr139Phe) for VKORC1 in rats. In addition, a low expression of mRNA encoding VKORC1 gene is observed in resistant rats, which could explain their low VKOR activity. We calculated kinetic parameters of VKOR in the warfarin-resistant and warfarin-susceptible rats. The V(max) and the K(m) of the VKOR obtained in resistant rats were lowered by 57 and 77%, respectively, compared to those obtained in susceptible rats. As a consequence, the enzymatic efficiency (V(m)/K(m)) of the VKOR was similar between resistant and susceptible rats. This result could be a good explanation to the observation that no clinical signs of vitamin K deficiency was observed in the warfarin-resistant strain, while a low VKOR activity was found. VKOR activity in warfarin-resistant rats was poorly inhibited by warfarin (K(i) for warfarin is 29 microM and 0.72 microM for resistant and susceptible rats, respectively).

  4. Impaired NaCl taste thresholds in Zn deprived rats

    SciTech Connect

    Brosvic, G.M.; Slotnick, B.M.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-03-05

    Zn deficiency is a relatively common cause of loss of taste acuity in humans. In some patients replacement with exogenous Zn results in rapid reversal of the loss whereas in others prolonged treatment is needed to restore normal taste function. To study this 300 gm outbred Sprague Dawley rats were given Zn deficient diet (< 1 ppm Zn) supplemented with Zn in drinking water (0.1 gm Zn/100 gm body weight). Rats were trained in an automated operant conditions procedure and NaCl taste thresholds determined. During an initial training period and over two replications mean thresholds were 0.006% and mean plasma Zn was 90 +/- 2 ..mu..g/dl (M +/- SEM) determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats were then divided into two groups; in one (3 rats) Zn supplement was removed, in the other (4 rats), pair-fed with the former group, Zn supplement was continued. In 10 days NaCl thresholds in Zn deprived rats increased significantly (0.07%, p < 0.01) and in 17 days increased 13 fold (0.08%) but thresholds for pair fed, supplemented rats remained constant (0.006%). There was no overlap in response between any rat in the two groups. Plasma Zn at 17 days in Zn-deprived rats was significantly below pair-fed rats (52 +/- 13 vs 89 +/- 6 ..mu..g/dl, respectively, P < 0.01). At this time Zn-deprived rats were supplemented with Zn for 27 days without any reduction in taste thresholds. These preliminary results are consistent with previous observations in Zn deficient patients.

  5. Allyl isothiocyanate: comparative disposition in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ioannou, Y.M.; Burka, L.T.; Matthews, H.B.

    1984-09-15

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), the major component of volatile oil of mustard, was recently reported to induce transitional-cell papillomas in the urinary bladder of male Fischer 344 rats, but not in the bladders of female rats or B6C3F1 mice. The present investigation of comparative disposition in both sexes of each species was designed to detect sex or species differences in disposition which might explain susceptibility to AITC toxicity. AITC was readily cleared from all rat and mouse tissues so that within 24 hrs. after administration less than 5% of the total dose was retained in tissues. The highest concentration of AITC-derived radioactivity was observed in male rat bladder. Clearance of AITC-derived radioactivity by each species was primarily in urine (70 to 80%) and in exhaled air (13 to 15%) with lesser amounts in feces (3 to 5%). Rats excreted one major and four minor metabolites in urine. The major metabolite from rat urine was identified by NMR spectroscopy to be the mercapturic acid N-acetyl-S-(N-allylthiocarbamoyl)-L-cysteine. Mice excreted in urine the same major metabolite identified in rat urine as well as three other major and two minor metabolites. Sex-related variations were observed in the relative amounts of these metabolites. Both species excreted a single metabolite in feces. Metabolism of AITC by male and female rats was similar, but female rats excreted over twice the urine volume of male rats. Results of the present study indicate that excretion of a more concentrated solution of AITC metabolite(s) in urine may account for the toxic effects of AITC on the bladder of male rats.

  6. Involvement of aspartoacylase in tremor expression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Ai; Tanaka, Miyuu; Shimizu, Saki; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Yokoe, Mayuko; Yoshida, Yusaku; Suzuki, Toshiro; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Takenaka, Shigeo; Ohno, Yukihiro; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder with a poorly understood etiology. The TRM/Kyo mutant rat, showing spontaneous tremor, is an animal model of ET. Recently, we demonstrated that tremors in these rats emerge when two mutant loci, a missense mutation in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 1 (Hcn1) and the tremor (tm) deletion, are present simultaneously. However, we did not identify which gene within the tm deletion causes tremor expression in TRM/Kyo rats. A strong candidate among the 13 genes within the tm deletion is aspartoacylase (Aspa), because some Aspa-knockout mouse strains show tremor. Here, we generated Aspa-knockout rats using transcription activator-like effector nuclease technology and produced Aspa/Hcn1 double-mutant rats by crossing Aspa-knockout rats with Hcn1-mutant rats. The Aspa-knockout rats carried nonsense mutations in exon 4; and ASPA proteins were not detectable in their brain extracts. They showed elevated levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) in urine and spongy vacuolation and abnormal myelination in the central nervous system, but no tremor. By contrast, Aspa/Hcn1 double-mutant rats spontaneously showed tremors resembling those in TRM/Kyo rats, and the tremor was suppressed by drugs therapeutic for ET but not for parkinsonian tremor. These findings indicated that the lack of the Aspa gene caused tremor expression in TRM/Kyo rats. Our animal model suggested that the interaction of NAA accumulation due to ASPA deficiency with an unstable neuronal membrane potential caused by HCN1 deficiency was involved in tremor development. PMID:27026062

  7. The effect of dietary pyridoxine on arsenic deprivation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, E.O.; Poelllot, R. )

    1991-03-15

    In experiments on As deprivation, many findings indicate that As can affect enzymes or metabolites that are also influenced by vitamin B{sub 6}. Thus, an experiment was designed to ascertain the effect of pyridoxine (pyr) on As deprivation in rats. Male, weanling rats were fed an amino acid based diet containing 0.24% methionine (M) and less than 15 ng As/g. Dietary variables were As, 0 or 1 {mu}g/g; M, 0 or 3 g/kg; and pyridoxine, 0 or 10 mg/kg. After 10 weeks, growth was reduced by As, Pyr, or M deprivation. Both endogenous ({minus}PP) and pyridoxal phosphate-stimulated (+PP) RBC aspartate aminotransferase were decreased by Pyr deficiency. The ratio of +PP/{minus}PP, known as the activation coefficient (AC), was affected by an interaction between As and Pyr. Pyr deficiency resulted in a less marked increase in AC in the As-deprived rats than in the As-supplemented rats. Plasma Fe was slightly decreased by Pyr deficiency in the As-deprived rats but increased by Pyr deficiency in the As-supplemented rats. Plasma threonine and serine were increased by As supplementation in the Pyr-deficient rats but there was no effect of As supplementation in the Pyr-supplemented rats. Plasma alanine was decreased by As or Pyr deprivation. In Pyr deficiency, As deprivation had no effect on plasma glycine (G) in the M-deficient rats but decreased G in the M-supplemented rats. In the Pyr-supplemented rats, As had no effect on G, regardless of M. The findings indicate that As and Pyr interact to affect amino acid metabolism.

  8. Characterization of Rat Meibomian Gland Ion and Fluid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Davis, Richard M.; Aita, Megumi; Burns, Kimberlie A.; Clapp, Phillip W.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Chua, Michael; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Schlegel, Richard; Randell, Scott H.; C. Boucher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We establish novel primary rat meibomian gland (MG) cell culture systems and explore the ion transport activities of the rat MG. Methods Freshly excised rat MG tissues were characterized as follows: (1) mRNA expression of selected epithelial ion channels/transporters were measured by RT-PCR, (2) localization of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNAs was performed by in situ hybridization, and (3) protein expression and localization of βENaC, the Na+/K+/Cl− cotransporter (NKCC), and the Na+/K+ ATPase were evaluated by immunofluorescence. Primary isolated rat MG cells were cocultured with 3T3 feeder cells and a Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) for expansion. Passaged rat MG cells were cultured as planar sheets under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions for gene expression and electrophysiologic studies. Passaged rat MG cells also were cultured in matrigel matrices to form spheroids, which were examined ultrastructurally by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and functionally using swelling assays. Results Expression of multiple ion channel/transporter genes was detected in rat MG tissues. β-ENaC mRNA and protein were localized more to MG peripheral acinar cells than central acinar cells or ductular epithelial cells. Electrophysiologic studies of rat MG cell planar cultures demonstrated functional sodium, chloride, and potassium channels, and cotransporters activities. Transmission electron microscopic analyses of rat MG spheroids revealed highly differentiated MG cells with abundant lysosomal lamellar bodies. Rat MG spheroids culture-based measurements demonstrated active volume regulation by ion channels. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence and function of ion channels and volume transport by rat MG. Two novel primary MG cell culture models that may be useful for MG research were established. PMID:27127933

  9. [Pathologic changes of spontaneous tumors in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    He, Y N; Zhang, S C; Zhang, H M

    2017-04-08

    Objective: To investigate the spontaneous neoplastic lesions and their incidences in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar rats, and to accumulate background data for carcinogenicity studies. Methods: One hundred and eighty SD rats and 240 Wistar rats (4-week old) , half in each sex, were used in this study. The rats were housed routinely under specific pathogen-free environment and euthanized after 104 weeks. Histopathological examination was undertaken for all animals including deaths and scheduled euthanasia. The types and incidences of spontaneous tumors were gathered statistically. Results: Total 411 rats (176 SD rats and 235 Wistar rats) were examined in this study. The total tumor incidence of the 411 rats was 57.7%(237/411). The total tumor incidence in SD rats was 55.7%(98/176), benign tumor incidence was 48.9%(86/176) and malignant tumor incidence was 15.9%(28/176). The total tumor incidence in Wistar rats was 59.1%(139/235), benign tumor incidence was 51.5%(121/235) and malignant tumor incidence was 14.5%(34/235). The main benign tumors were pituitary adenoma (23.3% in SD rats, 12.3% in Wistar rats), breast fibroadenoma (21.3% in SD rats, 12.9% in Wistar rats) and breast adenoma (16.9% in SD rats, 9.5% in Wistar rats) in females; testis Leydig cell tumor (0 in SD rats, 14.3% in Wistar rats) in males. The main malignant tumors were breast carcinoma (10.1% in SD rats, 3.4% in Wistar rats) and uterine leiomyosarcoma (0 in SD rats, 2.6% in Wistar rats) in females; squamous cell carcinoma of skin (2.3% in SD rats, 0.9% in Wistar rats); subcutaneous fibrosarcoma (1.1% in SD rats, 2.1% in Wistar rats); brain malignant glioma (1.1% in SD rats, 1.7% in Wistar rats). Conclusions: In the study, a high incidence of spontaneous tumors is reported in both SD and Wistar rats housed for 2 years. The incidence of benign tumors is higher than that of malignant rumors. The benign tumors mainly are pituitary adenoma, breast fibroadenoma and breast adenoma in females, and testis

  10. Exercise training attenuates anaphylactic venoconstriction in rat perfused liver, but does not affect anaphylactic hypotension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sen; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Wei; Kurata, Yasutaka; Kashimura, Osamu; Miyamae, Shunichi

    2010-09-01

    1. Exercise training attenuates circulatory shock due to haemorrhage, endotoxin or heatstroke. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training attenuates anaphylactic shock. Hepatic venoconstriction is involved in rat anaphylactic hypotension. In the present study, we determined the effects of exercise training on both anaphylaxis-induced segmental venoconstriction in rat perfused livers and systemic anaphylaxis in conscious rats. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effect of exercise on the venoconstriction of perfused livers was also examined. 2. Rats were subjected to running training on a motorized treadmill for 4 weeks. Two weeks prior to the anaphylaxis experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were actively sensitized with the antigen ovalbumin. In isolated livers perfused portally with blood, the portal venous pressure (P(pv)) and sinusoidal pressure were measured to determine the pre- and post-sinusoidal resistances (R(pre) and R(post), respectively). In conscious rats, systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and P(pv) were determined. 3. In the perfused livers of sedentary rats, antigen administration led to a predominant presinusoidal constriction, as evidenced by 4.6- and 1.7-fold increases in R(pre) and R(post), respectively. The anaphylaxis-induced increase in R(pre) was significantly attenuated by 24% by exercise training. Inhibition of NO synthase with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 micromol/L) 10 min prior to the injection of antigen enhanced anaphylactic venoconstriction, but did not alter the effect of exercise training on the increase in R(pre). In contrast, exercise training did not attenuate either anaphylactic hypotension or portal hypertension in conscious rats. 4. In conclusion, exercise training attenuates the anaphylaxis-induced presinusoidal constriction in rat isolated perfused livers, independent of NO production. However, this action is not evident in conscious rats and exercise training does not affect anaphylactic hypotension in

  11. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg; Fisher, Robyn L.; Vickers, Alison E.M.

    2014-01-15

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  12. Effects of fluoroquinolones on the locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Thiel, R; Metzner, S; Gericke, C; Rahm, U; Stahlmann, R

    2001-03-01

    During therapy with fluoroquinolones adverse CNS reactions such as dizziness, light-headedness, insomnia or sleepiness are observed in up to 20% of patients. Using a device developed at our institute for the simultaneous registration of the activity of rats housed in single cages, we have investigated the effects of trovafloxacin, fleroxacin or ofloxacin on the locomotor activity of juvenile and adult rats (11 per group) after oral administration of 600 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. The effects were most pronounced after fleroxacin, which induced a reduction in activity to 36 +/- 9% (mean +/- SD) of the values measured in juvenile rats before treatment and to 60 +/- 21% (mean +/- SD) in adult rats. HPLC analysis of the plasma concentrations in juvenile rats showed that the concentrations of trovafloxacin were considerably lower than those of the other fluoroquinolones that had been studied previously in our laboratory: the peak concentration of trovafloxacin was 14 +/- 2.9 mg/l (mean +/- SD) after a single dose of 600 mg/kg in juvenile rats. Overall, we showed that the locomotor activities of juvenile and adult rats were significantly depressed during treatment with fluoroquinolones. The effects were more pronounced in juveniles. Monitoring of the locomotor activity of rats is a suitable approach to study CNS effects of fluoroquinolones in animals, but pharmacokinetics have to be taken into account.

  13. Identifying Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in a Rat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    at the 65-week time point. This example shows a relatively large patch of Leydig cells ( Ley ) adjacent to two seminiferous tubules (Tub). PhIP Rat...9, 2006 [16] Weisburger JH, Rivenson A, Reinhardt J, Braley J, Pittman B, and Zang E (2002). On the occurrence of Leydig cell tumors in the F344 rat

  14. Rats Depend on Habit Memory for Discrimination Learning and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the circumstances in which rats engage either declarative memory (and the hippocampus) or habit memory (and the dorsal striatum). Rats with damage to the hippocampus or dorsal striatum were given three different two-choice discrimination tasks (odor, object, and pattern). These tasks differed in the number of trials required for…

  15. Biochemical and histochemical adaptations of skeletal muscle to rat suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of rat suspension on soleus disuse and atrophy was investigated to measure changes in fiber area and number and to determine if suspension elicited changes in lysosomal protease activity and rate of calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The infuence of rat suspension on myosin light chain phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activity are determined.

  16. Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Makni, Mohamed; Sefi, Mediha; Fetoui, Hamadi; Garoui, El Mouldi; Gargouri, Nabil K; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture on the kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Animals were allocated into three groups of six rats each: a control group (CD), a diabetic group (DD) and diabetic rats fed with Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture (DMS) group. The DD rats showed a significant increase of glycemia and lipid parameters such as total lipid, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared to those of the control group (CD). In addition, plasma and kidney malonaldialdehyde levels (MDA) were significantly increased compared to (CD) group. Antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and non-enzymatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased in the plasma and kidney of diabetic rats compared to those of controls. Diet supplemented with Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorated the antioxidant enzymes activities observed in diabetic rats and significantly decreased MDA levels. Kidney histological sections, showed glomerular hypertrophy and tubular dilatation. In DMS rats, these histopathological changes were less prominent. Our results suggest that Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture supplemented in diet of diabetic rats may be helpful to prevent diabetes and its complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Oral Toxicity of Nitroguanidine in Male and Female Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Baker HJ, Lindsey JR, Weisbroth SH, eds. Mycoplasmal and rickettsial diseases. In: The laboratory rat . Volume I. Biology and...were used for Limit Test animals. Pretest conditioning: Cuarantine/acclimation 10-24 Aug 84. Justification: The laboratory rat has proven to be

  18. Mapping Mammary Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMDI7-94-J-4040 TITLE: Mapping Mammary Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Gould, Ph.D...Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat DAMDI7-94-J-4040 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael Gould, Ph.D. Hong Lan, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  19. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Corrupted colonic crypt fission in carcinogen-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The colonic crypts in rats reproduce themselves by symmetric fission at the base of the crypts, and proceeding upwards, generate two separate identical crypts. Recently we reported corrupted colonic crypt fission (CCCF) in rats with colonic carcinoma. Here we investigated whether CCCF also occurred in the colonic mucosa without carcinoma in carcinogen-treated rats. Filed Swiss-roll sections from 35 male rats (25 treated with 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH) suspended in EDTA solution, and 10 EDTA-treated) were reviewed. CCCF were regarded those with either asymmetric basal fission, asymmetric lateral sprouting/lateral fission, basal dilatations, or spatial aberrations of the normal (vertical) axis. 202 CCCF (38%) were recorded amongst 533 crypts with fission in DMH-treated rats, and only one CCCF (0.1%) was found amongst 571 crypts with fission in EDTA-treated rats (p<0.05). The basal aspect of four adenomas included in Swiss roll sections exhibited CCCF lined either with indigenous (non-dysplastic) epithelium or with dysplastic epithelium. It was demonstrated that CCCF without dysplasia develop in carcinogen-treated SD rats. As judged by the figures presented, the possibility that the epithelium in those corrupted crypts was successively replaced by top-down growing dysplastic cells, could not be totally rejected. This is the first report showing that non-dysplastic CCCF may antedate the very early stages of colonic carcinogenesis in SD rats.