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Sample records for rat periventricular nucleus

  1. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    PubMed Central

    Van Vugt, Harmke H.; Van de Heijning, Bert J. M.

    2008-01-01

    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular nucleus (PeVN) of ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, and compared these data with data from intact male rats. Adult female rats were treated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P), 3 months (long-term) or 2 weeks (short-term) after ovariectomy (OVX). Perfusion-fixed brains were sliced and stained, and the number of SOM-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and total SOM-ir area (in μm2) were determined using computer assisted analysis. SOM-ir cells in the PeVN showed a very characteristic rostro-caudal distribution and localization in relation to the third ventricle. Both the number of SOM-ir cells and total SOM-ir area in the PeVN were higher in male compared to OVX female rats. Neither the number of SOM-ir cells, nor the total SOM-ir area in the PeVN was affected by E2 or P treatment alone. Treatment with both gonadal steroids, however, did increase total SOM-immunoreactivity. This study is the first to describe SOM cell distribution within the rat PeVN in great detail. A clear sex difference exists in SOM peptide content in the rat PeVN. In addition, E2 and P may act synergistically to affect SOM cells in the female PeVN, suggesting that both gonadal steroids may be involved in the generation of the typical feminine SOM release pattern. PMID:18421448

  2. Release of Norepinephrine in the Preoptic Area Activates Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Neurons and Stimulates the Surge of Luteinizing Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Poletini, Maristela O.; Leite, Cristiane M.; Bernuci, Marcelo P.; Kalil, Bruna; Mendonça, Leonardo B.D.; Carolino, Ruither O. G.; Helena, Cleyde V. V.; Bertram, Richard; Franci, Celso R.; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of norepinephrine (NE) in regulation of LH is still controversial. We investigated the role played by NE in the positive feedback of estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian-steroid control over NE release in the preoptic area (POA) was determined using microdialysis. Compared with ovariectomized (OVX) rats, estradiol-treated OVX (OVX+E) rats displayed lower release of NE in the morning but increased release coincident with the afternoon surge of LH. OVX rats treated with estradiol and progesterone (OVX+EP) exhibited markedly greater NE release than OVX+E rats, and amplification of the LH surge. The effect of NE on LH secretion was confirmed using reverse microdialysis. The LH surge and c-Fos expression in anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons were significantly increased in OVX+E rats dialyzed with 100 nm NE in the POA. After Fluoro-Gold injection in the POA, c-Fos expression in Fluoro-Gold/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons increased during the afternoon in the A2 of both OVX+E and OVX+EP rats, in the locus coeruleus (LC) of OVX+EP rats, but was unchanged in the A1. The selective lesion of LC terminals, by intracerebroventricular N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, reduced the surge of LH in OVX+EP but not in OVX+E rats. Thus, estradiol and progesterone activate A2 and LC neurons, respectively, and this is associated with the increased release of NE in the POA and the magnitude of the LH surge. NE stimulates LH secretion, at least in part, through activation of anteroventral periventricular neurons. These findings contribute to elucidation of the role played by NE during the positive feedback of ovarian steroids. PMID:23150494

  3. GHRP-6-induced changes in electrical activity of single cells in the arcuate, ventromedial and periventricular nucleus neurones [correction of nuclei] of a hypothalamic slice preparation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hewson, A K; Viltart, O; McKenzie, D N; Dyball, R E; Dickson, S L

    1999-12-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that systemic injection of the growth hormone secretagogue, growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, selectively activated cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, as reflected by increased electrical activity and induction of the immediate early gene c-fos. The growth hormone secretagogue receptor distribution is not confined to the arcuate nucleus, suggesting that additional sites of action may exist. In the present study we characterized the electrophysiological responses of cells in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial nucleus and periventricular nucleus in an in-vitro hypothalamic slice preparation, following bath application of GHRP-6. Additionally, since central somatostatin administration has been shown to attenuate the induction of the c-fos gene by GHRP-6, we sought to determine whether the arcuate cells activated by GHRP-6 are also somatostatin-sensitive. Male Wistar rats (100-150 g body weight (BW)) were anaesthetized (urethane; 1.2 g/kg BW) and the brains removed. Coronal sections (400 microm thickness) were cut through a block of hypothalamus and were transferred to a slice chamber perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Forty-one arcuate nucleus cells were tested with bath application of 15 microm GHRP-6 for 10 min, 16 of which were tested subsequently (>30 min later) with application of 10 microM somatostatin. Following GHRP-6 administration, 19 cells (46. 3%) showed a significant increase in firing rate during the 15-min period after GHRP-6 application (P<0.001), 17 cells (41.5%) did not respond and the remaining five cells (12.2%) were significantly inhibited. Six of the eight arcuate nucleus cells that were excited by GHRP-6 were significantly inhibited by somatostatin. By contrast, five of the six arcuate nucleus cells that were unresponsive to GHRP-6 were also unresponsive to somatostatin. In the ventromedial nucleus, of 19 cells tested, eight cells (42.1%) were excited by GHRP-6, eight cells (42.1%) were

  4. Electrical and morphological characteristics of anteroventral periventricular nucleus kisspeptin and other neurons in the female mouse.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Eric; Gaidamaka, Galina; Herbison, Allan E

    2010-05-01

    Neurons in the rodent anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) play a key role in integrating circadian and gonadal steroid hormone information in the control of fertility. In particular, estradiol-sensitive kisspeptin neurons located in the AVPV, and adjacent structures [together termed the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V)], are critical for puberty onset and the preovulatory LH surge. The present study aimed to establish the morphological and electrical firing characteristics of RP3V neurons, including kisspeptin neurons, in the adult female mouse. Cell-attached electrical recordings, followed by juxtacellular dye filling, of 129 RP3V neurons in the acute brain slice preparation revealed these cells to exhibit multipolar (53%), bipolar (43%), or unipolar (4%) dendritic morphologies along with silent (16%), irregular (41%), bursting (25%), or tonic (34%) firing patterns. Postrecording immunocytochemistry identified 17 of 100 filled RP3V cells as being kisspeptin neurons, all of which exhibited complex multipolar dendritic trees and significantly (P < 0.05) higher bursting or high tonic firing rates compared with nonkisspeptin neurons. The firing pattern of RP3V neurons fluctuated across the estrous cycle with a significant (P < 0.05) switch from irregular to tonic firing patterns found on proestrus. A similar nonsignificant trend was found for kisspeptin neurons. All RP3V neurons responded to gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate, about 10% to RFamide-related peptide-3, about 5% to vasopressin, 0% to vasoactive intestinal peptide, and 0% to kisspeptin. These studies provide a morphological and electrical description of AVPV/RP3V neurons and demonstrate their cycle-dependent firing patterns along with an unexpected lack of acute response to the circadian neuropeptides.

  5. Regional difference in sex steroid action on formation of morphological sex differences in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Moeko; Tsuda, Mumeko C; Sagoshi, Shoko; Nagata, Kazuyo; Morimoto, Chihiro; Thu, Chaw Kyi Tha; Toda, Katsumi; Kato, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroid action is critical to form sexually dimorphic nuclei, although it is not fully understood. We previously reported that masculinization of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), which is larger and has more neurons in males than in females, involves aromatized testosterone that acts via estrogen receptor-α (ERα), but not estrogen receptor-β (ERβ). Here, we examined sex steroid action on the formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) that is larger and has more neurons in females. Morphometrical analysis of transgenic mice lacking aromatase, ERα, or ERβ genes revealed that the volume and neuron number of the male AVPV were significantly increased by deletion of aromatase and ERα genes, but not the ERβ gene. We further examined the AVPV and BNSTp of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. The volume and neuron number of the male BNSTp were smaller in ARKO mice than those in wild-type mice, while no significant effect of ARKO was found on the AVPV and female BNSTp. We also examined aromatase, ERα, and AR mRNA levels in the AVPV and BNSTp of wild-type and ARKO mice on embryonic day (ED) 18 and postnatal day (PD) 4. AR mRNA in the BNSTp and AVPV of wild-type mice was not expressed on ED18 and emerged on PD4. In the AVPV, the aromatase mRNA level was higher on ED18, although the ERα mRNA level was higher on PD4 without any effect of AR gene deletion. Aromatase and ERα mRNA levels in the male BNSTp were significantly increased on PD4 by AR gene deletion. These results suggest that estradiol signaling via ERα during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV.

  6. Regional Difference in Sex Steroid Action on Formation of Morphological Sex Differences in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus and Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Moeko; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Sagoshi, Shoko; Nagata, Kazuyo; Morimoto, Chihiro; Tha Thu, Chaw Kyi; Toda, Katsumi; Kato, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroid action is critical to form sexually dimorphic nuclei, although it is not fully understood. We previously reported that masculinization of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), which is larger and has more neurons in males than in females, involves aromatized testosterone that acts via estrogen receptor-α (ERα), but not estrogen receptor-β (ERβ). Here, we examined sex steroid action on the formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) that is larger and has more neurons in females. Morphometrical analysis of transgenic mice lacking aromatase, ERα, or ERβ genes revealed that the volume and neuron number of the male AVPV were significantly increased by deletion of aromatase and ERα genes, but not the ERβ gene. We further examined the AVPV and BNSTp of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. The volume and neuron number of the male BNSTp were smaller in ARKO mice than those in wild-type mice, while no significant effect of ARKO was found on the AVPV and female BNSTp. We also examined aromatase, ERα, and AR mRNA levels in the AVPV and BNSTp of wild-type and ARKO mice on embryonic day (ED) 18 and postnatal day (PD) 4. AR mRNA in the BNSTp and AVPV of wild-type mice was not expressed on ED18 and emerged on PD4. In the AVPV, the aromatase mRNA level was higher on ED18, although the ERα mRNA level was higher on PD4 without any effect of AR gene deletion. Aromatase and ERα mRNA levels in the male BNSTp were significantly increased on PD4 by AR gene deletion. These results suggest that estradiol signaling via ERα during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV. PMID:25398007

  7. Assessment of Epigenetic Contributions to Sexually-Dimorphic Kiss1 Expression in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Semaan, Sheila J.; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kim, Joshua; Ku, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    The Kiss1 gene, which encodes kisspeptin and is critical for reproduction, is sexually differentiated in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV)/rostral periventricular (PeN) nuclei. Specifically, female rodents have higher AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression than males, but how this Kiss1 sex difference is induced in early development is poorly understood. Here, we explored the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the establishment of the AVPV/PeN Kiss1 sex difference, focusing on histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. First, we utilized postnatal pharmacological blockade of histone deacetylation and analyzed Kiss1 expression in the AVPV/PeN. Postnatal disruption of histone deacetylase modestly increased AVPV Kiss1 cell number in both sexes but did not alter the Kiss1 sex difference. Next, we assessed whether the level of CpG methylation, which can influence transcription factor binding and gene expression, in the murine Kiss1 gene differs between males and females. We found significant sex differences in methylation at several CpG sites in the putative promoter and first intron of the Kiss1 gene in the AVPV/PeN, but not in the arcuate (which lacks adult Kiss1 sex differences), suggesting that differential methylation of the Kiss1 gene may influence sexually-dimorphic Kiss1 expression in the AVPV/PeN. Transgenic impairment of methyl CpG-binding protein-2 function did not eliminate the Kiss1 sex difference, indicating that other methylation factors are involved. Interestingly, CpG methylation in the AVPV/PeN was lower in males than females, suggesting that transcriptional repressors may contribute to the AVPV/PeN Kiss1 sex difference, a possibility supported by in silico identification of putative repressor binding sites near some of the sexually-dimorphic CpG. PMID:22374971

  8. Molecular characterization of circumventricular organs and third ventricle ependyma in the rat: potential markers for periventricular tumors.

    PubMed

    Szathmari, Alexandru; Champier, Jacques; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Jouvet, Anne; Watrin, Chantal; Wierinckx, Anne; Fèvre Montange, Michelle

    2013-02-01

    Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized ventricular structures around the third and fourth ventricles of the brain. In humans, these structures are present during the fetal period and some become vestigial after birth. Some of these organs, such as the pineal gland (PG), subcommissural organ (SCO), and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, might be the sites of origin of periventricular tumors, notably pineal parenchymal tumors, papillary tumor of the pineal region and chordoid glioma. In contrast to the situation in humans, CVOs are present in the adult rat and can be dissected by laser capture microdissection (LCM). In this study, we used LCM and microarrays to analyze the transcriptomes of three CVOs, the SCO, the subfornical organ (SFO), and the PG and the third ventricle ependyma in the adult rat, in order to better characterize these organs at the molecular level. Several genes were expressed only, or mainly, in one of these structures, for example, Erbb2 and Col11a1 in the ependyma, Epcam and Claudin-3 (CLDN3) in the SCO, Ren1 and Slc22a3 in the SFO and Tph, Aanat and Asmt in the PG. The expression of these genes in periventricular tumors should be examined as evidence for a possible origin from the CVOs. Furthermore, we performed an immunohistochemical study of CLDN3, a membrane protein involved in forming cellular tight junctions and found that CLDN3 expression was restricted to the apical pole of ependymocytes in the SCO. This microarray study provides new evidence regarding the possible origin of some rare periventricular tumors.

  9. Periventricular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Sheen, Volney

    2005-09-01

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is clinically diagnosed on the basis of the radiographic characteristics of heterotopic nodules composed of disorganized neurons along the lateral ventricles of the brain. Epilepsy is the main presenting symptom of patients with PH. Behaviorally, patients generally are of normal intelligence, although there have been associated findings of learning disabilities, namely, dyslexia. Two genes responsible for PH have been identified: FilaminA, which encodes for the protein filamin A, and ARFGEF2, which encodes for the vesical transport-regulating protein ARFGEF2. The much more common X-linked dominant form of this disorder is due to filamin A, affects females, and is typically lethal in males. A much rarer autosomal recessive form due to ARFGEF2 mutations leads to microcephaly and developmental delay in addition to PH. Cell motility, adhesion defects, and weakening along the neuroepithelial lining may result from defects in these genes during cortical development and contribute to PH, but the mechanisms are not clear yet. Treatment of PH is largely symptomatic, following basic principles for epilepsy management and genetic counseling.

  10. Relative Importance of the Arcuate and Anteroventral Periventricular Kisspeptin Neurons in Control of Puberty and Reproductive Function in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, M. H.; Li, X. F.; McCausland, B.; Li, S. Y.; Gresham, R.; Kinsey-Jones, J. S.; Gardiner, J. V.; Sam, A. H.; Bloom, S. R.; Poston, L.; Lightman, S. L.; Murphy, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin plays a critical role in pubertal timing and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya within the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei are thought to be involved in LH pulse and surge generation, respectively. Using bilateral microinjections of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC or AVPV of female rats at postnatal day 10, we investigated the relative importance of these two kisspeptin populations in the control of pubertal timing, estrous cyclicity, and LH surge and pulse generation. A 37% knockdown of kisspeptin in the AVPV resulted in a significant delay in vaginal opening and first vaginal estrous, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous LH surges, although these retained normal amplitude. This AVPV knockdown had no effect on LH pulse frequency, measured after ovariectomy. A 32% reduction of kisspeptin in the ARC had no effect on the onset of puberty but resulted in abnormal estrous cyclicity and decreased LH pulse frequency. Additionally, the knockdown of kisspeptin in the ARC decreased the amplitude but not the incidence of LH surges. These results might suggest that the role of AVPV kisspeptin in the control of pubertal timing is particularly sensitive to perturbation. In accordance with our previous studies, ARC kisspeptin signaling was critical for normal pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. Despite the widely reported role of AVPV kisspeptin neurons in LH surge generation, this study suggests that both AVPV and ARC populations are essential for normal LH surges and estrous cyclicity. PMID:25875299

  11. Relative Importance of the Arcuate and Anteroventral Periventricular Kisspeptin Neurons in Control of Puberty and Reproductive Function in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, M H; Li, X F; McCausland, B; Li, S Y; Gresham, R; Kinsey-Jones, J S; Gardiner, J V; Sam, A H; Bloom, S R; Poston, L; Lightman, S L; Murphy, K G; O'Byrne, K T

    2015-07-01

    Kisspeptin plays a critical role in pubertal timing and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya within the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei are thought to be involved in LH pulse and surge generation, respectively. Using bilateral microinjections of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC or AVPV of female rats at postnatal day 10, we investigated the relative importance of these two kisspeptin populations in the control of pubertal timing, estrous cyclicity, and LH surge and pulse generation. A 37% knockdown of kisspeptin in the AVPV resulted in a significant delay in vaginal opening and first vaginal estrous, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous LH surges, although these retained normal amplitude. This AVPV knockdown had no effect on LH pulse frequency, measured after ovariectomy. A 32% reduction of kisspeptin in the ARC had no effect on the onset of puberty but resulted in abnormal estrous cyclicity and decreased LH pulse frequency. Additionally, the knockdown of kisspeptin in the ARC decreased the amplitude but not the incidence of LH surges. These results might suggest that the role of AVPV kisspeptin in the control of pubertal timing is particularly sensitive to perturbation. In accordance with our previous studies, ARC kisspeptin signaling was critical for normal pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. Despite the widely reported role of AVPV kisspeptin neurons in LH surge generation, this study suggests that both AVPV and ARC populations are essential for normal LH surges and estrous cyclicity.

  12. Electron microscopic analysis of synaptic inputs from the median preoptic nucleus and adjacent regions to the supraoptic nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W E; Tian, M; Wong, H

    1996-09-16

    The median preoptic nucleus (MnPo) is critical for normal fluid balance, mediating osmotically evoked drinking and neurohypophysial hormone secretion. The influence of the MnPo on vasopressin and oxytocin release is in part through direct connections to the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus. In the present investigation the synaptic contacts between the MnPo and supraoptic neurons were investigated in rats by ultrastructural examination of terminals labeled anterogradely with the tracers Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin or biotinylated dextran. At the light microscopic level, labeled fibers within the supraoptic nucleus branched frequently, were punctuated by varicosities, and were distributed throughout the nucleus without preference for the known distributions of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. At the ultrastructural level, synapses were associated with many of these varicosities. The ratio of labeled axodendritic to axosomatic synapses encountered was roughly consistent with a uniform innervation of dendrites and somata. The great majority of synapses were characterized by symmetrical contacts. Similar results were found for a few injections made in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, just rostral to the MnPo, and in the immediately adjacent periventricular preoptic area. Coupled with other recent anatomical and electrophysiological evidence, these results suggest there is a strong monosynaptic pathway from structures along the ventral lamina terminalis to the supraoptic nucleus.

  13. Recombinant human erythropoietin offers neuroprotection through inducing endogenous erythropoietin receptor and neuroglobin in a neonatal rat model of periventricular white matter damage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lihua; Huang, Li; Wen, Quan; Wang, Ting; Qiao, Lixing; Jiang, Li

    2017-03-27

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) has been reported to have protective effects against brain injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) and neuroglobin (Ngb) in a neonatal rat model of periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), and to identify the relationship between the two proteins. On postnatal day 3 (P3), rats underwent permanent ligation of the right common carotid artery followed by 6% O2 for 4h (HI) or sham operation and normoxic exposure (sham). Immediately after HI, rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of rh-EPO (5U/g) or saline. We assessed the expression level of Ngb and EPOR on postnatal days 5, 7, 10 and 14. EPOR in the HI rats was initially increased as compared to the sham rats at P5. Subsequently, EPOR expression decreased, but was maintained at a higher level than in sham rats from P7 to P14. In rh-EPO treated rats, the increase in EPOR was greater than in HI rats at P5. However, EPOR levels decreased sharply from P7 to P14. In HI rats, Ngb was increased compared to the sham rats from P5 to P14. Ngb levels were further upregulated after rh-EPO administration from P5 to P10 compared to HI rats. However, this upregulation decreased at P14. In conclusion, this study shows that EPOR and Ngb were upregulated, and both of them act as important coordinated neuroprotectors in rh-EPO treatment of PWMD. However, the two proteins exhibit different expression patterns.

  14. Calretinin Neurons in the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert Y

    2016-08-01

    The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian pacemaker, is present in all mammalian brains. It has a complex organization of peptide-containing neurons that is similar among species, but calcium-binding proteins are expressed variably. Neurons containing calretinin have been described in the SCN in a number of species but not with association to circadian function. The objective of the present study is to characterize a calretinin neuron (CAR) group in the rat anterior hypothalamus anatomically and functionally with a detailed description of its location and a quantitative analysis of neuronal calretinin immunoreactivity at 3 times of day, 0600, 1400, and 1900 h, from animals in either light-dark or constant dark conditions. CAR neurons occupy a region in the dorsal and lateral SCN with a circadian rhythm in CAR immunoreactivity with a peak at 0600 h and a rhythm in cytoplasmic CAR distribution with a peak at 1400 h. CAR neurons should be viewed as an anatomical and functional component of the rat SCN that expands the definition from observations with cell stains. CAR neurons are likely to modulate temporal regulation of calcium in synaptic transmission.

  15. Progress in periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenbin; Pleasure, Jeanette; Pleasure, David

    2008-10-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury and the leading known cause of cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits in premature infants. The number of low-birth-weight infants who survive to demonstrate these neurologic deficts is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging techniques provide greater diagnostic sensitivity for PVL than does head ultrasonography and often document the involvement of telencephalic gray matter and long tracts in addition to periventricular white matter. The neuropathologic hallmarks of PVL are microglial activation and focal and diffuse periventricular depletion of premyelinating oligodendroglia. Premyelinating oligodendroglia are highly vulnerable to death caused by glutamate, free radicals, and proinflammatory cytokines. Studies in animal models of PVL suggest that pharmacologic interventions that target these toxic molecules will be useful in diminishing the severity of PVL.

  16. Periventricular leukomalacia long-term prognosis may be improved by treatment with UDP-glucose, GDNF, and memantine in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feng-Xia; Li, Wen-Juan; Chen, Hui-Jin; Qian, Long-Hua; Buzby, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-27

    The therapeutic effects of UDP-glucose (UDPG), an endogenous agonist of GPR17 that may promote the self-repair of white matter, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a neurotrophic factor correlated with the growth and survival of nerve cells, and memantine, an antagonist of NMDA receptors, were evaluated for functional improvement of neonatal rats with experimental periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Five day-old neonatal rat pups were subjected to an ischemia-induced model of PVL. The pups were then randomly divided into sham, PVL, PVL plus UDPG, PVL plus GDNF, and PVL plus memantine groups. All pups were weighed and the age at first eye opening recorded. Pathological changes and myelin sheath formation in the white matter were assessed under both light and electron microscopy on day 7 and 21 after induction of PVL. Values of escape latency (EL) and swimming distance (SD) in Morris water maze test, and the modified inclined plane scores in Rivlin inclined plane test were recorded for rats on day 26. Pups in the PVL group were found to be significantly lower in weight (p<0.05), delayed in age at first eye opening (p<0.01), and impaired in their inclined plane (p<0.01) and Morris water maze (p<0.01) performance compared with those in the sham, UDPG, GDNF and memantine groups. Histopathological grading of the white matter classified all pups in the PVL group with significantly more severe injury (p<0.01), and the number and thickness of their myelin sheaths were significantly less (p<0.01), compared to the UDPG, GDNF, memantine, or sham groups. These results indicate that treatment with UDPG, GDNF, and memantine may significantly improve long-term prognosis in neonatal rats with cerebral white matter injury, characteristic of PVL.

  17. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.

  18. Collateral projections from the lateral parabrachial nucleus to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and the central amygdaloid nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shao-Hua; Yin, Jun-Bin; Sun, Yi; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Kai-Xiang; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu-Lin; Li, Yun-Qing

    2016-08-26

    Combined the retrograde double tracing with immunofluorescence histochemical staining, we examined the neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB) sent collateral projections to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) and central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and their roles in the nociceptive transmission in the rat. After the injection of Fluoro-gold (FG) into the PVT and tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR) into the CeA, respectively, FG/TMR double-labeled neurons were observed in the LPB. The percentages of FG/TMR double-labeled neurons to the total number of FG- or TMR-labeled neurons were 6.18% and 9.09%, respectively. Almost all of the FG/TMR double-labeled neurons (95%) exhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity. In the condition of neuropathic pain, 94% of these neurons showed FOS immunoreactivity. The present data indicates that some of CGRP-expressing neurons in the LPB may transmit nociceptive information toward the PVT and CeA by way of axon collaterals.

  19. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: periventricular heterotopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... heterotopia is a condition in which nerve cells ( neurons ) do not migrate properly during the early development ... means "out of place." In normal brain development, neurons form in the periventricular region, located around fluid- ...

  1. Capsaicin augments synaptic transmission in the rat medial preoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Urban; Sundgren-Andersson, Anna K; Johansson, Staffan; Krupp, Johannes J

    2005-05-10

    The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) is the major nucleus of the preoptic area (POA), a hypothalamic area involved in the regulation of body-temperature. Injection of capsaicin into this area causes hypothermia in vivo. Capsaicin also causes glutamate release from hypothalamic slices. However, no data are available on the effect of capsaicin on synaptic transmission within the MPN. Here, we have studied the effect of exogenously applied capsaicin on spontaneous synaptic activity in hypothalamic slices of the rat. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from visually identified neurons located in the MPN. In a subset of the studied neurons, capsaicin enhanced the frequency of spontaneous glutamatergic EPSCs. Remarkably, capsaicin also increased the frequency of GABAergic IPSCs, an effect that was sensitive to removal of extracellular calcium, but insensitive to tetrodotoxin. This suggests an action of capsaicin at presynaptic GABAergic terminals. In contrast to capsaicin, the TRPV4 agonist 4alpha-PDD did not affect GABAergic IPSCs. Our results show that capsaicin directly affects synaptic transmission in the MPN, likely through actions at presynaptic terminals as well as on projecting neurons. Our data add to the growing evidence that capsaicin receptors are not only expressed in primary afferent neurons, but also contribute to synaptic processing in some CNS regions.

  2. Preoptic-hypothalamic periventricular lesions: thirst deficits and hypernatremia.

    PubMed

    Buggy, J; Jonhson, A K

    1977-07-01

    To assess the significance of stimulation studies suggesting an anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) dipsogenic site of action for hyperosmotic and angiotensin thirst stimuli, electrolytic lesions of periventricular tissue surrounding AV3V were produced under ether anesthesia in rats preselected for responsiveness to subcutaneous angiotensin and hypertonic NaCl thirst challenges. Lesions limited to preoptic-anterior hypothalamic periventricular substrates resulted in adipsia; those rats resuming ad lib. drinking after a period of adipsia exhibited persistent drinking deficits to angiotensin and hypertonic NaCl thirst challenges, reduced drinking after water deprivation, and increased plasma osmolality and sodium. Drinking to polyethylene glycol-induced hypovolemia and feeding after food deprivation did not differ between lesioned and sham-lesioned animals. The disturbances in behavioral control of fluid balance imply that AV3V periventricular tissue normally plays a key role in mediating regulatory drinking. It is proposed that these AV3V periventricular lesion-induced effects on drinking behavior are due to destruction of receptors and/or integrative systems monitoring fluid-borne angiotensin and hyperosmotic stimuli.

  3. Cortical connections of the rat lateral posterior thalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kamishina, Hiroaki; Conte, William L; Patel, Sarika S; Tai, Rachel J; Corwin, James V; Reep, Roger L

    2009-04-06

    Spatial processing related to directed attention is thought to be mediated by a specific cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical network in the rat. Key components of this network are associative cortical areas medial agranular cortex (AGm) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), dorsocentral striatum (DCS), and lateral posterior (LP) thalamic nucleus, all of which are interconnected. Previously, we found that thalamostriatal projections reaching DCS arise from separate populations of neurons of the mediorostral part of LP (LPMR). The far medial LPMR (fmLPMR) terminates in central DCS, a projection area of AGm, whereas central LPMR terminates in dorsal DCS, a projection area of PPC. This represents segregated regional convergence in DCS from different sources of thalamic and cortical inputs. In the present study, thalamocortical and corticothalamic projections arising from and terminating in LPMR and neighboring thalamic nuclei were studied by anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques in order to further understand the anatomical basis of this neural circuitry. A significant finding was that within LPMR, separate neuronal populations provide thalamic inputs to AGm or PPC and that these cortical areas project to separate regions in LPMR, from which they receive thalamic inputs. Other cortical areas adjacent to AGm or PPC also demonstrated reciprocal connections with LP or surrounding nuclei in a topographic manner. Our findings suggest that the cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic network mediating directed attention in the rat is formed by multiple loops, each having reciprocal connections that are organized in a precise and segregated topographical manner.

  4. [Extracellular aminoacids in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens in the rat during acute pain].

    PubMed

    Silva, Elizabeth; Hernández, Luis

    2007-06-01

    In the present experiments extracellular arginine, glutamate and aspartate were studied in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and core of the nucleus accumbens during the formalin test (phase I). A combination of capillary zone electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection and microdialysis in freely moving rats was used. Glutamate and arginine significantly increased in the nucleus accumbens after formalin injection; glutamate, arginine and aspartate significantly increased in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, after formalin injection. These experiments suggest that rapid neurotransmitters changes observed in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, are possibly related to immobility and emotional states such as anxiety, aversion and/or depression caused by pain.

  5. The effect of blockade of dopamine receptors on the inhibition of episodic luteinizing hormone release during electrical stimulation of the arcuate nucleus in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Gallo, R V

    1978-04-01

    This study examined the possible involvement of dopamine (DA) in mediating the inhibition of episodic LH release that occurs during electrical stimulation of the arcuate nucleus (ARH) in ovariectomized rats. Animals were treated before stimulation with pimozide (1.26--2.0 mg/kg) or d-butaclamol (1 mg/kg), blockers of DA receptors, or l-butaclamol. Apomorphine, which inhibits episodic LH release by activating DA receptors, was given near the end of the experiment to determine if these receptors were blocked. ARH stimulation suppressed pulsatile LH release in six rats when DA receptors were not blocked by pimozide (as well as two in which blockade was not tested). A transient increase occurred in one other animal. When DA receptors were blocked by pimozide, stimulation of the ARH inhibited episodic LH release in nine rats, suggesting that DA may have no role in mediating this inhibition. However, because increased LH release occurred in five additional animals, as well as in one with partial receptor blockade, the possibility remains that DA may perhaps have a minor role in this inhibitory response. Although ARH stimulation increased LH release after DA receptor blockade by d-butaclamol, this effect could not be ascribed to the DA antagonist property of this agent, because elevated blood LH levels also occurred during stimulation in rats treated with l-butaclamol, in which DA receptors were not blocked. d- and l-butaclamol may possess a non-stereospecific action on a non-dopaminergic event, thus reversing the response to ARH stimulation. Finally, whether DA receptors were blocked or not by pimozide, d-, or l-butaclamol, activation of the ventromedial hypothalamic and periventricular nucleus regions suppressed episodic LH release, but did not increase LH secretion. This suggests that the region through which stimulation can inhibit, but not increase, LH release may extend in the hypothalamus to these two areas.

  6. Effects of cytotoxic nucleus accumbens lesions on instrumental conditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    de Borchgrave, R; Rawlins, J N P; Dickinson, A; Balleine, B W

    2002-05-01

    In two experiments the involvement of the nucleus accumbens in instrumental conditioning was investigated using rats as subjects. In experiment 1, extensive bilateral cytotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens mildly suppressed instrumental responding reinforced with food, but had no detectable effect on the sensitivity of the rats' performance either to outcome devaluation or to degradation of the instrumental contingency. In experiment 2, restricted accumbens lesions reliably attenuated the excitatory effect of systemically administered d-amphetamine on lever pressing for a conditioned reinforcer, and completely abolished Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. Taken together these results give a picture of the involvement of the rat nucleus accumbens in instrumental conditioning. They support the widely held theory that the nucleus accumbens mediates the excitatory effects of appetitively conditioned Pavlovian signals on instrumental performance and refute the hypothesis that the nucleus accumbens is part of the neural circuitry by which incentive value is attached to the representations of instrumental outcomes.

  7. Mapping of Kisspeptin Receptor mRNA in the Whole Rat Brain and its Co-Localisation with Oxytocin in the Paraventricular Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Higo, S; Honda, S; Iijima, N; Ozawa, H

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor play an essential role in reproduction as a potent modulator of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone. In addition to its reproductive function, kisspeptin signalling is also involved in extra-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis systems, including oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. By contrast to the accumulating information for kisspeptin neurones and kisspeptin fibres, the histological distribution and function of the kisspeptin receptor in the rat brain remain poorly characterised. Using in situ hybridisation combined with immunofluorescence, the present study aimed to determine the whole brain map of Kiss1r mRNA (encoding the kisspeptin receptor), and to examine whether oxytocin or AVP neurones express Kiss1r. Neurones with strong Kiss1r expression were observed in several rostral brain areas, including the olfactory bulb, medial septum, diagonal band of Broca and throughout the preoptic area, with the most concentrated population being around 0.5 mm rostral to the bregma. Co-immunofluorescence staining revealed that, in these rostral brain areas, the vast majority of the Kiss1r-expressing neurones co-expressed GnRH. Moderate levels of Kiss1r mRNA were also noted in the rostral periventricular area, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and throughout the arcuate nucleus. Relatively weak Kiss1r expression was observed in the supraoptic nucleus and supramammillary nuclei. Moderate to weak expression of Kiss1r was also observed in several regions in the midbrain, including the periaqueductal gray and dorsal raphe nucleus. We also examined whether oxytocin and AVP neurones in the PVN co-express Kiss1r. Immunofluorescence revealed the co-expression of Kiss1r in a subset of the oxytocin neurones but not in the AVP neurones in the PVN. The present study provides a fundamental anatomical basis for further examination of the kisspeptin signalling system in the extra-HPG axis, as well as in

  8. Effects of systemic L-tyrosine on dopamine release from rat corpus striatum and nucleus accumbens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Intracerebral dialysis was used to monitor extracellular fluid from rat striatum and nucleus accumbens following the intraperitoneal administration of tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates from both the striatum and the nucleus accumbens increased significantly in response to the tyrosine. The magnitude of the tyrosine effect was greater in the nucleus accumbens than in the striatum. Hence, mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons may be especially responsive to precursor availability.

  9. A bushy cell network in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Nieto, Ricardo; Rubio, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Geometry of the dendritic tree and synaptic organization of afferent inputs are essential factors in determining how synaptic input is integrated by neurons. This information remains elusive for one of the first brainstem neurons involved in processing of the primary auditory signal from the ear, the bushy cells (BCs) of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Here, we labeled the BC dendritic trees with retrograde tracing techniques to analyze their geometry and synaptic organization after immunofluorescence for excitatory and inhibitory synaptic markers, electron microscopy, morphometry, double tract-tracing methods, and 3-D reconstructions. Our study revealed that BC dendrites provide space for a large number of compartmentalized excitatory and inhibitory synaptic interactions. The dendritic inputs on BCs are of cochlear and non-cochlear origin, and their proportion and distribution are dependent on the branching pattern and orientation of the dendritic tree in the VCN. Three-dimensional reconstructions showed that BC dendrites branch and cluster with those of other BCs in the core of the VCN. Within the cluster, incoming synaptic inputs establish divergent multiple-contact synapses (dyads and triads) between BCs. Furthermore, neuron-neuron connections including puncta adherentia, sarcoplasmic junctions and gap junctions are common between BCs, which suggests that these neurons are electrically coupled. Together, our study demonstrates the existence of a BC network in the rat VCN. This network may establish the neuroanatomical basis for acoustic information processing by individual BCs, as well as for enhanced synchronization of the output signal of the VCN. PMID:19634178

  10. Hemimegaloencephaly with periventricular heterotopia--case report.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, S; Fujii, M; Nomura, S; Yamashita, T; Ito, H; Hayashi, T

    1994-08-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted with an unusual anomaly of hemimegaloencephaly associated with periventricular heterotopia manifesting as intractable seizures and mental retardation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed left hemispheric hypertrophy and left ventricular dilatation. Proton density-weighted MR imaging revealed a periventricular lesion isointense with gray matter. MR imaging is an effective method for diagnosing hemimegaloencephaly and heterotopia.

  11. Periventricular leukomalacia is decreasing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tokio; Goto, Tatenobu; Ueda, Hiroko; Ito, Koichi; Kakita, Hiroki; Nagasaki, Rika; Mizuno, Keisuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kato, Ineko; Togari, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia is recognized as the leading cause of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. To clarify the prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy in Japan, a nationwide survey was performed. The prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia in the group of surviving preterm infants of gestational ages less than 33 weeks born in 2007 was 2.7% (78/2883) on ultrasound diagnosis, and 3.3% (92/2824) on magnetic resonance imaging. The prevalence of cerebral palsy was 4.3% (125/2883) on clinical diagnosis. In our previous study, the prevalences of periventricular leukomalacia in 1990-1991, 1993-1994, 1996, and 1999 were 4.8%, 4.9%, 4.9%, and 5.3% on ultrasound, and 7.9%, 7.7%, 6.9%, and 7.3% on magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. The prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia has decreased significantly in Japan.

  12. Sexual dimorphism in the parastrial nucleus of the rat preoptic area.

    PubMed

    del Abril, A; Segovia, S; Guillamón, A

    1990-03-01

    This work investigates the possible existence of sex differences in the volume of the parastrial nucleus (PSN), a component of the preoptic area in the rat. The effects of postnatal (on day 1 after birth) male orchidectomy and female androgenization on this nucleus were studied. The volume of the PSN was greater in the control females than in the control males and postnatal treatments reversed this sexual dimorphism.

  13. A light and electron microscope study of rat abducens nucleus neurons projecting to the cerebellar flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Corsetti, G; Simonetti, C; Stacchiotti, A; Ventura, R G

    1995-01-01

    Injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cerebellar flocculus of the rat was employed to identify neurons in the abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus. The number, ultrastructural features and precise localisation of these neurons in the nucleus were examined. They were present bilaterally and represented about 7% of the total neuronal population of each nucleus. They were localised principally in the dorsomedial area of the cranial half of each nucleus and did not display the typical ultrastructural features of motoneurons. It is concluded that the localisation and ultrastructural characteristics of these HRP-positive neurons are useful for distinguishing them from other neuronal populations within the nucleus. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7649835

  14. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  15. Intracranial self-stimulation in the parafascicular nucleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Vale-Martínez, A; Guillazo-Blanch, G; Aldavert-Vera, L; Segura-Torres, P; Martí-Nicolovius, M

    1999-03-01

    A behavioral analysis of intracranial self-stimulation was provided for parafascicular nucleus. To evaluate whether intracranial self-stimulation in this nucleus could be site-specific and to determine if the positive sites are the same parafascicular areas that facilitate learning when stimulated, rats were tested via monopolar electrodes situated throughout the parafascicular nucleus. Animals were trained to self-stimulate by pressing a lever in a conventional Skinner box (1-5 sessions). Twenty-two of the 42 animals included in the study, had the electrode at the parafascicular nucleus. Only two of them showed intracranial self-stimulation. Histological analyses indicated that the latter rats had the electrode implanted at the anterior area of the medial parafascicular. Other two animals also showed intracranial self-stimulation but they had the electrode in a more posterior brain region, between the Dark-schewitsch nucleus and the red nucleus. The animals implanted at the parafascicular showed higher response rates than the other two rats. These results confirm that: (a) the anterior region of the medial parafascicular is a positive site for stable and regular intracranial self-stimulation behavior, and (b) these positive sites do not coincide with the parafascicular regions related to learning improvement.

  16. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats.

    PubMed

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens.

  17. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K.; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. PMID:26300300

  18. The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Modulates the Sensitivity of Arcuate Nucleus to Hypoglycemia in the Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Moro Chao, D; León-Mercado, L; Foppen, E; Guzmán-Ruiz, M; Basualdo, M C; Escobar, C; Buijs, R M

    2016-09-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) have reciprocal connections; catabolic metabolic information activates the ARC and inhibits SCN neuronal activity. Little is known about the influence of the SCN on the ARC. Here, we investigated whether the SCN modulated the sensitivity of the ARC to catabolic metabolic conditions. ARC neuronal activity, as determined by c-Fos immunoreactivity, was increased after a hypoglycemic stimulus by 2-deoxyglucose (2DG). The highest ARC neuronal activity after 2DG was found at the end of the light period (zeitgeber 11, ZT11) with a lower activity in the beginning of the light period (zeitgeber 2, ZT2), suggesting the involvement of the SCN. The higher activation of ARC neurons after 2DG at ZT11 was associated with higher 2DG induced blood glucose levels as compared with ZT2. Unilateral SCN-lesioned animals, gave a mainly ipsilateral activation of ARC neurons at the lesioned side, suggesting an inhibitory role of the SCN on ARC neurons. The 2DG-induced counterregulatory glucose response correlated with increased ARC neuronal activity and was significantly higher in unilateral SCN-lesioned animals. Finally, the ARC as site where 2DG may, at least partly, induce a counterregulatory response was confirmed by local microdialysis of 2DG. 2DG administration in the ARC produced a higher increase in circulating glucose compared with 2DG administration in surrounding areas such as the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). We conclude that the SCN uses neuronal pathways to the ARC to gate sensory metabolic information to the brain, regulating ARC glucose sensitivity and counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemic conditions.

  19. Periventricular leukomalacia in a neonatal calf

    PubMed Central

    KOYAMA, Kenji; FUJITA, Riku; MAEZAWA, Masaki; FUKUMOTO, Natsuko; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; INOKUMA, Hisashi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    A 10-day-old, Japanese Black, female calf had shown astasia since just after birth. Focal symmetrical periventricular malacic lesions of the cerebrum and suppurative arthritis of the left hip joint were observed in macroscopic examination. Histologically, the cerebral lesions were confirmed as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). The location and histological features of the lesions were similar to PVL in humans, caused by neonatal ischemia/hypovolemia. This is the first report of PVL in a neonatal calf. PMID:27010465

  20. Muscarinic antagonists microinjected into the subthalamic nucleus decrease muscular rigidity in reserpinized rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, S; Flores, G; Rosales, M G; Sierra, A; Martínez-Fong, D; Aceves, J

    1996-08-09

    The ability of anticholinergic agents microinjected into the subthalamic nucleus to reduce reserpine-induced muscular rigidity was assessed in rats. The electromyographical activity of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle was used as a parameter of muscular rigidity. Reserpine (5 mg/kg i.p.) produced the appearance of electromyographical activity. The muscarinic antagonists M3 (1.27 nmol of 4-DAMP) and M1 (2.36 nmol of pirenzepine) markedly reduced the reserpine-induced electromyographical activity, whereas the M2 antagonist AFDX-116 (2.37 nmol) had no effect. These results suggest that a high cholinergic tone in the subthalamic nucleus is associated with the reserpine-induced muscular rigidity. Moreover, the M3 muscarinic antagonist is more effective than the M1 muscarinic antagonist in reducing the muscular rigidity in reserpinized rats, a model of Parkinson's disease, by blocking the high cholinergic tone in the subthalamic nucleus.

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the rat red nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Minbay, Zehra; Kocoglu, Sema Serter; Yurtseven, Duygu Gok; Eyigor, Ozhan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the presence as well as the diverse distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits in the rat red nucleus. Using adult Sprague-Dawley rats as the experimental animals, immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 µm thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1, GluK2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. The results showed that all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in the red nucleus. Specific staining was localized in the neuron bodies and processes. However, the pattern of immunoreactivity and the number of labeled neurons changed depending on the type of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and the localization of neurons in the red nucleus. The neurons localized in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus were particularly immunopositive for GluA2, GluA4, GluK2/3, GluK5, GluN1, and GluN2A receptor proteins. In the parvocellular part of the red nucleus, ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit immunoreactivity of variable intensity (lightly to moderately stained) was detected in the neurons. These results suggest that red nucleus neurons in rat heterogeneously express ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits to form functional receptor channels. In addition, the likelihood of the coexpression of different subunits in the same subgroup of neurons suggests the formation of receptor channels with diverse structure by way of different subunit combination, and the possibility of various neuronal functions through these channels in the red nucleus. PMID:28027456

  2. Activation of c-fos expression in the rat inferior olivary nucleus by ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhen; Lin, Theodore R; Hu, Yuexian; Fan, Yongyi; Zhao, Lili; Mulholland, Michael W

    2003-12-26

    Ghrelin, a novel 28-amino-acid hormone secreted by gastric oxyntic glands, stimulates food intake and induces adiposity. We examined whether ghrelin activates the inferior olivary nucleus. Systemic administration of ghrelin (37 nmol/kg) induced the expression of c-fos immunoreactivity in inferior olive neurons (n=6 rats). The number of neurons containing c-fos staining was significantly increased in the ghrelin-treated rats (65+/-14 vs.11+/-6 positive neurons, n=5). No significant difference in c-fos-positive neurons was observed between left (32+/-5) and right (33+/-6) inferior olivary nuclei. The number of c-fos-positive neurons in rats with bilateral vagotomy was not significantly different from those with intact vagal nerves. The present study demonstrates that ghrelin induces c-fos expression in inferior olivary nucleus via a central mechanism.

  3. Isoperiodic neuronal activity in suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. D.; Fuller, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    A subpopulation of neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is shown here to exhibit isoperiodic bursting activity. The period of discharge in these cells may be lengthened or the periodicity may be transiently disrupted by photic stimulation. It is suggested that many, if not all, of these cells are vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) neurons. It is shown that the ultradian periodicity of these cells, estimates of the VIP neuron population size in the SCN, effects of partial lesions on tau (period), and estimates of the phase stability of SCN-driven circadian rhythms are consistent with a strongly coupled, multioscillator model of circadian rhythmicity, in which the oscillator population constitutes a restricted subset of the SCN neuronal population.

  4. Excitant amino acid projections from rat amygdala and thalamus to nucleus accumbens

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, T.G.; Beart, P.M.

    1988-04-01

    High affinity uptake of D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate, (/sup 3/H)choline and (/sup 3/H)GABA was examined in synaptosomal-containing preparations of rat nucleus accumbens septi 7 to 10 days after unilateral or bilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions confined to the parataenial nucleus of the thalamus or the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Uptake of both D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate and (/sup 3/H)choline was significantly reduced (11% and 14% less than control, respectively) by unilateral lesion of the thalamus, whereas (/sup 3/H)GABA uptake was unaffected. Bilateral thalamic lesions significantly reduced D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate uptake (11% less than control) into homogenates of the nucleus accumbens, whilst (/sup 3/H)GABA uptake was unaltered. D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate uptake was significantly reduced (26% less than control) following unilateral lesion of the amygdala, whereas both (/sup 3/H)GABA and (/sup 3/H)choline uptake were unaffected. Bilateral amygdaloid lesions significantly increased D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate uptake (39% greater than control), whilst uptake of (/sup 3/H)GABA was not affected. The results implicate glutamate and/or aspartate as putative neurotransmitters in afferent projections from the basolateral amygdala and the parataenial thalamus to the nucleus accumbens. Thalamic afferents to the nucleus accumbens may also utilize acetylcholine as their transmitter.

  5. Characterization of a folate-induced hypermotility response after bilateral injection into the rat nucleus accumbens

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to pharmacologically characterize the mechanism responsible for a folate-induced stimulation of locomotor activity in rats after bilateral injection into the nucleus accumbens region of the brain. Folic acid (FA) and 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid (FTHF) produced this hypermotility response after intra-accumbens injection, while other reduced folic acid derivatives dihydrofolic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid were ineffective. Studies were designed to determine the role of catecholamines in the nucleus accumbens in the folate-induced hypermotility response. The findings suggest that the folate-induced response is dependent on intact neuronal dopamine stores, and is mediated by stimulation of dopamine receptors of the nucleus accumbens. However the folates do not appear to enhance dopaminergic neutransmission. Thus, FA and FTHF were inefficient at 1 mM concentrations in stimulating /sup 3/H-dopamine release from /sup 3/H-dopamine preloaded nucleus accumbens slices or dopamine from endogenous stores. Pteroic acid, the chemical precursor of folic acid which lacks the glutamate moiety, was ineffective in producing a stimulation of locomotor activity after intra-accumbens injection. Since glutamate is an excitatory amino acid (EAA), compounds characterized as EAA receptor antagonists were utilized to determine if the folate-induced hypermotility response is mediated by activation of EAA receptors in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that activation of quisqualate receptors of the nucleus accumbens may mediate the folate-induced hypermotility response.

  6. Urocortin 2 increases c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons projecting to the ventricular/periventricular system

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Matthew W.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Staub, Daniel R.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in the regulation of anxiety states and physiological responses to aversive stimuli. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the stress- and anxiety-related neuropeptide urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) increases c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal (DRD) and caudal (DRC) parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus. These regions contain a subset of serotonergic neurons that projects via the dorsal raphe periventricular tract to periventricular structures, including the subfornical organ and ependymal layer, and to the ventricular system. To determine if Ucn 2 activates ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex we made i.c.v. injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the lateral ventricle, followed 7 days later by i.c.v. injection of Ucn 2. The DRD at −8.18 mm and the DRC at −8.54 mm and −9.16 mm bregma were analyzed using a combined brightfield and immunofluorescence technique. Approximately 40% of the ventricle/periventricular-projecting neurons in the subdivisions sampled were serotonergic. Urocortin 2 increased c-Fos expression in ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRC and in non-ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRD and DRC. Of the total population of ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRC at −8.54 and −9.16 mm bregma, 35% expressed c-Fos following Ucn 2 injections. These data are consistent with previous studies showing that i.c.v. injection of Ucn 2 activates subpopulations of serotonergic neurons restricted to the mid-rostrocaudal DRD and DRC, and further demonstrate that these include both subsets of serotonergic neurons that do and do not project to the ventricle/periventricular system. PMID:20382145

  7. Immunohistochemical study of neurons in the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Bianchi, R

    1996-01-01

    The neurons of the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus of the cerebellum were studied by double labelling using the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled cells were present bilaterally in the dorsal and dorsomedial zones of the cranial pole of the nucleus. They represented about half of the total number of HRP-positive neurons. These findings show the existence of a bilateral projection from the abducens nucleus to the flocculus which uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. This projection could be part of the system of the nerve circuits through which the cerebellum modulates visual activities. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763489

  8. Diurnal rhythm of melatonin binding in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, J.T.; Castren, E.; Vakkuri, O.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    We used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to localize and characterize 2-/sup 125/I-melatonin binding sites in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei in relation to pineal melatonin production. In a light:dark cycle of 12:12 h, binding density exhibited significant diurnal variation with a peak at the dark-light transition and a trough 12 hours later. Saturation studies suggested that the decreased binding at light-dark transition might be due to a shift of the putative melatonin receptor to a low affinity state.

  9. Autoregulation of dopamine synthesis in subregions of the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Heidbreder, C A; Baumann, M H

    2001-01-05

    The discovery of a core-shell dichotomy within the nucleus accumbens has opened new lines of investigation into the neuronal basis of psychiatric disorders and drug dependence. In the present study, the autoregulation of dopamine synthesis in subdivisions of the rat nucleus accumbens was examined. We measured the accumulation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after the inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase with 3-hydroxylbenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015, 100 mg kg(-1)) as an in vivo index of dopamine synthesis. The effect of the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor agonist apomorphine (0, 20, 100, 500 microgram kg(-1)) and the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist quinpirole (0, 20, 100, 500 microgram kg(-1)) on dopamine synthesis was determined in the dorsolateral core, ventromedial shell, and rostral pole of the nucleus accumbens. DOPA accumulation was also measured in the frontal cortex, olfactory tubercle, and caudate nucleus of the same rats for comparative purposes. The results show that the three sectors of the nucleus accumbens had similar basal levels of DOPA. Both apomorphine and quinpirole produced a decrease in the dopamine synthesis rate in all brain regions examined. In general, the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist quinpirole produced a significantly greater decrease in DOPA accumulation than the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor agonist apomorphine. Within the nucleus accumbens, we found no core-shell differences in the agonist-induced suppression of dopamine synthesis, but the rostral pole was less sensitive to the highest dose of both dopamine agonists. These results suggest that differences in dopamine function between the core and shell might not involve region-specific differences in the receptor-mediated autoregulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Moreover, the blunted effect of dopamine agonists in the rostral pole illustrates that this region of the accumbens is functionally distinct, possibly due to a lower dopamine receptor reserve when

  10. Ceftriaxone attenuates acute cocaine‐evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B A; Tallarida, C S; Scholl, J L; Forster, G L; Unterwald, E M; Rawls, S M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ceftriaxone is a β‐lactam antibiotic and glutamate transporter activator that reduces the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. Ceftriaxone also reduces locomotor activation following acute psychostimulant exposure, suggesting that alterations in dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens contribute to its mechanism of action. In the present studies we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with ceftriaxone disrupts acute cocaine‐evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. Experimental Approach Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or ceftriaxone (200 mg kg−1, i.p. × 10 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15 mg kg−1, i.p.). Motor activity, dopamine efflux (via in vivo microdialysis) and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the dopamine transporter and organic cation transporter as well as α‐synuclein, Akt and GSK3β were analysed in the nucleus accumbens. Key Results Ceftriaxone‐pretreated rats challenged with cocaine displayed reduced locomotor activity and accumbal dopamine efflux compared with saline‐pretreated controls challenged with cocaine. The reduction in cocaine‐evoked dopamine levels was not counteracted by excitatory amino acid transporter 2 blockade in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with ceftriaxone increased Akt/GSK3β signalling in the nucleus accumbens and reduced levels of dopamine transporter, TH and phosphorylated α‐synuclein, indicating that ceftriaxone affects numerous proteins involved in dopaminergic transmission. Conclusions and Implications These results are the first evidence that ceftriaxone affects cocaine‐evoked dopaminergic transmission, in addition to its well‐described effects on glutamate, and suggest that its ability to attenuate cocaine‐induced behaviours, such as psychomotor activity, is due in part to reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:26375494

  11. Genetic inactivation of glutamate neurons in the rat sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus recapitulates REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Valencia Garcia, Sara; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Lazarus, Michael; Grassi, Daniela; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2017-02-01

    SEE SCHENCK AND MAHOWALD DOI101093/AWW329 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the enactment of violent dreams during paradoxical (REM) sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. Accumulating clinical and experimental data suggest that REM sleep behaviour disorder might be due to the neurodegeneration of glutamate neurons involved in paradoxical sleep and located within the pontine sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The purpose of the present work was thus to functionally determine first, the role of glutamate sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons in paradoxical sleep and second, whether their genetic inactivation is sufficient for recapitulating REM sleep behaviour disorder in rats. For this goal, we first injected two retrograde tracers in the intralaminar thalamus and ventral medulla to disentangle neuronal circuits in which sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus is involved; second we infused bilaterally in sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus adeno-associated viruses carrying short hairpin RNAs targeting Slc17a6 mRNA [which encodes vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2)] to chronically impair glutamate synaptic transmission in sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons. At the neuroanatomical level, sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons specifically activated during paradoxical sleep hypersomnia send descending efferents to glycine/GABA neurons within the ventral medulla, but not ascending projections to the intralaminar thalamus. These data suggest a crucial role of sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons rather in muscle atonia than in paradoxical sleep generation. In line with this hypothesis, 30 days after adeno-associated virus injections into sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus rats display a decrease of 30% of paradoxical sleep daily quantities, and a significant increase of muscle tone during paradoxical sleep concomitant to a tremendous increase of abnormal motor dream

  12. Cytoarchitectural impairments in the medium spiny neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens core of hyperactive juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    González-Burgos, I; García-Martínez, S; Velázquez-Zamora, D A; Ponce-Rolón, R

    2010-10-01

    Dopaminergic activity in the Nucleus Accumbens has been strongly implicated in the motor hyperactivity associated with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dopaminergic and glutamatergic terminals converge on the dendritic spines of medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens core, which modulate the excitatory glutamatergic activity. In this work, a Golgi study was carried out to investigate the effects of dopamine depletion on the cytoarchitecture of dendritic spines of nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neurons. The dopaminergic system of newborn male rats was lesioned intracisternally by using 6-hydroxydopamine, and subsequently, the motor activity, spine density, and the proportion of thin, stubby, mushroom, wide, branched, and double spines was compared to those in control and intact animals. Motor activity was significantly increased in the dopamine-depleted animals and while the spine density was reduced, there was no change in the proportion of the specific types of spines. Larger thin spines were observed in the dopamine-depleted animals. Indeed, dopamine depletion may lead to spine retraction due to the disregulation of spine development, and/or an increase in glutamatergic activity. The enlargement of thin spines may suggest a compensatory mechanism to increase the efficiency of synaptic inputs in response to a decrease in spines number. Together, the present findings suggest an alteration to the excitatory/inhibitory balance on dendritic spines of medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens core in hyperactive juvenile rats following early dopamine depletion.

  13. Heterogeneity of firing properties among rat thalamic reticular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Govindaiah, G; Cox, Charles L

    2007-01-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides inhibitory innervation to most thalamic relay nuclei and receives excitatory innervation from both cortical and thalamic neurons. Ultimately, information transfer through the thalamus to the neocortex is strongly influenced by TRN. In addition, the reciprocal synaptic connectivity between TRN with associated thalamic relay nuclei is critical in generating intrathalamic rhythmic activities that occur during certain arousal states and pathophysiological conditions. Despite evidence suggesting morphological heterogeneity amongst TRN neurons, the heterogeneity of intrinsic properties of TRN neurons has not been systematically examined. One key characteristic of virtually all thalamic neurons is the ability to produce action potentials in two distinct modes: burst and tonic. In this study, we have examined the prevalence of burst discharge within TRN neurons. Our intracellular recordings revealed that TRN neurons can be differentiated by their action potential discharge modes. The majority of neurons in the dorsal TRN (56%) lack burst discharge, and the remaining neurons (35%) show an atypical burst that consists of an initial action potential followed by small amplitude, long duration depolarizations. In contrast, most neurons in ventral TRN (82%) display a stereotypical burst discharge consisting of a transient, high frequency discharge of multiple action potentials. TRN neurons that lack burst discharge typically did not produce low threshold calcium spikes or produced a significantly reduced transient depolarization. Our findings clearly indicate that TRN neurons can be differentiated by differences in their spike discharge properties and these subtypes are not uniformly distributed within TRN. The functional consequences of such intrinsic differences may play an important role in modality-specific thalamocortical information transfer as well as overall circuit level activities. PMID:17463035

  14. Local cholinergic and non-cholinergic neural pathways to the rat supraoptic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    An estimated two thirds of the input to the supraoptic nucleus of the rat hypothalamus (SON) including a functionally significant cholinergic innervation, arise from local sources of unknown origin. The sources of these inputs were identified utilizing Golgi-Cox, retrograde tracing, choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry and anterograde tracing methodologies. Multipolar Golgi impregnated neurons located dorsal and lateral to the SON extend spiney processes into the nucleus. Injections of the retrograde tracers, wheat germ agglutinin or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase, into the SON labeled cells bilaterally in the arcuate nucleus, and ipsilaterally in the lateral hypothalamus, anterior hypothalamus, nucleus of the diagonal band, subfornical organ, medial preoptic area, lateral preoptic area and in the region dorsolateral to the nucleus. Immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase revealed cells within the ventro-caudal portion of cholinergic cell group, Ch4, which cluster dorsolateral to the SON, and extend axon- and dendrite-like processes into the SON. Cells double-labeled by choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry and retrograde tracer injections into the SON are localized within the same cholinergic cell group dorsolateral to the SON. Injections of the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, deposited dorsolateral to the SON results in labeled pre-and post-synaptic processes within the SON. The identification and characterization of endogenous immunoglobulin within the SON and other neurons innervating areas lacking a blood-brain barrier established a novel and potentially important system for direct communication of the supraoptic cells with blood-borne constitutents.

  15. Paradoxical augmented relapse in alcohol-dependent rats during deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, R; Vengeliene, V; Barroeta Hlusicke, E; Canals, S; Noori, H R; Wieske, F; Rummel, J; Harnack, D; Heinz, A; Spanagel, R; Winter, C

    2016-01-01

    Case reports indicate that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens may be beneficial to alcohol-dependent patients. The lack of clinical trials and our limited knowledge of deep-brain stimulation call for translational experiments to validate these reports. To mimic the human situation, we used a chronic-continuous brain-stimulation paradigm targeting the nucleus accumbens and other brain sites in alcohol-dependent rats. To determine the network effects of deep-brain stimulation in alcohol-dependent rats, we combined electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and studied neurotransmitter levels in nucleus accumbens-stimulated versus sham-stimulated rats. Surprisingly, we report here that electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens led to augmented relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent rats. Our associated fMRI data revealed some activated areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. However, when we applied stimulation to these areas, relapse behavior was not affected, confirming that the nucleus accumbens is critical for generating this paradoxical effect. Neurochemical analysis of the major activated brain sites of the network revealed that the effect of stimulation may depend on accumbal dopamine levels. This was supported by the finding that brain-stimulation-treated rats exhibited augmented alcohol-induced dopamine release compared with sham-stimulated animals. Our data suggest that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens enhances alcohol-liking probably via augmented dopamine release and can thereby promote relapse. PMID:27327255

  16. Paradoxical augmented relapse in alcohol-dependent rats during deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Hadar, R; Vengeliene, V; Barroeta Hlusicke, E; Canals, S; Noori, H R; Wieske, F; Rummel, J; Harnack, D; Heinz, A; Spanagel, R; Winter, C

    2016-06-21

    Case reports indicate that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens may be beneficial to alcohol-dependent patients. The lack of clinical trials and our limited knowledge of deep-brain stimulation call for translational experiments to validate these reports. To mimic the human situation, we used a chronic-continuous brain-stimulation paradigm targeting the nucleus accumbens and other brain sites in alcohol-dependent rats. To determine the network effects of deep-brain stimulation in alcohol-dependent rats, we combined electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and studied neurotransmitter levels in nucleus accumbens-stimulated versus sham-stimulated rats. Surprisingly, we report here that electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens led to augmented relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent rats. Our associated fMRI data revealed some activated areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. However, when we applied stimulation to these areas, relapse behavior was not affected, confirming that the nucleus accumbens is critical for generating this paradoxical effect. Neurochemical analysis of the major activated brain sites of the network revealed that the effect of stimulation may depend on accumbal dopamine levels. This was supported by the finding that brain-stimulation-treated rats exhibited augmented alcohol-induced dopamine release compared with sham-stimulated animals. Our data suggest that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens enhances alcohol-liking probably via augmented dopamine release and can thereby promote relapse.

  17. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus stimulation reduces intestinal injury in rats with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Quan-Jun; Deng, Ding-Jing; Che, Jin; Zhao, Hai-Rong; Yu, Jun-Jie; Lu, Yong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of stimulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus with glutamate acid in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate via abdominal injection and treated with an equal volume of TNBS + 50% ethanol enema, injected into the upper section of the anus with the tail facing up. Colonic damage scores were calculated after injecting a certain dose of glutamic acid into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the effect of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and vagus nerve in alleviating UC injury through chemical stimulation of the PVN was observed in rats. Expression changes of C-myc, Apaf-1, caspase-3, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17 during the protection against UC injury through chemical stimulation of the PVN in rats were detected by Western blot. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in colon tissues of rats were measured by colorimetric methods. RESULTS: Chemical stimulation of the PVN significantly reduced UC in rats in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effects of the chemical stimulation of the PVN on rats with UC were eliminated after chemical damage to the PVN. After glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid was injected into the PVN, the protective effects of the chemical stimulation of the PVN were eliminated in rats with UC. After AVP-Vl receptor antagonist ([Deamino-penl, val4, D-Arg8]-vasopressin) was injected into NTS or bilateral chemical damage to NTS, the protective effect of the chemical stimulation of PVN on UC was also eliminated. After chemical stimulation of the PVN, SOD activity increased, MDA content decreased, C-myc protein expression significantly increased, caspase-3 and Apaf-1 protein expression significantly decreased, and IL-6 and IL-17 expression decreased in colon tissues in rats with UC. CONCLUSION: Chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic PVN provides a protective effect against UC injury in

  18. Characterization of Ca(2+) channels in rat subthalamic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Song, W J; Baba, Y; Otsuka, T; Murakami, F

    2000-11-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a key role in motor control. Although previous studies have suggested that Ca(2+) conductances may be involved in regulating the activity of STN neurons, Ca(2+) channels in this region have not yet been characterized. We have therefore investigated the subtypes and functional characteristics of Ca(2+) conductances in STN neurons, in both acutely isolated and slice preparations. Acutely isolated STN cells were identified by retrograde filling with the fluorescent dye, Fluoro-Gold. In acutely isolated STN neurons, Cd(2+)-sensitive, depolarization-activated Ba(2+) currents were observed in all cells studied. The current-voltage relationship and current kinetics were characteristic of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. The steady-state voltage-dependent activation curves and inactivation curves could both be fitted with a single Boltzmann function. Currents evoked with a prolonged pulse, however, inactivated with multiple time constants, suggesting either the presence of more than one Ca(2+) channel subtype or multiple inactivation processes with a single channel type in STN neurons. Experiments using organic Ca(2+) channel blockers revealed that on average, 21% of the current was nifedipine sensitive, 52% was sensitive to omega-conotoxin GVIA, 16% was blocked by a high concentration of omega-agatoxin IVA (200 nM), and the remainder of the current (9%) was resistant to the co-application of all blockers. These currents had similar voltage dependencies, but the nifedipine-sensitive current and the resistant current activated at slightly lower voltages. omega-Agatoxin IVA at 20 nM was ineffective in blocking the current. Together, the above results suggest that acutely isolated STN neurons have all subtypes of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels except for P-type, but have no low-voltage-activated channels. Although acutely isolated neurons provide a good preparation for whole cell voltage-clamp study, dendritic processes are

  19. Peripheral injection of ghrelin induces Fos expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kobelt, Peter; Wisser, Anna-Sophia; Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Inhoff, Tobias; Noetzel, Steffen; Veh, Rüdiger W.; Bannert, Norbert; van der Voort, Ivo; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Taché, Yvette; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral ghrelin has been shown to act as a gut–brain peptide exerting a potent orexigenic effect on food intake. The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) is innervated by projections from other brain areas being part of the network of nuclei controlling energy homeostasis, among others NPY/AgRP-positive fibers arising from the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The aim of the study was to determine if peripherally administered ghrelin affects neuronal activity in the DMH, as assessed by Fos expression. The number of Fos positive neurons was determined in the DMH, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ARC, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the area postrema(AP) in non-fasted Sprague–Dawley rats in response to intraperitoneally (ip) injected ghrelin (3 nmol/rat) or vehicle (0.15 M NaCl). Peripheral ghrelin induced a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir positive neurons/section compared with vehicle in the ARC (mean±SEM: 49±2 vs. 23±2 neurons/section, p=0.001), PVN (69±5 vs. 34±3, p=0.001), and DMH (142±5 vs. 83±5, p<0.001). Fos-ir positive neurons were mainly localized within the ventral part of the DMH. No change in Fos expression was observed in the VMH (53±8 vs. 48±6, p=0.581), NTS (42±2 vs.40±3, p=0.603), and in the AP (7±1 vs. 5±1, p=0.096). Additional double-labelling with anti-Fos and anti-AgRP revealed that Fos positive neurons in the DMH were encircled by a network of AgRP-ir positive fibers. These data indicate that peripheral ghrelin activates DMH neurons and that NPY-/AgRP-positive fibers may be involved in the response. PMID:18329635

  20. The effects of bilateral lesions to the dorsal tegmental nucleus on spatial learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jessica A; Ingram, Matthew L; Snow, Anna C; Thorpe, Christina M; Martin, Gerard M; Skinner, Darlene M

    2013-12-01

    The head-direction (HD) signal is believed to originate in the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN) and lesions to this structure have been shown to disrupt HD cell firing in other areas along the HD cell circuit. To investigate the role of the DTN in spatial navigation, rats with bilateral, electrolytic (Experiment 1), or neurotoxic (Experiment 2) lesions to the DTN were compared with sham controls on two tasks that differed in difficulty and could be solved using directional heading. Rats were first trained on a direction problem in a water T maze where they learned to travel either east or west from two locations in the experimental room. DTN-lesioned rats were impaired relative to sham controls, both early in training, on the first block of eight trials, and on the total trials taken to reach criterion. In the food-foraging task, rats were trained to leave a home cage at the periphery of a circular table, find food in the center of the table and return to the home cage. Again, DTN-lesioned rats were impaired relative to sham rats, making more errors on the return component of the foraging trip. These data extend previous cell-recording studies and behavioral tests in which rats with electrolytic DTN lesions were used, and they demonstrate the importance of the direction system to spatial learning.

  1. ΔFosB in the supraoptic nucleus contributes to hyponatremia in rats with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J Thomas; Nedungadi, Thekkethil Prashant; Walch, Joseph D; Nestler, Eric J; Gottlieb, Helmut B

    2012-07-15

    Bile duct ligation (BDL), a model of hepatic cirrhosis, is associated with dilutional hyponatremia and inappropriate vasopressin release. ΔFosB staining was significantly increased in vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of BDL rats. We tested the role of SON ΔFosB in fluid retention following BDL by injecting the SON (n = 10) with 400 nl of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing ΔJunD (a dominant negative construct for ΔFosB) plus green fluorescent protein (GFP) (AAV-GFP-ΔJunD). Controls were either noninjected or injected with an AAV vector expressing only GFP. Three weeks after BDL or sham ligation surgery, rats were individually housed in metabolism cages for 1 wk. Average daily water intake was significantly elevated in all BDL rats compared with sham ligated controls. Average daily urine output was significantly greater in AAV-GFP-ΔJunD-treated BDL rats compared with all other groups. Daily average urine sodium concentration was significantly lower in AAV-GFP-ΔJunD-treated BDL rats than the other groups, although average daily sodium excretion was not different among the groups. SON expression of ΔJunD produced a diuresis in BDL rats that may be related to decreased circulating levels of vasopressin or oxytocin. These findings support the view that ΔFosB expression in SON magnocellular secretory cells contribute to dilutional hyponatremia in BDL rats.

  2. Does the median preoptic nucleus contribute to sympathetic hyperactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats?

    PubMed

    Mourão, Aline A; Moreira, Marina C S; Melo, Aryanne B S; Lopes, Paulo R; Rebelo, Ana C S; Rosa, Daniel A; Freiria-Oliveira, André H; Colombari, Eduardo; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2016-02-01

    The present study sought to determine the involvement of median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in the regulation of the cardiovascular function and renal sympathetic activity in normotensive (NT) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). MnPO inhibition evoked by Muscimol (4mM) nanoinjections, elicited fall in MAP and renal sympathoinhibition in NT-rats. Surprisingly, in SHRs these responses were greater than in NT-rats. These results demonstrated, for the first time that MnPO was involved in the tonic control of sympathetic activity in NT and SHRs. Furthermore, our data suggest the MnPO involvement in the increased sympathetic outflow and consequent arterial hypertension observed in SHRs.

  3. Projections from the anteroventral part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Leonardo S; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J

    2011-11-03

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) integrates pheromonal and olfactory information with gonadal hormone cues, being implicated in social behaviors. It is divided cytoarchitectonically in an anterodorsal, anteroventral (MeAV), posterodorsal and posteroventral part, whose projections are well characterized, except for those of the tiny MeAV. Here, MeAV efferents were examined in the rat with the anterograde Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and retrograde Fluoro-Gold (FG) tracers and compared with those of other Me parts. The present PHA-L observations show that the MeAV projects profusely to itself, but its projections to other Me parts are modest. In conjunction with FG experiments, they suggest that the MeAV innervates robustly a restricted set of structures it shares with the anterodorsal and/or posteroventral Me. Its major targets are the core of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (especially the dorsomedial and central parts), reached mainly via the stria terminalis, and the amygdalostriatal transition area. In addition, the MeAV innervates substantially the lateral and posterior basomedial amygdaloid nuclei and the intraamygdaloid bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In contrast to other Me parts, it provides only modest inputs to the main and accessory olfactory systems, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reproductive hypothalamic nuclei. This anatomical framework suggests that the MeAV may play a role in orienting responses to chemosensory cues and defensive behaviors elicited by the odor of predators.

  4. An In Vivo Model of Reduced Nucleus Pulposus Glycosaminoglycan Content in the Rat Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Boxberger, John I.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Sen, Sounok; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design An in vivo model resembling early stage disc degeneration in the rat lumbar spine. Objective Simulate the reduced glycosaminoglycan content and altered mechanics observed in intervertebral disc degeneration using a controlled injection of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). Summary of Background Data Nucleus glycosaminoglycan reduction occurs early during disc degeneration; however, mechanisms through which degeneration progresses from this state are unknown. Animal models simulating this condition are essential for understanding disease progression and for development of therapies aimed at early intervention. Methods ChABC was injected into the nucleus pulposus, and discs were evaluated via micro-CT, mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histology 4 and 12 weeks after injection. Results At 4 weeks, reductions in nucleus glycosaminoglycan level by 43%, average height by 12%, neutral zone modulus by 40%, and increases in range of motion by 40%, and creep strain by 25% were found. Neutral zone modulus and range of motion were correlated with nucleus glycosaminoglycan. At 12 weeks, recovery of some mechanical function was detected as range of motion and creep returned to control levels; however, this was not attributed to glycosaminoglycan restoration, because mechanics were no longer correlated with glycosaminoglycan. Conclusion An in vivo model simulating physiologic levels of glycosaminoglycan loss was created to aid in understanding the relationships between altered biochemistry, altered mechanics, and altered cellular function in degeneration. PMID:18197098

  5. Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus modulates neuronal hyperactivity and enhanced beta oscillatory activity of the subthalamic nucleus in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mesbah; Heissler, Hans E; Schwabe, Kerstin; Krauss, Joachim K

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) area has been introduced as a novel surgical therapy for dopamine refractory gait problems, freezing and postural instability in the late stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPTg) nucleus, the equivalent of the PPN in rodents, were shown to reduce the elevated discharge rate of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. In order to further elucidate the modulatory effect of the PPTg on the STN we examined the effect of 25 Hz low frequency PPTg stimulation on neuronal single unit activity and oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) of the STN, and on the electrocorticogram (ECoG) of the primary motor cortex region in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA induced nigrostriatal lesions. Stimulation of the PPTg reduced the enhanced firing rate in the STN, without affecting the firing pattern or approximate entropy (ApEn). It also reduced the activity in the beta band (15-30 Hz) of the STN, which is elevated in 6-OHDA lesioned rats, without affecting beta activity in the motor cortex. We showed a modulatory effect of PPTg stimulation on altered neuronal STN activity in the PD 6-OHDA rat model, indicating that PPTg DBS may alter activity of the basal ganglia circuitry at least partially. It remains unclear, however, how these changes are exactly mediated and whether they are relevant with regard to the descending PPTg projections in the lower brainstem.

  6. Attenuated dopaminergic tone in the paraventricular nucleus contributing to sympathoexcitation in rats with Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuefei; Li, Yulong; Mishra, Paras K.; Patel, Kaushik P.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the role for dopamine in the centrally mediated sympathoexcitatory response in rats with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by a combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). HFD/STZ treatment for 12–14 wk resulted in significant increase in the number of FosB-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). In anesthetized rats, administration of exogenous dopamine (dopamine hydrochloride, 20 mM) in the PVN, but not in the RVLM, elicited decreases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in control rats and but not in the T2D rats. Blocking the endogenous dopamine with dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH39166 (2 mM) in the PVN and RVLM, resulted in increases in RSNA, MAP, and heart rate (HR) in both control and T2D rats. These responses were significantly attenuated in T2D rats compared with control rats (PVN − ΔRSNA: 21 ± 10 vs. 44 ± 2%; ΔMAP: 7 ± 3 vs. 19 ± 6 mmHg, ΔHR: 17 ± 5 vs. 32 ± 4 bpm, P < 0.05). There were no significant increases in response to dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride application in the PVN and RVLM of both control and T2D rats. Furthermore, there were decreased dopamine D1 receptor and D2 receptor expressions in the PVN of T2D rats. Taken together, these data suggest that reduced endogenous dopaminergic tone within the PVN may contribute to the sympathoexcitation in T2D. PMID:24305061

  7. Nucleus accumbens neuronal maturation differences in young rats bred for low versus high voluntary running behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Heese, Alexander J; Zhu, Conan; Rottinghaus, George E; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    We compared the nucleus accumbens (NAc) transcriptomes of generation 8 (G8), 34-day-old rats selectively bred for low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviours in rats that never ran (LVRnon-run and HVRnon-run), as well as in rats after 6 days of voluntary wheel running (LVRrun and HVRrun). In addition, the NAc transcriptome of wild-type Wistar rats was compared. The purpose of this transcriptomics approach was to generate testable hypotheses as to possible NAc features that may be contributing to running motivation differences between lines. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology analyses suggested that ‘cell cycle’-related transcripts and the running-induced plasticity of dopamine-related transcripts were lower in LVR versus HVR rats. From these data, a hypothesis was generated that LVR rats might have less NAc neuron maturation than HVR rats. Follow-up immunohistochemistry in G9–10 LVRnon-run rats suggested that the LVR line inherently possessed fewer mature medium spiny (Darpp-32-positive) neurons (P < 0.001) and fewer immature (Dcx-positive) neurons (P < 0.001) than their G9–10 HVR counterparts. However, voluntary running wheel access in our G9–10 LVRs uniquely increased their Darpp-32-positive and Dcx-positive neuron densities. In summary, NAc cellularity differences and/or the lack of running-induced plasticity in dopamine signalling-related transcripts may contribute to low voluntary running motivation in LVR rats. PMID:24665095

  8. Oxytocin in Brattleboro rats: increased synthesis is contrasted by blunted intrahypothalamic release from supraoptic nucleus neurones.

    PubMed

    Zelena, D; Pintér, O; Langnaese, K; Richter, K; Landgraf, R; Makara, G B; Engelmann, M

    2013-08-01

    Adult male Brattleboro rats were used to investigate the impact of the congenital absence of vasopressin on the release pattern of oxytocin (OXT) within the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) in response to a 10-min forced swimming session and osmotic stimulation. Both immunohistochemical and in situ hybridisation data suggest that vasopressin-deficient animals have more oxytocin-synthesising neurones in the SON than homozygous wild-type controls. Unexpectedly, both forced swimming and peripheral osmotic stimulation resulted in a blunted release profile of oxytocin within the SON of vasopressin-deficient rats compared to controls. A similar intranuclear OXT response to direct osmotic stimulation of the SON by retrodialysis with hypertonic Ringer's solution in both genotypes confirmed the capability of SON neurones to locally release oxytocin in vasopressin-deficient rats, indicating an altered processing of information originating from multisynaptic inputs rather than a deficit in release capacity. Taken together with data obtained in previous studies, the present findings provide evidence suggesting that autocrine and paracrine signalling of magnocellular neurones differs within the paraventricular nucleus and the SON. Thus, significant alterations in intra-SON oxytocin mRNA levels cannot easily be extrapolated to intranuclear release profiles and the local signal intensity of this neuropeptide after physiological stimulation.

  9. Dietary sodium deprivation reduces gustatory neural responses of the parabrachial nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Jianqun

    2008-02-27

    Acute sodium depletion induced by furosemide reduces gustatory responses of parabrachial nucleus (PBN) neurons to 0.3-0.5M NaCl in rats. However, in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), where taste-responsive cells project to the PBN, acute sodium depletion and dietary sodium deprivation elicit different response profiles to lingual NaCl stimulation. To examine the effect of dietary sodium deprivation on the responses of PBN gustatory neurons, we observed the taste responses of the PBN neurons to the four taste qualities and serial concentrations of NaCl in 15-day dietary sodium-deprived and control rats. The results showed that sodium deprivation reduced the responses of PBN taste neurons to 0.1-1.0M NaCl, but not to other tastants. Based on the analyses classified by best-stimulus categories, the number of NaCl-best neurons decreased from 68% to 45% following dietary sodium deprivation, and the responses of the NaCl-best neurons to 0.03-1.0M NaCl were significantly inhibited. Multidimensional scaling illustrated that sodium deprivation increased the similarity of the response profiles of the NaCl-best neurons. These findings suggest that dietary sodium deprivation might modulate sodium intake via increasing aversive threshold for salt rather enhancing salt discrimination.

  10. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus differentially supports lumbar and renal sympathetic outflow in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Hunwick, Kimberly J; Toney, Glenn M

    2005-02-15

    The present study sought to determine whether the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes in a time-dependent manner to the differential patterning of lumbar and renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in water-deprived rats. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and both lumbar SNA (LSNA) and renal SNA (RSNA) were recorded simultaneously in control, 24 and 48 h water-deprived rats, and the PVN was inhibited bilaterally with microinjection of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (100 pmol in 100 nl per side). Inhibition of the PVN significantly decreased RSNA in 48 h water-deprived rats but not in 24 h water-deprived or control rats (48 h, -17 +/- 4%; 24 h, -2 +/- 5%; control, 4 +/- 6%; P < 0.05). In addition, injection of muscimol significantly decreased LSNA in 48 and 24 h water-deprived rats but not in control rats (48 h, -41 +/- 4%; 24 h, -14 +/- 6%; control, -3 +/- 2%; P < 0.05). Interestingly, the decrease in LSNA was significantly greater than the decrease in RSNA of 24 and 48 h water-deprived rats (P < 0.05). Inhibition of the PVN also significantly decreased MAP to a greater extent in 48 and 24 h water-deprived rats compared to control rats (48 h, -34 +/- 5 mmHg; 24 h, -26 +/- 4 mmHg; control, -15 +/- 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). When 48 h water-deprived rats were acutely rehydrated by giving access to tap water 2 h before experiments, inhibition of the PVN with muscimol did not alter LSNA (-12 +/- 8%) or RSNA (7 +/- 4%) but did produce a small decrease in MAP (-15 +/- 4 mmHg) that was not different from control rats. In a parallel set of experiments, acute rehydration of 48 h water-deprived rats significantly attenuated the increased Fos immunoreactivity in PVN neurones that project to the spinal cord or rostral ventrolateral medulla. Collectively, the present findings suggest that PVN autonomic neurones are synaptically influenced during water deprivation, and that these neurones differentially contribute to LSNA and RSNA in water-deprived rats.

  11. Estradiol implants in the arcuate nucleus induce lactogenesis in virgin rats. Role of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Carón, R W; Deis, R P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the centrally administered estradiol, and the effects of the consequent hypersecretion of prolactin (PRL) and progesterone, on lactogenesis as evaluated by mammary accumulation of casein and lactose. Bilateral cannulae containing 17beta-estradiol or cholesterol were implanted in the arcuate nucleus of virgin rats on the day of estrus (Day 0). In the first experiment different groups of rats were killed on Days 6, 9, 15, 17, or 19. Trunk blood was collected and abdominal mammary glands were taken. In the second experiment, estradiol-implanted rats received the progesterone antagonist mifepristone or vehicle at 14.00 h on Day 8 or 16 post-implant, and were killed 28 or 48 h later. Serum PRL and progesterone and mammary casein were measured by RIA and lactose was determined by an enzymatic assay. Estradiol-implanted rats showed a significant increase in both milk components at all time points after implant compared to controls. On Day 9 after estradiol implant, mifepristone had no effect on mammary content of casein or lactose. By contrast, on Day 16, mifepristone markedly increased both casein and lactose contents without modifying serum PRL and progesterone concentrations. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol implants in the arcuate nucleus of virgin rats results in hyperprolactinaemia and stimulates mammary accumulation of casein and lactose in the absence of feto-placental units. Despite the prolonged luteal activation, the sustained high levels of circulating progesterone become inhibitory to lactogenesis after a relatively long period after implant.

  12. Sexual dimorphism in the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract in the rat.

    PubMed

    Collado, P; Guillamón, A; Valencia, A; Segovia, S

    1990-11-01

    This work investigates the existence of sex differences in the volume and number of neurons and glial cells in the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT). Males showed larger volume and number of cells than female rats. Early postnatal (day 1 after birth) orchidectomy in males, and androgenization in females, reversed these differences. No sex differences were found in BAOT glial cells. The sexual dimorphism found in the neuron/glial cell ratio reflects sex differences in neuron number. The existence of sexual dimorphism in the BAOT supports our earlier hypothesis which states that the vomeronasal system (VNS) is sexually dimorphic.

  13. The centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus--I: Efferents in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Júnior, Edmilson D; Da Silva, André V; Da Silva, Kelly R T; Haemmerle, Carlos A S; Batagello, Daniella S; Da Silva, Joelcimar M; Lima, Leandro B; Da Silva, Renata J; Diniz, Giovanne B; Sita, Luciane V; Elias, Carol F; Bittencourt, Jackson C

    2015-10-01

    The oculomotor accessory nucleus, often referred to as the Edinger-Westphal nucleus [EW], was first identified in the 17th century. Although its most well known function is the control of pupil diameter, some controversy has arisen regarding the exact location of these preganglionic neurons. Currently, the EW is thought to consist of two different parts. The first part [termed the preganglionic EW-EWpg], which controls lens accommodation, choroidal blood flow and pupillary constriction, primarily consists of cholinergic cells that project to the ciliary ganglion. The second part [termed the centrally projecting EW-EWcp], which is involved in non-ocular functions such as feeding behavior, stress responses, addiction and pain, consists of peptidergic neurons that project to the brainstem, the spinal cord and prosencephalic regions. However, in the literature, we found few reports related to either ascending or descending projections from the EWcp that are compatible with its currently described functions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the ascending and descending projections of the EW in the rat brain. We injected the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the EW or the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B into multiple EW targets as controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential EW-mediated innervation of neuronal populations with known neurochemical signatures, such as melanin-concentrating hormone in the lateral hypothalamic area [LHA] and corticotropin-releasing factor in the central nucleus of the amygdala [CeM]. We observed anterogradely labeled fibers in the LHA, the reuniens thalamic nucleus, the oval part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial part of the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the zona incerta. We confirmed our EW-LHA and EW-CeM connections using retrograde tracers. We also observed moderate EW-mediated innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the

  14. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yu; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Soichiro; Inui, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kunishima, Shinji; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by gray matter cellular rests in the periventricular regions. Megalencephaly has not been reported in children with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. No other disorder with a similar phenotype has been reported. Here we report the case of a 5-year-old Japanese boy with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly. Relative macrocephaly was evident at birth, and bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly were noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no hydrocephalus or indication of cerebral cortical dysplasia was seen. A mild intellectual disability was present, but the patient had no history of seizures. Genetic analysis revealed no mutation on the capillary sequences for FLNA, and no pathogenic abnormalities were evident on array comparative genomic hybridization. This case could represent a new disease entity: bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly.

  15. Amygdala central nucleus lesions attenuate acoustic startle stimulus-evoked heart rate changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Young, B J; Leaton, R N

    1996-04-01

    Amygdala central nucleus (CNA) lesions were used to test the hypothesis that stimulus-evoked heart rate changes can reflect the development of fear during acoustic startle testing. A 120-dB white noise startle stimulus produced freezing as well as phasic heart rate accelerations and decelerations, and an abrupt decrease in tonic heart rate, in sham-operated rats. These responses were all significantly reduced in CNA-lesioned rats. In contrast, an 87-dB stimulus elicited only significant phasic decelerations that were similarly attenuated by the CNA lesions. In a follow-up experiment, the CNA lesions also attenuated phasic cardiac decelerations evoked by a conditioned stimulus-like, 85-dB pure tone. The results support the contention (B. J. Young & R.N. Leaton, 1994) that heart rate changes can reflect fear conditioned during acoustic startle testing and, in addition, suggest that the amygdala mediates responses to nonsignal acoustic stimuli.

  16. Fine structural changes in the lateral vestibular nucleus of aging rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Miquel, J.

    1974-01-01

    The fine structure of the lateral vestibular nucleus was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, that were sacrified at 4 weeks, 6-8 weeks, 6-8 months, and 18-20 months of age. In the neuronal perikaria, the following age-associated changes were seen with increasing frequency with advancing age: rodlike nuclear inclusions and nuclear membrane invaginations; cytoplasmic dense bodies with the characteristics of lipofuscin; and moderate disorganization of the granular endoplasmic reticulum. Dense bodies were also seen in glial cells. Rats 18 to 20 months old showed dendritic swellings, axonal degeneration, and an apparent increase in the number of axosomatic synaptic terminals containing flattened vesicles (presumed to be inhibitory in function).

  17. Endogenous leptin contributes to baroreflex suppression within the solitary tract nucleus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Amy C; Diz, Debra I

    2014-12-01

    The decline in cardiovagal baroreflex function that occurs with aging is accompanied by an increase in circulating leptin levels. Our previous studies showed that exogenous leptin impairs the baroreflex sensitivity for control of heart rate in younger rats, but the contribution of this hormone to baroreflex dysfunction during aging is unknown. Thus we assessed the effect of bilateral leptin microinjection (500 fmol/60 nl) within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) on the baroreflex sensitivity in older (66 ± 2 wk of age) urethane/chloralose anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats with elevated circulating leptin levels. In contrast to the 63% reduction observed in younger rats, leptin did not alter the baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia evoked by phenylephrine in older rats (0.76 ± 0.19 baseline vs. 0.71 ± 0.15 ms/mmHg after leptin; P = 0.806). We hypothesized that this loss of sensitivity reflected endogenous suppression of the baroreflex by elevated leptin, rather than cardiovascular resistance to the peptide. Indeed, NTS administration of a leptin receptor antagonist (75 pmol/120 nl) improved the baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia in older rats (0.73 ± 0.13 baseline vs. 1.19 ± 0.26 at 10 min vs. 1.87 ± 0.32 at 60 min vs. 1.22 ± 0.54 ms/mmHg at 120 min; P = 0.002), with no effect in younger rats. There was no effect of the leptin antagonist on the baroreflex sensitivity for tachycardia, responses to cardiac vagal chemosensitive fiber activation, or resting hemodynamics in older rats. These findings suggest that the actions of endogenous leptin within the NTS, either produced locally or derived from the circulation, contribute to baroreflex suppression during aging.

  18. Auditory Responses to Electric and Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Rat Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Guex, Amelie A.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Durakovic, Nedim; McKay, Colette M.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the auditory brainstem implant, a prosthesis in which user outcomes are modest, we applied electric and infrared neural stimulation (INS) to the cochlear nucleus in a rat animal model. Electric stimulation evoked regions of neural activation in the inferior colliculus and short-latency, multipeaked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Pulsed INS, delivered to the surface of the cochlear nucleus via an optical fiber, evoked broad neural activation in the inferior colliculus. Strongest responses were recorded when the fiber was placed at lateral positions on the cochlear nucleus, close to the temporal bone. INS-evoked ABRs were multipeaked but longer in latency than those for electric stimulation; they resembled the responses to acoustic stimulation. After deafening, responses to electric stimulation persisted, whereas those to INS disappeared, consistent with a reported “optophonic” effect, a laser-induced acoustic artifact. Thus, for deaf individuals who use the auditory brainstem implant, INS alone did not appear promising as a new approach. PMID:24508368

  19. A cluster analysis of the neurons of the rat interpeduncular nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Gioia, M; Vizzotto, L; Bianchi, R

    1994-01-01

    The morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) in the rat were investigated by cluster analysis in order to identify neuronal groups which are morphometrically homogeneous, and to define their position and density in the IPN subnuclei. Two clusters of cells were detected. Cluster 1 neurons had a larger perikaryal size with a mean cross-sectional area of 170 microns2 and a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. They were located mainly in the pars dorsalis (37%) and pars medialis (34%) rather than in the pars lateralis (29%). Cluster 1 neurons were also more frequent at the rostral (31%) and caudal (57%) poles than in the central part of the IPN. Cluster 2 cells showed a smaller mean perikaryal area (110 microns2), a small nucleus and abundant cytoplasm. They were equally distributed throughout the whole IPN. These findings suggest the existence of a magnocellular region at the rostral pole of the IPN which has not been described previously. The presence of IPN regions endowed with specific cytoarchitectural characteristics is discussed with respect to the complex neurochemical organisation of the nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7649781

  20. Homologous upregulation of sst2 somatostatin receptor expression in the rat arcuate nucleus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, G S; Turner, J; Guo, F; Videau, C; Epelbaum, J; Beaudet, A

    2001-07-01

    In vitro studies using various cell systems have provided conflicting results regarding homologous regulation of somatostatin (SRIH) receptors, and information on whether SRIH regulates the expression of its own receptors in vivo is lacking. In the present study we examined, by in situ hybridization, the effects of pretreatment with the sst2-preferring SRIH analog, octreotide, in vivo, on mRNA levels of two SRIH receptor subtypes, sst1 and sst2, in rat brain and pituitary. (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding was also measured in these regions. Three hours after the iv injection of 50 microg octreotide to conscious adult male rats, there was a 46% increase (p < 0.01) in the labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus compared to normal saline-pretreated controls, but not in any of the other brain regions examined. Computer-assisted image analysis revealed that 3 h exposure to octreotide significantly (p < 0.01) augmented both the number and labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus, compared to those in saline-treated controls. By contrast, within the anterior pituitary gland, in vivo exposure to octreotide did not affect the expression of sst2 mRNA. No changes in sst1 mRNA-expressing cells were observed after octreotide treatment in any of the regions measured, indicating that the observed effects were homologous, i.e. specific of the receptor subtype stimulated. Octreotide pretreatment was also without effect on the density of (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding in either the arcuate nucleus or pituitary. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that SRIH preexposure in vivo upregulates the expression of a subtype of its own receptors, sst2, within the central nervous system. They further suggest that pretreatment with SRIH in vivo does not cause sst2 receptor desensitization in arcuate nucleus and pituitary. Such homologous regulatory mechanisms may play an important role in the neuroendocrine control

  1. Biperiden hydrochlorate ameliorates dystonia of rats produced by microinjection of sigma ligands into the red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Takahashi, H; Sato, K; Higuchi, H; Shimizu, T

    2000-11-01

    It has been reported that the imbalance of anticholinergic and antidopaminergic activity of each neuroleptic drug correlates with the capacity to produce neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia (NAD) and the major focus of NAD is thought to be the striatum. Anticholinergic drugs are highly effective on NAD, but they are partially effective on neuroleptic-induced tardive dystonia and their effect on idiopathic dystonia is disappointing. Recently, it has been reported that the unilateral microinjection of sigma (sigma) ligands into the red nucleus induces torticollis of rats. This animal model appears to be a model of dystonia, but it is not clear whether it is suitable for NAD in man. To clarify this issue, we investigated the effect of an anticholinergic drug, biperiden hydrochlorate (BH), on this animal model. This study revealed that BH dose-dependently ameliorated dystonia of rats induced by two sigma ligands, whether each sigma ligand had dopaminergic affinity or not. This animal model of dystonia appears to be a model of NAD in man from the viewpoint of treatment-response. The results also suggest that not only dopaminergic and cholinergic systems but also sigma system, and not only the striatum but also the red nucleus, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of NAD.

  2. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  3. Studies on functional connections between the supraoptic nucleus and the stomach in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chang-Liang; Li, Zhao-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Dong-Qin; Ai, Hong-Bin

    2011-05-01

    The present study was to investigate whether there are functional connections between the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the stomach, which is the case with the paraventricular nucleus. The rats were divided into four groups. Group I: the neuronal discharge was recorded extracellularly in the NTS, DMV or SON before and after cold physiological saline (4°C) was perfused into the stomach and effused from the duodenum. Group II: the rats were stimulated as for Group I and c-Fos expression in NTS, DMV and SON was examined. Group III: the control to Group II. Group IV: gastric motility was recorded continuously before and after microinjection of L: -Glu into the SON. In Group I, the discharge frequency increased in all the three nuclei, while in Group II, Fos expression in NTS, DMV and SON was, respectively, greater than that of Group III. In Group IV, microinjection of L: -Glu (5 nmol) into SON significantly inhibited gastric motility. These data suggest there are functional connections between SON and stomach.

  4. Neuronal Entropy-Rate Feature of Entopeduncular Nucleus in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Darbin, Olivier; Jin, Xingxing; Von Wrangel, Christof; Schwabe, Kerstin; Nambu, Atsushi; Naritoku, Dean K; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

    2016-03-01

    The function of the nigro-striatal pathway on neuronal entropy in the basal ganglia (BG) output nucleus, i.e. the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) was investigated in the unilaterally 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In both control subjects and subjects with 6-OHDA lesion of dopamine (DA) the nigro-striatal pathway, a histological hallmark for parkinsonism, neuronal entropy in EPN was maximal in neurons with firing rates ranging between 15 and 25 Hz. In 6-OHDA lesioned rats, neuronal entropy in the EPN was specifically higher in neurons with firing rates above 25 Hz. Our data establishes that the nigro-striatal pathway controls neuronal entropy in motor circuitry and that the parkinsonian condition is associated with abnormal relationship between firing rate and neuronal entropy in BG output nuclei. The neuronal firing rates and entropy relationship provide putative relevant electrophysiological information to investigate the sensory-motor processing in normal condition and conditions such as movement disorders.

  5. Olanzapine treatment of adolescent rats alters adult reward behaviour and nucleus accumbens function.

    PubMed

    Vinish, Monika; Elnabawi, Ahmed; Milstein, Jean A; Burke, Jesse S; Kallevang, Jonathan K; Turek, Kevin C; Lansink, Carien S; Merchenthaler, Istvan; Bailey, Aileen M; Kolb, Bryan; Cheer, Joseph F; Frost, Douglas O

    2013-08-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are increasingly used in children and adolescents to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the long-term effects of early life antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment. Most APDs are potent antagonists or partial agonists of dopamine (DA) D₂ receptors; atypical APDs also have multiple serotonergic activities. DA and serotonin regulate many neurodevelopmental processes. Thus, early life APD treatment can, potentially, perturb these processes, causing long-term behavioural and neurobiological sequelae. We treated adolescent, male rats with olanzapine (Ola) on post-natal days 28-49, under dosing conditions that approximate those employed therapeutically in humans. As adults, they exhibited enhanced conditioned place preference for amphetamine, as compared to vehicle-treated rats. In the nucleus accumbens core, DA D₁ receptor binding was reduced, D₂ binding was increased and DA release evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area was reduced. Thus, adolescent Ola treatment enduringly alters a key behavioural response to rewarding stimuli and modifies DAergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. The persistence of these changes suggests that even limited periods of early life Ola treatment may induce enduring changes in other reward-related behaviours and in behavioural and neurobiological responses to therapeutic and illicit psychotropic drugs. These results underscore the importance of improved understanding of the enduring sequelae of paediatric APD treatment as a basis for weighing the benefits and risks of adolescent APD therapy, especially prophylactic treatment in high-risk, asymptomatic patients.

  6. Peripherally injected CCK-8S activates CART positive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Noetzel, Steffen; Inhoff, Tobias; Goebel, Miriam; Taché, Yvette; Veh, Rüdiger W.; Bannert, Norbert; Grötzinger, Carsten; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Mönnikes, Hubert; Kobelt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the short-term inhibition of food intake. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been observed in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been reported that intracerebroventricular injection of CART peptide inhibits food intake in rodents. The aim of the study was to determine whether intraperitoneally (ip) injected CCK-8S affects neuronal activity of PVN-CART neurons. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6 or 10 μg/kg CCK-8S or 0.15 M NaCl ip (n = 4/group). The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons was determined in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC), and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). CCK-8S dose-dependently increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the PVN (mean ± SEM: 102 ± 6 vs. 150 ± 5 neurons/section, p < 0.05) and compared to vehicle treated rats (18 ± 7, p < 0.05 vs. 6 and 10 μg/kg CCK-8S). CCK-8S at both doses induced an increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the NTS (65 ± 13, p < 0.05, and 182 ± 16, p < 0.05). No effect on the number of c-Fos neurons was observed in the ARC. Immunostaining for CART and c-Fos revealed a dose-dependent increase of activated CART neurons (19 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 7; p < 0.05), only few activated CART neuron were observed in the vehicle group (1 ± 0). The present observation shows that CCK-8S injected ip induces an increase in neuronal activity in PVN-CART neurons and suggests that CART neurons in the PVN may play a role in the mediation of peripheral CCK-8S's anorexigenic effects. PMID:20307613

  7. Chronic intermittent hypoxia affects endogenous serotonergic inputs and expression of synaptic proteins in rat hypoglossal nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu; Lu, Huan; Hu, Lijuan; Gong, Wankun; Wang, Juan; Fu, Cuiping; Liu, Zilong; Li, Shanqun

    2017-01-01

    Evidence has shown that hypoxic episodes elicit hypoglossal neuroplasticity which depends on elevated serotonin (5-HT), in contrast to the rationale of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that deficient serotonergic input to HMs fails to keep airway patency. Therefore, understanding of the 5-HT dynamic changes at hypoglossal nucleus (HN) during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) will be essential to central pathogenic mechanism and pharmacological therapy of OSA. Moreover, the effect of CIH on BDNF-TrkB signaling proteins was quantified in an attempt to elucidate cellular cascades/synaptic mechanisms following 5-HT alteration. Male rats were randomly exposed to normal air (control), intermittent hypoxia of 3 weeks (IH3) and 5 weeks (IH5) groups. Through electrical stimulation of dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), we conducted amperometric technique with carbon fiber electrode in vivo to measure the real time release of 5-HT at XII nucleus. 5-HT2A receptors immunostaining measured by intensity and c-Fos quantified visually were both determined by immunohistochemistry. CIH significantly reduced endogenous serotonergic inputs from DRN to XII nucleus, shown as decreased peak value of 5-HT signals both in IH3 and IH5groups, whereas time to peak and half-life period of 5-HT were unaffected. Neither 5-HT2A receptors nor c-Fos expression in HN were significantly altered by CIH. Except for marked increase in phosphorylation of ERK in IH5 rats, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptophys consistently demonstrated downregulated levels. These results suggest that the deficiency of 5-HT and BDNF-dependent synaptic proteins in our CIH protocol contribute to the decompensated mechanism of OSA. PMID:28337282

  8. Baclofen antagonizes nicotine-, cocaine-, and morphine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of rat.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Paola; Scherma, Maria; Fresu, Alessandra; Collu, Maria; Fratta, Walter

    2003-10-01

    Evidence recently provided has suggested a specific involvement of the GABAergic system in modulating positive reinforcing properties of several drugs of abuse through an action on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of several forms of drug addiction. In the present study, using the in vivo microdialysis technique, we investigated the effect of baclofen on nicotine, cocaine, and morphine-induced increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, a brain area supposedly involved in the modulation of the central effects of several drugs of abuse, of freely moving rats. As expected, nicotine (0.6 mg/kg s.c.), morphine (5 mg/kg s.c.), and cocaine (7.5 mg/kg i.p.) administration in rats induced a marked increase in extracellular DA concentrations in the nucleus accumbens, reaching a maximum value of +205 +/- 8.4%, +300 +/- 22.2%, and +370 +/- 30.7%, respectively. Pretreatment with baclofen (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the nicotine-, morphine-, and cocaine-evoked DA release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, baclofen alone did not elicit changes in basal DA extracellular levels up to 180 min. Taken together, our data are in line with previous reports demonstrating the ability of baclofen to modulate the mesolimbic DAergic transmission and indicate baclofen as a putative candidate in the pharmacotherapy of polydrug abuse.

  9. Neural correlates for angular head velocity in the rat dorsal tegmental nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassett, J. P.; Taube, J. S.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) fire selectively in relation to the animal's head direction (HD) in the horizontal plane independent of the rat's location or behavior. One hypothesis of how this representation is generated and updated is via subcortical projections from the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN). Here we report the type of activity in DTN neurons. The majority of cells (75%) fired as a function of the rat's angular head velocity (AHV). Cells exhibited one of two types of firing patterns: (1) symmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with AHV during head turns in both directions, and (2) asymmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with head turns in one direction and correlated either negatively or not at all in the opposite direction. In addition to modulation by AHV, some of the AHV cells (40.1%) were weakly modulated by the rat's linear velocity, and a smaller number were modulated by HD (11%) or head pitch (15.9%). Autocorrelation analyses indicated that with the head stationary, AHV cells displayed irregular discharge patterns. Because afferents from the DTN are the major source of information projecting to the LMN, these results suggest that AHV information from the DTN plays a significant role in generating the HD signal in LMN. A model is proposed showing how DTN AHV cells can generate and update the LMN HD cell signal.

  10. Lesions of the entopeduncular nucleus in rats prevent apomorphine-induced deficient sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Lütjens, Götz; Krauss, Joachim K; Schwabe, Kerstin

    2011-07-07

    Dopamine-induced hyperactivity and deficient sensorimotor gating, measured as prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR), are used as animal models for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and Tourette's syndrome. We here investigated whether excitotoxic lesions of the rat entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), the equivalent to the human globus pallidus internus (GPi), would improve apomorphine-induced PPI-deficits and hyperactivity. Additionally, we investigated the effect of EPN lesions on cognition, motivation and motor skills. In male Sprague Dawley rats bilateral EPN lesions were induced by stereotactic injection of ibotenate (4 μg in 0.4 μl phosphate buffered saline, PBS) or sham-lesions by injection of vehicle PBS. After one week, rats were tested for learning and memory (continuous and delayed alternation, T-maze), for motivation (progressive ratio test with breakpoint of 3 min inactivity, Skinner box), and for motor skills (rotating rod). Thereafter, rats were tested for PPI of ASR (startle response system) after subcutaneous injection of apomorphine (1.0mg/kg and vehicle) and for locomotor activity (0.5mg/kg and vehicle). Ibotenate-induced EPN lesions did not affect learning and memory, motivation or motor skills. Basal locomotor activity and PPI was also not affected, but EPN lesions ameliorated apomorphine-induced hyperlocomotion and deficient PPI. This work indicates an important role of the EPN for the modulation of dopamine agonist-induced deficient sensorimotor gating and hyperlocomotion, without affecting normal behavioral function.

  11. Tickling increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hori, Miyo; Shimoju, Rie; Tokunaga, Ryota; Ohkubo, Masato; Miyabe, Shigeki; Ohnishi, Junji; Murakami, Kazuo; Kurosawa, Mieko

    2013-03-27

    Adolescent rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, a marker of positive emotion, during rough-and-tumble play or on tickling stimulation. The emission of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in response to tickling is suggested to be mediated by dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens; however, there is no direct evidence supporting this hypothesis. The present study aimed to elucidate whether play behavior (tickling) in adolescent rats can trigger dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens with hedonic 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations. The effect of tickling stimulation was compared with light-touch stimulation, as a discernible stimulus. We examined 35-40-day-old rats, which corresponds to the period of midadolescence. Tickling stimulation for 5 min significantly increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (118±7% of the prestimulus control value). Conversely, light-touch stimulation for 5 min did not significantly change dopamine release. In addition, 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations were emitted during tickling stimulation but not during light-touch stimulation. Further, tickling-induced 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations were significantly blocked by the direct application of SCH23390 (D1 receptor antagonist) and raclopride (D2/D3 receptor antagonist) into the nucleus accumbens. Our study demonstrates that tickling stimulation in adolescent rats increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, leading to the generation of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

  12. Dissociation of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens dopaminergic systems in conditional learning in rats.

    PubMed

    George, David N; Jenkins, Trisha A; Killcross, Simon

    2011-11-20

    There is converging evidence that the prefrontal and mesolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) systems are involved in the performance of a variety of tasks that require the use of contextual, or task-setting, information to select an appropriate response from a number of candidate responses. Performance on tasks of this nature are impaired in schizophrenia and in rats exposed to psychotomimetics; impairments that are often attenuated by administration of dopamine (DA) antagonists. Rats were trained on either a complex instrumental discrimination task, that required the use of task-setting cues, or a simple discrimination task that did not. Following training, microdialysis probes were implanted unilaterally in either the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) and samples were collected in freely moving animals during a behavioural test session. In Experiment 1, we found no difference in levels of DA in the mPFC of rats while they were performing the two discrimination tasks. Rats that performed the complex task did, however, show significantly higher mPFC DA levels relative to rats in the simple discrimination condition following the end of the behavioural test session. In Experiment 2, rats performing the conditional discrimination showed lower levels of DA in the NAc compared to the simple discrimination group both during the test session and after it. These results provide direct evidence that conditional discrimination tasks engage frontal and mesolimbic DAergic systems and are consistent with the proposal that regulation of fronto-striatal DA is involved in aspects of cognitive control that are known to be impaired in individuals with schizophrenia.

  13. The role of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus in the switching of descending influences to motor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fanardzhyan, V V; Papoyan, E V; Pogosyan, V I; Gevorkyan, O V

    2002-01-01

    Studies on rats showed that the facilitating influence of preliminary transection of the rubrospinal tract on recovery of motor activity and operant reflexes disrupted by lesioning of the red nucleus was more apparent when lesioning was chemical than when lesioning was electrolytic. This is due to the survival of cerebellothalamic fibers to the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus after chemical lesioning of the red nucleus with quinolinic acid. It was also shown that preliminary lesioning of the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus strongly hindered the switching of motor activity under the control of the corticospinal tract in rats subjected to section of the rubrospinal tract and lesioning of the red nucleus.

  14. Glutamate receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius contribute to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in rat

    PubMed Central

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Carr, J Austin; Go, Ariel; Fu, Zhenxing; Reid, Stephen G; Powell, Frank L

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to a hypoxic environment the body's first response is a reflex increase in ventilation, termed the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). With chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH), such as during acclimatization to high altitude, an additional time-dependent increase in ventilation occurs, which increases the HVR. This secondary increase persists after exposure to CSH and involves plasticity within the circuits in the central nervous system that control breathing. Currently these mechanisms of HVR plasticity are unknown and we hypothesized that they involve glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where afferent endings from arterial chemoreceptors terminate. To test this, we treated rats held in normoxia (CON) or 10% O2 (CSH) for 7 days and measured ventilation in conscious, unrestrained animals before and after microinjecting glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists into the NTS. In normoxia, AMPA increased ventilation 25% and 50% in CON and CSH, respectively, while NMDA doubled ventilation in both groups (P < 0.05). Specific AMPA and NMDA receptor antagonists (NBQX and MK801, respectively) abolished these effects. MK801 significantly decreased the HVR in CON rats, and completely blocked the acute HVR in CSH rats but had no effect on ventilation in normoxia. NBQX decreased ventilation whenever it was increased relative to normoxic controls; i.e. acute hypoxia in CON and CSH, and normoxia in CSH. These results support our hypothesis that glutamate receptors in the NTS contribute to plasticity in the HVR with CSH. The mechanism underlying this synaptic plasticity is probably glutamate receptor modification, as in CSH rats the expression of phosphorylated NR1 and GluR1 proteins in the NTS increased 35% and 70%, respectively, relative to that in CON rats. PMID:24492841

  15. Glutamate receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius contribute to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in rat.

    PubMed

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Carr, J Austin; Go, Ariel; Fu, Zhenxing; Reid, Stephen G; Powell, Frank L

    2014-04-15

    When exposed to a hypoxic environment the body's first response is a reflex increase in ventilation, termed the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). With chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH), such as during acclimatization to high altitude, an additional time-dependent increase in ventilation occurs, which increases the HVR. This secondary increase persists after exposure to CSH and involves plasticity within the circuits in the central nervous system that control breathing. Currently these mechanisms of HVR plasticity are unknown and we hypothesized that they involve glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where afferent endings from arterial chemoreceptors terminate. To test this, we treated rats held in normoxia (CON) or 10% O2 (CSH) for 7 days and measured ventilation in conscious, unrestrained animals before and after microinjecting glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists into the NTS. In normoxia, AMPA increased ventilation 25% and 50% in CON and CSH, respectively, while NMDA doubled ventilation in both groups (P < 0.05). Specific AMPA and NMDA receptor antagonists (NBQX and MK801, respectively) abolished these effects. MK801 significantly decreased the HVR in CON rats, and completely blocked the acute HVR in CSH rats but had no effect on ventilation in normoxia. NBQX decreased ventilation whenever it was increased relative to normoxic controls; i.e. acute hypoxia in CON and CSH, and normoxia in CSH. These results support our hypothesis that glutamate receptors in the NTS contribute to plasticity in the HVR with CSH. The mechanism underlying this synaptic plasticity is probably glutamate receptor modification, as in CSH rats the expression of phosphorylated NR1 and GluR1 proteins in the NTS increased 35% and 70%, respectively, relative to that in CON rats.

  16. Reproductive experience increases prolactin responsiveness in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus of female rats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Greg M; Grattan, David R; van den Ancker, Willemijn; Bridges, Robert S

    2006-10-01

    The experience of pregnancy plus lactation produces long-term enhancements in maternal behavior as well as reduced secretion of prolactin, a key hormone for the initial establishment of maternal care. Given that prolactin acts centrally to induce maternal care as well as regulate its own secretion, we tested whether prolactin receptors in brain regions known to regulate behavioral and neuroendocrine processes were up-regulated and more responsive to prolactin in reproductively experienced females. Diestrous primiparous (8 wk after weaning) and age-matched virgin rats were treated with 250 microg ovine prolactin sc or vehicle and the brains collected 2 h later for measurement of mRNA for genes involved in prolactin signaling. Reproductively experienced rats had lower serum prolactin concentrations, compared with virgin rats, suggesting enhanced prolactin feedback on the arcuate neurons regulating prolactin secretion. In the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus (regions involved in regulating maternal behavior and prolactin secretion, respectively), the level of long-form prolactin receptor mRNA was higher in primiparous rats, and prolactin treatment induced a further increase in receptor expression in these animals. In the same regions, suppressors of cytokine signaling-1 and -3 mRNA levels were also markedly increased after prolactin treatment in reproductively experienced but not virgin rats. These results support the idea that reproductive experience increases central prolactin responsiveness. The induction of prolactin receptors and enhanced prolactin responsiveness as a result of pregnancy and lactation may help account for the retention of maternal behavior and shifts in prolactin secretion in reproductively experienced females.

  17. Clinical risk factors and periventricular leucomalacia.

    PubMed

    Trounce, J Q; Shaw, D E; Levene, M I; Rutter, N

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred infants of below 1501 g at birth were regularly examined with real time ultrasound using a 7.5 MHz transducer. Abnormalities were categorized as periventricular haemorrhage (PVH) (n = 107) or periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), with or without PVH (n = 52). Of the group with PVL, 25 had the appearances of prolonged flare without cavitation. Prospective assessments of up to 50 potential clinical risk factors were made wherever possible on each infant including stratification of all blood gas and systolic blood pressure data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed a strong correlation between immaturity and PVH but this was not found in cases of PVL. Independent variables associated with PVL included pneumothorax, maximum bilirubin concentration, surgery, and the proportion of time the infant's PaCO2 remained above 7 kPa. There was a very strong inverse correlation between anaemia and PVL. Systolic blood pressure data were carefully analysed and there was no relation between either hypotension or antepartum haemorrhage and the development of PVL.

  18. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  19. The medial amygdaloid nucleus modulates the baroreflex activity in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Ferreira-Junior, Nilson Carlos; Lagatta, Davi Campos; Resstel, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2015-12-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) is involved in cardiovascular control. In the present study we report the effect of MeA pharmacological ablations caused by bilateral microinjections of the nonselective synaptic blocker CoCl2 on cardiac baroreflex responses in rats. MeA synaptic inhibition evoked by local bilateral microinjection of 100 nL of CoCl2 (1 mM) did not affect blood pressure or heart rate baseline, suggesting no tonic MeA influence on resting cardiovascular parameters. However, 10 min after CoCl2 microinjection into the MeA of male Wistar rats, the reflex bradycardic response evoked by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine was significantly enhanced when compared with the reflex bradycardic response observed before CoCl2. The treatment did not affect the tachycardic responses to the intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Baroreflex activity returned to control values 60 min after CoCl2 microinjections, confirming a reversible blockade. The present results indicate an involvement of the MeA in baroreflex modulation, suggesting that synapses in the MeA have an inhibitory influence on the bradycardic component of the baroreflex in conscious rats.

  20. Corticotropin-releasing hormone in the lateral parabrachial nucleus inhibits sodium appetite in rats.

    PubMed

    De Castro e Silva, Emilio; Fregoneze, Josmara B; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2006-04-01

    The present study investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) in the behavioral control of body fluid homeostasis by determining the effect of bilateral injections of the CRH receptor antagonist, alpha-helical corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)(9-41), and the CRH receptor agonist, CRH, on sodium chloride (salt appetite) and water (thirst) intake. Groups of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats had stainless-steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into the LPBN and were sodium depleted or water deprived. Bilateral injections of alpha-helical CRF(9-41) into the LPBN significantly potentiated water and salt intake in the sodium-depleted rats when access to fluids was restored. Bilateral injections of alpha-helical CRF(9-41) into the LPBN (1.0 microg) also increased sodium appetite in water-deprived rats. Conversely, in sodium-depleted animals, bilateral injections of CRH inhibited sodium chloride intake. These results suggest that there is an endogenous CRH inhibitory mechanism operating in the LPBN to modulate the intake of sodium (salt appetite). This mechanism may contribute to the behavioral control of restoration of body fluid homeostasis in sodium-deficient states.

  1. The role of neurotensin in positive reinforcement in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    László, Kristóf; Tóth, Krisztián; Kertes, Erika; Péczely, László; Lénárd, László

    2010-04-02

    In the central nervous system neurotensin (NT) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It was shown that NT has positive reinforcing effects after its direct microinjection into the ventral tegmental area. The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, regulation of feeding, anxiety and emotional behavior. By means of immunohistochemical and radioimmune methods it was shown that the amygdaloid body is relatively rich in NT immunoreactive elements and NT receptors. The aim of our study was to examine the possible effects of NT on reinforcement and anxiety in the CeA. In conditioned place preference test male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 or 250 ng NT in volume of 0.4 microl or 35 ng neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1) antagonist SR 48692 alone, or NTS1 antagonist 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. Hundred or 250 ng NT significantly increased the time rats spent in the treatment quadrant. Prior treatment with the non-peptide NTS1 antagonist blocked the effects of NT. Antagonist itself did not influence the reinforcing effect. In elevated plus maze test we did not find differences among the groups as far as the anxiety index (time spent on the open arms) was concerned. Our results suggest that in the rat ACE NT has positive reinforcing effects. We clarified that NTS1s are involved in this action. It was also shown that NT does not influence anxiety behavior.

  2. Activation of neurons in the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus via hypothalamic projections of the nucleus of the solitary tract following refeeding of fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Renner, Eva; Szabó-Meltzer, Kinga I; Puskás, Nela; Tóth, Zsuzsanna E; Dobolyi, Arpád; Palkovits, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    We report that satiation evokes neuronal activity in the ventral subdivision of the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) as indicated by increased c-fos expression in response to refeeding in fasted rats. The absence of significant Fos activation following food presentation without consumption suggests that satiation but not craving for food elicits the activation of ventral DMH neurons. The distribution pattern of the prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP)-immunoreactive (ir) network showed remarkable correlations with the distribution of activated neurons within the DMH. The PrRP-ir fibers and terminals were immunolabeled with tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting their origin in lower brainstem instead of local, hypothalamic PrRP cells. PrRP-ir fibers arising from neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract could be followed to the hypothalamus. Unilateral transections of these fibers at pontine and caudal hypothalamic levels resulted in a disappearance of the dense PrRP-ir network in the ventral DMH while PrRP immunoreactivity was increased in transected fibers caudal to the knife cuts as well as in perikarya of the nucleus of the solitary tract ipsilateral to the transections. In accord with these changes, the number of Fos-expressing neurons following refeeding declined in the ipsilateral but remained high in the contralateral DMH. However, the Fos response in the ventral DMH was not attenuated following chemical lesion (neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment) of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, another possible source of DMH inputs. These findings suggest that PrRP projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract contribute to the activation of ventral DMH neurons during refeeding, possibly by transferring information on cholecystokinin-mediated satiation.

  3. Electric stimulation of periventricular heterotopia: participation in higher cerebral functions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jan; Elger, Christian E; Urbach, Horst; Bien, Christian G

    2009-02-01

    Gray matter heterotopia are a common cause of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Recently, several case studies have addressed the question of whether heterotopia can contribute to physiological cerebral functions. We describe two cases that demonstrate a functional role for periventricular heterotopia in higher cognitive processes. During presurgical diagnostics, two patients underwent electric stimulation of both the periventricular heterotopia and the overlying cortex. This revealed a functional role of periventricular heterotopia in higher cerebral functions such as language and complex visual and acoustic processing. Furthermore, stimulation of the overlying cortex led to unusually intense positive phenomena, including complex acoustic and gustatory hallucinations and language production. These cases illustrate that periventricular heterotopic neurons can contribute to higher cerebral functions. Interestingly, the anterior-to-posterior representation of these functions is comparable to the normal anterior-to-posterior representation in a normal neocortex (similar to a periventricular "minicortex" in early developmental stages).

  4. Effects of acute and chronic clozapine on dopamine release and metabolism in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, R; Morali, F; Pozzi, L; Samanin, R

    1990-08-01

    1. The effect of single and repeated (once daily for 23 days) oral doses of 20 and 60 mg kg-1 clozapine on dopamine release and metabolism were studied by intracerebral dialysis in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of conscious rats. 2. The basal output of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of rats given clozapine 20 or 60 mg kg-1 chronically, measured one day after the last drug dose, was not significantly different from that of vehicle-treated animals. 3. Challenge doses of 20 or 60 mg kg-1 clozapine produced similar increases in dopamine levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of animals which had received vehicle or clozapine 20 or 60 mg kg-1 once daily for 23 days, except that 1 h after administration 60 mg kg-1 clozapine had a greater effect in the nucleus accumbens. 4. In animals treated chronically with clozapine 20 and 60 mg kg-1 or vehicle, DOPAC levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens were increased to the same extent by challenge doses of clozapine (20 or 60 mg kg-1). In animals treated chronically with clozapine, a challenge dose of 60 mg kg-1 had significantly greater effect on HVA only in the nucleus accumbens. 5. When DOPAC and HVA were measured post mortem in the striatum and nucleus accumbens 2 h after various oral doses of clozapine, it was found that 10 mg kg-1 significantly increased dopamine metabolites only in the nucleus accumbens whereas 100 mg kg-1 had this effect in both regions. Clozapine, 30mgkg-' significantly raised DOPAC levels in both regions but HVA was elevated only in the nucleus accumbens. 6. There appeared to be no appreciable changes in dopamine release and metabolism nor any reduction in the effect of clozapine in the nucleus accumbens after chronic drug treatment. In fact the effect was greater in chronically treated rats, particularly in the nucleus accumbens of animals given 60mgkg' clozapine. 7. It was confirmed that measurement of

  5. Elucidation of the Anatomy of a Satiety Network: Focus on Connectivity of the Parabrachial Nucleus in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zséli, Györgyi; Vida, Barbara; Martinez, Anais; Lechan, Ronald M.; Khan, Arshad M.; Fekete, Csaba

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus; other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin understanding the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of solitary tract. Axons originating from PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. PMID:26918800

  6. Neuronal architecture in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala: a cytological, hodological, and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cassell, M D; Gray, T S; Kiss, J Z

    1986-04-22

    The organization of neurons in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) has been examined by using Nissl stain and immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing techniques. Four main subdivisions were identified on the basis of quantitative analyses of Nissl-stained material: medial (CM), lateral (CL), lateral capsular (CLC), and ventral (CV). An intermediate subdivision (CI), previously described by McDonald ('82), was apparent only in animals that had HRP-WGA injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Large populations of neurotensin-, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-, and enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons were present within the lateral divisions (mainly CL), although they were also seen within CM. Somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons were distributed mainly within CL and CM. Within CL, neurotensin- and enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons were more numerous laterally whereas CRF- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons were more numerous medially. Substance P-immunoreactive neurons were almost exclusively confined to CM. Only a few cholecystokinin- and vasoactive-polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons were seen in the CNA, and they were observed within CL, CV, and CM. The majority of neurons projecting to the dorsal medulla, hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area were located within CM, although a significant number of cells were also seen within CL. Efferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis were found to arise from neurons located within all subdivisions of the CNA. Thus, the distributional patterns of peptidergic and efferent neurons were not confined to individual cytoarchitectonically- defined subdivisions of the CNA. Rather, the results suggest overlapping medial to the lateral trends. Comparisons with the results of previous studies indicate that peptidergic and afferent terminal distribution patterns are more restricted to individual cytoarchitectonically defined subregions of the CNA. These observations suggest that the

  7. Morphology of motoneurons in different subdivisions of the rat facial nucleus stained intracellularly with horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Friauf, E

    1986-11-08

    Horseradish peroxidase was injected into single facial motoneurons of the rat. Neurons were identified by antidromic stimulation of either the buccal or the marginal mandibular or the posterior auricular nerve branches. Motoneuronal cell bodies supplying the buccal branch were located in the lateral subdivision of the facial nucleus, those supplying the marginal mandibular branch were in the intermediate subdivision, and those supplying the posterior auricular branch were in the medial subdivision. Eleven motoneurons were reconstructed with a computer-assisted technique. Their soma diameters averaged 20 microns; the average number of primary dendrites was 7.9 and the combined lengths of the dendritic trees averaged 17,650 microns. There was no distinction between the three motoneuron groups in terms of these and other quantitative data. However, on the basis of reconstructed dendritic tree orientation (i.e., dendritic distribution), major differences were observed between motoneurons of the three groups. Dendrites from all groups extended beyond the boundaries of the facial nucleus into the reticular formation. The border between the intermediate and the lateral subdivision was crossed by some dendrites but the overlap was small. In contrast, no dendrite of a motoneuron in the medial subdivision entered the intermediate subdivision and vice versa. The dendritic extent was totally restricted by the borders between these two subdivisions. Outside the Nissl-defined nuclear border, however, dendrites from cells in adjacent subdivisions overlapped. It is concluded that the medial subdivision of the facial nucleus can be distinguished from the intermediate and lateral subdivisions not only by its sharp Nissl-defined border but also by the discrete organization of its dendritic field.

  8. GFAP immunoreactivity within the rat nucleus ambiguus after laryngeal nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Vega, G; Arias-Gil, G; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Davies, D C; Vázquez, T; Pascual-Font, A

    2014-01-01

    Changes that occur in astroglial populations of the nucleus ambiguus after recurrent (RLN) or superior (SLN) laryngeal nerve injury have hitherto not been fully characterised. In the present study, rat RLN and SLN were lesioned. After 3, 7, 14, 28 or 56 days of survival, the nucleus ambiguus was investigated by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescence or a combination of GFAP immunofluorescence and the application of retrograde tracers. GFAP immunoreactivity was significantly increased 3 days after RLN resection and it remained significantly elevated until after 28 days post injury (dpi). By 56 dpi it had returned to basal levels. In contrast, following RLN transection with repair, GFAP immunoreactivity was significantly elevated at 7 dpi and remained significantly elevated until 14 dpi. It had returned to basal levels by 28 dpi. Topographical analysis of the distribution of GFAP immunoreactivity revealed that after RLN injury, GFAP immunoreactivity was increased beyond the area of the nucleus ambiguus within which RLN motor neuron somata were located. GFAP immunoreactivity was also observed in the vicinity of neuronal somata that project into the uninjured SLN. Similarly, lesion of the SLN resulted in increased GFAP immunoreactivity around the neuronal somata projecting into it and also in the vicinity of the motor neuron somata projecting into the RLN. The increase in GFAP immunoreactivity outside of the region containing the motor neurons projecting into the injured nerve, may reflect the onset of a regenerative process attempting to compensate for impairment of one of the laryngeal nerves and may occur because of the dual innervation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. This dual innervation of a very specialised muscle could provide a useful model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying axonal regeneration process and the results of the current study could provide the basis for studies into functional regeneration

  9. Erythropoietin-loaded oligochitosan nanoparticles for treatment of periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Hu, Yan; Leach, Michelle K; Zhang, Long; Yang, Wenjing; Jiang, Li; Feng, Zhang-Qi; He, Nongyue

    2012-01-17

    In this study, a single intraperitoneal injection of erythropoietin (EPO) loaded oligochitosan nanoparticles (epo-NPs) (average diameter 266 nm) was investigated as a treatment for periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Nanoparticles were fabricated using a gelation technology process. PVL rats models were prepared to examine the therapeutic efficacy of epo-NPs and analyze the mechanism by which epo-NPs protect white matter. The metabolization of epo-NPs in the liver was also investigated. The pathology and behavioral data show that this single injection of a low quantity of epo-NPs had an excellent therapeutic effect on the rat model of PVL. The EPO release curve in phosphate buffered saline solution was a good fit with the zero-order kinetics distribution and was maintained at around 25% in 48 h. In vivo experiments demonstrated that 50 IU/kg epo-NPs had the same effect as a 5000 IU/kg direct injection of free EPO. Nanoparticles prolonged the time course of EPO metabolization in the liver and the stable release of EPO from the nanoparticles kept the plasma concentration of EPO at around 100 IU/ml during the 8-12h post-injection. Therefore, we suggest that oligochitosan based nanoparticles are an effective vehicle for drug delivery.

  10. Rcan1 deficiency impairs neuronal migration and causes periventricular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yang; Li, Dan; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-14

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a cortical malformation characterized by aggregation of neurons lining the lateral ventricles due to abnormal neuronal migration. The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PH is unclear. Here we show that Regulators of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1), a Down syndrome-related gene, plays an important role in radial migration of rat cortical neurons. Downregulation of Rcan1 by expressing shRNA impaired neural progenitor proliferation and led to defects in radial migration and PH. Two isoforms of Rcan1 (Rcan1-1 and Rcan1-4) are expressed in the rat brain. Migration defects due to downregulation of Rcan1 could be prevented by shRNA-resistant expression of Rcan1-1 but not Rcan1-4. Furthermore, we found that Rcan1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression level of Flna, an F-actin cross-linking protein essential for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell migration, mutation of which causes the most common form of bilateral PH in humans. Finally, overexpression of FLNA in Rcan1 knockdown neurons prevented migration abnormalities. Together, these findings demonstrate that Rcan1 acts upstream from Flna in regulating radial migration and suggest that impairment of Rcan1-Flna pathway may underlie PH pathogenesis.

  11. Partial anxiolytic action of morphine sulphate following microinjection into the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    File, S E; Rodgers, R J

    1979-09-01

    In the social interaction test of anxiety, bilateral microinjections of morphine sulphate (10 microgram) into the central nucleus of the amygdala counteracted the reduction in social interaction normally seen when the test arena is unfamiliar to rats. However, these injections did not counteract the decrease in social interaction that is observed as illuminance of the arena is increased. Morphine injections into the medial site depressed social interaction below the levels shown by control animals. In the open field test, morphine produced a facilitation of peripheral activity when injected into the central nucleus whilst a decrease in rearing was observed following similar injections into the medial nucleus. Overall, these data indicate a partial anxiolytic action of morphine in the central amygdaloid nucleus. Results are discussed in relation to possible differences in opioid peptide innervation of these two amygdaloid nuclei.

  12. Effects of electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus on local cerebral blood flow in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Bonvento, G.; Lacombe, P.; Seylaz, J. )

    1989-06-01

    We have studied the effects of electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus on local cerebral blood flow (LCBF), as assessed by the quantitative ({sup 14}C)-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Stimulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the alpha-chloralose anesthetized rat caused a significant decrease in LCBF, ranging from -13 to -26% in 24 brain structures out of 33 investigated. The most pronounced decreases (-23 to -26%) were observed in the accumbens, amygdaloid, interpeduncular nuclei and in the median raphe nucleus, limbic system relays. The decreases also concerned cortical regions and the extrapyramidal system. These results indicate that activation of ascending serotonergic system produces a vasoconstriction and that the dorsal raphe nucleus has a widespread modulatory influence on the cerebral circulation.

  13. Paleoamygdala: morphogenesis of the posterior cortical nucleus of the rat amygdaloid complex of the brain during the early juvenile period.

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2014-09-01

    Sex-related differences and the dynamic of formation of the posterior cortical nucleus of the rat amygdaloid complex were revealed in the early juvenile period by planimetric characteristics, numbers of neurons and glial cells, and glial and apoptotic indexes reflecting morphological restructuring on postnatal days 21, 24, 28, and 31.

  14. Interactions between tactile and noxious visceral inputs in rat nucleus gracilus.

    PubMed

    Rong, Pei-Jing; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Hong-Qi

    2004-05-20

    Recent studies have revealed that noxious visceral inputs travel in the dorsal column pathway, and interactions between colorectal noxious and tactile inputs occur in the ventrobasal thalamus. This investigation was to test whether the somatovisceral interactions also take place at a lower level in the dorsal column nuclei. Extracellular single neuron recordings were carried out in nucleus gracilus of anesthetized rats. Forty-three neurons responsive to colorectal distension (CRD) all had excitatory responses to tactile stimuli, and their tactile responses were predominantly (31/43 units) enhanced by preceding CRD. In contrast, the neuronal responses to CRD were reduced in 22/43 units when preceded by tactile stimulation but in two units there was an enhancement. The similarity and differences in the gracile response features in comparison with the thalamic recordings suggest that somatovisceral interactions take place at multiple levels in the dorsal column-medial lemniscus system.

  15. Phasic dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens predicts approach and avoidance performance

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Ronny N.; Lee, Brian; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is critical for reward processing, but significantly less is known about its role in punishment avoidance. Using a combined approach-avoidance task, we measured phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats during presentation of cues that predicted reward, punishment or neutral outcomes and investigated individual differences based on avoidance performance. Here we show that DA release within a single microenvironment is higher for reward and avoidance cues compared with neutral cues and positively correlated with poor avoidance behaviour. We found that DA release delineates trial-type during sessions with good avoidance but is non-selective during poor avoidance, with high release correlating with poor performance. These data demonstrate that phasic DA is released during cued approach and avoidance within the same microenvironment and abnormal processing of value signals is correlated with poor performance. PMID:27786172

  16. Effect of arginine vasopressin in the nucleus raphe magnus on antinociception in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Jian-Min; Liu, Wen-Yan; Song, Cao-You; Wang, Cheng-Hai; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2006-09-01

    Previous work has shown that arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates antinociception through brain nuclei rather than the spinal cord and peripheral organs. The present study investigated the nociceptive effect of AVP in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of the rat. Microinjection of AVP into the NRM increased pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner, while local administration of AVP-receptor antagonist-d(CH2)5Tyr(Et)DAVP decreased the pain threshold. Pain stimulation elevated AVP concentration in the NRM perfuse liquid. NRM pretreatment with AVP-receptor antagonist completely reversed AVP's effect on pain threshold in the NRM. The data suggest that AVP in the NRM is involved in antinociception.

  17. Female's DHT controls sex differences in the rat bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract.

    PubMed

    Collado, P; Segovia, S; Calés, J M; Pérez Laso, C; Rodriquez Zafra, M; Guillamón, A; Valencia, A

    1992-04-01

    In the present study the regulatory action of the non-aromatic androgen dihydrotestoterone (DHT) on the volume of the sexually dimorphic bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) was investigated. Postnatal treatment with DHT (180 micrograms day-1) between days 6 and 20 (D6-D20) induced, in gonadally intact male rats, a drastic reduction in the overall volume to levels typical in control females. Conversely, the postnatal administration of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CA) to the females from D6-D20 produced an increment in the BAOT volume not dissimilar to that found in control males. These findings reveal that sexual organization in this vomeronasal structure is dependent on the presence of DHT in females during postnatal development.

  18. Gene expression in the rat supraoptic nucleus induced by chronic hyperosmolality versus hyposmolality.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, E; Murase, T; Zhang, B; Verbalis, J G; Gainer, H

    2000-10-01

    Magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system play a fundamental role in the maintenance of body homeostasis by secreting vasopressin and oxytocin in response to systemic osmotic perturbations. During chronic hyperosmolality, vasopressin and oxytocin mRNA levels increase twofold, whereas, during chronic hyposmolality, these mRNA levels decrease to 10-20% of that of normoosmolar control animals. To determine what other genes respond to these osmotic perturbations, we have analyzed gene expression during chronic hyper- versus hyponatremia. Thirty-seven cDNA clones were isolated by differentially screening cDNA libraries that were generated from supraoptic nucleus tissue punches from hyper- or hyponatremic rats. Further analysis of 12 of these cDNAs by in situ hybridization histochemistry confirmed that they are osmotically regulated. These cDNAs represent a variety of functional classes and include cytochrome oxidase, tubulin, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, spectrin, PEP-19, calmodulin, GTPase, DnaJ-like, clathrin-associated, synaptic glycoprotein, regulator of GTPase stimulation, and gene for oligodendrocyte lineage-myelin basic proteins. This analysis therefore suggests that adaptation to chronic osmotic stress results in global changes in gene expression in the magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus.

  19. Age-Related Changes in Nucleus Pulposus Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An In Vitro Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Linghan

    2017-01-01

    The functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to decline with age due to cellular senescence, which could reduce the efficacy of MSCs-based therapies. Recently, MSCs have been identified in the nucleus pulposus, which offers great potential for intervertebral disc (IVD) repair. However, this potential might be affected by the senescence of nucleus pulposus MSCs (NPMSCs), but whether or not this exists remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in NPMSCs. NPMSCs isolated from young (3-month-old) and old (14-month-old) Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in vitro. Differences in morphology, proliferation, colony formation, multilineage differentiation, cell cycle, and expression of β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and senescent markers (p53, p21, and p16) were compared between groups. Both young and old NPMSCs fulfilled the criteria for definition as MSCs. Moreover, young NPMSCs presented better proliferation, colony-forming, and multilineage differentiation capacities than old NPMSCs. Old NPMSCs displayed senescent features, including significantly increased G0/G1 phase arrest, increased SA-β-gal expression, decreased S phase entry, and significant p53-p21-pRB pathway activation. Therefore, this is the first study demonstrating that senescent NPMSCs accumulate in IVD with age. The efficacy of NPMSCs is compromised by donor age, which should be taken into consideration prior to clinical application.

  20. In vivo monitoring of evoked noradrenaline release in the rat anteroventral thalamic nucleus by continuous amperometry.

    PubMed

    Dugast, C; Cespuglio, R; Suaud-Chagny, M F

    2002-08-01

    Continuous amperometry coupled with untreated carbon-fibre electrodes was used in anaesthetized rats to measure the noradrenaline release evoked in the anteroventral thalamic nucleus by electrical stimulation of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle. As expected, the variations in the oxidation current detected in the anteroventral thalamic nucleus exhibited the characteristics of the in vivo noradrenaline release. They were closely correlated with stimulation and consistent with the anatomy of the noradrenergic system involved. They were abolished by the ejection of tetrodotoxin in the vicinity of the carbon-fibre electrode, diminished by clonidine, an alpha-2 agonist, and restored by yohimbine, an alpha-2 antagonist. Furthermore, the time course of these variations was dramatically increased by desipramine, a specific noradrenaline reuptake blocker. In contrast, neither dopamine nor serotonin reuptake blockers, nor the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline were able to alter them. The main advantage of the present approach is its excellent time resolution. We show here for the first time that after single pulse stimulation, noradrenaline is released and eliminated in 118 milliseconds, this time lapse corresponding to the maximal period beyond which subsequent noradrenaline releases could not add up. These observations are in good agreement with the physiological relationship previously observed between impulse flow and noradrenaline overflow.

  1. Nicotine withdrawal upregulates nitrergic and galaninergic activity in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus and locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Okere, Chuma O; Waterhouse, Barry D

    2013-03-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a major source of forebrain serotonin, mediates various neural functions including anxiety. The nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is likewise involved in mediating central components of the stress response and anxiety. An anxiety-reducing effect is widely believed to underlie many cases of nicotine dependence. While much is known about nicotine-serotonin interactions, little is known about how nicotine engages the DRN non-serotonergic domain in specific physiological functions that influence organismal behavior. The aim of this study was to determine how chronic nicotine withdrawal influences neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) and galanin immunoreactivity in the DRN and LC of adult rats. Compared with saline, nicotine increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase profiles within distinct DRN subregions and also enhanced intensity in nNOS and galanin cell bodies in the rostral DRN as well as galanin in the LC. Nicotine-induced nNOS/galanin staining of somata was abundant in the rostral ventromedial DRN. Galanin-positive terminals surrounded nNOS-containing cell bodies in the DRN lateral wing subregions. These observations suggest that the DRN NOS-galanin domain and galanin in the LC are engaged in the organism's neural adaptation to chronic nicotine exposure. Hence NO and galanin synthesized or released within the DRN and LC or at the respective target sites might regulate the whole animal behavioral response to nicotine exposure.

  2. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Arami, Masoumeh Kourosh; zade, Javad Mirnajafi; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Mahmood; Mehrpooya, Sara; Jahanshahi, Ali; Jamei, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM) that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. Materials and Methods: To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Results: Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM) increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM) into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effect of L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administration of NO synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM). Conclusion: It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interact with excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation. PMID:26730333

  3. Topographic relationship between anteromedial thalamic nucleus neurons and their cortical terminal fields in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Kato, A

    1993-06-01

    The present study has examined the topographic relationship between cells in the anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AM) and their cortical terminal fields, with retrograde transport of Fluoro Gold in the rat. Projections to the frontal area 2 originate from the ventrolateral part of the AM and the entire interanteromedial nucleus (IAM). Projections to the anterior cingulate area originate from the peripheral part of the rostral AM and the entire IAM. Fibers to the rostral retrosplenial area arise from the caudodorsal part of the AM, whereas those to the caudal retrosplenial area arise from the rostralmost and the rostrodorsomedial parts. Fibers to the rostral area 29D originate from the rostrocentral part of the AM, whereas those to the caudal area 29D originate from the rostroventrolateral and the ventromedial parts. Projections to the medial half of the entorhinal area originate from the rostrodorsomedial part of the AM. In contrast, projections to the lateral half of the entorhinal area originate from the IAM and the central part of the AM. The results show a complex topographic relationship between cells of origin of the AM and their cortical terminal fields, suggesting complex functional roles played by the AM in learning behavior such as discriminative avoidance behavior.

  4. Adiponectin modulates excitability of rat paraventricular nucleus neurons by differential modulation of potassium currents.

    PubMed

    Hoyda, Ted D; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-07-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin acts at two seven-transmembrane domain receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2, present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate neuronal excitability and endocrine function. Adiponectin depolarizes rat parvocellular preautonomic neurons that secrete either thyrotropin releasing hormone or oxytocin and parvocellular neuroendocrine corticotropin releasing hormone neurons, leading to an increase in plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone concentrations while also hyperpolarizing a subgroup of neurons. In the present study, we investigate the ionic mechanisms responsible for these changes in excitability in parvocellular paraventricular nucleus neurons. Patch clamp recordings of currents elicited from slow voltage ramps and voltage steps indicate that adiponectin inhibits noninactivating delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in a majority of neurons. This inhibition produced a broadening of the action potential in cells that depolarized in the presence of adiponectin. The depolarizing effects of adiponectin were abolished in cells pretreated with tetraethyl ammonium (0/15 cells depolarize). Slow voltage ramps performed during adiponectin-induced hyperpolarization indicate the activation of voltage-independent potassium current. These hyperpolarizing responses were abolished in the presence of glibenclamide [an ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker] (0/12 cells hyperpolarize). The results presented in this study suggest that adiponectin controls neuronal excitability through the modulation of different potassium conductances, effects which contribute to changes in excitability and action potential profiles responsible for peptidergic release into the circulation.

  5. Alertness opens the effective flow of sensory information through rat thalamic posterior nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sobolewski, Aleksander; Kublik, Ewa; Swiejkowski, Daniel A; Kamiński, Jan; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    Behavioural reactions to sensory stimuli vary with the level of arousal, but little is known about the underlying reorganization of neuronal networks. In this study, we use chronic recordings from the somatosensory regions of the thalamus and cortex of behaving rats together with a novel analysis of functional connectivity to show that during low arousal tactile signals are transmitted via the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM), a first-order thalamic relay, to the primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex and then from the cortex to the posterior medial thalamic nucleus (PoM), which plays a role of a higher-order thalamic relay. By contrast, during high arousal this network scheme is modified and both VPM and PoM transmit peripheral input to the barrel cortex acting as first-order relays. We also show that in urethane anaesthesia PoM is largely excluded from the thalamo-cortical loop. We thus demonstrate a way in which the thalamo-cortical system, despite its fixed anatomy, is capable of dynamically reconfiguring the transmission route of a sensory signal in concert with the behavioural state of an animal.

  6. Distinct effect of orphanin FQ in nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis on the rat tail flick reflex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wu, G

    2001-06-22

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of orphanin FQ (OFQ) microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) on pain modulation. The tail-flick latency (TFL) was used as a behavioral index of nociceptive responsiveness. The result showed microinjection of OFQ into the NRM significantly increased the TFL, whereas microinjection of OFQ into the NGC decreased the TFL, suggesting the analgesic effect of OFQ in the NRM and the hyperalgesic effect of OFQ in the NGC. As there are three classes of putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the hyperalgesic or analgesic effect of OFQ in the RVM might depend upon the different class of the neurons being acted.

  7. N-methyl-norsalsolinol modulates serotonin metabolism in the rat caudate nucleus: correlation with behavioural changes.

    PubMed

    Thümen, Ansgar; Behnecke, Anne; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Moser, Andreas

    2003-03-01

    In earlier studies the dihydroxylated tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative 2(N)-methyl-norsalsolinol (NMNorsal) was identified in patients with Parkinson's disease. In the present study, NMNorsal (20 or 40 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally to rats kept under normal light-dark cycles. Using brain microdialysis technique, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (HIAA), dopamine (DA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were determined in the dialysate from caudate nucleus in vivo and from tissue in vitro at various times following NMNorsal administration. Even after high-dose NMNorsal administration (40 mg/kg) and measurements up to 48 h after administration, levels of DA and its metabolite DOPAC were not modified. In contrast to the DA metabolism, 5-HT levels in the dialysate increased to approx. 2-fold during the 48 h following administration of a single high-dose of NMNorsal while HIAA decreased to approx. 50%. These changes of 5-HT and HIAA were nearly identical in the homogenate preparation of the caudate nucleus when compared to the amounts present in the dialysate. During assessment controls and low-dose-treated animals were almost always sleeping. Only high-dose NMNorsal-treated rats were active, with maximum activity after 48 h, however, behavioural activity was clearly different to the classical 5-HT behavioural syndrome. Taken together, increased 5-HT levels in the striatum found in our studies seem to be linked to the behavioural activity induced by high-dose NMNorsal, and NMNorsal appeared to perturb normal diurnal rhythms of spontaneous locomotor activity. The precise mechanism by which NMNorsal acts on 5-HT metabolism and behaviour is, however, unclear and further investigation is required.

  8. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity.

  9. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Strother, Wendy N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-hr dark-cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24 hr/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hr after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p < 0.01; Storey false discovery rate = 0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity® analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal. PMID:19666046

  10. Effects of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Chronic Epileptic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Beatriz; Cavarsan, Clarissa; Miranda, Maisa Ferreira; Aarão, Mayra C.; Madureira, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Antônio M.; Nobrega, José N.; Mello, Luiz E.; Hamani, Clement

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated for the treatment of epilepsy. In rodents, an increase in the latency for the development of seizures and status epilepticus (SE) has been reported in different animal models but the consequences of delivering stimulation to chronic epileptic animals have not been extensively addressed. We study the effects of anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) stimulation at different current intensities in rats rendered epileptic following pilocarpine (Pilo) administration. Four months after Pilo-induced SE, chronic epileptic rats were bilaterally implanted with AN electrodes or had sham-surgery. Stimulation was delivered for 6 h/day, 5 days/week at 130 Hz, 90 µsec. and either 100 µA or 500 µA. The frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures in animals receiving stimulation was compared to that recorded in the preoperative period and in rats given sham treatment. To investigate the effects of DBS on hippocampal excitability, brain slices from animals receiving AN DBS or sham surgery were studied with electrophysiology. We found that rats treated with AN DBS at 100 µA had a 52% non-significant reduction in the frequency of seizures as compared to sham-treated controls and 61% less seizures than at baseline. Animals given DBS at 500 µA had 5.1 times more seizures than controls and a 2.8 fold increase in seizure rate as compared to preoperative values. In non-stimulated controls, the average frequency of seizures before and after surgery remained unaltered. In vitro recordings have shown that slices from animals previously given DBS at 100 µA had a longer latency for the development of epileptiform activity, shorter and smaller DC shifts, and a smaller spike amplitude compared to non-stimulated controls. In contrast, a higher spike amplitude was recorded in slices from animals given AN DBS at 500 µA. PMID:24892420

  11. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Kimpel, Mark W; McClintick, Jeanette N; Strother, Wendy N; Carr, Lucinda G; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A; Mayfield, R Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J; McBride, William J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-h dark cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24h/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hours after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p<0.01; Storey false discovery rate=0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal.

  12. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning and Interpositus Nucleus Activity Are Disrupted in Adult Rats Exposed to Ethanol as Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Green, John T.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Steinmetz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to ethanol in rats, during the period of brain development comparable to that of the human third trimester, produces significant, dose-dependent cell loss in the cerebellum and deficits in coordinated motor performance. These rats are also impaired in eyeblink conditioning as weanlings and as adults. The current study examined single-unit neural activity in the interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum in adults following neonatal binge ethanol exposure. Group Ethanol received alcohol doses of 5.25 g/kg/day on postnatal days 4–9. Group Sham Intubated underwent acute intragastric intubation on postnatal days 4–9 but did not receive any infusions. Group Unintubated Control (from separate litters) did not receive any intubations. When rats were 3–7 mo old, pairs of extracellular microelectrodes were implanted in the region of the interpositus nucleus. Beginning 1 wk later, the rats were given either 100 paired or 190 unpaired trials per day for 10 d followed by 4 d of 100 conditioned stimulus (CS)-alone trials per day. As in our previous study, conditioned response acquisition in Group Ethanol rats was impaired. In addition, by session 5 of paired acquisition, Group Sham Intubated and Group Unintubated Control showed significant increases in interpositus nucleus activity, relative to baseline, in the CS–unconditioned stimulus interval. In contrast, Group Ethanol failed to show significant changes in interpositus nucleus activity until later in training. These results indicate that the disruption in eyeblink conditioning after early exposure to ethanol is reflected in alterations in interpositus nucleus activity. PMID:12359839

  13. Sulfated cholecystokinin-8 activates phospho-mTOR immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Frommelt, Lisa; Inhoff, Tobias; Lommel, Reinhardt; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette; Grötzinger, Carsten; Bannert, Norbert; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Kobelt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The serin/threonin-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was detected in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and suggested to play a role in the integration of satiety signals. Since cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the short-term inhibition of food intake and induces c-Fos in PVN neurons, the aim was to determine whether intraperitoneally injected CCK-8S affects the neuronal activity in cells immunoreactive for phospho-mTOR in the PVN. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6 or 10 μg/kg CCK-8S or 0.15 M NaCl ip (n=4/group). The number of c-Fosimmunoreactive (ir) neurons was assessed in the PVN, ARC and in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). CCK-8S increased the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the PVN (6 μg: 103 ± 13 vs. 10 μg: 165 ± 14 neurons/section; p<0.05) compared to vehicle treated rats (4 ± 1, p<0.05), but not in the ARC. CCK-8S also dose-dependently increased the number of c-Fos neurons in the NTS. Staining for phospho-mTOR and c-Fos in the PVN showed a dose-dependent increase of activated phospho-mTOR neurons (17 ± 3 vs. 38 ± 2 neurons/section; p<0.05), while no activated phospho-mTOR neurons were observed in the vehicle group. Triple staining in the PVN showed activation of phospho-mTOR neurons co-localized with oxytocin, corresponding to 9.8 ± 3.6% and 19.5 ± 3.3% of oxytocin neurons respectively. Our observations indicate that peripheral CCK-8S activates phospho-mTOR neurons in the PVN and suggest that phospho-mTOR plays a role in the mediation of CCK-8S's anorexigenic effects. PMID:20933028

  14. Participation of thalamic nuclei in the elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes of rats. VIII. Lesions of the nucleus posterior.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, F; Klingberg, H

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral symmetric lesions of the posterior thalamic nucleus reduced the preoperatively learnt avoidance responses in Long-Evans hooded rats strongly. Postoperative acquisition of conditioned avoidance reflexes was rather low in each rat in a simple runway and impossible in an alternation task. Thresholds of reactions to pain (withdrawal of paws from the grid floor) were significantly increased. The lesioned rats had trouble to find the way out, as if they had difficulties to localize the source of punishment or to associate pain information with any other cues.

  15. 'Hidden lamination' in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus: the functional organization of this thalamic region in the rat.

    PubMed

    Reese, B E

    1988-01-01

    The cyto-and myeloarchitecture of the rat's dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) display none of the laminar features characteristic of this thalamic region in carnivores and primates. Despite this, the rodent's nucleus contains a segregation of functionally and ocularly distinct afferents--organizational properties manifested in the prominent lamination of these other mammalian forms. The rat's dLGN can be divided into two main regions: an inner core and an outer shell. The inner core contains two ocular laminae receiving direct retinotopic projections from the contralateral nasal and ipsilateral temporal retinae, mapping the contralateral visual hemifield. The outer shell receives a retinotopic projection from the complete contralateral retina only, the representation of the ipsilateral hemifield being extremely compressed at the medial edge of this lamina. The retinotopic maps in these three ocular laminae (contra, ipsi, contra) are in conjugate register, so that lines of projection course rostro-ventro-medially from the optic tract at the thalamic surface through these laminae. Three morphologically distinct retinal ganglion cell types project to the dLGN, and the axons of these ganglion cells are partially segregated within the optic tract in anticipation of their segregation within the nucleus, where they terminate at distinct locations along the lines of projection. Type I and III cells terminate in the inner core of the nucleus, while type II and III cells terminate in the outer shell. The outer shell also receives a direct projection from the superior colliculus. These characteristics of the afferent termination within the rat's dLGN support the view of a general mammalian plan for the organization of this thalamic region, and provide a basis for further experimentation to test speculations about potentially homologous subdivisions of this nucleus. Conclusions regarding functionally analogous pathways are proposed with less confidence, due to the

  16. Maternal behavior induced in male rats by bilateral lesions of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M A; Collado, P; Segovia, S; Guillamón, A; del Cerro, M C

    1992-10-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effect of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) in male Wistar rats that did not have care-pups experience, using a test of induced maternal behavior. Consistent with our previous findings in virgin female rats (10), there was a significantly shorter sensitization (3 days) and retrieval (2 days) latencies in the BAOT-lesioned group than in the sham-lesioned and intact-control male groups (12 days for both). Based on these findings, we propose that BAOT, a sexually dimorphic nucleus of the vomeronasal system, exerts an inhibitory modulation in the expression of parental behavior in male and female virgin rats. It may do so by maintaining an olfactory-based tonic inhibition of maternal behavior, thereby resulting in the adults' tonic avoidance of the pups until this inhibition is abolished by lesion, or reduced or overridden by appropriate hormonal and/or sensory influences.

  17. Lateral habenula and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus innervate neurochemically distinct subdivisions of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sego, Chemutai; Gonçalves, Luciano; Lima, Leandro; Furigo, Isadora C; Donato, Jose; Metzger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure differentiated in a medial (LHbM) and a lateral division (LHbL). Together with the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), the LHb has been implicated in the processing of aversive stimuli and inhibitory control of monoamine nuclei. The inhibitory LHb influence on midbrain dopamine neurons has been shown to be mainly mediated by the RMTg, a mostly GABAergic nucleus that receives a dominant input from the LHbL. Interestingly, the RMTg also projects to the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which also receives direct LHb projections. To compare the organization and transmitter phenotype of LHb projections to the DR, direct and indirect via the RMTg, we first placed injections of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into the LHb or the RMTg. We then confirmed our findings by retrograde tracing and investigated a possible GABAergic phenotype of DR-projecting RMTg neurons by combining retrograde tracing with in situ hybridization for GAD67. We found only moderate direct LHb projections to the DR, which mainly emerged from the LHbM and were predominantly directed to the serotonin-rich caudal DR. In contrast, RMTg projections to the DR were more robust, emerged from RMTg neurons enriched in GAD67 mRNA, and were focally directed to a distinctive DR subdivision immunohistochemically characterized as poor in serotonin and enriched in presumptive glutamatergic neurons. Thus, besides its well-acknowledged role as a GABAergic control center for the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nigra complex, our findings indicate that the RMTg is also a major GABAergic relay between the LHb and the DR.

  18. Kisspeptin-10 potentiates miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Toru; Minami, Kouichiro; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Miyano, Kanako; Ogata, Junichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Takeuchi, Mamoru; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2014-10-02

    Kisspeptin is the natural ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor -54 and plays a major role in gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin-10 is an endogenous derivative of kisspeptin and has 10 -amino acids. Previous studies have demonstrated that central administration of kisspeptin-10 stimulates the secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in male rats. We examined the effects of kisspeptin-10 on- excitatory synaptic inputs to magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) including AVP neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) by obtaining in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from slice preparations of the rat brain. The application of kisspeptin-10 (100 nM-1 μM) significantly increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in a dose-related manner without affecting the amplitude. The kisspeptin-10-induced potentiation of the mEPSCs was significantly attenuated by previous exposure to the kisspeptin receptor antagonist kisspeptin-234 (100 nM) and to the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I (20 nM). These results suggest that kisspeptin-10 participates in the regulation of synaptic inputs to the MNCs in the SON by interacting with the kisspeptin receptor.

  19. Role of HMGB1 translocation to neuronal nucleus in rat model with septic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafei; Li, Xihong; Qu, Yi; Huang, Jichong; Zhu, Tingting; Zhao, Fengyan; Li, Shiping; Mu, Dezhi

    2017-04-03

    High-mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) is a central late proinflammatory cytokine that triggers the inflammatory response during sepsis. However, whether HMGB1 is involved in the pathogenesis of septic brain damage is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HMGB1 in regulating brain injury in a rat model of sepsis. Wistar rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce septic brain injury. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect pathological changes in the cortex. The cellular localization of HMGB1 was determined using immunostaining. Cortical levels of HMGB1, its receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), and downstream effecter, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) subunit p65, were detected via western blot.HMGB1was increased in the cytoplasm via translocation from the nucleus predominantly in neurons. Moreover, RAGE and NF-κB p65 were upregulated after septic brain injury. Ethyl pyruvate, an inhibitor of HMGB1, down-regulated the expression of RAGE and NF-κB p65via inhibiting HMGB1 expression in the cytoplasm. Collectively, our findings suggest that HMGB1 and its signaling transduction have critical roles in the pathogenesis of septic brain injury. HMGB1 inhibition might be a potential new therapeutic target for septic brain injury.

  20. The involvement of norepinephrine in pain modulation in the nucleus accumbens of morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Qu, Hui; Zhou, You; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Duo; Yang, Xu; Yang, ChunXiao; Xu, ManYing

    2015-01-12

    Opioids are effective analgesics used clinically for both acute and chronic pain management. However, repeated opioid treatment can induce serious side effects such as nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, respiratory depression, euphoria, dependence, hyperalgesia, and tolerance. The mechanism of noxious information transmission in the central nervous system following dependence is still not clear. Norepinephrine (NE), an important neurotransmitter, participates both in the process of opioid dependence and also pain modulation in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the role of NE on the evoked discharges of pain-excitation neurons (PENs) and pain-inhibition neurons (PINs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats, following the development of morphine dependence. Our results revealed that NE inhibited the evoked discharges of PENs and attenuated the inhibition of PINs, while phentolamine enhanced the evoked discharges of PENs and facilitated the inhibition of PINs. These results indicate that the inhibitory action of NE on pain modulation acts via alpha adrenoceptors in the NAc of morphine-dependent rats.

  1. Inner capillary diameter of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of female rat increases during lactation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of the endothelial cell (EC) in blood flow regulation within the central nervous system has been little studied. Here, we explored EC participation in morphological changes of the anterior hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) microvasculature of female rats at two reproductive stages with different metabolic demand (virginity and lactation). We measured the inner capillary diameter (ICD) of 800 capillaries from either the magnocellular or parvocellular regions. The space occupied by neural (somas, dendrites and axons) and glial, but excluding vascular elements of the neurovascular compartment was also measured in 100-μm2 sample fields of both PVN subdivisions. Results The PVN of both groups of animals showed ICDs that ranged from 3 to 10 microns. The virgin group presented mostly capillaries with small ICD, whereas the lactating females exhibited a significant increment in the percentage of capillaries with larger ICD. The space occupied by the neural and glial elements of the neurovascular compartment did not show changes with lactation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that during lactation the microvasculature of the PVN of female rats undergoes dynamic, transitory changes in blood flow as represented by an increment in the ICD through a self-cytoplasmic volume modification reflected by EC changes. A model of this process is proposed. PMID:23302443

  2. Positive reinforcing effects of RFamide-related peptide-1 in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lénárd, László; Kovács, Anita; Ollmann, Tamás; Péczely, László; Zagoracz, Olga; Gálosi, Rita; László, Kristóf

    2014-12-15

    The amygdaloid body (AMY) plays an important role in memory, learning and reward-related processes. RFamide-related peptide-1 (RFRP-1) immunoreactive fibers and NPFF1 receptors were identified in the AMY, and previously we verified that neuropeptide RFRP-1 infused into the central nucleus of AMY (CeA) caused food intake decrease. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible rewarding or aversive effects of RFRP-1 in the CeA. In conditioned place preference, test male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 50 or 100ng RFRP-1 in volume of 0.4μl. In other groups of animals, 20ng NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 was applied or the antagonist was used 15min before 50ng RFRP-1 treatment. Fifty nanograms of RFRP-1 had positive reinforcing properties, while 100ng RFRP-1 had no effect. Prior treatment with NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 could block the rewarding effects of RFRP-1, while the antagonist applied alone did not influence the behavior of rats in place preference paradigm. Our results show that RFRP-1 and NPFF-1 receptors play important roles in the amygdaloid rewarding-reinforcing mechanisms.

  3. The role of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis in fear conditioning consolidation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Elisabetta; Mariottini, Chiara; Bucherelli, Corrado

    2007-12-01

    The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) is known to be involved in the memorization of several conditioned responses. To investigate the role of the NBM in fear conditioning memorization, this neural site was subjected to fully reversible tetrodotoxin (TTX) inactivation during consolidation in adult male Wistar rats that had undergone fear training to acoustic conditioned stimulus (CS) and context. TTX was stereotaxically administered to different groups of rats at increasing intervals after the acquisition session. Memory was assessed as the conditioned freezing duration measured during retention testing, always performed 72 and 96 h after TTX administration. In this way, there was no interference with normal NBM function during either acquisition or retrieval phases, allowing any amnesic effect to be due only to consolidation disruption. The results show that for contextual fear response memory consolidation, NBM functional integrity is necessary up to 24 h post-acquisition. On the other hand, NBM functional integrity was shown to be necessary for memory consolidation of the acoustic CS fear response only immediately after acquisition and not 24-h post-acquisition. The present findings help to elucidate the role of the NBM in memory consolidation and better define the neural circuits involved in fear memories.

  4. Lesions of the nucleus accumbens disrupt reinforcement omission effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Judice-Daher, Danielle M; Bueno, José Lino O

    2013-09-01

    The reinforcement omission effects (ROEs) have been attributed to both motivational and attentional consequences of the surprising reinforcement omission. Some studies have been showed amygdala is part of a circuit involved in the ROEs modulation. The view that amygdala lesions interfere with the ROEs is supported by evidence involving amygdala in responses correlated with motivational processes. These processes depend on the operation of separate amygdala areas and their connections with other brain systems. It has been suggested the interaction between the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAC) is important to the modulation of motivational processes. Recent neuroimaging studies in human revealed reward delivery enhances activity of subcortical structures (NAC and amygdala), whereas reward omission reduces the activity in these same structures. The present study aimed to clarify whether the mechanisms related to ROEs depend on NAC. Prior to acquisition training, rats received bilateral excitotoxic lesions of NAC (NAC group) or sham lesions (Sham group). Following postoperative recovery, the rats were trained on a fixed-interval with limited hold signaled schedule of reinforcement. After acquisition of stable performance, the training was changed from 100% to 50% schedule of reinforcement. Both NAC and Sham groups presented the ROEs. However, after nonreinforcement, the response rates of the NAC group were lower than those registered in the Sham group. The performance of the NAC group decreased in the period following nonreinforcement when compared to the period preceding reinforcement omission. These findings suggest the NAC is part of the neural substrate involved in the ROEs modulation.

  5. Lesion of the tuberomammillary nucleus E2-region attenuates postictal seizure protection in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chun-Lei; Zhuge, Zheng-Bing; Wu, Deng-Chang; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuang; Luo, Jian-Hong; Chen, Zhong

    2007-03-01

    Postictal seizure protection (PSP) is an endogenous anticonvulsant phenomenon that follows an epileptic seizure and inhibits the induction of further seizures. The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), located in the posterior hypothalamus, consists of five subregions and is the sole source of histaminergic neurons in the brain. To determine whether the TM is involved in PSP in rats, we tested the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the TM E2-region on seizures induced by intermittent maximal electroshock (MES). The TM E2-region lesions significantly attenuated PSP during the intermittent MES procedure. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (100 microg), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, mimicked the attenuation of PSP induced by the lesion of TM E2-region. In addition, neurochemical experiments revealed that the TM E2-region lesions markedly decreased basal histamine levels in the cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and hypothalamus, but had no significant effect on basal glutamate and GABA levels. Moreover, intermittent MES induced a persistent decrease of brain histamine levels in both sham-operated and lesioned rats. These results indicate that through its intrinsic histaminergic system, the TM may exert powerful inhibitory function during the intermittent MES procedure and actively participate in the mechanisms of PSP.

  6. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 125/I-galanin binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Skofitsch, G.; Sills, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-11-01

    Galanin (GAL) binding sites in coronal sections of the rat brain were demonstrated using autoradiographic methods. Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-GAL binding to slide-mounted tissue sections revealed saturable binding to a single class of receptors with a Kd of approximately 0.2 nM. /sup 125/I-GAL binding sites were demonstrated throughout the rat central nervous system. Dense binding was observed in the following areas: prefrontal cortex, the anterior nuclei of the olfactory bulb, several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, the dorsal septal area, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the ventral pallidum, the internal medullary laminae of the thalamus, medial pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the medial optic tract, borderline area of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract, the substantia gelatinosa and the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Moderate binding was observed in the piriform, periamygdaloid, entorhinal, insular cortex and the subiculum, the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsal premamillary, lateral and periventricular thalamic nuclei, the subzona incerta, Forel's field H1 and H2, periventricular gray matter, medial and superficial gray strata of the superior colliculus, dorsal parts of the central gray, peripeduncular area, the interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra zona compacta, ventral tegmental area, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial and parvocellular reticular nuclei. The preponderance of GAL-binding in somatosensory as well as in limbic areas suggests a possible involvement of GAL in a variety of brain functions.

  7. Role of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus in rat whisker pad proprioception

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trigeminal proprioception related to rodent macrovibrissae movements is believed to involve skin receptors on the whisker pad because pad muscles operate without muscle spindles. This study was aimed to investigate in rats whether the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu), which provides proprioceptive feedback for chewing muscles, may be also involved in whisker pad proprioception. Methods Two retrograde tracers, Dil and True Blue Chloride, were injected into the mystacial pad and the masseter muscle on the same side of deeply anesthetized rats to label the respective projecting sensory neurons. This double-labeling technique was used to assess the co-innervation of both structures by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu). In a separate group of anesthetized animals, the spontaneous electrical activities of TMnu neurons were analyzed by extracellular recordings during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrissae. Mesencephalic neurons (TMne) were previously identified by their responses to masseter muscle stretching. Changes in TMne spontaneous electrical activities, analyzed under baseline conditions and during whisking movements, were statistically evaluated using Student's t-test for paired observations. Results Neuroanatomical experiments revealed different subpopulations of trigeminal mesencephalic neurons: i) those innervating the neuromuscular spindles of the masseter muscle, ii) those innervating the mystacial pad, and iii) those innervating both structures. Extracellular recordings made during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrisae showed that whisking neurons similar to those observed in the trigeminal ganglion were located in the TMnu. These neurons had different patterns of activation, which were dependent on the type of spontaneous macrovibrissae movement. In particular, their spiking activity tonically increased during fan-like movements of the vibrissae and showed phasic bursting during rhythmic whisking. Furthermore, the same

  8. Extracellular K+ in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat during reflex bursting activity by oxytocin neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Coles, J A; Poulain, D A

    1991-01-01

    1. We have investigated changes in extracellular potassium concentration [K+]o in the supraoptic nucleus of lactating rats and in particular those that occur during the intense burst of firing by the oxytocin neurones involved in the milk ejection reflex. 2. Double-barrelled K(+)-selective microelectrodes containing a highly selective sensor based on valinomycin were lowered through the exposed cortex towards the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of female rats anaesthetized with urethane. The mean resting [K+]o in the hypothalami of five rats was 2.4 mM, S.D. = 0.3 mM. 3. Where the reference barrel recorded extracellular action potentials from an oxytocin cell, the reflex burst of firing (4 s, typical maximum 50 Hz) was accompanied by a mean increase in [K+]o (delta[K+]o) of 0.22 mM (S.E.M. = 0.02 mM, fifty-seven bursts in eight cells in seven rats). The rise in [K+]o did not begin more than 0.1 s before the onset of the burst, and began to fall from its maximum during the burst. Slow field potentials, indicative of spatial buffering of K+, were undetectable (less than 50 microV). When the electrode was advanced in steps, the amplitudes of both delta[K+]o and the action potential declined steeply to about 10% over a distance of 20 microns: K+ from oxytocin cells appears to be prevented from dispersing freely through the extracellular space of the SON. 4. When the electrode recorded action potentials from a vasopressin cell, delta[K+]o during an oxytocin cell burst was very small: 0.021 mM (S.E.M. = 0.005 mM). At other sites in the SON, where antidromic stimulation evoked a field potential but no action potential, delta[K+]o was 0.047 +/- 0.005 mM. We conclude that the reason oxytocin bursts do not affect vasopressin cells is that [K+]o rises very little around vasopressin cells. A fortiori, since the increases in [K+]o were very small except where action potentials from oxytocin cells were recorded, they can make no significant contribution to synchronizing the onsets of

  9. Steroid sulfatase deficiency with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hiroshi; Osawa, Maki; Nagai, Toshiro; Sakura, Nobuo

    2006-03-01

    This report presents a case of steroid sulfatase deficiency with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. A 13-year-old male was diagnosed as having steroid sulfatase deficiency because steroid sulfatase activity was not detected in his leukocytes. In deoxyribonucleic acid studies, steroid sulfatase locus and adjacent loci were found to be deleted in his deoxyribonucleic acid. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed periventricular nodular heterotopia, disclosing an irregular contour of the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles due to small nodular masses that were isointense as to the gray matter. In steroid sulfatase deficiency patients, bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia must be considered.

  10. Oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens core reduces reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Baracz, Sarah J; Everett, Nicholas A; McGregor, Iain S; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive illicit drug. Systemic administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates METH-related reward and METH-seeking behaviour. Recent findings demonstrated a reduction in METH-induced reward by oxytocin administration into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. It is not known, however, if oxytocin acts in this region to reduce relapse to METH-seeking behaviour. Using the drug reinstatement paradigm in rats experienced at METH self-administration, we aimed to determine whether oxytocin pre-treatment within the NAc core would reduce relapse to METH use and if this could be reversed by the co-administration of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery to implant an intravenous jugular vein catheter and bilateral microinjection cannulae in the NAc core. Rats were then trained to self-administer intravenous METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) by lever press during 2-hour fixed ratio 1 scheduled sessions for 20 days. Following extinction of lever press activity, the effect of microinjecting saline, oxytocin (0.5 pmol, 1.5 pmol, 4.5 pmol) or co-administration of oxytocin (1.5 pmol) and desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT (1 nmol, 3 nmol) in the NAc core (500 nl/side) was examined on METH-primed (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviour. Our results showed oxytocin directly administered into the NAc core decreased METH-primed reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of the selective OTR antagonist did not specifically reverse the inhibitory effects of oxytocin on METH priming, suggesting mediation by receptors other than the OTR. These findings highlight an important modulatory effect of oxytocin in the NAc core on relapse to METH seeking.

  11. REM sleep diversity following the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus lesion in rat.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Jelena; Lazic, Katarina; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Saponjic, Jasna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that two REM clusters, which emerge following bilateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) lesions in rats, are two functionally distinct REM states. We performed the experiments in Wistar rats, chronically instrumented for sleep recording. Bilateral PPT lesions were produced by the microinfusion of 100 nl of 0.1M ibotenic acid (IBO). Following a recovery period of 2 weeks, we recorded their sleep for 6h. Bilateral PPT lesions were identified by NADPH - diaphorase histochemistry. We applied Fourier analysis to the signals acquired throughout the 6h recordings, and each 10s epoch was differentiated as a Wake, NREM or REM state. We analyzed the topography of the sleep/wake states architecture and their transition structure, their all state-related EEG microstructures, and the sensorimotor (SMCx) and motor (MCx) cortex REM related cortico-muscular coherences (CMCs). Bilateral PPT lesion in rats increased the likelihood of the emergence of two distinct REM sleep states, specifically expressed within the MCx: REM1 and REM2. Bilateral PPT lesion did not change the sleep/wake states architecture of the SMCx, but pathologically increased the duration of REM1 within the MCx, alongside increasing Wake/REM1/Wake and NREM/REM2/NREM transitions within both cortices. In addition, the augmented total REM SMCx EEG beta amplitude and REM1 MCx EEG theta amplitude was the underlying EEG microstructure pathology. PPT lesion induced REM1 and REM2 are differential states with regard to total EMG power, topographically distinct EEG microstructures, and locomotor drives to nuchal musculature.

  12. Positive reinforcing effect of oxytocin microinjection in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    László, K; Kovács, A; Zagoracz, O; Ollmann, T; Péczely, L; Kertes, E; Lacy, D G; Lénárd, L

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) receives increasing attention since, it plays a role in various behaviors including anxiety, drug addiction, learning, social recognition, empathy, pair bonding and decreased aggression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, anxiety and reinforcing mechanisms. CeA was shown to be rich in OT-receptors (OTR). The aim of our study was to examine the possible effects of OT and OTR antagonist in the CeA on reinforcement using the conditioned place preference test and on anxiety using the elevated plus maze test. Male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 10 ng OT or 100 ng OT (Sigma: O6379, injected in volume of 0.4μl) or 10ng OTR antagonist (Sigma: L-2540) alone, or OTR antagonist 15 min prior 10 ng OT treatment or vehicle solution into the CeA. Rats receiving 10 ng OT spent significantly more time in the treatment quadrant during the test session, while 100 ng OT treatment produced no effect. Prior treatment with the non-peptide OTR antagonist blocked the effects of OT. The antagonist in itself did not influence the place preference. The elevated plus maze test revealed that 10 ng OT significantly increased the time spent in the open arms. OTR antagonist pre-treatment could inhibit this effect and the antagonist in itself did not affect the time spent in the open arms. Our results show that in the rat CeA OT has dose-dependent, positive reinforcing and anxiolytic effects, via OTR demonstrated by the blocking effects of selective OTR antagonist.

  13. Assessment of individual differences in the rat nucleus accumbens transcriptome following taste-heroin extended access.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; McFalls, Ashley J; Colechio, Elizabeth M; Masser, Dustin R; Vrana, Kent E; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M

    2016-05-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse that harms the individual through devaluation of personal responsibilities in favor of finding and using drugs. Only some recreational heroin users devolve into addiction but the basis of these individual differences is not known. We have shown in rats that avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual animals with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin. Here rats received 5min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 6h. Large Suppressors of the heroin-paired taste cue displayed increased drug escalation, motivation for drug, and drug loading behavior compared with Small Suppressors. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these individual differences in addiction-like behavior. We examined the individual differences in mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats that were behaviorally stratified by addiction-like behavior using next-generation sequencing. We hypothesized that based on the avoidance of the drug-paired cue there will be a unique mRNA profile in the NAc. Analysis of strand-specific whole genome RNA-Seq data revealed a number of genes differentially regulated in NAc based on the suppression of the natural saccharine reward. Large Suppressors exhibited a unique mRNA prolife compared to Saline controls and Small Suppressors. Genes related to immunity, neuronal activity, and behavior were differentially expressed among the 3 groups. In total, individual differences in avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue are associated with addiction-like behavior along with differential NAc gene expression.

  14. Enhancement of oscillatory activity in the endopiriform nucleus of rats raised under abnormal oral conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Hasumoto-Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

    2014-02-21

    Endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is located deep to the piriform cortex, and has neural connections with not only neighboring sensory areas but also subcortical areas where emotional and nociceptive information is processed. Well-balanced oral condition might play an important role in stability of brain activities. When the oral condition is impaired, several areas in the brain might be affected. In the present study, we investigated whether abnormal conditions of oral region influence neural activities in the EPN. Orthodontic appliance that generates continuous force and chronic pain-related stress was fixed to maxillary incisors of rats, and raised. Field potential recordings were made from the EPN of brain slices. We previously reported that the EPN has an ability to generate membrane potential oscillation. In the present study, we have applied the same methods to assess activities of neuron clusters in the EPN. In the case of normal rats, stable field potential oscillations were induced in the EPN by application of low-frequency electrical stimulation under the medium with caffeine. In the case of rats with the orthodontic appliance, stable field potential oscillations were also induced, but both duration of oscillatory activities and wavelet number were increased. The enhanced oscillations were depressed by blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, impairment of oral health under application of continuous orthodontic force and chronic pain-related stress enhanced neural activities in the EPN, in which up-regulation of NMDA receptors may be concerned. These findings suggest that the EPN might be involved in information processing with regard to abnormal conditions of oral region.

  15. Inhibitory control of nociceptive responses of trigeminal spinal nucleus cells by somatosensory corticofugal projection in rat.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, E; Martin, Y B; Nuñez, A

    2012-09-27

    The caudal division of the trigeminal spinal nucleus (Sp5C) is an important brainstem relay station of orofacial pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cortical electrical stimulation on nociceptive responses in Sp5C neurons. Extracellular recordings were performed in the Sp5C nucleus by tungsten microelectrodes in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Nociceptive stimulation was produced by application of capsaicin cream on the whisker pad or by constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Capsaicin application evoked a long-lasting increase in the spontaneous firing rate from 1.4±0.2 to 3.4±0.6 spikes/s. Non-noxious tactile responses from stimuli delivered to the receptive field (RF) center decreased 5 min. after capsaicin application (from 2.3±0.1 to 1.6±0.1 spikes/stimulus) while responses from the whisker located at the RF periphery increased (from 1.3±0.2 to 2.0±0.1 spikes/stimulus under capsaicin). Electrical train stimulation of the primary (S1) or secondary (S2) somatosensory cortical areas reduced the increase in the firing rate evoked by capsaicin. Also, S1, but not S2, cortical stimulation reduced the increase in non-noxious tactile responses from the RF periphery. Inhibitory cortical effects were mediated by the activation of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons because they were blocked by bicuculline or strychnine. The S1 and S2 cortical stimulation also inhibited Sp5C neurons in animals with constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Consequently, the corticofugal projection from S1 and S2 cortical areas modulates nociceptive responses of Sp5C neurons and may control the transmission of nociceptive sensory stimulus.

  16. Cholinergic and non-cholinergic mesopontine tegmental neurons projecting to the subthalamic nucleus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Takako; Kita, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives cholinergic and non-cholinergic projections from the mesopontine tegmentum. This study investigated the numbers and distributions of neurons involved in these projections in rats using Fluorogold (FG) retrograde tracing combined with immunostaining of choline acetyltransferase and a neuron-specific nuclear protein. The results suggest that a small population of cholinergic neurons mainly in the caudoventral part of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), approximately 360 neurons (≈10% of total) in the homolateral and 80 neurons (≈2%) in the contralateral PPN, projects to the STN. In contrast, the number of non-cholinergic neurons projecting to the STN was estimated to be 9 times as much, with approximately 3300 in the homolateral side and 1300 neurons in the contralateral side. A large gathering of the FG-labeled non-cholinergic neurons was found rostrodorsomedial to the caudolateral PPN. The biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) anterograde tracing method was used to substantiate the mesopontine-STN projections. Injection of BDA into the caudoventral PPN labeled numerous thin fibers with small en-passant varicosities in the STN. Injection of BDA into the non-cholinergic neuron-rich area labeled a moderate number of thicker fibers with patches of aggregates of larger boutons. The densities of labeled fibers and the number of retrogradely labeled cells in the mesopontine tegmentum suggested that the terminal field formed in the STN by each cholinergic neuron is more extensive than that by each non-cholinergic neuron. The findings suggest that cholinergic and non-cholinergic mesopontine afferents may carry different information to the STN. PMID:21198985

  17. Theta synchronization between the hippocampus and the nucleus incertus in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Guerrero-Martínez, Juan; Bataller-Mompeán, Manuel; Taberner-Cortes, Alida; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Ruiz-Torner, Amparo; Teruel-Martí, Vicent

    2011-06-01

    Oscillatory coupling between distributed areas can constitute a mechanism for neuronal integration. Theta oscillations provide temporal windows for hippocampal processing and only appear during certain active states of animals. Since previous studies have demonstrated that nucleus incertus (NI) contributes to the generation of hippocampal theta activity, in this paper, we evaluated the oscillatory coupling between both structures. We compared hippocampal and NI field potentials that were simultaneously recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. Electrical and cholinergic stimulations of the reticularis pontis oralis nucleus have been used as hippocampal theta generation models. The spectral analyses reveal that electrical stimulation induced an increase in theta oscillations in both channels, whose frequencies depended on the intensity of stimulation. The intensity range used simultaneously increased the normalized spectral energy in the fast theta band (6-12 Hz) in HPC and NI. Frequencies within the theta range were found to be very similar in both channels. In order to validate coupling, spectral coherence was inspected. The data reveal that coherence in the high theta band also increased while stimuli were applied. Cholinergic activation progressively increased the main frequency in both structures to reach an asymptotic period with stable peak frequency in the low theta range (3-6 Hz), which could be first observed in NI and lasted about 1,500 s. Coherence in this band reached values close to 1. Taken together, these results support an electrophysiological and functional coupling between the hippocampus and the reticular formation, suggesting NI to be part of a distributed network working at theta frequencies.

  18. Anatomical evidence for a ponto-septal pathway via the nucleus incertus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Nuñez, Angel; Valverde-Navarro, Alfonso Amador; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco Eliseo; Ruiz-Torner, Amparo

    2008-07-07

    Hippocampal theta activity is involved in sensory-motor integration and constitutes a functional basis for mnemonic functions. The medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBv) is a key structure as pacemaker of the oscillation. In addition, some brainstem reticular structures are crucial for the activation of MS/DBv. Specifically, the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis (RPO) is considered the most effective pontine site for eliciting theta rhythm. Nevertheless, its connection with the MS/DBv is not direct. A previous study by our group pointed out that the nucleus incertus (NI) could be considered as a relay in this multisynaptic pathway. From this study, the stimulation of RPO increased the discharge rate of NI neurons in anesthetized rats and the lesion of the NI suppressed the RPO-elicited hippocampal theta. Those findings suggested a projection from RPO to NI, although the existing literature did not support this hypothesis. In order to clarify the dichotomy between the anatomical and the electrophysiological data, we performed a set of tracing studies. Anterograde tracer injections into RPO showed a profuse projection to NI. This connection was confirmed by retrograde tracer injections into NI. Injections of retrograde tracer in MS/DBv confirmed the intense NI-MS/DBv projection. Furthermore, simultaneous injections of anterograde and retrograde tracers into RPO and MS/DBv respectively resulted in a high-correlated pattern of terminal-like fibers over labeled somata in the NI. This study provides the first anatomical evidence of a ponto-septal pathway via the NI that contributes to generation and modulation the hippocampal theta activity.

  19. The Arcuate Nucleus: A Site of Fast Negative Feedback for Corticosterone Secretion in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Leon-Mercado, Luis; Herrera Moro Chao, Daniela; Basualdo, María Del Carmen; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2017-01-01

    Variations in circulating corticosterone (Cort) are driven by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), mainly via the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) directly stimulating Cort release from the adrenal gland and via corticotropin-releasing hormone targeting the adenohypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cort feeds back through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Here we show in male Wistar rats that PVN neurons projecting to the adrenal gland do not express GRs, leaving the question of how the ANS in the PVN gets information about circulating Cort levels to control the adrenal. Since the arcuate nucleus (ARC) shows a less restrictive blood-brain barrier, expresses GRs, and projects to the PVN, we investigated whether the ARC can detect and produce fast adjustments of circulating Cort. In low Cort conditions (morning), local microdialysis in the ARC with type I GR antagonist produced a fast and sustained increase of Cort. This was not observed with a type II antagonist. At the circadian peak levels of Cort (afternoon), a type II GR antagonist, but not a type I antagonist, increased Cort levels but not ACTH levels. Antagonist infusions in the PVN did not modify circulating Cort levels, demonstrating the specificity of the ARC to give Cort negative feedback. Furthermore, type I and II GR agonists in the ARC prevented the increase of Cort after stress, demonstrating the role of the ARC as sensor to modulate Cort release. Our findings show that the ARC may be essential to sense blood levels of Cort and adapt Cort secretion depending on such conditions as stress or time of day.

  20. The Arcuate Nucleus: A Site of Fast Negative Feedback for Corticosterone Secretion in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Escobar, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Variations in circulating corticosterone (Cort) are driven by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), mainly via the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) directly stimulating Cort release from the adrenal gland and via corticotropin-releasing hormone targeting the adenohypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cort feeds back through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Here we show in male Wistar rats that PVN neurons projecting to the adrenal gland do not express GRs, leaving the question of how the ANS in the PVN gets information about circulating Cort levels to control the adrenal. Since the arcuate nucleus (ARC) shows a less restrictive blood–brain barrier, expresses GRs, and projects to the PVN, we investigated whether the ARC can detect and produce fast adjustments of circulating Cort. In low Cort conditions (morning), local microdialysis in the ARC with type I GR antagonist produced a fast and sustained increase of Cort. This was not observed with a type II antagonist. At the circadian peak levels of Cort (afternoon), a type II GR antagonist, but not a type I antagonist, increased Cort levels but not ACTH levels. Antagonist infusions in the PVN did not modify circulating Cort levels, demonstrating the specificity of the ARC to give Cort negative feedback. Furthermore, type I and II GR agonists in the ARC prevented the increase of Cort after stress, demonstrating the role of the ARC as sensor to modulate Cort release. Our findings show that the ARC may be essential to sense blood levels of Cort and adapt Cort secretion depending on such conditions as stress or time of day. PMID:28275717

  1. An investigation of the origin of extracellular GABA in rat nucleus accumbens measured in vivo by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, S E; Sharp, T

    1994-01-01

    GABA transmission in the nucleus accumbens is believed to play a central role in motivational processes and the expression of psychostimulant drug action. Here we report measurements of extracellular GABA in nucleus accumbens of the rat and investigate its origin. Extracellular GABA was detected using microdialysis in combination with a novel HPLC-based assay. In the awake rat, GABA in the microdialysates (1) increased 10-fold following perfusion with 0.5 mM nipecotic acid, a GABA releasing agent and uptake blocker, (2) increased 7-fold following local perfusion with 50 mM KCl, (3) decreased 50% following perfusion with tetrodotoxin, (4) decreased 50% following perfusion with a Ca(2+(-free medium and (5) decreased 40% following perfusion with high (12.5 mM) MgCl. Finally, in the anaesthetized rat, GABA in the microdialysates decreased 50% following i.p. injection of 100 mg/kg 3-mercaptoproprionic acid, a GABA synthesis inhibitor. We conclude that GABA in microdialysates from nucleus accumbens of the rat (awake) responds appropriately to selected pharmacological agents and derives at least in part (50%) from neurones.

  2. Increased sucrose intake and corresponding c-Fos in amygdala and parabrachial nucleus of dietary obese rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinrong; Chen, Ke; Yan, Jianqun; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Xiaolin; Yang, Xuejuan; Yang, Dejun; Zhao, Shiru; Zhu, Guangjing; Sun, Bo

    2012-09-13

    The intake-excitatory effects of caloric foods are mainly due to the palatable taste and the ensuing positive postingestive effects. Dietary obese individuals are inclined to overeat high caloric foods. However, it is still unclear whether the taste or postingestive reinforcement mainly contributes to the excessive intake by obese individuals. In the present study, we measured 10- or 120-min sucrose solution drunk by dietary obese rats and measured c-Fos expression following 120-min tests in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), a forebrain nucleus involved in the hedonic reward and craving, and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), a taste relay area responsive to positive postingestive effects. Dietary obese rats, compared with those fed normal chow, ingested larger amounts of sucrose solution (0.25 M) in the 120-min test, but not in the 10-min test. In addition, significantly more sucrose-induced c-Fos positive cells were found in the CeA, but much less in the external lateral subnucleus of the PBN of dietary obese rats. Our results demonstrate that increased sucrose intake in dietary obese rats is mainly due to the alteration of postingestive effects. The differences in these postingestive effects in obesity may involve greater positive/excitatory signals in which the CeA may play a role, and less negative/inhibitory signals in which the el-PBN may be involved.

  3. Characteristics of rostral solitary tract nucleus neurons with identified afferent connections that project to the parabrachial nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Takeshi; Bradley, Robert M

    2009-07-01

    Afferent information derived from oral chemoreceptors is transmitted to second-order neurons in the rostral solitary tract nucleus (rNST) and then relayed to other CNS locations responsible for complex sensory and motor behaviors. Here we investigate the characteristics of rNST neurons sending information rostrally to the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Afferent connections to these rNST-PBN projection neurons were identified by anterograde labeling of the chorda tympani (CT), glossopharyngeal (IX), and lingual (LV) nerves. We used voltage- and current-clamp recordings in brain slices to characterize the expression of both the transient A-type potassium current, IKA and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih, important determinants of neuronal repetitive discharge characteristics. The majority of rNST-PBN neurons express IKA, and these IKA-expressing neurons predominate in CT and IX terminal fields but were expressed in approximately half of the neurons in the LV field. rNST-PBN neurons expressing Ih were evenly distributed among CT, IX and LV terminal fields. However, expression patterns of IKA and Ih differed among CT, IX, and LV fields. IKA-expressing neurons frequently coexpress Ih in CT and IX terminal fields, whereas neurons in LV terminal field often express only Ih. After GABAA receptor block all rNST-PBN neurons responded to afferent stimulation with all-or-none excitatory synaptic responses. rNST-PBN neurons had either multipolar or elongate morphologies and were distributed throughout the rNST, but multipolar neurons were more often encountered in CT and IX terminal fields. No correlation was found between the biophysical and morphological characteristics of the rNST-PBN projection neurons in each terminal field.

  4. Oleic acid synthesized by stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) in the lateral periventricular zone of the developing rat brain mediates neuronal growth, migration and the arrangement of prospective synapses.

    PubMed

    Polo-Hernández, Erica; Tello, Vega; Arroyo, Angel A; Domínguez-Prieto, Marta; de Castro, Fernando; Tabernero, Arantxa; Medina, José M

    2014-06-27

    Our previous work has shown that oleic acid synthesized by astrocytes in response to serum albumin behaves as a neurotrophic factor in neurons, upregulating the expression of GAP-43 and MAP-2 proteins, which are respectively markers of axonal and dendrite growth. In addition, oleic acid promoted neuron migration and aggregation, resulting in clusters of neurons connected each other by the newly formed neurites. In this work we show that the presence of albumin or albumin plus oleic acid increases neuron migration in cultured explants of the lateral periventricular zone, resulting in an increase in the number of GAP-43-positive neurons leaving the explant. Upon silencing stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), a key enzyme in oleic acid synthesis by RNA of interference mostly prevented the effect of albumin but not that of albumin plus oleic acid, suggesting that the oleic acid synthesized due to the effect of albumin would be responsible for the increase in neuron migration. Oleic acid increased doublecortin (DCX) expression in cultured neurons, explants and organotypic slices, suggesting that DCX may mediate in the effect of oleic acid on neuron migration. The effect of oleic acid on neuron migration may be destined for the formation of synapses because the presence of oleic acid increased the expression of synaptotagmin and that of postsynaptic density protein (PDS-95), respectively markers of the pre- and postsynaptic compartments. In addition, confocal microscopy revealed the occurrence of points of colocalization between synaptotagmin and PDS-95, which is consistent with the idea that oleic acid promotes synapse arrangement.

  5. Transient calcium-dependent potassium current in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bourque, C W

    1988-03-01

    1. Magnocellular neurosecretory neurones were impaled in the supraoptic nucleus of perfused explants of rat hypothalamus. Membrane currents were studied at 35 degrees C using the single-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. 2. Depolarizing voltage steps applied from -100 mV evoked a transient outward current (TOC) from a threshold of -75 mV. From this potential, the amplitude of the current increased non-linearly with voltage. 3. Following its activation TOC reached a peak within 7 ms and subsequently decayed monotonically with a time constant of 30 ms. This time constant did not vary significantly with voltage between -75 and -55 mV. 4. The TOC showed complete steady-state inactivation at potentials positive to -55 mV. Inactivation was removed by hyperpolarization, with a mid-point near -80 mV. The removal of inactivation followed a complex time course with distinct fast (tens of milliseconds) and slow (hundreds of milliseconds) components. 5. Tail current measurements revealed that the TOC equilibrium potential (ETOC) lies near -97 mV in the presence of 3 mM [K+]o. Increasing [K+]o caused a decrease of TOC amplitude and a shift in ETOC of 57 mV/log [K+]o. The TOC is therefore predominantly a K+ current. 6. The TOC was unaffected by tetraethylammonium (up to 12 mM) but was reversibly reduced by 4-aminopyridine (ca. 50% block at 1.0 mM) and dendrotoxin (ca. 50% block at 4 nM). 7. The TOC was strongly inhibited (greater than 70%) by adding Co2+ or Mn2+ (1-3 mM) or Cd2+ (50-400 microM) to Ca-containing solutions, or by removal of Ca2+ from the perfusate. These effects were not accompanied by detectable changes in threshold voltage. The amplitude of TOC was also depressed by the organic Ca2+ channel blocker methoxyverapamil (D600). Finally replacement of Ca2+ by Ba2+ in the perfusate completely and reversibly abolished the TOC. 8. These findings suggest that neurosecretory neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus display a transient K+ current which is strongly

  6. Transient calcium-dependent potassium current in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, C W

    1988-01-01

    1. Magnocellular neurosecretory neurones were impaled in the supraoptic nucleus of perfused explants of rat hypothalamus. Membrane currents were studied at 35 degrees C using the single-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. 2. Depolarizing voltage steps applied from -100 mV evoked a transient outward current (TOC) from a threshold of -75 mV. From this potential, the amplitude of the current increased non-linearly with voltage. 3. Following its activation TOC reached a peak within 7 ms and subsequently decayed monotonically with a time constant of 30 ms. This time constant did not vary significantly with voltage between -75 and -55 mV. 4. The TOC showed complete steady-state inactivation at potentials positive to -55 mV. Inactivation was removed by hyperpolarization, with a mid-point near -80 mV. The removal of inactivation followed a complex time course with distinct fast (tens of milliseconds) and slow (hundreds of milliseconds) components. 5. Tail current measurements revealed that the TOC equilibrium potential (ETOC) lies near -97 mV in the presence of 3 mM [K+]o. Increasing [K+]o caused a decrease of TOC amplitude and a shift in ETOC of 57 mV/log [K+]o. The TOC is therefore predominantly a K+ current. 6. The TOC was unaffected by tetraethylammonium (up to 12 mM) but was reversibly reduced by 4-aminopyridine (ca. 50% block at 1.0 mM) and dendrotoxin (ca. 50% block at 4 nM). 7. The TOC was strongly inhibited (greater than 70%) by adding Co2+ or Mn2+ (1-3 mM) or Cd2+ (50-400 microM) to Ca-containing solutions, or by removal of Ca2+ from the perfusate. These effects were not accompanied by detectable changes in threshold voltage. The amplitude of TOC was also depressed by the organic Ca2+ channel blocker methoxyverapamil (D600). Finally replacement of Ca2+ by Ba2+ in the perfusate completely and reversibly abolished the TOC. 8. These findings suggest that neurosecretory neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus display a transient K+ current which is strongly

  7. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2010-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of sexually experienced male and female rats. Animals engaged in sexual behavior one hour before sacrifice. Cells containing FG, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), and the immediate-early gene product Fos were identified immunocytochemically. Retrograde labeling from the nPGi was prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, posterior hypothalamus, precommissural nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both sexes. Sex differences were observed in the caudal medial preoptic area (MPO), with significantly more FG+ cells observed in males and in the PAG and inferior colliculus where significantly more FG+ cells were observed in females. The majority of regions that contained FG+ cells also contained ERα or AR, indicating sensitivity to gonadal steroids. The proportions of FG+ cells that co-localized with sex-induced Fos was high in the PVN of both sexes, high in the MPO of males, but low in the PAG of both sexes despite the large number of PAG-nPGi output neurons and Fos+ cells in both sexes. The characterization of these afferents will lead to a further understanding of the neural regulation of genital reflexes. PMID:18393295

  8. GABAA-receptor activation in the subthalamic nucleus compensates behavioral asymmetries in the hemiparkinsonian rat.

    PubMed

    Petri, David; Pum, Martin; Vesper, Jan; Huston, Joseph P; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2013-09-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Modulation of STN activity (by lesions, pharmacological or electrical stimulation) has been shown to improve motor parameters in PD patients and in animal models of PD. In an attempt to characterize the neurochemical bases for such antiparkinsonian action, we address specific neurotransmitter systems via local pharmacological manipulation of the STN in hemiparkinsonian rats. Here, we have focused on the GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors in the STN. In animals with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigro-striatal tract, we administered either the selective GABAA-agonist muscimol (0.5 μg and 1.0 μg), the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine; 2.5 μg), or vehicle (0.25 μl) into the STN. The effects of GABAergic and glutamatergic modulation of the STN on motor parameters were assessed by gauging rotational behavior and locomotion. Application of muscimol ipsilateral to the side of dopamine-depletion influenced turning behavior in a dose-dependent fashion, with the low dose re-adjusting turning behavior to a non-biased distribution, and the high dose evoking contraversive turning. The administration of MK-801 did not have such effects. These findings give evidence for the involvement of GABAergic activation in the STN in the compensation of motor asymmetries in the hemiparkinsonian rat, whereas N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonism was ineffective in this model of PD.

  9. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increases premature responding in a rat gambling task.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Lily R; Creed, Meaghan C; Fletcher, Paul J; Lobo, Daniela S S; Hamani, Clement; Nobrega, José N

    2013-05-15

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a treatment option for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, several recent studies have found an association between STN-DBS and increased impulsivity. Currently, it is not clear whether the observed increase in impulsivity results from STN-DBS per se, or whether it involves an interaction with the underlying PD neuropathology and/or intake of dopaminergic drugs. We investigated the effects of STN-DBS on performance of intact rats on two tasks measuring impulsive responding: a novel rat gambling task (rGT) and a differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL20s) schedule. Following initial behavioural training, animals received electrode implantation into the STN (n=24) or sham surgery (n=24), and were re-tested on their assigned behavioural task, with or without STN-DBS. Bilateral STN-DBS administered for two hours immediately prior to testing, had no effects on rGT choice behaviour or on DRL response inhibition (p>0.05). However, STN-DBS significantly increased premature responding in the rGT task (p=0.0004), an effect that took several sessions to develop and persisted in subsequent trials when no stimulation was given. Consistent with the notion of distinct facets of impulsivity with unique neurochemical underpinnings, we observed differential effects of STN-DBS in the two tasks employed. These results suggest that STN-DBS in the absence of parkinsonism may not lead to a general loss of inhibitory control, but may instead affect impulsivity under specific conditions.

  10. Endogenous Opiates in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Yi, Pei-Lu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17) acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors. PMID:19729491

  11. Systemic administration of resveratrol suppress the nociceptive neuronal activity of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Inoue, Maki; Kubota, Yoshiko; Ito, Yukihiko; Yui, Kei; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Although a modulatory role has been reported for the red wine polyphenol resveratrol on several types of ion channels and excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system, the acute effects of resveratrol in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission of the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute intravenous resveratrol administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 18 SpVc neurons in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Responses to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli were analyzed in the present study. The mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neurons in response to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was inhibited by resveratrol (0.5-2 mg/kg, i.v.) and maximum inhibition of the discharge frequency of both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was seen within 10 min. These inhibitory effects were reversed after approximately 20 min. The relative magnitude of inhibition by resveratrol of SpVc WDR neuronal discharge frequency was significantly greater for noxious than non-noxious stimulation. These results suggest that, in the absence of inflammatory or neuropathic pain, acute intravenous resveratrol administration suppresses trigeminal sensory transmission, including nociception, and so resveratrol may be used as a complementary and alternative medicine therapeutic agent for the treatment of trigeminal nociceptive pain, including hyperalgesia.

  12. Endogenous opiates in the nucleus tractus solitarius mediate electroacupuncture-induced sleep activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Yi, Pei-Lu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17) acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.

  13. Overexpression of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell increases cocaine reinforcement in self-administering rats.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erin B; Graham, Danielle L; Arzaga, Rose R; Buzin, Nicole; Webb, Joseph; Green, Thomas A; Bass, Caroline E; Neve, Rachael L; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Nestler, Eric J; Self, David W

    2011-11-09

    Chronic exposure to addictive drugs enhances cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated gene expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc), and these effects are thought to reduce the positive hedonic effects of passive cocaine administration. Here, we used viral-mediated gene transfer to produce short- and long-term regulation of CREB activity in NAc shell of rats engaging in volitional cocaine self-administration. Increasing CREB expression in NAc shell markedly enhanced cocaine reinforcement of self-administration behavior, as indicated by leftward (long-term) and upward (short-term) shifts in fixed ratio dose-response curves. CREB also increased the effort exerted by rats to obtain cocaine on more demanding progressive ratio schedules, an effect highly correlated with viral-induced modulation of BDNF protein in the NAc shell. CREB enhanced cocaine reinforcement when expressed either throughout acquisition of self-administration or when expression was limited to postacquisition tests, indicating a direct effect of CREB independent of reinforcement-related learning. Downregulating endogenous CREB in NAc shell by expressing a short hairpin RNA reduced cocaine reinforcement in similar tests, while overexpression of a dominant-negative CREB(S133A) mutant had no significant effect on cocaine self-administration. Finally, increasing CREB expression after withdrawal from self-administration enhanced cocaine-primed relapse, while reducing CREB levels facilitated extinction of cocaine seeking, but neither altered relapse induced by cocaine cues or footshock stress. Together, these findings indicate that CREB activity in NAc shell increases the motivation for cocaine during active self-administration or after withdrawal from cocaine. Our results also highlight that volitional and passive drug administration can lead to substantially different behavioral outcomes.

  14. Ionic basis of the caesium-induced depolarisation in rat supraoptic nucleus neurones

    PubMed Central

    Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud; Bourque, Charles W

    2001-01-01

    The effects of external Cs+ on magnocellular neurosecretory cells were studied during intracellular recordings from 93 supraoptic nucleus neurones in superfused explants of rat hypothalamus.Bath application of 3–5 mm Cs+ provoked reversible membrane depolarisation and increased firing rate in all of the neurones tested. Voltage-current analysis revealed an increase in membrane resistance between −120 and −55 mV. The increase in resistance was greater below −85 mV than at more positive potentials.Voltage-clamp analysis showed that external Cs+ blocked the hyperpolarisation-activated inward current, IH. Under current clamp, application of ZD 7288, a selective blocker of IH, caused an increase in membrane resistance at voltages ≤−65 mV. Voltage-current analysis further revealed that blockade of IH caused hyperpolarisation when the initial voltage was < −60 mV but had no effect at more positive values.Current- and voltage-clamp analysis of the effects of Cs+ in the presence of ZD 7288, or ZD 7288 and tetraethyl ammonium (TEA), revealed an increase in membrane resistance throughout the range of voltages tested (−120 to −45 mV). The current blocked by Cs+ in the absence of IH was essentially voltage independent and reversed at −100 mV. The reversal potential shifted by +22.7 mV when external [K+] was increased from 3 to 9 mm. We conclude that, in addition to blocking IH, external Cs+ blocks a leakage K+ current that contributes significantly to the resting potential of rat magnocellular neurosecretory cells. PMID:11691873

  15. Differential sensitivity of ethanol-elicited ERK phosphorylation in nucleus accumbens of Sardinian alcohol-preferring and -non preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Michela; Zaru, Alessandro; Sabariego, Marta; Giugliano, Valentina; Carboni, Ezio; Colombo, Giancarlo; Acquas, Elio

    2014-08-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -non preferring (sNP) rats have been selectively bred for opposite ethanol preference and consumption; sP rats represent a validated experimental tool to model several aspects of excessive ethanol drinking in humans. Phosphorylated Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (pERK) in dopamine-rich terminal areas plays a critical role in several psychopharmacological effects of addictive drugs, including ethanol. This study was aimed at investigating whether ethanol-elicited ERK activation may differ in key brain areas of ethanol-naïve sP and sNP rats. To this end, the effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg, administered intra-gastrically [i.g.]) on ERK phosphorylation were assessed by pERK immunohistochemistry in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) of the nucleus accumbens (Acb) as well as in the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex (PFCx), in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTL) and in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Ethanol (1 g/kg) significantly increased pERK immunoreactivity in AcbSh and AcbC of sP but not sNP rats. Conversely, ethanol failed to affect pERK expression in PrL and IL PFCx as well as in BSTL and CeA of both sP and sNP rats. These results suggest that selective breeding of these rat lines results in differential effects of acute ethanol on ERK phosphorylation in brain regions critical for the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol.

  16. In Vivo Voltammetric Monitoring of Norepinephrine Release in the Rat Ventral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Anteroventral Thalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinwoo; Kile, Brian M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2010-01-01

    The role and contribution of the dense noradrenergic innervation in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) and anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV) to biological function and animal behaviors is poorly understood due to the small size of these nuclei. The aim of this study was to compare norepinephrine release and uptake in the vBNST with that in the AV of anesthetized rats. Measurements were made in vivo with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry following electrical stimulation of noradrenergic projection pathways, either the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNB) or the ventral noradrenergic bundle (VNB). The substance detected was identified as norepinephrine based upon voltammetric, anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry enables the selective monitoring of local norepinephrine overflow in the vBNST evoked by the stimulation of either the DNB or VNB while norepinephrine in the AV was only evoked by DNB stimulation. The α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, and the norepinephrine uptake inhibitor, desipramine, increased norepinephrine overflow and slowed its disappearance in both regions. However, control of extracellular norepinephrine by both autoreceptors and uptake was greater in the AV. The greater control exerted by autoreceptors and uptake in the AV resulted in reduced extracellular concentration compared to the vBNST when large numbers of stimulation pulses were employed. The differences in noradrenergic transmission observed in the terminal fields of the vBNST and the AV may differentially regulate activity in these two regions that both contain high densities of norepinephrine terminals. PMID:20128849

  17. Substance P and neurokinin A variations throughout the rat estrous cycle; comparison with ovariectomized and male rats: II. Trigeminal nucleus and cervical spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Duval, P; Lenoir, V; Moussaoui, S; Garret, C; Kerdelhué, B

    1996-09-01

    Substance P and neurokinin A were assayed in the trigeminal nucleus and cervical spinal cord of 4-day cycling female, ovariectomized, and male rats. During the estrous cycle, levels were largely stable in the trigeminal nucleus. In ovariectomized rats, the levels differed from those on any day of the estrous cycle suggesting a weak effect of ovarian steroids. In males, the variations in the substance P and neurokinin A contents in the trigeminal nucleus were not similar to those in either cyclic or ovariectomized rats. The levels fluctuated substantially in the cervical spinal cord. During the first 3 days of the estrous cycle, the substance P and neurokinin A contents fell concomitant with the 17 beta-estradiol surge, suggesting a downregulation of substance P and neurokinin A contents by 17 beta-estradiol. Furthermore, on estrus, progesterone seemed to inhibit the accumulation of both neurokinins. Testosterone may stimulate accumulation of substance P and neurokinin A in the cervical spinal cord, with a marked circadian rhythm. These results are in favor of the neurokinin content of the spinal cord being regulated by the gonadal steroids. In the trigeminal nucleus, only testosterone has an effect.

  18. Participation of thalamic nuclei in the elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes of rats. VII. Lesions of the nucleus lateralis posterior.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, F; Klingberg, H

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral lesions of the nucleus laterials posterior thalami (LP) scarcely changed preoperatively learnt conditioned avoidance responses (CAR) in a runway and the Y-maze. Postoperative elaboration of CAR showed some difficulties in the runway which were increased during alternation training in the Y-maze. All rats with LP lesions had severe disturbances of spatial orientation in new situations, which could be overcome by training.

  19. Allyl isothiocyanates and cinnamaldehyde potentiate miniature excitatory postsynaptic inputs in the supraoptic nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Toru; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Saito, Takeshi; Sudo, Yuka; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Minami, Kouichiro; Nagatomo, Toshihisa; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2011-03-25

    Allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde are pungent compounds present in mustard oil and cinnamon oil, respectively. These compounds are well known as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists. TRPA1 is activated by low temperature stimuli, mechanosensation and pungent irritants such as AITC and cinnamaldehyde. TRPA1 is often co-expressed in TRPV1. Recent study showed that hypertonic solution activated TRPA1 as well as TRPV1. TRPV1 is involved in excitatory synaptic inputs to the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) that produce vasopressin in the supraoptic nucleus (SON). However, it remains unclear whether TRPA1 may be involved in this activation. In the present study, we examined the role of TRPA1 on the synaptic inputs to the MNCs in in vitro rat brain slice preparations, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, AITC (50μM) and cinnamaldehyde (30μM) increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting the amplitude. This effect was significantly attenuated by previous exposure to ruthenium red (10μM), non-specific TRP channels blocker, high concentration of menthol (300μM) and HC-030031 (10μM), which are known to antagonize the effects of TRPA1 agonists. These results suggest that TRPA1 may exist at presynaptic terminals to the MNCs and enhance glutamate release in the SON.

  20. Activation of 5-hyrdoxytryptamine 7 receptors within the rat nucleus tractus solitarii modulates synaptic properties

    PubMed Central

    Matott, Michael P.; Kline, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent neuromodulator with multiple receptor types within the cardiorespiratory system, including the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) - the central termination site of visceral afferent fibers. The 5-HT7 receptor facilitates cardiorespiratory reflexes through its action in the brainstem and likely in the nTS. However, the mechanism and site of action for these effects is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression and function of 5-HT7 receptors in the nTS of Sprague-Dawley rats. 5-HT7 receptor mRNA and protein were identified across the rostrocaudal extent of the nTS. To determine 5-HT7 receptor function, we examined nTS synaptic properties following 5-HT7 receptor activation in monosynaptic nTS neurons in the in vitro brainstem slice preparation. Application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists altered tractus solitarii evoked and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents which were attenuated with a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist. 5-HT7 receptor-mediated changes in excitatory postsynaptic currents were also altered by block of 5-HT1A and GABAA receptors. Interestingly, 5-HT7 receptor activation also reduced the amplitude but not frequency of GABAA-mediated inhibitory currents. Together these results indicate a complex role for 5-HT7 receptors in the nTS that mediate its diverse effects on cardiorespiratory parameters. PMID:26779891

  1. Sexual behavior in male rats after radiofrequency or dopamine-depleting lesions in nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y C; Sachs, B D; Salamone, J D

    1998-06-01

    Considerable neurochemical evidence links dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to male sexual behavior. The present experiments were conducted to extend this information to the male's sexual response to remote stimuli from estrous female (noncontact erection; NCE). Male rats were tested for copulation and NCE after either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or radiofrequency (RF) lesions in NAcc). Males with an average 78% depletion of DA in NAcc had a lower incidence of NCE, longer latency to display NCE, and fewer erections. DA-depleted males also had less locomotor activity after injections of d-amphetamine, and reductions in apomorphine-induced yawning, but a normal incidence of penile erection. Males with RF lesions of the NAcc had longer NCE latencies. All males copulated to ejaculation after either 6-OHDA or RF lesions with little or no deficit, although the 6-OHDA-treated males had longer intromission latencies. The NCE deficit supports the hypothesized role of NAcc DA in arousal processes in responding to remote cues from estrous females. The minimal effect of lesions on copulation suggests that the presence of additional proximal stimulation during copulation may overcome the deficits induced by DA depletions or lesions in NAcc.

  2. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Daniel L.; Salzwedel, Andrew; Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Gao, Wei; Stuber, Garret D.; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc-DBS) is an emerging therapy for diverse, refractory neuropsychiatric diseases. Although DBS therapy is broadly hypothesized to work through large-scale neural modulation, little is known regarding the neural circuits and networks affected by NAc-DBS. Using a healthy, sedated rat model of NAc-DBS, we employed both evoked- and functional connectivity (fc) MRI to examine the functional circuit and network changes achieved by electrical NAc stimulation. Optogenetic-fMRI experiments were also undertaken to evaluate the circuit modulation profile achieved by selective stimulation of NAc neurons. NAc-DBS directly modulated neural activity within prefrontal cortex and a large number of subcortical limbic areas (e.g., amygdala, lateral hypothalamus), and influenced functional connectivity among sensorimotor, executive, and limbic networks. The pattern and extent of circuit modulation measured by evoked-fMRI was relatively insensitive to DBS frequency. Optogenetic stimulation of NAc cell bodies induced a positive fMRI signal in the NAc, but no other detectable downstream responses, indicating that therapeutic NAc-DBS might exert its effect through antidromic stimulation. Our study provides a comprehensive mapping of circuit and network-level neuromodulation by NAc-DBS, which should facilitate our developing understanding of its therapeutic mechanisms of action. PMID:27601003

  3. Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate induces morphological alterations in suprachiasmatic nucleus of adult rat.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Rojas, Patricia; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Rojas, Carolina; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate (MSG) induces circadian disorders in several physiological and behavioural processes regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neonatal exposure to MSG on locomotor activity, and on morphology, cellular density and expression of proteins, as evaluated by optical density (OD), of vasopressin (VP)-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive cells in the SCN. Male Wistar rats were used: the MSG group was subcutaneously treated from 3 to 10 days of age with 3.5 mg/g/day. Locomotor activity was evaluated at 90 days of age using 'open-field' test, and the brains were processed for immunohistochemical studies. MSG exposure induced a significant decrease in locomotor activity. VP- and VIP-immunoreactive neuronal densities showed a significant decrease, while the somatic OD showed an increase. Major axes and somatic area were significantly increased in VIP neurons. The cellular and optical densities of GFAP-immunoreactive sections of SCN were significantly increased. These results demonstrated that newborn exposure to MSG induced morphological alterations in SCN cells, an alteration that could be the basis for behavioural disorders observed in the animals.

  4. Neuron types in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus identified in Nissl and deimpregnated Golgi preparations.

    PubMed

    Werner, L; Brauer, K

    1984-01-01

    To identify geniculo-cortical relay neurons (GCR-neurons) and interneurons (I-neurons) in Nissl stained sections of the albino rat's (Wistar strain) dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) we combined a Golgi deimpregnation technique (Fairén et al. 1977) with the Nissl staining. The two types of neurons show numerous characteristic features in Golgi preparations (Brauer and Schober 1973, Grossman et al. 1973, Brauer et al. 1974, Winkelmann et al. 1976, 1979). After application of the combined method it is obvious that neuronal somata exhibit also features which make it possible to identify these types of neurons in Nissl stained series. GCR-neurons are characterized by a very broad cytoplasmic portion, whereas a particularly thin cytoplasm rim is typical of I-neurons. Our findings confirm former results obtained by analysis of Nissl material (Werner and Kruger 1973, Werner et al. 1975, Werner and Winkelmann 1976, Werner et al. 1984). In these investigations, special attention was paid to cytoplasmic and nuclear characteristics in order to elucidate the ratio of GCR-/I-neurons (13:1) and the internal dLGN topography. It is still discussed if the described cytological features can be taken as basis for the classification of GCR- and I-neurons in other species.

  5. Orexins excite neurons of the rat cerebellar nucleus interpositus via orexin 2 receptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2010-03-01

    Orexins are newfound hypothalamic neuropeptides implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness cycle, nociception, addiction, emotions, as well as narcolepsy. However, little is known about roles of orexins in motor control. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of orexins on neuronal activity in the cerebellum, an important subcortical center for motor control. In this study, perfusing slices with orexin A (100 nM-1 microM) or orexin B (100 nM-1 microM) both produced neurons in the rat cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IN) a concentration-dependent excitatory response (96/143, 67.1%). Furthermore, both of the excitations induced by orexin A and B were not blocked by the low-Ca(2+)/high-Mg(2+) medium (n = 8), supporting a direct postsynaptic action of the peptides. Highly selective orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 did not block the excitatory response of cerebellar IN neurons to orexins (n = 22), but [Ala(11), D-Leu(15)] orexin B, a highly selective orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) agonist, mimicked the excitatory effect of orexins on the cerebellar neurons (n = 18). These results demonstrate that orexins excite the cerebellar IN neurons through OX(2)R and suggest that the central orexinergic nervous system may actively participate in motor control through its modulation on one of the final outputs of the spinocerebellum.

  6. Sensorimotor Processing in the Newborn Rat Red Nucleus during Active Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Sokoloff, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Sensory feedback from sleep-related myoclonic twitches is thought to drive activity-dependent development in spinal cord and brain. However, little is known about the neural pathways involved in the generation of twitches early in development. The red nucleus (RN), source of the rubrospinal tract, has been implicated in the production of phasic motor activity during active sleep in adults. Here we hypothesized that the RN is also a major source of motor output for twitching in early infancy, a period when twitching is an especially abundant motor behavior. We recorded extracellular neural activity in the RN during sleep and wakefulness in 1-week-old unanesthetized rats. Neurons in the RN fired phasically before twitching and wake movements of the contralateral forelimb. A subpopulation of neurons in the RN exhibited a significant peak of activity after forelimb movement onset, suggesting reafferent sensory processing. Consistent with this observation, manual stimulation of the forelimb evoked RN responses. Unilateral inactivation of the RN using a mixture comprising GABAA, GABAB, and glycine receptor agonists caused an immediate and temporary increase in motor activity followed by a marked and prolonged decrease in twitching and wake movements. Altogether, these data support a causal role for the RN in infant motor behavior. Furthermore, they indicate that twitching, which is characterized by discrete motor output and reafferent input, provides an opportunity for sensorimotor integration and activity-dependent development of topography within the newborn RN. PMID:26019345

  7. Sensorimotor processing in the newborn rat red nucleus during active sleep.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Sokoloff, Greta; Blumberg, Mark S

    2015-05-27

    Sensory feedback from sleep-related myoclonic twitches is thought to drive activity-dependent development in spinal cord and brain. However, little is known about the neural pathways involved in the generation of twitches early in development. The red nucleus (RN), source of the rubrospinal tract, has been implicated in the production of phasic motor activity during active sleep in adults. Here we hypothesized that the RN is also a major source of motor output for twitching in early infancy, a period when twitching is an especially abundant motor behavior. We recorded extracellular neural activity in the RN during sleep and wakefulness in 1-week-old unanesthetized rats. Neurons in the RN fired phasically before twitching and wake movements of the contralateral forelimb. A subpopulation of neurons in the RN exhibited a significant peak of activity after forelimb movement onset, suggesting reafferent sensory processing. Consistent with this observation, manual stimulation of the forelimb evoked RN responses. Unilateral inactivation of the RN using a mixture comprising GABAA, GABAB, and glycine receptor agonists caused an immediate and temporary increase in motor activity followed by a marked and prolonged decrease in twitching and wake movements. Altogether, these data support a causal role for the RN in infant motor behavior. Furthermore, they indicate that twitching, which is characterized by discrete motor output and reafferent input, provides an opportunity for sensorimotor integration and activity-dependent development of topography within the newborn RN.

  8. Dynamic properties of corticogeniculate excitatory transmission in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Granseth, Björn

    2004-01-01

    The feedback excitation from the primary visual cortex to principal cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is markedly enhanced with firing frequency. This property presumably reflects the ample short-term plasticity at the corticogeniculate synapse. The present study aims to explore corticogeniculate excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by brief trains of stimulation with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in dLGN slices from DA-HAN rats. The EPSCs rapidly increased in amplitude with the first two or three impulses followed by a more gradual growth. A double exponential function with time constants 39 and 450 ms empirically described the growth for 5–25Hz trains. For lower train frequencies (down to 1Hz) a third component with time constant 4.8 s had to be included. The different time constants are suggested to represent fast and slow components of facilitation and augmentation. The time constant of the fast component changed with the extracellular calcium ion concentration as expected for a facilitation mechanism involving an endogenous calcium buffer that is more efficiently saturated with larger calcium influx. Concerning the function of the corticogeniculate feedback pathway, the different components of short-term plasticity interacted to increase EPSC amplitudes on a linear scale to firing frequency in the physiological range. This property makes the corticogeniculate synapse well suited to function as a neuronal amplifier that enhances the thalamic transfer of visual information to the cortex. PMID:14724201

  9. Taste coding in the parabrachial nucleus of the pons in awake, freely licking rats and comparison with the nucleus of the solitary tract

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Michael S.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    In the rodent, the parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) receives information about taste directly from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Here we examined how information about taste quality (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) is conveyed in the PbN of awake, freely licking rats, with a focus on how this information is transformed from the incoming NTS signals. Awake rats with electrodes in the PbN had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli (5 consecutive licks; 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM citric acid, 0.01 mM quinine HCl, or 100 mM sucrose and water) or water (as a rinse) on a variable-ratio schedule. To assess temporal coding, a family of metrics that quantifies the similarity of two spike trains in terms of spike count and spike timing was used. PbN neurons (n = 49) were generally broadly tuned across taste qualities with variable response latencies. Some PbN neurons were quiescent during lick bouts, and others, some taste responsive, showed time-locked firing to the lick pattern. Compared with NTS neurons, spike timing played a larger role in signaling taste in the first 2 s of the response, contributing significantly in 78% (38/49) of PbN cells compared with 45% of NTS cells. Also, information from temporal coding increased at a faster rate as the response unfolded over time in PbN compared with NTS. Collectively, these data suggest that taste-related information from NTS converges in the PbN to enable a subset of PbN cells to carry a larger information load. PMID:24381029

  10. Acute repeated intracerebroventricular injections of angiotensin II reduce agonist and antagonist radioligand binding in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and median preoptic nucleus in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Speth, Robert C; Vento, Peter J; Carrera, Eduardo J; Gonzalez-Reily, Luz; Linares, Andrea; Santos, Kira; Swindle, Jamala D; Daniels, Derek

    2014-10-02

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates water and saline intakes when injected into the brain of rats. This arises from activation of the AT1 Ang II receptor subtype. Acute repeated injections, however, decrease the water intake response to Ang II without affecting saline intake. Previous studies provide evidence that Ang II-induced water intake is mediated via the classical G protein coupling pathway, whereas the saline intake caused by Ang II is mediated by an ERK 1/2 MAP kinase signaling pathway. Accordingly, the different behavioral response to repeated injections of Ang II may reflect a selective effect on G protein coupling. To test this hypothesis, we examined the binding of a radiolabeled agonist ((125)I-sarcosine(1) Ang II) and a radiolabeled antagonist ((125)I-sarcosine(1), isoleucine(8) Ang II) in brain homogenates and tissue sections prepared from rats given repeated injections of Ang II or vehicle. Although no treatment-related differences were found in hypothalamic homogenates, a focus on specific brain structures using receptor autoradiography, found that the desensitization treatment reduced binding of both radioligands in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), but not in the subfornical organ (SFO). Because G protein coupling is reported to have a selective effect on agonist binding without affecting antagonist binding, these findings do not support a G protein uncoupling treatment effect. This suggests that receptor number is more critical to the water intake response than the saline intake response, or that pathways downstream from the G protein mediate desensitization of the water intake response.

  11. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, F A; Quirion, R; Saavedra, J M; Aguilera, G; Catt, K J

    1984-01-01

    The 125I-labeled agonist analog [1-sarcosine]-angiotensin II ( [Sar1]AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (Ka = 2 X 10(9) M-1) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. Images PMID:6324205

  12. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, F.A.O.; Quirion, R.; Saavedra, J.M.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The /sup 125/I-labeled agonist analog (1-sarcosine)-angiotensin II ((Sar/sup 1/)AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (K/sub a/ = 2 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. 75 references, 2 figures.

  13. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Deborah M; Hermes, Sam M; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Aicher, Sue A

    2014-11-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals of the corneal afferents that contacted capsaicin-activated trigeminal neurons did not contain TRPV1. To determine if TRPV1 expression had been altered by capsaicin stimulation, we examined TRPV1 content of corneal afferents in animals that did not receive capsaicin stimulation. These studies confirmed that while TRPV1 was present in 30% of CTb-labeled corneal afferent neurons within the trigeminal ganglion, TRPV1 was only detected in 2% of the central terminals of these corneal afferents within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Other TRP channels were also present in low proportions of central corneal afferent terminals in unstimulated animals (TRPM8, 2%; TRPA1, 10%). These findings indicate that a pathway from the cornea to rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis is involved in corneal nociceptive transmission, but that central TRP channel expression is unrelated to the type of stimulus transduced by the peripheral nociceptive endings.

  14. Neuronal and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthases in the Paraventricular Nucleus Modulate Sympathetic Overdrive in Insulin-Resistant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Bo; Feng, Xue-Mei; Tong, Ning; Sun, Hai-Jian; Ding, Lei; Wang, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Ye-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A central mechanism participates in sympathetic overdrive during insulin resistance (IR). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) modulate sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which influences the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses. The aim of this study was to explore whether the NO system in the PVN is involved in the modulation of SNA in fructose-induced IR rats. Control rats received ordinary drinking water, whereas IR rats received 12.5% fructose-containing drinking water for 12 wks to induce IR. Basal SNA was assessed based on the changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to chemicals administered to the PVN. We found an increased plasma norepinephrine level but significantly reduced NO content and neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein expression levels in the PVN of IR rats compared to Control rats. No difference in inducible NOS (iNOS) protein expression was observed between the two groups. In anesthetized rats, the microinjection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, or Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-selective inhibitor of NOS, into the PVN significantly decreased and increased basal SNA, respectively, in both normal and IR rats, but these responses to SNP and L-NAME in IR rats were smaller than those in normal rats. The administration of selective inhibitors of nNOS or eNOS, but not iNOS, to the PVN significantly increased basal SNA in both groups, but these responses were also smaller in IR rats. Moreover, IR rats exhibited reduced nNOS and eNOS activity in the PVN. In conclusion, these data indicate that the decreased protein expression and activity levels of nNOS and eNOS in the PVN lead to a reduction in the NO content in the PVN, thereby contributing to a subsequent enhancement in sympathoexcitation during IR. PMID:26485682

  15. Dopamine-dependent hyperactivity in the rat following manipulation of GABA mechanisms in the region of the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Pycock, C J; Horton, R W

    1979-01-01

    The effect of manipulation of GABA mechanisms in the region of the nucleus accumbens on dopamine-dependent locomotor hyperactivity in the rat has been studied. Two models of hyperactivity were used: (1) the injection of dopamine into the region of the nucleus accumbens in nialamide-pretreated animals and (2) the systemic administration of d-amphetamine. Both GABA and the GABA agonist 3-aminopropane sulphonic acid (3-APS) depressed hyperactivity in a dose-related manner. High concentrations of GABA (greater than 100 micrograms) were required to produce a significant effect and the response was short-lived possibly reflecting the efficient GABA inactivating mechanisms. 3-APS proved to be approximately 10 times more potent as compared to GABA in the dopamine-accumbens hyperactivity model. Conversely GABA receptor antagonism with low doses of either picrotoxin or bicuculline enhanced the mild locomotor response induced by a low dose of dopamine injected into the nucleus accumbens. However such results were difficult to evaluate fairly as higher doses of the GABA antagonists resulted in varying degrees of generalized seizures. Blockade of GABA uptake systems with cis-1, 3-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid (ACHC), nipecotic acid or beta-alanine within the region of the nucleus accumbens produced dose-related depression of dopamine-dependent hyperactivity in both models. GABA uptake blockade (nipecotic acid) significantly enhanced the GABA-mediated depression of hyperactivity induced by bilateral injection of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens. The results demonstrate an inhibitory action of GABA and drugs facilitating GABA-ergic transmission on dopamine-dependent hyperactivity in the rat. Although open to criticisms of not being able to distinguish between true GABA effects and the results of non-specific neuronal depression the hyperactivity model underlines the potency of the GABA uptake blocking compounds and their possible potential for future clinical use.

  16. Chronic Methamphetamine Self-Administration Dysregulates Oxytocin Plasma Levels and Oxytocin Receptor Fibre Density in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Subthalamic Nucleus of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Baracz, S J; Parker, L M; Suraev, A S; Everett, N A; Goodchild, A K; McGregor, I S; Cornish, J L

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin attenuates reward and abuse for the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). Recent findings have implicated the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and subthalamic nucleus (STh) in oxytocin modulation of acute METH reward and relapse to METH-seeking behaviour. Surprisingly, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) is only modestly involved in both regions in oxytocin attenuation of METH-primed reinstatement. Coupled with the limited investigation of the role of the OTR in psychostimulant-induced behaviours, we primarily investigated whether there are cellular changes to the OTR in the NAc core and STh, as well as changes to oxytocin plasma levels, after chronic METH i.v. self-administration (IVSA) and after extinction of drug-taking. An additional aim was to examine whether changes to central corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and plasma corticosterone levels were also apparent because of the interaction of oxytocin with stress-regulatory mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press for i.v. METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule or received yoked saline infusions during 2-h sessions for 20 days. An additional cohort of rats underwent behavioural extinction for 15 days after METH IVSA. Subsequent to the last day of IVSA or extinction, blood plasma was collected for enzyme immunoassay, and immunofluorescence was conducted on NAc core and STh coronal sections. Rats that self-administered METH had higher oxytocin plasma levels, and decreased OTR-immunoreactive (-IR) fibres in the NAc core than yoked controls. In animals that self-administered METH and underwent extinction, oxytocin plasma levels remained elevated, OTR-IR fibre density increased in the STh, and a trend towards normalisation of OTR-IR fibre density was evident in the NAc core. CRF-IR fibre density in both brain regions and corticosterone plasma levels did not change across treatment groups. These findings demonstrate that oxytocin systems, both centrally

  17. Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential in magnocellular neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Boehmer, Gerd; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Martin, Erich; Hermann, Sven

    2000-01-01

    Electrophysiological properties and ionic basis of subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential were examined in 104 magnocellular neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus using intracellular recording techniques in a brain slice preparation. Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential occurring in all neurones examined was voltage dependent. Oscillation was initiated 7-12 mV negative to the threshold of fast action potentials. Oscillation was the result of neither excitatory nor inhibitory synaptic activity nor of electric coupling. Frequency analyses revealed a broad band frequency distribution of subthreshold oscillation waves (range 10-70 Hz). The frequency band of 15-33 Hz was observed in neurones depolarized close to the threshold of discharge. Subthreshold oscillation was blocked by TTX (1.25-2.5 μM) as well as by TEA (15 mM). Subthreshold oscillation was not blocked by low Ca2+-high Mg2+ superfusate, CdCl2, TEA (1-4.5 mM), 4-aminopyridine, apamin, charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin, BaCl2, carbachol and CsCl. During application of TTX, stronger depolarization induced high-threshold oscillation of the membrane potential at a threshold of about -32 mV. These oscillation waves occurred at a mean frequency of about 35 Hz and were blocked by CdCl2. Effects of ion channel antagonists suggest that subthreshold oscillation is generated by the interaction of a subthreshold sodium current and a subthreshold potassium current. The generation of high-threshold oscillation during TTX involves a high-threshold calcium current. Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential may be important for the inter-neuronal synchronization of discharge and for the amplification of synaptic events. PMID:10878105

  18. Components of after-hyperpolarization in magnocellular neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Greffrath, Wolfgang; Martin, Erich; Reuss, Stefan; Boehmer, Gerd

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacological sensitivity of hyperpolarizing components of spike train after-potentials was examined in sixty-one magnocellular neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus using intracellular recording techniques in a brain slice preparation.In 26 % of all neurones a slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP) was observed in addition to a fast AHP. In 31 % of all neurones a depolarizing after-potential (DAP) was observed.The fast AHP was blocked by apamin whereas the slow AHP was blocked by charybdotoxin (ChTX). The DAP was enhanced by ChTX or a DAP was unmasked if not present during the control period.Low concentrations of TEA (0.15–1.5 mm) induced effects on the slow AHP and the DAP essentially resembling those of ChTX. The same was true for the effects of CoCl2 (1 mm).Spike train after-potentials were not affected by either iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective high-conductance potassium (BK) channel antagonist, or margatoxin (MgTX), a Kv1.3 α-subunit antagonist.Kv1.3 α-subunit immunohistochemistry revealed that these units are not expressed in the somato-dendritic region of supraoptic neurones.The effects of ChTX, IbTX, MgTX, TEA, CoCl2 and CdCl2 on spike train after-potentials are interpreted in terms of an induction of the slow AHP by the activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels of intermediate single channel conductance (IK channels).The results suggest that at least the majority of supraoptic magnocellular neurones share the capability of generating both a slow AHP and a DAP. The slow AHP may act to control the expression of the DAP, thus regulating the excitability of magnocellular neurones. The interaction of the slow AHP and the DAP may be important for the control of phasic discharge. PMID:9806998

  19. Functional role of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Podda, Maria Vittoria; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Leone, Lucia; Piacentini, Roberto; Azzena, Gian Battista; Grassi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Although cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are expressed in numerous brain areas, little information is available on their functions in CNS neurons. The aim of the present study was to define the distribution of CNG channels in the rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and their possible involvement in regulating MVN neuron (MVNn) excitability. The majority of MVNn expressed both CNG1 and CNG2 A subunits. In whole-cell current-clamp experiments carried out on brainstem slices containing the MVNn, the membrane-permeant analogues of cyclic nucleotides, 8-Br-cGMP and 8-Br-cAMP (1 mm), induced membrane depolarizations (8.9 ± 0.8 and 9.2 ± 1.0 mV, respectively) that were protein kinase independent. The cGMP-induced depolarization was associated with a significant decrease in the membrane input resistance. The effects of cGMP on membrane potential were almost completely abolished by the CNG channel blockers, Cd2+ and l-cis-diltiazem, but they were unaffected by blockade of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. In voltage-clamp experiments, 8-Br-cGMP induced non-inactivating inward currents (−22.2 ± 3.9 pA) with an estimated reversal potential near 0 mV, which were markedly inhibited by reduction of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations. Membrane depolarization induced by CNG channel activation increased the firing rate of MVNn without changing the action potential shape. Collectively, these findings provide novel evidence that CNG channels affect membrane potential and excitability of MVNn. Such action should have a significant impact on the function of these neurons in sensory–motor integration processes. More generally, it might represent a broad mechanism for regulating the excitability of different CNS neurons. PMID:18048449

  20. The Good and Bad Differentially Encoded within the Subthalamic Nucleus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Emmanuel; Pelloux, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has only recently been added into the reward circuit. It has been shown to encode information regarding rewards (4% sucrose, 32% cocaine). To investigate the encoding of negative value, STN neurons were recorded in rats performing a task using discriminative stimuli predicting various rewards and especially during the replacement of a positive reinforcer (4% sucrose) by an aversive reinforcer (quinine). The results show that STN neurons encode information relative to both positive and aversive reinforcers via specialized subpopulations. The specialization is reset when the context is modified (change from a favorable context (4% vs 32% sucrose) to an unfavorable context (quinine vs 32% sucrose). An excitatory response to the cue light predicting the reward seems to be associated with the preferred situation, suggesting that STN plays a role in encoding the relative value of rewards. STN also seems to play a critical role in the encoding of execution error. Indeed, various subpopulations of neurons responding exclusively at early (i.e., “oops neurons”) or at correct lever release were identified. The oops neurons respond mostly when the preferred reward (32% sucrose) is missed. Furthermore, STN neurons respond to reward omission, suggesting a role in reward prediction error. These properties of STN neurons strengthen its position in the reward circuit as a key cerebral structure through which reward-related processes are mediated. It is particularly important given the fact that STN is the target of surgical treatment for Parkinson’s disease and obsessive compulsive disorders, and has been suggested for the treatment of addiction as well. PMID:26478913

  1. Taurine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens; antagonism by strychnine.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mia; Molander, Anna; Stomberg, Rosita; Söderpalm, Bo

    2006-06-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (nAcc), is involved in reward-related behaviours and addictive processes, such as alcoholism and drug addiction. It was recently suggested that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyR) in the nAcc regulate both basal and ethanol-induced mesolimbic DA activity via a neuronal loop involving endogenous activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the VTA. However, as the nAcc appears to contain few glycine-immunoreactive cell bodies or fibres, the question as to what may be the endogenous ligand for GlyRs in this brain region remains open. Here we have investigated whether the amino acid taurine could serve this purpose using in vivo microdialysis in awake, freely moving male Wistar rats. Local perfusion of taurine (1, 10 or 100 mm in the perfusate) increased DA levels in the nAcc. The taurine (10 mm)-induced DA increase was, similarly to that previously observed after ethanol, completely blocked by (i) perfusion of the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine in the nAcc, (ii) perfusion of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (100 microm) in the VTA, and (iii) systemic administration of the acetylcholine-depleting drug vesamicol (0.4 mg/kg, i.p). The present results suggest that taurine may be an endogenous ligand for GlyRs in the nAcc and that the taurine-induced elevation of DA levels in this area, similarly to that observed after local ethanol, is mediated via a neuronal loop involving endogenous activation of nAChRs in the VTA.

  2. Sudden Death Following Selective Neuronal Lesions in the Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarii

    PubMed Central

    Talman, William T.; Lin, Li-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    In efforts to assess baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats in which substance P (SP) or catecholamine transmission had been eliminated we studied animals after bilateral injections into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of SP or stabilized SP (SSP) conjugated to saporin (SP-SAP or SSP-SAP respectively) or SAP conjugated to an antibody to dopamine-β-hydroxylase (anti-DBH-SAP). We found that SP- and SSP-SAP eliminated NTS neurons that expressed the SP neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) while anti-DBH-SAP eliminated NTS neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DBH. The toxins were selective. Thus SP-or SSP-SAP did not eliminate TH/DBH neurons and anti-DBH-SAP did not eliminate NK1R neurons in the NTS. Each toxin, however, led to chronic lability of arterial blood pressure, diminished baroreflex function, cardiac ventricular irritability, coagulation necrosis of cardiac myocytes and, in some animals, sudden death associated with asystole. However, when TH/DBH neurons were targeted and eliminated by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), none of the cardiovascular or cardiac changes occurred. The studies reviewed here reveal that selective lesions of the NTS lead to altered baroreflex control and to cardiac changes that may lead to sudden death. Though the findings could support a role for SP or catecholamines in baroreflex transmission neither is proven in that NK1R colocalizes with glutamate receptors. Thus neurons with both are lost when treated with SP- or SSP-SAP. In addition, loss of catecholamine neurons after treatment with 6-OHDA does not affect cardiovascular control. Thus, the effect of the toxins may depend on an action of SAP independent of the effects of the SAP conjugates on targeted neuronal types. PMID:23245583

  3. Buprenorphine modulates methamphetamine-induced dopamine dynamics in the rat caudate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Frederico C; Gough, Bobby; Macedo, Tice R; Ribeiro, Carlos F; Ali, Syed F; Binienda, Zbigniew K

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse and addiction present a major problem in the United States and globally. Oxidative stress associated with exposure to METH mediates to the large extent METH-evoked neurotoxicity. While there are currently no medications approved for treating METH addiction, its pharmacology provides opportunities for potential pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts to behavioral therapy in the treatment of METH addiction. Opioid receptor agonists can modulate the activity of dopamine neurons and could, therefore, modify the pharmacodynamic effects of METH in the dopaminergic system. Efficacy of the adjunctive medication with buprenorphine has been demonstrated in the treatment of cocaine addiction extending beyond opiate addiction. We investigated the interactions of morphine (10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (0.01 and 10 mg/kg) with METH (2 mg/kg) affecting striatal dopaminergic transmission. The extracellular concentration of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were determined using brain microdialysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) in the caudate nucleus of adult, awake, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared to METH alone, extracellular DA release was prolonged for 140 min without changes in DA peak-effect by combined treatment with morphine/METH. Morphine did not change DOPAC efflux evoked by METH. On the other hand, both buprenorphine doses attenuated the METH-induced DA peak-effect. However, whereas high buprenorphine dose extended DA outflow for 190 min, the low-dose abbreviated DA release. High buprenorphine dose also shortened METH-induced decrease in DOPAC efflux. Data confirm that opiates modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission evoked by METH. Alteration of dopaminergic response to METH challenge under buprenorphine may suggest effectiveness of buprenorphine treatment in METH addiction.

  4. Protective effect of histamine microinjected into cerebellar fastigial nucleus on stress gastric mucosal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiao; Yang, Jun; Fei, Su-Juan; Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Zhu, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Zhang-Bo; Li, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jian-Fu

    2015-12-10

    In the study, we investigated the effect of histamine microinjected into cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) on stress gastric mucosal damage (SGMD), and its mechanisms in rats. The model of SGMD was established by restraining and water (21±1°C)-immersion for 3h. The gastric mucosal damage index (GMDI) indicated the severity of gastric mucosal damage. Histamine or receptor antagonist was microinjected into the FN. The decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle (DSCP) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were destroyed, respectively. The pathological changes of gastric mucosa were evaluated using biological signal acquisition system, Laser-Doppler flowmeter, and western blotting. We found that the microinjection of histamine (0.05, 0.5, and 5μg) into FN significantly attenuated the SGMD, in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, the microinjection of histamine H2 receptor antagonist, ranitidine, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antagonist, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) exacerbated the SGMD. The protective effect of histamine on SGMD was abolished by electrical lesion of DSCP or chemical ablation of LHA. The microinjection of histamine decreased the discharge frequency of the greater splanchnic nerve, and the gastric mucosal blood flow was increased. In addition, the cellular proliferation was enhanced, but the cellular apoptosis was reduced in the gastric mucosa. Also the pro-apoptosis protein, Bax, and caspase-3 were down-regulated, and the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2 was up-regulated following microinjection of histamine. In conclusion, the FN participated in the regulation of SGMD after histamine microinjected into FN, and cerebellar-hypothalamic circuits (include: DSCP, LHA) contribute to the process, which may provide a new therapeutic strategy for SGMD.

  5. Depletion of glucose causes presynaptic inhibition of neuronal transmission in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Akasu, T; Tsurusaki, M; Shoji, S

    1996-10-01

    The role of glucose in synaptic transmission was examined in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN) with single-microelectrode voltage-clamp and slice-patch technique. Removal of glucose from the oxygenated Krebs solution caused an outward current associated with an increased membrane conductance. The current-voltage relationship (I-V curve) showed that the hypoglycemia-induced outward current was reversed in polarity at the equilibrium potential for K+. Exposure of DLSN neurons to the glucose-free solution for 5-20 min depressed the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC), the inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC), and the late hyperpolarizing current (LHC). Replacement of glucose with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an antimetabolic substrate, mimicked the deprivation of glucose. Mannoheptulose (10 mM) and dinitrophenol, inhibitors of glucose metabolism, also depressed the PSCs, even in the presence of 10 mM glucose. Glucose-free perfusion did not significantly depress the glutamate-induced inward current, indicating that the inhibition of the EPSC by the glucose-free perfusion was presynaptic. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced outward currents were depressed by the glucose-free solution. Intracellular dialysis of DLSN neurons with a patch-pipette solution containing 5 mM ATP attenuated the hypoglycemia-induced outward current. Glucose-free superfusion consistently inhibited the IPSC and the LHC without changing the GABA-induced outward current in ATP-treated DLSN neurons. It is suggested that glucose metabolism directly regulates the release of both excitatory amino acids and GABA from the presynaptic nerve terminals.

  6. Subthalamic nucleus activity in the awake hemiparkinsonian rat: relationships with motor and cognitive networks.

    PubMed

    Delaville, Claire; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin M; Cruz, Ana V; Walters, Judith R

    2015-04-29

    Oscillatory activity in both beta and gamma ranges has been recorded in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and linked to motor function, with beta activity considered antikinetic, and gamma activity, prokinetic. However, the extent to which nonmotor networks contribute to this activity is unclear. This study uses hemiparkinsonian rats performing a treadmill walking task to compare synchronized STN local field potential (LFP) activity with activity in motor cortex (MCx) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), areas involved in motor and cognitive processes, respectively. Data show increases in STN and MCx 29-36 Hz LFP spectral power and coherence after dopamine depletion, which are reduced by apomorphine and levodopa treatments. In contrast, recordings from mPFC 3 weeks after dopamine depletion failed to show peaks in 29-36 Hz LFP power. However, mPFC and STN both showed peaks in the 45-55 Hz frequency range in LFP power and coherence during walking before and 21 days after dopamine depletion. Interestingly, power in this low gamma range was transiently reduced in both mPFC and STN after dopamine depletion but recovered by day 21. In contrast to the 45-55 Hz activity, the amplitude of the exaggerated 29-36 Hz rhythm in the STN was modulated by paw movement. Furthermore, as in PD patients, after dopamine treatment a third band (high gamma) emerged in the lesioned hemisphere. The results suggest that STN integrates activity from both motor and cognitive networks in a manner that varies with frequency, behavioral state, and the integrity of the dopamine system.

  7. Estrogen replacement modulates voltage-gated potassium channels in rat presympathetic paraventricular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an important site in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Specifically, PVN neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) play a regulatory role in the determination of the sympathetic outflow in the cardiovascular system. In the PVN-RVLM neurons, the estrogen receptor β is expressed. However, to date, the effects of estrogen on PVN-RVLM neurons have not been reported. The present study investigated estrogen-mediated modulation of two voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) subunits, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, that are expressed predominantly in PVN neurons and the functional current of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, the transient outward potassium current (IA). Results Single-cell real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement (once daily for 4 days) selectively down-regulated Kv4.2 mRNA levels in the PVN-RVLM neurons of ovariectomized female rats. There was no change in Kv4.3 levels. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that E2 also diminished IA densities. Interestingly, these effects were most apparent in the dorsal cap parvocellular subdivision of the PVN. E2 also shortened a delay in the excitation of the PVN-RVLM neurons. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that E2 exerts an inhibitory effect on the functions of IA, potentially by selectively down-regulating Kv4.2 but not Kv4.3 in PVN-RVLM neurons distributed in a specific parvocellular subdivision. PMID:24180323

  8. Discharge patterns of principal cells and interneurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of rat

    PubMed Central

    Burke, W.; Sefton, Ann Jervie

    1966-01-01

    1. The cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat are classified into one of two distinct groups on the basis of their responses to a single shock to optic nerve or visual cortex. The distinctive difference between these two groups is that the P cells (87% of all cells) responded with short bursts of 1-5 spikes, whereas the I cells (13%) responded with long bursts of about 10 spikes. Both groups give recurring bursts at intervals of 100 msec or more for a total duration of up to about 5 sec. 2. The majority of P cells (75%) have a lower threshold for late firing than for early firing. The majority of I cells (62%) have about the same threshold and all I cells have very low thresholds. 3. To stimulation of the optic nerve the mean latency of the first spikes of all P cells is 4·4 msec. The mean latency of the first spikes of all I cells is 5·8 msec. The latency of the earliest spike in an I cell is 0·9 msec longer than the earliest spike in a P cell. 4. To stimulation of the visual cortex the latency of the earliest spike in an I cell is 1·0 msec longer than the earliest spike in a P cell. Most P cells (78%) respond with either very short latency (less than 1·7 msec) or with a wave form characteristic of antidromic invasion or both. No I cell has either of these characterstics. 5. It is concluded that P cells are principal cells projecting to visual cortex and that I cells are interneurones. PMID:5972163

  9. Striatal Molecular Signature of Subchronic Subthalamic Nucleus High Frequency Stimulation in Parkinsonian Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lortet, Sylviane; Lacombe, Emilie; Boulanger, Nicolas; Rihet, Pascal; Nguyen, Catherine; Goff, Lydia Kerkerian-Le; Salin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation (STN-HFS) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and its interaction with levodopa (L-DOPA), focusing on the striatum. Striatal gene expression profile was assessed in rats with nigral dopamine neuron lesion, either treated or not, using agilent microarrays and qPCR verification. The treatments consisted in anti-akinetic STN-HFS (5 days), chronic L-DOPA treatment inducing dyskinesia (LIDs) or the combination of the two treatments that exacerbated LIDs. STN-HFS modulated 71 striatal genes. The main biological processes associated with the differentially expressed gene products include regulation of growth, of apoptosis and of synaptic transmission, and extracellular region is a major cellular component implicated. In particular, several of these genes have been shown to support survival or differentiation of striatal or of dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate that STN HFS may induce widespread anatomo-functional rearrangements in the striatum and create a molecular environment favorable for neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. STN-HFS and L-DOPA treatment share very few common gene regulation features indicating that the molecular substrates underlying their striatal action are mostly different; among the common effects is the down-regulation of Adrb1, which encodes the adrenergic beta-1- receptor, supporting a major role of this receptor in Parkinson's disease. In addition to genes already reported to be associated with LIDs (preprodynorphin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, metabotropic glutamate receptor 4, cannabinoid receptor 1), the comparison between DOPA and DOPA/HFS identifies immunity-related genes as potential players in L-DOPA side effects. PMID:23593219

  10. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  11. Increased glutamate synaptic transmission in the nucleus raphe magnus neurons from morphine-tolerant rats.

    PubMed

    Bie, Bihua; Pan, Zhizhong Z

    2005-02-09

    Currently, opioid-based drugs are the most effective pain relievers that are widely used in the treatment of pain. However, the analgesic efficacy of opioids is significantly limited by the development of tolerance after repeated opioid administration. Glutamate receptors have been reported to critically participate in the development and maintenance of opioid tolerance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brainstem slices, the present study investigated chronic morphine-induced adaptations in glutamatergic synaptic transmission in neurons of the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), a key supraspinal relay for pain modulation and opioid analgesia. Chronic morphine significantly increased glutamate synaptic transmission exclusively in one class of NRM cells that contains mu-opioid receptors in a morphine-tolerant state. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP mimicked the chronic morphine effect in control neurons and their potency in enhancing the glutamate synaptic current was significantly increased in neurons from morphine-tolerant rats. MDL12330a, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, and H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, reversed the increase in glutamate synaptic transmission induced by chronic morphine. In addition, PMA, a phorbol ester activator of protein kinase C (PKC), also showed an increased potency in enhancing the glutamate synaptic current in these morphine-tolerant cells. The PKC inhibitor GF109203X attenuated the chronic morphine effect. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic morphine increases presynaptic glutamate release in mu receptor-containing NRM neurons in a morphine-tolerant state, and that the increased glutamate synaptic transmission appears to involve an upregulation of both the cAMP/PKA pathway and the PKC pathway. This glutamate-mediated activation of these NRM neurons that are thought to facilitate spinal pain transmission may contribute to

  12. Light, neurotransmitters and the suprachiasmatic nucleus control of pineal melatonin production in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, D J

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the neuronal pathways involved in the generation and entrainment of circadian rhythms. We have monitored the output of the pineal gland via the urinary metabolite of melatonin, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT.6S), following drug treatment to provide information on the transmitters mediating the effects of light. As a check on the specificity of the response [suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) versus direct pineal effects] we also monitored in separate experiments c-Fos induction in the SCN in response to the treatments. Administration of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonist MK-801 (3 mg/kg) failed to inhibit either the acute or entraining effects of light on melatonin production and only partially (approximately 30%) prevented the induction of c-Fos in the SCN. These results suggested that EAA are either not important in mediating the effects of light in the rat or that pathways utilising transmitters other than EAA may be involved. When the non-specific serotonin agonist quipazine was administered at CT 18, it mimicked both the acute and phase delaying effects of light on melatonin secretion and induced c-Fos in the SCN with a regional distribution identical to that observed following light treatment. Characterisation of the receptor subtypes involved in this response implicated the 5HT2c receptor on the basis of the response to (+/-)-1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl (DOI, 0.1-0.5 mg/kg) and the potent antagonism by ritanserin and ketanserin. DOI (0.5 mg/kg) also induced c-Fos in the SCN and the induction was prevented by ritanserin and ketanserin. Despite the potency of 5HT2c agonists in mimicking light effects on melatonin rhythmicity, at the time of preparation we have not been able to block the effects of 2-1x/1-min light pulses on the melatonin rhythm with either metergoline (15 mg/kg), ritanserin (3 mg/kg) or ketanserin (3 mg/kg). Similarly ritanserin (10 mg/kg) failed to block light-induced c-Fos induction in

  13. The medial amygdaloid nucleus is involved in the cardiovascular pathway activated by noradrenaline into the lateral septal area of rats.

    PubMed

    Scopinho, América A; Fortaleza, Eduardo A T; Corrêa, Fernando M A

    2012-10-01

    We have previously reported that noradrenaline (NA) microinjected into the lateral septal area (LSA) caused pressor and bradicardic responses that were mediated by vasopressin release into the circulation through the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN). Although PVN is the final structure involved in the cardiovascular responses caused by NA in the LSA, there is no evidence of direct connections between these areas, suggesting that some structures could be links in this pathway. In the present study, we verified the effect of reversible synaptic inactivation of the medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) or diagonal band of Broca (DBB) with Cobalt Chloride (CoCl(2) ) on the cardiovascular response to NA microinjection into the LSA of unanesthetized rats. Male Wistar rats had guide cannulae implanted into the LSA and the MeA, BNST or DBB for drug administration, and a femoral catheter for blood pressure and heart rate recordings. Local microinjection of CoCl(2) (1 mm in 100 nL) into the MeA significantly reduced the pressor and bradycardic responses caused by NA microinjection (21 nmol in 200 nL) into the LSA. In contrast, microinjection of CoCl(2) into the BNST or DBB did not change the cardiovascular responses to NA into the LSA. The results indicate that synapses within the MeA, but not in BNST or DBB, are involved in the cardiovascular pathway activated by NA microinjection into the LSA.

  14. Common and distinct neural inputs to the medial central nucleus of the amygdala and anterior ventrolateral bed nucleus of stria terminalis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bienkowski, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) and lateral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) are highly interconnected limbic forebrain regions that share similar connectivity with other brain regions that coordinate behavioral and physiological responses to internal and environmental stressors. Their similar connectivity is frequently referred to when describing the CEA and lateral BST together as a unified “central extended amygdala”. However, the CEA and BST reportedly play distinct roles in behavioral and physiological responses associated with fear, anxiety, and social defeat, presumably due to differences in connectivity. To identify common and unique sources of input to the CEA and lateral BST, we performed dual retrograde tracing. Fluorogold and cholera toxin β were iontophoresed into the medial CEA (CEAm) and the anterior ventrolateral BST (BSTvl) of adult male rats. The anatomical distribution of tracer-labeled neurons was mapped throughout the brain. Regions with overlapping populations of CEAm- and BSTvl-projecting neurons were further examined for the presence of double-labeled neurons. Although most regions with input to the mCEA also projected to the BSTvl, and vice versa, cortical and sensory system-related regions projected more robustly to the CEAm, while motor system-related regions primarily innervated the BSTvl. The incidence of double-labeled neurons with collateralized axonal inputs to the CEAm and BSTvl was relatively small (~2 to 13%) and varied across regions, suggesting regional differences in the degree of coordinated CEAm and BSTvl input. The demonstrated similarities and differences in inputs to CEAm and BSTvl provide new anatomical insights into the functional organization of these limbic forebrain regions. PMID:22362201

  15. Role of glutamatergic receptors located in the nucleus raphe magnus on antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis of rat.

    PubMed

    Haghparast, Abbas; Soltani-Hekmat, Ava; Khani, Abbas; Komaki, Alireza

    2007-10-29

    Neurons in the nucleus cuneiformis (CnF), located just ventrolateral to the periaqueductal gray, project to medullary nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), which is a key medullary relay for descending pain modulation and is critically involved in opioid-induced analgesia. Previous studies have shown that antinociceptive response of CnF-microinjected morphine can be modulated by the specific subtypes of glutamatergic receptors within the CnF. In this study, we evaluated the role of NMDA and kainate/AMPA receptors that are widely distributed within the NRM on morphine-induced antinociception elicited from the CnF. Hundred and five male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. Morphine (10, 20 and 40 microg) and NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (10 microg) or kainate/AMPA receptor antagonist, DNQX (0.5 microg) in 0.5 microl saline were stereotaxically microinjected into the CnF and NRM, respectively. The latency of tail-flick response was measured at set intervals (2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27 min after microinjection) by using an automated tail-flick analgesiometer. The results showed that morphine microinjection into the CnF dose-dependently causes increase in tail-flick latency (TFL). MK-801 microinjected into the NRM, just 1 min before morphine injection into the CnF, significantly attenuated antinociceptive effects of morphine. On the other hand, DNQX microinjected into the NRM, significantly increased TFL after local application of morphine into the CnF. We suggest that morphine related antinociceptive effect elicited from the CnF is mediated, in part, by NMDA receptor at the level of the NRM whereas kainite/AMPA receptor has a net inhibitory influence at the same pathway.

  16. Electrolytic lesion of the nucleus raphe magnus reduced the antinociceptive effects of bilateral morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis in rats.

    PubMed

    Haghparast, Abbas; Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Maryam

    2008-06-27

    Several lines of investigation show that the rostral ventromedial medulla is a critical relay for midbrain regions, including the nucleus cuneiformis (CnF), which control nociception at the spinal cord. There is some evidence that local stimulation or morphine administration into the CnF produces the effective analgesia through the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). The present study tries to determine the effect of morphine-induced analgesia following microinjection into the CnF in the absence of NRM. Seven days after the cannulae implantation, morphine was microinjected bilaterally into the CnF at the doses of 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 microg/0.3 microl saline per side. The morphine-induced antinociceptive effect measured by tail-flick test at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after microinjection. The results showed that bilateral microinjection of morphine into the CnF dose-dependently causes increase in tail-flick latency (TFL). The 50% effective dose of morphine was determined and microinjected into the CnF (2.5 microg/0.3 microl saline per side) in rats after NRM electrolytic lesion (1 mA, 30 s). Lesion of the NRM significantly decreased TFLs, 30 (P<0.01) and 60 (P<0.05) but not 90-120 min after morphine microinjection into the CnF, compared with sham-lesion group. We concluded that morphine induces the analgesic effects through the opioid receptors in the CnF. It is also appeared that morphine-induced antinociception decreases following the NRM lesion but it seems that there are some other descending pain modulatory pathways that activate in the absence of NRM.

  17. Cardiovascular response to renin substrate microinjection into the central nucleus of the amygdala of rats.

    PubMed

    Heshmatian, Behnam; Parviz, Mohsen; Karimian, Sayed Morteza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Sohanaki, Hamid

    2007-05-07

    Central nucleus of the amygdala is involved in cardiovascular regulation. Although most components of the renin-angiotensin system have been found to be distributed in amygdala, renin expression in brain has remained controversial. This work was undertaken to elucidate the extent of renin presence in this nucleus. A cannula was implanted bilaterally into the central nucleus of the amygdala. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were directly measured via indwelling femoral artery cannula post bilateral intra central nucleus of the amygdala microinjection of renin substrate. Renin substrate microinjection dose-dependently increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate, whereas captopril, saralasin and losartan pretreatment inhibited these effects. The results suggest the presence of local renin or similar proteases in this nucleus.

  18. Dorsal raphe nucleus of brain in the rats flown in space inflight and postflight alteration of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, I.

    The structure of brain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was studied in the rats flown in space aboard Space Shuttle "Columbia" (STS-58, SLS-2 program) and dissected on day 13 of the mission ("inflight" rats) and in 5-6 hours after finishing 14-day flight ("postflight" rats). The brain of "inflight" rats were excised after decapitation, sectioned sagitally halves of brain were fixed by immersion in 2,5 % glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer pH 7.3 at 4°C and kept in the flight at 4°C. After landing the brain frontal 0.5 mm sections from DRN area were osmificated and embedded in araldite at NASA ARC. The brains of "postflight": and control rats were underwent to the same procedure. Electronmicroscopical analysis, computer morphometry and glial cell count were performed at Moscow. In DRN neuropil of "inflight" rats the most part of axo-dendritic synapses were surrounded by glia cell processes and had decreased electron density of pre- and postsynaptic membrane and pronounced diminution of synaptic vesicle amount while dendrites were characterized by decrease in matrix electron density and microtubule quantity that in total indicates the decline of afferent flow reaching DRN neurons in microgravity. In DRN neurons of "inflight" rats all mitochondria were characterized by evenly increased dimensions, decreased matrix electron density, small amount of short and far- between located cristae and enlarged intermembrane and intercristae spaces, that in total points out low level of coupling of oxidation to phosphorilation, decrease in energy supply of neuron. Amount of ribosome in cytoplasm was significantly decreased indicating lower lever of biosynthetic processes. The last is supported by diminished dimensions of neuronal body, nucleus and nucleolus (place of r RNA synthesis), cross section area of that were reduced in DRN neurons of "inflight" rats by 18.8 % (p < 0.01), 11.1 % and 26.6 % (p <0,005) correspondingly. Ultrastructure and dimensions of intracellular

  19. Increased expression of proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs in the nucleus accumbens of compulsive methamphetamine taking rats

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Krasnova, Irina N.; Walther, Donna; Brannock, Christie; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Collector, Daniel; Torres, Oscar V.; Terry, Ndeah; Jayanthi, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Addiction is associated with neuroadaptive changes in the brain. In the present paper, we used a model of methamphetamine self-administration during which we used footshocks to divide rats into animals that continue to press a lever to get methamphetamine (shock-resistant) and those that significantly reduce pressing the lever (shock-sensitive) despite the shocks. We trained male Sprague-Dawley rats to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 9 hours daily for 20 days. Control group self-administered saline. Subsequently, methamphetamine self-administration rats were punished by mild electric footshocks for 10 days with gradual increases in shock intensity. Two hours after stopping behavioral experiments, we euthanized rats and isolated nucleus accumbens (NAc) samples. Affymetrix Array experiments revealed 24 differentially expressed genes between the shock-resistant and shock-sensitive rats, with 15 up- and 9 downregulated transcripts. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed that these transcripts belong to classes of genes involved in nervous system function, behavior, and disorders of the basal ganglia. These genes included prodynorphin (PDYN) and proenkephalin (PENK), among others. Because PDYN and PENK are expressed in dopamine D1- and D2-containing NAc neurons, respectively, these findings suggest that mechanisms, which impact both cell types may play a role in the regulation of compulsive methamphetamine taking by rats. PMID:27841313

  20. Increased expression of proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs in the nucleus accumbens of compulsive methamphetamine taking rats.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Krasnova, Irina N; Walther, Donna; Brannock, Christie; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Collector, Daniel; Torres, Oscar V; Terry, Ndeah; Jayanthi, Subramaniam

    2016-11-14

    Addiction is associated with neuroadaptive changes in the brain. In the present paper, we used a model of methamphetamine self-administration during which we used footshocks to divide rats into animals that continue to press a lever to get methamphetamine (shock-resistant) and those that significantly reduce pressing the lever (shock-sensitive) despite the shocks. We trained male Sprague-Dawley rats to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 9 hours daily for 20 days. Control group self-administered saline. Subsequently, methamphetamine self-administration rats were punished by mild electric footshocks for 10 days with gradual increases in shock intensity. Two hours after stopping behavioral experiments, we euthanized rats and isolated nucleus accumbens (NAc) samples. Affymetrix Array experiments revealed 24 differentially expressed genes between the shock-resistant and shock-sensitive rats, with 15 up- and 9 downregulated transcripts. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed that these transcripts belong to classes of genes involved in nervous system function, behavior, and disorders of the basal ganglia. These genes included prodynorphin (PDYN) and proenkephalin (PENK), among others. Because PDYN and PENK are expressed in dopamine D1- and D2-containing NAc neurons, respectively, these findings suggest that mechanisms, which impact both cell types may play a role in the regulation of compulsive methamphetamine taking by rats.

  1. Deep brain stimulation of the medial septum or nucleus accumbens alleviates psychosis-relevant behavior in ketamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyi; Leung, L Stan

    2014-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective for relief of Parkinson's disease, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans, but the effect of DBS on psychosis is largely unknown. In previous studies, we showed that inactivation of the medial septum or nucleus accumbens normalized the hyperactive and psychosis-related behaviors induced by psychoactive drugs. We hypothesized that DBS of the medial septum or nucleus accumbens normalizes the ketamine-induced abnormal behaviors and brain activity in freely moving rats. Male Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected with ketamine (3 mg/kg) alone, or given ketamine and DBS, or injected with saline alone. Subcutaneous injection of ketamine resulted in loss of gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), deficit in prepulse inhibition (PPI) and hyperlocomotion, accompanied by increased hippocampal gamma oscillations of 70-100 Hz. Continuous 130-Hz stimulation of the nucleus accumbens, or 100-Hz burst stimulation of the medial septum (1s on and 5s off) significantly attenuated ketamine-induced PPI deficit and hyperlocomotion. Medial septal stimulation also prevented the loss of gating of hippocampal AEPs and the increase in hippocampal gamma waves induced by ketamine. Neither septal or accumbens DBS alone without ketamine injection affected spontaneous locomotion or PPI. The results suggest that DBS of the medial septum or nucleus accumbens may be an effective method to alleviate psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. The effect of medial septal DBS in suppressing both hippocampal gamma oscillations and abnormal behaviors induced by ketamine suggests that hippocampal gamma oscillations are a correlate of disrupted behaviors.

  2. Inactivation of the medial mammillary nucleus attenuates theta rhythm activity in the hippocampus in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Żakowski, Witold; Braszka, Łukasz; Zawistowski, Piotr; Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta; Jurkowlaniec, Edyta

    2017-04-03

    Although the importance of the mammillary body for memory and learning processes is well known, its exact role has remained vague. The fact, that many neurons in one nucleus of the mammillary body in rats, i.e. the medial mammillary nucleus (MM), fires according with hippocampal theta rhythm, makes this structure crucial for a theta rhythm signaling in so-called extended hippocampal system. These neurons are driven by descending projections from the hippocampal formation, but it is still unknown whether the mammillary body only conveys theta rhythm or may also modulate it. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pharmacological inactivation (local infusion of 0.5μl of 20% procaine hydrochloride solution) of the MM on hippocampal theta rhythm in urethane-anesthetized rats. We found that intra-MM procaine microinjections suppress sensory-elicited theta rhythm in the hippocampus by reduction of its amplitude, but not the frequency. Procaine infusion decreased the EEG signal power of low theta frequency bands, i.e. 3-5Hz, down to 9.2% in 3-4Hz band in comparison to pre-injection conditions. After water infusion (control group) no changes of hippocampal EEG signal power were observed. Our findings showed for the first time that inactivation of the MM leads to a disruption of hippocampal theta rhythm in the rat, which may suggest that the mammillary body can regulate theta rhythm signaling in the extended hippocampal system.

  3. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Subparaventricular Zone Lesions Disrupt Circadian Rhythmicity but Not Light-Induced Masking Behavior in Nile Grass Rats.

    PubMed

    Gall, Andrew J; Shuboni, Dorela D; Yan, Lily; Nunez, Antonio A; Smale, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The ventral subparaventricular zone (vSPVZ) receives direct retinal input and influences the daily patterning of activity in rodents, making it a likely candidate for the mediation of acute behavioral responses to light (i.e., masking). We performed chemical lesions aimed at the vSPVZ of diurnal grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus) using N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), a glutamate agonist. Following NMA lesions, we placed grass rats in various lighting conditions (e.g., 12:12 light-dark, constant dark, constant light); presented a series of light pulses at circadian times (CT) 6, 14, 18, and 22; and placed them in a 7-h ultradian cycle to assess behavioral masking. Extensive bilateral lesions of the vSPVZ disrupted the expression of circadian rhythms of activity and abolished the circadian modulation of masking responses to light, without affecting light-induced masking behavior per se. We also found that in diurnal grass rats, NMA was capable of destroying not only neurons of the vSPVZ but also those of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), even though excitotoxins have been ineffective at destroying cells within the SCN of nocturnal rodents. The vulnerability of the grass rat's SCN to NMA toxicity raises the possibility of a difference in density of receptors for glutamate between nocturnal and diurnal species. In cases in which damage extended to the SCN, masking responses to light were present and similar to those displayed by animals with damage restricted to the vSPVZ. Thus, extensive bilateral lesions of the SCN and vSPVZ disrupted the expression of circadian rhythms without affecting acute responses to light in a diurnal species. Our present and previous results suggest that retinorecipient brain areas other than the SCN or vSPVZ, such as the intergeniculate leaflet or olivary pretectal nucleus, may be responsible for the mediation of masking responses to light in the diurnal grass rat.

  4. Effects of cochlear ablation on amino acid concentrations in the chinchilla posteroventral cochlear nucleus, as compared to rat.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D A; Chen, K; Godfrey, M A; Jin, Y-M; Robinson, K T; Hair, C

    2008-06-12

    Using a microchemical approach, we measured changes of amino acid concentrations in the chinchilla caudal posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) after cochlear ablation to determine to what extent slow decreases of glutamate and aspartate concentrations after carboplatin treatment resulted from slower effects of cochlear damage in chinchillas than in rats and guinea pigs, as opposed to effects of carboplatin treatment being slower than those of cochlear ablation. Our results indicate that both factors are involved: decreases of glutamate and aspartate concentrations after cochlear ablation are much slower in chinchillas than in rats and guinea pigs, but they are much faster than the decreases after carboplatin treatment. Further, aspartate and glutamate concentrations in the chinchilla caudal PVCN decreased by larger amounts after cochlear ablation than in rats or guinea pigs, and there was a transient increase of aspartate concentration at short survival times. Detailed mapping of amino acid concentrations in the PVCN of a chinchilla with 1 month survival after cochlear ablation and a rat with 7 days' survival indicated that the reductions of glutamate and aspartate occurred throughout the PVCN but were somewhat larger in ventral and caudal parts in chinchilla. Any decreases in the adjacent granular region were very small. There were also sustained bilateral decreases in concentrations of other amino acids, notably GABA and glycine, in the caudal PVCN of cochlea-ablated chinchillas but not rats. The effects of cochlear ablation on the concentrations of most of these other amino acids in chinchilla caudal PVCN differed from those of carboplatin treatment. Thus, although a major effect of auditory nerve damage on the cochlear nucleus-decreases of glutamate and aspartate concentrations-occurs across species and types of lesions, the details of timing and magnitude and the effects on other amino acids can vary greatly.

  5. Chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional lateral cerebellar nucleus enhances recovery of motor function after cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Andre G.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Schuster, Daniel; Butler, Robert S.; Rezai, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Novel neurorehabilitative strategies are needed to improve motor outcomes following stroke. Based on the disynaptic excitatory projections of the dentatothalamocortical pathway to the motor cortex as well as anterior and posterior cortical areas, we hypothesize that chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional dentate (lateral cerebellar) nucleus output can enhance motor recovery after ischemia via augmentation of perilesional cortical excitability. Seventy five Wistar rats were pre-trained in the Montoya staircase task and subsequently suffered left cerebral ischemia with the 3-vessel occlusion model. All survivors underwent stereotactic right lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) implantation of bipolar electrodes. Rats were then randomized to 4 groups: LCN stimulation at 10 pps, 20 pps, 50 pps or sham stimulation, which was delivered for a period of six weeks. Performance on the Montoya task was re-assessed over the last four weeks of the stimulation period. On the right (contralesional) side, motor performance of the groups undergoing sham, 10 pps, 20 pps and 50 pps stimulation was, respectively, 2.5± 2.7; 2.1 ± 2.5; 6.0 ± 3.9 (p<0.01) and 4.5 ± 3.5 pellets. There was no difference on the left (ipsilesional) side motor performance among the sham or stimulation groups, varying from 15.9 ± 6.7 to 17.2 ± 2.1 pellets. We conclude that contralesional chronic electrical stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus at 20 pps but not at 10 or 50 pps improves motor recovery in rats following ischemic strokes. This effect is likely to be mediated by increased perilesional cortical excitability via chronic activation of the dentatothalamocortical pathway. PMID:19445910

  6. Interleukin-1 Inhibits Putative Cholinergic Neurons in Vitro and REM Sleep when Microinjected into the Rat Laterodorsal Tegmental Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, Dario; Barajon, Isabella; Bianchi, Susanna; Opp, Mark R.; Imeri, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: REM sleep is suppressed during infection, an effect mimicked by the administration of cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In spite of this observation, brain sites and neurochemical systems mediating IL-1-induced suppression of REM sleep have not been identified. Cholinergic neurons in the brainstem laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are part of the neuronal circuitry responsible for REM sleep generation. Since IL-1 inhibits acetylcholine synthesis and release, the aim of this study was to test the two different, but related hypotheses. We hypothesized that IL-1 inhibits LDT cholinergic neurons, and that, as a result of this inhibition, IL-1 suppresses REM sleep. Design, Measurement, and Results: To test these hypotheses, the electrophysiological activity of putative cholinergic LDT neurons was recorded in a rat brainstem slice preparation. Interleukin-1 significantly inhibited the firing rate of 76% of recorded putative cholinergic LDT neurons and reduced the amplitude of glutamatergic evoked potentials in 60% of recorded neurons. When IL-1 (1 ng) was microinjected into the LDT of freely behaving rats, REM sleep was reduced by about 50% (from 12.7% ± 1.5% of recording time [after vehicle] to 6.1% ± 1.4% following IL-1 administration) during post-injection hours 3-4. Conclusions: Results of this study support the hypothesis that IL-1 can suppress REM sleep by acting at the level of the LDT nucleus. Furthermore this effect may result from the inhibition of evoked glutamatergic responses and of spontaneous firing of putative cholinergic LDT neurons. Citation: Brambilla D; Barajon I; Bianchi S; Opp MR; Imeri L. Interleukin-1 inhibits putative cholinergic neurons in vitro and REM sleep when microinjected into the rat laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. SLEEP 2010;33(7):919-929. PMID:20614852

  7. Hyperventilation evoked by activation of the vicinity of the caudal inferior olivary nucleus depends on the fastigial nucleus in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Xu, Fadi; Frazier, Donald T

    2008-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that cerebellar deep nuclei, particularly the rostral fastigial nucleus (FNr), are involved in respiratory modulation. These nuclei receive inputs from the contralateral caudal inferior olivary nuclei of the medulla. The objectives of this study were to determine whether electrical and chemical activation of the vicinity of the caudal inferior olivary nuclei (vIOc) affected respiration and, if true, whether the FNr was involved in the vIOc stimulation-evoked ventilatory responses. Experiments were conducted in 30 anesthetized and spontaneously breathing rats. Our results showed that 1) electrical (25 or 100 microA at 10 or 20 Hz for 10 s) and chemical (1 or 100 mM, 25-50 nl N-methyl-D-aspartate) stimulation of the vIOc augmented ventilation predominantly via increasing tidal volume; 2) the responses to the electrical stimulation were almost eliminated by lesion of the contralateral FNr via microinjection of ibotenic acid; and 3) the respiratory responses to electrical stimulation in the vicinity of the rostral IO were 65-70% smaller compared with that evoked by vIOc stimulation. These findings strongly suggest that vIOc neurons play a significant role in modulation of respiratory activity, largely depending on their projections to the FNr.

  8. Up-regulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the rat nucleus accumbens after repeated electroconvulsive shock.

    PubMed

    Roh, Myoung-Sun; Cui, Feng Ji; Ahn, Yong Min; Kang, Ung Gu

    2009-10-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide regulates appetite, reward, and mood. CART expression is regulated via the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and electroconvulsive shock (ECS), an efficient antipsychotic and antidepressant measure, activates PKA-related signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that ECS may regulate the expression of CART. ECS given daily for five consecutive days increased CART mRNA and protein in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc), accompanied by an increase in CREB phosphorylation. Our results suggest that ECS-induced CART up-regulation might be associated with PKA-CREB signaling, but the causal direction remains to be elucidated in future studies.

  9. Participation of thalamic nuclei in the elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes of rats. V. Lesions of the nucleus mediodorsalis.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, F; Klingberg, H

    1978-01-01

    Hooded rats of the Long-Evans strain with isolated bilateral lesions of the nucleus mediodorsalis thalami (MD) were not able to avoid foot-shocks in a simple runway and in the jumping test. They even did not move and showed no emotional reactions during the conditioned stimulus. The lesions did not change spontaneous behaviour, motor patterns or the thresholds of pain reactivity. The animals displayed less spontaneous and goal-directed orienting responses. The possible participation of MD in a functional system realizing certain kinds of prognosis is discussed.

  10. Corticosterone microinjected into nucleus pontis oralis increases tonic immobility in rats.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Herrera, Vicente; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G; Miranda-Páez, Abraham; De La Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio R

    2011-09-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is also known as "immobility response", "immobility reflex", "animal hypnosis", etc. It is an innate antipredatory behavior characterized by an absence of movement, varying degrees of muscular activity, and a relative unresponsiveness to external stimuli. Experimentally, TI is commonly produced by manually forcing an animal into an inverted position and restraining it in that position until the animal becomes immobile. Part of the neural mechanism(s) of TI involves the medullo-pontine reticular formation, with influence from other components of the brain, notably the limbic system. It has been observed that TI is more prolonged in stressed animals, and systemic injection of corticosterone (CORT) also potentiates this behavior. At present, the anatomical brain regions involved in the CORT modulation of TI are unknown. Thus, our study was made to determine if some pontine areas could be targets for the modulation of TI by CORT. A unilateral nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) microinjection of 1 μL of CORT (0.05 μg/1 μL) in rats resulted in clear behavioral responses. The animals had an increased duration of TI caused by clamping the neck (in this induction, besides of body inversion and restraint, there is also clamping the neck), with an enhancement in open-field motor activity, which were prevented by pretreatment injection into PnO with 1 μL of the mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist spironolactone (0.5 μg/1 μL) or 1 μL of the glucocorticoid-receptor antagonist mifepristone (0.5 μg/1 μL). In contrast, these behavioral changes were not seen when CORT (0.05 μg/1 μL) was microinjected into medial lemniscus area or paramedian raphe. Our data support the idea that, in stressful situations, glucocorticoids released from adrenals of the prey reach the PnO to produce a hyper arousal state, which in turn can prolong the duration of TI.

  11. Differential Gene Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens and Frontal Cortex of Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats Relevant to Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-Matas, A; Montoya, G. L; Coria, S.M; Miguéns, M; García-Lecumberri, C; Ambrosio, E

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction results from the interplay between social and biological factors. Among these, genetic variables play a major role. The use of genetically related inbred rat strains that differ in their preference for drugs of abuse is one approach of great importance to explore genetic determinants. Lewis and Fischer 344 rats have been extensively studied and it has been shown that the Lewis strain is especially vulnerable to the addictive properties of several drugs when compared with the Fischer 344 strain. Here, we have used microarrays to analyze gene expression profiles in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of Lewis and Fischer 344 rats. Our results show that only a very limited group of genes were differentially expressed in Lewis rats when compared with the Fischer 344 strain. The genes that were induced in the Lewis strain were related to oxygen transport, neurotransmitter processing and fatty acid metabolism. On the contrary genes that were repressed in Lewis rats were involved in physiological functions such as drug and proton transport, oligodendrocyte survival and lipid catabolism. These data might be useful for the identification of genes which could be potential markers of the vulnerability to the addictive properties of drugs of abuse. PMID:21886580

  12. Nucleus accumbens shell and core dopamine responsiveness to sucrose in rats: role of response contingency and discriminative/conditioned cues.

    PubMed

    Bassareo, V; Cucca, F; Musio, P; Lecca, D; Frau, R; Di Chiara, G

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated by microdialysis the role of response contingency and food-associated cues in the responsiveness of dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens shell and core to sucrose feeding. In naive rats, single-trial non-contingent presentation and feeding of sucrose pellets increased dialysate shell dopamine and induced full habituation of dopamine responsiveness to sucrose feeding 24 and 48 h later. In rats trained to respond for sucrose pellets on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, dialysate dopamine increased in the shell but not in the core during active responding as well as under extinction in the presence of sucrose cues. In rats yoked to the operant rats, the presentation of sucrose cues also increased dialysate dopamine selectively in the shell. In contrast, non-contingent sucrose presentation and feeding in FR1-trained and in yoked rats increased dialysate dopamine to a similar extent in the shell and core. It is concluded that, whereas non-contingent sucrose feeding activated dopamine transmission in the shell and core, response-contingent feeding activated, without habituation, dopamine transmission selectively in the shell as a result of the action of sucrose conditioned cues. These observations are consistent with a critical role of conditioned cues acquired during training and differential activation of shell vs. core dopamine for response-contingent sucrose feeding.

  13. Antinociceptive role of oxytocin in the nucleus raphe magnus of rats, an involvement of mu-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Wen; Lundeberg, Thomas; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2003-10-15

    Recent studies showed that oxytocin plays an important role in nociceptive modulation in the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of oxytocin in antinociception in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of rats and the possible interaction between oxytocin and the opioid systems. Intra-NRM injection of oxytocin induced dose-dependent increases in hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation in rats. The antinociceptive effect of oxytocin was significantly attenuated by subsequent intra-NRM injection of the oxytocin antagonist 1-deamino-2-D-Tyr-(Oet)-4-Thr-8-Orn-oxytocin. Intra-NRM injection of naloxone dose-dependently antagonized the increased HWLs induced by preceding intra-NRM injection of oxytocin, indicating an involvement of opioid receptors in oxytocin-induced antinociception in the NRM of rats. Furthermore, the antinociceptive effect of oxytocin was dose-dependently attenuated by subsequent intra-NRM injection of the mu-opioid antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA), but not by the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or the delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole. The results demonstrated that oxytocin plays an antinociceptive role in the NRM of rats through activating the oxytocin receptor. Moreover, mu-opioid receptors, not kappa and delta receptors, are involved in the oxytocin-induced antinociception in the NRM of rats.

  14. GABAergic mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens septi regulating rat motor activity: the effect of chronic treatment with desipramine.

    PubMed

    Płaznik, A; Stefański, R; Kostowski, W

    1990-07-01

    The influence of chronic treatment with desipramine upon GABAergic mechanisms within the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) affecting rat motor behavior was studied in the automatic open fields. It was shown that intra-accumbens injections of picrotoxin on one hand and muscimol and baclofen on the other, produced dose-dependent increase or decrease in rat motility, respectively. Locomotor stimulation usually observed after picrotoxin did not occur in rats given local injections of a solution containing both picrotoxin and GABA A receptor agonist muscimol. Muscimol (130 ng as a pure compound) blocked also hypermotility produced by intra-accumbens administration of dopamine releasing drug d-amphetamine (10 micrograms). This part of the experiment was summarized as indicating that both GABA A and GABA B receptor-related mechanisms, which are under negative control of dopaminergic neurons in the NAS, play an important role in regulating behavior in the rat. In the second part of the experiment it was observed that chronic treatment of rats with desipramine (DMI) (10 mg/kg, PO, twice daily for 21 days, rats were tested 24 hr after the last dose of the drug) significantly attenuated or blocked the inhibitory effect on locomotion of both baclofen and muscimol. The stimulatory influence of picrotoxin seemed also to be diminished, but it still attained the level of accepted statistical significance. On the basis of these and other data it is concluded that observed changes in the effects of GABAergic agonists in DMI-treated rats are probably due to an enhancement of local dopaminergic mechanisms, thus leading to the potentiation of a negative interaction between dopaminergic and GABAergic mechanisms within the NAS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Environmental enrichment alters protein expression as well as the proteomic response to cocaine in rat nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lichti, Cheryl F.; Fan, Xiuzhen; English, Robert D.; Zhang, Yafang; Li, Dingge; Kong, Fanping; Sinha, Mala; Andersen, Clark R.; Spratt, Heidi; Luxon, Bruce A.; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research demonstrated that environmental enrichment creates individual differences in behavior leading to a protective addiction phenotype in rats. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenotype will guide selection of targets for much-needed novel pharmacotherapeutics. The current study investigates differences in proteome expression in the nucleus accumbens of enriched and isolated rats and the proteomic response to cocaine self-administration using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) technique to quantify 1917 proteins. Results of complementary Ingenuity Pathways Analyses (IPA) and gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA), both performed using protein quantitative data, demonstrate that cocaine increases vesicular transporters for dopamine and glutamate as well as increasing proteins in the RhoA pathway. Further, cocaine regulates proteins related to ERK, CREB and AKT signaling. Environmental enrichment altered expression of a large number of proteins implicated in a diverse number of neuronal functions (e.g., energy production, mRNA splicing, and ubiquitination), molecular cascades (e.g., protein kinases), psychiatric disorders (e.g., mood disorders), and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases). Upregulation of energy metabolism components in EC rats was verified using RNA sequencing. Most of the biological functions and pathways listed above were also identified in the Cocaine X Enrichment interaction analysis, providing clear evidence that enriched and isolated rats respond quite differently to cocaine exposure. The overall impression of the current results is that enriched saline-administering rats have a unique proteomic complement compared to enriched cocaine-administering rats as well as saline and cocaine-taking isolated rats. These results identify possible mechanisms of the protective phenotype and provide fertile soil for developing novel pharmacotherapeutics. Proteomics data are available via

  16. Altered nestin expression in the cerebrum with periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Yumi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Itoh, Masayuki; Oka, Akira; Takashima, Sachio

    2007-03-01

    Nestin is a cytoskeletal protein expressed by neural stem cells, and by immature neurons and glial cells. In an effort to explore the potential of the infant brain for repair and plasticity, we immunohistochemically studied nestin expression in the human cerebral cortex of control subjects and of patients with periventricular leukomalacia. During normal development, nestin immunoreactivity of the cortical gray and white matter was detectable throughout the fetal period, and disappeared around birth. In brain with periventricular leukomalacia, nestin expression was altered in a time- and space-dependent manner. In the cortical gray matter, neuronal immunoreactivity was often reduced in the subacute stage, but was increased in chronic and remote stages. In the white matter near a lesion of periventricular leukomalacia, glial immunoreactivity was increased in all stages. In many cases, neurons and axons far from a lesion also showed an altered expression of nestin. These findings indicate that in brain with periventricular leukomalacia, neurons and glial cells may recapitulate nestin expression in response to ischemic brain injury, suggesting functional relevance in repair and plasticity.

  17. Spinal direct current stimulation modulates the activity of gracile nucleus and primary somatosensory cortex in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, J; Pulecchi, F; Dilena, R; Oliviero, A; Priori, A; Foffani, G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Afferent somatosensory activity from the spinal cord has a profound impact on the activity of the brain. Here we investigated the effects of spinal stimulation using direct current, delivered at the thoracic level, on the spontaneous activity and on the somatosensory evoked potentials of the gracile nucleus, which is the main entry point for hindpaw somatosensory signals reaching the brain from the dorsal columns, and of the primary somatosensory cortex in anaesthetized rats. Anodal spinal direct current stimulation (sDCS) increased the spontaneous activity and decreased the amplitude of evoked responses in the gracile nucleus, whereas cathodal sDCS produced the opposite effects. At the level of the primary somatosensory cortex, the changes in spontaneous activity induced by sDCS were consistent with the effects observed in the gracile nucleus, but the changes in cortical evoked responses were more variable and state dependent. Therefore, sDCS can modulate in a polarity-specific manner the supraspinal activity of the somatosensory system, offering a versatile bottom-up neuromodulation technique that could potentially be useful in a number of clinical applications. PMID:21825031

  18. Pro-TRH and pro-CRF expression in paraventricular nucleus of small litter-reared fasted adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, F; Alvarez-Salas, E; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Amaya, M I; García-Luna, C; de Gortari, P

    2014-04-01

    Neuroendocrine axes adapt to nutrient availability. During fasting, the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is reduced, whereas that of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased. Overfeeding-induced hyperleptinemia during lactation may alter the regulatory set point of neuroendocrine axes and their adaptability to fasting in adulthood. Hyperleptinemia is developed in rodents by litter size reduction during lactation; adult rats from small litters become overweight, but their paraventricular nucleus (PVN) TRH synthesis is unchanged. It is unclear whether peptide expression still responds to nutrient availability. PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model. We analyzed adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to fasting-induced low leptin levels of reduced-litter adult rats. Offspring litters were reduced to 2-3/dam (early-overfed) or maintained at 8/dam (controls, C). At 10 weeks old, a subset of animals from each group was fasted for 48 h and leptin, corticosterone, and thyroid hormones serum levels were analyzed. In brain, expressions of leptin receptor, NPY and SOCS3, were evaluated in arcuate nucleus, and those of proTRH and proCRF in PVN by real-time PCR. ProTRH expression in anterior and medial PVN subcompartments was assayed by in situ hybridization. Early-overfed adults developed hyperphagia and excessive weight, together with decreased proTRH expression in anterior PVN, supporting the anorexigenic effects of TRH. Early-overfed rats presented low PVN proTRH synthesis, whereas fasting did not induce a further reduction. Fasting-induced stress was unable to increase corticosterone levels, contributing to reduced body weight loss in early-overfed rats. We concluded that early overfeeding impaired the adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to excess weight and fasting in adults.

  19. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  20. Effect of local infusion of glutamate analogues into the nucleus accumbens of rats: an electrochemical and behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L; Zhang, J; Johannessen, K; Engel, J A

    1994-04-18

    In vivo voltammetry at electrochemically pretreated carbon fibre electrodes was used to investigate the effect of local infusion of glutamate analogues on dopamine (DA) release in rat nucleus accumbens. Infusion of a low dose of NMDA or AMPA (1 mM/0.2 microliter), but not L-glutamate or kainate, was followed a few minutes later by a large but short-lived increase in the extracellular concentration of DA. The involvement of spreading depression was indicated since this response could be repeated only after a short refractory period, and the response magnitude did not seem to be dependent on the dose infused. Furthermore, the increase in DA release was accompanied by a marked negative shift in brain field potential and a similar increase in release could be induced by local infusion of K+. The infusion of NMDA, AMPA or kainate was followed by behavioural activation of the animals but not convulsions. The behavioural response induced by NMDA was dose-dependently reduced by haloperidol, which suggests the involvement of a DA-dependent mechanism in this effect. Co-infusion of the DA transport inhibitors, nomifensine or GBR 12909, failed to alter the DA response to NMDA, while this response was completely blocked by co-infusion of tetrodotoxin or pretreatment with reserpine. It is evident from this study that local infusion of NMDA or AMPA may induce spreading depression in rat nucleus accumbens and that this condition is associated with a vast release of DA and behavioural activation.

  1. GABA-A and GABA-B receptors in the cuneate nucleus of the rat in vivo.

    PubMed

    Orviz, P; Cecchini, B G; Andrés-Trelles, F

    1986-09-01

    Electric stimulation of the rat forepaw evokes a negative potential (N-wave) at the ipsilateral cuneate nucleus. The responses of the N-wave to microiontophoretically applied GABA agonists and antagonists have been studied. Applications of GABA-A agonists (3-amino-propanesulfonic acid and muscimol) reduce the amplitude of the N-wave. This effect decreases during prolonged application, suggesting a desensitization of GABA-A receptors. In addition the effect of muscimol is reduced by (-)-bicuculline methiodide. Baclofen (a GABA-B agonist) also depresses the N-wave but its action lasts longer, is less reversible, shows no desensitization and is not blocked by (-)-bicuculline methiodide. The different responses of the N-wave to GABA-A and GABA-B agonists are compatible with the existence of different types of functional receptors for them in the cuneate nucleus of the rat. The receptors activated by muscimol (GABA-A) are clearly not the same as the ones activated by baclofen (conceivably GABA-B).

  2. The Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of the Nucleus of Solitary Tract Was Potentiated by Chronic Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ban; Zhang, Zi-Nan; Lei, Jie; Li, Yun-Qing; Du, Jian-Qing; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Angina pectoris is a common clinical symptom that often results from myocardial infarction. One typical characteristic of angina pectoris is that the pain does not match the severity of the myocardial ischemia. One possible explanation is that the intensity of cardiac nociceptive information could be dynamically regulated by certain brain areas. As an important nucleus for processing cardiac nociception, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has been studied to some extent. However, until now, the morphological and functional involvement of the NTS in chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) has remained unknown. In the present study, by exploring left anterior descending coronary artery ligation surgery, we found that the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta and Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the rat NTS two weeks after ligation surgery increased significantly. Excitatory pre- and postsynaptic transmission was potentiated. A bath application of a Ca2+ channel inhibitor GABApentin and Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist NASPM could reverse the potentiated pre- and postsynaptic transmission, respectively. Meanwhile, rats with CMI showed significantly increased visceral pain behaviors. Microinjection of GABApentin or NASPM into the NTS decreased the CMI-induced visceral pain behaviors. In sum, our results suggest that the NTS is an important area for the process of cardiac afference in chronic myocardial infarction condition. PMID:25756354

  3. [Influence of ionizing radiation on enzymatic activity and state of nucleus-nucleolar apparatus in rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Nersesova, L S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Pogosian, S A; Pogosian, L L; Karalova, E M; Avetisian, A S; Abroian, l O; Karalian, Z A; Akopian, Zh I

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a single exposure of rats to the whole-body roentgen irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy and 4.5 Gy on the activity of creatine kinase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, as well as on the state of the nuclear-nucleolar apparatus in rat hepatocytes on the 6th and 13th days after radiation exposure have been studied. Irradiation at the above doses induced changes in the levels of enzymatic activity of different values and different directions within the same time periods, as well as oscillating changes in this type of enzymatic activity over time. This demonstrates various radiosensitivity and adaptation abilities of these enzymatic activities. The changes in the enzymatic activity significantly correspond to the changes in the morphometric indices of nuclear-nucleolar apparatus of hepatocytes, as well as the distribution of hepatocytes within the ploidy classes: in particular, stabilization of the enzymatic activity on the 13th day after irradiation correlates with the increased transcriptional activity, which is detectable through the increased number of nucleoli per nucleus and the expanded space of a hepatocyte nucleus. The compensation mechanisms are likely to be targeted at the changes in the functional activity of surviving hepatocytes, rather than at the replacement of the damaged cells by the new ones.

  4. Mu opioid receptor modulation in the nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred for high running motivation.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2015-10-01

    The exact role of opioid receptor signaling in mediating voluntary wheel running is unclear. To provide additional understanding, female rats selectively bred for motivation of low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviors were used. Aims of this study were 1) to identify intrinsic differences in nucleus accumbens (NAc) mRNA expression of opioid-related transcripts and 2) to determine if nightly wheel running is differently influenced by bilateral NAc injections of either the mu-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyo5-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.25, 2.5 μg/side), or its antagonist, naltrexone (5, 10, 20 μg/side). In Experiment 1, intrinsic expression of Oprm1 and Pdyn mRNAs were higher in HVR compared to LVR. Thus, the data imply that line differences in opioidergic mRNA in the NAc could partially contribute to differences in wheel running behavior. In Experiment 2, a significant decrease in running distance was present in HVR rats treated with 2.5 μg DAMGO, or with 10 μg and 20 μg naltrexone between hours 0-1 of the dark cycle. Neither DAMGO nor naltrexone had a significant effect on running distance in LVR rats. Taken together, the data suggest that the high nightly voluntary running distance expressed by HVR rats is mediated by increased endogenous mu-opioid receptor signaling in the NAc, that is disturbed by either agonism or antagonism. In summary, our findings on NAc opioidergic mRNA expression and mu-opioid receptor modulations suggest HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, express higher running levels mediated by an increase in motivation driven, in part, by elevated NAc opioidergic signaling.

  5. Glutamate and Opioid Antagonists Modulate Dopamine Levels Evoked by Innately Attractive Male Chemosignals in the Nucleus Accumbens of Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Catalán, María-José; Orrico, Alejandro; Hipólito, Lucía; Zornoza, Teodoro; Polache, Ana; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando; Granero, Luis; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding. Focal administration of the opioid antagonist β-funaltrexamine into the posterior ventral tegmental area does not affect preference for male chemosignals. Nevertheless, exposure to male-soiled bedding elicits an increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell and core, measured by microdialysis. Infusion of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the accumbens core does not significantly affect dopamine efflux during exposure to male chemosignals, although it enhances dopamine levels 40 min after withdrawal of the stimuli. By contrast, infusion of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid in the accumbens shell inhibits the release of dopamine and reduces the time that females spend investigating male-soiled bedding. These data are in agreement with previous reports in male rats showing that exposure to opposite-sex odors elicits dopamine release in the accumbens, and with data in female mice showing that the behavioral preference for male chemosignals is not affected by opioidergic antagonists. We hypothesize that glutamatergic projections from the amygdala into the accumbens might be important to modulate the neurochemical and behavioral responses elicited by sexual chemosignals in rats.

  6. Glutamate and Opioid Antagonists Modulate Dopamine Levels Evoked by Innately Attractive Male Chemosignals in the Nucleus Accumbens of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Catalán, María-José; Orrico, Alejandro; Hipólito, Lucía; Zornoza, Teodoro; Polache, Ana; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando; Granero, Luis; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding. Focal administration of the opioid antagonist β-funaltrexamine into the posterior ventral tegmental area does not affect preference for male chemosignals. Nevertheless, exposure to male-soiled bedding elicits an increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell and core, measured by microdialysis. Infusion of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the accumbens core does not significantly affect dopamine efflux during exposure to male chemosignals, although it enhances dopamine levels 40 min after withdrawal of the stimuli. By contrast, infusion of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid in the accumbens shell inhibits the release of dopamine and reduces the time that females spend investigating male-soiled bedding. These data are in agreement with previous reports in male rats showing that exposure to opposite-sex odors elicits dopamine release in the accumbens, and with data in female mice showing that the behavioral preference for male chemosignals is not affected by opioidergic antagonists. We hypothesize that glutamatergic projections from the amygdala into the accumbens might be important to modulate the neurochemical and behavioral responses elicited by sexual chemosignals in rats. PMID:28280461

  7. The medial preoptic nucleus as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of melanotan II in male rats.

    PubMed

    Monge-Roffarello, Boris; Labbe, Sebastien M; Lenglos, Christophe; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Samson, Pierre; Richard, Denis

    2014-07-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic effects of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog melanotan II (MTII). We also assessed the involvement of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) by investigating the effects of the MPO infusion of MTII in rats with DMH lesions produced by kainic acid. Infusion of MTII in the MPO led to increases in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) temperature and iBAT uptake of 14C-bromopalmitate. Both increases were blocked by DMH lesions. iBAT temperature increase (area under curve) and 14C-bromopalmitate uptake emerged as two correlated variables (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). DMH lesions also blocked MTII-induced expression of mRNAs coding for proteins involved in 1) thermogenesis [type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Pgc1α)], 2) lipolysis [hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl)], and 3) lipogenesis [diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), fatty acid synthase (Fas)], in iBAT of rats killed 1 h after MPO infusion of MTII. MTII also stimulated expression of genes in iWAT but only in rats with DMH lesions. These genes included glucose transporter member 4 (Glut4), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 (Gpat3), Dgat1, Dgat2, triglyceride lipase (Atgl), Hsl, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β (Cpt1β). Altogether, the present results reveal the MPO as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of MTII. They also contribute to establish the MPO-DMH duet as a significant target for melanocortins to modulate energy homeostasis.

  8. c-Fos expression after deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine Parkinson model.

    PubMed

    Saryyeva, Assel; Nakamura, Makoto; Krauss, Joachim K; Schwabe, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to alleviate motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) may be a potential target for severe freezing and postural instability with 25 Hz stimulation being considered more effective than 130 Hz stimulation. Here we evaluated the expression of c-Fos after 25 Hz and 130 Hz DBS of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg, i.e., the rodent equivalent to the human PPN) in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD model. Anaesthetized male Sprague Dawley rats with unilateral 6-OHDA-induced nigrostriatal lesions were stimulated with 25 Hz, 130 Hz, or 0 Hz sham-stimulation for 4h by electrodes implanted into the ipsilateral PPTg. Thereafter the distribution and number of neurons expressing the immediate early gene c-Fos, a marker for acute neuronal activity, was assessed. DBS of the PPTg induced strong ipsilateral c-Fos expression at the stimulation site, with 25 Hz having a more marked impact than 130 Hz. Additionally, c-Fos was strongly expressed in the central gray. In the dorsal part expression was stronger after 25 Hz stimulation, while in the medial and ventral part there was no difference between 25 Hz and 130 Hz stimulation. Expression in the basal ganglia was negligible. In the rat 6-OHDA PD model stimulation of the PPTg did not affect c-Fos expression in the basal ganglia, but had a strong impact on other functional circuitries. PPN stimulation in humans might therefore also have an impact on other systems than the motor system.

  9. Dopamine efflux in the rat striatum evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus: potential mechanism of action in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kendall H; Blaha, Charles D; Harris, Brent T; Cooper, Shannon; Hitti, Frederick L; Leiter, James C; Roberts, David W; Kim, Uhnoh

    2006-02-01

    The precise mechanism whereby continuous high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is unknown. We examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation of regions dorsal to and within the subthalamic nucleus on dopamine efflux in the striatum of urethane-anaesthetized rats using constant potential amperometry. Complementary extracellular electrophysiological studies determined the activity of subthalamic nucleus neurons in response to similar electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increased action potential firing in the subthalamic nucleus only during the initial stimulation period and was followed by a cessation of firing over the remainder of stimulation. Electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus with 15 pulses elicited stimulus-time-locked increases in striatal dopamine efflux with maximal peak effects occurring at 50 Hz frequency and 300 microA intensity. Extended subthalamic nucleus stimulation (1000 pulses at 50 Hz; 300 microA) elicited a similar peak increase in striatal dopamine efflux that was followed by a relatively lower steady-state elevation in extracellular dopamine over the course of stimulation. In contrast, extended stimulation immediately adjacent and dorsal to the subthalamic nucleus resulted in an 11-fold greater increase in dopamine efflux that remained elevated over the course of the stimulation. Immunohistochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase revealed catecholaminergic fibers running immediately dorsal to and through the subthalamic nucleus. Taken together, these results suggest that enhanced dopamine release within the basal ganglia may be an important mechanism whereby high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Ultrastructure and immunocytochemical characteristics of cells in the octopus cell area of the rat cochlear nucleus: comparison with multipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Cells in the octopus cell area of the rat ventral cochlear nucleus have been connected to the monaural interpretation of spectral patterns of sound such as those derived from speech. This is possible by their fast onset of firing after each octopus cell and its dendrites have been contacted by many auditory fibres carrying different frequencies. The cytological characteristics that make these large cells able to perform such a function have been studied with ultrastructural immunocytochemistry for glycine, GABA and glutamate, and compared to that of other multipolar neurons of other regions of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Cells in the octopus cell area have an ultrastructure similar to large-giant D-multipolar neurons present in other areas of the cochlear nucleus, from which they differ by the presence of a larger excitatory axo-somatic synaptic input and larger mitochondria. Octopus cells are glycine and GABA negative, and glutamate positive with different degree. Large octopus cells receive more axo-somatic boutons than smaller octopus cells. Fusiform octopus cells are found sparsely within the intermediate acoustic striae. These cells are large to giant excitatory neurons (23-35 microm) with 62-85% of their irregular perimeter covered with large axo-somatic synaptic boutons. Most boutons contain round vesicles and are glycine and GABA negative but glutamate positive. The latter excitatory boutons represent about 70% of the input to octopus cells. Glycine positive boutons with flat and pleomorphic vesicles account for 9-10% of the input while GABA-ergic boutons with pleomorphic vesicles represent about 20% of the synaptic input. Other few, multipolar cells within the rat octopus cell area are surrounded by more inhibitory than excitatory terminals which contain flat and pleomorphic vesicles, a feature distinctive from that of true octopus cells. The latter resemble multipolar cells seen outside the octopus cell area that project to the contralateral inferior

  11. Effects on serotonin of (-)nicotine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium in the dorsal raphe and nucleus accumbens of freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z; Strecker, R E; McKenna, J T; Thakkar, M M; McCarley, R W; Tao, R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurochemical mechanism underlying the effect of nicotine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the dorsal raphe nucleus and nucleus accumbens of freely behaving rats. For comparison, lobeline, cytisine and RJR-2403 were also investigated. It was found that all drugs, when infused locally, evoked an increase of 5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus. However, the magnitudes of the 5-HT increase were comparatively different between the drugs in the ranking of their potency: DMPP>RJR 2403>nicotine>lobeline>cytisine. Both methyllycaconitine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist and methyllycaconitine, a selective alpha7-containing nAChR antagonist blocked the effects of nicotine and DMPP, suggesting that alpha7 subunit mediated the increases in 5-HT. However, DMPP was reported to increase 5-HT using non-nAChR mechanism [Lendvai B, Sershen H, Lajtha A, Santha E, Baranyi M, Vizi ES (1996) Differential mechanisms involved in the effect of nicotinic agonists DMPP and lobeline to release [3H]5-HT from rat hippocampal slices. Neuropharmacology 35:1769-1777]. To test if 5-HT carriers were involved, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram (1 microM) was infused into the dorsal raphe nucleus before administration of nicotine or DMPP. As a result, citalopram significantly blocked the effect of DMPP, whereas it had no influence on nicotine. Finally, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was used to test whether the increases in 5-HT were depolarization-dependent. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) produced significant decreases in 5-HT in the animals treated with nicotine. In contrast, the effect of DMPP was not altered by 8-OH-DPAT, suggesting that the increases in 5-HT were independent of cell membrane depolarization. In conclusion, there are different mechanisms involved in nicotine- and DMPP-evoked increases in 5-HT. This

  12. Chemotherapy-induced kaolin intake is increased by lesion of the lateral parabrachial nucleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; De Jonghe, Bart C; Matyas, Kathleen; Norgren, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer agents, such as cisplatin, stimulate nausea, vomiting, and behaviors indicative of malaise. Rats and mice do not possess a vomiting response, and, therefore, in these species, the ingestion of kaolin clay (a pica response) has been used as an index of malaise. In the rat, cisplatin-induced kaolin intake is inhibited by antiemetic treatments. In addition, cisplatin activates vagal afferent fibers in the gut, and kaolin intake induced by cisplatin is largely dependent on an intact vagus. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain pathways controlling pica. We investigated the role of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), a major visceral afferent link between the hindbrain and forebrain, in cisplatin-induced c-Fos expression and pica. Injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg ip) produced c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral (external) lPBN, a region receiving viscerosensory input. In rats with bilateral ibotenic acid lPBN lesions, cisplatin treatment substantially increased kaolin intake compared with controls ( approximately 30 g vs. approximately 5 g, respectively, over 24 h). Food intake was reduced by cisplatin treatment and by apomorphine, an emetic agent that acts centrally. Unlike cisplatin, however, apomorphine stimulated kaolin intake to a similar degree in both the lesioned and control rats, suggesting that lPBN damage neither produces nonspecific effects nor enhances malaise in general. These data suggest that lPBN-lesioned animals not only demonstrate pica after cisplatin treatment, but, in fact, show an exaggerated response that is greatly in excess of any treatment known to produce kaolin intake in rats.

  13. Increased litter size and suckling intensity inhibit KiSS-1 mRNA expression in rat arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Tamadon, Amin; Akhlaghi, Amir; Tanideh, Nader; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The effect of litter size and suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of rats were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty two pregnant and four non-lactating ovariectomized (as control group) rats were used in this experiment. Lactating rats were allotted to eight equal groups. In three groups, litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition and allowed to suckle their pups continuously by 8 days postpartum. In the other three groups, litter size was adjusted to five upon birth; the pups were separated from the dams for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 min prior to killing the dams. Two groups of lactating rats with either 10 or 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 min before the dams were killed on day 8 postpartum. The ARC was removed and the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was evaluated, using real-time PCR. Results: The expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the ARC was decreased as the litter size and intensity of suckling stimulus were increased. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was more pronounced than that of litter size. Conclusion: Increased litter size and suckling intensity decreased KiSS-1 mRNA expression in the ARC which may contribute to lactation anestrus in rat. PMID:25422754

  14. Enhanced Endocannabinoid-Mediated Modulation of Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus Drive onto Dopamine Neurons in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sagheddu, Claudia; De Felice, Marta; Casti, Alberto; Madeddu, Camilla; Spiga, Saturnino; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Mackie, Kenneth; Marsicano, Giovanni; Colombo, Giancarlo; Castelli, Maria Paola; Pistis, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The progressive predominance of rewarding effects of addictive drugs over their aversive properties likely contributes to the transition from drug use to drug dependence. By inhibiting the activity of DA neurons in the VTA, GABA projections from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are well suited to shift the balance between drug-induced reward and aversion. Since cannabinoids suppress RMTg inputs to DA cells and CB1 receptors affect alcohol intake in rodents, we hypothesized that the endocannabinoid system, by modulating this pathway, might contribute to alcohol preference. Here we found that RMTg afferents onto VTA DA neurons express CB1 receptors and display a 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)-dependent form of short-term plasticity, that is, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI). Next, we compared rodents with innate opposite alcohol preference, the Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats. We found that DA cells from alcohol-naive sP rats displayed a decreased probability of GABA release and a larger DSI. This difference was due to the rate of 2-AG degradation. In vivo, we found a reduced RMTg-induced inhibition of putative DA neurons in sP rats that negatively correlated with an increased firing. Finally, alcohol failed to enhance RMTg spontaneous activity and to prolong RMTg-induced silencing of putative DA neurons in sP rats. Our results indicate functional modifications of RMTg projections to DA neurons that might impact the reward/aversion balance of alcohol attributes, which may contribute to the innate preference observed in sP rats and to their elevated alcohol intake. PMID:25232109

  15. Enhanced endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of rostromedial tegmental nucleus drive onto dopamine neurons in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; De Felice, Marta; Casti, Alberto; Madeddu, Camilla; Spiga, Saturnino; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Mackie, Kenneth; Marsicano, Giovanni; Colombo, Giancarlo; Castelli, Maria Paola; Pistis, Marco

    2014-09-17

    The progressive predominance of rewarding effects of addictive drugs over their aversive properties likely contributes to the transition from drug use to drug dependence. By inhibiting the activity of DA neurons in the VTA, GABA projections from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are well suited to shift the balance between drug-induced reward and aversion. Since cannabinoids suppress RMTg inputs to DA cells and CB1 receptors affect alcohol intake in rodents, we hypothesized that the endocannabinoid system, by modulating this pathway, might contribute to alcohol preference. Here we found that RMTg afferents onto VTA DA neurons express CB1 receptors and display a 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)-dependent form of short-term plasticity, that is, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI). Next, we compared rodents with innate opposite alcohol preference, the Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats. We found that DA cells from alcohol-naive sP rats displayed a decreased probability of GABA release and a larger DSI. This difference was due to the rate of 2-AG degradation. In vivo, we found a reduced RMTg-induced inhibition of putative DA neurons in sP rats that negatively correlated with an increased firing. Finally, alcohol failed to enhance RMTg spontaneous activity and to prolong RMTg-induced silencing of putative DA neurons in sP rats. Our results indicate functional modifications of RMTg projections to DA neurons that might impact the reward/aversion balance of alcohol attributes, which may contribute to the innate preference observed in sP rats and to their elevated alcohol intake.

  16. Cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats correlates with nucleus accumbens activity on manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Desai, Kirtan; Kohler, Robert J; Eapen, Ajay T; Lisieski, Michael J; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Bosse, Kelly E; Conti, Alana C; Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing goal of substance abuse research has been to link drug-induced behavioral outcomes with the activity of specific brain regions to understand the neurobiology of addiction behaviors and to search for drug-able targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cocaine produces locomotor (behavioral) sensitization that correlates with increased calcium channel-mediated neuroactivity in brain regions linked with drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior striatum (AST) and hippocampus, as measured using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Rats were treated with cocaine for 5 days, followed by a 2-day drug-free period. The following day, locomotor sensitization was quantified as a metric of cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in the presence of manganese. Immediately following behavioral testing, rats were examined for changes in calcium channel-mediated neuronal activity in the NAC, AST, hippocampus and temporalis muscle, which was associated with behavioral sensitization using MEMRI. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activity and produced behavioral sensitization compared with saline treatment of control rats. A significant increase in MEMRI signal intensity was determined in the NAC, but not AST or hippocampus, of cocaine-treated rats compared with saline-treated control rats. Cocaine did not increase signal intensity in the temporalis muscle. Notably, in support of our hypothesis, behavior was significantly and positively correlated with MEMRI signal intensity in the NAC. As neuronal uptake of manganese is regulated by calcium channels, these results indicate that MEMRI is a powerful research tool to study neuronal activity in freely behaving animals and to guide new calcium channel-based therapies for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence.

  17. Neurokinin 3 Receptor-Expressing Neurons in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Modulate Heat-Dissipation Effectors in the Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mittelman-Smith, Melinda A.; Krajewski-Hall, Sally J.; McMullen, Nathaniel T.

    2015-01-01

    KNDy neurons facilitate tail skin vasodilation and modulate the effects of estradiol on thermoregulation. We hypothesize that KNDy neurons influence cutaneous vasodilation via projections to neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) that express the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R). In support of this hypothesis, focal microinjections of senktide, an NK3R agonist, into the MnPO lowers core temperature (TCORE) in the female rat. To further study the role of MnPO NK3R neurons in thermoregulation, these neurons were specifically ablated using a conjugate of a selective NK3R agonist and saporin (NK3-SAP). NK3-SAP or blank-SAP (control) was injected into the MnPO/medial septum. Tail skin temperature (TSKIN) and TCORE were measured in ovariectomized rats exposed to 3 ambient temperatures (TAMBIENT) before and after estradiol-17β (E2) treatment. Before killing, we injected senktide (sc), monitored TCORE for 70 minutes, and harvested brains for Fos immunohistochemistry. Ablation of MnPO NK3R neurons lowered TSKIN at neutral and subneutral TAMBIENT regardless of E2 treatment. However, ablation did not prevent the effects of E2 on TCORE and TSKIN. In control rats, senktide injections induced hypothermia with numerous Fos-immunoreactive cells in the MnPO. In contrast, in NK3-SAP rats, senktide did not alter TCORE and minimal Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the MnPO. These data show that NK3R neurons in the MnPO are required for the hypothermic effects of senktide but not for the E2 modulation of thermoregulation. The lower TSKIN in NK3-SAP–injected rats suggests that MnPO NK3R neurons, like KNDy neurons, facilitate cutaneous vasodilation, an important heat-dissipation effector. PMID:25825817

  18. The effect of continuous ELF-MFs on the level of 5-HIAA in the raphe nucleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Shiri, Leila; Alaei, Hojjatollah; Naghdi, Naser

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) with a frequency of 10 Hz and an intensity of 690-720 μT on the level of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in adult male Wistar rats. A total of 24 adult Wistar male rats were used, and after exposure with an ELF-MF for 15 successive days, all rats in each test were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. Then, they were placed in a stereotaxic frame for surgery and a microdialysis process. Dialysate samples were analyzed to measure the amount of 5-HIAA by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using electrochemical detection. Results showed that ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 1 h daily, was not effective in altering the level of 5-HIAA. However, ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 3 h daily, decreased the level of the 5-HIAA in the raphe nucleus. It can be concluded that ELF-MFs affect the serotonergic system and may be used to treat nervous system diseases. This study is an initial step towards helping cure depression using ELF-MFs.

  19. Sleep deprivation reduces the citalopram-induced inhibition of serotoninergic neuronal firing in the nucleus raphe dorsalis of the rat.

    PubMed

    Prévot, E; Maudhuit, C; Le Poul, E; Hamon, M; Adrien, J

    1996-12-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) for one night induces mood improvement in depressed patients. However, relapse often occurs on the day after deprivation subsequently to a sleep episode. In light of the possible involvement of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission in both depression and sleep mechanisms, we presently investigated, in the rat, the effects of SD and recovery sleep on the electrophysiological response of 5-HT neurons in the nucleus raphe dorsalis (NRD) to an acute challenge with the 5-HT reuptake blocker citalopram. In all rats, citalopram induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the firing of NRD neurons recorded under chloral hydrate anaesthesia. After SD, achieved by placing rats in a slowly rotating cylinder for 24 h, the inhibitory action of citalopram was significantly reduced (with a concomitant 53% increase in its ED50 value). After a recovery period of 4 h, a normal susceptibility of the firing to citalopram was restored. The decreased sensitivity of 5-HT neuronal firing to the inhibitory effect of citalopram after SD probably results in an enhancement of 5-HT neurotransmission. Such an adaptive phenomenon (similar to that reported after chronic antidepressant treatment), and its normalization after recovery sleep, parallel the mood improvement effect of SD and the subsequent relapse observed in depressed patients. These data suggest that the associated changes in 5-HT autocontrol of the firing of NRD serotoninergic neurons are relevant to the antidepressant action of SD.

  20. A functionally relevant and long-term model of deep brain stimulation of the rat subthalamic nucleus: advantages and considerations.

    PubMed

    Spieles-Engemann, A L; Collier, T J; Sortwell, C E

    2010-10-01

    In this review we outline some relevant considerations with regards to the rat model of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS). In order to optimize the rat STN DBS model in terms of predictive validity for the clinical situation we propose that the STN stimulation experimental design parameters in rodents should incorporate the following features: (i) stimulation parameters that demonstrate functional alleviation of symptoms induced by nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) denervation; (ii) stimulation duration that is relatively long-term and continuous; (iii) stimulation that is initiated at a time when the denervation status of the nigrostriatal system is known to be partial and progressing; (iv) stimulation current spread that is minimized and optimized to closely approximate the clinical situation; (v) the appropriate control conditions are included; and (vi) implantation to the STN target is verified post-mortem. Further research that examines the effect of long-term STN DBS on the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of STN circuitry is warranted. The rat model of functionally relevant long-term STN DBS provides a most favorable preclinical experimental platform in which to conduct these studies.

  1. Immunoreactive vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and vasopressin cells after a protein malnutrition diet in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Castañeda, J; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Rojas, P; Rojas, C; Cintra, L

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal and postnatal protein deprivation on the morphology and density of vasopressin (VP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of young rats. Female Wistar rats were fed either 6% (malnourished group) or 25% (control group) casein diet five weeks before conception, during gestation and lactation. After weaning, the pups were maintained on the same diet until sacrificed at 30 days of age. The major and minor axes, somatic area and the density of VP- and VIP-immunoreactive neurons were evaluated in the middle sections of the SCN. The present study shows that chronic protein malnutrition (ChPM) in VP neurons induces a significant decrease in number of cells (-31%,) and a significant increase in major and minor axes and somatic area (+12.2%, +21.1% and +15.0%, respectively). The VIP cells showed a significant decrease in cellular density (-41.5%) and a significant increase in minor axis (+13.5%) and somatic area (+10.1%). Our findings suggest that ChPM induces abnormalities in the density and morphology of the soma of VP and VIP neurons. These alterations may be a morphological substrate underlying circadian alterations previously observed in malnourished rats.

  2. Dopamine decreases NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Michal; deBacker, Julian; Mason, Xenos; Jones, Andrea A; Dumont, Eric C

    2014-06-03

    Dopamine (DA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) contribute in the neural processes underlying drug-driven behaviors. DA is a potent modulator of NMDAR, but few studies have investigated the functional interaction between DA and NMDAR in the context of substance abuse. We combined the rat model of cocaine self-administration with brain slice electrophysiology to study DA modulation of NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST), a dense DA terminal field involved in maintenance of cocaine self-administration amongst other drug related behaviors. Long-Evans rats self-administered intravenous cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/injection) on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement for 15 days and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done on the 16th day. DA reduced NMDA currents in brain-slices from cocaine self-administering rats, but not in those of drug-naïve and sucrose self-administering, or when cocaine exposure was passive (yoked), revealing a mechanism unique to voluntary cocaine intake. DA reduced NMDA currents by activating G-protein-coupled D1- and D2-like receptors that converged on phospholipase C and protein phosphatases. Accordingly, our study reveals a mechanism that may contribute to dysfunctional synaptic plasticity associated with drug-driven behaviors during acute withdrawal.

  3. Replacing dietary glucose with fructose increases ChREBP activity and SREBP-1 protein in rat liver nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Hyun-Young; Miyashita, Michio; Simon Cho, B.H.; Nakamura, Manabu T.

    2009-12-11

    Diets high in fructose cause hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in part due to simultaneous induction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes in liver. We investigated the mechanism underlying the unique pattern of gene induction by dietary fructose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were meal-fed (4 h/d) either 63% (w/w) glucose or 63% fructose diet. After two weeks, animals were killed at the end of the last meal. Nuclear SREBP-1 was 2.2 times higher in fructose-fed rats than glucose-fed rats. Nuclear FoxO1 was elevated 1.7 times in fructose group, but did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed in nuclear ChREBP between two groups. However, ChREBP DNA binding was 3.9x higher in fructose-fed animals without an increase in xylulose-5-phospate, a proposed ChREBP activator. In conclusion, the gene induction by dietary fructose is likely to be mediated in part by simultaneously increased ChREBP activity, SREBP-1 and possibly FoxO1 protein in nucleus.

  4. Decreased approach behavior and nucleus accumbens immediate early gene expression in response to Parkinsonian ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Holt, Lauren R.; Blue, Katherine V.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Johnson, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) have difficulty producing normal speech and voice, resulting in problems with interpersonal communication and reduced quality of life. Translational animal models of communicative dysfunction have been developed to assess disease pathology. However, it is unknown whether acoustic feature changes associated with vocal production deficits in these animal models lead to compromised communication. In rodents, male ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have a well-established role in functional inter-sexual communication. To test whether acoustic deficits in USVs observed in a PINK1 knockout (KO) PD rat model compromise communication, we presented recordings of male PINK1 KO USVs and normal wild-type (WT) USVs to female rat listeners. We measured approached behavior and immediate early gene expression (c-Fos) in brain regions implicated in auditory processing and sexual motivation. Our results suggest that females show reduced approach in response to PINK1 KO USVs compared to WT. Moreover, females exposed to PINK1 KO USVs had lower c-Fos immunolabeling in the nucleus accumbens, a region implicated in sexual motivation. These results are the first to demonstrate that vocalization deficits in a rat PD model result in compromised communication. Thus, the PINK1 KO PD model may be valuable for assessing treatments aimed at restoring vocal communicative function. PMID:26313334

  5. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-04-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation.

  6. Ovarian Hormone Deprivation Reduces Oxytocin Expression in Paraventricular Nucleus Preautonomic Neurons and Correlates with Baroreflex Impairment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    De Melo, Vitor U.; Saldanha, Rayssa R. M.; Dos Santos, Carla R.; De Campos Cruz, Josiane; Lira, Vitor A.; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Michelini, Lisete C.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension increases dramatically in women after menopause, however the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Oxytocinergic (OTergic) neurons are largely present within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Several studies have shown that OTergic drive from PVN to brainstem increases baroreflex sensitivity and improves autonomic control of the circulation. Since preautonomic PVN neurons express different types of estrogen receptors, we hypothesize that ovarian hormone deprivation causes baroreflex impairment, autonomic imbalance and hypertension by negatively impacting OTergic drive and oxytocin levels in pre-autonomic neurons. Here, we assessed oxytocin gene and protein expression (qPCR and immunohistochemistry) within PVN subnuclei in sham-operated and ovariectomized Wistar rats. Conscious hemodynamic recordings were used to assess resting blood pressure and heart rate and the autonomic modulation of heart and vessels was estimated by power spectral analysis. We observed that the ovarian hormone deprivation in ovariectomized rats decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased sympathetic and reduced vagal outflows to the heart and augmented the resting blood pressure. Of note, ovariectomized rats had reduced PVN oxytocin mRNA and protein expression in all pre-autonomic PVN subnuclei. Furthermore, reduced PVN oxytocin protein levels were positively correlated with decreased baroreflex sensitivity and negatively correlated with increased LF/HF ratio. These findings suggest that reduced oxytocin expression in OTergic neurons of the PVN contributes to the baroreflex dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation observed with ovarian hormone deprivation. PMID:27790154

  7. Effects of acidic pH on voltage-gated ion channels in rat trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Eon; Cho, Jin-Hwa; Choi, In-Sun; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    The effects of acidic pH on several voltage-dependent ion channels, such as voltage-dependent K+ and Ca2+ channels, and hyperpolarization-gated and cyclic nucleotide-activated cation (HCN) channels, were examined using a whole-cell patch clamp technique on mechanically isolated rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neurons. The application of a pH 6.5 solution had no effect on the peak amplitude of voltage-dependent K+ currents. A pH 6.0 solution slightly, but significantly inhibited the peak amplitude of voltage-dependent K+ currents. The pH 6.0 also shifted both the current-voltage and conductance-voltage relationships to the depolarization range. The application of a pH 6.5 solution scarcely affected the peak amplitude of membrane currents mediated by HCN channels, which were profoundly inhibited by the general HCN channel blocker Cs+ (1 mM). However, the pH 6.0 solution slightly, but significantly inhibited the peak amplitude of HCN-mediated currents. Although the pH 6.0 solution showed complex modulation of the current-voltage and conductance-voltage relationships, the midpoint voltages for the activation of HCN channels were not changed by acidic pH. On the other hand, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels were significantly inhibited by an acidic pH. The application of an acidic pH solution significantly shifted the current-voltage and conductance-voltage relationships to the depolarization range. The modulation of several voltage-dependent ion channels by an acidic pH might affect the excitability of mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neurons, and thus physiological functions mediated by the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus could be affected in acidic pH conditions. PMID:28280415

  8. Changes of some amino acid concentrations in the medial vestibular nucleus of conscious rats following acute hypotension.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Lan; An, Ying; Jin, Qing-Hua; Kim, Min Sun; Park, Byung Rim; Jin, Yuan-Zhe

    2010-06-14

    Microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to measure the changes of certain amino acids in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) of conscious rats in order to understand whether those amino acids are involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Acute hypotension was induced by infusing sodium nitroprusside (SNP) into the femoral vein. In the control group, glutamate (Glu) release increased, though gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine (Tau) release decreased in the MVN following acute hypotension. In the unilateral labyrinthectomy group, the levels of Glu, GABA, and Tau were unchanged in the ipsilateral MVN to the lesion following acute hypotension. Furthermore, in the contralateral MVN to the lesion, Glu release increased, and GABA and Tau release decreased following acute hypotension. These results suggest that SNP-induced acute hypotension can influence the activity of neurons in the MVN through afferent signals from peripheral vestibular receptors, and that certain amino acid transmitters in the MVN are involved in this process.

  9. Participation of thalamic nuclei in the elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes of rats. VI. Lesions of the nucleus lateralis anterior.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, F; Klingberg, H

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral lesions of the nucleus lateralis anterior thalami (LA) did not change sensory or motor functions of hooded rats. Postoperative retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) preoperatively learnt in a jumping test, was decreased insignificantly, relearning slowed somewhat down, the variance of individual reaction times (CAR latencies) increased. Postoperative acquisition of CAR revealed some uncertainty and delay, but criterion was reached. Preoperative experience influenced the type of errors in a discrimination task (go/no go): After preoperative acquisition of CAR go-responses, after postoperative acquisition of CAR no-go-responses dominated. In these experiments the memory processes may be influenced by changes of some limbic regulatory processes in which LA plays a role.

  10. Participation of thalamic nuclei in the acquisition of conditioned avoidance reflexes in rats. IX. Lesions of the nucleus reticularis.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, F; Klingberg, H

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral symmetric lesions of the anterior part of the nucleus reticularis thalami (RET) strongly reduced the preoperatively learnt avoidance responses in Long-Evans hooded rats. A great retention loss, significantly prolonged reaction times and slow incorrect escape reactions in the first postoperative session in a simple runway task were corrected in the relearning period. The relearning of directional change and of a 2:2 alternation schedule in the Y-maze was rather difficult; it delayed and remained on a lower performance level with a not correctable side preference. A great retention loss in the pole-climbing test was not compensated in the relearning period. The experimental data suggest that the RET plays an important role in the inhibition of incorrect responses.

  11. [Involvement of thalamic nuclei in the formation of conditioned avoidance responses in rats. III. Lesions of the nucleus ventralis medialis].

    PubMed

    Glass, J; Klingberg, F

    1978-01-01

    Bilateral lesions of the nucleus ventralis medialis thalami (VM) did not change the reactivity to sensory and painful stimuli, the preoperatively fixed motor patterns and the preoperatively elaborated conditioned avoidance response (CAR, jumping test) in hooded rats (Long-Evans-strain). The postoperative acquisition of a CAR in a runway was attained as in controls, but with significantly higher running speed. During continuation of the training in a Y-maze using a 2:2-alternation schedule the CAR decreased gradually to zero as a consequences of increasing reaction times (time from onset of the acoustic conditioned signal to the onset of running). At least the lesioned animals only started with the onset of the painful reinforcement. In spite of the non-avoidance these animals learned to escape correctly through the illuminated floor (dark-light-discrimination). The results are discussed as a consequence of a deficit in conditioning of locomotor programs.

  12. Local acamprosate modulates dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens through NMDA receptors: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Cano-Cebrián, M J; Zornoza-Sabina, T; Guerri, C; Polache, A; Granero, L

    2003-02-01

    The effects of acamprosate on the in vivo dopamine extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens and the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in these effects were investigated. Microdialysis in freely moving rats was used to assess dopamine levels before and during simultaneous perfusion of acamprosate and/or different agonists or antagonists of NMDA receptors. Perfusion with acamprosate at concentrations of 0.5 and 5 mM provoked a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The lowest concentration of acamprosate assayed (0.05 mM) had no effect on dopamine levels. Infusion of NMDA (25 and 500 microM) and the glutamate uptake blocker, L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxilic acid (PDC) (0.5 mM) into the NAc caused a significant increase in DA, whereas acamprosate (0.05 mM) co-infusion with these compounds blocked or attenuated the NMDA and PDC-induced increases in DA levels. Co-infusion of the selective antagonist of NMDA receptors, DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) (400 microM) with acamprosate (0.5 mM), did not reduce the increase of DA levels induced by acamprosate. These results demonstrate that acamprosate is able to modulate DA extracellular levels in NAc via NMDA receptors and suggest that acamprosate acts as an antagonist of NMDA receptors.

  13. Effect of ethanol on (/sup 3/H)dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.A.; Lamm, M.C.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    Ethanol (10-200 mM) transiently increased tritium overflow from superfused rat nucleus accumbens slices previously incubated with (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) and (/sup 14/C)choline. The effect was greater in striatal tissue and did not appear to be a non-specific membrane effect since (/sup 14/C)acetylcholine (ACh) release was not affected. Lack of antagonism by picrotoxin suggested that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were not involved. Calcium was not a requirement and the DA uptake blocker, nomifensine, was without effect. Ethanol appeared to be causing (/sup 3/H)DA release into the cytoplasm. K+ -stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)DA and (/sup 14/C)ACh from nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was not affected. Clonidine-mediated inhibition of the K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)DA remained unaltered. Ethanol attenuated the isoproterenol-induced enhancement of (/sup 3/H)DA release. Ethanol therefore appeared to interact with components of the DA terminal causing a transient increase in the release of neurotransmitter without impairing K+-evoked release but apparently interfering with the isoproterenol-induced effect.

  14. Effects of nicotine, methamphetamine and cocaine on extracellular levels of acetylcholine in the interpeduncular nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rifat J; Taraschenko, Olga D; Glick, Stanley D

    2008-08-08

    There is increasing evidence that the cholinergic habenulo-interpeduncular pathway and the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway may jointly mediate the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. However, the effects of addictive drug on the functioning of the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway have not been well-characterized. Thus, several drugs of abuse (i.e., nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine) have been shown to alter the morphology of the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway, causing selective degeneration of the cholinergic neurons in this area. On the other hand, morphine was shown to alter the neurochemistry of the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway, inducing biphasic changes in acetylcholine release in the interpeduncular nucleus. In order to determine the effects of cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine on cholinergic neurotransmission in the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway, levels of acetylcholine were assessed during microdialysis in freely moving rats. Nicotine (0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg s.c.) produced a dose-dependent decrease in extracellular levels of acetylcholine, while methamphetamine (1 and 4 mg/kg i.p.) produced an increase in acetylcholine release in the interpeduncular nucleus. Cocaine (5 and 20 mg/kg i.p.) produced a biphasic effect on extracellular acetylcholine release, i.e., a low dose enhanced the release of acetylcholine and a high dose decreased its release. These results suggest that the habenulo-intepeduncular pathway may be a common target for drugs of abuse and, by modulating the mesolimbic pathway, may mediate unique aspects of the rewarding effects of different drugs.

  15. Burst-firing activity of presumed 5-HT neurones of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus: electrophysiological analysis by antidromic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hajós, M; Sharp, T

    1996-11-18

    We recently reported raphe neurones which frequently fired spikes in short bursts. However, the action potentials were broad and the neurones fired in a slow and regular pattern, suggesting they were an unusual type of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurone. In the present study, we investigated whether these putative burst-firing 5-HT neurones project to the forebrain and whether all spikes fired in bursts propagate along the axon. In anaesthetised rats, electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle evoked antidromic spikes in both burst-firing neurones and in single-spiking, classical 5-HT neurones recorded in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Although the antidromic spike latency of the single-spiking and burst-firing neurones showed a clear overlap, burst-firing neurones had a significantly shorter latency than single-spiking neurones. For both burst-firing neurones and classical 5-HT neurones, antidromic spikes made collisions with spontaneously occurring spikes. Furthermore, in all burst-firing neurones tested, first, second and third order spikes in a burst could be made to collide with antidromic spike. Interestingly, in a small number of burst-firing neurones, antidromic stimulation evoked spike doublets, similar to those recorded spontaneously. From these data we conclude that burst-firing neurones in the dorsal raphe nucleus project to the forebrain, and each spike generated by the burst propagates along the axon and could thereby release transmitter (5-HT).

  16. Electrical stimulation of reward sites in the ventral tegmental area increases dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens of the rat.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, D F; Coury, A; Fibiger, H C; Phillips, A G

    1993-06-30

    In vivo microdialysis with HPLC-ED was used to measure dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the nucleus accumbens of the rat, prior, during, and after 15-min periods of electrical brain stimulation at sites in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that supported intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). In the first experiment, both ICSS and yoked stimulation of the VTA evoked significant increases in extracellular concentrations of DA, its metabolites, and 5-HIAA. Comparable results from ICSS and yoked groups were interpreted as evidence that the rewarding properties of VTA stimulation were a causal factor in the elevated DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens, rather than intense operant behavior. Further evidence for this hypothesis came from a second set of data in which changes in extracellular DA levels during the measurement of rate/intensity functions for ICSS were positively correlated. 5-HIAA concentrations also increased during ICSS but these changes were not correlated with either ICSS rate or current intensity, suggesting that changes in serotonin metabolism were unlikely to subserve brain stimulation reward in the VTA. These results add to the growing body of evidence linking changes in extracellular DA in the mesolimbic DA system with both brain stimulation reward and the conditioned and unconditioned rewarding effects of biologically relevant stimuli.

  17. Reduction in 50-kHz call-numbers and suppression of tickling-associated positive affective behaviour after lesioning of the lateral hypothalamic parvafox nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Roccaro-Waldmeyer, Diana M; Babalian, Alexandre; Müller, Annelies; Celio, Marco R

    2016-02-01

    The parvafox nucleus is located ventrolaterally in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Its core and shell are composed of neurons expressing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) and the transcription factor Foxb1, respectively. Given the known functions of the LHA and that the parvafox nucleus receives afferents from the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and projects to the periaqueductal gray matter, a functional role of this entity in the expression of positive emotions has been postulated. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether the deletion of neurons in the parvafox nucleus influenced the tickling-induced 50-kHz calls, which are thought to reflect positive affective states, in rats. To this end, tickling of the animals (heterospecific play) was combined with intracerebral injections of the excitotoxin kainic acid into the parvafox nucleus. The most pronounced surgery-associated reduction in 50-kHz call-numbers was observed in the group of rats in which, on the basis of PV-immunoreactive-cell counts in the parvafox nucleus, bilateral lesions had been successfully produced. Two other parameters that were implemented to quantify positive affective behaviour, namely, an approach towards and a following of the hand of the tickling experimenter, were likewise most markedly suppressed in the group of rats with bilaterally successful lesions. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between each of the investigated parameters. Our data afford evidence that the parvafox nucleus plays a role in the production of 50-kHz calls in rats, and, more generally, in the expression of positive emotions.

  18. Effect of neurotoxic lesion of pedunculopontine nucleus in nigral and striatal redox balance and motor performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Martin, J; Blanco-Lezcano, L; González-Fraguela, M E; Díaz-Hung, M-L; Serrano-Sánchez, T; Almenares, J L; Francis-Turner, L

    2015-03-19

    Early degeneration of pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is considered part of changes that characterize premotor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, the effects of unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN in motor execution and in the development of oxidative stress events in striatal and nigral tissues in rats were evaluated. The motor performance was assessed using the beam test (BT) and the cylinder test (CT). Nigral and striatal redox balance, was studied by means of biochemical indicators such as malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the catalase enzymatic activity (CAT EA). Lesioned rats showed fine motor dysfunction expressed both as an increase in the length (p<0.001) and deviation (p<0.001) of the traveled path and also in the time spent (p<0.01) in the circular small beam (CBS) (p<0.01) in comparison with control groups. In addition, the lesioned rats group presented a right asymmetry index greater than 0.5 which is consistent with a significant increase in the percentage of use of the right forelimb (ipsilateral to the lesion), compared with the control group (p<0.05). Biochemical studies revealed that after 48-h PPN neurotoxic injury, the CAT EA showed a significant increase in the subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) (p<0.05). This significant increase of CAT EA persisted in the nigral tissue (p<0.001) and reached the striatal tissue (p<0.001) seven days after PPN injury. Also at seven days post-injury PPN, increased concentrations of MDA (p<0.01) and a tendency to decrease in the concentrations of NO in both structures (SNpc and striatum) were found. The events associated with the generation of free radicals at nigral and striatal levels, can be part of the physiological mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction in rats with unilateral PPN neurotoxic lesion.

  19. Relaxin increases sympathetic nerve activity and activates spinally projecting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of nonpregnant, but not pregnant, rats

    PubMed Central

    Coldren, K. Max; Brown, Randall; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by increased blood volume and baseline sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), vasodilation, and tachycardia. Relaxin (RLX), an ovarian hormone elevated in pregnancy, activates forebrain sites involved in control of blood volume and SNA through ANG II-dependent mechanisms and contributes to adaptations during pregnancy. In anesthetized, arterial baroreceptor-denervated nonpregnant (NP) rats, RLX microinjected into the subfornical organ (SFO; 0.77 pmol in 50 nl) produced sustained increases in lumbar SNA (8 ± 3%) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; 26 ± 4 mmHg). Low-dose intracarotid artery infusion of RLX (155 pmol·ml−1·h−1; 1.5 h) had minor transient effects on AP and activated neurons [increased Fos-immunoreactivity (IR)] in the SFO and in spinally projecting (19 ± 2%) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-IR (21 ± 5%) cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of NP, but not pregnant (P), rats. However, mRNA for RLX and ANG II type 1a receptors in the SFO was preserved in pregnancy. RLX receptor-IR is present in the region of the SFO in NP and P rats and is localized in astrocytes, the major source of angiotensinogen in the SFO. These data provide an anatomical substrate for a role of RLX in the resetting of AVP secretion and increased baseline SNA in pregnancy. Since RLX and ANG II receptor expression was preserved in the SFO of P rats, we speculate that the lack of response to exogenous RLX may be due to maximal activation by elevated endogenous levels of RLX in near-term pregnancy. PMID:26400184

  20. Opioid Receptor Antagonism in the Nucleus Accumbens Fails to Block the Expression of Sugar-Conditioned Flavor Preferences in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Sonia Y.; Touzani, Khalid; Gerges, Meri; Abayev, Yana; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    In our prior studies, systemic administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) did not block flavor preference conditioning by the sweet taste or post-oral actions of sugar despite reducing intake. Because opioid signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in food reward, this study determined if NTX administered into the NAc would block the expression of sugar-conditioned preferences. In Experiment 1, food-restricted rats with bilateral NAc shell or core cannulae were trained to drink a fructose (8%) + saccharin (0.2%) solution mixed with one flavor (CS+) and a less-preferred 0.2% saccharin solution mixed with another flavor (CS−) during one-bottle sessions. Two-bottle tests with the two flavors mixed in saccharin solutions occurred 10 min following total bilateral NAc shell or core doses of 0, 1, 25 and 50 μg of NTX. The rats preferred the CS+ over CS− following vehicle (80%) and all NTX doses in the shell and core. The CS+ preference was reduced to 64% and 72% by 50 μg NTX in the shell and core, although only the core effect was significant. In Experiment 2, food-restricted rats were trained to drink one flavored saccharin solution (CS+) paired with an intragastic (IG) glucose (8%) infusion and a second flavored saccharin solution (CS−) paired with an IG water infusion. In subsequent two-bottle tests, the rats displayed significant preferences for the CS+ (81-91%) that were unaltered by any NTX dose in the shell or core. CS+ intake, however, was reduced by NTX in the shell, but not the core. These data indicate that accumbal opioid antagonism slightly attenuated, but did not block the expression of sugar-conditioned flavor preferences. Therefore, while opioid drugs can have potent effects on sugar intake they appear less effective in altering sugar-conditioned flavor preferences. PMID:20006967

  1. The role of trigeminal nucleus caudalis orexin 1 receptor in orofacial pain-induced anxiety in rat.

    PubMed

    Bahaaddini, Mehri; Khatamsaz, Saeed; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Raoof, Maryam

    2016-10-19

    The relationship between anxiety and pain has received special attention. Orexins (A and B) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that have diverse functions in the regulation of different physiological and behavioral responses. This study was designed to evaluate the role of orexin 1 receptors (OX1R) within trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) in anxiety following the induction of orofacial pain. The subcutaneous injection of capsaicin (CAP) into the rat upper lip region produced pain responses. OX1R agonist (orexin A) and antagonist (SB-334867) were microinjected into the TNC before the administration of CAP. Anxiety behaviors were investigated using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field tests. The results showed that CAP injection significantly decreases the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the EPM and the time spent in the center of the open field. Surprisingly, orexin (50, 100, and 150 pM/rat) significantly exaggerated the CAP effects, whereas SB-334867 (20, 40 nM/rat) significantly inhibited the CAP-induced anxiety. The CAP-injected group showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries to open arms in the EPM and the number of visits in the center area of the open field compared with the control group. Orexin significantly potentiated the mentioned effects of CAP, whereas SB-334867 (40, 80 nM/rat) exerted a significant inhibitory effect on CAP-induced anxiety. The overall results indicated that the TNC OX1Rs play an important role in orofacial pain-induced anxiety.

  2. Increased impulsive behavior and risk proneness following lentivirus-mediated dopamine transporter over-expression in rats' nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Adriani, W; Boyer, F; Gioiosa, L; Macrì, S; Dreyer, J-L; Laviola, G

    2009-03-03

    Multiple theories have been proposed for sensation seeking and vulnerability to impulse-control disorders [Zuckerman M, Kuhlman DM (2000) Personality and risk-taking: Common biosocial factors. J Pers 68:999-1029], and many of these rely on a dopamine system deficit. Available animal models reproduce only some behavioral symptoms and seem devoid of construct validity. We used lentivirus tools for over-expressing or silencing the dopamine transporter (DAT) and we evaluated the resulting behavioral profiles in terms of motivation and self-control. Wistar adult rats received stereotaxic inoculation of a lentivirus that allowed localized intra-accumbens delivery of a DAT gene enhancer/silencer, or the green fluorescent protein, GFP. These animals were studied for intolerance to delay, risk proneness and novelty seeking. As expected, controls shifted their demanding from a large reward toward a small one when the delivery of the former was increasingly delayed (or uncertain). Interestingly, in the absence of general locomotor effects, DAT over-expressing rats showed increased impulsivity (i.e. a more marked shift of demanding from the large/delayed toward the small/soon reward), and increased risk proneness (i.e. a less marked shift from the large/uncertain toward the small/sure reward), compared with controls. Rats with enhanced or silenced DAT expression did not show any significant preference for a novel environment. In summary, consistent with literature on comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and pathological gambling, we demonstrate that DAT over-expression in rats' nucleus accumbens leads to impulsive and risk prone phenotype. Thus, a reduced dopaminergic tone following altered accumbal DAT function may subserve a sensation-seeker phenotype and the vulnerability to impulse-control disorders.

  3. Bi-directional CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in anaesthetized rats: role of the paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Grzeda, E; Schlicker, E; Luczaj, W; Harasim, E; Baranowska-Kuczko, M; Malinowska, B

    2015-06-01

    The activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors decreases and increases blood pressure (BP) in anaesthetized and conscious rats, respectively. The aim of our study was to check the possible involvement of CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in rats. Methanandamide (metabolically stable analogue of the endocannabinoid anandamide) and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 were microinjected into the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats twice (S1 and S2, 20 min apart). Receptor antagonists were administered intravenously (i.v.) 5 min before S1. Methanandamide and CP55940 decreased blood pressure by 15 - 20%. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 reversed the depressor effect into a pressor response of 20 - 30%. The pressor effect of CP55940 observed in the presence of AM251 i.v. was reduced by AM251 given additionally into the PVN but not by the i.v. injection of the CB2 antagonist SR144528 or the vanilloid TRPV1 antagonist ruthenium red. In the presence of the peripherally restricted CB1 receptor antagonist AM6545, CP55940 given into the PVN increased BP by 40%. AM6545 reversed the decrease in BP induced by CP55940 i.v. into a marked increase. Bilateral chemical lesion of the PVN by kainic acid abolished all cardiovascular effects of CP55940 i.v. In conclusion, the cannabinoid CP55940 administered to the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats can induce depressor and pressor effects. The direction of the response probably depends on the sympathetic tone. The centrally induced hypertensive response of CP55940 can, in addition, be masked by peripheral CB1 receptors.

  4. Nitric oxide inhibition in paraventricular nucleus on cardiovascular and autonomic modulation after exercise training in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Mastelari, Rosiane Batista; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; Lenhard, Adriane; de Aguiar Corrêa, Fernando Morgan; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2011-02-23

    It is well known that regular physical exercise alter cardiac function and autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV). The paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) is an important site of integration for autonomic and cardiovascular responses, where nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role. The aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiovascular parameters and autonomic modulation by means of spectral analysis after nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in the PVN in conscious sedentary (S) or swimming trained (ST) rats. After swimming training protocol, adult male Wistar rats, instrumented with guide cannulas to PVN and femoral artery and vein catheters were submitted to mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) recording. At baseline, the physical training induced a resting bradycardia (S: 374±5, ST: 346±1bpm) and promoted adaptations in HRV characterized by an increase in high-frequency oscillations (HF; 26.43±6.91 to 88.96±2.44) and a decrease in low-frequency oscillations (LF; 73.57±6.91 to 11.04±2.44) in normalized units. The microinjection of N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the PVN of sedentary and trained rats promoted increase in MAP and HR. l-NAME in the PVN did not significantly alter the spectral parameters of HRV of sedentary animals, however in the trained rats increased LF oscillations (11.04±2.44 to 27.62±6.97) and decreased HF oscillations (88.96±2.44 to 72.38±6.97) in normalized units compared with baseline. Our results suggest that NO in the PVN may collaborate to cardiac autonomic modulation after exercise training.

  5. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body--lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ho; Pradhan, Jonu; Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup; Hong, Sung Hwa; Suh, Myung-Whan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Ahn, Seung Cheol

    2011-02-11

    Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB)--the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  6. Osmotic modulation of stimulus-evoked responses in the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bhumbra, G S; Orlans, H O; Dyball, R E J

    2008-04-01

    Neural information is conveyed by action potentials along axons to downstream synaptic targets. Synapses permit functionally relevant modulation of the information transmitted by converging inputs. Previous studies have measured the amount of information associated with a given stimulus based either on spike counts or on the relative frequencies of spike sequences represented as binary strings. Here we apply information theory to the phase-interval stimulus histogram (PhISH) to measure the extent of the stimulus-evoked response using the statistical relationship between each interspike interval and its phase within the stimulus cycle. We used the PhISH as a novel approach to investigate how different osmotic states affect the flow of information through the osmoreceptor complex of the hypothalamus. The amount of information conveyed from one (afferent) element of the complex, the anteroventral region of the third ventricle (AV3V), to another (an efferent element), the supraoptic nucleus, was increased by hypertonic stimulation (intravenous mannitol, z = 4.39, P < 0.001) and decreased by hypotonic stimulation (intragastric water, z = -3.37, P < 0.001). Supraoptic responses to AV3V stimulation differed from those that follow stimulation of a hypothalamic element outside the osmoreceptor complex, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which also projects to the supraoptic nucleus. Thus osmosensitive gain control mechanisms differentially modulate osmotically dependent and osmotically independent inputs, and enhance the osmoresponsiveness of supraoptic cells within a physiological range. The value of the novel approach is that its use is not limited to the osmoreceptor ensemble but it can be used to investigate the flow of information throughout the central nervous system.

  7. Anatomical studies on the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis in the pigmented rat. I. Cytoarchitecture, topography, and cerebral cortical afferents.

    PubMed

    Torigoe, Y; Blanks, R H; Precht, W

    1986-01-01

    The nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP) is a precerebellar reticular nucleus that has been found to be related to cerebropontocerebellar pathways and, more recently, to eye movements. The present study investigates the cytoarchitecture, the topography, and the cerebral cortical projections to the NRTP in the pigmented rat. The cytoarchitecture and topography of the NRTP was determined by examination of Nissl-stained material sectioned in the transverse and sagittal planes. Two cytoarchitectonically distinct portions of the NRTP are apparent; a central subdivision (NRTPc) composed of large multipolar, small spherical, and fusiform neurons, and a pericentral subdivision (NRTPp) composed of loosely packed small fusiform and spherical neurons. The NRTPc is located dorsal to the medial lemniscus and pyramidal tracts over the caudal two-thirds of the pons. It extends caudodorsally to the region just rostral and ventral to the abducens nucleus. The NRTPp is adjacent to the lateral margins of the NRTPc, rostrally, and lies ventral to the caudal portions of the NRTPc. Large injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were made into the cerebellum in order to determine the degree to which each subdivision of the NRTP contributes to the cerebellar projection. A high percentage of NRTPc neurons and a lower percentage of NRTPp neurons were labeled. These differences in labeling density and neuronal morphology noted above confirm the appropriateness of subdividing the NRTP into central and pericentral subdivisions. The cerebral cortical afferents to the NRTP were examined by placing small iontophoretic injections of HRP into the NRTPc and NRTPp. A systematic examination of all cortical areas revealed that the HRP-labeled neurons are entirely localized within pyramidal layer V of three major cortical areas: the ipsilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 8, 8a, 11, and 32); the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortices (Brodmann areas 2, 4, 6, and 10), and the

  8. Cytoarchitecture, fiber connections, and some histochemical aspects of the interpeduncular nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Groenewegen, H J; Ahlenius, S; Haber, S N; Kowall, N W; Nauta, W J

    1986-07-01

    The organization of afferent and efferent connections of the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) has been examined in correlation with its subnuclear parcellation by using anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. Based on Nissl, myelin, and acetylcholinesterase staining five paired and three unpaired IP subnuclei are distinguished. The unpaired division includes the rostral subnucleus (IP-R), the apical subnucleus (IP-A), and the central subnucleus (IP-C). The subnuclei represented bilaterally are the paramedian dorsal medial (IP-DM) and intermediate subnuclei (IP-I) and the laterally placed rostral lateral (IP-RL), dorsal lateral (IP-DL), and lateral subnuclei (IP-L). Immunohistochemical techniques showed cell bodies and fibers and terminals immunoreactive for substance P, leu-enkephalin, met-enkephalin, or serotonin to be differentially distributed over the different IP subnuclei. Substance P-positive perikarya were found in IP-R, enkephalin neurons in IP-R, IP-A, and the caudodorsal part of IP-C, and serotonin-containing cell bodies in IP-A and the caudal part of IP-L. Efferent IP projections were studied both by injecting tritiated leucine in IP and by injecting HRP or WGA-HRP in the presumed termination areas. The results indicate that the major outflow of IP is directed caudal-ward to the median and dorsal raphe nuclei and the caudal part of the central gray substance, i.e., the dorsal tegmental region. The projection appears to terminate mainly in the raphe nuclei, around the ventral and dorsal tegmental nuclei of Gudden, and in the dorsolateral tegmental nucleus. The descending projection to the dorsal tegmental region originates in virtually all IP subnuclei, but the main contribution comes from IP-R and the lateral subnuclei IP-RL, IP-DL, and IP-L. Sparser projections to the dorsal tegmental region originate in IP-C and IP-I, whereas the contribution of IP-A is only minimal. The projections from IP-R are mainly ipsilateral and those from IP-DM are mainly

  9. Effects of bupropion on the forced swim test and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens in ACTH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Yagi, Takahiko; Kitagawa, Kouhei; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Asanuma, Masato; Gomita, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    The dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion has clinically been proven to improve depression and treatment-resistant depression. We examined its influence on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of dopamine receptors in this effect. Additionally, the mechanism by which bupropion acts in this model was explored specifically in relation to the site of action through the use of microinjections into the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Bupropion significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. This effect was blocked by D2 and D3 receptor antagonists in normal rats. Furthermore, infusions of bupropion into the nucleus accumbens, but not medial prefrontal cortex, decreased the immobility of normal and ACTH-treated rats during the forced swim test. Bupropion treatment plus repeated ACTH treatment significantly increased the extracellular dopamine concentration. These findings suggest the antidepressant-like effect of bupropion to be related to levels of dopamine in the rat nucleus accumbens.

  10. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 7 within the Nucleus Accumbens are Involved in Relief Learning in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Evelyn; Fendt, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Relief learning is an appetitive association of a formally neutral cue with relief induced by the offset of an aversive stimulus. Since the nucleus accumbens mediates relief learning and accumbal metabotropic glutamate receptors 7 (mGluR7) modulate appetitive-like processes, we hypothesized that accumbal mGluR7 may be involved in the modulation of relief learning. Therefore, we injected the allosteric mGluR7 agonist AMN082 into the nucleus accumbens and tested the effects of these injections on acquisition and expression of relief memory, as well as on the reactivity to electric stimuli. AMN082 injections blocked acquisition but not expression of relief memory. In addition, accumbal AMN082 injections strongly reduced the locomotor reactivity to electric stimuli indicating antinociceptive effects. These antinociceptive effects might be causal for the blockade of relief learning after AMN082 injections. Taken together, the present study indicates that functional activation of accumbal mGluR7 has antinociceptive effects that interfere with relief learning. PMID:27296637

  11. Corticotropin releasing factor excites neurons of posterior hypothalamic nucleus to produce tachycardia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, He-Ren; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; Li, Bin; Li, Hong-Zhao; Chen, Zhang-Peng; Wang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Jing-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), a peptide hormone involved in the stress response, holds a key position in cardiovascular regulation. Here, we report that the central effect of CRF on cardiovascular activities is mediated by the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH), an important structure responsible for stress-induced cardiovascular changes. Our present results demonstrate that CRF directly excites PH neurons via two CRF receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2, and consequently increases heart rate (HR) rather than the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Bilateral vagotomy does not influence the tachycardia response to microinjection of CRF into the PH, while β adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol almost totally abolishes the tachycardia. Furthermore, microinjecting CRF into the PH primarily increases neuronal activity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVMM), but does not influence that of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV). These findings suggest that the PH is a critical target for central CRF system in regulation of cardiac activity and the PH-RVLM/RVMM-cardiac sympathetic nerve pathways, rather than PH-DMNV-vagus pathway, may contribute to the CRF-induced tachycardia. PMID:26831220

  12. Corticotropin releasing factor excites neurons of posterior hypothalamic nucleus to produce tachycardia in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, He-Ren; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; Li, Bin; Li, Hong-Zhao; Chen, Zhang-Peng; Wang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Jing-Ning

    2016-02-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), a peptide hormone involved in the stress response, holds a key position in cardiovascular regulation. Here, we report that the central effect of CRF on cardiovascular activities is mediated by the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH), an important structure responsible for stress-induced cardiovascular changes. Our present results demonstrate that CRF directly excites PH neurons via two CRF receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2, and consequently increases heart rate (HR) rather than the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Bilateral vagotomy does not influence the tachycardia response to microinjection of CRF into the PH, while β adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol almost totally abolishes the tachycardia. Furthermore, microinjecting CRF into the PH primarily increases neuronal activity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVMM), but does not influence that of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV). These findings suggest that the PH is a critical target for central CRF system in regulation of cardiac activity and the PH-RVLM/RVMM-cardiac sympathetic nerve pathways, rather than PH-DMNV-vagus pathway, may contribute to the CRF-induced tachycardia.

  13. Nucleus accumbens mu opioid receptors mediate immediate postictal decrease in locomotion after an amygdaloid kindled seizure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyi; Boyce, Richard; Leung, L Stan

    2010-02-01

    Postictal movement dysfunction is a common symptom in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the involvement of opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) in amygdaloid kindling-induced postictal decrease in locomotion (PDL) in rats. Seizures were induced by daily electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala until four consecutive stage 5 seizures were elicited. Locomotion was quantified before and after infusion of an opioid receptor antagonist or saline into the NAC. Whereas PDL was induced after a stage 5 seizure in saline-infused rats, pre-infusion of the mu opioid receptor antagonist H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTAP, 5 microg/1 microL/side) into the NAC prevented PDL. Pre-infusion of delta (naltrindole, 30 microg/1 microL/side), kappa (nor-binaltorphimine, 1.8 microg/1 microL/side), or nonselective (naloxone, 10 microg/1 microL/side) opioid receptor antagonists did not block PDL, but late postictal hyperactivity was blocked by naltrindole. None of the antagonists affected amygdaloid evoked afterdischarge duration. It is suggested that mu opioid receptors in the NAC participate in amygdaloid seizure-induced PDL without affecting seizure duration.

  14. Role of melanin-concentrating hormone in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats behaviourally sensitized to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Li; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-feng; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Wei-li; Zhao, Li-yan; Xue, Yan-xue; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide and its receptor is extensively expressed throughout the brain. MCH has been suggested to regulate the rewarding and reinforcing effects of psychostimulants by potentiating the dopaminergic system within the midbrain. Moreover, MCH and its receptor can regulate ERK activity. The present study investigated the role of MCH in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats behaviourally sensitized to methamphetamine (Meth). We found that the development of Meth-induced locomotor sensitization was attenuated by MCH infused into the NAc shell but not core. Moreover, the elevation of ERK phosphorylation in the NAc shell induced by Meth was inhibited by locally infused MCH. Infusion of the MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonist SNAP 94847 into the NAc shell but not core augmented the initiation of locomotor sensitization and amplitude of elevated phosphorylated ERK levels induced by Meth. The expression of Meth-induced locomotor sensitization and ERK alterations after 1 wk withdrawal were not affected by either MCH or SNAP 94847 infused into the NAc shell or core. These results indicate that MCH in the NAc shell plays a critical role in the development but not expression of Meth-induced locomotor sensitization in rats, which might be mediated by the ERK signalling pathway. Our study suggests that MCH might be a potential target for the treatment of Meth addiction.

  15. Effects of diet and insulin on dopamine transporter activity and expression in rat caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and midbrain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kymry T; Woods, Catherine; Zhen, Juan; Antonio, Tamara; Carr, Kenneth D; Reith, Maarten E A

    2017-03-01

    Food restriction (FR) and obesogenic (OB) diets are known to alter brain dopamine transmission and exert opposite modulatory effects on behavioral responsiveness to psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Mechanisms underlying these diet effects are not fully understood. In this study, we examined diet effects on expression and function of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in caudate-putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and midbrain regions. Dopamine (DA) uptake by CPu, NAc or midbrain synapto(neuro)somes was measured in vitro with rotating disk electrode voltammetry or with [(3) H]DA uptake and was found to correlate with DAT surface expression, assessed by maximal [(3) H](-)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane binding and surface biotinylation assays. FR and OB diets were both found to decrease DAT activity in CPu with a corresponding decrease in surface expression but had no effects in the NAc and midbrain. Diet treatments also affected sensitivity to insulin-induced enhancement of DA uptake, with FR producing an increase in CPu and NAc, likely mediated by an observed increase in insulin receptor expression, and OB producing a decrease in NAc. The increased expression of insulin receptor in NAc of FR rats was accompanied by increased DA D2 receptor expression, and the decreased DAT expression and function in CPu of OB rats was accompanied by decreased DA D2 receptor expression. These results are discussed as partial mechanistic underpinnings of diet-induced adaptations that contribute to altered behavioral sensitivity to psychostimulants that target the DAT.

  16. Thermally identified subgroups of marginal zone neurons project to distinct regions of the ventral posterior lateral nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xijing; Davidson, Steve; Giesler, Glenn J

    2006-05-10

    Spinal marginal zone (MZ) neurons play a crucial role in the transmission of nociceptive and thermoreceptive information to the brain. The precise areas to which physiologically characterized MZ neurons project in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus have not been clearly established. Here, we examine this projection in rats using the method of antidromic activation to map the axon terminals of neurons recorded from the MZ. Thirty-three neurons were antidromically activated using pulses of < or =30 microA in the contralateral VPL. In every case, the most rostral point from which the MZ neuron could be antidromically activated was surrounded by stimulating tracks in which large-amplitude current pulses failed to activate the examined neuron, indicating the termination of the spinothalamic tract (STT) axon. Each of 30 examined neurons responded to noxious but not innocuous mechanical stimuli applied to their cutaneous receptive fields, which ranged in size from two digits to the entire limb. Of 17 thermally tested neurons, 16 responded to innocuous or noxious thermal stimuli. Among STT neurons that responded to thermal stimuli, 50% responded to innocuous cooling as well as noxious heat and cold, 31% responded to noxious heat and cold, and 19% responded only to noxious heat. Axons from cells responsive to innocuous cooling terminated in the core region of VPL, significantly dorsal and medial relative to other thermally responsive subgroups. In rats, thermally responsive subgroups of MZ neurons project directly to distinct regions of VPL.

  17. Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Tharakeswari; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Tierney, Travis

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, targeting various regions of the brain such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and subthalamic regions, is an effective treatment for several movement disorders that have failed to respond to medication. Recent progress in the field of DBS surgery has begun to extend the application of this surgical technique to other conditions as diverse as morbid obesity, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. Despite these expanding indications, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms that facilitate the beneficial effects of DBS surgery. One approach to this question is to perform gene expression analysis in neurons that receive the electrical stimulation. Previous studies have shown that neurogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus is elicited in DBS targeting of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus1. DBS surgery targeting the ATN is used widely for treatment refractory epilepsy. It is thus of much interest for us to explore the transcriptional changes induced by electrically stimulating the ATN. In this manuscript, we describe our methodologies for stereotactically-guided DBS surgery targeting the ATN in adult male Wistar rats. We also discuss the subsequent steps for tissue dissection, RNA isolation, cDNA preparation and quantitative RT-PCR for measuring gene expression changes. This method could be applied and modified for stimulating the basal ganglia and other regions of the brain commonly clinically targeted. The gene expression study described here assumes a candidate target gene approach for discovering molecular players that could be directing the mechanism for DBS. PMID:25867749

  18. Interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Ying; Shi, Hai-Bo; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2012-09-07

    Taurine, one of the most abundant endogenous amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), is involved in neural development and many physiological functions. In this study, the interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors was investigated in young rat (P13-P15) anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine at low (0.1mM) and high (1mM) concentrations activated both GABA(A) and glycine receptors, but not AMPA and NMDA receptors. The reversal potentials of taurine-, GABA- or glycine-evoked currents were close to the expected chloride equilibrium potential, indicating that receptors activated by these agonists were mediating chloride conductance. Moreover, our results showed that the currents activated by co-application of GABA and glycine were cross-inhibitive. Sequential application of GABA and glycine or vice versa also reduced the glycine or GABA evoked currents. There was no cross-inhibition when taurine and GABA or taurine and glycine were applied simultaneously, but the response was larger than that evoked by GABA or glycine alone. These results suggest that taurine can serve as a neuromodulator to strengthen GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission in the rat AVCN.

  19. Food intake increased after injection of adrenaline into the median raphe nucleus of free-feeding rats.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rúbia Lima Dias; Mansur, Samira Schultz; Steffens, Sérgio Murilo; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2009-02-11

    The present study examined the effects of local injections of adrenaline (AD) or noradrenaline (NA) in equimolar doses (6, 20, and 60 nmol) into the median raphe nucleus (MRN) on ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors of free-feeding rats. The results showed that the treatment with AD at doses of 20 and 60 nmol increased food intake. While the hyperphagic response evoked by 60 nmol dose of AD was accompanied by a reduction of the latency to start feeding and an increase in the frequency of feeding, the 20 nmol dose of AD was unable to change these behavioral aspects of feeding response. The meal size and non-ingestive behaviors were not affected by AD treatment in the MRN. While water intake remained unchanged after the treatment with 20 nmol of AD in the MRN, this dose decreased the latency to start drinking. Feeding and drinking behaviors were not affected by treatment with NA in the MRN. These data suggest that adrenergic receptors of MRN participate in mechanisms that control food intake initiation or appetite. In addition, our results also indicate that the availability of energetic substrate could affect the adrenergic influence on MRN neurons since previous data indicated that the injection of AD into the MRN of food restricted rats decreased food intake.

  20. The adrenaline microinjection into the median raphe nucleus induced hypophagic effect in rats submitted to food restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Maidel, Simone; Lucinda, Aparecida Marcia; de Aquino, Vivian W; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2007-07-11

    The effect of the equimolar doses (6, 20 and 60 nmol) of either adrenaline (AD) or noradrenaline (NA) microinjected into the median raphe nucleus (MR) on feeding behavior of food-restricted rats (15 g/day/rat) was investigated. The data indicated that 20 nmol AD microinjection, but not NA, into the MR decreased the animal food intake. This hypophagic effect induced by AD may be ascribed to a feeding bout conclusion (satiation process) and not to any changes in non-ingestive behaviors induced by drug microinjection. Since equimolar doses of NA failed to change the animal feeding behavior, it is possible to say that AD-induced hypophagia may be due to either changes in tonic stimulatory control exerted by endogenous noradrenaline on MR or to AD-beta(2) receptor activation in the MR. We claim that such activation may be much more importantly exerted by adrenaline-containing afferents to MR neurons involved with ingestive behavior than by noradrenergic inputs.

  1. ADOLESCENT INTERMITTENT ETHANOL EXPOSURE ENHANCES ETHANOL ACTIVATION OF THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS WHILE BLUNTING THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX RESPONSES IN ADULT RAT

    PubMed Central

    LIU, W.; CREWS, F. T.

    2016-01-01

    The brain continues to develop through adolescence when excessive alcohol consumption is prevalent in humans. We hypothesized that binge drinking doses of ethanol during adolescence will cause changes in brain ethanol responses that persist into adulthood. To test this hypothesis Wistar rats were treated with an adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5 g/kg, i.g. 2 days on–2 days off; P25–P54) model of underage drinking followed by 25 days of abstinence during maturation to young adulthood (P80). Using markers of neuronal activation c-Fos, EGR1, and phophorylated extracellar signal regulated kinase (pERK1/2), adult responses to a moderate and binge drinking ethanol challenge, e.g., 2 or 4 g/kg, were determined. Adult rats showed dose dependent increases in neuronal activation markers in multiple brain regions during ethanol challenge. Brain regional responses correlated are consistent with anatomical connections. AIE led to marked decreases in adult ethanol PFC (prefrontal cortex) and blunted responses in the amygdala. Binge drinking doses led to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) activation that correlated with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) activation. In contrast to other brain regions, AIE enhanced the adult NAc response to binge drinking doses. These studies suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes long-lasting changes in brain responses to alcohol that persist into adulthood. PMID:25727639

  2. Time course of the estradiol-dependent induction of oxytocin receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.E.; Ball, G.F.; Coirini, H.; Harbaugh, C.R.; McEwen, B.S.; Insel, T.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) transmission is involved in the steroid-dependent display of sexual receptivity in rats. One of the biochemical processes stimulated by the ovarian steroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) that is relevant to reproduction is the induction of OT receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). The purpose of these experiments was to determine if E2-induced changes in OT receptor binding in the VMN occur within a time frame relevant to cyclic changes in ovarian steroid secretion. OT receptor binding was measured in the VMN of ovariectomized rats implanted for 0-96 h with E2-containing Silastic capsules. The rate of decay of OT receptor binding was measured in another group of animals 6-48 h after capsule removal. Receptors were labeled with the specific OT receptor antagonist ({sup 125}I)d(CH2)5(Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9))OVT, and binding was measured with quantitative autoradiographic methods. In addition, plasma E2 levels and uterine weights were assessed in animals from each treatment condition. Significant increases in E2-dependent OT receptor binding and uterine weight occurred within 24 h of steroid treatment. After E2 withdrawal, OT receptor binding and uterine weight decreased significantly within 24 h. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that steroid modulation of OT receptor binding is necessary for the induction of sexual receptivity.

  3. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure enhances ethanol activation of the nucleus accumbens while blunting the prefrontal cortex responses in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Crews, F T

    2015-05-07

    The brain continues to develop through adolescence when excessive alcohol consumption is prevalent in humans. We hypothesized that binge drinking doses of ethanol during adolescence will cause changes in brain ethanol responses that persist into adulthood. To test this hypothesis Wistar rats were treated with an adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5 g/kg, i.g. 2 days on-2 days off; P25-P54) model of underage drinking followed by 25 days of abstinence during maturation to young adulthood (P80). Using markers of neuronal activation c-Fos, EGR1, and phophorylated extracellar signal regulated kinase (pERK1/2), adult responses to a moderate and binge drinking ethanol challenge, e.g., 2 or 4 g/kg, were determined. Adult rats showed dose dependent increases in neuronal activation markers in multiple brain regions during ethanol challenge. Brain regional responses correlated are consistent with anatomical connections. AIE led to marked decreases in adult ethanol PFC (prefrontal cortex) and blunted responses in the amygdala. Binge drinking doses led to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) activation that correlated with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) activation. In contrast to other brain regions, AIE enhanced the adult NAc response to binge drinking doses. These studies suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes long-lasting changes in brain responses to alcohol that persist into adulthood.

  4. Distinct vasopressin content in the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus of rats exposed to low and high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Jasnic, N; Dakic, T; Bataveljic, D; Vujovic, P; Lakic, I; Jevdjovic, T; Djurasevic, S; Djordjevic, J

    2015-08-01

    Both high and low ambient temperature represent thermal stressors that, among other physiological responses, induce activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and secretion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). The exposure to heat also leads to disturbance of osmotic homeostasis. Since AVP, in addition to its well-known peripheral effects, has long been recognized as a hormone involved in the modulation of HPA axis activity, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the hypothalamic AVP amount in the acutely heat/cold exposed rats. Rats were exposed to high (+38°C) or low (+4°C) ambient temperature for 60min. Western blot was employed for determining hypothalamic AVP levels, and the difference in its content between supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was detected using immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that exposure to both high and low ambient temperature increased hypothalamic AVP levels, although the increment was higher under heat conditions. On the other hand, patterns of AVP level changes in PVN and SON were stressor-specific, given that exposure to cold increased the AVP level in both nuclei, while heat exposure affected the PVN AVP content alone. In conclusion, our results revealed that cold and heat stress influence hypothalamic AVP amount with different intensity. Moreover, different pattern of AVP amount changes in the PVN and SON indicates a role of this hormone not only in response to heat as an osmotic/physical threat, but to the non-osmotic stressors as well.

  5. Nucleus Accumbens AMPA Receptors Are Necessary for Morphine-Withdrawal-Induced Negative-Affective States in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Shayla E.; Puttick, Daniel J.; Sawyer, Allison M.; Potter, David N.; Mague, Stephen; Carlezon, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Dependence is a hallmark feature of opiate addiction and is defined by the emergence of somatic and affective withdrawal signs. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrates dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs to mediate rewarding and aversive properties of opiates. Evidence suggests that AMPA glutamate-receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity within the NAc underlies aspects of addiction. However, the degree to which NAc AMPA receptors (AMPARs) contribute to somatic and affective signs of opiate withdrawal is not fully understood. Here, we show that microinjection of the AMPAR antagonist NBQX into the NAc shell of morphine-dependent rats prevented naloxone-induced conditioned place aversions and decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward, but had no effect on somatic withdrawal signs. Using a protein cross-linking approach, we found that the surface/intracellular ratio of NAc GluA1, but not GluA2, increased with morphine treatment, suggesting postsynaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Consistent with this, 1-naphthylacetyl spermine trihydrochloride (NASPM), an antagonist of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, attenuated naloxone-induced decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. Naloxone decreased the surface/intracellular ratio and synaptosomal membrane levels of NAc GluA1 in morphine-dependent rats, suggesting a compensatory removal of AMPARs from synaptic zones. Together, these findings indicate that chronic morphine increases synaptic availability of GluA1-containing AMPARs in the NAc, which is necessary for triggering negative-affective states in response to naloxone. This is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that activation of NAc neurons produces acute aversive states and raises the possibility that inhibiting AMPA transmission selectively in the NAc may have therapeutic value in the treatment of addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Morphine dependence and withdrawal result in profound negative-affective states that play a major role in the

  6. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( SVI-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides.

  7. SR141716A reduces the reinforcing properties of heroin but not heroin-induced increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Caillé, Stéphanie; Parsons, Loren H

    2003-12-01

    The present experiments tested the hypothesis that the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A alters heroin self-administration by attenuating heroin-induced increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine levels. SR141716A pretreatment dose-dependently (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced operant heroin self-administration by male Wistar rats under a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement, and significantly lowered the breaking point of responding for heroin under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These observations are consistent with recent reports that CB1 receptor inactivation reduces the rewarding properties of opiates. Operant responding for water reinforcement by water-restricted rats was unaltered by these SR141716A doses. Microdialysis tests revealed that heroin self-administration significantly increases interstitial dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell of vehicle-pretreated control rats. However, whereas SR141716A pretreatment dose-dependently reduced heroin self-administration, it did not alter the heroin-associated increase in nucleus accumbens dopamine. These findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist-induced attenuation of heroin reward does not involve dopaminergic mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens shell.

  8. Role of dopamine and GABA in the control of motor activity elicited from the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Wong, L S; Eshel, G; Dreher, J; Ong, J; Jackson, D M

    1991-04-01

    The application of 1.2 and 12.0 micrograms/side of the GABAA receptor agonist 3-aminopropane sulphonic acid bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of rats nonsignificantly depressed locomotor activity as assessed in automated Animex activity cages, while the highest dose (60 micrograms/side) significantly stimulated activity. The GABAA receptor antagonists picrotoxinin (0.0625 and 0.125 micrograms/saide) and bicuculline (0.895 micrograms/side) produced forward locomotion around the cage accompanied by a number of other behaviours. The GABAB agonist baclofen (0.023 and 0.092 micrograms/side) induced a short-lasting (18 min) locomotor depression. None of the GABAB antagonists tested (2-hydroxysaclofen 2.6 micrograms/side, two novel beta-(benzo[b]furan) analogues of baclofen 9G or 9H each 6.8 micrograms/side, 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid 1.32 micrograms/side and phaclofen 0.535 and 2 micrograms/side) significantly affected locomotor activity. In rats pretreated with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, picrotoxinin (0.0625 and 0.125 micrograms/side) did not significantly alter locomotor activity. Furthermore, when picrotoxinin (0.0625 micrograms/side) was combined with either the selective dopamine (DA) D1 agonist SKF38393 or the selective D2 agonist quinpirole, no significant alteration in locomotor function occurred. When SKF38393 and quinpirole were coadministered, significant stimulation occurred which was further enhanced by the addition of picrotoxinin. It is concluded that GABAA receptors, together with D1 and D2 receptors, play a major role in modulating the control of motor function by the Acb of rats.

  9. Nicotine Withdrawal Increases Stress-Associated Genes in the Nucleus Accumbens of Female Rats in a Hormone-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Oscar V.; Pipkin, Joseph A.; Ferree, Patrick; Carcoba, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Previous work led to our hypothesis that sex differences produced by nicotine withdrawal are modulated by stress and dopamine systems in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). We investigated our hypothesis by studying intact females to determine whether the mechanisms that promote withdrawal are ovarian-hormone mediated. Methods: Female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) or received sham surgery (intact) on postnatal day (PND 45–46). On PND 60, they received sham surgery (controls) or were prepared with nicotine pumps. Fourteen days later, half of the rats had their pumps removed (nicotine withdrawal) and the other half received sham surgery (nicotine exposure). Twenty-four hours later, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze and light/dark transfer procedures. The NAcc was then dissected for analysis of several genes related to stress (CRF, UCN, CRF-R1, CRF-R2, CRF-BP, and Arrb2) or receptors for dopamine (Drd1 and Drd2) and estradiol (Esr2). Results: During withdrawal, intact females displayed an increase in anxiety-like behavior in both tests and CRF, UCN, and Drd1 gene expression. During nicotine exposure, intact females displayed a decrease in CRF-R1, CRF-R2, Drd3, and Esr2 gene expression and an increase in CRF-BP. This pattern of results was absent in OVX females. Conclusions: Nicotine withdrawal produced an increase in anxiety-like behavior and stress-associated genes in intact females that is distinct from changes produced by nicotine exposure. The latter effects were absent in OVX females, suggesting that stress produced by withdrawal is ovarian-hormone mediated. These findings have important implications towards understanding tobacco use liability among females. PMID:25762751

  10. Inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala reduces the effect of punishment on cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, YueQiang; Steketee, Jeffery D; Sun, WenLin

    2012-03-01

    Continued cocaine use despite the negative consequences is a hallmark of cocaine addiction. One such consequence is punishment, which is often used by society to curb cocaine use. Unfortunately, we know little about the mechanism involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine use. The fact that cocaine addicts continue to use cocaine despite potentially severe punishment suggests that the mechanism may be impaired. Such impairment is expected to critically contribute to compulsive cocaine use. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeN) plays a critical role in such regulation. To this end, rats were trained to press a lever to self-administer cocaine under a chained schedule: a response on one lever (cocaine-seeking lever) led to access to the other lever (cocaine-taking lever), on which a response was reinforced by cocaine and cues. Thereafter, responses on the seeking lever were punished by footshock with a probability of 0.5. Cocaine self-administration (SA) was significantly suppressed by punishment in an intensity-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats trained with daily 6-h (extended access) but not 2-h (limited access) sessions showed resistance to the lower intensity of punishment. Inactivation of the CeN induced a robust anti-punishment effect in both groups. These data provided evidence that the CeN is a critical neural substrate involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine SA. Rats with a history of extended cocaine SA appeared to be less sensitive to punishment. The decreased sensitivity could result from the neuroplastic changes induced by extended cocaine SA in the CeN.

  11. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NTS noradrenergic A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n= 5; HPA study, n= 5], or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n= 6; HPA study, n= 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress. PMID:25765732

  12. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Herman, James P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NTS NA A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n = 5; HPA study, n = 5] or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n = 6; HPA study, n = 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 d of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress.

  13. Extracellular dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens of Fisher and Lewis rats: Basal levels and cocaine-induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, R.E.; Eberle, W.F.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Rats of the Lewis (LEW) strain show a greater preference for drugs of abuse than do Fisher 344 (F344) rats. The in vivo microdialysis procedure was used to examine basal and cocaine-evoked extracellular (EC) levels of dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and HVA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of F344 and LEW rats. The basal EC levels of the DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA in the NAc were markedly lower in LEW than in F344 rats. Although the increase in ECDA after 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, i/p. of cocaine was similar in both strains, LEW rats had a smaller peak DA elevation followed by a slower return to basal DA levels at the 30 mg/kg dose. The neurochemical differences observed may contribute to the strain differences in the behavioral response to cocaine. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Ho; Pradhan, Jonu; Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup; Hong, Sung Hwa; Suh, Myung-Whan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Ahn, Seung Cheol

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  15. Immunohistochemical profiling of estrogen-related receptor gamma in rat brain and colocalization with estrogen receptor alpha in the preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Yamada, Shunji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Masaki

    2017-03-15

    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that has strong homology with estrogen receptor (ER) α. Despite the lack of endogenous ligands, ERR serves as transcription factors through their constitutively active structure with or without interaction with ERα. Among the three subtypes of ERR (α, β, and γ), ERRγ is highly expressed in brain, but the distribution of ERRγ is poorly characterized. Therefore, we investigated ERRγ immunoreactivity throughout the rostro-caudal axis in rat brain. Immunohistochemistry revealed localization of ERRγ protein in the cell nucleus, and a ubiquitous distribution of ERRγ in brain regions including the olfactory bulb, cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. Selective intense immunoreactivity was observed in the reticular thalamic nucleus, zona incerta, circular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, pontine nucleus, and parasolitary nucleus. Most ERRγ-immunoreactive (ir) regions were also positive for ERα and/or ERβ, which suggests that ERRγ is involved in modulation of estrogen signaling in adult rat brain. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated colocalization of ERRγ with ERα within the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the preoptic area (AVPV) and medial preoptic nucleus (MPO), which are major target sites for estrogen action. The results of this study suggest that ERRγ function in the brain is affected by estrogens through an interaction with ERα. The findings also provide basic information on brain region-specific ERRγ function.

  16. Influence of the paraventricular nucleus and oxytocin on the retrograde stain of pubococcygeus muscle motoneurons in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez, César Antonio; Concha, Adriana; Hernández, María Elena; Manzo, Jorge

    2005-04-11

    Lumbosacral cord motoneurons innervating the pubococcygeus muscle (Pcm) at the pelvic floor of male rats were analyzed. We showed previously that these motoneurons participate in sexual functions and are sensitive to fluctuations of systemic androgen and estrogen. Though estrogen receptors have not been identified in Lamina IX at these spinal areas, the release of oxytocin from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PvN) has been found to control pelvic sexual physiology. We therefore worked on the hypothesis that steroid hormones in the PvN induce the release of oxytocin at the lumbosacral level to modulate the function of Pcm motoneurons. Four experiments were developed, and results were observed with the retrograde staining of motoneurons with horseradish peroxidase. Data indicated that morphometric parameters of Pcm motoneurons were significantly reduced after castration or blocking of the steroids at the PvN site, or following complete transection of the spinal cord at the T8 level. In each case, the reduction of the stain was recovered after intrathecal treatment with oxytocin. Thus, present results show that Pcm motoneurons respond to spinal oxytocin. The conclusive model that we propose is that steroids stimulate the PvN, causing the nucleus to release oxytocin at the level of the lumbosacral spinal cord, and the release of the peptide regulates the spread of the stain of Pcm motoneurons. This work also shows that motoneurons distal to a transected area in the spinal cord could respond to exogenous oxytocin, an important finding for the research of spinal cord lesioned subjects.

  17. Oxytocin reduces anxiety via ERK1/2 activation: local effect within the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Blume, Annegret; Bosch, Oliver J; Miklos, Sandra; Torner, Luz; Wales, Lynn; Waldherr, Martin; Neumann, Inga D

    2008-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) modulates social behaviours and is an important anxiolytic substance of the brain. However, sites of action and the intracellular signalling pathways downstream of OT receptors (OTR) within the brain remain largely unknown. In the present studies, we localized the anxiolytic effect of OT by bilateral microinfusion of OT (0.01 nmol/0.5 microL) into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in male rats using both the elevated plus-maze and the light-dark box. Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of OT, but not of the related neuropeptide vasopressin (VP), dose-dependently activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascade. Specifically, OT induced the phosphorylation of Raf-1, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 in the hypothalamus in vivo and in hypothalamic H32 neurons via EGF receptors. OT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was immunohistochemically localized within VP neurons of the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus. Importantly, the anxiolytic effect of OT within the PVN was prevented by local inhibition of the MAP kinase cascade with a MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126, 0.5 nmol/0.5 microL) locally infused prior to OT, indicating the causal involvement of this intracellular signalling cascade in the behavioural effect of OT. OT effects within the hypothalamus may have far-reaching implications for the regulation of emotionality and social behaviours and, consequently, for the development of possible therapeutic strategies to treat affective disorders. Thus, OTR agonism or activation of the ERK1/2 cascade, specifically within the hypothalamus, may provide therapeutically relevant mechanisms.

  18. Excitatory projections from the amygdala to neurons in the nucleus pontis oralis in the rat: an intracellular study.

    PubMed

    Xi, M; Fung, S J; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H

    2011-12-01

    There is a consensus that active (REM) sleep (AS) is controlled by cholinergic projections from the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT/PPT) to neurons in the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO) that generate AS (i.e. AS-Generator neurons). The present study was designed to provide evidence that other projections to the NPO, such as those from the amygdala, are also capable of inducing AS. Accordingly, the responses of neurons, recorded intracellularly in the NPO, were examined following stimulation of the ipsilateral central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats. Single pulse stimulation in the CNA produced an early, fast depolarizing potential (EPSP) in neurons within the NPO. The mean latency to the onset of these excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) was 3.6±0.2 ms. A late, small-amplitude inhibitory synaptic potential (IPSP) was present following EPSPs in a portion of the NPO neurons. Following stimulation of the CNA with a train of 8-10 pulses, NPO neurons exhibited a sustained depolarization (5-10 mV) of their resting membrane potential. When single subthreshold intracellular depolarizing current pulses were delivered to NPO neurons, CNA-induced EPSPs were sufficient to promote the discharge of these cells. Stimulation of the CNA with a short train of stimuli induced potent temporal facilitation of EPSPs in NPO neurons. Two forms of synaptic plasticity were revealed by the patterns of response of NPO neurons following stimulation of the CNA: paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Six of recorded NPO neurons were identified morphologically with neurobiotin. They were medium to large, multipolar cells with diameters >20 μM, which resemble AS-on cells in the NPO. The present results demonstrate that amygdalar projections are capable of exerting a powerful excitatory postsynaptic drive that activates NPO neurons. Therefore, we suggest that the amygdala is capable of inducing AS via direct

  19. Morphology, Classification, and Distribution of the Projection Neurons in the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Changying; Hendrickson, Michael L.; Kalil, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of confirmed projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the rat was examined by filling these cells retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injected into the visual cortex. BDA-labeled projection neurons varied widely in the shape and size of their cell somas, with mean cross-sectional areas ranging from 60–340 µm2. Labeled projection neurons supported 7–55 dendrites that spanned up to 300 µm in length and formed dendritic arbors with cross-sectional areas of up to 7.0×104 µm2. Primary dendrites emerged from cell somas in three broad patterns. In some dLGN projection neurons, primary dendrites arise from the cell soma at two poles spaced approximately 180° apart. In other projection neurons, dendrites emerge principally from one side of the cell soma, while in a third group of projection neurons primary dendrites emerge from the entire perimeter of the cell soma. Based on these three distinct patterns in the distribution of primary dendrites from cell somas, we have grouped dLGN projection neurons into three classes: bipolar cells, basket cells and radial cells, respectively. The appendages seen on dendrites also can be grouped into three classes according to differences in their structure. Short “tufted” appendages arise mainly from the distal branches of dendrites; “spine-like” appendages, fine stalks with ovoid heads, typically are seen along the middle segments of dendrites; and “grape-like” appendages, short stalks that terminate in a cluster of ovoid bulbs, appear most often along the proximal segments of secondary dendrites of neurons with medium or large cell somas. While morphologically diverse dLGN projection neurons are intermingled uniformly throughout the nucleus, the caudal pole of the dLGN contains more small projection neurons of all classes than the rostral pole. PMID:23139837

  20. Microinjection of orexin-A into the rat locus coeruleus nucleus induces analgesia via cannabinoid type-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Hossein Mohammad-Pour; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Reza, Mani Ali; Semnanian, Saeed

    2015-10-22

    Locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus is involved in noradrenergic descending pain modulation. LC receives dense orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic peptides which modulate a variety of brain functions via orexin type-1 (OX1) and orexin type-2 (OX2) receptors. Previous studies have shown that activation of OX1 receptors induces endocannabinoid synthesis and alters synaptic neurotransmission by retrograde signaling via affecting cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors. In the present study the interaction of orexin-A and endocannabinoids was examined at the LC level in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Pain was induced by formalin (2%) injection into the hind paw. Intra-LC microinjection of orexin-A decreased the nociception score during both phases of formalin test. Furthermore, intra-LC microinjection of either SB-334867 (OX1 receptor antagonist) or AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist) increased flinches and also the nociception score during phase 1, 2 and the inter-phase of formalin test. The analgesic effect of orexin-A was diminished by prior intra-LC microinjection of either SB-334867 or AM251. This data show that, activation of OX1 receptors in the LC can induce analgesia and also the blockade of OX1 or CB1 receptors is associated with hyperalgesia during formalin test. Our findings also suggest that CB1 receptors may modulate the analgesic effect of orexin-A. These results outline a new mechanism by which orexin-A modulates the nociceptive processing in the LC nucleus.

  1. The effect of endomorphins on the release of 3H-norepinephrine from rat nucleus tractus solitarii slices.

    PubMed

    Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Elor, Guy; Yusuf Abbas, Mamode; Rónai, András Z

    2003-03-28

    We used two, 3-min field stimulation cycles 30 min apart (S1, S2) in 3H-norepinephrine-loaded, superfused rat nucleus tractus solitarii-dorsal motor vagal nucleus (NTS-DVN) slices. The stimulation-induced release was expressed as the area above the baseline. Drugs were introduced 12 min before S2 and drug actions were characterized in terms of alterations of S2/S1 ratios. The S2/S1 ratio was 1.047 (0.946-1.159, n = 4, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval) in controls and 0.336 (0.230-0.490, n = 3), 0.726 (0.590-0.892, n = 4), 0.613 (0.594-0.683, n = 4) and 0.665 (0.500-0.886, n = 4) in the presence of 10(-6) M clonidine, D-Ala(2),MePhe(4),Gly(5)-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO), endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2), EM-1) and -2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2), EM-2) [the latter two in the presence of 10(-4) M diprotin A, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase IV (DAP-IV) enzyme]. The effect of DAMGO at 10(-5) M was significantly higher than at 10(-6) M, whereas the effect of endomorphins did not differ at the two concentration levels. Diprotin A potentiated only very modestly the action of endomorphins. These data (a) confirm the presence of functional mu-opioid receptors in the vagal complex, (b) render it likely that the enzymic degradation of endomorphins is not a highly effective process in brain slices and (c) may suggest that the apparent ceiling in the effect of endomorphins might be related to their partial agonist property.

  2. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong; Nong, Luming; Ren, Kewei

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade.

  3. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tang, Yi-Fan; Pan, Lei-Lei; Cai, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS) susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus. Methods We identified MS susceptible (MSS) and insusceptible (inMSS) rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN) after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR) methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Results A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR) α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R), tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R), γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81) and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1). In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine. Conclusion Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion

  4. Orofacial inflammatory pain affects the expression of MT1 and NADPH-d in rat caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; He, Hongwen; Fan, Wenguo; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Hongyu; Cheng, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the role of melatonin in the trigeminal system, including the function of melatonin receptor 1. In the present study, adult rats were injected with formaldehyde into the right vibrissae pad to establish a model of orofacial inflammatory pain. The distribution of melatonin receptor 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion was determined with immunohistochemistry and histochemistry. The results show that there are significant differences in melatonin receptor 1 expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expression in the trigeminal ganglia and caudal spinal nucleus during the early stage of orofacial inflammatory pain. Our findings suggest that when melatonin receptor 1 expression in the caudal spinal nucleus is significantly reduced, melatonin's regulatory effect on pain is attenuated. PMID:25206619

  5. Multimodal cross-talk of olfactory and gustatory information in the endopiriform nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugai, T; Yamamoto, R; Yoshimura, H; Kato, N

    2012-10-01

    The endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is a large group of multipolar cells located in the depth of the piriform cortex (PC). Although many studies have suggested that the EPN plays a role in temporal lobe epilepsy, the normal function of the EPN remains to be elucidated. By using optical imaging of coronal brain slice preparations with voltage-sensitive dye, we found signal propagation from the PC or gustatory cortex (GC) to the EPN in normal medium. In our previous research, we failed to elicit a reliable signal reproducibly in the EPN by single stimulation either to the PC or GC. In our current research, we found that a double-pulse stimulation to either the PC or GC (interpulse interval: 20-100 ms) induced robust signal propagation to the EPN through excitation in the agranular division of the insular cortex (AI), with further extension to the claustrum. Finally, double site paired-pulse stimulation to the PC and GC also evoked excitation in the AI, claustrum, and EPN. These results suggest that the EPN has dual roles: 1) further processing of modality-specific olfactory and gustatory information from the PC and GC, respectively and 2) synergistic integration of PC-derived olfactory information and GC-derived gustatory information.

  6. beta-Alanine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens: antagonism by strychnine.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mia; Clarke, Rhona B C; Chau, PeiPei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) have recently been suggested to be involved in the reinforcing and dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol via a neuronal circuitry involving the VTA. Apart from ethanol, both glycine and taurine have the ability to modulate dopamine output via GlyRs in the same brain region. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether yet another endogenous ligand for the GlyR, beta-alanine, had similar effects. To this end, we monitored dopamine in the nAc by means of in vivo microdialysis and found that local perfusion of beta-alanine increased dopamine output. In line with previous observations investigating ethanol, glycine and taurine, the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine completely blocked the dopamine elevation. The present results suggest that beta-alanine has the ability to modulate dopamine levels in the nAc via strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, and are consistent with previous studies suggesting the importance of this receptor for modulating dopamine output.

  7. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo, Constantino; Palay, Sanford L.

    1968-01-01

    The lateral vestibular nucleus consists of multipolar isodendritic neurons of various sizes The distal segments of some dendrites display broad expansions packed with slender mitochondria and glycogen particles. These distinctive formations are interpreted as being growing tips of dendrites, and the suggestion is advanced that they are manifestations of architectonic plasticity in the mature central nervous system. Unlike large neurons elsewhere, the giant cells (Deiters) contain small Nissl bodies interconnected in a dense mesh-work. The Nissl substance is characterized by randomly arranged cisterns of the endoplasmic reticulum and by a high proportion of free ribosomes. Whether attached or free, ribosomes usually cluster in groups of four to six, and larger polysomal arrays are rare. Free ribosomal clusters also occur in the axon hillock and the initial segment. The neuronal perikarya contain distinctive inclusions consisting of a ball of neurofilaments enveloped by a complex honeycombed membrane. The failure of these fibrillary inclusions to stain with silver suggests that the putative argyrophilia of neurofilaments may reside in an inconstant matrix surrounding them. Giant cells of Deiters are in intimate contact with two kinds of cellular elements—astroglial processes and synaptic terminals. Oligodendroglial cells are only rarely satellites of giant cells; in contrast, they are frequently satellites of small and medium-sized cells. PMID:19806700

  8. Coherence of neuronal firing of the entopeduncular nucleus with motor cortex oscillatory activity in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease with levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xingxing; Schwabe, Kerstin; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

    2016-04-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease (PD) after long-term treatment with levodopa remain unclear. This study investigates the neuronal firing characteristics of the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), the rat equivalent of the human globus pallidus internus and output nucleus of the basal ganglia, and its coherence with the motor cortex (MCx) field potentials in the unilateral 6-OHDA rat model of PD with and without levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) rats, 6-OHDA-lesioned HP rats with LID (HP-LID) rats, and naïve controls were used for recording of single-unit activity under urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p) anesthesia in the EPN "on" and "off" levodopa. Over the MCx, the electrocorticogram output was recorded. Analysis of single-unit activity in the EPN showed enhanced firing rates, burst activity, and irregularity compared to naïve controls, which did not differ between drug-naïve HP and HP-LID rats. Analysis of EPN spike coherence and phase-locked ratio with MCx field potentials showed a shift of low (12-19 Hz) and high (19-30 Hz) beta oscillatory activity between HP and HP-LID groups. EPN theta phase-locked ratio was only enhanced in HP-LID compared to HP rats. Overall, levodopa injection had no stronger effect in HP-LID rats than in HP rats. Altered coherence and changes in the phase lock ratio of spike and local field potentials in the beta range may play a role for the development of LID.

  9. Tio2-dopamine complex implanted unilaterally in the caudate nucleus improves motor activity and behavior function of rats with induced hemiparkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Aragón, Patricia; Domínguez-Marrufo, Leonardo Eduardo; Ibarra-Guerrero, Patricia; Hernandez-Ramírez, Heidi; Hernández-Téllez, Beatriz; López-Martínez, Irma Elena; Sánchez-Cervantes, Ivonne; Santiago-Jacinto, Patricia; García-Macedo, Jorge Alberto; Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe; Santiago, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by malfunction of dopaminergic systems, and the current symptomatic treatment is to replace lost dopamine. For investigating mechanisms of pathogenesis and alternative treatments to compensate lack of dopamine (DA) activity in PD, the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of PD has been useful, these animals display apomorphine-induced contralateral rotational behavior, when they are examined after lesion. The purpose of this study was to assess Titania-dopamine (TiO2-DA) complexes implanted on the caudate nucleus for diminishing motor behavior alterations of the 6-OHDA rat model. Rats with 6-OHDA unilateral lesions received TiO2 alone or TiO2-DA implants, and were tested for open field (OF) gross motor crossing and rearing behaviors, and apomorphine-induced rotation (G) behavior. TiO2 complex have no effects on rearing OF and G behaviors, and a significant reducing effect on crossing motor behavior of normal rats compared to control non-treated rats throughout 56 days of observation. Interestingly, TiO2-DA treatment significant recovered motor crossing and rearing behaviors in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, and diminished the G behaviors during 56 days of examination. Additionally, in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats TiO2 treatment had a moderate recovering effect only on crossing behavior compared to lesioned non treated rats. Our results suggest that continuous release of dopamine in the caudate nucleus from TiO2-DA complex is capable of reversing gross motor deficits observed in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. Thistype of delivery system of DA represents a promising therapy for PD in humans.

  10. Medial amygdaloid nucleus 5-HT₂c receptors are involved in the hypophagic effect caused by zimelidine in rats.

    PubMed

    Scopinho, A A; Fortaleza, E A T; Corrêa, F M A; Resstel, L B M

    2012-08-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) is a sub-region of the amygdaloid complex that has been described as participating in food intake regulation. Serotonin has been known to play an important role in appetite and food intake regulation. Moreover, serotonin 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(1A) receptors appear to be critical in food intake regulation. We investigated the role of the serotoninergic system in the MeA on feeding behavior regulation in rats. The current study examined the effects on feeding behavior regulation of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor, zimelidine, administered directly into the MeA or given systemically, and the serotoninergic receptors mediating its effect. Our results showed that microinjection of zimelidine (0.2, 2 and 20 nmol/100 nL) into the MeA evoked dose dependent hypophagic effects in fasted rats. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (18.5 nmol/100 nL) or the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist SB-216641 microinjected bilaterally into the MeA did not change the hypophagic effect evoked by local MeA zimelidine treatment. However, microinjection of the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB-242084 (10 nmol/100 nL) was able to block the hypophagic effect of zimelidine. Moreover, microinjection of the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB-242084 into the MeA also blocked the hypophagic effect caused by zimelidine administered systemically. These results suggest that MeA 5-HT(2C) receptors modulate the hypophagic effect caused by local MeA administration as well as by systemic zimelidine administration. Furthermore, 5-HT(2C) into the MeA could be a potential target for systemic administration of zimelidine.

  11. Alcohol intoxications during adolescence increase motivation for alcohol in adult rats and induce neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Warnault, Vincent; Legastelois, Rémi; Botia, Béatrice; Pierrefiche, Olivier; Vilpoux, Catherine; Naassila, Mickaël

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent alcohol binge drinking constitutes a major vulnerability factor to develop alcoholism. However, mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. We evaluated the effect of adolescent binge-like ethanol intoxication on vulnerability to alcohol abuse in Sprague-Dawley rats. To model binge-like ethanol intoxication, every 2 days, rats received an ethanol injection (3.0 g/kg) for 2 consecutive days across 14 days either from postnatal day 30 (PND30) to 43 (early adolescence) or from PND 45 to PND 58 (late adolescence). In young adult animals, we measured free ethanol consumption in the two-bottle choice paradigm, motivation for ethanol in the operant self-administration task and both ethanol's rewarding and aversive properties in the conditioned place preference (CPP) and taste aversion (CTA) paradigms. While intermittent ethanol intoxications (IEI) during late adolescence had no effect on free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, we found that IEI during early adolescence promoted free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, enhanced motivation for ethanol in the self-administration paradigm and induced a loss of both ethanol-induced CPP and CTA in young adults. No modification in either sucrose self-administration or amphetamine-induced CPP was observed. As the nucleus accumbens (Nac) is particularly involved in addictive behavior, we analyzed IEI-induced long-term neuroadaptations in the Nac using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and an array of neurotransmission-related genes. This vulnerability to ethanol abuse was associated with a lower c-Fos immunoreactivity in the Nac and enduring alterations of the expression of Penk and Slc6a4, 2 neurotransmission-related genes that have been shown to play critical roles in the behavioral effects of ethanol and alcoholism.

  12. MC4-R signaling within the nucleus accumbens shell, but not the lateral hypothalamus, modulates ethanol palatability in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose M.; Carvajal, Francisca; Chotro, Gabriela; Gaztañaga, Mirari; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    The Melanocortin (MC) system is one of the crucial neuropeptidergic systems that modulate energy balance. The roles of endogenous MC and MC-4 receptor (MC4-R) signaling within the hypothalamus in the control of homeostatic aspects of feeding are well established. Additional evidence points to a key role for the central MC system in ethanol consumption. Recently, we have shown that nucleus accumbens (NAc), but not lateral hypothalamic (LH), infusion of a selective MC4-R agonist decreases ethanol consumption. Given that MC signaling might contribute to non-homeostatic aspects of feeding within limbic circuits, we assessed here whether MC4-R signaling within the NAc and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) alters normal ingestive hedonic and/or aversive responses to ethanol in rats as measured by a taste reactivity test. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given NAc- or LH- bilateral infusion of the selective MC4-R agonist cyclo (NH-CH2-CH2-CO-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu)-NH2 (0, 0.75 or 1.5 µg/0.5µl/site) and following 30 min, the animals received 1 ml of ethanol solution (6% w/v) intraoral for 1 minute and aversive and hedonic behaviors were recorded. We found that NAc-, but not LH-administration, of a selective MC4-R agonist decreased total duration of hedonic reactions and significantly increased aversive reactions relative to saline-infused animals which support the hypothesis that MC signaling within the NAc may contribute to ethanol consumption by modulating non-homeostatic aspects (palatability) of intake. PMID:23146409

  13. Acute intravenous administration of dietary constituent theanine suppresses noxious neuronal transmission of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Shiori; Kubota, Yoshiko; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yui, Kei; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2017-03-15

    Theanine is a non-dietary amino acid linked to the modulation of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, although the acute effects of theanine in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The present study investigated whether acute intravenous theanine administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 15 SpVc neurons in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli were analyzed. The mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neurons in response to all mechanical stimuli was dose-dependently inhibited by theanine (10, 50, and 100mM, i.v.) with the maximum inhibition of discharge frequency reached within 5min. These inhibitory effects were reversed after approximately 10min. The relative magnitude of theanine's inhibition of SpVc WDR neuronal discharge frequency was significantly greater for noxious than non-noxious stimulation. Iontophoretic application of l-glutamate induced the mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neuron responding to noxious mechanical stimulation was also inhibited by intravenous administration of 100mM theanine. These results suggest that acute intravenous theanine administration suppresses glutaminergic noxious synaptic transmission in the SpVc, implicating theanine as a potential complementary and alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of trigeminal nociceptive pain.

  14. Glutamatergic phenotype of glucagon-like peptide 1 neurons in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, H.; Stornetta, R. L.; Agassandian, K.

    2017-01-01

    The expression of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) suffices to assign a glutamatergic phenotype to neurons and other secretory cells. For example, intestinal L cells express VGLUT2 and secrete glutamate along with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). We hypothesized that GLP1-positive neurons within the caudal (visceral) nucleus of the solitary tract (cNST) also are glutamatergic. To test this, the axonal projections of GLP1 and other neurons within the cNST were labeled in rats via iontophoretic delivery of anterograde tracer. Dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy was used to visualize tracer-, GLP1-, and VGLUT2-positive fibers within brainstem, hypothalamic, and limbic forebrain nuclei that receive input from the cNST. Electron microscopy was used to confirm GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling within the same axon varicosities, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to examine VGLUT2 mRNA expression by GLP1-positive neurons. Most anterograde tracer-labeled fibers displayed VGLUT2-positive varicosities, providing new evidence that ascending axonal projections from the cNST are primarily glutamatergic. Virtually all GLP1-positive varicosities also were VGLUT2-positive. Electron microscopy confirmed the colocalization of GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling in axon terminals that formed asymmetric (excitatory-type) synapses with unlabeled dendrites in the hypothalamus. Finally, in situ hybridization confirmed that GLP1-positive cNST neurons express VGLUT2 mRNA. Thus, hindbrain GLP1 neurons in rats are equipped to store glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and likely co-release both glutamate and GLP1 from axon varicosities and terminals in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. PMID:25012114

  15. Glutamatergic phenotype of glucagon-like peptide 1 neurons in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H; Stornetta, R L; Agassandian, K; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-09-01

    The expression of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) suffices to assign a glutamatergic phenotype to neurons and other secretory cells. For example, intestinal L cells express VGLUT2 and secrete glutamate along with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). We hypothesized that GLP1-positive neurons within the caudal (visceral) nucleus of the solitary tract (cNST) also are glutamatergic. To test this, the axonal projections of GLP1 and other neurons within the cNST were labeled in rats via iontophoretic delivery of anterograde tracer. Dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy was used to visualize tracer-, GLP1-, and VGLUT2-positive fibers within brainstem, hypothalamic, and limbic forebrain nuclei that receive input from the cNST. Electron microscopy was used to confirm GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling within the same axon varicosities, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to examine VGLUT2 mRNA expression by GLP1-positive neurons. Most anterograde tracer-labeled fibers displayed VGLUT2-positive varicosities, providing new evidence that ascending axonal projections from the cNST are primarily glutamatergic. Virtually all GLP1-positive varicosities also were VGLUT2-positive. Electron microscopy confirmed the colocalization of GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling in axon terminals that formed asymmetric (excitatory-type) synapses with unlabeled dendrites in the hypothalamus. Finally, in situ hybridization confirmed that GLP1-positive cNST neurons express VGLUT2 mRNA. Thus, hindbrain GLP1 neurons in rats are equipped to store glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and likely co-release both glutamate and GLP1 from axon varicosities and terminals in the hypothalamus and other brain regions.

  16. Arginine Vasopressin gene expression changes within the nucleus accumbens during environment elicited cocaine-conditioned response in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Borrero, E.; Rivera-Escalera, F.; Candelas, F.; Montalvo, J.; Muñoz-Miranda, W.J.; Walker, J.R.; Maldonado-Vlaar, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that changes in gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) occur during cocaine dependence development. However, identification of specific genes involved in cocaine conditioning awaits further investigation. We conducted a high throughput gene expression profile analysis of the NAc, during different stages of the environment-elicited cocaine conditioning. Rats were assigned to two different environmental conditions. Cocaine conditioned group received a cocaine injection (10 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to being placed in the activity chambers. Control rats received saline injections before being exposed to their environment. Both groups received a saline injection in their home cage. Conditioning training lasted for 10 days. Animals were then re-exposed to their previously paired environments only on day 12 (test session). We found that the gene for arginine vasopressin (AVP) was differentially expressed on experimental subjects during all stages of environment-elicited cocaine conditioning. To further validate our molecular results, biochemical and immunolocalization experiments were conducted. We found the presence of AVP within accumbal fibers and changes in AVP protein levels following cocaine conditioning. Moreover, we tested the effects of accumbal microinfusions of either AVP receptor V1A agonist [pGlu4, Cyt6, Arg8] AVP 4-9 1.0 ng/0.5μl, or V1A antagonist (CH2) 5[Tyr (Me) 2] AVP, 1.0 ng/0.5μl or vehicle solution (0.9% saline solution) during different stages of the cocaine conditioning. Blockade of V1A receptors within the NAc during acquisition interrupted the expression of the conditioned response, while activation leads to an increase in this response. Our findings propose a new role for AVP in cocaine addiction. PMID:19596360

  17. Continuous bilateral infusion of vigabatrin into the subthalamic nucleus: Effects on seizure threshold and GABA metabolism in two rat models.

    PubMed

    Gey, Laura; Gernert, Manuela; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role as a regulator of basal ganglia outflow but also influences the activity of cortical and limbic structures, so that it is widely used as a therapeutic target in different brain diseases, including epilepsy. In addition to electrical stimulation of the STN, targeted delivery of anti-seizure drugs to the STN may constitute an alternative treatment approach in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. In the present experimental study, we investigated the anti-seizure and adverse effects of chronic infusion of vigabatrin into the STN of rats. Vigabatrin is a clinically approved anti-seizure drug, which acts by increasing brain GABA levels by irreversibly inhibiting GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T). Based on functional and neurochemical effects of acute STN microinjection, doses for continuous infusion were calculated and administered, using an innovative drug infusion technology. Bilateral infusion of only 10μg/day vigabatrin over 3weeks into the STN resulted in an almost complete inhibition of GABA-T and 4-fold increase in GABA in the target region, which was associated with a significant increase in seizure threshold, determined once weekly by i.v. infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Lower doses or unilateral infusion were less effective, both on PTZ seizures and on kindled seizures. Bilateral infusion into substantia nigra pars reticulata was less effective and more toxic than STN infusion. In part of the rats, tolerance to the anti-seizure effect developed. The data demonstrate that chronic administration of very low, nontoxic doses of vigabatrin into STN is an effective means of increasing local GABA concentrations and seizure threshold.

  18. Repeated Cocaine Exposure Decreases Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Modulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis in Rat Nucleus Accumbens Neurons

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, MARIELA F.; FORD, KERSTIN A.; GOUSSAKOV, IVAN; STUTZMANN, GRACE E.; HU, XIU-TI

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a limbic structure in the forebrain that plays a critical role in cognitive function and addiction. Dopamine modulates activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc. Both dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors (including D1R or D1,5R and D2R or D2,3,4R, respectively) are thought to play critical roles in cocaine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that repeated cocaine exposure (which alters dopamine transmission) decreases excitability of NAc MSNs in cocaine-sensitized, withdrawn rats. This decrease is characterized by a reduction in voltage-sensitive Na+ currents and high voltage-activated Ca2+ currents, along with increased voltage-gated K+ currents. These changes are associated with enhanced activity in the D1R/cAMP/PKA/protein phosphatase 1 pathway and diminished calcineurin function. Although D1R-mediated signaling is enhanced by repeated cocaine exposure, little is known whether and how the D2R is implicated in the cocaine-induced NAc dysfunction. Here, we performed a combined electrophysiological, biochemical, and neuroimaging study that reveals the cocaine-induced dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis with involvement of D2R. Our novel findings reveal that D2R stimulation reduced Ca2+ influx preferentially via the L-type Ca2+ channels and evoked intracellular Ca2+ release, likely via inhibiting the cAMP/PKA cascade, in the NAc MSNs of drug-free rats. However, repeated cocaine exposure abolished the D2R effects on modulating Ca2+ homeostasis with enhanced PKA activity and led to a decrease in whole-cell Ca2+ influx. These adaptations, which persisted for 21 days during cocaine abstinence, may contribute to the mechanism of cocaine withdrawal. PMID:20665696

  19. Compartmentalized expression of light-induced clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Campbell, Amy; Tomczak, Ashley; Nunez, Antonio A.; Smale, Laura; Yan, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Photic responses of the circadian system are mediated through light-induced clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In nocturnal rodents, depending on the timing of light exposure, Per1 and Per2 gene expression shows distinct compartmentalized patterns that correspond to the behavioral responses. Whether the gene-and region-specific induction patterns are unique to nocturnal animals, or are also present in diurnal species is unknown. We explored this question by examining the light-induced Per1 and Per2 gene expression in functionally distinct SCN sub regions, using diurnal grass rats Arvicanthis niloticus. Light exposure during nighttime induced Per1 and Per2 expression in the SCN, showing unique spatiotemporal profiles depending on the phase of the light exposure. After a phase delaying light pulse (LP) in the early night, strong Per1 induction was observed in the retinorecipient core region of the SCN, while strong Per2 induction was observed throughout the entire SCN. After a phase advancing LP in the late night, Per1 was first induced in the core and then extended into the whole SCN, accompanied by a weak Per2 induction. This compartmentalized expression pattern is very similar to that observed in nocturnal rodents, suggesting that the same molecular and intercellular pathways underlying acute photic responses are present in both diurnal and nocturnal species. However, after a LP in early subjective day, which induces phase advances in diurnal grass rats, but not in nocturnal rodents, we did not observe any Per1 or Per2 induction in the SCN. This result suggests that in spite of remarkable similarities in the SCN of diurnal and nocturnal rodents, unique mechanisms are involved in mediating the phase shifts of diurnal animals during the subjective day. PMID:19393297

  20. Selective modulation of GABAergic tonic current by dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Marty, Vincent N; Mulpuri, Yatendra; Olsen, Richard W; Spigelman, Igor

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system and plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors. Alterations in glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling were recently demonstrated in the NAcc of rats after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment, a model of alcohol dependence. Here we studied dopamine (DA) modulation of GABAergic signaling and how this modulation might be altered by CIE treatment. We show that the tonic current (I(tonic)) mediated by extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAcc core is differentially modulated by DA at concentrations in the range of those measured in vivo (0.01-1 μM), without affecting the postsynaptic kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Use of selective D1 receptor (D1R) and D2 receptor (D2R) ligands revealed that I(tonic) potentiation by DA (10 nM) is mediated by D1Rs while I(tonic) depression by DA (0.03-1 μM) is mediated by D2Rs in the same MSNs. Addition of guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDPβS) to the recording pipettes eliminated I(tonic) decrease by the selective D2R agonist quinpirole (5 nM), leaving intact the quinpirole effect on mIPSC frequency. Recordings from CIE and vehicle control (CIV) MSNs during application of D1R agonist (SKF 38393, 100 nM) or D2R agonist (quinpirole, 2 nM) revealed that SKF 38393 potentiated I(tonic) to the same extent, while quinpirole reduced I(tonic) to a similar extent, in both groups of rats. Our data suggest that the selective modulatory effects of DA on I(tonic) are unaltered by CIE treatment and withdrawal.

  1. Influence of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus on cardiovascular neurones in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Coote, J H

    1998-12-01

    1. The question of whether neurones in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus have an excitatory influence on reticulo-spinal vasomotor neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) has been addressed in this study using anaesthetized rats. 2. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were made from sixty vasomotor neurones in the RVL, identified by their cardiac cycle-related probability of discharge, by the decrease in activity in response to an increase in arterial blood pressure produced by intravenous phenylephrine and by the increase in activity in response to a decrease in blood pressure produced by intravenous nitroprusside. 3. More than 70 % of these RVL vasomotor neurones were identified as spinally projecting by antidromically activating their axons via a stimulating electrode in the lateral funiculus of the T2 or T10 segment of spinal cord. 4. Activation of neurones at different sites in the PVN with a microinjection of d,l-homocysteic acid (DLH) elicited either pressor or depressor responses. 5. At PVN pressor sites fifteen RVL vasomotor neurones were shown to be activated prior to the blood pressure change. A further twenty RVL vasomotor neurones were observed to decrease activity following the blood pressure rise. At PVN depressor sites twelve RVL neurones were inhibited prior to the blood pressure change whereas another thirteen identified RVL neurones increased their discharge following the fall in blood pressure. 6. In three rats single shock electrical stimulation at a PVN pressor site, first identified with DLH, elicited a single or double action potential in thirteen RVL neurones with a latency of 27 +/- 1 ms. 7. It is concluded that PVN neurones may elicit increases in blood pressure via excitatory connections with RVL-spinal vasomotor neurones, and that other PVN neurones may elicit decreases in blood pressure via inhibitory connections with these RVL neurones.

  2. Protection genes in nucleus accumbens shell affect vulnerability to nicotine self-administration across isogenic strains of adolescent rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Luo, Rui; Gong, Suzhen; Matta, Shannon G; Sharp, Burt M

    2014-01-01

    Classical genetic studies show the heritability of cigarette smoking is 0.4-0.6, and that multiple genes confer susceptibility and resistance to smoking. Despite recent advances in identifying genes associated with smoking behaviors, the major source of this heritability and its impact on susceptibility and resistance are largely unknown. Operant self-administration (SA) of intravenous nicotine is an established model for smoking behavior. We recently confirmed that genetic factors exert strong control over nicotine intake in isogenic rat strains. Because the processing of afferent dopaminergic signals by nucleus accumbens shell (AcbS) is critical for acquisition and maintenance of motivated behaviors reinforced by nicotine, we hypothesized that differential basal gene expression in AcbS accounts for much of the strain-to-strain variation in nicotine SA. We therefore sequenced the transcriptome of AcbS samples obtained by laser capture microdissection from 10 isogenic adolescent rat strains and compared all RNA transcript levels with behavior. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, a systems biology method, found 12 modules (i.e., unique sets of genes that covary across all samples) that correlated (p<0.05) with amount of self-administered nicotine; 9 of 12 correlated negatively, implying a protective role. PCR confirmed selected genes from these modules. Chilibot, a literature mining tool, identified 15 genes within 1 module that were nominally associated with cigarette smoking, thereby providing strong support for the analytical approach. This is the first report demonstrating that nicotine intake by adolescent rodents is associated with the expression of specific genes in AcbS of the mesolimbic system, which controls motivated behaviors. These findings provide new insights into genetic mechanisms that predispose or protect against tobacco addiction.

  3. Ambient Temperature and 17β-Estradiol Modify Fos Immunoreactivity in the Median Preoptic Nucleus, a Putative Regulator of Skin Vasomotion

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Penny A.; Krajewski, Sally J.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pronounced effects on thermoregulation, but the anatomic sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes are unknown. In this study, we tested whether estradiol-17β (E2) treatment would alter the activity of thermoregulatory brain regions responding to mild changes in ambient temperature (TAMBIENT). Core and tail skin temperatures were recorded at the ambient temperatures of 20, 24, or 31 C in ovariectomized (OVX) rats with and without E2. Neuronal activity was evaluated by counting the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the brains of rats killed 90 min after exposure to one of the three ambient temperatures. Of 14 brain areas examined, the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) was the only site that exhibited increased Fos immunoreactivity at the high TAMBIENT of 31 C. At 24 C, OVX rats exhibited increased numbers of MnPO Fos-immunoreactive cells, compared with OVX + E2 rats. Interestingly, tail skin vasomotion and MnPO Fos expression were affected in a similar manner by TAMBIENT and E2 treatment. In the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), Fos immunoreactivity was highest at the low TAMBIENT of 20 C, with inhibitory (arcuate nucleus) and stimulatory (AVPV) effects of E2. No other areas responded to both TAMBIENT and E2 treatment. These results implicate the MnPO, the arcuate nucleus, and the AVPV as sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes. Combined with studies showing the importance of MnPO neurons in heat-defense pathways, the MnPO emerges as a likely site for E2 modulation of thermoregulatory vasomotion. PMID:21521752

  4. Ambient temperature and 17β-estradiol modify Fos immunoreactivity in the median preoptic nucleus, a putative regulator of skin vasomotion.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Penny A; Krajewski, Sally J; Rance, Naomi E

    2011-07-01

    Estrogen has pronounced effects on thermoregulation, but the anatomic sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes are unknown. In this study, we tested whether estradiol-17β (E(2)) treatment would alter the activity of thermoregulatory brain regions responding to mild changes in ambient temperature (T(AMBIENT)). Core and tail skin temperatures were recorded at the ambient temperatures of 20, 24, or 31 C in ovariectomized (OVX) rats with and without E(2). Neuronal activity was evaluated by counting the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the brains of rats killed 90 min after exposure to one of the three ambient temperatures. Of 14 brain areas examined, the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) was the only site that exhibited increased Fos immunoreactivity at the high T(AMBIENT) of 31 C. At 24 C, OVX rats exhibited increased numbers of MnPO Fos-immunoreactive cells, compared with OVX + E(2) rats. Interestingly, tail skin vasomotion and MnPO Fos expression were affected in a similar manner by T(AMBIENT) and E(2) treatment. In the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), Fos immunoreactivity was highest at the low T(AMBIENT) of 20 C, with inhibitory (arcuate nucleus) and stimulatory (AVPV) effects of E(2). No other areas responded to both T(AMBIENT) and E(2) treatment. These results implicate the MnPO, the arcuate nucleus, and the AVPV as sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes. Combined with studies showing the importance of MnPO neurons in heat-defense pathways, the MnPO emerges as a likely site for E(2) modulation of thermoregulatory vasomotion.

  5. Role of the flocculus in mediating vestibular nucleus neuron plasticity during vestibular compensation in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Alex R; Seckl, Jonathan R; Dutia, Mayank B

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the role of the cerebellar flocculus in mediating the adaptive changes that occur in the intrinsic properties of brainstem medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons during vestibular compensation. Ipsi-lesional, but not contra-lesional, flocculectomy prevented the compensatory increase in intrinsic excitability (CIE) that normally occurs in the de-afferented MVN neurons within 4 h after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Flocculectomy did not, however, prevent the down-regulation of efficacy of GABA receptors that also occurs in these neurons after UL, indicating that these responses of the MVN neurons to deafferentation are discrete, parallel processes. CIE was also abolished by intra-floccular microinjection of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist AIDA, and the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolymaleimide I (BIS-I). The serene-threonine kinase inhibitor H-7 had no effect when microinjected at the time of de-afferentation, but abolished CIE if microinjected 2 h later. These cellular effects are in line with the recently reported retardatory effects of BIS-I and H-7 on behavioural recovery after UL. They demonstrate that the increase in intrinsic excitability in MVN neurons during vestibular compensation is cerebellum dependent, and requires mGluR activation and protein phosphorylation in cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, microinjection of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU38486 into the ipsi-lesional flocculus also abolished CIE in MVN neurons. Thus an important site for glucocorticoids in facilitating vestibular compensation is within the cerebellar cortex. These observations ascribe functional significance to the high levels of GR and 11-β-HSD Type 1 expression in cerebellum. PMID:12482895

  6. Local synaptic release of glutamate from neurons in the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Belousov, A B; van den Pol, A N

    1997-01-01

    1. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) contains neuroendocrine neurons that regulate endocrine secretions by releasing substances which control anterior pituitary hormonal release into the portal blood stream. Many neuroactive substances have been identified in the ARC, but the existence of excitatory neurons in the ARC and the identity of an excitatory transmitter have not been investigated physiologically. 2. In the present experiments using whole-cell current- and voltage-clamp recording of neurons from cultures and slices of the ARC, we demonstrate for the first time that some of the neurons in the ARC secrete glutamate as their transmitter. 3. Using microdrop stimulation of presynaptic neurons in ARC slices, we found that local axons from these glutamatergic neurons make local synaptic contact with other neurons in the ARC and that all evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials could be blocked by the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 10 microM) and D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5; 100 microM). To determine the identity of ARC neurons postsynaptic to local glutamatergic neurons, we used antidromic stimulation to reveal that many of these cells were neuroendocrine neurons by virtue of their maintaining axon terminals in the median eminence. 4. In ARC cultures, postsynaptic potentials, both excitatory and inhibitory, were virtually eliminated by the glutamate receptor antagonists AP5 and CNQX, underlining the functional importance of glutamate within this part of the neuroendocrine brain. 5. GABA was secreted by a subset of ARC neurons from local axons. The GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline released glutamatergic neurons from chronic inhibition mediated by synaptically released GABA, resulting in further depolarization and an increase in the amplitude and frequency of glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Images Figure 1 PMID:9130170

  7. Role of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in Ca2+ homeostasis in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Chen, Ya-Shuan; Cheng, Ruo-Ciao

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ is critical to the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). However, the role of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis in the SCN is unknown. Here we show that NCX is an important mechanism for somatic Ca2+ clearance in SCN neurons. In control conditions Na+-free solution lowered [Ca2+]i by inhibiting TTX-sensitive as well as nimodipine-sensitive Ca2+ influx. With use of the Na+ ionophore monensin to raise intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i), Na+-free solution provoked rapid Ca2+ uptake via reverse NCX. The peak amplitude of 0 Na+-induced [Ca2+]i increase was larger during the day than at night, with no difference between dorsal and ventral SCN neurons. Ca2+ extrusion via forward NCX was studied by determining the effect of Na+ removal on Ca2+ clearance after high-K+-induced Ca2+ loads. The clearance of Ca2+ proceeded with two exponential decay phases, with the fast decay having total signal amplitude of ∼85% and a time constant of ∼7 s. Na+-free solution slowed the fast decay rate threefold, whereas mitochondrial protonophore prolonged mostly the slow decay. In contrast, blockade of plasmalemmal and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps had little effect on the kinetics of Ca2+ clearance. RT-PCR indicated the expression of NCX1 and NCX2 mRNAs. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of NCX1 immunoreactivity in the whole SCN but restricted distribution of NCX2 immunoreactivity in the ventrolateral SCN. Together our results demonstrate an important role of NCX, most likely NCX1, as well as mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in clearing somatic Ca2+ after depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx in SCN neurons. PMID:25568156

  8. Neurotensin excitation of serotonergic neurons in the rat nucleus raphe magnus: ionic and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, A H; Yeh, T H; Tan, P P; Hwang, H M; Wang, H L

    2001-06-01

    To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) induces an analgesic effect in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of NT on acutely dissociated NRM neurons. Two subtypes of neurons, primary serotonergic and secondary non-serotonergic cells, were identified from acutely isolated NRM neurons. During current-clamp recordings, NT depolarized NRM serotonergic neurons and evoked action potentials. Voltage-clamp recordings showed that NT excited serotonergic neurons by enhancing a voltage-insensitive and non-selective cationic conductance. Both SR48692, a selective antagonist of subtype 1 neurotensin receptor (NTR-1), and SR 142948A, a non-selective antagonist of NTR-1 and subtype 2 neurotensin receptor (NTR-2), failed to prevent neurotensin from exciting NRM serotonergic neurons. NT-evoked cationic current was inhibited by the intracellular administration of GDP-beta-S. NT failed to induce cationic currents after dialyzing serotonergic neurons with the anti-G(alphaq/11) antibody. Cellular Ca(2+) imaging study using fura-2 showed that NT induced the calcium release from the intracellular store. NT-evoked current was blocked after the internal perfusion of heparin, an IP(3) receptor antagonist, or BAPTA, a fast Ca(2+) chelator. It is concluded that neurotensin enhancement of the cationic conductance of NRM serotonergic neurons is mediated by a novel subtype of neurotensin receptors. The coupling mechanism via G(alphaq/11) proteins is likely to involve the generation of IP(3), and subsequent IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores results in activating the non-selective cationic conductance.

  9. Periventricular leukomalacia in premature infants in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Li, Jian; Qin, Gui-Lian; Chen, Yan-Hua; Wang, Qi

    2008-10-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in premature infants is a major cause of mortality and disability. However, while China is the largest developing country, there is an absence of data concerning PVL. This study was carried out in order to explore the incidence rate and analyze the high-risk factors of PVL in premature infants, and to suggest a working protocol for the prevention of PVL in newborns at risk. The cohort prospective study included 921 premature infants < 37 weeks' gestation from January 2004 to July 2007. The study group was comprised of 271 premature infants with an ultrasound diagnosis of PVL and the control group was comprised of 650 premature infants who were submitted to the same evaluation protocol but did not show any echographic signs of PVL. The results showed that the incidence rate of PVL was 29.4% in China. High-degree PVL accounted for < 12% and > 88% of PVL was low-degree. The incidence rate was much higher when premature infants were accompanied by the following complications: low gestational age, low birth weight, prolonged rupture of membranes, chorionitis, mechanical ventilation, periventricular-ventricular hemorrhage, hypocapnia, and hyperlactacidemia. Severe complications that occur in premature infants also significantly increase the incidence of PVL. Antenatal corticosteroids can significantly decrease the incidence rate of PVL. This investigation provided a theoretical reference for the prevention of premature PVL.

  10. Functional Topography of Early Periventricular Brain Lesions in Relation to Cytoarchitectonic Probabilistic Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudt, Martin; Ticini, Luca F.; Grodd, Wolfgang; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Early periventricular brain lesions can not only cause cerebral palsy, but can also induce a reorganization of language. Here, we asked whether these different functional consequences can be attributed to topographically distinct portions of the periventricular white matter damage. Eight patients with pre- and perinatally acquired left-sided…

  11. [The involvement of thalamic nuclei in the formation of conditional avoidance reflexes in rats. I. Lesions in the anterior part of the nucleus ventralis lateralis].

    PubMed

    Hohrein, D; Klingberg, F

    1978-01-01

    Hooded rats (Long-Evans-strain) were not able to elaborate conditioned avoidance responses in a simple runway respectively in a jumping test after bilateral lesions of the anterior part of the nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami. When the number of the CS-US-combinations was increased from 10 to 25 per session, then during the last ten combinations the punishing electrical foot shocks were correctly avoided, but the animals showed no retention in their long-term memory.

  12. A Kv3-like persistent, outwardly rectifying, Cs+-permeable, K+ current in rat subthalamic nucleus neurones

    PubMed Central

    Wigmore, Mark A; Lacey, Michael G

    2000-01-01

    A persistent outward K+ current (IPO), activated by depolarization from resting potential, has been identified and characterized in rat subthalamic nucleus (SThN) neurones using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording in brain slices.IPO both rapidly activated (τ= 8 ms at +5 mV) and deactivated (τ= 2 ms at −68 mV), while showing little inactivation. Tail current reversal potentials varied with extracellular K+ concentration in a Nernstian manner.Intracellular Cs+ did not alter either IPO amplitude or the voltage dependence of activation, but blocked transient (A-like) outward currents activated by depolarization. When extracellular K+ was replaced with Cs+, IPO tail current reversal potentials were dependent upon the extracellular Cs+ concentration, indicating an ability to conduct Cs+, as well as K+.IPO was blocked by Ba2+ (1 mm), 4-aminopyridine (1 mm) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 20 mm), with an IC50 for TEA of 0.39 mm.The IPO conductance appeared maximal (38 nS) at around +27 mV, half-maximal at −13 mV, with the threshold for activation at around −38 mV.TEA (1 mm) blocked the action potential after-hyperpolarization and permitted accommodation of action potential firing at frequencies greater than around 200 Hz.We conclude that IPO, which shares many characteristics of currents attributable to Kv3.1 K+ channels, enables high-frequency spike trains in SThN neurones. PMID:10990536

  13. The neural code for taste in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat: effects of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, P M; Lemon, C H

    2000-01-10

    Adaptation of the tongue to NaCl, HCl, quinine or sucrose was used as a tool to study the stability and organization of response profiles in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Taste responses in the NTS were recorded in anesthetized rats before and after adaptation of the tongue to NaCl, HCl, sucrose or quinine. Results showed that the magnitude of response to test stimuli following adaptation was a function of the context, i.e., adaptation condition, in which the stimuli were presented. Over half of all taste responses were either attenuated or enhanced following the adaptation procedure: NaCl adaptation produced the most widespread, non-stimulus-selective cross-adaptation and sucrose adaptation produced the least frequent cross-adaptation and the most frequent enhancement of taste responses. Adaptation to quinine cross-adapted to sucrose and adaptation to HCl cross-adapted to quinine in over half of the units tested. The adaptation procedure sometimes unmasked taste responses where none were present beforehand and sometimes altered taste responses to test stimuli even though the adapting stimulus did not itself produce a response. These effects demonstrated a form of context-dependency of taste responsiveness in the NTS and further suggest a broad potentiality in the sensitivity of NTS units across taste stimuli. Across unit patterns of response remained distinct from each other under all adaptation conditions. Discriminability of these patterns may provide a neurophysiological basis for residual psychophysical abilities following adaptation.

  14. Low-frequency stimulation of the tuberomammillary nucleus facilitates electrical amygdaloid-kindling acquisition in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deng-Chang; Zhu-Ge, Zheng-Bing; Yu, Chao-Yang; Fang, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Jin, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Chen, Zhong

    2008-10-01

    Histamine plays a suppressive role in seizure. The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM) is the only locus of histaminergic neurons in the brain. To determine whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the TM provides protection against seizures, we tested the effects of low-frequency stimulation (LFS, 1 Hz), high frequency stimulation (HFS, 100 Hz), and electrolytic lesions of the TM on seizures generated by amygdaloid kindling, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) in rats. LFS of TM accelerated the progression of behavioral seizure stage and increased the mean afterdischarge duration (ADD) during acquisition of amygdaloid-kindling seizures, but had no considerable anticonvulsive effect in fully kindled animals. It augmented the MES-induced seizures as well, but had no appreciable effects on PTZ-kindled seizures. In addition, both HFS and bilateral lesions of the TM exacerbated the progression of amygdaloid-kindling seizures. These results suggest that specific negative sites for DBS exist in the brain, such as the TM. This study indicates that it is crucial to choose a suitable target for DBS in the clinical treatment of epilepsy.

  15. Odor-Taste Convergence in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract of the Awake Freely Licking Rat

    PubMed Central

    Escanilla, Olga D.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Flavor is produced by the integration of taste, olfaction, texture, and temperature, currently thought to occur in the cortex. However, previous work has shown that brainstem taste-related nuclei also respond to multisensory inputs. Here, we test the hypothesis that taste and olfaction interact in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS; the first neural relay in the central gustatory pathway) in awake, freely licking rats. Electrophysiological recordings of taste and taste + odor responses were conducted in an experimental chamber following surgical electrode implantation and recovery. Tastants (0.1 m NaCl, 0.1 m sucrose, 0.01 m citric acid, and 0.0001 m quinine) were delivered for five consecutive licks interspersed with five licks of artificial saliva rinse delivered on a VR5 schedule. Odorants were n-amyl acetate (banana), acetic acid (vinegar), octanoic acid (rancid), and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). For each cell, metric space analyses were used to quantify the information conveyed by spike count, by the rate envelope, and by individual spike timing. Results revealed diverse effects of odorants on taste-response magnitude and latency across cells. Importantly, NTS cells were more competent at discriminating taste + odor stimuli versus tastants presented alone for all taste qualities using both rate and temporal coding. The strong interaction of odorants and tastants at the NTS underscores its role as the initial node in the neural circuit that controls food identification and ingestion. PMID:25904782

  16. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus contributes to morphine physical dependence in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Zheng, Tian-Fang; Wei, Jing-Qiu; Liu, He; Chen, Yu-Feng; Wang, Jia-You; Zhang, Li-Cai

    2013-05-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) may influence actual composition of the CSF for non-synaptic signal transmission via releasing or absorbing bioactive substances, which distributes and localizes in the ventral periaqueductal central gray of the brainstem. Previous studies demonstrated that CSF-CN was involved in neuropathic pain and morphine dependence. Thus, to identify whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) distributed in the CSF-CN and its function on the formation and development of morphine physical dependence, morphine withdrawal-like behavioral test and immunofluorescent technique were used in this research. Morphine was subcutaneously injected by an intermittent and escalating procedure to induce physical dependence, which was measured by withdrawal symptoms. In this study, we found that horseradish peroxidase-conjugated toxin subunit B/p-ERK5 double-labeled neurons expressed in the CSF-CN of normal rats. ERK5 signaling pathway was remarkably activated by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the CSF-CN. Moreover, selective attenuation of p-ERK5 expression in the CSF-CN by lateral ventricle injection of BIX02188 could significantly relieve morphine withdrawal symptom. These findings confirmed that the activation of p-ERK5 in the CSF-CN might contribute to morphine physical dependence.

  17. Involvement of the median raphe nucleus in antinociception induced by morphine, buprenorphine and tilidine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R M; Olley, J E; Tyers, M B

    1982-12-01

    1 Antinociception induced by three analgesics with differing profiles of activity, morphine, buprenorphine and tilidine, have been evaluated in the hot plate and paw pressure tests after administration by the subcutaneous route and directly into the median raphe nucleus in the conscious rat. 2 Behavioural and neurological effects of the three analgesics were also assessed. 3 The typical profiles of antinociceptive activity induced by the three analgesics were qualitatively similar after either route of administration. Morphine induced naloxone-sensitive dose-dependent effects in both tests. Buprenorphine showed naloxone-sensitive effects with a bell-shaped dose-response curve in the thermal test but dose-dependent activity in the pressure test. Tilidine induced naloxone-sensitive dose-dependent effects in the thermal test but demonstrated naloxone-insensitive activity in the paw pressure test. 4 The behavioural and neurological effects of the analgesics in the dose range used would not have affected the animals' ability to respond to the nociceptive stimuli. 5 The results suggest that the median raphe could participate in drug-induced antinociception. The mechanisms by which this might occur are discussed.

  18. Enhanced ability of TRPV1 channels in regulating glutamatergic transmission after repeated morphine exposure in the nucleus accumbens of rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Jia, Dong; Wang, Yuan; Qu, Liang; Wang, Xuelian; Song, Jian; Heng, Lijun; Gao, Guodong

    2017-04-01

    Glutamatergic projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) drive drug-seeking behaviors during opioids withdrawal. Modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission provides a novel pharmacotherapeutic avenue for treatment of opioids dependence. Great deals of researches have verified that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels alters synaptic transmitter release and regulate neural plasticity. In the present study, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were adopted to examine the activity of TRPV1 Channels in regulating glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in NAc of rat during morphine withdrawal for 3days and 3weeks. The data showed that the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and the amplitudes of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) were increased during morphine withdrawal after applied with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist). Capsaicin decreased the paired pulse ratio (PPR) and increased sEPSCs frequency but not their amplitudes suggesting a presynaptic locus of action during morphine withdrawal. All these effects were fully blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist Capsazepine. Additionally, In the presence of AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist), depolarization-induced release of endogenous cannabinoids activated TRPV1 channels to enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission during morphine withdrawal. The functional enhancement of TRPV1 Channels in facilitating glutamatergic transmission was not recorded in dorsal striatum. Our findings demonstrate the ability of TRPV1 in regulating excitatory glutamatergic transmission is enhanced during morphine withdrawal in NAc, which would deepen our understanding of glutamatergic modulation during opioids withdrawal.

  19. Characterization of sevoflurane effects on Per2 expression using ex vivo bioluminescence imaging of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Izumi; Iijima, Norio; Takumi, Ken; Higo, Shimpei; Aikawa, Satoko; Anzai, Megumi; Ishii, Hirotaka; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    The inhalation anesthetic sevoflurane suppresses Per2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in rodents. Here, we investigated the intra-SCN regional specificity, time-dependency, and pharmacological basis of sevoflurane-effects. Bioluminescence image was taken from the SCN explants of mPer2 promoter-destabilized luciferase transgenic rats, and each small regions of interest (ROI) of the image was analyzed. Sevoflurane suppressed bioluminescence in all ROIs, suggesting that all regions in the SCN are sensitive to sevoflurane. Clear time-dependency in sevoflurane effects were also observed; application during the trough phase of the bioluminescence cycle suppressed the subsequent increase in bioluminescence and resulted in a phase delay of the cycle; sevoflurane applied during the middle of the ascending phase induced a phase advance; sevoflurane on the descending phase showed no effect. These results indicate that the sevoflurane effect may depend on the intrinsic state of circadian machinery. Finally, we examined the involvement of GABAergic signal transduction in the sevoflurane effect. Co-application of both GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists completely blocked the effect of sevoflurane on the bioluminescence rhythm, suggesting that sevoflurane inhibits Per2 expression via GABAergic signal transduction. Current study elucidated the anesthetic effects on the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythm.

  20. Hampered long-term depression and thin spine loss in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Saturnino; Talani, Giuseppe; Mulas, Giovanna; Licheri, Valentina; Fois, Giulia R; Muggironi, Giulia; Masala, Nicola; Cannizzaro, Carla; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico; Diana, Marco

    2014-09-02

    Alcoholism involves long-term cognitive deficits, including memory impairment, resulting in substantial cost to society. Neuronal refinement and stabilization are hypothesized to confer resilience to poor decision making and addictive-like behaviors, such as excessive ethanol drinking and dependence. Accordingly, structural abnormalities are likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunctions that occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic ingestion. Here we show that ethanol-dependent rats display a loss of dendritic spines in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) shell, accompanied by a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining and postsynaptic density 95-positive elements. Further analysis indicates that "long thin" but not "mushroom" spines are selectively affected. In addition, patch-clamp experiments from Nacc slices reveal that long-term depression (LTD) formation is hampered, with parallel changes in field potential recordings and reductions in NMDA-mediated synaptic currents. These changes are restricted to the withdrawal phase of ethanol dependence, suggesting their relevance in the genesis of signs and/or symptoms affecting ethanol withdrawal and thus the whole addictive cycle. Overall, these results highlight the key role of dynamic alterations in dendritic spines and their presynaptic afferents in the evolution of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, they suggest that the selective loss of long thin spines together with a reduced NMDA receptor function may affect learning. Disruption of this LTD could contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in alcohol dependence.

  1. Electrophysiological identification of the functional presynaptic nerve terminals on an isolated single vasopressin neurone of the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, T; Yokoyama, T; Fujihara, H; Suzuki, H; Ueta, Y

    2010-05-01

    Release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin from magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) is under the control of glutamate-dependent excitation and GABA-dependent inhibition. The possible role of the synaptic terminals attached to SON neurones has been investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in in vitro rat brain slice preparations. Recent evidence has provided new insights into the repercussions of glial environment modifications on the physiology of MNCs at the synaptic level in the SON. In the present study, excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic synaptic inputs were recorded from an isolated single SON neurone cultured for 12 h, using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Neurones expressed an AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion gene in MNCs. In addition, native synaptic terminals attached to a dissociated AVP-eGFP neurone were visualised with synaptic vesicle markers. These results suggest that the function of presynaptic nerve terminals may be evaluated directly in a single AVP-eGFP neurone. These preparations would be helpful in future studies aiming to electrophysiologically distinguish between the functions of synaptic terminals and glial modifications in the SON neurones.

  2. An examination of nucleus accumbens cell firing during extinction and reinstatement of water reinforcement behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Jonathan A; Ijames, Stephanie G; Roop, Richard G; Carelli, Regina M

    2002-03-08

    Electrophysiological recording procedures were used to examine nucleus accumbens (Acb) cell firing in rats (n = 13) during water reinforcement sessions consisting of three phases. During phase one (maintenance), a lever press resulted in water reinforcement (fixed ratio 1; 0.05 ml/press) paired with an auditory stimulus (0.5 s). Of 128 Acb neurons recorded during maintenance, 40 cells (31%) exhibited one of three types of neuronal firing patterns described previously [J. Neurosci. 14 (12) (1994) 7735-7746; J. Neurosci. 20 (11) (2000) 4255-4266]. Briefly, Acb neurons exhibited increases in firing rate within seconds preceding the reinforced response (type PR) or increases (type RFe) or decreases (type RFi) in activity seconds following response completion. In phase two (extinction), subsequent lever pressing had no programmed consequences (i.e., water reinforcement and the auditory stimulus were not presented). After 30 min of no responding, animals were given water reinforcement/auditory stimulus 'primes' to reestablish lever pressing behavior during the third phase (reinstatement). Results indicated that all types of phasic neurons (PR, RFe and RFi) exhibited an attenuated firing rate during extinction, and in some cases recovery of patterned discharges were observed during reinstatement. No significant changes in cell firing were observed for any cell type during presentation of the stimulus prime used to reestablish operant responding following extinction. These findings are discussed in terms of how Acb neurons process information related to 'natural' reinforcers versus drugs of abuse.

  3. Autoradiographic localization of (/sup 125/I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Zarbin, M.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-02-01

    The binding of (/sup 125/I-Tyr/sub 4/)bombesin to rat brain slices was investigated. Radiolabeled (Tyr/sub 4/)bombesin bound with high affinity (K/sub d/ . 4 nM) to a single class of sites (B/sub max/ . 130 fmol/mg of protein); the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding was 6/1. Also, pharmacology studies indicated that the C-terminal of bombesin was important for the high affinity binding activity. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the (/sup 125/I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites were discretely distributed in certain gray but not white matter regions of rat brain. Highest grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, central medial thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and substantia gelatinosa. Moderate grain densities were present in the parietal cortex, deep layers of the neocortex, rhinal cortex, caudate putamen, stria terminalis, locus ceruleus, parabrachial nucleus, and facial nucleus. Low grain densities were present in the globus pallidus, lateral thalamus, and midbrain. Negligible grain densities were present in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and all regions treated with 1 microM unlabeled bombesin. The discrete regional distribution of binding suggests that endogenous bombesin-like peptides may function as important regulatory agents in certain brain loci.

  4. High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has beneficial antiparkinsonian effects on motor functions in rats, but less efficiency in a choice reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Darbaky, Yassine; Forni, Claude; Amalric, Marianne; Baunez, Christelle

    2003-08-01

    Chronic subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation (STN HFS) improves motor function in Parkinson's disease. However, its efficacy on cognitive function and the mechanisms involved are less known. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of STN HFS in hemiparkinsonian awake rats performing different specific motor tests and a cognitive operant task. Unilateral STN HFS applied in unilaterally DA-depleted rats decreased the apomorphine-induced circling behaviour and reduced catalepsy induced by the neuroleptic haloperidol. DA-depleted rats exhibited severe deficits in the operant task, among which the inability to perform the task was not alleviated by STN HFS. However, in a few animals showing less impairment, STN HFS significantly reduced the contralateral neglect induced by the lesion. These results are the first to demonstrate a beneficial effect of STN HFS applied in awake rats on basic motor functions. However, STN HFS appears to be less effective on impaired cognitive functions.

  5. Pharmacological evidence for common mechanisms underlying the effects of neurotensin and neuroleptics on in vivo dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Blaha, C D; Phillips, A G

    1992-08-01

    The effects of the neuropeptide neurotensin and the typical neuroleptic haloperidol on dopamine efflux were compared in the posteromedial nucleus accumbens of the chloral hydrate-anesthetized rat using in vivo chronoamperometry. Both neurotensin and haloperidol administration elicited an immediate increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone, an agent known to block impulse flow in dopamine neurons, either prevented when given before neurotensin or reversed neurotensin-induced increases in accumbens dopamine efflux. Haloperidol-induced increases in accumbens dopamine efflux were similarly affected by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone. The dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine reversed neurotensin- and haloperidol-induced increases in dopamine efflux. Amphetamine, administered during the peak dopamine stimulatory effects induced by neurotensin or haloperidol, resulted in increases above baseline which were significantly greater than the effects of amphetamine alone. These combined drug treatment effects on baseline dopamine efflux were additive, indicating that the effects of amphetamine were not potentiated by neurotensin or haloperidol pretreatments. These in vivo results suggest that neurotensin and haloperidol may augment dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens via common mechanisms of action which may involve activation of mesotelencephalic dopamine neuronal firing. The inability of neurotensin to block amphetamine-induced efflux in the nucleus accumbens further suggests that neurotensin blockade of amphetamine-elicited locomotor activity is mediated by an action of neurotensin postsynaptic to dopamine nerve terminals in the nucleus accumbens.

  6. Stress-Induced Locomotor Sensitization to Amphetamine in Adult, but not in Adolescent Rats, Is Associated with Increased Expression of ΔFosB in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro de Oliveira, Paulo E.; Leão, Rodrigo M.; Bianchi, Paula C.; Marin, Marcelo T.; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva; Cruz, Fábio C.

    2016-01-01

    While clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that adolescence is a risk period for the development of addiction, the underlying neural mechanisms are largely unknown. Stress during adolescence has a huge influence on drug addiction. However, little is known about the mechanisms related to the interaction among stress, adolescence and addiction. Studies point to ΔFosB as a possible target for this phenomenon. In the present study, adolescent and adult rats (postnatal day 28 and 60, respectively) were restrained for 2 h once a day for 7 days. Three days after their last exposure to stress, the animals were challenged with saline or amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine-induced locomotion was recorded. Immediately after the behavioral tests, rats were decapitated and the nucleus accumbens was dissected to measure ΔFosB protein levels. We found that repeated restraint stress increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in both the adult and adolescent rats. Furthermore, in adult rats, stress-induced locomotor sensitization was associated with increased expression of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens. Our data suggest that ΔFosB may be involved in some of the neuronal plasticity changes associated with stress induced-cross sensitization with amphetamine in adult rats. PMID:27672362

  7. Like father, like son: periventricular nodular heterotopia and nonverbal learning disorder.

    PubMed

    McCann, Marcia V; Pongonis, Stephen J; Golomb, Meredith R; Edwards-Brown, Mary; Christensen, Celanie K; Sokol, Deborah K

    2008-08-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a common malformation of cortical development in which the migration of developing neurons destined for the cerebral cortex is abbreviated. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is most commonly an X-linked disorder that involves mutations in the filamin A (FLNA) gene, but an autosomal recessive form and sporadic forms have been identified. To our knowledge, autosomal dominant transmission of isolated periventricular nodular heterotopia has not been reported. Periventricular nodular heterotopia has a heterogeneous phenotype, associated commonly with seizure disorder, and more recently with reading deficits and visual-spatial deficits in some patients. We present a father and son with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and similar visual-spatial learning deficits, consistent with nonverbal learning disability.

  8. Estrogen-dependent enhancement of NO production in the nucleus tractus solitarius contributes to ethanol-induced hypotension in conscious female rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guichu; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Our previous pharmacological and cellular studies showed that peripheral (cardiac and vascular) NOS-derived NO is implicated in the estrogen-dependent hypotensive action of ethanol in female rats. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that enhanced NO production in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is implicated in the estrogen-dependent hypotensive action of ethanol. Methods To achieve this goal, we utilized in vivo electrochemistry to measure real time changes in neuronal NO to investigate the acute effects of intragastric ethanol (0, 0.5 or 1 g/kg) on NO in NTS neurons, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in conscious female rats in the absence (ovariectomized, OVX, rats) or presence of estrogen. Results In sham operated (SO) rats, ethanol elicited dose-related increase in NTS NO and reduction in BP. These neurochemical and blood pressure effects of ethanol were absent in OVX rats. Whether the neurochemical effect of ethanol and the associated hypotension are dependent on rapid estrogen signaling was investigated. In OVX rats pretreated, 30 min earlier, with estrogen (E2, 1µg/kg), intragastric ethanol (1 g/kg) increased NTS NO and reduced BP and these responses were comparable to those obtained in SO rats. Conclusions The present findings suggest that increased production of NO in NTS neurons contributes to ethanol-evoked hypotension in female rats. Further, ethanol enhancement of neuronal NO production in the brainstem is dependent on rapid estrogen signaling. PMID:19076118

  9. Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Normandin, J J; Murphy, A Z

    2011-02-23

    Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation

  10. Arginine Vasopressin Injected into the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus Inhibits Gastric Motility in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianping; Chang, Lanlan; Xie, Jinlu; Ai, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Until now, the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the DMV on gastric motility and the possible modulating pathway between the DMV and the gastrointestinal system remain poorly understood. Objectives. We aimed to explore the role of AVP in the DMV in regulating gastric motility and the possible central and peripheral pathways. Material and Methods. Firstly, we microinjected different doses of AVP into the DMV and investigated its effects on gastric motility in rats. Then, the possible central and peripheral pathways that regulate gastric motility were also discussed by microinjecting SR49059 (a specific AVP receptor antagonist) into the DMV and intravenous injection of hexamethonium (a specific neuronal nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist) before AVP microinjection. Results. Following microinjection of AVP (180 pmol and 18 pmol) into the DMV, the gastric motility (including total amplitude, total duration, and motility index of gastric contraction) was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of AVP (180 pmol) on gastric motility could be blocked completely by both SR49059 (320 pmol) and hexamethonium (8 μmol). Conclusions. It is concluded that AVP inhibits the gastric motility by acting on the specific AVP receptor in the DMV, with the potential involvement of the parasympathetic preganglionic cholinergic fibers. PMID:26843857

  11. Insulin acts in the arcuate nucleus to increase lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and baroreflex function in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Hermes, Sam M; Aicher, Sue A; Brooks, Virginia L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although the central effects of insulin to activate the sympathetic nervous system and enhance baroreflex gain are well known, the specific brain site(s) at which insulin acts has not been identified. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the arcuate nucleus (ArcN) are necessary brain sites and (2) insulin initiates its effects directly in the PVN and/or the ArcN. In α-chloralose anaesthetised female Sprague–Dawley rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) were recorded continuously, and baroreflex gain of HR and LSNA were measured before and during a hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp. After 60 min, intravenous infusion of insulin (15 mU kg−1 min−1), but not saline, significantly increased (P < 0.05) basal LSNA (to 228 ± 28% control) and gain of baroreflex control of LSNA (from 3.8 ± 1.1 to 7.4 ± 2.4% control mmHg−1). These effects were reversed (P < 0.05) by local inhibition (bilateral microinjection of musimol) of the PVN (LSNA to 124 ± 8.8% control; LSNA gain to 3.9 ± 1.7% control mmHg−1) or of the ArcN (LSNA in % control: from 100 ± 0 to 198 ± 24 (insulin), then 133 ± 23 (muscimol) LSNA gain in % control mmHg−1: from 3.9 ± 0.3 to 8.9 ± 0.9 (insulin), then 5.1 ± 0.5 (muscimol)). While insulin receptor immunoreactivity was identified in neurons in pre-autonomic PVN subnuclei, microinjection of insulin (0.6, 6 and 60 nU) into the PVN failed to alter LSNA or LSNA gain. However, ArcN insulin increased (P < 0.05) basal LSNA (in % control to 162 ± 19, 0.6 nU; 193 ± 19, 6 nU; and 205 ± 28, 60 nU) and LSNA baroreflex gain (in % control mmHg−1 from 4.3 ± 1.2 to 6.9 ± 1.0, 0.6 nU; 7.7 ± 1.2, 6 nU; and 7.8 ± 1.3, 60 nU). None of the treatments altered MAP, HR, or baroreflex control of HR. Our findings identify the ArcN as the site at which insulin acts to activate the sympathetic nervous system and increase baroreflex

  12. Injections of the selective adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 into the nucleus accumbens core attenuate the locomotor suppression induced by haloperidol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwari, Keita; Madson, Lisa J.; Farrar, Andrew M.; Mingote, Susana M.; Valenta, John P.; DiGianvittorio, Michael D.; Frank, Lauren E.; Correa, Merce; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence of interactions between adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal areas, and antagonists of the A2A receptor have been shown to reverse the motor effects of DA antagonists in animal models. The D2 antagonist haloperidol produces parkinsonism in humans, and also induces motor effects in rats, such as suppression of locomotion. The present experiments were conducted to study the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 to reverse the locomotor effects of acute or subchronic administration of haloperidol in rats. Systemic (i.p.) injections of MSX-3 (2.5–10.0 mg/kg) were capable of attenuating the suppression of locomotion induced by either acute or repeated (i.e., 14 day) administration of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol. Bilateral infusions of MSX-3 directly into the nucleus accumbens core (2.5 µg or 5.0 µg in 0.5 µl per side) produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol either acutely or repeatedly. There were no overall significant effects of MSX-3 infused directly into the dorsomedial nucleus accumbens shell or the ventrolateral neostriatum. These results indicate that antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors can attenuate the locomotor suppression produced by DA antagonism, and that this effect may be at least partially mediated by A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens core. These studies suggest that adenosine and dopamine systems interact to modulate the locomotor and behavioral activation functions of nucleus accumbens core. PMID:17223207

  13. A dopaminergic projection to the rat mammillary nuclei demonstrated by retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase and tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalo-Ruiz, A.; Alonso, A.; Sanz, J. M.; Llinas, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The presence and distribution of dopaminergic neurons and terminals in the hypothalamus of the rat were studied by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. Strongly labelled TH-immunoreactive neurons were seen in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, periventricular region, zona incerta, arcuate nucleus, and supramammillary nucleus. A few TH-positive neurons were also identified in the dorsal and ventral premammillary nucleus, as well as the lateral hypothalamic area. TH-immunoreactive fibres and terminals were unevenly distributed in the mammillary nuclei; small, weakly labelled terminals were scattered in the medial mammillary nucleus, while large, strongly labelled, varicose terminals were densely concentrated in the internal part of the lateral mammillary nucleus. A few dorsoventrally oriented TH-positive axon bundles were also identified in the lateral mammillary nucleus. A dopaminergic projection to the mammillary nuclei from the supramammillary nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area was identified by double labelling with retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase and TH-immunohistochemistry. The lateral mammillary nucleus receives a weak dopaminergic projection from the medial, and stronger projections from the lateral, caudal supramammillary nucleus. The double-labelled neurons in the lateral supramammillary nucleus appear to encapsulate the caudal end of the mammillary nuclei. The medial mammillary nucleus receives a very light dopaminergic projection from the caudal lateral hypothalamic area. These results suggest that the supramammillary nucleus is the principal source of the dopaminergic input to the mammillary nuclei, establishing a local TH-pathway in the mammillary complex. The supramammillary cell groups are able to modulate the limbic system through its dopaminergic input to the mammillary nuclei as well as through its extensive dopaminergic projection to the lateral septal nucleus.

  14. Amelioration of sensory attention and sensorimotor deficits by chromaffin cell grafts to the cerebral cortex of nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Welner, S A; Koty, Z C

    1993-12-31

    Rats that have received lesions to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis display with a variety of behavioral deficits; among these are decreases in performance of maze tests as well as deficiencies on measures of general health, sensory attention and sensorimotor abilities. We have previously shown that grafts of chromaffin cells placed in the cerebral cortex of nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesioned rats can ameliorate the lesion-induced deficits in performance of a task involving spatial memory. In the present study, we find that lesion-induced deficits in the sensory attention measure of exploration of the environment (head scanning) as well as the sensorimotor behavior involving a rat righting itself when placed nose down on an inclined grid are evident at 8 weeks post-lesion in lesioned-alone rats; these deficits are significantly ameliorated by chromaffin cell grafts in the cerebral cortex placed two weeks following the lesion procedure. These findings may have relevance to the use of chromaffin cells for grafting in neurodegenerative disorders in which sensorimotor or attention deficit components are involved.

  15. Computed tomography profiles of periventricular hypodensity in hydrocephalus and leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Di Chiro, G; Arimitsu, T; Brooks, R A; Morgenthaler, D G; Johnston, G S; Jones, A E; Keller, M R

    1979-03-01

    Profiles of hypodense periventricular white matter, drawn from the interior of the frontal horns through the surrounding white matter to the peripheral gray matter, were analyzed in 65 patients. Abnormal curves were grouped into four patterns: linear, double-slope, plateau, and bimodal. The first two, found primarily in hydrocephalic patients, appear to be due to transependymal passage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The linear pattern was found more frequently in acute cases and indicates breakdown of the ventricular wall as a barrier. The double-slope pattern probably indicates a persistent or restored barrier effect at the wall, with residual CSF infiltration of the parenchyma. Most of the other patients' curves showed either a plateau pattern or (especially in primary leukoencephalopathy) a bimodal ("bumpy") pattern which is believed to correspond to the nonuniform nature of the pathological process.

  16. Periventricular nodular heterotopia in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Capra, Valeria; Biancheri, Roberta; Morana, Giovanni; Striano, Pasquale; Novara, Francesca; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Boeri, Luca; Celle, Maria Elena; Mancardi, Maria Margherita; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Parrini, Elena; Guerrini, Renzo

    2014-12-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is caused by an interstitial microdeletion of chromosome 17p11.2. A few patients with the typical SMS phenotype have RAI1 gene mutations. The syndrome is characterized by minor craniofacial anomalies, short stature, sleep disturbances, behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities, as well as variable multisystemic manifestations. Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a genetically heterogeneous neuronal migration disorder characterized by subependymal heterotopic nodules, and is variably associated with other brain malformations, epileptic seizures and intellectual disability. Here we report on two patients harboring deletions of the 17p11.2 region in whom the SMS typical phenotype was associated with bilateral PNH. Our observations expand the spectrum of chromosomal rearrangements associated with PNH and indicate that abnormal neuronal migration may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype of SMS.

  17. Quantitative assessment of corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Mandelstam, Simone A; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated systematic differences in corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Differences in corpus callosum mid-sagittal area and subregional area changes were measured using an automated software-based method. Heterotopic gray matter deposits were automatically labeled and compared with corpus callosum changes. The spatial pattern of corpus callosum changes were interpreted in the context of the characteristic anterior-posterior development of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals. Individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia were imaged at the Melbourne Brain Center or as part of the multi-site Epilepsy Phenome Genome project. Whole brain T1 weighted MRI was acquired in cases (n=48) and controls (n=663). The corpus callosum was segmented on the mid-sagittal plane using the software "yuki". Heterotopic gray matter and intracranial brain volume was measured using Freesurfer. Differences in corpus callosum area and subregional areas were assessed, as well as the relationship between corpus callosum area and heterotopic GM volume. The anterior-posterior distribution of corpus callosum changes and heterotopic GM nodules were quantified using a novel metric and compared with each other. Corpus callosum area was reduced by 14% in PVNH (p=1.59×10(-9)). The magnitude of the effect was least in the genu (7% reduction) and greatest in the isthmus and splenium (26% reduction). Individuals with higher heterotopic GM volume had a smaller corpus callosum. Heterotopic GM volume was highest in posterior brain regions, however there was no linear relationship between the anterior-posterior position of corpus callosum changes and PVNH nodules. Reduced corpus callosum area is strongly associated with PVNH, and is probably associated with abnormal brain development in this neurological disorder. The primarily posterior corpus callosum changes may inform our understanding of the etiology of PVNH. Our results suggest that

  18. Excitotoxic lesions of the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus impair copulation in naive male rats and block the rewarding effects of copulation in experienced male rats.

    PubMed

    Kippin, Tod E; van der Kooy, Derek

    2003-11-01

    The tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP) of the brainstem mediates food reward in food-sated animals and opiate reward in drug-naive animals. In the present study, we examine the effect of excitotoxic lesions of the TPP on sexual behaviour in naive and experienced male rats. Male, Long-Evans rats received either 0.25 micro L injections of NMDA (4.2 micro g/side) or vehicle (shams) into the TPP. In sexually naive males, complete bilateral TPP lesions decreased all measure of copulation (i.e. mounts, intromissions and ejaculations), prevented acquisition of conditioned sexual excitement, decreased approach preference for a receptive female over a non-receptive one, and decreased non-contact erections; unilateral or bilateral posterior-sparing TPP lesions did not affect any of these measures. Conversely, in sexually experienced males, lesions not only failed to disrupt copulation, but also increased conditioned sexual excitement, decreased post-ejaculatory interval and blocked the effect of prolonged copulation on conditioned sexual excitement. Following differential pairing of distinctive environments with and without copulation, sham males with sexual experience displayed a significant preference for the environment paired with copulation, whereas the lesion males with sexual experience displayed a significant aversion for the environment paired with copulation. These findings indicate that the TPP is critical for the acquisition of copulation in naive males and mediates the rewarding consequences of copulation in experienced males. Together these findings demonstrate that the TPP mediates sexual reward, but that sexual experience is not sufficient to produce a deprivation state.

  19. Electrophysiological characteristics of inhibitory neurons of the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus as analyzed in Venus-expressing transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Shino, M; Kaneko, R; Yanagawa, Y; Kawaguchi, Y; Saito, Y

    2011-12-01

    The identification and characterization of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are significant steps in understanding neural network functions. In this study, we investigated the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), a brainstem structure that is involved in gaze holding, using whole-cell recordings in brainstem slices from vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic rats, in which inhibitory neurons express the fluorescent protein Venus. To characterize the intrinsic properties of these neurons, we recorded afterhyperpolarization (AHP) profiles and firing patterns from Venus-expressing [Venus⁺] and Venus-non-expressing [Venus⁻] PHN neurons. Although both types of neurons showed a wide variety of AHP profiles and firing patterns, oscillatory firing was specific to Venus⁺ neurons, while a firing pattern showing only a few spikes was specific to Venus⁻ neurons. In addition, AHPs without a slow component and delayed spike generation were preferentially displayed by Venus⁺ neurons, whereas a firing pattern with constant interspike intervals was preferentially displayed by Venus⁻ neurons. We evaluated the mRNAs expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65, GAD67) and glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) to determine whether the recorded Venus⁺ neurons were GABAergic or glycinergic. Of the 67 Venus⁺ neurons tested, GlyT2 expression alone was detected in only one neuron. Approximately 40% (28/67) expressed GAD65 and/or GAD67 (GABAergic neuron), and the remainder (38/67) expressed both GAD(s) and GlyT2 (GABA&GLY neuron). These results suggest that most inhibitory PHN neurons use either GABA or both GABA and glycine as neurotransmitters. Although the overall distribution of firing patterns in GABAergic neurons was similar to that of GABA&GLY neurons, only GABA&GLY neurons exhibited a firing pattern with a long first interspike interval. These differential electrophysiological properties will be useful

  20. Taurine activates strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in neurons freshly isolated from nucleus accumbens of young rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenglin; Krnjević, Kresimir; Wang, Fushun; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2004-01-01

    Although functional glycine receptors (GlyRs) are present in the mature nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important area of the mesolimbic dopamine system involved in drug addiction, their role has been unclear because the NAcc contains little glycine. However, taurine, an agonist of GlyRs, is abundant throughout the brain, especially during early development. In the present study on freshly dissociated NAcc neurons from young Sprague-Dawley rats (12- to 21-day old), we found that both glycine and taurine can strongly depolarize NAcc neurons and modulate their excitability. In voltage-clamped NAcc neurons, glycine and taurine elicited chloride currents (IGly and ITau) with an EC50 of 0.12 and 1.25 mM, respectively. The reversal potential of IGly or ITau was 0 mV in conventional whole cell mode and -30 mV in gramicidin-perforated mode. At concentrations <1 mM, both glycine and taurine were very effectively antagonized by strychnine and by picrotoxin (with an IC50 of 60 nM and 36.5 microM for IGly, and 40 nM and 42.2 microM for ITau) but were insensitive to 10 microM bicuculline. The currents elicited by taurine (< or =1 mM) showed complete cross-desensitization with IGly, but none with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced currents (IGABA). However, ITau elicited by very concentrated taurine (10 mM) showed partial cross-desensitization with IGABA, and it was substantially antagonized by 10 microM bicuculline. These results indicate that taurine binds mainly to GlyRs in NAcc, but it could be a partial agonist of GABAA receptors. By activating GlyRs, taurine may play an important physiological role in the control of NAcc function, especially during development.

  1. Direct synaptic contacts on the myenteric ganglia of the rat stomach from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto

    2006-09-20

    The myenteric ganglia regulate not only gastric motility but also secretion, because a submucous plexus is sparsely developed in the rodent stomach. We have examined whether the neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) have direct synaptic contacts on the myenteric ganglia and the ultrastructure of the vagal efferent terminals by using wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). The myenteric ganglia of the rat were composed of four types of neurons, i.e., small, medium-sized, large, and elongated neurons. The average numbers of axosomatic terminals per profile were 2.0 on the small neurons, 3.1 on the medium-sized neurons, 1.2 on the large neurons, and 4.2 on the elongated neuron. More than half of the axosomatic terminals contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts on the small, medium-sized, and large neurons. About 80% of the axosomatic terminals on the elongated neurons contained pleomorphic vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts. When WGA-HRP was injected into the DMV, many anterogradely labeled terminals were found around the myenteric neurons. The labeled terminals were large (3.16 +/- 0.10 microm) and contacted exclusively the somata. Most of them (about 90%) contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts. Serial ultrathin sections revealed that almost all neurons in a ganglion received projections from the DMV. The vagal axon terminals generally contacted the medium-sized or the elongated neurons, whereas a few labeled terminals contacted the small and the large neurons. The present results indicate that the DMV projects to all types of neurons and that their axon terminals contain mostly round synaptic vesicles and form asymmetric synaptic contacts.

  2. Morphological characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn lamina I neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Almarestani, L; Waters, S M; Krause, J E; Bennett, G J; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2007-09-20

    Many Rexed's lamina I neurons are nociceptive and project to the brain. Lamina I projection neurons can be classified as multipolar, fusiform, or pyramidal, based on cell body shape and characteristics of their proximal dendrites in the horizontal plane. There is also evidence that both multipolar and fusiform cells are nociceptive and pyramidal neurons nonnociceptive. In this investigation we identified which types of lamina I neurons belong to the spinoparabrachial tract in the rat and characterized them regarding the presence or absence of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r) immunoreactivity. For this, cholera toxin subunit B (CTb), conjugated to a fluorescent marker was injected unilaterally into the parabrachial nucleus. Sections were additionally stained for the detection of NK-1r immunoreactivity and were examined using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Serial confocal optical sections and 3D reconstructions were obtained for a considerable number of neurons per animal. Using immunofluorescence, we assessed the proportion of lamina I neurons belonging to the spinoparabrachial (SPB) tract and/or expressing NK-1r. The relative distribution of neurons belonging to the SPB tract was: 38.7% multipolar, 36.8% fusiform, 22.7% pyramidal, and 1.9% unclassified. Most of the SPB neurons expressing NK-1r were either multipolar or fusiform. Pyramidal SPB neurons were seldom immunoreactive for NK-1r, an observation that provides further support to the concept that most lamina I projection neurons of the pyramidal type are nonnociceptive. In addition, our study provides further evidence that these distinct morphological types of neurons differ in their phenotypic properties, but not in their projection patterns.

  3. NMDA receptor subunit expression in the supraoptic nucleus of adult rats: Dominance of NR2B and NR2D

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Faye C; Sladek, Celia D

    2011-01-01

    The supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus contains magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (MNC) which synthesize and release the peptide hormones vasopressin and oxytocin. Glutamate is a prominent excitatory neurotransmitter in the SON and regulates MNC excitability. NMDA receptors (NMDAR), a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, mediate synaptic plasticity of MNCs and are necessary for characteristic burst firing patterns which serve to maximize hormone release. NMDARs are di- or tri-heteromeric complexes of NR1 and NR2 subunits. Receptor properties depend on NR2 subunit composition and variable splicing of NR1. We investigated the expression profile of NR1 and NR2 subunits in the SON at the mRNA and protein levels, plus protein expression of NR1 splice variants in control and salt-loaded adult rats. There was robust mRNA expression of all subunits, with NR2D levels being the highest. At the protein level, NR1, NR2B and NR2D were robustly expressed, while NR2A was weakly expressed. NR2C protein was not detected with either of two antibodies. All four NR1 splice variant cassettes (N1, C1, C2, C2’) were detected in the SON, though NR1 N1 expression was too low for accurate analysis. Three days of salt-loading did not alter mRNA, protein or splice variant expression of NMDAR subunits in the SON. Robust NR2D protein expression has not been previously shown in MNCs, and is uncommon in the adult brain. Though the functional significance of this unusual expression profile is unknown, it may contribute to important physiological characteristics of SON neurons, such as burst firing and resistance to excitotoxicity. PMID:21397592

  4. Presynaptic BK Channels Modulate Ethanol-Induced Enhancement of GABAergic Transmission in the Rat Central Amygdala Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Madison, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium BK channels are widely expressed in the brain and are involved in the regulation of neuronal functions such as neurotransmitter release. However, their possible role in mediating ethanol-induced GABA release is still unknown. We assessed the role of BK channels in modulating the action of ethanol on inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated via GABAA receptors in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) mediated by GABAA receptors were isolated from CeA neurons under whole-cell voltage clamp, and their response to selective BK channel antagonists, channel activators, or ethanol was analyzed. Blocking BK channels with the specific BK channel antagonist paxilline significantly increased the mean amplitude of eIPSCs, whereas the activation of BK channels with the channel opener NS1619 reversibly attenuated the mean amplitude of eIPSCs. Ethanol (50 mm) alone enhanced the amplitude of eIPSCs but failed to further enhance eIPSCs in the slices pretreated with paxilline. Bath application of either BK channel blockers significantly increased the frequency of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Similarly, 50 mm ethanol alone also enhanced mIPSC frequency. Increases in mIPSC frequency by either selective BK channel antagonists or ethanol were not accompanied with changes in the amplitude of mIPSCs. Furthermore, following bath application of BK channel blockers for 10 min, ethanol failed to further increase mIPSC frequency. Together, these results suggest that blocking BK channels mimics the effects of ethanol on GABA release and that presynaptic BK channels could serve as a target for ethanol effects in CeA. PMID:25297098

  5. Repeated cocaine administration suppresses HVA-Ca2+ potentials and enhances activity of K+ channels in rat nucleus accumbens neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu-Ti; Basu, Somnath; White, Francis J

    2004-09-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an important forebrain area involved in sensitization, withdrawal effects, and self-administration of cocaine. However, little is known about cocaine-induced alterations in the neuronal excitability and whole cell neuroplasticity in this region that may affect behaviors. Our recent investigations have demonstrated that repeated cocaine administration decreases voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium currents (VSSCs and VSCCs, respectively) in freshly dissociated NAc neurons of rats. In this study, current-clamp recordings were performed in slice preparations to determine the effects of chronic cocaine on evoked Ca(2+) potentials and voltage-sensitive K(+) currents in NAc neurons. Repeated cocaine administration with 3-4 days of withdrawal caused significant alterations in Ca(2+) potentials, including suppression of Ca(2+)-mediated spikes, increase in the intracellular injected current intensity required for generation of Ca(2+) potentials (rheobase), reduced duration of Ca(2+) plateau potentials, and abolishment of secondary Ca(2+) potentials associated with the primary Ca(2+) plateau potential. Application of nickel (Ni(2+)), which blocks low-voltage activated T-type Ca(2+) channels, had no impact on evoked Ca(2+) plateau potentials in NAc neurons, indicating that these Ca(2+) potentials are high-voltage activated (HVA). In addition, repeated cocaine pretreatment also hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, increased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization in Ca(2+) spikes, and enhanced the outward rectification observed during membrane depolarization. These findings indicate that repeated cocaine administration not only suppressed HVA-Ca(2+) potentials but also significantly enhanced the activity of various K(+) channels in NAc neurons. They also demonstrate an integrative role of whole cell neuroplasticity during cocaine withdrawal, by which the subthreshold membrane excitability of NAc neurons is significantly decreased.

  6. Synergistic elevations in nucleus accumbens extracellular dopamine concentrations during self-administration of cocaine/heroin combinations (Speedball) in rats.

    PubMed

    Hemby, S E; Co, C; Dworkin, S I; Smith, J E

    1999-01-01

    The abuse of cocaine/opiate combinations (speedball) represents a growing trend in illicit drug use. Delineation of neurobiological substrates mediating the reinforcing effects of the combination may increase our knowledge of reinforcement mechanisms and provide useful new information for the development of pharmacotherapies. Several studies suggest dopaminergic innervations of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have a central role in the brain processes underlying drug reinforcement. The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between the self-administration of cocaine/heroin combinations and NAc extracellular dopamine concentrations ([DA]e) using in vivo microdialysis and microbore high-pressure liquid chromatography. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three groups to self-administer i.v. cocaine (125, 250, and 500 micrograms/infusion; n = 5), heroin (4.5, 9, and 18 micrograms/infusion; n = 5), or cocaine/heroin combinations (125/4.5; 250/9, and 500/18 micrograms/infusion; n = 4) under a fixed ratio (FR) 10: 20-s time-out schedule of reinforcement/multicomponent dosing session. After stable rates of responding were engendered and maintained, microdialysis samples were collected in 10-min intervals during the self-administration session. Self-administration of cocaine/heroin combinations produced synergisitic elevations in NAc [DA]e (1000% baseline) compared with cocaine (400% baseline) and heroin (not significantly different from baseline levels). Neither the number of infusions nor the interinfusion intervals was significantly different between the groups across the self-administration session. Moreover, cocaine concentrations were not significantly different between the cocaine and cocaine/heroin groups. These results demonstrate that heroin interacts with cocaine to produce synergistic elevations in [DA]e, providing a neurochemical basis for understanding the abuse liability of cocaine/opiate combinations.

  7. Nociception attenuates parasympathetic but not sympathetic baroreflex via NK1 receptors in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Anthony E; Boscan, Pedro; Paton, Julian F R

    2003-01-01

    Somatic noxious stimulation can evoke profound cardiovascular responses by altering activity in the autonomic nervous system. This noxious stimulation attenuates the cardiac vagal baroreflex, a key cardiovascular homeostatic reflex. This attenuation is mediated via NK1 receptors expressed on GABAergic interneurones within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We have investigated the effect of noxious stimulation and exogenous substance P (SP) on the sympathetic component of the baroreflex. We recorded from the sympathetic chain in a decerebrate, artificially perfused rat preparation. Noxious hindlimb pinch was without effect on the sympathetic baroreflex although the cardiac vagal baroreflex gain was decreased (56%, P < 0.01). Bilateral NTS microinjection of SP (500 fmol) produced a similar selective attenuation of the cardiac vagal baroreflex gain (62%, P < 0.005) without effect on the sympathetic baroreflex. Recordings from the cardiac sympathetic and vagal nerves confirmed the selectivity of the SP inhibition. Control experiments using a GABAA receptor agonist, isoguvacine, indicated that both components of the baroreflex (parasympathetic and sympathetic) could be blocked from the NTS injection site. The NTS microinjection of a NK1 antagonist (CP-99,994) in vivo attenuated the tachycardic response to hindlimb pinch. Our data suggest that noxious pinch releases SP within the NTS to selectively attenuate the cardiac vagal, but not the sympathetic, component of the baroreflex. This selective withdrawal of the cardiac vagal baroreflex seems to underlie the pinch-evoked tachycardia seen in vivo. Further, these findings confirm that baroreflex sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways diverge, and can be independently controlled, within the NTS. PMID:12813142

  8. Projections from the laterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to the limbic and visual cortices in the rat.

    PubMed

    van Groen, T; Wyss, J M

    1992-10-15

    The laterodorsal nucleus (LD) of the thalamus is an important source of thalamic afferents to the limbic cortex, but the topography and lamination of these projections has not been investigated in detail. Using the anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and Fluoro-Ruby, the present study demonstrates that in the rat, LD projects to infraradiata, precentral agranular, retrosplenial, visual (area 18b), subicular, and entorhinal cortices. Each subregion of LD has a distinct pattern of terminals within these cortical areas. The rostral part and the dorsalmost part of LD project densely to retrosplenial granular a (Rga) cortex, presubiculum and parasubiculum. Slightly more caudal parts of dorsal LD project primarily to the postsubiculum. More ventral parts of LD project primarily to retrosplenial dysgranular (Rdg) and retrosplenial granular b (Rgb) cortices. The projection of LD to area 18b originates from cells in the caudalmost part of LD. In each cortical region, LD terminals display distinct laminar patterns. In area 18b and the adjacent Rdg cortex, the LD terminal field is in layers I, III, and IV, but in both the Rgb and Rga cortices the terminal field is located predominantly in layer I. In the postsubiculum the LD terminals are distributed to layers I and III/IV and extend into superficial layer V; in the presubiculum and the parasubiculum the LD terminals are only in the deep layers (i.e., layers IV-VI). A small number of LD axons terminate in the deep layers (i.e., layers IV-VI) of the medial entorhinal cortex. These results indicate that each area of LD has a distinct projection to limbic and adjacent neocortex.

  9. Metabolic Effects of Chronic T3 Administration in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Ventromedial Nucleus in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Foppen, Ewout; Su, Yan; Bisschop, Peter H; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Boelen, Anita

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormone is a key regulator of energy metabolism. Apart from its direct effects on peripheral metabolism, thyroid hormone exerts acute metabolic effects via distinct nuclei within the hypothalamus. Recently we developed a method for chronic and local intrahypothalamic T3 administration in rats. The present study evaluated the metabolic effects of T3 delivered during either 7 or 28 days to the paraventricular or ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN or VMH). T3 administration for 7 days in the PVN decreased only plasma T3. There were no effects on body weight, food intake, plasma glucose concentrations, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and respiratory exchange rate. In the liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT), there were no changes in mRNA expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism and thermogenesis. T3 administration for 7 days in the VMH did not change any of these parameters. T3 administration for 28 days in the PVN decreased food intake without affecting body weight, glucose concentrations, and body temperature. Liver and BAT gene expression was unaltered, except for decreased liver Dio1 mRNA. T3 administration for 28 days in the VMH did not affect liver and BAT mRNA expression, body weight, food intake, and body temperature, whereas blood glucose concentrations were slightly lower. In conclusion, we showed that chronic T3 administration to the PVN or VMH does not affect energy metabolism in a major way. Our results imply that the effects of intrahypothalamic T3 administration on metabolism largely depend on the duration of treatment.

  10. Aripiprazole Increases the PKA Signalling and Expression of the GABAA Receptor and CREB1 in the Nucleus Accumbens of Rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-05-01

    The GABAA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and regulated by PKA signalling. Current antipsychotics bind with D2-like receptors, but not the GABAA receptor. The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) is also associated with PKA signalling and may be related to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This study investigated the effects of antipsychotics in modulating D2-mediated PKA signalling and its downstream GABAA receptors and CREB1. Rats were treated orally with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, ter in die (t.i.d.)), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, t.i.d.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) or vehicle for 1 week. The levels of PKA-Cα and p-PKA in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by Western blots. The mRNA levels of Gabrb1, Gabrb2, Gabrb3 and Creb1, and their protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Aripiprazole elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in the NAc, but not the PFC and CPu. Correlated with this elevated PKA signalling, aripiprazole elevated the mRNA and protein expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc. While haloperidol elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in both NAc and CPu, it only tended to increase the expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, but not the CPu. Bifeprunox had no effects on PKA signalling in these brain regions. These results suggest that aripiprazole has selective effects on upregulating the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, probably via activating PKA signalling.

  11. 5-HT7 receptor modulates GABAergic transmission in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus and controls cortical release of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Kusek, Magdalena; Sowa, Joanna; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Hess, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the several serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes that are expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Some earlier findings suggested that 5-HT7 receptors in the DRN were localized on GABAergic interneurons modulating the activity of 5-HT projection neurons. The aim of the present study was to find out how the 5-HT7 receptor modulates the GABAergic synaptic input to putative 5-HT DRN neurons, and whether blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor would affect the release of 5-HT in the target structure. Male Wistar rats with microdialysis probes implanted in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) received injections of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (SB 269970), which induced an increase in the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the PFC. In another set of experiments whole-cell recordings from presumed projection neurons were carried out using DRN slices. SB 269970 application resulted in depolarization and in an increase in the firing frequency of the cells. In order to activate 5-HT7 receptors, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) was applied in the presence of N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635). Hyperpolarization of cells and a decrease in the firing frequency were observed after activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. Blockade of 5-HT7 receptors caused a decrease in the mean frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs), while its activation induced an increase. The mechanism of these effects appears to involve tonically-active 5-HT7 receptors modulating firing and/or GABA release from inhibitory interneurons which regulate the activity of DRN serotonergic projection neurons.

  12. The ionic dependence of the histamine-induced depolarization of vasopressin neurones in the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B N; Armstrong, W E

    1996-01-01

    1. The ionic basis of the histamine-induced depolarization of immunohistochemically identified neurones in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) was investigated in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial explant of male rats. Histamine (0.1-100 microM) caused an H1 receptor-mediated, dose-dependent depolarization of fifty of sixty-two vasopressin neurones in the SON. In contrast, twenty-three oxytocin neurones were either depolarized (n = 6), hyperpolarized (n = 4), or unaffected (n = 13) by histamine. Due to the low percentage of responding cells, oxytocin neurones were not further investigated. 2. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA; 100-500 mM) blocked the depolarization, whereas blocking Ca2+ influx and synaptic transmission with equimolar Co2+ or elevated (5-20 mM) Mg2+ in nominally Ca(2+)-free solutions was without effect. 3. The amplitude of the histamine-induced depolarization was relatively independent of membrane potential. The input resistance was unaltered by histamine in nine neurones, but in nine other neurones it was decreased and in two neurones it was increased by more than 5%. Neither elevating extracellular K+ nor addition of the K+ channel blockers, apamin, d-tubocurarine, tetraethylammonium (TEA), or intracellular Cs+ decreased the histamine effect. Indeed, broadly blocking K+ currents with TEA and Cs+ significantly increased the depolarization to histamine. 4. Tetrodotoxin (2-3 microM) did not inhibit the histamine-induced depolarization. However, equimolar replacement of approximately 50% of extracellular Na+ with Tris+ or N-methyl-D-glucamine reduced or eliminated the response. 5. The depolarization of vasopressin neurones by histamine thus requires extracellular Na+ and intracellular Ca2+. Activation of a Ca(2+)-activated non-specific cation current or a Ca(2+)-Na+ pump are possible mechanisms for this effect. Images Figure 1 PMID:8887757

  13. Β-adrenoceptors in the medial amygdaloid nucleus modulate the tachycardiac response to restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Fortaleza, E A T; Scopinho, A A; Corrêa, F M A

    2012-12-27

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of β-adrenoceptors in the medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) in cardiovascular responses evoked in rats submitted to an acute restraint stress. We first pretreated Wistar rats with the nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol microinjected bilaterally into the MeA (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) 10 min before exposure to acute restraint. The pretreatment with propranolol did not affect the blood pressure (BP) increase evoked by restraint. However, it increased the tachycardiac response caused by acute restraint when animals were pretreated with a dose of 15 nmol, without a significant effect on the BP response. This result indicates that β-adrenoceptors in the MeA have an inhibitory influence on restraint-evoked heart rate (HR) changes. Pretreatment with the selective β(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) significantly increased the restraint-evoked tachycardiac response after doses of 15 and 20 nmol, an effect that was similar to that observed after the pretreatment with propranolol at a dose of 15 nmol, without a significant effect on the BP response. Pretreatment of the MeA with the selective β(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist CGP 20712 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) caused an opposite effect on the HR response, and a significant decrease in the restraint-evoked tachycardia was observed only after the dose of 20 nmol, without a significant effect on the BP response. Because propranolol is an equipotent antagonist of both β(1) and β(2)-adrenoceptors, and opposite effects were observed after the treatment with the higher doses of the selective antagonists ICI 118,551 and CGP 20712, the narrow window in the dose-response to propranolol could be explained by a functional antagonism resulting from the simultaneous inhibition of β(1) and β(2)-adrenoceptors by the treatment with propranolol. The present results suggest that β(2)-adrenoceptors have an inhibitory influence on the

  14. Netrin-1 rescues neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in ipsilateral thalamic nucleus following focal cerebral infarction in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, S-J; Gong, Q; Chen, X-R; Ye, L-X; Ding, Q; Zeng, J-S; Yu, J

    2013-02-12

    Neurological deficit following cerebral infarction correlates with not only primary injury, but also secondary neuronal apoptosis in remote loci connected to the infarction. Netrin-1 is crucial for axonal guidance by interacting with its receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and uncoordinated gene 5H (UNC5H). DCC and UNC5H are also dependence receptors inducing cell apoptosis when unbound by netrin-1. The present study is to investigate the role of netrin-1 and its receptors in ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN) injury secondary to stroke in hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of netrin-1 (600 ng/d for 7 days) or vehicle (IgG/Fc) was given 24h after MCAO. Neurological function was evaluated by postural reflex 8 and 14 days after MCAO. Then, immunoreactivity was determined in the ipsilateral VPN for NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein, netrin-1 and its receptors (DCC and UNC5H2), apoptosis was detected with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expressions of caspase-3, netrin-1, DCC, and UNC5H2 were quantified by western blot analysis. MCAO resulted in the impaired postural reflex after 8 and 14 days, with decreased NeuN marked neurons and increased TUNEL-positive cells, as well as an up-regulation in the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and UNC5H2 protein in the ipsilateral VPN, without significant change in DCC or netrin-1 expression. By exogenous netrin-1 infusion, the number of neurons was increased in the ipsilateral VPN, and both TUNEL-positive cell number and caspase-3 protein level were reduced, while UNC5H2 expression remained unaffected, simultaneously, the impairment of postural reflex was improved. Taken together, the present study indicates that exogenous netrin-1 could rescue neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in the

  15. Methamphetamine causes differential alterations in gene expression and patterns of histone acetylation/hypoacetylation in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Tracey A; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; McCoy, Michael T; Brannock, Christie; Ladenheim, Bruce; Garrett, Tiffany; Lehrmann, Elin; Becker, Kevin G; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) addiction is associated with several neuropsychiatric symptoms. Little is known about the effects of METH on gene expression and epigenetic modifications in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC). Our study investigated the effects of a non-toxic METH injection (20 mg/kg) on gene expression, histone acetylation, and the expression of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT), ATF2, and of the histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDAC1 and HDAC2, in that structure. Microarray analyses done at 1, 8, 16 and 24 hrs after the METH injection identified METH-induced changes in the expression of genes previously implicated in the acute and longterm effects of psychostimulants, including immediate early genes and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf). In contrast, the METH injection caused time-dependent decreases in the expression of other genes including Npas4 and cholecystokinin (Cck). Pathway analyses showed that genes with altered expression participated in behavioral performance, cell-to-cell signaling, and regulation of gene expression. PCR analyses confirmed the changes in the expression of c-fos, fosB, Crf, Cck, and Npas4 transcripts. To determine if the METH injection caused post-translational changes in histone markers, we used western blot analyses and identified METH-mediated decreases in histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) and lysine 18 (H3K18ac) in nuclear sub-fractions. In contrast, the METH injection caused time-dependent increases in acetylated H4K5 and H4K8. The changes in histone acetylation were accompanied by decreased expression of HDAC1 but increased expression of HDAC2 protein levels. The histone acetyltransferase, ATF2, showed significant METH-induced increased in protein expression. These results suggest that METH-induced alterations in global gene expression seen in rat NAC might be related, in part, to METH-induced changes in histone acetylation secondary to changes in HAT and HDAC expression. The causal role that HATs and HDACs might

  16. Early social isolation disrupts latent inhibition and increases dopamine D2 receptor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Li, Nanxin; Xue, Xiaofang; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2012-04-04

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peri-adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition (LI) and dopamine D2 receptor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of young adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (ISO; isolated housing, 21-34 days of age) and social housing (SOC) groups. LI was tested at postnatal day 56. After behavioral testing, the number of dopamine D2 receptor-expressing cells was determined using immunohistochemistry. Adolescent social isolation impaired LI and increased the number of cells expressing the D2 receptor in the mPFC and NAc. The results suggest that adolescent social isolation produces profound effects on cognitive and dopaminergic function in adult rats, and could be used as an animal model of various neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Modulation of nucleus accumbens connectivity by alcohol drinking and naltrexone in alcohol-preferring rats: A manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2016-03-01

    The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone is now used for the treatment of alcoholism, yet naltrexone's central mechanism of action remains poorly understood. One line of evidence suggests that opioid antagonists regulate alcohol drinking through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Hence, our goal here was to examine the role of the nucleus accumbens connectivity in alcohol reinforcement and naltrexone's actions using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Following long-term free-choice drinking of alcohol and water, AA (Alko Alcohol) rats received injections of MnCl2 into the nucleus accumbens for activity-dependent tracing of accumbal connections. Immediately after the accumbal injections, rats were imaged using MEMRI, and then allowed to drink either alcohol or water for the next 24h. Naltrexone was administered prior to the active dark period, and the second MEMRI was performed 24h after the first scan. Comparison of signal intensity at 1 and 24h after accumbal MnCl2 injections revealed an ipsilateral continuum through the ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, globus pallidus, and lateral hypothalamus to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Activation was also seen in the rostral part of the insular cortex and regions of the prefrontal cortex. Alcohol drinking resulted in enhanced activation of these connections, whereas naltrexone suppressed alcohol-induced activity. These data support the involvement of the accumbal connections in alcohol reinforcement and mediation of naltrexone's suppressive effects on alcohol drinking through their deactivation.

  18. The effect of low frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus on basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunkyoung; Song, Inho; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2014-08-08

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has recently been introduced as an alternative target to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease with severe and medically intractable axial symptoms such as gait and postural impairment. However, it is little known about how electrical stimulation of the PPN affects control of neuronal activities between the PPN and basal ganglia. We examined how low frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) affects control of neuronal activities between the PPN and basal ganglia in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. In order to identify the effect of low frequency stimulation on the PPTg, neuronal activity in both the STN and substantia nigra par reticulata (SNr) were recorded and subjected to quantitative analysis, including analysis of firing rates and firing patterns. In this study, we found that the firing rates of the STN and SNr were suppressed during low frequency stimulation of the PPTg. However, the firing pattern, in contrast to the firing rate, did not exhibit significant changes in either the STN or SNr of 6-OHDA lesioned rats during low frequency stimulation of the PPTg. In addition, we also found that the firing rate of STN and SNr neurons displaying burst and random pattern were decreased by low frequency stimulation of PPTg, while the neurons displaying regular pattern were not affected. These results indicate that low frequency stimulation of the PPTg affects neuronal activity in both the STN and SNr, and may represent electrophysiological efficacy of low frequency PPN stimulation.

  19. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine.

  20. In vivo characterization of basal amino acid levels in subregions of the rat nucleus accumbens: effect of a dopamine D(3)/D(2) agonist.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, P; Shilliam, C S; Hughes, Z A; Shah, A J; Roberts, J C; Atkins, A R; Hunter, A J; Heidbreder, C A

    2001-09-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that two subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsolateral core and the ventromedial shell can be distinguished by morphological, immunohistochemical and chemoarchitectural differences. In the present study, we measured basal levels of amino acids in microdialysates from both the shell and core subterritories of the nucleus accumbens in freely moving rats using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The effect of the dopamine D(3)/D(2) receptor agonist quinelorane (30 microg/kg s.c.) was then investigated in both subregions. With the exception of glutamate, histidine, and serine, which showed similar levels in both subterritories, alanine, arginine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamine, and tyrosine were significantly higher in the shell compared with the core. In contrast, taurine levels were significantly lower in the shell than in the core. A particularly striking difference across subregions of the nucleus accumbens was observed for basal GABA levels with a shell/core ratio of 18.5. Among all the amino acids investigated in the present study, quinelorane selectively decreased dialysate GABA levels in the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study point to specific profiles of both shell and core in terms of: (1) basal chemical neuroanatomical markers for amino acids; and (2) GABAergic response to the DA D(3)/D(2) agonist quinelorane.

  1. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.

  2. Role of Nesfatin-1 in the Reproductive Axis of Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Song, Min; Li, Xiumei; Luo, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Zhang, Xiaorong; Ling, Yinghui; Fang, Fugui; Liu, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat. After intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin-1, the hypothalamic genes for gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), kisspeptin (Kiss-1), pituitary genes for follicle-stimulate hormone β(FSHβ), luteinizing hormone β(LHβ), and genes for testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) expression levels were decreased significantly. Nesfatin-1 significantly increased the expression of genes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and cytochrome P450 cleavage (P450scc) in the testis of pubertal rats, but their levels decreased in adult rats (P < 0.05), along with the serum FSH, LH, and testosterone (T) concentrations. After nesfatin-1 addition in vitro, T concentrations of the supernatant were significantly higher than that in the control group. These results were suggestive of the role of nesfatin-1 in the regulation of the reproductive axis in male rats. PMID:27599613

  3. Nodule excitability in an animal model of periventricular nodular heterotopia: c-fos activation in organotypic hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Doisy, Emily T.; Wenzel, H. Jürgen; Mu, Yi; Nguyen, Danh V.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aberrations in brain development may lead to dysplasic structures such as periventricular nodules. While these abnormal collections of neurons are often associated with difficult-to-control seizure activity, there is little consensus regarding the epileptogenicity of the nodules themselves. Since one common treatment option is surgical resection of suspected epileptic nodules, it is important to determine whether these structures in fact give rise, or essentially contribute, to epileptic activities. Methods To study the excitability of aberrant nodules, we have examined c-fos activation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures generated from an animal model of periventricular nodular heterotopia created by treating pregnant rats with methylazoxymethanol. Using this preparation, we have also attempted to assess tissue excitability when the nodule is surgically removed from the culture. We then compared c-fos activation in this in vitro preparation to c-fos activation generated in an intact rat treated with kainic acid. Results Quantitative analysis of c-fos activation failed to show enhanced nodule excitability compared to neocortex or CA1 hippocampus. However, when we compared cultures with and without a nodule, presence of a nodule did affect the excitability of CA1 and cortex, at least as reflected in c-fos labeling. Surgical removal of the nodule did not result in a consistent decrease in excitability as reflected in the c-fos biomarker. Significance Our results from the organotypic culture were generally consistent with our observations on excitability in the intact rat – as seen not only with c-fos but also in previous electrophysiological studies. At least in this model, the nodule does not appear to be responsible for enhanced excitability (or, presumably, seizure initiation). Excitability is different in tissue that contains a nodule, suggesting altered network function, perhaps reflecting the abnormal developmental pattern that gave rise to

  4. Electrophysiological characterisation of tachykinin receptors in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Maubach, Karen A; Jones, Roland S G

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown antagonists at the NK1 subtype of receptor for tachykinins are anti-emetics and suggested that this may result from blockade of tachykinin-mediated synaptic transmission at a central site in the emetic reflex. We have used intracellular recording in vitro to study the pharmacology of tachykinins in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). Neurones in the NST were depolarized by substance P (SP), the presumed endogenous ligand for the NK1 receptor and these effects were mimicked by the NK1 agonists, SP-O-methylester (SPOMe), GR73632 and septide; however, SP was nearly an order of magnitude less potent than the latter two agonists. In the DMNV, SP and NK1 receptor agonists evoked similar depolarising responses but SP appeared to be more potent than in the NST and was closer in potency to the other agonists. NK1-receptor antagonists blocked responses to septide and GR73632 in the NST but had little effect on responses to SP and SPOMe. In contrast, in the DMNV the NK1-receptor antagonists blocked responses to septide and GR73632 but also reduced responses to SP and SPOMe. Neurokinin A (NKA) was almost equipotent with septide and GR73632 in depolarizing both NST and DMNV neurones but these effects were not mimicked by a specific NK2-receptor agonist. Responses to NKA were unaffected by an NK2-receptor antagonist; however, the depolarizing effects of NKA were blocked by NK1-receptor antagonists. Neurones in both DMNV and NST were unaffected by the endogenous NK3-receptor ligand, neurokinin B and by a specific agonist for this site, senktide. The results with NK1 receptor agonists and antagonists suggest that the septide-sensitive NK1 site is involved in the excitation of both NST and DMNV neurones. The ‘classical' NK1 receptor may play more of a role in the DMNV and a third unknown site may be responsible for the depolarizing response to SP in the NST. The effects of NKA are best interpreted as an

  5. Acute inhibition of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus decreases renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Keith, Kimberly J; Toney, Glenn M

    2004-04-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether sympathetic outflow and arterial blood pressure in water-deprived rats are dependent on the ongoing neuronal activity of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate were recorded in urethane-alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rats that were deprived of water but not food for 48 h before experiments. Acute inhibition of the PVN by bilateral microinjection of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (100 pmol/side) significantly decreased RSNA in water-deprived rats (-26.7 +/- 4.7%, n = 7) but was without effect in control rats (1.3 +/- 6.3%, n = 7). Similarly, injection of muscimol produced a greater decrease in MAP in water-deprived rats than in control rats (-46 +/- 3 vs. -16 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively), although baseline MAP was not different between groups (105 +/- 4 vs. 107 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively). Neither bilateral microinjection of isotonic saline vehicle (100 nl/side) into the PVN nor muscimol (100 pmol/side) outside the PVN altered RSNA or MAP in either group. In addition, ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium (30 mg/kg i.v.) significantly decreased MAP in both groups; however, the decrease in MAP was significantly greater in water-deprived rats than in control rats (62 +/- 2 vs. 48 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively). Collectively, these findings suggest that sympathetic outflow contributes more to the maintenance of blood pressure in the water-deprived rat, and this depends, at least partly, on the ongoing activity of PVN neurons.

  6. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell induces anti-obesity effects in obese rats with alteration of dopamine neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wei, Nai-Li; Wang, Yao; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Kai

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-sh) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in diet-induced obese (DIO) and chow-fed (chow) rats. The influence of DBS on dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc-sh was also evaluated. DIO and chow rats were subjected to DBS for 14 consecutive days. Food intake and weight gain were measured daily. The gene expression of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors was evaluated by qPCR. In addition, the extracellular levels of DA and its metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were determined by microdialysis. We observed that chronic DBS induced significant reductions in total energy intake (596.0±65.0kcal vs. 1161.6±22.2kcal, p<0.001) and weight gain (1.45±0.57% vs. 9.64±0.38%, p<0.001) in DIO rats compared to sham-DIO rats. Up-regulated D2 receptor gene expression (2.43±0.12 vs. 0.64±0.04, p<0.001) and increased DA levels (2.73±0.15pmol/mL vs. 0.62±0.05pmol/mL, p<0.001) were observed in DIO rats compared to sham-DIO rats. DBS had no influence on food intake, weight gain, or DA neurotransmission in chow rats. Our results support an association of the anorexigenic effects of NAc-sh DBS with mesolimbic DA signaling and indicate that the positive alteration of DA function in DIO rats may be responsible for the different effects of DBS in DIO and chow rats.

  7. [Concentration of monoamines and activity of several enzymes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in young and aging rats during the estrous cycle].

    PubMed

    Grantyn', V A

    1976-07-01

    The arcuate nucleus (AN) and the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus were investigated in young and ageing female rats. During the estral cycle (EC) the monoamine (MA) content, the monoaminoxidase (MAO), NADP and NAD-diaphorase activities were determined in the AN, and the MA content and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) -- in the ME. In young rats in the proestrus-estrus there was an increase in the activity of the NADP and NAD-diaphorase and of the MA content, but a decrease of the MAO activity. This indicated an intensified function of the nucleus at these stages of the EC. Accumulation of the MA in the ME was noted in the diestrus, while in the proestrus their concentration sharply fell; on the other hand, the activity of the AP was considerably increased. In the ageing rats the dynamics of the indices under study during the EC were largely unchanged. However, the functional activity of the AN proved to increase, and in the ME and elevation of the MA concentration and disturbance of its release from the nerve terminals was seen.

  8. A circulating ghrelin mimetic attenuates light-induced phase delay of mice and light-induced Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Kalsbeek, Andries; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2008-04-01

    Anatomical evidence suggests that the ventromedial arcuate nucleus (vmARC) is a route for circulating hormonal communications to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Whether this vmARC-SCN connection is involved in the modulation of circadian activity of the SCN is not yet known. We recently demonstrated, in rats, that intravenous (i.v.) injection of a ghrelin mimetic, GHRP-6, during the daytime activated neurons in the vmARC and reduced the normal endogenous daytime Fos expression in the SCN. In the present study we show that i.v. administration of GHRP-6 decreases light-induced Fos expression at ZT13 in the rat SCN by 50%, indicating that light-induced changes in the SCN Fos expression can also be reduced by GHRP-6. Because it is difficult to study light-induced phase changes in rats, we examined the functional effects of GHRP-6 on light-induced phase shifts in mice and demonstrated that peripherally injected GHRP-6 attenuates light-induced phase delays at ZT13 by 45%. However, light-induced Fos expression in the mice SCN was not blocked by GHRP-6. These results illustrate that acute stimulation of the ghrelinergic system may modulate SCN activity, but that its effect on light-induced phase shifts and Fos expression in the SCN might be species related.

  9. Effect of sex differences and gonadal hormones on kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat.

    PubMed

    Pereno, German Leandro; Balaszczuk, Verónica; Beltramino, Carlos Alberto

    2012-05-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that medial nucleus of the amygdala, which is part of medial extended amygdala, is damaged by status epilepticus induced by kainic acid (KA) and this neurodegeneration was prevents by estrogen replacement. The medial bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTM) also belong to medial extended amygdala and it is uncertain whether the gonadal hormones are protective or not against this neurotoxicity in the BSTM. Here we show that a single i.p. injection of KA (9 mg/kg) induces neurodegeneration in the subnuclei of the BSTM of rats with different degrees of intensity in males and females. A differential neuroprotective effect of the gonadal hormones was also observed. In diestrous rats, massive neuronal death similar to that in the ovariectomized females was detected. BSTM neurons of proestrous rats, like the ovariectomized treated with estrogen, were significantly less affected by the KA. Testosterone produced a mild neuroprotective action, but dihydrotestosterone did not protect. A similar pattern was observed in all male groups. This results show that estrogen protects BSTM neurons from KA neurotoxicity and androgens are partially neuroprotective; and probably this effect of androgens is due to conversion to estrogen.

  10. Electrical stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus promotes the expression of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene β and motor function recovery in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Li, Jianrui; Li, Longling; Yu, Lehua; Li, Changqing

    2012-06-27

    This study focused on the effects of electrical stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus on the expression of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene β (Gadd45β) and on motor function recovery after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham I/R (control group), I/R (I/R group), I/R with sham stimulation and I/R with electrical stimulation at 6h, 12h, 24h, 2d and 3d after I/R. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion was established by nylon monofilament occlusion method. Fastigial nucleus (FN) electrical stimulation was applied at 2h after ischemia for 1h. The changes in the expression of Gadd45β were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western-blot respectively. Another group of rats were divided into the same 4 groups. Montoya staircase test score was used to test the motor function of affected forelimb. The levels of Gadd45β were significantly elevated after I/R injury. FN electrical stimulation treatment elevated the expression of Gadd45β further and improved motor function recovery. These results suggest that FN electrical stimulation can promote the expression of Gadd45β and motor function recovery after focal cerebral ischemia.

  11. Effects of electroacupuncture on orphanin FQ immunoreactivity and preproorphanin FQ mRNA in nucleus of raphe magnus in the neuropathic pain rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Xie, Hong; Dong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wu, Gen-Cheng

    2004-07-15

    Orphanin FQ (OFQ) is an endogenous ligand for opioid receptor-like-1 (ORL1) receptor. Previous studies have shown that both OFQ immunoreactivity and preproorphanin FQ (ppOFQ) mRNA expression could be observed in the brain regions involved in pain modulation, e.g., nucleus of raphe magnus (NRM), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). It was reported that electroacupuncture (EA) has analgesic effect on neuropathic pain, and the analgesic effect was mediated by the endogenous opioid peptides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EA on the changes of OFQ in the neuropathic pain rats. In the sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, we investigated the changes of ppOFQ mRNA and OFQ immunoreactivity in NRM after EA by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry methods, respectively. Then, the ppOFQ mRNA-positive and OFQ immunoreactive cells were counted under a computerized image analysis system. The results showed that expression of ppOFQ mRNA decreased and OFQ immunoreactivity increased after EA treatment in the neuropathic pain rats. These results indicated that EA modulated OFQ synthesis and OFQ peptide level in NRM of the neuropathic pain rats.

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide erases the fear memory and facilitates long-term potentiation in the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Jie-Ting; Liu, Jue; Yang, Si; Chen, Tao; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide, which plays a critical role in the central nervous system. CGRP binds to G protein-coupled receptors, including CGRP1, which couples positively to adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. CGRP and CGRP1 receptors are enriched in central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the main part of the amygdala, which regulates conditioned fear memories. Here, we reported the importance of CGRP and CGRP1 receptor for synaptic plasticity in the CeA and the extinction of fear memory in rats. Our electrophysiological and behavioral in vitro and in vivo results showed exogenous application of CGRP induced an immediate and lasting long-term potentiation in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, but not in the lateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, while bilateral intra-CeA infusion CGRP (0, 5, 13 and 21 μM/side) dose dependently enhanced fear memory extinction. The effects were blocked by CGRP1 receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 ), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors antagonist MK801 and PKA inhibitor H89. These results demonstrate that CGRP can lead to long-term potentiation of basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway through a PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and enhance the extinction of fear memory in rats. Together, the results strongly support a pivotal role of CGRP in the synaptic plasticity of CeA and extinction of fear memory. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and fear memory. We found that CGRP-induced chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) in a dose-dependent way in the BLA-CeA (basolateral and central nucleus of amygdala, respectively) pathway and enhanced fear memory extinction in rats through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved NMDA receptors. These results support a pivotal role of CGRP in amygdala.

  13. Selective optogenetic stimulation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in sleeping rats activates breathing without changing blood pressure or causing arousal or sighs

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Peter G. R.; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Combined optogenetic activation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN; a CO2/proton-activated brainstem nucleus) with nearby catecholaminergic neurons (C1 and A5), or selective C1 neuron stimulation, increases blood pressure (BP) and breathing, causes arousal from non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and triggers sighs. Here we wished to determine which of these physiological responses are elicited when RTN neurons are selectively activated. The left rostral RTN and nearby A5 neurons were transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2+) using a lentiviral vector. Very few C1 cells were transduced. BP, breathing, EEG, and neck EMG were monitored. During non-REM sleep, photostimulation of ChR2+ neurons (20s, 2-20 Hz) instantly increased V̇e without changing BP (13 rats). V̇e and BP were unaffected by light in nine control (ChR2−) rats. Photostimulation produced no sighs and caused arousal (EEG desynchronization) more frequently in ChR2+ than ChR2− rats (62 ± 5% of trials vs. 25 ± 2%; P < 0.0001). Six ChR2+ rats then received spinal injections of a saporin-based toxin that spared RTN neurons but destroyed surrounding catecholaminergic neurons. Photostimulation of the ChR2+ neurons produced the same ventilatory stimulation before and after lesion, but arousal was no longer elicited. Overall (all ChR2+ rats combined), ΔV̇e correlated with the number of ChR2+ RTN neurons whereas arousal probability correlated with the number of ChR2+ catecholaminergic neurons. In conclusion, RTN neurons activate breathing powerfully and, unlike the C1 cells, have minimal effects on BP and have a weak arousal capability at best. A5 neuron stimulation produces little effect on breathing and BP but does appear to facilitate arousal. PMID:25858492

  14. Ependymal and periventricular magnetic resonance imaging changes in four dogs with central nervous system blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Timothy; Reese, Michael J; Heng, Hock Gan; Lin, Tsang Long; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Fauber, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Rapid detection of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is important for dogs with blastomycosis, as this can affect antifungal drug selection and has been associated with an increased risk of death. Previous reports describing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of canine CNS blastomycosis primarily identified mass lesions. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine whether other MRI characteristics of CNS blastomycosis may also occur. Medical records of the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital were searched and four dogs met inclusion criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics included periventricular edema, periventricular and meningeal contrast enhancement, and ventriculomegaly. Periventricular lesions most commonly involved the rostral horn of the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle. Increased meningeal contrast enhancement involved the cerebrum, thalamus, sella turcica, and brainstem. Findings indicated that, in addition to mass lesions, MRI characteristics of periventricular hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, and ventriculomegaly may also occur in dogs with CNS blastomycosis.

  15. Serotonin 1A, 1B, and 7 receptors of the rat medial nucleus accumbens differentially regulate feeding, water intake, and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Clissold, Kara A; Choi, Eugene; Pratt, Wayne E

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) signaling has been widely implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviors in both humans and animal models. Recently, we reported that co-stimulation of 5-HT1&7 receptors of the anterior medial nucleus accumbens with the drug 5-CT caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake, water intake, and locomotion in rats (Pratt et al., 2009). The current experiments sought to determine which of three serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7) might be responsible for these consummatory and locomotor effects. Food-deprived rats were given 2-h access to rat chow after stimulation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7 receptors, or blockade of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors. Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors with 8-OH-DPAT (at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) caused a dose-dependent decrease in food and water intake, and reduced rearing behavior but not ambulation. In contrast, rats that received the 5-HT1B agonist CP 93129 (at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in water intake only; stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors (AS 19; at 0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) decreased ambulatory activity but did not affect food or water consumption. Blockade of 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors had no lasting effects on measures of food consumption. These data suggest that the food intake, water intake, and locomotor effects seen after medial nucleus accumbens injections of 5-CT are due to actions on separate serotonin receptor subtypes, and contribute to growing evidence for selective roles of individual serotonin receptors within the nucleus accumbens on motivated behavior.

  16. Accumulation of cytoplasmic calcium, but not apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization current, during high frequency firing in rat subthalamic nucleus cells

    PubMed Central

    Teagarden, Mark; Atherton, Jeremy F; Bevan, Mark D; Wilson, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    The autonomous firing pattern of neurons in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) is shaped by action potential afterhyperpolarization currents. One of these is an apamin-sensitive calcium-dependent potassium current (SK). The duration of SK current is usually considered to be limited by the clearance of calcium from the vicinity of the channel. When the cell is driven to fire faster, calcium is expected to accumulate, and this is expected to result in accumulation of calcium-dependent AHP current. We measured the time course of calcium transients in the soma and proximal dendrites of STN neurons during spontaneous firing and their accumulation during driven firing. We compared these to the time course and accumulation of AHP currents using whole-cell and perforated patch recordings. During spontaneous firing, a rise in free cytoplasmic calcium was seen after each action potential, and decayed with a time constant of about 200 ms in the soma, and 80 ms in the dendrites. At rates higher than 10 Hz, calcium transients accumulated as predicted. In addition, there was a slow calcium transient not predicted by summation of action potentials that became more pronounced at high firing frequency. Spike AHP currents were measured in voltage clamp as tail currents after 2 ms voltage pulses that triggered action currents. Apamin-sensitive AHP (SK) current was measured by subtraction of tail currents obtained before and after treatment with apamin. SK current peaked between 10 and 15 ms after an action potential, had a decay time constant of about 30 ms, and showed no accumulation. At frequencies between 5 and 200 spikes s−1, the maximal SK current remained the same as that evoked by a single action potential. AHP current did not have time to decay between action potentials, so at frequencies above 50 spikes s−1 the apamin-sensitive current was effectively constant. These results are inconsistent with the view that the decay of SK current is governed by calcium dynamics. They

  17. Application of nucleus pulposus to L5 dorsal root ganglion in rats enhances nociceptive dorsal horn neuronal windup.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, J M; Montesano, P X; Antognini, J F; Carstens, E

    2005-07-01

    Herniation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) from lumbar intervertebral discs commonly results in radiculopathic pain possibly through a neuroinflammatory response. NP sensitizes dorsal horn neuronal responses, but it is unknown whether this reflects a central or peripheral sensitization. To study central sensitization, we tested if NP enhances windup--the progressive increase in the response of a nociceptive spinal neuron to repeated electrical C-fiber stimulation--a phenomenon that may partly account for temporal summation of pain. Single-unit recordings were made from wide dynamic range (WDR; n = 36) or nociceptive-specific (NS; n = 8) L5 dorsal horn neurons in 44 isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Subcutaneous electrodes delivered electrical stimuli (20 pulses, 3 times the C-fiber threshold, 0.5 ms) to the receptive field on the hindpaw. Autologous NP was harvested from a tail disc and placed onto the L5 dorsal root ganglion after recording of baseline responses (n = 22). Controls had saline applied similarly (n = 22). Electrical stimulus trains (0.1, 0.3, and 1 Hz; 5-min interstimulus interval) were repeated every 30 min for 3-6 h after each treatment. The total number of evoked spikes (summed across all 20 stimuli) to 0.1 Hz was enhanced 3 h after NP, mainly in the after-discharge (AD) period (latency > 400 ms). Total responses to 0.3 and 1.0 Hz were also enhanced at > or = 60 min after NP in both the C-fiber (100- to 400-ms latency) and AD periods, whereas the absolute windup (C-fiber + AD - 20 times the initial response) increased at > or = 90 min after treatment. In saline controls, windup was not enhanced at any time after treatment for any stimulus frequency, although there was a trend toward enhancement at 0.3 Hz. These results are consistent with NP-induced central sensitization. Mechanical responses were not significantly enhanced after saline or NP treatment. We speculate that inflammatory agents released from (or recruited by) NP affect the dorsal root

  18. Nitric oxide and GABA mediate bi-directional cardiovascular effects of orexin in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.

    PubMed

    Shih, C-D; Chuang, Y-C

    2007-11-09

    The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of orexin (OX)-A and OX-B in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and delineated the engagement of nitric oxide (NO) and GABA in OX-induced cardiovascular responses. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained under propofol anesthesia, microinjection bilaterally into the NTS of OX-A or OX-B evoked bi-directional cardiovascular effects in a dose-dependent manner. At a lower dose (5 pmol), OX-A or OX-B decreased systemic arterial pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), and power density of the vasomotor components of SAP signals, our experimental index for sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone. At higher doses (>20 pmol), these two compounds elicited cardiovascular excitatory responses. These bi-directional cardiovascular effects of OX were abolished by co-injection of an OX(1) receptor antagonist, 1-(2-methylbenzoxazol-6-yl)-3-[1,5]naphthyridin-4-yl-urea hydrochloride (SB-334867, 0.75 nmol) or the OX(2) receptor antiserum (1:20). In addition, the vasodepressor effects of low dose (5 pmol) OX-A or OX-B in the NTS were attenuated by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 5 nmol), a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (2.5 pmol) or the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (250 pmol). The vasopressor effects of high dose (200 pmol) OX were reversed by co-administration with GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodine (10 pmol) or 2-hydroxy saclofen (100 pmol), or l-NAME (5 nmol). Our results indicate that OX-A or OX-B elicited bi-directional cardiovascular effects via OX receptor-dependent mechanisms. The vasodepressor effects of OX were induced by the nNOS-derived NO and activation of sGC-associated signaling pathway, whereas the vasopressor effects were mediated by interaction with GABAergic or nitrergic neurotransmission in the NTS.

  19. Properties of native P2X receptors in large multipolar neurons dissociated from rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wakamori, Minoru; Sorimachi, Masaru

    2004-04-16

    ATP, the ligand of P2X receptors, is a candidate of neurotransmitter or co-transmitter in the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Anatomical studies have revealed the wide distribution of P2X receptors in the brain. So far, P2X-mediated small synaptic responses have been recorded in some brain regions. To determine the physiological significance of postsynaptic ATP receptors in the brain, we have investigated the P2X responses in rat dissociated hypothalamic arcuate neurons by using the patch-clamp technique. ATP evoked inward currents in a concentration-dependent manner (EC(50)=42 microM) at a holding potential of -70 mV. The current-voltage relationship showed a marked inward rectification starting around -10 mV. Although neither 300 microM alphabeta-methylene-ATP nor 300 microM betagamma-methylene-ATP induced any currents, 100 microM ATPgammaS and 100 microM 2-methylthio-ATP evoked inward currents of which amplitude was about 60% of the control currents evoked by 100 microM ATP. PPADS, one of P2 receptor antagonists, inhibited the ATP-evoked currents in a time- and a concentration-dependent manners (IC(50)=19 microM at 2 min). Permeant Ca(2+) inhibited the ATP-evoked currents in the range of millimolars (IC(50)=7 mM); however, Cd(2+) (1-300 microM), a broad cation channel blocker, facilitated the currents with slow off-response. Zn(2+) in the range of 1-100 microM facilitated the currents whereas Zn(2+) at the concentrations over 100 microM inhibited the currents. These observations suggest that functional P2X receptors are expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The most likely subunit combinations of the P2X receptors are P2X(2)-homomultimer and P2X(2)/P2X(6)-heteromultimer.

  20. Histamine H3 receptor activation inhibits dopamine synthesis but not release or uptake in rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Aquino-Miranda, Guillermo; Escamilla-Sánchez, Juan; González-Pantoja, Raúl; Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We studied the effect of activating histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) on rat nucleus accumbens (rNAcc) dopaminergic transmission by analyzing [(3)H]-dopamine uptake by synaptosomes, and dopamine synthesis and depolarization-evoked [(3)H]-dopamine release in slices. The uptake of [(3)H]-dopamine by rNAcc synaptosomes was not affected by the H3R agonist RAMH (10(-10)-10(-6) M). In rNAcc slices perfusion with RAMH (1 μM) had no significant effect on [(3)H]-dopamine release evoked by depolarization with 30 mM K(+) (91.4 ± 4.5% of controls). The blockade of dopamine D2 autoreceptors with sulpiride (1 μM) enhanced K(+)-evoked [(3)H]-dopamine release (168.8 ± 15.5% of controls), but under this condition RAMH (1 μM) also failed to affect [(3)H]-dopamine release. Dopamine synthesis was evaluated in rNAcc slices incubated with the l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) decarboxylase inhibitor NSD-1015 (1 mM). Forskolin-induced DOPA accumulation (220.1 ± 10.4% of controls) was significantly reduced by RAMH (41.1 ± 6.5% and 43.5 ± 9.1% inhibition at 100 nM and 1 μM, respectively), and this effect was prevented by the H3R antagonist ciproxifan (10 μM). DOPA accumulation induced by preventing cAMP degradation with IBMX (iso-butyl-methylxantine, 1 mM) or by activating receptors for the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) with PACAP-27 (1 μM) was reduced (IBMX) or prevented (PACAP-27) by RAMH (100 nM). In contrast, DOPA accumulation induced by 8-Bromo-cAMP (1 mM) was not affected by RAMH (100 nM). These results indicate that in rNAcc H3Rs do not modulate dopamine uptake or release, but regulate dopamine synthesis by inhibiting cAMP formation and thus PKA activation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'.

  1. An ionic current model for neurons in the rat medial nucleus tractus solitarii receiving sensory afferent input.

    PubMed Central

    Schild, J H; Khushalani, S; Clark, J W; Andresen, M C; Kunze, D L; Yang, M

    1993-01-01

    1. Neurons from a horizontal slice of adult rat brainstem were examined using intracellular recording techniques. Investigations were restricted to a region within the nucleus tractus solitarii, medial to the solitary tract and centred on the obex (mNTS). Previous work has shown this restricted area of the NTS to contain the greatest concentration of aortic afferent baroreceptor terminal fields. Electrical stimulation of the tract elicited short-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials in all neurons. 2. mNTS neurons were spontaneously active with firing frequencies ranging between 1 and 10 Hz, at resting potentials of -65 to -45 mV. These neurons did not exhibit spontaneous bursting activity. 3. Depolarizing current injection immediately evoked a finite, high-frequency spike discharge which rapidly declined to a lower steady-state level (i.e. spike frequency adaptation, SFA). Increasing depolarizations produced a marked increase in the peak instantaneous frequency but a much smaller increase in the steady-state firing level. 4. Conditioning with a hyperpolarizing prepulse resulted in a prolonged delay of up to 600 ms before the first action potential (i.e. delayed excitation, DE) with an attendant decrease in peak discharge rates. DE was modulated by both the magnitude and duration of the prestimulus hyperpolarization, as well as the magnitude of the depolarizing stimulus. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) eliminated spike discharge but had little effect on the ramp-like membrane depolarization characteristic of DE. 5. We have developed a mathematical model for mNTS neurons to facilitate our understanding of the interplay between the underlying ionic currents. It consists of a comprehensive membrane model of the Hodgkin-Huxley type coupled with a fluid compartment model describing cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i homeostasis. 6. The model suggests that (a) SFA is caused by an increase in [Ca2+]i which activates the outward K+ current, IK,Ca, and (b) DE results from the competitive

  2. Regulation of Kv channel expression and neuronal excitability in rat medial nucleus of the trapezoid body maintained in organotypic culture

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Huaxia; Steinert, Joern R; Robinson, Susan W; Chernova, Tatyana; Read, David J; Oliver, Douglas L; Forsythe, Ian D

    2010-01-01

    Principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) express a spectrum of voltage-dependent K+ conductances mediated by Kv1–Kv4 channels, which shape action potential (AP) firing and regulate intrinsic excitability. Postsynaptic factors influencing expression of Kv channels were explored using organotypic cultures of brainstem prepared from P9–P12 rats and maintained in either low (5 mm, low-K) or high (25 mm, high-K) [K+]o medium. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were made after 7–28 days in vitro. MNTB neurons cultured in high-K medium maintained a single AP firing phenotype, while low-K cultures had smaller K+ currents, enhanced excitability and fired multiple APs. The calyx of Held inputs degenerated within 3 days in culture, having lost their major afferent input; this preparation of calyx-free MNTB neurons allowed the effects of postsynaptic depolarisation to be studied with minimal synaptic activity. The depolarization caused by the high-K aCSF only transiently increased spontaneous AP firing (<2 min) and did not measurably increase synaptic activity. Chronic depolarization in high-K cultures raised basal levels of [Ca2+]i, increased Kv3 currents and shortened AP half-widths. These events relied on raised [Ca2+]i, mediated by influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and release from intracellular stores, causing an increase in cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Block of VGCCs or of CREB function suppressed Kv3 currents, increased AP duration, and reduced Kv3.3 and c-fos expression. Real-time PCR revealed higher Kv3.3 and Kv1.1 mRNA in high-K compared to low-K cultures, although the increased Kv1.1 mRNA was mediated by a CREB-independent mechanism. We conclude that Kv channel expression and hence the intrinsic membrane properties of MNTB neurons are homeostatically regulated by [Ca2+]i-dependent mechanisms and influenced by sustained depolarization of the resting membrane potential. PMID:20211981

  3. Lesion of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in rat augments cortical activation and disturbs sleep/wake state transitions structure.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Jelena; Ciric, Jelena; Lazic, Katarina; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Saponjic, Jasna

    2013-09-01

    The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) represents a major aggregation of cholinergic neurons in the mammalian brainstem, which is important in the generation and maintenance of REM sleep. We investigated the effects of unilateral and bilateral PPT lesions on sleep and all the conventional sleep-state related EEG frequency bands amplitudes, in an attempt to find the EEG markers for the onset and progression of PPT cholinergic neuronal degeneration. The experiments were performed on 35 adult male Wistar rats, chronically implanted for sleep recording. During the surgical procedure for EEG and EMG electrodes implantation, the unilateral or bilateral PPT lesion was produced under ketamine/diazepam anesthesia, by the stereotaxically guided microinfusion of 100 nl 0.1M ibotenic acid (IBO) into PPT. We applied Fourier analysis to signals acquired throughout 6h of recordings, and each 10s epoch was differentiated as a Wake, NREM or REM state. We also calculated the group probability density estimates (PDE) of all Wake, NREM and REM conventional EEG frequency amplitudes, and the number of all the transition states using MATLAB 6.5. Our results show that the unilateral or bilateral PPT lesions did not change the sleep/wake architecture, but did change the sleep/wake state transitions structure and the sleep/state related "EEG microstructure". Unilateral or bilateral PPT lesions sustainably increased Wake/REM and REM/Wake transitions from 14 to 35 days after lesions. This was followed by decreased NREM/REM and REM/NREM transitions from 28 days only in the case of the bilateral PPT lesion. The unilateral PPT lesion augmented both Wake theta and REM beta while it also attenuated the relative amplitude of the Wake delta frequency, with a delay of one week. Following a bilateral PPT lesion there was augmentation of the relative amplitude of the Wake, NREM, and REM beta and REM gamma frequency which occurred simultaneously to NREM and Wake delta attenuation. We have shown

  4. Accumulation of cytoplasmic calcium, but not apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization current, during high frequency firing in rat subthalamic nucleus cells.

    PubMed

    Teagarden, Mark; Atherton, Jeremy F; Bevan, Mark D; Wilson, Charles J

    2008-02-01

    The autonomous firing pattern of neurons in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) is shaped by action potential afterhyperpolarization currents. One of these is an apamin-sensitive calcium-dependent potassium current (SK). The duration of SK current is usually considered to be limited by the clearance of calcium from the vicinity of the channel. When the cell is driven to fire faster, calcium is expected to accumulate, and this is expected to result in accumulation of calcium-dep