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Sample records for rat photothrombotic ischemia

  1. Oxaloacetate decreases the infarct size and attenuates the reduction in evoked responses after photothrombotic focal ischemia in the rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Nagy, David; Marosi, Mate; Kis, Zsolt; Farkas, Tamas; Rakos, Gabriella; Vecsei, Laszlo; Teichberg, Vivian I; Toldi, Jozsef

    2009-09-01

    A traumatic brain injury or a focal brain lesion is followed by acute excitotoxicity caused by the presence of abnormally high glutamate (Glu) levels in the cerebrospinal and interstitial fluids. It has recently been demonstrated that this excess Glu in the brain can be eliminated into the blood following the intravenous administration of oxaloacetate (OxAc), which, by scavenging the blood Glu, induces an enhanced and neuroprotective brain-to-blood Glu efflux. In this study, we subjected rats to a photothrombotic lesion and treated them after the illumination with a single 30-min-long administration of OxAc (1.2 mg/100 g, i.v.). Following induction of the lesion, we measured the infarct size and the amplitudes of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) as recorded from the skull surface. The photothrombotic lesion resulted in appreciably decreased amplitudes of the evoked potentials, but OxAc administration significantly attenuated this reduction, and also the infarct size assessed histologically. We suggest that the neuroprotective effects of OxAc are due to its blood Glu-scavenging activity, which, by increasing the brain-to-blood Glu efflux, reduces the excess Glu responsible for the anatomical and functional correlates of the ischemia, as evaluated by electrophysiological evoked potential (EP) measurements.

  2. Induction and imaging of photothrombotic stroke in conscious and freely moving rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongyang; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Li, Hangdao; Lu, Xiaodan; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-09-01

    In experimental stroke research, anesthesia is common and serves as a major reason for translational failure. Real-time cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring during stroke onset can provide important information for the prediction of brain injury; however, this is difficult to achieve in clinical practice due to various technical problems. We created a photothrombotic focal ischemic stroke model utilizing our self-developed miniature headstage in conscious and freely moving rats. In this model, a high spatiotemporal resolution imager using laser speckle contrast imaging technology was integrated to acquire real-time two-dimensional CBF information during thrombosis. The feasibility, stability, and reliability of the system were tested in terms of CBF, behavior, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. After completion of occlusion, the CBF in the targeted cortex of the stroke group was reduced to 16±9% of the baseline value. The mean infarct volume measured by MRI 24 h postmodeling was 77±11 mm3 and correlated well with CBF (R2=0.74). This rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia and real-time blood flow imaging opens the possibility of performing various fundamental and translational studies on stroke without the influence of anesthetics.

  3. The CB1 antagonist, SR141716A, is protective in permanent photothrombotic cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Zachary Wilmer; Li, Hongbo; Ward, Sara Jane; Tuma, Ronald F

    2016-09-01

    Modulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown to have a significant impact on outcomes in animal models of stroke. We have previously reported a protective effect of the CB1 antagonist, SR141716A, in a transient reperfusion mouse model of cerebral ischemia. This protective effect was in part mediated by activation of the 5HT1A receptor. Here we have examined its effect in a mouse model of permanent ischemia induced by photoinjury. The CB1 antagonist was found to be protective in this model. As was the case following transient ischemia reperfusion, SR141716A (5mg/kg) resulted in smaller infarct fractions and stroke volumes when utilized both as a pretreatment and as a post-treatment. In contrast to the effect in a transient ischemia model, the pretreatment effect did not depend on the 5HT1A receptor. Neurological function correlated favorably to the reduction in stroke size when SR141716A was given as a pretreatment. With the incidence of stroke predicted to rise in parallel with an ever aging population, understanding mechanisms underlying ischemia and therapeutics remains a paramount goal of research. PMID:27453059

  4. Reperfusion-induced temporary appearance of therapeutic window in penumbra after 2 h of photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Narihiko; Akira, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Tatsuo

    2009-03-01

    To explore the effects of reperfusion on evolution of focal ischemic injury, spontaneously hypertensive male rats were subjected to photothrombotic distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with or without YAG laser-induced reperfusion. The volume of fodrin breakdown zone, water content, and brain tissue levels of sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured in the ischemic core and penumbra. Reperfusion attenuated fodrin breakdown, and the volume containing fodrin breakdown product at 3 h after reperfusion (5 h after MCAO) (30+/-7 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than the 42+/-3 mm(3) of the permanent occlusion group. After 3 to 6 h of ischemia, Na(+) increased, and K(+) decreased in the ischemic core. Reperfusion after 2 h of MCA occlusion did not mitigate the ischemia-induced changes in brain tissue electrolytes and water content at 3 to 6 h of ischemia. Even in reperfusion after comparatively long periods of occlusion where brain infarction size, assessed 3 days after MCAO, was not significantly reduced by reperfusion, and the precipitating indicators of the ischemic core (Na(+), K(+), water content) did not improve, temporary improvement or a delay in progression of ischemic injury was discernible in the penumbra. These results indicate the possibility that treatment with reperfusion is permissive to the effects of neuroprotection. PMID:19088742

  5. Laser system refinements to reduce variability in infarct size in the rat photothrombotic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Paterson, Phyllis G.; Bradley, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rat photothrombotic stroke model can induce brain infarcts with reasonable biological variability. Nevertheless, we observed unexplained high inter-individual variability despite using a rigorous protocol. Of the three major determinants of infarct volume, photosensitive dye concentration and illumination period were strictly controlled, whereas undetected fluctuation in laser power output was suspected to account for the variability. New method The frequently utilized Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) lasers emitting 532 nm (green) light can exhibit fluctuations in output power due to temperature and input power alterations. The polarization properties of the Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals commonly used in these lasers are another potential source of fluctuation, since one means of controlling output power uses a polarizer with a variable transmission axis. Thus, the properties of DPSS lasers and the relationship between power output and infarct size were explored. Results DPSS laser beam intensity showed considerable variation. Either a polarizer or a variable neutral density filter allowed adjustment of a polarized laser beam to the desired intensity. When the beam was unpolarized, the experimenter was restricted to using a variable neutral density filter. Comparison with existing method(s) Our refined approach includes continuous monitoring of DPSS laser intensity via beam sampling using a pellicle beamsplitter and photodiode sensor. This guarantees the desired beam intensity at the targeted brain area during stroke induction, with the intensity controlled either through a polarizer or variable neutral density filter. Conclusions Continuous monitoring and control of laser beam intensity is critical for ensuring consistent infarct size. PMID:25840363

  6. Stable expression of the vesicular GABA transporter following photothrombotic infarct in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Frahm, C; Siegel, G; Grass, S; Witte, O W

    2006-07-01

    Before exocytotic release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, this amino acid has to be stored in synaptic vesicles. Accumulation of GABA in vesicles is achieved by a specific membrane-integrated transporter termed vesicular GABA transporter. This vesicular protein is mainly located at presynaptic terminals of GABAergic interneurons. In the present study we investigated the effects of focal ischemia on the expression of the vesicular GABA transporter. Vesicular GABA transporter mRNA and protein expression was examined after photothrombosis in different cortical and hippocampal brain regions of Wistar rats. In situ hybridization and quantitative real-time RT-PCR were performed to analyze vesicular GABA transporter mRNA. Both vesicular GABA transporter mRNA-stained perikarya and mRNA expression levels remained unaffected. Vesicular GABA transporter protein-containing synaptic terminals and somata were visualized by immunohistochemistry. The pattern of vesicular GABA transporter immunoreactivity as well as the protein expression level revealed by semiquantitative image analysis and by Western blot remained stable after stroke. The steady expression of vesicular GABA transporter mRNA and protein after photothrombosis indicates that the exocytotic release mechanism of GABA is not affected by ischemia.

  7. Excess Salt Increases Infarct Size Produced by Photothrombotic Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hiroshi; Nabika, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral circulation is known to be vulnerable to high salt loading. However, no study has investigated the effects of excess salt on focal ischemic brain injury. After 14 days of salt loading (0.9% saline) or water, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and infarct volume was determined at 48 h after MCAO: albumin and hemoglobin contents in discrete brain regions were also determined in SHR. Salt loading did not affect blood pressure levels in SHR and WKY. After MCAO, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), determined with two ways of laser-Doppler flowmetry (one-point measurement or manual scanning), was more steeply decreased in the salt-loaded group than in the control group. In SHR/Izm, infarct volume in the salt-loaded group was 112±27 mm3, which was significantly larger than 77±12 mm3 in the control group (p = 0.002), while the extents of blood-brain barrier disruption (brain albumin and hemoglobin levels) were not affected by excess salt. In WKY, salt loading did not significantly increase infarct size. These results show the detrimental effects of salt loading on intra-ischemic CBF and subsequent brain infarction produced by phototrhombotic MCAO in hypertensive rats. PMID:24816928

  8. Motor dysfunction in a photothrombotic focal ischaemia model.

    PubMed

    Wood, N I; Sopesen, B V; Roberts, J C; Pambakian, P; Rothaul, A L; Hunter, A J; Hamilton, T C

    1996-08-01

    The study of behavioural deficits resulting from cerebral infarction in animal models of stroke has in the past taken second place to histological assessment. This is particularly true of the photothrombotic lesion model. Most tests currently used to measure motor deficits use a scoring system to quantify parameters such as beam walking. The present study set out to characterise a simple and objective assessment for motor impairment in the photothrombotic cortical lesion model. Rats were assessed on a number of motor function tests, i.e. gross locomotor activity, rotarod, and grip strength. After the establishment of stable baselines, cortical photothrombotic lesions were induced, after which the animals were re-tested for a further 18 days. The presence of cortical photothrombotic lesions significantly imparied the rats' performance on the rotarod and grip-strength tests. The deficit observed with the grip-strength task appeared 24 h postsurgery, but was much reduced by day 18 postsurgery. The rotarod test revealed an effect that took longer to establish, but which was more persistent. Gross locomotor activity was not affected. These data suggest that bilateral photothrombotic lesions of the prefrontal cortex produce deficits that can be detected by rotarod and grip-strength tasks. PMID:8864043

  9. Expression of neuronal and signaling proteins in penumbra around a photothrombotic infarction core in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Demyanenko, S V; Panchenko, S N; Uzdensky, A B

    2015-06-01

    Photodynamic impact on animal cerebral cortex using water-soluble Bengal Rose as a photosensitizer, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier and remains in blood vessels, induces platelet aggregation, vessel occlusion, and brain tissue infarction. This reproduces ischemic stroke. Irreversible cell damage within the infarction core propagates to adjacent tissue and forms a transition zone - the penumbra. Tissue necrosis in the infarction core is too fast (minutes) to be prevented, but much slower penumbral injury (hours) can be limited. We studied the changes in morphology and protein expression profile in penumbra 1 h after local photothrombotic infarction induced by laser irradiation of the cerebral cortex after Bengal Rose administration. Morphological study using standard hematoxylin/eosin staining showed a 3-mm infarct core surrounded by 1.5-2.0 mm penumbra. Morphological changes in the penumbra were lesser and decreased towards its periphery. Antibody microarrays against 224 neuronal and signaling proteins were used for proteomic study. The observed upregulation of penumbra proteins involved in maintaining neurite integrity and guidance (NAV3, MAP1, CRMP2, PMP22); intercellular interactions (N-cadherin); synaptic transmission (glutamate decarboxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, Munc-18-1, Munc-18-3, and synphilin-1); mitochondria quality control and mitophagy (PINK1 and Parkin); ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and tissue clearance (UCHL1, PINK1, Parkin, synphilin-1); and signaling proteins (PKBα and ERK5) could be associated with tissue recovery. Downregulation of PKC, PKCβ1/2, and TDP-43 could also reduce tissue injury. These changes in expression of some neuronal proteins were directed mainly to protection and tissue recovery in the penumbra. Some upregulated proteins might serve as markers of protection processes in a penumbra.

  10. Short ischemia induces rat kidney mitochondria dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Baniene, Rasa; Trumbeckas, Darius; Kincius, Marius; Pauziene, Neringa; Raudone, Lina; Jievaltas, Mindaugas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2016-02-01

    Renal artery clamping itself induces renal ischemia which subsequently causes renal cell injury and can lead to renal failure. The duration of warm ischemia that would be safe for postoperative kidney function during partial nephrectomy remains under investigations. Mitochondria play an important role in pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion induced kidney injury, however relation between ischemia time and mitochondrial dysfunction are not fully elucidated. Thus, the effects of renal ischemia (20 min, 40 min and 60 min) on mitochondrial functions were investigated by using in vitro rat ischemia model. Thus, electronmicroscopy showed that at short (20 min) ischemia mitochondria start to swell and the damage increases with the duration of ischemia. In accordance with this, a significant decrease in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity was observed already after 20 min of ischemia with both, complex I dependent substrate glutamate/malate (52%) and complex II dependent substrate succinate (44%) which further decreased with the prolonged time of ischemia. The diminished state 3 respiration rate was associated with the decrease in mitochondrial Complex I activity and the release of cytochrome c. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was diminished by 37-49% after 20-60 min of ischemia and caspase-3 activation increased by 1.15-2.32-fold as compared to control. LDH activity changed closely with increasing time of renal ischemia. In conclusion, even short time (20 min) of warm ischemia in vitro leads to renal mitochondrial injury which increases progressively with the duration of ischemia. PMID:26782060

  11. Functional Improvement after Photothrombotic Stroke in Rats Is Associated with Different Patterns of Dendritic Plasticity after G-CSF Treatment and G-CSF Treatment Combined with Concomitant or Sequential Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Frauenknecht, Katrin; Diederich, Kai; Leukel, Petra; Bauer, Henrike; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sommer, Clemens J; Minnerup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment alone, or in combination with constraint movement therapy (CIMT) either sequentially or concomitantly, results in significantly improved sensorimotor recovery after photothrombotic stroke in rats in comparison to untreated control animals. CIMT alone did not result in any significant differences compared to the control group (Diederich et al., Stroke, 2012;43:185-192). Using a subset of rat brains from this former experiment the present study was designed to evaluate whether dendritic plasticity would parallel improved functional outcomes. Five treatment groups were analyzed (n = 6 each) (i) ischemic control (saline); (ii) CIMT (CIMT between post-stroke days 2 and 11); (iii) G-CSF (10 μg/kg G-CSF daily between post-stroke days 2 and 11); (iv) combined concurrent group (CIMT plus G-CSF) and (v) combined sequential group (CIMT between post-stroke days 2 and 11; 10 μg/kg G-CSF daily between post-stroke days 12 and 21, respectively). After impregnation of rat brains with a modified Golgi-Cox protocol layer V pyramidal neurons in the peri-infarct cortex as well as the corresponding contralateral cortex were analyzed. Surprisingly, animals with a similar degree of behavioral recovery exhibited quite different patterns of dendritic plasticity in both peri-lesional and contralesional areas. The cause for these patterns is not easily to explain but puts the simple assumption that increased dendritic complexity after stroke necessarily results in increased functional outcome into perspective.

  12. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  13. Creatine kinase reaction rates in rat brain during chronic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mlynárik, V; Kasparová, S; Liptaj, T; Dobrota, D; Horecký, J; Belan, V

    1998-12-01

    Creatine kinase reaction rates were measured by magnetisation transfer technique in the brain of healthy adult and aged rats and in the rats with mild or severe chronic cerebral ischemia. These measurements indicated that the rate constant of the creatine kinase reaction is significantly reduced in the case of chronic brain ischemia in aged rats. In contrast, occlusion of both carotid arteries in adult rats produced a slight increase in the reaction rate 4 weeks after occlusion. At the same time, corresponding conventional phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra showed negligible changes in signal intensities. PMID:10050942

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of Myocardial Ischemia Using the Blood of Rat.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jincai; Fu, Jianhua; Li, Dan; Han, Xiao; Li, Lei; Song, Wenting; Yao, Mingjiang; Liu, Jianxun

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is a pathological state of heart with reduced blood flow to heart and abnormal myocardial energy metabolism. This disease occurs commonly in middle aged and elderly people. Several studies have indicated that the rat was an appropriate animal model used to study myocardial ischemia. In this study, in order to gain insights into the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia, we sequenced the transcriptomes of three normal rats as control and the same number of myocardial ischemia rats. We sequenced the genomes of 6 rats, including 3 cases (myocardial ischemia) and 3 controls using Illumina HiSeq 2000. Then we calculated the gene expression values and identified differentially expressed genes based on reads per kilobase transcriptome per million (RPKM). Meanwhile we performed a GO enrichment analysis and predicted novel transcripts. In our study, we found that 707 genes were up-regulated and 21 genes were down-regulated in myocardial ischemia rats by at least 2-fold compared with controls. By the distribution of reads and the annotation of reference genes, we found 1,703 and 1,552 novel transcripts in cases and controls, respectively. At the same time, we refined the structure of 9,587 genes in controls and 10,301 in cases. According to the results of GO term and pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes, we found that the immune response, stimulus response, response to stress and some diseases may be associated with myocardial ischemia. Since many diseases, especially immune diseases, are associated with myocardial ischemia, we should pay more attention to the complications which might result from myocardial ischemia.

  15. Fluorometry of ischemia reperfusion injury in rat lungs in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, R.; Staniszewski, K.; Jacobs, E. R.; Audi, S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated the utility of optical fluorometry to evaluate lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rats lungs under various chemically-induced respiratory states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute ischemia on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in vivo using optical fluorometry. Under ischemic conditions, insufficient oxygen supply to the mitochondrial chain should reduce the mitochondrial redox state calculated from the ratio of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavoprotein Adenine Dinucleotide). The chest of anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rat was opened to induce acute ischemia by clamping the left hilum to block both blood flow and ventilation to one lung for approximately 10 minutes. NADH and FAD fluorescent signals were recorded continuously in a dark room via a fluorometer probe placed on the pleural surface of the left lung. Acute ischemia caused a decrease in FAD and an increase in NADH, which resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial redox ratio (RR=NADH/FAD). Restoration of blood flow and ventilation by unclamping the left hilum returned the RR back to its baseline. These results (increase in RR under ischemia) show promise for the fluorometer to be used in a clinical setting for evaluating the effect of pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in real time.

  16. Brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism during focal ischemia in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.N.; Liu, T.H.; Xu, J.; Hsu, C.Y.; Sun, G.Y. )

    1991-04-01

    Using a rat model of stroke, we examined the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides by injecting {sup 32}Pi into both the left and right cortices. After equilibration of the label for 2-3 hours, ischemia induced a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) in the concentrations of labeled phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphates (66-78%) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (64-67%) in the right middle cerebral artery cortex of four rats. The phospholipid labeling pattern in the left middle cerebral artery cortex, which sustained only mild ischemia and no permanent tissue damage, was not different from that of two sham-operated controls. However, when {sup 32}Pi was injected 1 hour after the ischemic insult, there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in the incorporation of label into the phospholipids in both cortices of four ischemic rats compared with four sham-operated controls. Furthermore, differences in the phospholipid labeling pattern were observed in the left cortex compared with the sham-operated controls. The change in labeling pattern was attributed to the partial reduction in blood flow following ligation of the common carotid arteries. We provide a sensitive procedure for probing the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the polyphosphoinositide signaling pathway in the brain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury.

  17. Effect of brain microdialysis on aminergic transmitter levels in repeated cerebral global transient ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, S; Bellissant, E; Maginn, M; Decombe, R; Allain, H; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    1996-12-28

    The effect of repeated transient global ischemia and microdialysis on changes in aminergic neurotransmitter release was investigated using the rat four-vessel occlusion model of global ischemia. To examine the possible transient or permanent changes in neurotransmitter release, ischemia was induced at varying time points in 5 groups of rats. The first ischemia occurred either 24 h (groups I, II, IV, V) or 96 h (group III) following vertebral artery electro-coagulation and guide probe implantation(s), and the second ischemia was induced either 48 h (groups I, IV, V) or 72 h (group II) following the first ischemia. To assess the consequence of repeated microdialysis on the results, one group of rats (group IV) was not dialysed during the first ischemia and another group (group V) was bilaterally dialysed during the second ischemia. Finally, amphetamine-induced neurotransmitter release was also studied in rats submitted to ischemia and compared with that in normal rats. In each case, dopamine, serotonin and their main metabolites were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Monoamine release was inhibited during the second episode of transient ischemia; this non-release was linked to the repeated microdialysis and not to the repeated ischemia. Although the results of chronic studies using brain microdialysis have been widely recognized as valid, the findings presented here indicate that combined with ischemia, probe reinsertion modifies the level of neurotransmitter release. PMID:9007758

  18. Effect of brain microdialysis on aminergic transmitter levels in repeated cerebral global transient ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, S; Bellissant, E; Maginn, M; Decombe, R; Allain, H; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    1996-12-28

    The effect of repeated transient global ischemia and microdialysis on changes in aminergic neurotransmitter release was investigated using the rat four-vessel occlusion model of global ischemia. To examine the possible transient or permanent changes in neurotransmitter release, ischemia was induced at varying time points in 5 groups of rats. The first ischemia occurred either 24 h (groups I, II, IV, V) or 96 h (group III) following vertebral artery electro-coagulation and guide probe implantation(s), and the second ischemia was induced either 48 h (groups I, IV, V) or 72 h (group II) following the first ischemia. To assess the consequence of repeated microdialysis on the results, one group of rats (group IV) was not dialysed during the first ischemia and another group (group V) was bilaterally dialysed during the second ischemia. Finally, amphetamine-induced neurotransmitter release was also studied in rats submitted to ischemia and compared with that in normal rats. In each case, dopamine, serotonin and their main metabolites were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Monoamine release was inhibited during the second episode of transient ischemia; this non-release was linked to the repeated microdialysis and not to the repeated ischemia. Although the results of chronic studies using brain microdialysis have been widely recognized as valid, the findings presented here indicate that combined with ischemia, probe reinsertion modifies the level of neurotransmitter release.

  19. Ischemia-induced Angiogenesis is Attenuated in Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yaohui; Wang, Liuqing; Wang, Jixian; Lin, Xiaojie; Wang, Yongting; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    To study whether focal angiogenesis is induced in aged rodents after permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), young adult (3-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) Fisher 344 rats underwent MCAO and sacrificed up to two months after MCAO. Immunohistochemistry and synchrotron radiation microangiography were performed to examine the number of newly formed blood vessels in both young adult and aged rats post-ischemia. We found that the number of capillaries and small arteries in aged brain was the same as young adult brain. In addition, we found that after MCAO, the number of blood vessels in the peri-infarct region of ipsilateral hemisphere in aged ischemic rats was significantly increased compared to the aged sham rats (p<0.05). We also confirmed that ischemia-induced focal angiogenesis occurred in young adult rat brain while the blood vessel density in young adult ischemic brain was significantly higher than that in the aged ischemic brain (p<0.05). Our data suggests that focal angiogenesis in aged rat brain can be induced in response to ischemic brain injury, and that aging impedes brain repairing and remodeling after ischemic stroke, possible due to the limited response of angiogenesis. PMID:27493831

  20. Ischemia independent lesion evolution during focal stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Woitzik, Johannes; Lassel, Elke; Hecht, Nils; Schneider, Ulf C; Schroeck, Helmut; Vajkoczy, Peter; Graf, Rudolf

    2009-07-01

    Lesion evolution during focal cerebral ischemia may depend on flow restrictions or on accumulation of toxic mediators within the infarct and expansion of these factors to the periinfarct region. So far, the precise contribution of flow dependent versus spreading-mediated impairment of viable periinfarct tissue has not been determined. Therefore, we measured lesion expansion, flow restrictions and glutamate distribution on serial brain sections at different time points after experimental focal ischemia. Permanent focal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in male rats and the flow reduction was subsequently measured at 1, 12 and 24 h using iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography. Additionally, the necrotic volume was determined on serial brain sections and the glutamate content was measured in tissue samples from adjacent microdissections. Twelve hours after focal ischemia no noteworthy viable areas with blood flow restrictions of 20-40 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1) existed but at 24 h the necrotic tissue exceeded the hemodynamically compromised region by 40 +/- 21 mm3 (24%). Furthermore, at 12 and 24 h the glutamate content was elevated in areas surrounding the infarct. Relevant flow restrictions are detectable only during early stages of infarct maturation, whereas the propagation of secondary factors may be the predominant mechanism for delayed infarct evolution.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of p-coumaric acid in rat model of embolic cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Sen, Halil Murat; Ozkan, Adile; Salis, Osman; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Deniz, Mustafa; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Stroke poses a crucial risk for mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Material and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely Group I (control rats), Group II (ischemia rats), Group III (6 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats) and Group IV (24 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats). Cerebral ischemia was induced via intraluminal monofilament occlusion model. In all groups, the brain was removed after the procedure and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor-1 were measured in the ischemic hemisphere. The histopathological changes were observed in the right hemisphere within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results: Following the treatment, biochemical factors changed significantly. Histopathologically, it was shown that p-coumaric acid decreased the oxidative damage. The neurological deficit scores of p-coumaric acid-treated rats were significantly improved after cerebral ischemia. Conclusion: Our results showed that p-coumaric acid is a neuroprotective agent on account of its strong anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic features. Moreover, p-coumaric acid decreased the focal ischemia. Extra effort should be made to introduce p-coumaric acid as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for treatment of human cerebral ischemia in the future. PMID:26019798

  2. Autophagy activation attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Li; Cui, Li-Yan; Yang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a common clinical complication but lacks effective therapies. This study investigated the role of autophagy in renal I/R injury and explored potential mechanisms in an established rat renal I/R injury model. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, I/R, I/R pretreated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor), or I/R pretreated with rapamycin (autophagy activator). All rats were subjected to clamping of the left renal pedicle for 45 min after right nephrectomy, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The Sham group underwent the surgical procedure without ischemia. 3-MA and rapamycin were injected 15 min before ischemia. Renal function was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Tissue samples from the kidneys were scored histopathologically. Autophagy was indicated by light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, and p62 levels and the number of autophagic vacuoles. Apoptosis was evaluated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and expression of caspase-3. Autophagy was activated after renal I/R injury. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA before I/R aggravated renal injury, with worsened renal function, higher renal tissue injury scores, and more tubular apoptosis. In contrast, rapamycin pretreatment ameliorated renal injury, with improved renal function, lower renal tissue injury scores, and inhibited apoptosis based on fewer TUNEL-positive cells and lower caspase-3 expression. Our results demonstrate that autophagy could be activated during I/R injury and play a protective role in renal I/R injury. The mechanisms were involved in the regulation of several autophagy and apoptosis-related genes. Furthermore, autophagy activator may be a promising therapy for I/R injury and AKI in the future. PMID:25898836

  3. Effect of antioxidant treatment in global ischemia and ischemic postconditioning in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Domoráková, Iveta; Mechírová, Eva; Danková, Marianna; Danielisová, Viera; Burda, Jozef

    2009-09-01

    Ischemic postconditioning is a very effective way how to prevent delayed neuronal death. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761; 40 mg/kg) posttreatment was studied on the rat model of transient forebrain ischemia and ischemia/postconditioning. Global ischemia was produced by four-vessel occlusion in Wistar male rats. Two experimental protocols were used: (a) 10 min of ischemia/7 days of reperfusion with or without EGb 761 treatment or (b) 10 min of ischemia/2 days of reperfusion/5 min of ischemia (postconditioning), following 5 days of reperfusion. EGb 761 was applied as follows: 30 min before 10 min of ischemia then 5 h, 1 and 2 days after 10 min of ischemia. Fluoro Jade B, marker for neuronal degeneration, was used for quantitative analysis of the most vulnerable hippocampal CA1 neurons. Cognitive and memory functions were tested by Morris water maze, as well. Administration of EGb 761 30 min before 10 min of ischemia or 5 h after ischemia has rather no protective effect on neuronal survival in CA1 region. Ten minutes of ischemia following ischemic postconditioning after 2 days of reperfusion trigger a significant neuroprotection of CA1 neurons, but it is abolished by EGb 761 posttreatment. Ischemia/postconditioning group showed a significant improvement of learning and memory on the seventh day of reperfusion. Protection of the most vulnerable CA1 neurons after ischemia/postconditioning is abolished by exogenous antioxidant treatment used in different time intervals after initial ischemia. Moreover, combination of EGb 761 administration with repeated stress (5 min ischemia used as postconditioning) causes cumulative injury of CA1 neurons.

  4. Diosmin Protects Rat Retina from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Nianting; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Gong, Yuanyuan; Yin, Lili

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Diosmin, a natural flavone glycoside, possesses antioxidant activity and has been used to alleviate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the administration of diosmin has a protective effect against I/R injury induced using the high intraocular pressure (IOP) model in rat retina, and to determine the possible antioxidant mechanisms involved. Methods Retinal I/R injury was induced in the rats by elevating the IOP to 110 mmHg for 60 min. Diosmin (100 mg/kg) or vehicle solution was administered intragastrically 30 min before the onset of ischemia and then daily after I/R injury until the animals were sacrificed. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of total-superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in the retinal tissues were determined 24 h after I/R injury. At 7 days post-I/R injury, electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, and the density of surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was estimated by counting retrograde tracer-labeled cells in whole-mounted retinas. Retinal histological changes were also examined and quantified using light microscopy. Results Diosmin significantly decreased the MDA levels and increased the activities of T-SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in the retina of rats compared with the ischemia group (P<0.05), and suppressed the I/R-induced reduction in the a- and b-wave amplitudes of the ERG (P<0.05). The thickness of the entire retina, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer, and outer retinal layer and the number of cells in the ganglion cell layer were significantly less after I/R injury (P<0.05), and diosmin remarkably ameliorated these changes on retinal morphology. Diosmin also attenuated the I/R-induced loss of RGCs of the rat retina (P<0.05). Conclusion Diosmin protected the retina from I/R injury, possibly via a mechanism involving the regulation of oxidative parameters. PMID:22509733

  5. The Effects of Soy Extract on Spatial Learning and Memory Damage Induced by Global Ischemia in Ovariectomised Rats

    PubMed Central

    VAFAEE, Farzaneh; HOSSEINI, Mahmoud; SADEGHINIA, Hamid Reza; HADJZADEH, Mosa Al-reza; SOUKHTANLOO, Mohammad; RAHIMI, Motaharah

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects of soy extract on memory as well as the oxidative damage to brain tissue induced by ischemia was investigated in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Methods: The rats were divided into: 1) Sham; 2) OVX; 3) Sham‑Ischemia; 4) OVX‑Ischemia; 5) OVX-Ischemia-S 20; and 6) OVX-Ischemia-S 60. The common carotid artery was occluded (30 minutes), and it was then re-perfused. The OVX-Ischemia-S 20 and OVX-Ischemia-S 60 groups received 20 or 60 mg/kg of soy extract for eight weeks before the ischemia. Results: The Sham-Ischemia and OVX-Ischemia groups took a longer time to reach the platform while, spent a shorter time in the target quadrant (Q1) than the Sham and OVX. The escape latencies in the OVX-Ischemia-S 20 and OVX-Ischemia-S 60 groups were lower while, time spent in the Q1 was higher than that of the OVX-Ischemia. In the rotarod test, there were no significant differences between the groups. The hippocampal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the Sham-Ischemia and OVX-Ischemia groups were higher than the Sham and OVX. Pre-treatment by 20 and 60 mg/kg of the extract reduced the MDA. Conclusion: It is suggested that soy prevents memory impairment and brain tissue oxidative damage due to ischemia in OVX rats. PMID:25246832

  6. Genistein exerts neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Alacam, Hasan; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Brain ischemia and treatment are one of the important topics in neurological science. Free oxygen radicals and inflammation formed after ischemia are accepted as the most important causes of damage. Currently, there are studies on many chemopreventive agents to prevent cerebral ischemia damage. Our aim is to research the preventive effect of the active ingredient in genistein, previously unstudied, on oxidative damage in cerebral ischemia. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), ischemia group, and artery ischemia+genistein group, sacrificed at 24 h after ischemia. The harvested brain tissue from the right hemisphere was investigated histopathologically and for tissue biochemistry. Superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor 1 values decreased after ischemia and they increased after genistein treatment, while increased malondialdehyde levels after ischemia reduced after treatment. Apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase caspase-3 and caspase-9 values increased after ischemia, but reduced after treatment. Our study revealed that genistein treatment in cerebral ischemia reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration. We believe that genistein treatment may be an alternative treatment method.

  7. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  8. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-κB was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680

  9. Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Jin, Lily; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Tang, Qinggong; Guo, Hengchang; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We observed in vivo kidney dysfunction with various ischemia times at 30, 75, 90, and 120 min using multi-modality optical imaging: optical coherence tomography (OCT), Doppler OCT (DOCT), and two-photon microscopy (TPM). We imaged the renal tubule lumens and glomerulus at several areas of each kidney before, during, and after ischemia of 5-month-old female Munich-Wistar rats. For animals with 30 and 75 min ischemia times, we observed that all areas were recovered after ischemia, that tubule lumens were re-opened and the blood flow of the glomerulus was re-established. For animals with 90 and 120 min ischemia times, we observed unrecovered areas, and that tubule lumens remained close after ischemia. TPM imaging verified the results of OCT and provided higher resolution images than OCT to visualize renal tubule lumens and glomerulus blood flow at the cellular level. PMID:27526162

  10. Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Jin, Lily; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Tang, Qinggong; Guo, Hengchang; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We observed in vivo kidney dysfunction with various ischemia times at 30, 75, 90, and 120 min using multi-modality optical imaging: optical coherence tomography (OCT), Doppler OCT (DOCT), and two-photon microscopy (TPM). We imaged the renal tubule lumens and glomerulus at several areas of each kidney before, during, and after ischemia of 5-month-old female Munich-Wistar rats. For animals with 30 and 75 min ischemia times, we observed that all areas were recovered after ischemia, that tubule lumens were re-opened and the blood flow of the glomerulus was re-established. For animals with 90 and 120 min ischemia times, we observed unrecovered areas, and that tubule lumens remained close after ischemia. TPM imaging verified the results of OCT and provided higher resolution images than OCT to visualize renal tubule lumens and glomerulus blood flow at the cellular level.

  11. Gastrin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihao; Luo, Yongli; Cheng, Yunjiu; Zou, Dezhi; Zeng, Aihong; Yang, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication when the blood supply is reflowed in ischemic organs. Gastrin has critical function in regulating acid secretion, proliferation, and differentiation in the gastric mucosa. We aimed to determine whether gastrin has an effect on intestinal I/R damage. Intestinal I/R injury was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were induced to be hypergastrinemic by pretreated with omeprazole or directly injected with gastrin. Some hypergastrinemic rats were injected with cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist prior to I/R operation. After the animal surgery, the intestine was collected for histological analysis. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells or crypts were harvested for RNA and protein analysis. CCK-2 receptor expression, intestinal mucosal damage, cell apoptosis, and apoptotic protein caspase-3 activity were measured. We found that high gastrin in serum significantly reduced intestinal hemorrhage, alleviated extensive epithelial disruption, decreased disintegration of lamina propria, downregulated myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and caspase-3 activity, and lead to low mortality in response to I/R injury. On the contrary, CCK-2 receptor antagonist L365260 could markedly impair intestinal protection by gastrin on intestinal I/R. Severe edema of mucosal villi with severe intestinal crypt injury and numerous intestinal villi disintegrated were observed again in the hypergastrinemic rats with L365260. The survival in the hypergastrinemic rats after intestinal I/R injury was shortened by L365260. Finally, gastrin could remarkably upregulated intestinal CCK-2 receptor expression. Our data suggest that gastrin by omeprazole remarkably attenuated I/R induced intestinal injury by enhancing CCK-2 receptor expression and gastrin could be a potential mitigator for intestinal I/R damage in the clinical setting. PMID

  12. Protection by vanadium, a contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenquan; Li, Pengtao; Zhao, Dan; Tang, Huiling; Guo, Jianyou

    2012-01-01

    There is now substantial epidemiological evidence that diabetes is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. The protection by vanadium from focal cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats was studied in this paper. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 4 weeks of administration of 0.6 mg/ml sodium orthovanadate in drinking water. Vanadium significantly improved the outcome in diabetic rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. Vanadium reduces brain damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by imitating action of insulin.

  13. Neuronal network disturbance after focal ischemia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Yamada, K.; Mushiroi, T.; Kuroda, R.; Mogami, H. )

    1989-09-01

    We studied functional disturbances following left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Neuronal function was evaluated by (14C)2-deoxyglucose autoradiography 1 day after occlusion. We analyzed the mechanisms of change in glucose utilization outside the infarct using Fink-Heimer silver impregnation, axonal transport of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated-horseradish peroxidase, and succinate dehydrogenase histochemistry. One day after occlusion, glucose utilization was remarkably reduced in the areas surrounding the infarct. There were many silver grains indicating degeneration of the synaptic terminals in the cortical areas surrounding the infarct and the ipsilateral cingulate cortex. Moreover, in the left thalamus where the left middle cerebral artery supplied no blood, glucose utilization significantly decreased compared with sham-operated rats. In the left thalamus, massive silver staining of degenerated synaptic terminals and decreases in succinate dehydrogenase activity were observed 4 and 5 days after occlusion. The absence of succinate dehydrogenase staining may reflect early changes in retrograde degeneration of thalamic neurons after ischemic injury of the thalamocortical pathway. Terminal degeneration even affected areas remote from the infarct: there were silver grains in the contralateral hemisphere transcallosally connected to the infarct and in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Axonal transport study showed disruption of the corticospinal tract by subcortical ischemia; the transcallosal pathways in the cortex surrounding the infarct were preserved. The relation between neural function and the neuronal network in the area surrounding the focal cerebral infarct is discussed with regard to ischemic penumbra and diaschisis.

  14. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tavares, J G P; Vasques, E R; Arida, R M; Cavalheiro, E A; Cabral, F R; Torres, L B; Menezes-Rodrigues, F S; Jurkiewicz, A; Caricati-Neto, A; Godoy, C M G; Gomes da Silva, S

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode.

  15. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, J.G.P.; Vasques, E.R.; Arida, R.M.; Cavalheiro, E.A.; Cabral, F.R.; Torres, L.B.; Menezes-Rodrigues, F.S.; Jurkiewicz, A.; Caricati-Neto, A.; Godoy, C.M.G.; Gomes da Silva, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode. PMID:25590352

  16. Effect of Cyperus rotundus on ischemia-induced brain damage and memory dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Entezari, Maliheh; Movassaghi, Shabnam; Goushegir, Seyed Ashrafadin; Kalantari, Samaneh; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Sharifi, Zahra Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury causes loss of pyramidal cells in CA1 region of hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) on a model of global transient ischemia in rat, by evaluating the pathophysiology of the hippocampal tissue and spatial memory. Materials and Methods: Treatment group (EECR, 100 mg/kg/day) was gavaged from 4 days before, to 3 days after ischemia. Morris water maze test was performed 1 week after ischemia for 4 days. Brain tissue was prepared for Nissl staining. Results: Our data showed no statistical difference between the treatment and ischemia groups in water maze task. So, treatment of ischemia with EECR cannot improve spatial learning and memory. On the contrary EECR ameliorated the CA1 pyramidal cell loss due to transient global ischemia/reperfusion injury. Conclusion: These results suggest that EECR cannot reduce the ischemia-induced, cognitive impairments seen after transient, global cerebral ischemia but can prevent pyramidal cell loss in CA1 region of hippocampus. PMID:25825638

  17. [Effect and mechanism of icariin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model in diabetes rats].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-wu; Liu, Kai; Yan, Meng-tong

    2015-11-01

    To study the therapeutic effect and possible mechanism of icariin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury ( MIRI) model in diabetes rats. The model of diabetic rats were induced by Streptozotocin (STZ), then the model of MIRI was established by ligating the reversible left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min, and then reperfusing for 120 min. totally 40 male SD were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (NS), the ischemia reperfusion group (NIR), the diabetes control group (MS), the diabetic ischemia reperfusion group (MIR) and the diabetic ischemia reperfusion with icariin group (MIRI). The changes in blood glucose, body weight and living status were observed; the enzyme activity of serum CK-MB, LDH, GSH-Px and myocardium SOD and the content MDA and NO in myocardium were detected; the myocardial pathological changes were observed by HE staining; the myocardial Caspase-3, the Bcl-2, Bax protein expressions were detected by Western blot. The result showed that the diabetes model was successfully replicated; myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury was more serious in diabetes rats; icariin can increase NO, SOD, GSH-Px, Bcl-2 protein expression, decrease MDA formation, CK-MB and LDH activities and Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein expressions and myocardial damage. The result suggested that icariin may play a protective role against ischemia reperfusion myocardial injury in diabetes rats by resisting oxidative stress and inhibiting cell apoptosis. PMID:27071263

  18. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) decreases myocardial infarct size and improves cardiac function in rat models of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-Qing; Zhou, Hui-Zhong; Teerlink, John R; Karliner, Joel S

    2004-11-01

    As pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a redox cofactor in mammals, we asked if it is cardioprotective. Rats were subjected to 2 h of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation without reperfusion (model 1, ischemia). In model 2 (ischemia/reperfusion), rats were subjected to 17 or 30 min of LAD occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. PQQ (15-20 mg/kg) was given i.p., either 30 min before LAD occlusion (Pretreatment) or i.v. at the onset of reperfusion (Treatment). In model 1, PQQ reduced infarct size (10.0 +/- 1.5 vs 19.1 +/- 2.1%, P < 0.01). In model 2, either PQQ Pretreatment or Treatment also reduced infarct size (18.4 +/- 2.3 and 25.6 +/- 3.5% vs 38.1 +/- 2.6%, P < 0.01). PQQ resulted in higher LV developed pressure and LV (+)dP/dt after 1-2 h of reperfusion (P < 0.05), and fewer ventricular fibrillation episodes. PQQ dose (5-20 mg/kg) was inversely related to infarct size. PQQ reduced myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation (316 +/- 88 vs 99 +/- 14 nmol/g, P < 0.01). PQQ given either as Pretreatment or as Treatment at the onset of reperfusion is highly effective in reducing infarct size and improving cardiac function in a dose-related manner in rat models of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion. The optimal dose in this study, which exhibited neither renal nor hepatic toxicity, was 15 mg/kg, but lower doses may also be efficacious. We conclude that PQQ, which appears to act as a free radical scavenger in ischemic myocardium, is a highly effective cardioprotective agent.

  19. Effect of Fluoxetine on Neurogenesis in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus after Global Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khodanovich, M Yu; Kisel', A A; Chernysheva, G A; Smol'yakova, V I; Savchenko, R R; Plotnikov, M B

    2016-07-01

    Changes in cerebral neurogenesis provoked by ischemia and the effect of fluoxetine on this process were studied using a three-vessel occlusion model of global transient cerebral ischemia. The global transient cerebral ischemia was modeled on male Wistar rats by transient occlusion of three major vessels originating from the aortic arch and supplying the brain (brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery, and left common carotid artery). The cells expressing doublecortin (DCX, a marker of young neurons) were counted in the hippocampal dentate gyrus on day 31 after ischemia modeling. It was found that ischemia inhibited neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in comparison with sham-operated controls (p<0.05), while fluoxetine (20 mg/kg/day) injected over 10 days after surgery restored neurogenesis to the control level (p<0.001). PMID:27496030

  20. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Juan; Li, Chao-Kun; Wei, Lin-Yu; Lu, Na; Wang, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Li, Dong-Liang

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X7 receptors.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-juan; Li, Chao-kun; Wei, Lin-yu; Lu, Na; Wang, Guo-hong; Zhao, Hong-gang; Li, Dong-liang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X7 receptors. PMID:26199610

  2. Intestinal ischemic preconditioning reduces liver ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    XUE, TONG-MIN; TAO, LI-DE; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PEI-JIAN; LIU, XIA; CHEN, GUO-FENG; ZHU, YI-JIA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether intestinal ischemic preconditioning (IP) reduces damage to the liver during hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR). Sprague Dawley rats were used to model liver IR injury, and were divided into the sham operation group (SO), IR group and IP group. The results indicated that IR significantly increased Bax, caspase 3 and NF-κBp65 expression levels, with reduced expression of Bcl-2 compared with the IP group. Compared with the IR group, the levels of AST, ALT, MPO, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1 were significantly reduced in the IP group. Immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Bax indicated that Bcl-2 expression in the IP group was significantly increased compared with the IR group. In addition, IP reduced Bax expression compared with the IR group. The average liver injury was worsened in the IR group and improved in the IP group, as indicated by the morphological evaluation of liver tissues. The present study suggested that IP may alleviates apoptosis, reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ameloriate reductions in liver function and reduce liver tissue injury. To conclude, IP provided protection against hepatic IR injury. PMID:26821057

  3. The Neuroprotective Effect of Syringic Acid on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tokmak, Mehmet; Yuksel, Yasemin; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Cosar, Murat; Abbed, Khalid M

    2015-10-01

    Acute arterial occlusions via different vascular pathologies are the main causes of spinal cord ischemia. We investigated neuroprotective effects of syringic acid on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: (I) sham-operated control rats, (II) spinal cord ischemia group, (III) spinal cord ischemia group performed syringic acid, and (IV) spinal cord ischemia group performed methylprednisolone intraperitoneally. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. A significant decrease was seen in malondialdehyde levels in group III as compared to group II (P < 0.05). Besides these, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and superoxide dismutase activity of group III were significantly higher than group II (P < 0.05). In histopathological samples, when group III was compared with group II, there was a significant decrease in numbers of apoptotic neurons (P < 0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, BECN1 and caspase-3-immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in group III compared with group II (P < 0.05). The neurological deficit scores of group III were significantly higher than group II at twenty-fourth hour of ischemia (P < 0.05). Our study revealed that syringic acid pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required for syringic acid to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  4. Does rat global transient cerebral ischemia serve as an appropriate model to study emotional disturbances?

    PubMed

    Bantsiele, Guy Bernard; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Amiot, Noëlla; Allain, Hervé; Bourin, Michel; Reymann, Jean-Michel

    2004-12-01

    We used two validated psychopharmacological methods, the forced swimming test (FST 20 min and 5 min) and the elevated plus-maze (EPM), to quantify depression-like and anxiety-like behavior induced by transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat. We also validated use of these methods for the study of antidepressant (imipramine) and anti-anxiety drugs (diazepam). Twelve days after surgery to provoke transient global ischemia, spontaneous motor activity was 40% higher in ischemic rats than in sham-operated controls. Duration of immobility during the FST 20 min and 5 min was 28 and 30% shorter, respectively, than in controls. Treatment with imipramine (3 x 30 mg/kg i.p.) induced a significantly shorter duration of immobility during the FST 5 min, but with no difference between ischemia and control rats. The EPM demonstrated that ischemia did not induce any change in the six behavior parameters measured. Diazepam (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) induced significant anxiolytic effects which were similar in ischemic and sham-operated animals. Both tests failed to demonstrate perturbed performance but conversely, these findings did disclose the sensitivity of ischemia-exposed rats to the action of imipramine and diazepam, demonstrating the usefulness of these tests as psychopharmocological tools for evaluating the effect of psychotropics in the ischemic rat.

  5. Lithospermic acid B isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae Gill; Oh, Hyuncheol; Sohn, Eun Jin; Hur, Tae Young; Lee, Kang Chang; Kim, Kwang Jin; Kim, Tai Yo; Lee, Ho Sub

    2004-08-27

    The present study was designed to examine whether lithospermic acid B (LSB) isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza has an ameliorative effect on renal functional parameters in association with the expression of aquaporin 2 (AQP 2) and Na,K-ATPase in the ischemia-reperfusion induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. LSB showed strong antioxidant activity against production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS-induced hemolysis, and production of lipid peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. Polyuria caused by down-regulation of renal AQP 2 in the ischemia-reperfusion induced ARF rats was partially restored by administration of LSB (40 mg/kg, i.p.), restoring expression of AQP 2, in renal inner and outer medulla. The expression of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit in outer medulla of the ARF rats was also restored in the ARF rats by administration of LSB, while beta1 subunit level was not altered. The renal functional parameters including creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and solute-free reabsorption were also partially restored in ischemia-ARF rats by administration of LSB. Histological study also showed that renal damages in the ARF rats were abrogated by administration of LSB. Taken together, these data indicate that LSB ameliorates renal defects in rats with ischemia-reperfusion induced ARF, most likely via scavenging of ROS.

  6. Protective effect of ischemic postconditioning against ischemia reperfusion-induced myocardium oxidative injury in IR rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Jiangwei; Liu, Huajin

    2012-03-27

    Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) employed during reperfusion after a prolonged ischemic insult may attenuate the total ischemia-reperfusion injury. This phenomenon has been termed ischemic postconditioning. In the present study, we studied the possible effect of ischemic postconditioning on an ischemic reperfusion (IR)-induced myocardium oxidative injury in rat model. Results showed that ischemic postconditioning could improve arrhythmia cordis, reduce myocardium infarction and serum creatin kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities in IR rats. In addition, ischemic postconditioning could still decrease myocardium malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increased myocardium Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. It can be concluded that ischemic postconditioning possesses strong protective effects against ischemia reperfusion-induced myocardium oxidative injury in IR rats.

  7. Point application with Angong Niuhuang sticker protects hippocampal and cortical neurons in rats with cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-shu; Liu, Yuan-liang; Zhu, Dao-qi; Huang, Xiao-jing; Luo, Chao-hua

    2015-01-01

    Angong Niuhuang pill, a Chinese materia medica preparation, can improve neurological functions after acute ischemic stroke. Because of its inconvenient application and toxic components (Cinnabaris and Realgar), we used transdermal enhancers to deliver Angong Niuhuang pill by modern technology, which expanded the safe dose range and clinical indications. In this study, Angong Niuhuang stickers administered at different point application doses (1.35, 2.7, and 5.4 g/kg) were administered to the Dazhui (DU14), Qihai (RN6) and Mingmen (DU4) of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze was used to determine the learning and memory ability of rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe neuronal damage of the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia. The middle- and high-dose point application of Angong Niuhuang stickers attenuated neuronal damage in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region, and improved the memory of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia with an efficacy similar to interventions by electroacupuncture at Dazhui (DU14), Qihai (RN6) and Mingmen (DU4). Our experimental findings indicate that point application with Angong Niuhuang stickers can improve cognitive function after chronic cerebral ischemia in rats and is neuroprotective with an equivalent efficacy to acupuncture. PMID:25883629

  8. Suppressive Effect of High Hydrogen Generating High Amylose Cornstarch on Subacute Hepatic Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    TANABE, Hiroki; SASAKI, Yumi; YAMAMOTO, Tatsuro; KIRIYAMA, Shuhachi; NISHIMURA, Naomichi

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether feeding high hydrogen generating resistant starch could suppress subacute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were fed a control diet with or without 20% high amylose cornstarch (HAS) supplementation for 14 days. On day 12, rats were subject to ischemia-reperfusion treatment. Portal hydrogen concentration was higher in the HAS group compared with the control group. Increased plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities due to ischemia-reperfusion treatment tended to decrease, and a significant reduction was observed by HAS feeding when compared with the control group. In conclusion, HAS, which enhances hydrogen generation in the hindgut, alleviated subacute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:24936356

  9. Combination of hyperhomocysteinemia and ischemic tolerance in experimental model of global ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kovalska, M; Kovalska, L; Tothova, B; Mahmood, S; Adamkov, M; Lehotsky, J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies show positive relationship between mild-to-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) and the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. The study determines whether hyperhomocysteinemia (risk factor of brain ischemia) alone or in combination with the ischemic preconditioning (IPC) affects the ischemia-induced neurodegenerative changes and imbalance in MAPK/p-ERK1/2 and MAPK/p-p38 expression in the rat brains. hHcy was induced by subcutaneous administration of homocysteine (0.45 μmol/g body weight) twice a day at 8 h intervals for 14 days. Rats were preconditioned by 5 min ischemia and 2 days later, 15 min of global forebrain ischemia was induced by four vessel occlusion. We observed that hHcy alone significantly increased neurodegeneration by Fluoro-Jade C and TUNEL possitive cells in hippocampus as well as in cortex. We found elevated level of MAPK/p-ERK and decreased level of MAPK/p-p38 after pre-ischemic challenge by Western blot and fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, preconditioning even if combined with hHcy could preserve the neuronal tissue from lethal ischemic effect. This study provides evidence for the interplay and tight integration between ERK and p38 MAPKs signalling mechanisms in response to the hHcy and also if in association with brain ischemia/IPC challenge in the rat brain. PMID:26769838

  10. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Tiziana; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Esposito, Emanuela; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2011-02-01

    NADPH oxidase is a major complex that produces reactive oxygen species (ROSs) during the ischemic period and aggravates brain damage and cell death after ischemic injury. Although many approaches have been tested for preventing production of ROSs by NADPH oxidase in ischemic brain injury, the regulatory mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activity after cerebral ischemia are still unclear. The aim of this study is identifying apocynin as a critical modulator of NADPH oxidase and elucidating its role as a neuroprotectant in an experimental model of brain ischemia in rat. Treatment of apocynin 5min before of reperfusion attenuated cerebral ischemia in rats. Administration of apocynin showed marked reduction in infarct size compared with that of control rats. Medial carotid artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced cerebral ischemia was also associated with an increase in, nitrotyrosine formation, as well as IL-1β expression, IκB degradation and ICAM expression in ischemic regions. These expressions were markedly inhibited by the treatment of apocynin. We also demonstrated that apocynin reduces levels of apoptosis (TUNEL, Bax and Bcl-2 expression) resulting in a reduction in the infarct volume in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. This new understanding of apocynin induced adaptation to ischemic stress and inflammation could suggest novel avenues for clinical intervention during ischemic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:21138737

  11. Potential targets for protecting against hippocampal cell apoptosis after transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiangyu; Zhang, Li’na; Liu, Ran; Liu, Yingzhi; Song, Jianfang; Dong, He; Jia, Yanfang; Zhou, Zangong

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role in neuronal apoptosis caused by cerebral ischemia, and the role is mediated by the expression of mitochondrial proteins. This study investigated the involvement of mitochondrial proteins in hippocampal cell apoptosis after transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in aged rats using a comparative proteomics strategy. Our experimental results show that the aged rat brain is sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury and that transient ischemia led to cell apoptosis in the hippocampus and changes in memory and cognition of aged rats. Differential proteomics analysis suggested that this phenomenon may be mediated by mitochondrial proteins associated with energy metabolism and apoptosis in aged rats. This study provides potential drug targets for the treatment of transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25206771

  12. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. PMID:24051215

  13. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  14. Chronic skeletal muscle ischemia preserves coronary flow in the ischemic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Varnavas, Varnavas C; Kontaras, Konstantinos; Glava, Chryssoula; Maniotis, Christos D; Koutouzis, Michael; Baltogiannis, Giannis G; Papalois, Apostolos; Kolettis, Theofilos M; Kyriakides, Zenon S

    2011-10-01

    Chronic skeletal muscle ischemia confers cytoprotection to the ventricular myocardium during infarction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although neovascularization in the left ventricular myocardium has been proposed as a possible mechanism, the functional capacity of such vessels has not been studied. We examined the effects of chronic limb ischemia on infarct size, coronary blood flow, and left ventricular function after ischemia-reperfusion. Hindlimb ischemia was induced in 65 Wistar rats by excision of the left femoral artery, whereas 65 rats were sham operated. After 4 wk, myocardial infarction was generated by permanent coronary artery ligation. Infarct size was measured 24 h postligation. Left ventricular function was evaluated in isolated hearts after ischemia-reperfusion, 4 wk after limb ischemia. Neovascularization was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and coronary flow was measured under maximum vasodilatation at different perfusion pressures before and after coronary ligation. Infarct size was smaller after limb ischemia compared with controls (24.4 ± 8.1% vs. 46.2 ± 9.5% of the ventricle and 47.6 ± 8.7% vs. 80.1 ± 9.3% of the ischemic area, respectively). Indexes of left ventricular function at the end of reperfusion (divided by baseline values) were improved after limb ischemia (developed pressure: 0.68 ± 0.06 vs. 0.59 ± 0.05, P = 0.008; maximum +dP/dt: 0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.59 ± 0.04, P = 0.004; and maximum -dP/dt: 0.86 ± 0.14 vs. 0.72 ± 0.10, P = 0.041). Coronary vessel density was markedly higher (P = 0.00021) in limb ischemic rats. In contrast to controls (F = 5.65, P = 0.00182), where coronary flow decreased, it remained unchanged (F = 1.36, P = 0.28) after ligation in limb ischemic rats. In conclusion, chronic hindlimb ischemia decreases infarct size and attenuates left ventricular dysfunction by increasing coronary collateral vessel density and blood flow.

  15. Neuronal damage and calcium accumulation following transient cerebral ischemia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Inoue, T.; Kato, H.; Kogure, K.; Murakami, M. )

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of neuronal damage following transient cerebral ischemia in the rat model of four-vessel occlusion utilizing light microscopy as well as {sup 45}Ca-autoradiography. Transient ischemia was induced for 30 min. The animals were allowed to survive for 7 d after ischemia. In the animals subjected to ischemia, the most frequently and seriously damaged areas were the paramedian region of hippocampus, the hippocampal CA1 sector, and the dorsolateral part of striatum, followed by the inferior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the frontal cortex, and the thalamus, which were moderate damaged. Furthermore, the cerebellar Purkinje neurons, the hippocampal CA4 sector, the medial geniculate body, and the hippocampal CA3 sector were slightly affected. {sup 45}Ca-autoradiographyic study also revealed calcium accumulation in the identical sites of ischemic neuronal damage, except for the frontal cortex. Regional cerebral blood flow during 10 min of ischemia was severely decreased in selectively vulnerable areas. The blood flow in the medial geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the inferior colliculus, and the cerebellum was less pronounced than that in the selectively vulnerable areas. The present study demonstrates that transient cerebral ischemia can produce significant neuronal damage not only in the selectively vulnerable regions, but also in the brainstem.

  16. Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ferulago angulata Improves Memory and Pain in Brain Hypoperfusion Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapour, Sahar; Rafieirad, Maryam; Rouhi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cerebral ischemia causes some disorders in behavioral patterns, including memory disorders and pain, which is due to the production of free radicals. Ferulago angulata, known in Iran as chavir, contains some bioactive compounds having antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of F. angulate (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on pain as well as active and passive avoidance memories after permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion or cerebral ischemia/hypoperfusion in male adult rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 35 male rats were randomly allocated to test and control groups. To make animal model of permanent cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia, carotid arteries were ligatured as upper and lower and cut bilaterally. Results: It was found that the administration of 400 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of F. angulate for two weeks after brain hypoperfusion ischemia increased the passive avoidance memory (P < 0.001) and latency time of painful tail reflex significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Ferulago angulata extract, because of its antioxidant activities, is probably capable of removing free radicals and oxidant substances from brain and thus it can improve behavioral disorders in brain hypoperfusion ischemia model. PMID:25866714

  17. Relaxin protects against myocardial injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion in rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Bani, D.; Masini, E.; Bello, M. G.; Bigazzi, M.; Sacchi, T. B.

    1998-01-01

    Myocardial injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion comes from multiple pathogenic events, including endothelial damage, neutrophil extravasation into tissue, platelet and mast cell activation, and peroxidation of cell membrane lipids, which are followed by myocardial cell alterations resulting eventually in cell necrosis. The current study was designed to test the possible cardioprotective effect of the hormone relaxin, which has been found to cause coronary vessel dilation and to inhibit platelet and mast cell activation. Ischemia (for 30 minutes) was induced in rat hearts in vivo by ligature of the left anterior descending coronary artery; reperfusion (for 60 minutes or less if the rats died before this predetermined time) was induced by removal of the ligature. Relaxin (100 ng) was given intravenously 30 minutes before ischemia. The results obtained showed that relaxin strongly reduces 1) the extension of the myocardial areas affected by ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage, 2) ventricular arrhythmias, 3) mortality, 4) myocardial neutrophil number, 5) myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil accumulation, 6) production of malonyldialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, 7) mast cell granule release, 8) calcium overload, and 9) morphological signs of myocardial cell injury. This study shows that relaxin can be regarded as an agent with a marked cardioprotective action against ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9588905

  18. Neuroprotective effects of SMADs in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang-fang; Liu, Chao-ying; Li, Xiao-ping; Zheng, Sheng-zhe; Li, Qing-quan; Liu, Qun; Song, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that up-regulation of transforming growth factor β1 results in neuroprotective effects. However, the role of the transforming growth factor β1 downstream molecule, SMAD2/3, following ischemia/reperfusion remains unclear. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SMAD2/3 by analyzing the relationships between SMAD2/3 expression and cell apoptosis and inflammation in the brain of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Levels of SMAD2/3 mRNA were up-regulated in the ischemic penumbra 6 hours after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, reached a peak after 72 hours and were then decreased at 7 days. Phosphorylated SMAD2/3 protein levels at the aforementioned time points were consistent with the mRNA levels. Over-expression of SMAD3 in the brains of the ischemia/reperfusion model rats via delivery of an adeno-associated virus containing the SMAD3 gene could reduce tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β mRNA levels, down-regulate expression of the pro-apoptotic gene, capase-3, and up-regulate expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. The SMAD3 protein level was negatively correlated with cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that SMAD3 exhibits neuroprotective effects on the brain after ischemia/reperfusion through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways. PMID:25878593

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Ilexonin A following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    XU, AI-LING; ZHENG, GUAN-YI; WANG, ZHI-JIAN; CHEN, XIAO-DONG; JIANG, QIONG

    2016-01-01

    Ilexonin A is a compound isolated from the root of a plant commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective mechanism of Ilexonin A in rats subjected to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 2 h of MCAO, followed by reperfusion. Ilexonin A at doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg were administered via intraperitoneal injection immediately following ischemia/reperfusion. The expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) and Nestin were examined using immunostaining and Western blot analysis of the peri-infarct region following ischemia/reperfusion. Ilexonin A significantly decreased the infarct volume and improved neurological deficits in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of VEGF, Flk-1 and Nestin were significantly increased in the rats treated with Ilexonin A, compared with the rats administered with saline. Following treatment with Ilexonin A, a higher number of GFAP-positive astrocytes were found in the Ilexonin A-treated rats at 1, 3 and 7 days, compared with the rats exposed to ischemia only, however, there were fewer astrocytes at 14 days, compared with the ischemia group. Ilexonin A significantly decreased the protein expression of Iba-1. The results of the present study suggested that the protective effects of Ilexonin A were associated with revascularization, neuronal regeneration, and the regulation of astrocyte and microglia cell activation. PMID:26936330

  20. Role of mucus in ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mojzis, J; Hegedüsová, R; Mirossay, L

    2000-01-01

    Gastric mucus plays an important role in gastric mucosal protection. Apart from its "barrier" function, it has been demonstrated that mucus protects gastric epithelial cells against toxic oxygen metabolites derived from the xanthine/ xanthine oxidase system. In this study, we investigated the effect of malotilate and sucralfate (mucus production stimulators) and N-acetylcysteine (mucolytic agent) on ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury. Gastric ischemia was induced by 30 min clamping of the coeliac artery followed by 30 min of reperfusion. The mucus content was determined by the Alcian blue method. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg), malotilate (100 mg/kg), and N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg) were given orally 30 min before surgery. Both sucralfate and malotilate increased the mucus production in control rats. On the other hand, N-acetyloysteine significantly decreased mucus content in control (sham) group. A significant decrease of mucus content was found in the control and the N-acetylcysteine pretreated group during the period of ischemia. On the other hand, sucralfate and malotilate prevented the decrease the content of mucus during ischemia. A similar result can be seen after ischemia/reperfusion. In the control group and N-acetylcysteine pretreated group a significant decrease of adherent mucus content was found. However, sucralfate and malotilate increased mucus production (sucralfate significantly). Sucralfate and malotilate also significantly protected the gastric mucosa against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. However, N-acetylcysteine significantly increased gastric mucosal injury after ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that gastric mucus may be involved in the protection of gastric mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion.

  1. Exercise training exacerbates tourniquet ischemia-induced decreases in GLUT4 expression and muscle atrophy in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Lan; Hou, Chien-Wen; Liao, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lin, Fang-Ching; Lee, Wen-Chih; Chou, Shih-Wei; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2006-05-15

    The current study determined the interactive effects of ischemia and exercise training on glycogen storage and GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. For the first experiment, an acute 1-h tourniquet ischemia was applied to one hindlimb of both the 1-week exercise-trained and untrained rats. The contralateral hindlimb served as control. For the second experiment, 1-h ischemia was applied daily for 1 week to both trained (5 h post-exercise) and untrained rats. GLUT4 mRNA was not affected by acute ischemia, but exercise training lowered GLUT4 mRNA in the acute ischemic muscle. GLUT4 protein levels were elevated by exercise training, but not in the acute ischemic muscle. Exercise training elevated muscle glycogen above untrained levels, but this increase was reversed by chronic ischemia. GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels were dramatically reduced by chronic ischemia, regardless of whether the animals were exercise-trained or not. Chronic ischemia significantly reduced plantaris muscle mass, with a greater decrease found in the exercise-trained rats. In conclusion, the exercise training effect on muscle GLUT4 protein expression was prevented by acute ischemia. Furthermore, chronic ischemia-induced muscle atrophy was exacerbated by exercise training. This result implicates that exercise training could be detrimental to skeletal muscle with severely impaired microcirculation.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of Withania coagulans root extract on CA1 hippocampus following cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh- Sagheb, Hamidreza; Valizadeh, Moharram; Doostkami, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxygen free radicals may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion damage. The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries are well known. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydro-alcoholic root extract of Withania coagulans on CA1 hippocampus oxidative damages following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups: control, sham operated, Ischemia/ Reperfiusion (IR), and Withania Coagulans Extract (WCE) 500 and 1000mg/kg + I/R groups. Ischemia was induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min after 30 days of WCE administration. Three days after, the animals were sacrificed, their brains were fixed for histological analysis (NISSL and TUNEL staining) and some samples were prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in hippocampus. Results: WCE showed neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in MDA level and increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activity in pretreated groups as compared to I/R groups (p<0.001). The number of intact neurons was increased while the number of TUNEL positive neurons in CA1 hippocampal region in pretreated groups were decreased as compared to I/R group (p<0.001). Conclusion: WCE showed potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced injuries caused by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rats probably by radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:27516980

  3. Ellagic acid improves electrocardiogram waves and blood pressure against global cerebral ischemia rat experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Nejad, Khojasteh Hoseiny; Dianat, Mahin; Sarkaki, Alireza; Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Badavi, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global cerebral ischemia (GCIR) arises in patients that are shown a variety of clinical difficulty including cardiac arrest, asphyxia, and shock. In spite of advances in understanding of the brain, ischemia and protective effects to improve ischemic injury still remain unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) pretreatment in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Physiology Research Center of the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. Adult male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were used in this study. GCIR was induced by bilateral vertebral and common carotid arteries occlusion (4-VO). 32 rats were divided randomly to four groups: 1) So (Sham) received normal saline as vehicle of EA, 2) EA, 3) normal saline + GCIR, and 4) EA + GCIR. After anesthesia (a mix of xylazine and ketamine), animal subjected to 20 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion in related groups. EA (100 mg/kg, dissolved in normal saline) or 1.5 ml/kg normal saline was administered (gavage, 10 days) to the related groups. EEG was recorded from NTS in GCIR treated groups. Results: Present data showed that: 1) EEG in GCIR treated groups was flattened; 2) Blood pressure, voltage of QRS and P-R interval were reduced significantly in the ischemic groups compared to before ischemia, and pretreatment with EA prevented this reduction; and 3) MDA level and heart rate was increased by GCIR and pretreatment with EA reduced MDA level and restored the HR to normal level. Conclusion: Results indicate that global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion impairs certain heart functions and ellagic acid as an antioxidant can restore these parameters. The results of this study suggest the possible utility of ellagic acid in patients with brain stroke. PMID:26396728

  4. Effects of curcumin on ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    ESER, AYLA; HIZLI, DENIZ; HALTAS, HACER; NAMUSLU, MEHMET; KOSUS, AYDIN; KOSUS, NERMIN; KAFALI, HASAN

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a significant problem following reperfusion treatment for ovarian torsion. It is generally caused by reactive oxygen species-induced damage. Antioxidant agents, such as curcumin, may protect ovaries from this adverse effect. The aim of the present randomized, controlled study was to evaluate the short-term protective effect of curcumin on a rat model of ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury. A total of 30 female Wistar albino rats, weighing 160–230 g, were divided into 2 groups depending upon the time of unilateral, left ovary ischemia/reperfusion (group 1, 2 h ischemia/2 h reperfusion and group 2, 4 h ischemia/4 h reperfusion). These groups were subdivided into 3 subgroups (sham, control and curcumin). The sham subgroups were not subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Control and curcumin subgroups were performed under ischemia for 2 h plus 2 h reperfusion or 4 h ischemia plus 4 h reperfusion. Curcumin, 200 mg/kg, was intraperitoneally administered simultaneously with reperfusion to the curcumin subgroups. Serum nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), xanthine oxidase (XO), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and histological scores were measured and compared between subgroups. For group 1, no significant differences were observed between NO, NOS, XO, TAS or TOS. The left ovary histological grade was significantly higher in the control and curcumin subgroups compared with the sham subgroup (P=0.036). For group 2, TOS was significantly higher in the control group compared with the sham and curcumin groups (P=0.023). However, TAS was also significantly higher in the control subgroup compared with the other 2 subgroups (P=0.005). Left ovary histological grade was significantly higher in the control and curcumin subgroups compared with the sham subgroup (P=0.038). No significant differences were observed between NO, NOS or XO between the group 2 subgroups. The results showed that curcumin exerted no major significant

  5. [The effect of metformin on myocardial tolerance to ischemia in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, E N; Grineva, E N; Galagudza, M M; Bairamov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of metformin on myocardial sensitivity to ischemia in rats with neonatal streptozotocin T2DM was investigated using the model of global ischemia-reperfusion in the isolated perfused heart. Metformin administration had no effect on infarct size. At the same time, infarct size in T2DM was significantly lower than in controls, which is indicative of the phenomenon of metabolic preconditioning in T2DM. The protocol of metformin administration used in this study had not afforded a significant cardioprotective effect in animals with T2DM.

  6. Dexamethasone pretreatment attenuates lung and kidney injury in cholestatic rats induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liangyi; Yao, Xiangqing; Chen, Yanling

    2012-02-01

    Hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) results in mild to severe organ injury, in which tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) seem to be involved. Thus, we aim to assess the influence of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury on remote organs in addition to cholestasis and consider the possible efficacy of steroid pretreatment in reducing the injury. A common bile duct ligation model was done on 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 7 days, the rats were divided randomly into control group, IR group, and dexamethasone (DEX) group. The IR group showed significant increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine levels compared with the control and DEX groups. By ELISA techniques, higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in lung and kidney tissues were measured in the IR group than in the control and DEX groups, these were verified by immunohistochemistry. The lung histology of the IR group rats showed neutrophil infiltration, interstitial edema, and alveolar wall thickening. Kidney histology of the IR group rats showed vacuolization of the proximal tubular epithelial cells and tubular dilatation with granular eosinophilic casts. Better morphological aspects were observed in the DEX-pretreated animals. Minimal lesions were observed in the control. The results suggest that hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in cholestatic rats induced lung and kidney injuries. Pretreatment with dexamethasone reduced the IR-induced injury in addition to cholestasis.

  7. Temporal and topographic profiles of tissue hypoxia following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Noto, Takahisa; Furuichi, Yasuhisa; Ishiye, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Aramori, Ichiro; Mutoh, Seitaro; Yanagihara, Takehiko; Manabe, Noboru

    2006-08-01

    Intravascular accumulation of blood cells after brain ischemia-reperfusion can cause obstruction of cerebral blood flow and tissue hypoxia/ischemia as a consequence. In the present study, we examined temporal and topographic changes of tissue hypoxia/ischemia after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 60 min in rats with immunohistochemical staining for hypoxia (2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker: hypoxyprobe-1 adducts). Our results showed that tissue hypoxia expressed as positive staining for hypoxyprobe-1 adducts preceded neuronal degeneration. Platelets and granulocytes were detected close to the hypoxyprobe-1 adducts positive area. These results suggested that the hypoxic environment could persist even after reperfusion of MCA, because of vascular obstruction with accumulation of platelets and granulocytes.

  8. Neutrophil Depletion Attenuates Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Regal, Jean F.; Lillegard, Kathryn E.; Bauer, Ashley J.; Elmquist, Barbara J.; Loeks-Johnson, Alex C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by reduced placental perfusion with placental ischemia and hypertension during pregnancy. Preeclamptic women also exhibit a heightened inflammatory state and greater number of neutrophils in the vasculature compared to normal pregnancy. Since neutrophils are associated with tissue injury and inflammation, we hypothesized that neutrophils are critical to placental ischemia-induced hypertension and fetal demise. Using the reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension in the rat, we determined the effect of neutrophil depletion on blood pressure and fetal resorptions. Neutrophils were depleted with repeated injections of polyclonal rabbit anti-rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) antibody (antiPMN). Rats received either antiPMN or normal rabbit serum (Control) on 13.5, 15.5, 17.5, and 18.5 days post conception (dpc). On 14.5 dpc, rats underwent either Sham surgery or clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta to reduce uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). On 18.5 dpc, carotid arterial catheters were placed and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured on 19.5 dpc. Neutrophil-depleted rats had reduced circulating neutrophils from 14.5 to 19.5 dpc compared to Control, as well as decreased neutrophils in lung and placenta on 19.5 dpc. MAP increased in RUPP Control vs Sham Control rats, and neutrophil depletion attenuated this increase in MAP in RUPP rats without any effect on Sham rats. The RUPP-induced increase in fetal resorptions and complement activation product C3a were not affected by neutrophil depletion. Thus, these data are the first to indicate that neutrophils play an important role in RUPP hypertension and that cells of the innate immune system may significantly contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension. PMID:26135305

  9. Does closure of acid-sensing ion channels reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat brain?★

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Yinghui; Lian, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Tingzhun; Li, Mengkao; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a common characteristic of brain damage. Because studies have shown that permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels can mediate the toxic effects of calcium ions, they have become new targets against pain and various intracranial diseases. However, the mechanism associated with expression of these channels remains unclear. This study sought to observe the expression characteristics of permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels during different reperfusion inflows in rats after cerebral ischemia. The rat models were randomly divided into three groups: adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group, one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, and severe cerebral ischemic injury group. Western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining results exhibited that when compared with the one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, acid-sensing ion channel 3 and Bcl-x/l expression decreased in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Calmodulin expression was lowest in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Following adaptive reperfusion, common carotid artery flow was close to normal, and the pH value improved. Results verified that adaptive reperfusion following cerebral ischemia can suppress acid-sensing ion channel 3 expression, significantly reduce Ca2+ influx, inhibit calcium overload, and diminish Ca2+ toxicity. The effects of adaptive ischemia/reperfusion on suppressing cell apoptosis and relieving brain damage were better than that of one-time ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25206411

  10. Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2011-11-16

    The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated in rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion liver injury. Ischemia was induced by clamping the pedicle of the left hepatic lobe for 30 min, and cannabidiol (5mg/kg, i.v.) was given 1h following the procedure and every 24h thereafter for 2 days. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by ischemia/reperfusion. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin protein in ischemic/reperfused liver tissue. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the liver against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

  11. Recombinant Fv-Hsp70 protein mediates neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xinhua; Ander, Bradley P; Liao, Isaac H; Hansen, James E; Kim, Chester; Clements, Douglas; Weisbart, Richard H; Nishimura, Robert N; Sharp, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study investigated the effects of intravenous recombinant Fv-Hsp70 protein on infarction volume and behavior following experimental ischemic stroke. Methods Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCA) using the intraluminal suture technique. Rats subjected to 2 hours of focal ischemia were allowed to survive 24 h. At 2 ¼ h and 3 h after onset of ischemia, Fv-Hsp70 recombinant protein (0.5 mg / kg) or saline was injected via the tail vein. Sensory-motor function and infarction volume were assessed at 24 h following ischemia. Results Administration of Fv-Hsp70 following focal cerebral ischemia significantly decreased infarct volume by 68% and significantly improved sensory-motor function compared to the saline-treated control group. Western blots showed Fv-Hsp70 in ischemic but not in control brain; and Fv-Hsp70 suppressed endogenous Hsp70. Conclusion Fv-Hsp70 protects ischemic brain in this experimental stroke model. PMID:20075343

  12. Testicular ischemia-reperfusion may alter micro-rheological parameters in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Norbert; Kiss, Ferenc; Klarik, Zoltan; Peto, Katalin; Vanyolos, Erzsebet; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion-caused hemorheological alterations have been widely studied but the effect of testicular ischemia-reperfusion has not so far. In this study 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were involved. In the ischemia-reperfusion group under general anaesthesia the left testis was explored by opening the scrotum then the deferent duct and vasculature were clamped for 30 minutes. Testicular microcirculation was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. The right testis was untouched. In the control group: only anaesthesia was induced. Blood sampling occurred before and after ischemia, at the 60th minute of reperfusion and on the 1st postoperative day for determining hematological parameters (microcell-counter), erythrocyte deformability (slit-flow ektacytometer) and erythrocyte aggregation (light-transmission aggregometer). After the last blood sampling, testicles were removed for histological examination. Hematological parameter changes reflected inflammatory response. Erythrocyte deformability showed a worsening already at the 60th minute of reperfusion compared to base and control values. By the 1st postoperative day further decrease was observed. Erythrocyte aggregation significantly enhanced with great magnitude versus base and control values (p < 0.001). However, conventional histological examinations did not show marked testicular injury. The experienced changes can attract attention to the testicular ischemia-reperfusion causing significant effects on hemorheological parameters, which can lead to further harmful microcirculatory consequences.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of Shenqi Fuzheng injection pretreatment in aged rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ying-min; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Peng-bo; Zhen, Lu-ming; Sun, Xiao-ju; Wang, Zhi-ling; Xu, Ren-yan; Xue, Rong-liang

    2016-01-01

    Shenqi Fuzheng injection is extracted from the Chinese herbs Radix Astragali and Radix Codonopsis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Shenqi Fuzheng injection in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Aged rats (20–22 months) were divided into three groups: sham, model, and treatment. Shenqi Fuzheng injection or saline (40 mL/kg) was injected into the tail vein daily for 1 week, after which a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established. Compared with model rats that received saline, rats in the treatment group had smaller infarct volumes, lower brain water and malondialdehyde content, lower brain Ca2+ levels, lower activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, and higher superoxide dismutase activity. In addition, the treatment group showed less damage to the brain tissue ultrastructure and better neurological function. Our findings indicate that Shenqi Fuzheng injection exerts neuroprotective effects in aged rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and that the underlying mechanism relies on oxygen free radical scavenging and inhibition of brain Ca2+ accumulation. PMID:26981095

  14. LXW7 ameliorates focal cerebral ischemia injury and attenuates inflammatory responses in activated microglia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, T.; Zhou, D.; Lu, L.; Tong, X.; Wu, J.; Yi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in ischemic stroke, when activated microglia release excessive pro-inflammatory mediators. The inhibition of integrin αvβ3 improves outcomes in rat focal cerebral ischemia models. However, the mechanisms by which microglia are neuroprotective remain unclear. This study evaluated whether post-ischemic treatment with another integrin αvβ3 inhibitor, the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-cGRGDdvc (LXW7), alleviates cerebral ischemic injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of LXW7 in activated microglia within rat focal cerebral ischemia models was examined. A total of 108 Sprague-Dawley rats (250–280 g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 2 h, the rats were given an intravenous injection of LXW7 (100 μg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Neurological scores, infarct volumes, brain water content (BWC) and histology alterations were determined. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)], and Iba1-positive activated microglia, within peri-ischemic brain tissue, were assessed with ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volumes and BWC were significantly lower in LXW7-treated rats compared to those in the MCAO + PBS (control) group. The LXW7 treatment lowered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There was a reduction of Iba1-positive activated microglia, and the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were attenuated. However, there was no difference in the Zea Longa scores between the ischemia and LXW7 groups. The results suggest that LXW7 protected against focal cerebral ischemia and attenuated inflammation in activated microglia. LXW7 may be neuroprotective during acute MCAO-induced brain damage and microglia-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27533766

  15. Protective effects of antithrombin III supplementation on warm ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Okano, K; Kokudo, Y; Okajima, K; Hossain, M A; Ishimura, K; Yachida, S; Tsubouchi, T; Wakabayashi, H; Maeba, T; Maeta, H

    1996-10-01

    The effect of antithrombin III (AT III) supplementation on energy status, microcirculation, cytoprotection, and prostacyclin (PGI2) production during and after a period of warm ischemia of the rat liver was investigated. AT III supplementation (250 units/kg) stimulate prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) production from 1 hour after administration, with maximal production observed at 3 hours. Ischemia was induced by occluding the hepatoduodenal ligament for 30 minutes, and experiments were continued for 60 minutes after reperfusion. The rats received AT III (250 units/kg IC) 30 minutes before induction of liver ischemia (AT III group). In the AT III group, recovery of the beta-ATP/inorganic phosphate ratio measured by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance showed significant improvement (p < 0.01), and the recovery of tissue blood flow markedly improved (p < 0.01) compared to the saline-treated group (control group). Leakages of aspartame aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase were mitigated in the AT III group (p < 0. 05). Ultrastructural alterations of sinusoidal endothelial cells were markedly reduced in the AT III group. The PGI2 level at the end of reperfusion was significantly elevated (p < 0.01) in the AT III group compared to the control group. The results of this study indicated that pretreatment with AT III significantly improved the energy status and microcirculation, as well as histologic damage, after liver ischemia and reperfusion. One of the fundamental effects of AT III might be mediated through the production of prostacyclin.

  16. Colchicine protects rat skeletal muscle from ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liangrong; Shan, Yuanlu; Chen, Lei; Lin, Bi; Xiong, Xiangqing; Lin, Lina; Jin, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Neutrophils play an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (IR) induced skeletal muscle injury. Microtubules are required for neutrophil activation in response to various stimuli. This study aimed to investigate the effects of colchicine, a microtubule-disrupting agent, on skeletal muscle IR injury in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three groups IR group, colchicine treated-IR (CO) group and sham operation (SM) group. Rats of both the IR and CO groups were subjected to 3 hr of ischemia by clamping the right femoral artery followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Colchicine (1 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally prior to hindlimb ischemia in the CO group. After 2 hr of reperfusion, we measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the muscle samples. Plasma creatinine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were measured. We also evaluated the histological damage score and wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Results: The histological damage score, W/D ratio, MPO activity, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in muscle tissues were significantly increased, SOD activity was decreased, and plasma CK and LDH levels were remarkably elevated in both the IR and CO groups compared to the SM group (P<0.05). Colchicine treatment significantly reduced muscle damage and edema, oxidative stress and levels of the inflammatory parameters in the CO group compared to the IR group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Colchicine attenuates IR-induced skeletal muscle injury in rats. PMID:27482349

  17. Protective effect of apigenin on ischemia/reperfusion injury of the isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Li, Zilin; Xu, Li-ting; Sun, Ai-jun; Fu, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Li; Jing, Lin-lin; Lu, An-dong; Dong, Yi-fei; Jia, Zheng-ping

    2015-07-01

    Apigenin (Api), a mainly bioactive component of Apium graveolens L. var. dulce DC. (a traditional Chinese medicinal herb), possesses a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant effects. It also has been shown to associate with lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of Api in isolated rat heart model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Langendorff-perfused isolated rat hearts were used in our study. Api was added to the perfusate before ischemia and during reperfusion in the isolated pulsed rat heart exposed to 30-min ischemia followed by 50-min reperfusion. The treatment with Api conferred a cardioprotective effect, and the treated hearts demonstrated an improved ischemic cardiac functional recovery, a decreased myocardial infarct size, a reduced activities of creatine kinase isoenzyme and lactate dehydrogenase in the coronary flow, a reduced number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, a reduced activity of caspase-3, up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. In addition, Api inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPKS during I/R. In conclusion, these observations provide preliminary evidence that Api can protect cardiomyocytes from I-/R-induced injury, at least partially, through the inhibition of p38 MAPKS signaling pathway. PMID:25377428

  18. The effects of tramadol on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mona F.; Gamal, Samar; Shaheen, Mohamed A.; El-Fayoumi, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic. It has a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat heart. We hypothesized that tramadol may exert a similar protective effect on hepatic I/R injury. Hence, the current investigation was designed to study the possible protective effects of tramadol on experimentally-induced hepatic I/R injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Tramadol was administered 30 min before ischemia following which the rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Results: Tramadol attenuated hepatic injury induced by I/R as evidenced by the reduction of transaminases, structural changes, and apoptotic cell death. It decreased the level of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TNF-α/interleukin-10 (IL-10) ratio, and nuclear factor-κB gene expression. It also increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 levels in hepatic tissues. Furthermore, it reduced oxidative stress parameters except manganese superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that tramadol has hepatoprotective effects against hepatic I/R injury via anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects. PMID:27298497

  19. Protective effect of prednisolone on ischemia-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Shen, Feng; Shi, Le-Hua; Xi, Tao; Li, Xi-Feng; Chen, Xu; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of prednisolone on cell membrane bleb formation, calpain μ activation and talin degradation during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: The hilar area of the left lateral and median lobes of rat liver (68%) was clamped for 60 min and followed by 120 min reperfusion. Prednisolone was administered at 1.0, 3.0, or 10 mg/kg at 30 min before ischemia. In addition to biochemical and microscopic analyses, activation of calpain μ was determined using specific antibodies against the intermediate (activated) form of calpain μ. Degradation of talin was also studied by Western blotting. RESULTS: In the control and prednisolone (1.0 mg/kg) groups, serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) level were elevated, and cell membrane bleb formation was observed after 120 min of reperfusion. Moreover, calpain μ activation and talin degradation were detected. Infusion of prednisolone at 3.0 or 10 mg/kg significantly suppressed serum AST and ALT, and prevented cell membrane bleb formation. At 10 mg/kg, prednisolone markedly suppressed calpain μ activation and talin degradation. CONCLUSION: Prednisolone can suppress ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat liver. Its cytoprotective effect is closely associated with the suppression of calpain μ activation and talin degradation. PMID:18666321

  20. Protection mechanism of early hyperbaric oxygen therapy in rats with permanent cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Xue, Yixue; Liang, Weidi; Zhang, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether early hyperbaric oxygen is useful in rats with permanent cerebral ischemia, and whether its mechanism relates to the inhibition of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-protein kinase C-alpha pathway. [Subjects] Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 108) were the subjects. [Methods] After middle cerebral artery occlusion models were successfully made, rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, cerebral ischemia, and hyperbaric oxygen groups. At 4 and 12 hours after modeling, the volume of cerebral infarction was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, and brain water content was measured using the dry and wet method. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and protein kinase C-alpha in the ischemic penumbra tissue was measured using Western blot analysis. [Results] The data showed that at 4 and 12 hours after modeling, cerebral infarct volume and brain water content decreased in the hyperbaric oxygen group, and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and phospho-protein kinase C-alpha in the ischemic penumbra tissue also decreased. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrates that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy has protective effects on brain tissue after cerebral ischemia, possibly via inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and phospho-protein kinase C-alpha.

  1. Remote ischemic perconditioning attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced downregulation of AQP2 in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Marie Louise V; Kierulf-Lassen, Casper; Nielsen, Per Mose; Krag, Søren; Birn, Henrik; Nejsum, Lene N; Nørregaard, Rikke

    2016-07-01

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can lead to impaired urine concentration ability and increased fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa). Local ischemic preconditioning improves renal water and sodium handling after I/R injury. Here, we investigate whether remote ischemic perconditioning (rIPeC) prevents dysregulation of renal water and salt handling in response to I/R injury and mechanisms that may be involved. Rats were subjected to right nephrectomy and randomized into a sham group or an I/R group. In the I/R group, rats were subjected to 37 min of renal ischemia and 3 days of reperfusion. rIPeC was applied to the abdominal aorta. Blood and urine were collected on day 3 postoperatively for clearance studies. The expression of aquaporins (AQPs) and the sodium transporter Na-K-ATPase were analyzed using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. I/R injury resulted in polyuria, increased FeNa, and decreased urine osmolality compared to sham rats. rIPeC attenuated the increase in FeNa and the decrease in urine osmolality. Expression of AQP1, AQP2, phosphorylated AQP2 (pAQP2), and Na-K-ATPase was downregulated in I/R rats. rIPeC attenuated the reductions in AQP2 and pAQP2 expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased labeling of Na-K-ATPase in the outer medulla in I/R kidneys compared to kidneys from sham and I/R + rIPeC rats. After renal ischemia, the expression of Na-K-ATPase was substantially reduced in the outer medullary thick ascending limb. In conclusion, our data suggest that rIPeC might prevent dysregulation of renal water and salt handling via regulation of AQP2 expression and phosphorylation as well as via regulation of Na-K-ATPase expression in I/R rat kidneys. PMID:27405971

  2. Nerve Protective Effect of Asiaticoside against Ischemia-Hypoxia in Cultured Rat Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Bin; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background Asiaticoside is one of the main functional components of the natural plant Centella asiatica urban. Studies have reported it has several functions such as anti-depression and nerve cell protection. Asiaticoside can reduce the cerebral infarct size in acute focal cerebral ischemia in a mouse model and asiatic acid glycosides can significantly improve neurobehavioral scores. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of asiaticoside in regard to its neural protective mechanism in cerebral ischemia. This study aimed to solve this problem by using an ischemia-hypoxia cell model in vitro. Material/Methods An in vitro ischemia hypoxia cell model was successfully established by primary cultured newborn rat cortical neurons. After being treated by asiaticoside for 24 h, cell survival rate, lactate dehydrogenase release quantity, and B-cell lymphoma gene-2 (BCL-2), Bax, and caspase-3 protein expressions was detected. Results After 10 nmol/L or 100 nmol/L of asiaticoside were given to the cells, cell survival rate increased significantly and presented concentration dependence. Asiaticoside can reduce lactate dehydrogenase release. Lactate dehydrogenase release in model cells is gradually reduced with the increase of asiaticoside concentration. The lactate dehydrogenase release in asiaticoside 10 nmol/L group, asiaticoside 100 nmol/L group and ischemia hypoxia group were 26.75±1.05, 22.36±2.87 and 52.35±5.46%, respectively (p<0.05). It was also found that asiaticoside could modulate the expression of apoptotic factors, including bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. Conclusions Asiaticoside helps to protect in vitro ischemia hypoxia neurons. This nerve cell protection may be mediated by the BCL-2 protein. PMID:26447863

  3. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by agmatine after transient global cerebral ischemia in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chin Hee; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2010-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a protective role in cerebral ischemia by maintaining vascular permeability, whereas NO derived from neuronal and inducible NOS is neurotoxic and can participate in neuronal damage occurring in ischemia. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are up-regulated by ischemic injury and degrade the basement membrane if brain vessels to promote cell death and tissue injury. We previously reported that agmatine, synthesized from L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) which is expressed in endothelial cells, has shown a direct increased eNOS expression and decreased MMPs expression in bEnd3 cells. But, there are few reports about the regulation of eNOS by agmatine in ischemic animal model. In the present study, we examined the expression of eNOS and MMPs by agmatine treatment after transient global ischemia in vivo. Global ischemia was induced with four vessel occlusion (4-VO) and agmatine (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion. The animals were euthanized at 6 and 24 hours after global ischemia and prepared for other analysis. Global ischemia led severe neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex, but agmatine treatment protected neurons from ischemic injury. Moreover, the level and expression of eNOS was increased by agmatine treatment, whereas inducible NOS (iNOS) and MMP-9 protein expressions were decreased in the brain. These results suggest that agmatine protects microvessels in the brain by activation eNOS as well as reduces extracellular matrix degradation during the early phase of ischemic insult.

  4. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by agmatine after transient global cerebral ischemia in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chin Hee; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2010-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a protective role in cerebral ischemia by maintaining vascular permeability, whereas NO derived from neuronal and inducible NOS is neurotoxic and can participate in neuronal damage occurring in ischemia. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are up-regulated by ischemic injury and degrade the basement membrane if brain vessels to promote cell death and tissue injury. We previously reported that agmatine, synthesized from L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) which is expressed in endothelial cells, has shown a direct increased eNOS expression and decreased MMPs expression in bEnd3 cells. But, there are few reports about the regulation of eNOS by agmatine in ischemic animal model. In the present study, we examined the expression of eNOS and MMPs by agmatine treatment after transient global ischemia in vivo. Global ischemia was induced with four vessel occlusion (4-VO) and agmatine (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion. The animals were euthanized at 6 and 24 hours after global ischemia and prepared for other analysis. Global ischemia led severe neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex, but agmatine treatment protected neurons from ischemic injury. Moreover, the level and expression of eNOS was increased by agmatine treatment, whereas inducible NOS (iNOS) and MMP-9 protein expressions were decreased in the brain. These results suggest that agmatine protects microvessels in the brain by activation eNOS as well as reduces extracellular matrix degradation during the early phase of ischemic insult. PMID:21212863

  5. Alleviation of ischemia-induced brain edema by activation of the central histaminergic system in rats.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Yumi; Adachi, Naoto; Liu, Keyue; Arai, Tatsuru; Nagaro, Takumi

    2008-09-01

    We have reported that facilitation of central histaminergic activity prevents the development of ischemia-induced brain injury. Since cerebral edema is a major cause of brain damage, we studied effects on brain edema of postischemic administration of L-histidine, a precursor of histamine, and thioperamide, a histamine H(3)-receptor antagonist, both of which enhance central histaminergic activity. Focal cerebral ischemia for 2 h was provoked by transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in rats, and the water content and infarct size were determined 24 h after reperfusion. Changes in the extracellular concentration of histamine were examined in the striatum by a microdialysis procedure, and effects of these compounds were evaluated. Repeated administration of L-histidine (1000 mg/kg x 2, i.p.), immediately and 6 h after reperfusion, reduced the increase in the water contents in ischemic regions. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide (5 mg/kg, s.c.) with L-histidine (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) completely prevented edema formation and alleviated brain infarction, although a single dose of L-histidine, immediately after reperfusion, showed no benefits. The striatal histamine level was gradually increased after reperfusion as well as during ischemia. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide with L-histidine markedly increased the brain histamine concentration, and the value increased up to 230% of that in the saline group 5 - 6 h after reperfusion. L-Histidine alone did not affect the increase in the histamine output after ischemia. These findings suggest that further activation of the central histaminergic system after initiation of cerebral ischemia prevents development of ischemia-induced brain edema.

  6. Protective effects of Echium amoenum Fisch. and C.A. Mey. against cerebral ischemia in the rats

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Tameh, Abolfazl Azami; Ghannadi, Alireza; Naghani, Elmira Akbari; Tavazoei, Hamed; Alavi, Samaneh Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Echium amoenum total anthocyanin extract (ETAE) on partial/transient cerebral ischemia in the rats. Materials and Methods: Rats received ETAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the induction of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min, followed by 72 h reperfusion. The neurological deficit, brain performance, and sensory motor function were assessed 48 h and 72 h after surgery. After sacrification, the brains were evaluated for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathological changes. Results: Our results showed that motor function significantly decreased in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group as compared to the sham group. Histopathological analysis exhibited the shrinkage and atrophy of the neurons in I/R group. ETAE at the dose of 200 mg/kg improved spontaneous activity and memory induced by cerebral ischemia compared to the control group and also decreased brain MPO activity following cerebral ischemia. However, it could not affect the ability to climbing, body proprioception, vibrissae touch and brain water content. In addition, pretreatment with ETAE at higher doses significantly reduced ischemia-induced neuronal loss of the brain. Conclusion: The anthocyanin rich fraction from E. amoenum was found to have protective effects against some brain damages postischemic reperfusion. However, further researches are required for investigating the exact mechanisms of the effect of this plant in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in human. PMID:26261809

  7. Effects of ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ay, Yasin; Kara, Ibrahim; Aydin, Cemalettin; Ay, Nuray Kahraman; Teker, Melike Elif; Senol, Serkan; Inan, Bekir; Basel, Halil; Uysal, Omer; Zeybek, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of cardiac ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on reperfusion damage in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. 38 male Wistar Albino rats used in this study were divided into 5 groups. The control group (Group 1) (n=6), ischemia/reperfusion (IR) group (Group 2) (n=8), cardiac ischemic preconditioning (CIP) group (Group 3) (n=8), iloprost (ILO) group (Group 4) (n=8), and cardiac ischemic preconditioning + iloprost (CIP+ILO) group (Group 5) (n=8). Pre-ischemia, 15 minutes post-ischemia, 45 minutes post-reperfusion, mean blood pressure (MBP), and heart rates (HR) were recorded. The rate-pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Post-reperfusion plasma creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin (cTn) vlaues, and infarct size/area at risk (IS/AAR) were calculated from myocardial tissue samples. Arrhythmia and ST segment elevations were evaluated during the ischemia and reperfusion stages. Although the MBP, HR, RPP values, biochemical parameters of CK-MB and LDH levels, IS/AAR rates, ST segment elevation values were found to be similar in CIP and CIP+ILO groups and the IR and ILO groups (p>0.05), CIP-containing group values had a positively meaningful difference (p<0.05) compared with the IR and ILO group. While mild-moderate findings of damage were observed in Group 3 and Group 5, severely findings of damage were releaved in Group 2 and Group 4. The arrhythmia score of the ILO group was meaningfully lower (F: 41.4, p<0.001) than the IR group. We can conclude that the effects of myocardial reperfusion damage can be reduced by cardiac ischemic preconditioning, intravenous iloprost reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia associated with reperfusion, and its use with CIP caused no additional changes.

  8. Effects of ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ay, Yasin; Kara, Ibrahim; Aydin, Cemalettin; Ay, Nuray Kahraman; Teker, Melike Elif; Senol, Serkan; Inan, Bekir; Basel, Halil; Uysal, Omer; Zeybek, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of cardiac ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on reperfusion damage in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. 38 male Wistar Albino rats used in this study were divided into 5 groups. The control group (Group 1) (n=6), ischemia/reperfusion (IR) group (Group 2) (n=8), cardiac ischemic preconditioning (CIP) group (Group 3) (n=8), iloprost (ILO) group (Group 4) (n=8), and cardiac ischemic preconditioning + iloprost (CIP+ILO) group (Group 5) (n=8). Pre-ischemia, 15 minutes post-ischemia, 45 minutes post-reperfusion, mean blood pressure (MBP), and heart rates (HR) were recorded. The rate-pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Post-reperfusion plasma creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin (cTn) vlaues, and infarct size/area at risk (IS/AAR) were calculated from myocardial tissue samples. Arrhythmia and ST segment elevations were evaluated during the ischemia and reperfusion stages. Although the MBP, HR, RPP values, biochemical parameters of CK-MB and LDH levels, IS/AAR rates, ST segment elevation values were found to be similar in CIP and CIP+ILO groups and the IR and ILO groups (p>0.05), CIP-containing group values had a positively meaningful difference (p<0.05) compared with the IR and ILO group. While mild-moderate findings of damage were observed in Group 3 and Group 5, severely findings of damage were releaved in Group 2 and Group 4. The arrhythmia score of the ILO group was meaningfully lower (F: 41.4, p<0.001) than the IR group. We can conclude that the effects of myocardial reperfusion damage can be reduced by cardiac ischemic preconditioning, intravenous iloprost reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia associated with reperfusion, and its use with CIP caused no additional changes. PMID:23936589

  9. Inhibition of KV7 Channels Protects the Rat Heart against Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Johnsen, Jacob; Povlsen, Jonas A; Jespersen, Nichlas R; Shanmuganathan, Jeffrey A; Laursen, Mia R; Kristiansen, Steen B; Simonsen, Ulf; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-04-01

    The voltage-gated KV7 (KCNQ) potassium channels are activated by ischemia and involved in hypoxic vasodilatation. We investigated the effect of KV7 channel modulation on cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury and its interaction with cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of KV7.1, KV7.4, and KV7.5 in the left anterior descending rat coronary artery and all KV7 subtypes (KV7.1-KV7.5) in the left and right ventricles of the heart. Isolated hearts were subjected to no-flow global ischemia and reperfusion with and without IPC. Infarct size was quantified by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Two blockers of KV7 channels, XE991 [10,10-bis(4-pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone] (10 µM) and linopirdine (10 µM), reduced infarct size and exerted additive infarct reduction to IPC. An opener of KV7 channels, flupirtine (10 µM) abolished infarct size reduction by IPC. Hemodynamics were measured using a catheter inserted in the left ventricle and postischemic left ventricular recovery improved in accordance with reduction of infarct size and deteriorated with increased infarct size. XE991 (10 µM) reduced coronary flow in the reperfusion phase and inhibited vasodilatation in isolated small branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery during both simulated ischemia and reoxygenation. KV7 channels are expressed in rat coronary arteries and myocardium. Inhibition of KV7 channels exerts cardioprotection and opening of KV7 channels abrogates cardioprotection by IPC. Although safety issues should be further addressed, our findings suggest a potential role for KV7 blockers in the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26869667

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates early apoptosis after spinal cord ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Wenxian; Kang, Zhimin; Liu, Yun; Deng, Xiaoming; Tao, Hengyi; Xu, Weigang; Li, Runping; Sun, Xuejun; Zhang, John H

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that spinal cord ischemic tolerance induced by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) is mediated by inhibition of early apoptosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were preconditioned with consecutive 4 cycles of 1-h HBO exposures (2.5 atmospheres absolute [ATA], 100% O(2)) at a 12-h interval. At 24 h after the last HBO pretreatment, rats underwent 9 min of spinal cord ischemia induced by occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta in combination with systemic hypotension (40 mmHg). Spinal cord ischemia produced marked neuronal death and neurological dysfunction in animals. HBO-PC enhanced activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase, as well as the expression of Bcl-2 in the mitochondria in the normal spinal cord at 24 h after the last pretreatment (before spinal cord ischemia), and retained higher levels throughout the early reperfusion in the ischemic spinal cord. In parallel, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels in mitochondria were decreased, cytochrome c release into the cytosol was reduced at 1 h after reperfusion, and activation of caspase-3 and -9 was subsequently attenuated. HBO-PC improved neurobehavioral scores and reduced neuronal apoptosis in the anterior, intermediate, and dorsal gray matter of lumbar segment at 24 h after spinal cord ischemia. HBO-PC increased nitric oxide (NO) production. L-nitroarginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg), a nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, applied before each HBO-PC protocol abolished these beneficial effects of HBO-PC. We conclude that HBO-PC reduced spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury by increasing Mn-SOD, catalase, and Bcl-2, and by suppressing mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. NO may be involved in this neuroprotection. PMID:19196076

  11. [Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Jiang, Xin-Ying; Ma, Xing; Gu, Shu-Ling; Dai, Ti-Jun

    2007-08-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor (GHBR) on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats and its mechanism. NCS-356 (the agonist of GHBR) and NCS-382 (the antagonist of GHBR) were adopted as the tool medicine. The ripe male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 240 - 280 g were randomly divided into seven groups: sham operation group (sham), ischemia-reperfusion group (Isc/R), NCS-356 160 microg x kg(-1) group (N1), NCS-356 320 microg x kg(-1) group (N2), NCS-356 640 microg x kg(-1) group (N3), NCS-382 640 microg x kg(-1) + NCS-356 640 microg x kg(-1) group (NCS-382 + N3), and nimodipine (Nim) 600 microg x kg(-1) group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model referring to Longa's method with modifications was adopted. The effect of GHBR on behavioral consequence of MCAO rats was studied after 2 h of ischemia-reperfusion. After 24 h of ischemia-reperfusion, part of animals were used to measure the cerebral infarction volume by TTC staining; ischemic cortex of another part of animals were used to measure the content of intracellular free calcium by flow cytometry, the tNOS, iNOS activity and the content of NO by spectrophotometric method, the content of cGMP by radioimmunoassay. The neurological function score and infarction volume rate in Isc/R group rats increased significantly than that in sham group; The content of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]) of cortex neuron and cGMP, the activities of tNOS and iNOS, and the content of NO in Isc/R group were higher than that in sham group obviously (P < 0.01); These consequence we mentioned of N1, N2, N3 and Nim group were lower than that of Isc/R. NCS-382 + N3 group could significantly antagonize the above effect of N3. Thus, NCS-356 has protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury by activating GHBR. The neuroprotective effect of GHBR is related with decreasing the content of [Ca2+]i, NO, cGMP and tNOS, iNOS activity in MCAO rats.

  12. In vivo imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission after transient focal ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Abraham; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; San Sebastián, Eneko; Padró, Daniel; Markuerkiaga, Irati; Llarena, Irantzu; Llop, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The precise biologic mechanisms involved in functional recovery processes in response to stroke such as dopaminergic neurotransmission are still largely unknown. For this purpose, we performed in parallel in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) and [11C]raclopride at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. In the ischemic territory, PET [18F]FDG showed a initial decrease in cerebral metabolism followed by a time-dependent recovery to quasi-normal values at day 14 after ischemia. The PET with [11C]raclopride, a ligand for dopamine D2 receptor, showed a sustained binding during the first week after ischemia that declined dramatically from day 14 to day 28. Interestingly, a slight increase in [11C]raclopride binding was observed at days 1 to 3 followed by the uppermost binding at day 7 in the contralateral territory. Likewise, in vitro autoradiography using [3H]raclopride confirmed these in vivo results. Finally, the neurologic test showed major neurologic impairment at day 1 followed by a recovery of the cerebral function at day 28 after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, these results might suggest that dopamine D2 receptor changes in the contralateral hemisphere could have a key role in functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. PMID:23149560

  13. Effects of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 on cerebral ischemia rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangyi; Wang, Tao; Wang, Tinging; Song, Jinming; Zhou, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    Neuron apoptosis is known to mediate a change of ethology following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Additionally, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins may exert a significant effect on neuron injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role, mechanism of action and clinical significance of these proteins in neuron apoptosis and functional impairment following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Sixty male healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (n=6), sham operation (n=6) and experimental (n=48) groups. The model of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was set up according to the method of Zea-Longa. Eight subsets of 6 rats-subset were designed according to time points (at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h and at 3, 7 and 14 days). Nerve functional injury was evaluated and graded using nerve function score, balance, coordination function detection and measurement of forelimb placing. The neurons expressing caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in the cortical area, CA3, CA1, stratum lucidum (Slu) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (MoDG) of the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemistry or the TUNEL method. The expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes was detected by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that, compared to the sham operation group, the score of nerve function and balance beam walking were distinctly higher (P<0.01) and the percentage of rat foreleg touching the angle or margin of the table was significantly lower in the experimental rat group (P<0.01) at 3 h following reperfusion. The expression of TUNEL-positive neurons was high in the cortical area and the CA3 region of the hippocampus (P<0.01), caspase-3 was at peak value in the cortical area and the CA1 region of the hippocampus (P<0.01), Bax was increased in the cortical area and the Slu of the hippocampus (P<0.01) and Bcl-2 was low in the cortical area and the MoDG of the hippocampus (P<0.01) in

  14. Solasodine protects rat brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury through its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tejas; Airao, Vishal; Panara, Nimesh; Vaishnav, Devendra; Ranpariya, Vishavas; Sheth, Navin; Parmar, Sachin

    2014-02-15

    Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The major limitation of stroke management is the lack of clinically effective therapy. Antioxidants have been demonstrated as potent neuroprotective agents by enhancing the defense mechanism(s), whereas reducing the oxidative stress in the ischemic stroke models. In the present study, we evaluated neuroprotective potential of solasodine, an antioxidant glycoalkaloid of Solanum species, against global model of ischemia in rats. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury produced marked elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO), whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in experimental animals. Prior administration of solasodine (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) significantly heightened SOD, CAT, GSH and total thiols, whereas reduced LPO and NO levels in the brain. Interestingly, brain coronal sectioning and histopathology studies revealed a marked reversal of I/R-provoked neuronal damage in the solasodine treatment groups. Taken together, our study, for the first time, demonstrates neuroprotective potential of solasodine against global ischemia-induced cerebral injury in experimental rats. We propose that the neuroprotection offered by solasodine could be attributed, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant property. PMID:24444441

  15. Ouabain Contributes to Kidney Damage in a Rat Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Luca; Buono, Roberta; Ferrandi, Mara; Molinari, Isabella; Benigni, Fabio; Bettiga, Arianna; Colciago, Giorgia; Ikehata, Masami; Messaggio, Elisabetta; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Manunta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Warm renal ischemia performed during partial nephrectomy has been found to be associated with kidney disease. Since endogenous ouabain (EO) is a neuro-endocrine hormone involved in renal damage, we evaluated the role of EO in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We measured plasma and renal EO variations and markers of glomerular and tubular damage (nephrin, KIM-1, Kidney-Injury-Molecule-1, α1 Na-K ATPase) and the protective effect of the ouabain inhibitor, rostafuroxin. We studied five groups of rats: (1) normal; (2) infused for eight weeks with ouabain (30 µg/kg/day, OHR) or (3) saline; (4) ouabain; or (5) saline-infused rats orally treated with 100 µg/kg/day rostafuroxin for four weeks. In group 1, 2–3 h after IRI, EO increased in ischemic kidneys while decreased in plasma. Nephrin progressively decreased and KIM-1 mRNA increased starting from 24 h. Ouabain infusion (group 2) increased blood pressure (from 111.7 to 153.4 mmHg) and ouabain levels in plasma and kidneys. In OHR ischemic kidneys at 120 h from IRI, nephrin, and KIM-1 changes were greater than those detected in the controls infused with saline (group 3). All these changes were blunted by rostafuroxin treatment (groups 4 and 5). These findings support the role of EO in IRI and suggest that rostafuroxin pre-treatment of patients before partial nephrectomy with warm ischemia may reduce IRI, particularly in those with high EO. PMID:27754425

  16. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian; Shahzamani, Mehran; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Allahverdi, Amin; Khansari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. Objective This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Methods Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. Conclusion From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model. PMID:26039663

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms in the Model of Global Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Correia, Alyne Oliveira; Mendonça, Francisco Nilson Maciel; Uchoa, Luiz Ricardo Araújo; Vasconcelos, Jessica Tamara Nunes; de Araújo, Carlos Ney Alencar; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Siqueira, Rafaelly Maria Pinheiro; Cerqueira, Gilberto Dos Santos; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Arida, Ricardo Mário; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Background. Omega-3 (ω3) administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of ω3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min), followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with ω3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days). The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administration, they were behaviorally tested and euthanized for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and NE determinations), histological (Fluoro jade staining), and immunohistochemical (TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS) evaluations. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as the post hoc test. Results. Ischemia increased the locomotor activity and rearing behavior that were partly reversed by ω3. Ischemia decreased striatal DA and DOPAC contents and increased NE contents, effects reversed by ω3. This drug protected hippocampal neuron degeneration, as observed by Fluoro-Jade staining, and the increased immunostainings for TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS were partly or totally blocked by ω3. Conclusion. This study showed a neuroprotective effect of ω3, in great part due to its anti-inflammatory properties, stimulating translational studies focusing on its use in clinic for stroke managing. PMID:27313881

  18. Extended normobaric hyperoxia therapy yields greater neuroprotection for focal transient ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) therapy is neuroprotective in acute ischemic stroke. However, how long the NBO should last to obtain optimal outcome is still unclear. Reports show that ischemic penumbra blood supply may remain compromised for a long period after ischemia-reperfusion, which would impair tissue oxygenation in ischemic penumbra. Therefore, we hypothesized that longer-lasting NBO may yield greater neuroprotection. Methods The relationship between treatment outcome and NBO duration was examined in this study. Rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 22.5 hours. NBO started at 30 min post ischemia and lasted for 2, 4 or 8 h. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by measuring infarction volume, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Results Among 2 h, 4 h and 8 h NBO, 8 h NBO offered the greatest efficacy in reducing 24-hour infarction volume, attenuating oxidative stress that was indicated by decreased production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91phox, and alleviating apoptosis that was associated with reduced production of DNA fragment and caspase-3 activity in cortex penumbra. Conclusions Under our experimental conditions, longer duration of NBO treatment produced greater benefits in focal transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats. PMID:25177481

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Isosteviol Sodium Injection on Acute Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui; Sun, Xiao ou; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qing; Tan, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Previous report has indicated that isosteviol has neuroprotective effects. However, isosteviol was administered preventively before ischemia and the inclusion criteria were limited. In the present study, a more soluble and injectable form of isosteviol sodium (STVNA) was administered intravenously hours after transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or pMCAO) to investigate its neuroprotective effects in rats. The rats were assessed for neurobehavioral deficits 24 hours after ischemia and sacrificed for infarct volume quantification and histology evaluation. STVNA 10 mg·kg−1 can significantly reduce the infarct volumes compared with vehicle in animals subjected to tMCAO and is twice as potent as previously reported. Additionally, the therapeutic window study showed that STVNA could reduce the infarct volume compared with the vehicle group when administered 4 hours after reperfusion. A similar effect was also observed in animals treated 4 hours after pMCAO. Assessment of neurobehavioral deficits after 24 hours showed that STVNA treatment significantly reduced neurobehavioral impairments. The number of restored NeuN-labeled neurons was increased and the number of TUNEL positive cells was reduced in animals that received STVNA treatment compared with vehicle group. All of these findings suggest that STVNA might provide therapeutic benefits against cerebral ischemia-induced injury. PMID:27047634

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms in the Model of Global Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Alyne Oliveira; Mendonça, Francisco Nilson Maciel; Uchoa, Luiz Ricardo Araújo; Vasconcelos, Jessica Tamara Nunes; de Araújo, Carlos Ney Alencar; Siqueira, Rafaelly Maria Pinheiro; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Arida, Ricardo Mário

    2016-01-01

    Background. Omega-3 (ω3) administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of ω3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min), followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with ω3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days). The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administration, they were behaviorally tested and euthanized for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and NE determinations), histological (Fluoro jade staining), and immunohistochemical (TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS) evaluations. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as the post hoc test. Results. Ischemia increased the locomotor activity and rearing behavior that were partly reversed by ω3. Ischemia decreased striatal DA and DOPAC contents and increased NE contents, effects reversed by ω3. This drug protected hippocampal neuron degeneration, as observed by Fluoro-Jade staining, and the increased immunostainings for TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS were partly or totally blocked by ω3. Conclusion. This study showed a neuroprotective effect of ω3, in great part due to its anti-inflammatory properties, stimulating translational studies focusing on its use in clinic for stroke managing. PMID:27313881

  1. Effect of tramadol on behavioral alterations and lipid peroxidation after transient forebrain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagakannan, Pandian; Shivasharan, Basavaraj D; Thippeswamy, Boreddy S; Veerapur, Veeresh P

    2012-11-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists are proven protective in various animal models of ischemic brain damage. Tramadol, a centrally acting opioid analgesic reportedly possesses NMDA antagonistic and GABA agonistic properties, with additional ion channel blocking activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of tramadol hydrochloride in a rat model of transient forebrain ischemia. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with tramadol hydrochloride at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally for 4 days and were subjected to 30 min occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Impairment in sensorimotor functions was evaluated by beam walking task, spontaneous locomotor activity and hanging wire test. Animals were sacrificed and the brain homogenates were used for estimating the levels of lipid peroxidation, a marker for extent of oxidative stress. Ischemic rats exhibited a significant decrease in locomotion, grip strength and increase in beam walking latency. Tramadol attenuated the post ischemic motor impairment evidenced by improvement in the performance in sensorimotor tests. The extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by tramadol pretreatment which was higher in ischemic control. This study demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of tramadol against transient forebrain ischemia in rats. PMID:22871232

  2. Lutein protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Guo; Qi, Zong-Cai; Liu, Wei-Liang; Wang, Wei-Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury has a major impact on renal dysfunction during transplantation. The present study investigated the role of lutein against I/R injury‑induced oxidative stress in rat kidneys. Biochemical analysis and oxidative stress parameters demonstrated that lutein protected the rat kidney significantly from I/R injury. Pretreatment with lutein significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity with a concomitant decline in the total oxidant status. Rats with I/R injury showed a significant increase in oxidative stress. The results revealed significant increases in the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content with concomitant decreases in enzymic and non‑enzymic antioxidants. The activity of these enzymes was reversed and demonstrated a significant increase following lutein pre‑treatment compared with the rats subjected to I/R injury alone. Furthermore, lutein protected the renal tissue from I/R injury by maintaining normal kidney architecture and led to a reduction in the levels of the renal markers urea and creatinine in the serum. These results demonstrated clear evidence that lutein offered a significant protective effect against I/R injury by enhancing antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of consuming bovine colostrum after focal brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Han Sung; Ko, Young Gwan; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Oh Young; Kim, Sun-Kyu; Cheong, Chul; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrums (BC), we evaluate the ability of consuming BC after focal brain ischemia/reperfusion injury rat model to reduce serum cytokine levels and infarct volume, and improve neurological outcome. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; one sham operation and three experimental groups. In the experimental groups, MCA occlusion (2 h) and subsequent reperfusion (O/R) were induced with regional cerebral blood flow monitoring. One hour after MCAO/R and once daily during the experiment, the experimental group received BC while the other groups received 0.9% saline or low fat milk (LFM) orally. Seven days later, serum pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) levels were assessed. Also, the infarct volume was assessed by using a computerized image analysis system. Behavioral function was also assessed using a modified neurologic severity score and corner turn test during the experiment. Rats receiving BC after focal brain I/R showed a significant reduction (-26%/-22%) in infarct volume compared to LFM/saline rats, respectively (P < 0.05). Serum IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were decreased significantly in rats receiving BC compared to LFM/saline rats (P < 0.05). In behavioral tests, daily BC intake showed consistent and significant improvement of neurological deficits for 7 days after MCAO/R. BC ingestion after focal brain ischemia/reperfusion injury may prevent brain injury by reducing serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and brain infarct volume in a rat model. PMID:20607064

  4. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng

    2014-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:25317156

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow during hypoxia-ischemia in immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vannucci, R.C.; Lyons, D.T.; Vasta, F.

    1988-02-01

    Immature rats subjected to a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia sustain brain damage confined largely to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. To ascertain the extent and distribution of ischemic alterations in the brains of these small animals, we modified the Sakurada technique to measure regional cerebral blood flow using carbon-14 autoradiography. Seven-day-old rats underwent right common carotid artery ligation following which they were rendered hypoxic with 8% O2 at 37 degrees C. Before and during hypoxia, the rat pups received an injection of iodo(/sup 14/C)antipyrine for determination of regional cerebral blood flow. Blood flows to individual structures of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere were not influenced by arterial occlusion alone; flows to the contralateral hemisphere and to the brainstem and cerebellum actually increased by 25-50%. Hypoxia-ischemia was associated with decreases in regional cerebral blood flow of the ipsilateral hemisphere such that by 2 hours, flows to subcortical white matter, neocortex, striatum, and thalamus were 15, 17, 34, and 41% of control, respectively. The hierarchy of the blood flow reductions correlated closely with the distribution and extent of ischemic neuronal necrosis. However, unlike the pathologic pattern of this model, the degree of ischemia appeared homogeneous within each brain region. Blood flows to contralateral cerebral hemispheric structures were relatively unchanged from prehypoxic values, whereas flows to the brainstem and cerebellum nearly doubled and tripled, respectively. Thus, ischemia is the predominant factor that determines the topography of tissue injury to major regions of immature rat brain, whereas metabolic factors may influence the heterogeneous pattern of damage seen within individual structures.

  7. Time course of motor and cognitive functions after chronic cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Thenmoly; Hassan, Zurina; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Ng, Gandi; Müller, Christian P; Liao, Ping; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2014-12-15

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability in aging populations, due to the frequent occurrence of irreversible brain damage and subsequent loss of neuronal function which lead to cognitive impairment and some motor dysfunction. In the present study, the real time course of motor and cognitive functions were evaluated following the chronic cerebral ischemia induced by permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (PBOCCA). Male Sprague Dawley rats (200-300g) were subjected to PBOCCA or sham-operated surgery and tested 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the ischemic insult. The results showed that PBOCCA significantly reduced step-through latency in a passive avoidance task at all time points when compared to the sham-operated group. PBOCCA rats also showed significant increase in escape latencies during training in the Morris water maze, as well as a reduction of the percentage of times spend in target quadrant of the maze at all time points following the occlusion. Importantly, there were no significant changes in locomotor activity between PBOCCA and sham-operated groups. The BDNF expression in the hippocampus was 29.3±3.1% and 40.1±2.6% on day 14 and 28 post PBOCCA, respectively compared to sham-operated group. Present data suggest that the PBOCCA procedure effectively induces behavioral, cognitive symptoms associated with cerebral ischemia and, consequently, provides a valuable model to study ischemia and related neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. PMID:25239606

  8. Sulforaphane exerts neuroprotective effects via suppression of the inflammatory response in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Li; Xing, Guo-Ping; Yu, Yin; Liang, Hui; Yu, Tian-Xia; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Lai, Tian-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory damage plays an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a promising target for treatment. Sulforaphane exerts protective effects in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by alleviating brain edema. However, the possible mechanisms of sulforaphane after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on inflammatory reaction and the potential molecular mechanisms in cerebral ischemia rats. We found that sulforaphane significantly attenuated the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption; decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β; reduced the nitric oxide (NO) levels and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity; inhibited the expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, sulforaphane inhibits the expression of p-NF-κB p65 after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Taken together, our results suggest that sulforaphane suppresses the inflammatory response via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, and sulforaphane may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:26770373

  9. Protective effect of magnesium nitrate against neurological disorders provoked by cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuzenkov, V S; Krushinskii, A L

    2014-10-01

    The study examined effects of inorganic magnesium agents: magnesium nitrate Mg(NO3)2, magnesium sulfate MgSO4, and magnesium chloride MgCl2 on the development of neurological disorders and mortality in rats resulting from cerebral ischemia provoked by a single-stage bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries. The rats were injected with one of examined magnesium preparations (5 mg/1 kg body weight) 1 h prior to or 1-2 sec after occlusion. The control group rats were treated with physiological saline at the same terms. Irrespective of the moment of injection, magnesium nitrate demonstrated significant protective effect on dynamics of neurological disorders and mortality, while similar effects of magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride were insignificant.

  10. Protective effects of honokiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Yaman Tunc, Senem; Agacayak, Elif; Goruk, Neval Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Alabalik, Ulas; Togrul, Cihan; Ekinci, Cenap; Ekinci, Aysun; Gul, Talip

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of honokiol on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary. Materials and methods A total of 40 female Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: sham (Group I), torsion (Group II), torsion + detorsion (Group III), torsion + detorsion + saline (Group IV), and torsion + detorsion + honokiol (Group V). Bilateral adnexa in all the rats except for those in the sham group were exposed to torsion for 3 hours. The rats in Group IV were administered saline, whereas the rats in Group V were administered honokiol by intraperitoneal route 30 minutes before detorsion. Tissue and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were determined. Ovarian tissue was histologically evaluated. Data analyses were performed by means of Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test (Bonferroni correction) in SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The torsion and detorsion groups had higher scores in vascular congestion, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the sham group (P<0.005). In addition, total histopathological scores were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham group (P<0.005). A significant reduction was observed in hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cellular degeneration scores, of all histopathological scores, in the honokiol group (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, on the other hand, were significantly higher in the torsion group compared with the sham, saline, and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Conclusion Honokiol has a beneficial effect on ovarian torsion-related ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27022246

  11. Effect of remote ischemic postconditioning in inflammatory changes of the lung parenchyma of rats submitted to ischemia and reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Dorsa, Rafael Cantero; Pontes, José Carlos Dorsa Vieira; Antoniolli, Andréia Conceição Brochado; da Silva, Guilherme Viotto Rodrigues; Benfatti, Ricardo Adala; dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Marques; Pontes, Elenir Rose Cury; Goldiano, José Anderson Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of postconditioning remote in ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat lungs. Methods Wistar rats (n=24) divided into 3 groups: GA (I/R) n=8, GB (R-Po) n=8, CG (control) n=8, underwent ischemia for 30 minutes artery occlusion abdominal aorta, followed by reperfusion for 60 minutes. Resected lungs and performed histological analysis and classification of morphological findings in accordance with the degree of tissue injury. Statistical analysis of the mean rating of the degree of tissue injury. Results GA (3.6), GB (1.3) and CG (1.0). (GA GB X P<0.05). Conclusion The remote postconditioning was able to minimize the inflammatory lesion of the lung parenchyma of rats undergoing ischemia and reperfusion process. PMID:26313726

  12. Metallothionein-II Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation and Improves Functional Recovery after Transient Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Vacio-Adame, Patricia; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    After transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), damaging mechanisms, such as excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, lead to irreversible neurological deficits. The induction of metallothionein-II (MT-II) protein is an endogenous mechanism after I/R. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of MT-II after I/R in rats. Male Wistar rats were transiently occluded at the middle cerebral artery for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. Rats received either MT (10 μg per rat i.p.) or vehicle after ischemia. Lipid peroxidation (LP) was measured 22 h after reperfusion in frontal cortex and hippocampus; also, neurological deficit was evaluated after ischemia, using the Longa scoring scale. Infarction area was analyzed 72 hours after ischemia. Results showed increased LP in frontal cortex (30.7%) and hippocampus (26.4%), as compared to control group; this effect was fully reversed by MT treatment. Likewise, we also observed a diminished neurological deficit assessed by the Longa scale in those animals treated with MT compared to control group values. The MT-treated group showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of 39.9% in the infarction area, only at the level of hippocampus, as compared to control group. Results suggest that MT-II may be a novel neuroprotective treatment to prevent ischemia injury. PMID:24719677

  13. Protective effects of fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Youssef, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major aim of this work was to study the protective effects of fish oil (FO), allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in experimental rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as a negative control. Group 2 served as hepatic IR control injury. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received N-acetylcysteine (standard), FO, allopurinol, and verapamil, respectively, for 3 consecutive days prior to ischemia. All animals were fasted for 12 h, anesthetized and underwent midline laparotomy. The portal triads were clamped by mini-artery clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities as well as hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, and total nitrate/nitrite levels, in addition to histopathological examination. Results: Fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil reduced hepatic IR injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. FO and verapamil markedly reduced oxidative stress as compared to control IR injury. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers in liver were also reduced after treatment with FO, allopurinol, or verapamil. In accordance, a marked improvement of histopathological findings was observed with all of the three treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study prove the benefits of FO, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic IR-induced liver injury and are promising for further clinical trials. PMID:26283828

  14. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  15. Protective effect of the traditional Chinese medicine xuesaitong on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Li, Dengxiao; Gao, Hong; Gao, Yuejin; Zhang, Long; Du, Yuling; Wu, Jian; Gao, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effect of xuesaitong on intestinal barrier dysfunction and related mechanisms in a rat model for intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Methods: Rats were divided into sham-operated, disease-model and Xuesaitong-treated groups. In the disease-model and Xuesaitong-treated rats an intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model was introduced, which was created by a temporary obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The xuesaitong group was pre-treated with injections into the abdominal cavity prior to the generation of the IRI model. Tissue changes were evaluated using H&E staining and electron microscopy. Samples were analyzed at 0, 3 and 24 h post IRI. Ascites volumes as well as small intestinal mucosa bleeding, injury scores, wet to dry weight ratios, and propulsions were evaluated. Apoptotic rates were determined with TUNNEL assays. Blood serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured using ELISA, and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression in small intestinal mucosa measured using immunohistochemistry. Results: We determined a significant increase of pathological damage to small intestinal tissues, intestinal wet to dry ratios, ascites volume, TNF-α levels, apoptosis rates of small intestinal mucosa, and expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 proteins in the disease-model group compared to the sham-operated group (P < 0.001), and intestinal motility was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). However, comparisons between disease-model and xuesaitong pre-treated animals revealed, that in the treatment group these changes occurred in significant less severities. Conclusions: Xuesaitong can effectively alleviate intestinal barrier dysfunction caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing TNF-α, up-regulating Bcl-2 and down-regulating caspase-3 expression, in addition to increasing peristalsis. PMID:25932105

  16. Effects of Ukrain on intestinal apoptosis caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akcılar, Raziye; Akcılar, Aydın; Koçak, Cengiz; Koçak, Fatma Emel; Bayat, Zeynep; Şimşek, Hasan; Şahin, Server; Savran, Bircan

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the antiapoptotic effect of Ukrain on intestinal lesion induced by mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: laparotomy (L), I/R, and Ukrain and I/R (U + I/R). In the U + I/R group, Ukrain (7 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal at the beginning of the study. 1 h after ukrain application, ischemia was induced for 30 minutes, and reperfusion was subsequently allowed for 120 minutes in the I/R and U + I/R groups. Rats were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and intestinal tissues were collected for biochemical and molecular examination. Intestinal tissues caspase 3 protein were assayed. Serum Bcl-xL and iNOS were measured. The expression level of caspase-3, Bcl-xL and iNOS in intestinal tissue of rats were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Levels of serum iNOS and mRNA expression were increased in the I/R and decreased in the U + I/R group. In addition, levels of the proapoptotic gene caspase-3 protein and mRNA expression were increased in the I/R and decreased in the U + I/R group. Levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-xL serum and mRNA expression were increased in the U + I/R group. Conclusions: Ukrain can reduce the ischemia-reperfusion injury in the intestinal tissue by inhibiting the cell apoptosis. The mechanism may be correlated with increased Bcl-xL mRNA expressions and decreased mRNA expressions of Caspase-3 and iNOS. PMID:26885190

  17. Dissecting the Effects of Ischemia and Reperfusion on the Coronary Microcirculation in a Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Maurits R.; de Waard, Guus A.; Konijnenberg, Lara S. F.; Meijer-van Putten, Rosalie M. E.; van den Brom, Charissa E.; Paauw, Nanne; de Vries, Helga E.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Aman, Jurjan; Van Nieuw-Amerongen, Geerten P.; Hordijk, Peter L.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Van Royen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background Microvascular injury (MVI) after coronary ischemia-reperfusion is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Both ischemia and reperfusion are involved in MVI, but to what degree these phases contribute is unknown. Understanding the etiology is essential for the development of new potential therapies. Methods and Findings Rats were divided into 3 groups receiving either 30 minutes ischemia, 90 minutes ischemia or 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion. Subsequently hearts were ex-vivo perfused in a Langendorff-model. Fluorescence and electron microscopy was used for analysis of capillary density, vascular permeability and ultrastructure. Most MVI was observed after 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion. In comparison to the 30’ and 90’ ischemia group, wall thickness decreased (207.0±74 vs 407.8±75 and 407.5±71, p = 0.02). Endothelial nuclei in the 30’-60’ group showed irreversible damage and decreased chromatin density variation (50.5±9.4, 35.4±7.1 and 23.7±3.8, p = 0.03). Cell junction density was lowest in the 30’-60’ group (0.15±0.02 vs 2.5±0.6 and 1.8±0.7, p<0.01). Microsphere extravasation was increased in both the 90’ ischemia and 30’-60’ group. Conclusions Ischemia alone for 90 minutes induces mild morphological changes to the coronary microcirculation, with increased vascular permeability. Ischemia for 30 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion, induces massive MVI. This shows the direct consequences of reperfusion on the coronary microcirculation. These data imply that a therapeutic window exists to protect the microcirculation directly upon coronary revascularization. PMID:27391645

  18. Hydrogen sulfide improves cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Gang; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Cheng-Xing; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by cystanthionine-γ-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, is an endogenous gaseous mediator exerting pronounced physiological effects as the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Accumulating evidence indicated that H2S could mediate the cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia model. Ventricular arrhythmia is the most important risk factor for cardiac mortality and sudden death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The potential impact of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemic insult is not fully explored now. Present study investigated the role of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. H2S concentration was reduced and arrhythmia score was increased in this model. CSE mRNA level was also upregulated in the ischemic myocardium. Exposure to exogenous NaHS reduced the action potential duration (APD), inhibited L-type Ca(2+) channels and activated K(ATP) channels in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium Exogenous H2S application improves electrical remodeling in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium. These results indicated that reduced H2S level might be linked to ischemia/reperfusion induced arrhythmias. PMID:25755736

  19. Hydrogen sulfide improves cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying-Gang; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Cheng-Xing; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by cystanthionine-γ-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, is an endogenous gaseous mediator exerting pronounced physiological effects as the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Accumulating evidence indicated that H2S could mediate the cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia model. Ventricular arrhythmia is the most important risk factor for cardiac mortality and sudden death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The potential impact of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemic insult is not fully explored now. Present study investigated the role of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. H2S concentration was reduced and arrhythmia score was increased in this model. CSE mRNA level was also upregulated in the ischemic myocardium. Exposure to exogenous NaHS reduced the action potential duration (APD), inhibited L-type Ca2+ channels and activated KATP channels in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium Exogenous H2S application improves electrical remodeling in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium. These results indicated that reduced H2S level might be linked to ischemia/reperfusion induced arrhythmias. PMID:25755736

  20. Attenuation of post-ischemia reperfusion injury by thaliporphine and morphine in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Luen; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Su, Ming-Jai

    2005-01-01

    Pretreatment with thaliporphine before ischemia affords cardioprotective effects against reperfusion injury via antioxidant activity. This study evaluated whether thaliporphine administered at a certain period after myocardial ischemia conferred the same cardioprotection and assessed its possible new mechanism. The left main coronary artery of anaesthetized rats was occluded for 1 h and then reperfused for 2 h. Thaliporphine was administered at 10 min before reperfusion. Controls received saline only. Morphine, a nonselective opioid receptor agonist, was used as reference compound at 0.3 mg/kg. Thaliporphine at 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg were found to reduce the infarct size. Recovery of cardiac function was higher in thaliporphine (0.5 mg/kg) group, as assessed by a significant improvement in the rates of pressure development (+dp/dt (max)). This compound also reduced plasma creatine kinase and cardiac MPO activity. These protective effects afforded by thaliporphine were diminished by the opioid receptor antagonists (naloxone or naltrexone) and by the mitochondrial K(ATP) blocker 5HD. In comparison, morphine reduced infarct size and MPO activity in the myocardium but produced slightly improvement in cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion. These results demonstrate that reperfusion therapy with thaliporphine protect cardiac injury through further mechanism via activation of opioid receptor and opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels as morphine but with stronger activity. PMID:16132108

  1. Purinergic component in the coronary vasodilatation to acetylcholine after ischemia-reperfusion in perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalón, Ángel Luis; Granado, Miriam; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Carreño-Tarragona, Gonzalo; Amor, Sara

    2014-01-01

    To determine the involvement of purinergic receptors in coronary endothelium-dependent relaxation, the response to acetylcholine (1 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-7)M) was recorded in isolated rat hearts perfused according to the Langendorff procedure before and after 30 min of ischemia and 15 min of reperfusion and after the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with L-NAME (10(-4)M), in the absence and presence of the antagonist of purinergic P2X receptors, PPADS (3 × 10(-6)M), and of the antagonist of purinergic P2Y receptors, Reactive Blue 2 (3 × 10(-7)M). In control conditions, the relaxation to acetylcholine was not altered by PPADS or Reactive Blue 2. The relaxation to acetylcholine was reduced after ischemia-reperfusion, and, in this condition, it was further reduced by treatment with PPADS or Reactive Blue 2. Likewise, the relaxation to acetylcholine was reduced by L-NAME, and reduced further by Reactive Blue 2 but not by PPADS. These results suggest that the relaxation to acetylcholine may be partly mediated by purinergic receptors after ischemia-reperfusion, due to the reduction of nitric oxide release in this condition.

  2. Secretomes of apoptotic mononuclear cells ameliorate neurological damage in rats with focal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Patrick; Mildner, Michael; Haider, Thomas; Traxler, Denise; Beer, Lucian; Ristl, Robin; Golabi, Bahar; Gabriel, Christian; Leutmezer, Fritz; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of targeting multiple pathways in the ischemic cascade of cerebral stroke is a promising treatment option. We examined the regenerative potential of conditioned medium derived from rat and human apoptotic mononuclear cells (MNC), rMNC apo sec and hMNC apo sec, in experimental stroke. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion on Wistar rats and administered apoptotic MNC-secretomes intraperitoneally in two experimental settings. Ischemic lesion volumes were determined 48 hours after cerebral ischemia. Neurological evaluations were performed after 6, 24 and 48 hours. Immunoblots were conducted to analyze neuroprotective signal-transduction in human primary glia cells and neurons. Neuronal sprouting assays were performed and neurotrophic factors in both hMNC apo sec and rat plasma were quantified using ELISA. Administration of rat as well as human apoptotic MNC-secretomes significantly reduced ischemic lesion volumes by 36% and 37%, respectively. Neurological examinations revealed improvement after stroke in both treatment groups. Co-incubation of human astrocytes, Schwann cells and neurons with hMNC apo sec resulted in activation of several signaling cascades associated with the regulation of cytoprotective gene products and enhanced neuronal sprouting in vitro. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in hMNC apo sec and rat plasma revealed high levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our data indicate that apoptotic MNC-secretomes elicit neuroprotective effects on rats that have undergone ischemic stroke. PMID:25383184

  3. Secretomes of apoptotic mononuclear cells ameliorate neurological damage in rats with focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Patrick; Mildner, Michael; Haider, Thomas; Traxler, Denise; Beer, Lucian; Ristl, Robin; Golabi, Bahar; Gabriel, Christian; Leutmezer, Fritz; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of targeting multiple pathways in the ischemic cascade of cerebral stroke is a promising treatment option. We examined the regenerative potential of conditioned medium derived from rat and human apoptotic mononuclear cells (MNC), rMNC (apo sec) and hMNC (apo sec), in experimental stroke. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion on Wistar rats and administered apoptotic MNC-secretomes intraperitoneally in two experimental settings. Ischemic lesion volumes were determined 48 hours after cerebral ischemia. Neurological evaluations were performed after 6, 24 and 48 hours. Immunoblots were conducted to analyze neuroprotective signal-transduction in human primary glia cells and neurons. Neuronal sprouting assays were performed and neurotrophic factors in both hMNC (apo sec) and rat plasma were quantified using ELISA. Administration of rat as well as human apoptotic MNC-secretomes significantly reduced ischemic lesion volumes by 36% and 37%, respectively. Neurological examinations revealed improvement after stroke in both treatment groups. Co-incubation of human astrocytes, Schwann cells and neurons with hMNC (apo sec) resulted in activation of several signaling cascades associated with the regulation of cytoprotective gene products and enhanced neuronal sprouting in vitro. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in hMNC (apo sec) and rat plasma revealed high levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our data indicate that apoptotic MNC-secretomes elicit neuroprotective effects on rats that have undergone ischemic stroke.

  4. Acute ethanol effects on focal cerebral ischemia in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Yang, G Y; Ben-Joseph, O; Ross, B D; Chenevert, T L; Domino, E F

    1998-05-01

    The effects of acute ethanol intoxication were investigated in a rat model of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Groups of 5 to 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 hr of left middle cerebral artery occlusion. All groups were deprived of food overnight and were pretreated intraperitoneally with 5% dextrose solution (10 ml/kg), 20% ethyl alcohol in 5% dextrose solution (2 g/kg), or 30% ethyl alcohol in a 5% dextrose solution (3 g/kg) 1 hr before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow during ipsilateral occlusion was approximately 9.1 to 10% of baseline in all groups. The mean % brain water content in control, 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups, and 3 g/kg ethanol-treated groups were: in the ischemic core--81.6, 81.2, and 82.4; intermediate zone--80.5, 80.6, and 81.7; and outer zone--79.7, 79.7, and 80.8, respectively. Brain Na+ and K+ content in the three groups was related to water content, but much greater with ethanol pretreatment. The water content of the intermediate zones in the 3 g/kg ethanol-treated animals was significantly greater than in the control (p < 0.01 and 0.001) and the 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant dose-effect relationship in which the lower dose of ethanol tended to reduce ischemic core water content, and the larger dose increased ischemic core water, compared with the control. None of the overnight fasted groups had any significant hyperglycemia. The group given 3 g/kg i.p. ethanol 1 hr before had exacerbated edema formation with a mean whole blood level of ethanol of approximately 230 mg/dl. The neurotoxic effects of high concentrations of ethanol were unrelated to any change in plasma glucose concentrations.

  5. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on a Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Martín-Solé, Oriol; Rodó, Joan; García-Aparicio, Lluís; Blanch, Josep; Cusí, Victoria; Albert, Asteria

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute renal failure, causing renal cell death, a permanent decrease of renal blood flow, organ dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product rich in growth factors, and therefore able to promote tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This product has proven its efficacy in multiple studies, but has not yet been tested on kidney tissue. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the application of PRP to rat kidneys undergoing ischemia-reperfusion reduces mid-term kidney damage. A total of 30 monorrenal Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent renal ischemia-reperfusion for 45 minutes. During ischemia, PRP (PRP Group, n = 15) or saline solution (SALINE Group, n = 15) was administered by subcapsular renal injection. Control kidneys were the contralateral organs removed immediately before the start of ischemia in the remaining kidneys. Survival, body weight, renal blood flow on Doppler ultrasound, kidney weight, kidney volume, blood biochemistry and histopathology were determined for all subjects and kidneys, as applicable. Correlations between these variables were searched for. The PRP Group showed significantly worse kidney blood flow (p = 0.045) and more histopathological damage (p<0.0001). Correlations were found between body weight, kidney volume, kidney weight, renal blood flow, histology, and serum levels of creatinine and urea. Our study provides the first evidence that treatment with PRP results in the deterioration of the kidney's response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27551718

  6. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on a Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Solé, Oriol; Rodó, Joan; García-Aparicio, Lluís; Blanch, Josep; Cusí, Victoria; Albert, Asteria

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute renal failure, causing renal cell death, a permanent decrease of renal blood flow, organ dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product rich in growth factors, and therefore able to promote tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This product has proven its efficacy in multiple studies, but has not yet been tested on kidney tissue. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the application of PRP to rat kidneys undergoing ischemia-reperfusion reduces mid-term kidney damage. A total of 30 monorrenal Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent renal ischemia-reperfusion for 45 minutes. During ischemia, PRP (PRP Group, n = 15) or saline solution (SALINE Group, n = 15) was administered by subcapsular renal injection. Control kidneys were the contralateral organs removed immediately before the start of ischemia in the remaining kidneys. Survival, body weight, renal blood flow on Doppler ultrasound, kidney weight, kidney volume, blood biochemistry and histopathology were determined for all subjects and kidneys, as applicable. Correlations between these variables were searched for. The PRP Group showed significantly worse kidney blood flow (p = 0.045) and more histopathological damage (p<0.0001). Correlations were found between body weight, kidney volume, kidney weight, renal blood flow, histology, and serum levels of creatinine and urea. Our study provides the first evidence that treatment with PRP results in the deterioration of the kidney’s response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27551718

  7. Vitexin exerts cardioprotective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via inhibiting myocardial apoptosis and lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xia; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Junyan; Peng, Chengfeng; Zhen, Yilan; Shao, Xu; Zhang, Gongliang; Dong, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the cardioprotective effect of vitexin on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and potential mechanisms. Methods: A chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary for 60 minutes, and followed by reperfusion for 14 days. After 2 weeks ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac function was measured to assess myocardial injury. The level of ST segment was recorded in different periods by electrocardiograph. The change of left ventricular function and myocardial reaction degree of fibrosis of heart was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Sirius red staining. Endothelium-dependent relaxations due to acetylcholine were observed in isolated rat thoracic aortic ring preparation. The blood samples were collected to measure the levels of MDA, the activities of SOD and NADPH in serum. Epac1, Rap1, Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by using Western Blotting. Results: Vitexin exerted significant protective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, improved obviously left ventricular diastolic function and reduced myocardial reactive fibrosis degree in rats of myocardial ischemia. Medium and high-dose vitexin groups presented a significant decrease in Bax, Epac1 and Rap1 production and increase in Bcl-2 compared to the I/R group. It may be related to preventing myocardial cells from apoptosis, improving myocardial diastolic function and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Vitexin is a cardioprotective herb, which may be a promising useful complementary and alternative medicine for patients with coronary heart disease.

  8. Delayed Administration of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dreixler, John C.; Poston, Jacqueline N.; Balyasnikova, Irina; Shaikh, Afzhal R.; Tupper, Kelsey Y.; Conway, Sineadh; Boddapati, Venkat; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Roth, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed treatment after ischemia is often unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that injection of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) conditioned medium after ischemia could rescue ischemic retina, and in this study we characterized the functional and histological outcomes and mechanisms of this neuroprotection. Methods. Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure for 55 minutes. Conditioned medium (CM) from rat BMSCs or unconditioned medium (uCM) was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed 7 days after ischemia using electroretinography, at which time we euthanized the animals and then prepared 4-μm-thick paraffin-embedded retinal sections. TUNEL and Western blot were used to identify apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related gene expression 24 hours after injections; that is, 48 hours after ischemia. Protein content in CM versus uCM was studied using tandem mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods were used to model protein interactions. Results. Intravitreal injection of CM 24 hours after ischemia significantly improved retinal function and attenuated cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer. CM attenuated postischemic apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression. By spectral counting, 19 proteins that met stringent identification criteria were increased in the CM compared to uCM; the majority were extracellular matrix proteins that mapped into an interactional network together with other proteins involved in cell growth and adhesion. Conclusions. By restoring retinal function, attenuating apoptosis, and preventing retinal cell loss after ischemia, CM is a robust means of delayed postischemic intervention. We identified some potential candidate proteins for this effect. PMID:24699381

  9. Paracrine systems in the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Yang, X P; Sharov, V G; Sigmon, D H; Sabbath, H N; Carretero, O A

    1996-01-01

    After transient episodes of ischemia, benefits of thrombolytic or angioplastic therapy may be limited by reperfusion injury. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury, an effect mediated by kinins. We examined whether the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramiprilat on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion is due to kinin stimulation of prostaglandin and/or nitric oxide release. The left anterior descending coronary artery of Lewis inbred rats was occluded for 30 minutes, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Immediately before reperfusion rats were treated with vehicle, ramiprilat, or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. We tested whether pretreatment with the kinin receptor antagonist Hoe 140, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the effect of ramiprilat on infarct size and reperfusion arrhythmias. In controls, infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk was 79 +/- 3%; ramiprilat reduced this to 49 +/- 4% (P < .001), but losartan had little effect (74 +/- 6%, P = NS). Pretreatment with Hoe 140, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or indomethacin abolished the beneficial effect of ramiprilat. Compared with the 30-minute ischemia/120-minute reperfusion group, nonreperfused hearts with 30 minutes of ischemia had significantly smaller infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk, whereas in the 150-minute ischemia group it was significantly larger. This suggests that reperfusion caused a significant part of the myocardial injury, but it also suggests that compared with prolonged ischemia, reperfusion salvaged some of the myocardium. Ventricular arrhythmias mirrored the changes in infarct size. Thus, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury and arrhythmias; these beneficial effects are mediated primarily by a kinin

  10. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Influences Injury Following Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixin; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Yuanling; Chen, Xi; Lei, Shipeng; Li, Lingyu; Jiang, Beibei; Tan, Li; Yu, Shanshan; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of GSK-3β is associated with psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, no study has examined the effect of GSK-3β on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We used oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) as models of ischemia/reperfusion in rats in vitro and in vivo. Our study showed that knockdown of GSK-3β with a GSK-3β siRNA virus improved injury and increased viability of neurons subjected to OGD/R. Levels of total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, and Nrf2 downstream proteins sulfiredoxin (Srx1) and thioredoxin (Trx1) increased after transfection with the GSK-3β siRNA virus. GSK-3β siRNA increased SOD activity and decreased MDA levels. Overexpression of GSK-3β with a pcDNA-GSK-3β virus showed opposite results. We also demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of GSK-3β siRNA in rats ameliorated neurological deficits, reduced brain infarct volume and water content, and reduced damage to cerebral cortical neurons after MCAO. Changes in total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, Srx1, Trx1, SOD, and MDA were similar to those observed in vitro. Our results show for the first time that GSK-3β can influence cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The effects may be due to regulating the Nrf2/ARE pathway and decreasing oxidative stress. These results suggest a potential new drug target for clinical treatment of stroke. PMID:27019634

  11. Neuroprotective effect of s-methylisothiourea in transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    ArunaDevi, Rathinam; Ramteke, Vinod D; Kumar, Saurabh; Shukla, Manoj K; Jaganathan, Subramani; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Anil K; Tandan, Surendra K

    2010-01-01

    Over production of NO by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the brain parenchyma has been demonstrated to contribute to tissue damage. NO may be toxic by formation of peroxinitrite after a reaction between NO and superoxide appears to be one of the major pathways leading to cell death. Of three types of NOS, nNOS is neurotoxic in early and iNOS in late stage of transient cerebral ischemia (TFCI), while eNOS is neuroprotective in all stages. We examined the neuroprotective effect of a preferential iNOS inhibitor s-methylisothiourea (SMT) at 0, 8, 24 and 48h as multiple injections (30 and 100mg/kg, i.p.) in ischemia and reperfusion injury in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (2h) and reperfusion (72h). After 2h of ischemia and 72h of reperfusion, animals were sacrificed for studying the infarct volume, brain edema and apoptosis and neuro-behavioral abnormality was assessed at 24, 48 and 72h of reperfusion. SMT reduced significantly the infarct volume, neuro-behavioral abnormality, brain edema, number of apoptotic cells in penumbra and NOx levels in plasma and brain both at 30 and 100mg/kg in dose-dependent manner. The amount of peroxynitrite measured by rhodamine assay was significantly reduced by SMT, as compared to control group. SMT protected Neuro 2a cells against sodium azide-induced damage. It is concluded that, SMT may possibly targeting both constitutive as well as inducible NOS at varying time interval to elicit neuroprotection in TFCI rats.

  12. The nitroxide antioxidant tempol is cerebroprotective against focal cerebral ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Leker, R R; Teichner, A; Lavie, G; Shohami, E; Lamensdorf, I; Ovadia, H

    2002-08-01

    Free radicals appear to participate in the final common pathway of neuronal death in ischemia and may therefore be an adequate target for therapy. Tempol is a nitroxide antioxidant with proven protective efficacy in several animal models, including myocardial ischemia, that has not been previously tested in models of permanent cerebral ischemia. Spontaneously hypertensive rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO). Following dose-response and time-window-finding experiments rats were given vehicle or tempol (50 mg/kg) subcutaneously 1 h after PMCAO (n = 10/group). Five animals in each group were evaluated with a motor scale 24 h after the infarct and were then sacrificed and the injury volume was measured. The remaining animals were examined daily with the motor scale and also with a Morris water maze test on days 26-30 after PMCAO and sacrificed on day 30. Motor scores at all time points examined were significantly better in the tempol-treated animals (P < 0.05 for all). Significantly better performance in the water maze test for performance on days 26-30 was noted in the tempol group compared with the vehicle-treated group (P < 0.05). Injury volumes at days 1 and 30 were significantly reduced in the tempol group (9.83 +/- 1.05 vs 19.94 +/- 1.43% hemispheric volume, P = 0.0009, and 13.2 +/- 2.97 vs 24.4 +/- 2.38% hemispheric volume, P = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, treatment with tempol led to significant motor and behavioral improvement and reduced injured tissue volumes both in the short and in the long term after stroke.

  13. Reduced ghrelin production induced anorexia after rat gastric ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Sachiko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Fukuhara, Seiichiro; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Kangawa, Kenji; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-02-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most susceptible organs to ischemia. We previously reported altered gastric motility after gastric ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). However, there have also been few reports of alterations in the eating behavior after gastric I/R. Ghrelin is a GI peptide that stimulates food intake and GI motility. Although ghrelin itself has been demonstrated to attenuate the mucosal injuries induced by gastric I/R, the endogenous ghrelin dynamics after I/R has not yet been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between food intake and the ghrelin dynamics after gastric I/R. Wistar rats were exposed to 80-min gastric ischemia, followed by 12-h or 48-h reperfusion. The food intake, plasma ghrelin levels, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression levels, and the histological localization of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells were evaluated. The effect of exogenous ghrelin on the food intake after I/R was also examined. Food intake, the plasma ghrelin levels, the count of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells corrected by the percentage areas of the remaining mucosa, and the expression levels of preproghrelin mRNA in the stomach were significantly reduced at 12 h and 48 h after I/R compared with the levels in the sham-operated rats. Intraperitoneal administration of ghrelin significantly reversed the decrease of food intake after I/R. These data show that gastric I/R evoked anorexia with decreased plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin production, which appears to be attributable to the I/R-induced gastric mucosal injuries. The decrease in the plasma ghrelin levels may have been responsible for the decreased food intake after gastric I/R. PMID:22114115

  14. Butyrate protects rat liver against total hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury with bowel congestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Qian, Jianmin; Wang, Qingbao; Wang, Fangrui; Ma, Zhenyu; Qiao, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery, especially in liver transplantation with bowel congestion, during which endotoxemia is often evident. The inflammatory response aggravated by endotoxin after I/R contributes to liver dysfunction and failure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid in the body and a dietary component of foods such as cheese and butter, on hepatic injury complicated by enterogenous endotoxin, as well as to examine the underlying mechanisms involved. SD rats were subjected to a total hepatic ischemia for 30 min after pretreatment with either vehicle or butyrate, followed by 6 h and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate preconditioning markedly improved hepatic function and histology, as indicated by reduced transaminase levels and ameliorated tissue pathological changes. The inflammatory factors levels, macrophages activation, TLR4 expression, and neutrophil infiltration in live were attenuated by butyrate. Butyrate also maintained the intestinal barrier structures, reversed the aberrant expression of ZO-1, and decreased the endotoxin translocation. We conclude that butyrate inhibition of endotoxin translocation, macrophages activation, inflammatory factors production, and neutrophil infiltration is involved in the alleviation of total hepatic I/R liver injury in rats. This suggests that butyrate should potentially be utilized in liver transplantation.

  15. Baicalein pretreatment reduces liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via induction of autophagy in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anding; Huang, Liang; Guo, Enshuang; Li, Renlong; Yang, Jiankun; Li, Anyi; Yang, Yan; Liu, Shenpei; Hu, Jifa; Jiang, Xiaojing; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta; Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that baicalein could protect against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. The exact mechanism of baicalein remains poorly understood. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting against I/R injury. This study was designed to determine whether baicalein could protect against liver I/R injury via induction of autophagy in rats. Baicalein was intraperitoneally injected 1 h before warm ischemia. Pretreatment with baicalein prior to I/R insult significantly blunted I/R-induced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels and significantly improved the histological status of livers. Electron microscopy and expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II suggested induction of autophagy after baicalein treatment. Moreover, inhibition of the baicalein-induced autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) worsened liver injury. Furthermore, baicalein treatment increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 with tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP) abolished the baicalein-mediated autophagy and the hepatocellular protection. In primary rat hepatocytes, baicalein-induced autophagy also protected hepatocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in vitro and the beneficial effect was abrogated by 3-MA or Atg7 siRNA, respectively. Suppression of HO-1 activity by SnPP or HO-1 siRNA prevented the baicalein-mediated autophagy and resulted in increased hepatocellular injury. Collectively, these results suggest that baicalein prevents hepatocellular injury via induction of HO-1-mediated autophagy.

  16. Luoyutong Treatment Promotes Functional Recovery and Neuronal Plasticity after Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning-qun; Wang, Li-ye; Zhao, Hai-ping; Liu, Ping; Wang, Rong-liang; Song, Jue-xian; Gao, Li; Ji, Xun-ming; Luo, Yu-min

    2015-01-01

    Luoyutong (LYT) capsule has been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases clinically in China and is now patented and approved by the State Food and Drug Administration. In this retrospective validation study we investigated the ability of LYT to protect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Capsule containing LYT (high dose and medium dose) as treatment group and Citicoline Sodium as positive control treatment group were administered daily to rats 30 min after reperfusion. Treatment was continued for either 3 days or 14 days. A saline solution was administered to control animals. Behavior tests were performed after 3 and 14 days of treatment. Our findings revealed that LYT treatment improved the neurological outcome, decreased cerebral infarction volume, and reduced apoptosis. Additionally, LYT improved neural plasticity, as the expression of synaptophysin, microtubule associated protein, and myelin basic protein was upregulated by LYT treatment, while neurofilament 200 expression was reduced. Moreover, levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were increased. Our results suggest that LYT treatment may protect against ischemic injury and improve neural plasticity. PMID:26697095

  17. Impacts of N-Butylphthalide on expression of growth factors in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Sun, Leyu; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. The thread embolization method was used to prepare the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR). The animals were divided into a sham operation group, a model control group and NBP treatment group. The NBP group was orally administered 25 mg/kg NBP twice a day after the surgery. The immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and TGF-β 16 hours, 1 day and 2 days after inducing CIR. The mRNA and protein expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the model control group and the NBP treatment group were all increased after CIR, and those of the NBP treatment group at each post-CIR time point were higher than the model control group (p < 0.01). After CIR, the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 increased, suggesting that VEGF and TGF-β1 exhibited protective effects towards the ischemic brain injuries, and that NBP could upregulate the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the peri-infarcted area, thus possibly protecting the ischemic brain tissues through this mechanism. PMID:26773175

  18. Autofluorescence dynamics during reperfusion following long-term renal ischemia in a rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical properties of near-surface kidney tissue were monitored in order to assess response during reperfusion to long (20 minutes) versus prolonged (150 minutes) ischemia in an in vivo rat model. Specifically, autofluorescence images of the exposed surfaces of both the normal and the ischemic kidneys were acquired during both injury and reperfusion alternately under 355 nm and 266 nm excitations. The temporal profile of the emission of the injured kidney during the reperfusion phase under 355 nm excitation was normalized to that under 266 nm as a means to account for changes in tissue optical properties independent of ischemia as well as changes in the illumination/collection geometrical parameters in future clinical implementation of this technique using a hand-held probe. The scattered excitation light signal was also evaluated as a reference signal and found to be inadequate. Characteristic time constants were extracted using fit to a relaxation model and found to have larger mean values following 150 minutes of injury. The mean values were then compared with the outcome of a chronic survival study where the control kidney had been removed. Rat kidneys exhibiting longer time constants were much more likely to fail. This may lead to a method to assess kidney viability and predict its ability to recover in the initial period following transplantation or resuscitation.

  19. The protective role of montelukast against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenbao; Zhu, Xuxing; Jin, Zhonghai; Tong, Xiuping; Zhu, Liqin; Hong, Xiaofei; Zhu, Xianfei; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Several drugs are effective in attenuating intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI); however little is known about the effect of montelukast. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: model group (operation with clamping), sham group (operation without clamping), and study group (operation with clamping and 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg montelukast pretreatment). Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion was performed by occlusion (clamping) of the arteria mesenterica anterior for 45 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Intestinal IRI in the model group led to severe damage of the intestinal mucosa, liver and kidney. The Chiu scores of the intestines from the study group (2 and 20 mg/kg) were lower than that of the model group. Intestinal IRI induced a marked increase in CysLTR1, Caspase-8 and -9 expression in intestine, liver and kidney, which were markedly reduced by preconditioning with 2 mg/kg montelukast. Preconditioning with 2 g/kg montelukast significantly attenuated hepatic tissue injury and kidney damage, and decreased plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in plasma after intestinal IRI. In conclusion, preconditioning with montelukast could attenuate intestinal IRI and the subsequent systemic inflammatory response in rats. PMID:26497763

  20. Autofluorescence dynamics during reperfusion following long-term renal ischemia in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2008-02-01

    Optical properties of near-surface kidney tissue were monitored in order to assess response during reperfusion to long (20 minutes) versus prolonged (150 minutes) ischemia in an in vivo rat model. Specifically, autofluorescence images of the exposed surfaces of both the normal and the ischemic kidneys were acquired during both injury and reperfusion alternately under 355 nm and 266 nm excitations. The temporal profile of the emission of the injured kidney during the reperfusion phase under 355 nm excitation was normalized to that under 266 nm as a means to account for changes in tissue optical properties independent of ischemia as well as changes in the illumination/collection geometrical parameters in future clinical implementation of this technique using a hand-held probe. The scattered excitation light signal was also evaluated as a reference signal and found to be inadequate. Characteristic time constants were extracted using a fit to a relaxation model and found to have larger mean values following 150 minutes of injury. The mean values were then compared with the outcome of a chronic survival study where the control kidney had been removed. Rat kidneys exhibiting longer time constants were much more likely to fail. This may lead to a method to assess kidney viability and predict its ability to recover in the initial period following transplantation or resuscitation.

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics of five rhubarb anthraquinones in normal and thrombotic focal cerebral ischemia-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Su-xiang; Li, Jian-sheng; Qu, Ling-bo; Shi, Yan-mei; Zhao, Di

    2013-10-01

    A comparative oral pharmacokinetic study of five anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, emodin, rhein, chrysophanol and physcion) from the extract of Rheum palmatum L. was performed in normal and thrombotic focal cerebral ischemia (TFCI)-induced rats. The plasma samples were clarified through solid phase extraction prior to simultaneous determination of the anthraquinones with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence system. The results indicated that the Cmax, t(1/2) and AUC(0-t), of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin and chrysophanol in TFCI-induced rats were nearly double, whereas the CL values were remarkably decreased (p < 0.05) over those of the normal rats. The plasma drug concentration-time data of five anthraquinones to rats fitted a two-compartment open model. The five anthraquinones in rat plasma were absorbed quickly and eliminated slowly in both groups. The obtained results could be helpful for evaluating the impact of the efficacy and safety of the drug in clinical applications.

  2. Protective role of adiponectin in a rat model of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu-Hui; Yang, Yue-Wu; Dai, Hai-Tao; Cai, Song-Wang; Chen, Rui-Han; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the potential protective role of adiponectin in intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: A rat model of intestinal I/R injury was established. The serum level of adiponectin in rats with intestinal I/R injury was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also measured by ELISA. Apoptosis of intestinal cells was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and villous injury scores were also measured. RESULTS: Adiponectin was downregulated in the serum of rats with intestinal I/R injury compared with sham rats. No significant changes in the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 were found between sham and I/R rats. Pre-treatment with recombinant adiponectin attenuated intestinal I/R injury. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in rats with intestinal I/R injury was reduced by adiponectin pre-treatment. The production of MDA was inhibited, and the release of SOD was restored by adiponectin pre-treatment in rats with intestinal I/R injury. Adiponectin pre-treatment also inhibited cell apoptosis in these rats. Treatment with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway inhibitor, compound C, or the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibitor, Snpp, attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin against intestinal I/R injury. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin exhibits protective effects against intestinal I/R injury, which may involve the AMPK/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26715807

  3. Lung inflation with hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase decreases lung graft injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongfang; Fang, Xianhai; Meng, Chao; Xing, Jingchun; Liu, Jinfeng; Yang, Wanchao; Li, Wenzhi; Zhou, Huacheng

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury when it is inhaled by donor or/and recipient. This study examined the effects of lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase on lung graft function in rats. The donor lung was inflated with 3% hydrogen, 40% oxygen, and 57% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg, and the gas was replaced every 20 min during the cold ischemia phase for 2 h. In the control group, the donor lung was inflated with 40% oxygen and 60% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg. The recipient was euthanized 2 h after orthotropic lung transplantation. The hydrogen concentration in the donor lung during the cold ischemia phase was 1.99-3%. The oxygenation indices in the arterial blood and pulmonary vein blood were improved in the hydrogen group. The inflammation response indices, including lung W/D ratio, the myeloperoxidase activity in the grafts, and the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α in serum, were significantly lower in the hydrogen group (5.2 ± 0.8, 0.76 ± 0.32 U/g, 340 ± 84 pg/mL, and 405 ± 115 pg/mL, respectively) than those in the control group (6.5 ± 0.7, 1.1 ± 0.5 U/g, 443 ± 94 pg/mL, and 657 ± 96 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05), and the oxidative stress indices, including the superoxide dismutase activity and the level of malonaldehyde in lung grafts were improved after hydrogen application. Furthermore, the lung injury score determined by histopathology, the cell apoptotic index, and the caspase-3 protein expression in lung grafts were decreased after hydrogen treatment, and the static pressure-volume curve of lung graft was improved by hydrogen inflation. In conclusion, lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase alleviated lung graft injury and improved graft function.

  4. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and erythropoietin expression in the hippocampus of neonatal rats following hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junjie; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Huan; Zhang, Long; Wang, Ting

    2014-08-01

    In some regions of the hippocampus, neurogenesis persists throughout life and is upregulated following hypoxia/ischemia. The mechanisms underlying the upregulation of neurogenesis, however, are not known. Here we examined the expression of two factors thought to be involved in hypoxia-related neurogenesis, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and brain-derived erythropoietin (EPO), in the hippocampus of neonatal rats following hypoxia-ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia conditions or hypoxia conditions only. For the hypoxia-ischemia experiment, the left common carotid artery of Sprague-Dawley rat pups was ligated on postnatal day 7. The pups were exposed to hypoxic conditions and then returned to normoxia for re-oxygenation. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate EPO and HIF-1α expression at various time points after re-oxygenation (1 h, 6 h, 16 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d). EPO expression in the hippocampus was verified using Western blot studies. For the hypoxia-only experiment, postnatal day 7 rat pups were continuously exposed to hypoxic conditions for different durations (0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h). HIF-1α expression in the hippocampus was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. In the hypoxia-ischemia group, EPO expression was significantly altered. The EPO expression increased during re-oxygenation, peaked at 16 h, and decreased thereafter. In the hypoxia-only group, the EPO protein was not detectable. When the rat pups were returned to normoxia for re-oxygenation, there was no HIF-1α expression. HIF-1α immunoreactivity was present in the hypoxia-only group and peaked in rats exposed to continuous hypoxic conditions for 3 h. In addition, endogenous EPO increased in the neonatal rats after the hypoxia-ischemia event. Furthermore, HIF-1α was induced as a result of hypoxia. We postulate that disruption of homeostasis triggers and enhances hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, HIF-1α/EPO hypoxic signal

  6. EFFECT OF THREE-WEEK ZINC AND MELATONIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM IN EXPERIMENTAL RENAL ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion directly affects glomerular and tubular epithelium. Oxygen free radicals have a significant part in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to identify the effects of 3-week zinc, melatonin, and zinc + melato- nin supplementation on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in tissue and plasma and glutathione levels (GSH) in erythrocytes and tissue of rats with experimentally induced renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The study included Wistar albino rats with a mean weight of 250 g. Study groups were formed as follows: control, sham-control, ischemia + reperfusion, zinc + ischemia-reperfusion, melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion, and zinc + melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion. Animals were supplemented with zinc and melatonin 3 mg/kg/day i.p. for 3 weeks before the induction of ischemia-reperfusion. Renal ischemia-reperfusion was induced in the left kidney under general anesthesia and consisted of ischemia for 45 minutes and reperfusion for 1 hour. After the procedure, animals were sacrificed and blood and kidney samples were collected to analyze MDA and GSH levels. GSH values in kidney tissues and erythrocytes were found to be elevated in the groups supplemented with zinc and melatonin (p < 0.005). When MDA values in renal tissue and plasma were examined, it was seen that ischemia significantly elevated this parameter, while zinc and melatonin supplementation signifi- cantly inhibited MDA values (p < 0.002). The results of the study indicated that oxidative injury of the blood and renal tissues of rats increased in association with ischemia-reperfusion, but zinc and melatonin supplementation before ischemia-reperfusion markedly reduced this oxidative damage.

  7. The Protective Effect of Black Ginseng Against Transient Focal Ischemia-induced Neuronal Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2011-01-01

    Black ginseng (BG) has been widely used as herbal treatment for improving physiological function. In order to investigate the neuroprotective action of this herbal medicine, we examined the influence of BG on the learning and memory of rats using the Morris water maze, and we studied the effects of BG on the central cholinergic system and neural nitric oxide synthesis in the hippocampus of rats with neuronal and cognitive impairment. After middle cerebral artery occlusion was applied for 2h, the rats were administered BG (100 or 400 mgkg-1, p.o.) daily for 2 weeks, followed by training and performance of the Morris water maze test. The rats with ischemic insults showed impaired learning and memory on the tasks. Treatment with BG produced improvement in the escape latency to find the platform. Further, the BG groups showed a reduced loss of cholinergic immunoreactivity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-positive neurons in the hippocampus compared to that of the ISC group. These results demonstrated that BG has a protective effect against ischemia-induced neuronal and cognitive impairment. Our results suggest that BG might be useful for the treatment of vascular dementia. PMID:22359470

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized) in Transient and Permanent Rat Cerebral Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xumei; Wang, Shaoxia; Wang, Jinxin; Guo, Hong; Dong, Zhaopeng; Chai, Lijuan; Hu, Limin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Hong; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized) (XST), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Panax notoginseng (Burk.), is used extensively for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as acutely cerebral infarction clinically in China. In the present study, we evaluated the acute and extended protective effects of XST in different rat cerebral ischemic model and explored its effect on peroxiredoxin (Prx) 6-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling pathway. We found that XST treatment for 3 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced infarct volume and swelling percent and regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-17, IL-23p19, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in brain. Further study demonstrated that treatment with XST suppressed the protein expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 6-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and phosphorylation level of p38 and upregulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3. In permanent MCAO rats, XST could reduce the infarct volume and swelling percent. Moreover, our results revealed that XST treatment could increase the rats' weight and improve a batch of functional outcomes. In conclusion, the present data suggested that XST could protect against ischemia injury in transient and permanent MCAO rats, which might be related to Prx6-TLR4 pathway. PMID:26681963

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 and the ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Masini, Emanuela; Vannacci, A; Marzocca, C; Pierpaoli, S; Giannini, L; Fantappié, O; Mazzanti, R; Mannaioni, P F

    2003-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a signaling gas produced intracellularly by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes using heme as a substrate. During heme breakdown, HO-1 and HO-2 release CO, biliverdin, and Fe(2+). In this study, we investigated the effects of manipulation of the HO-1 system in an in vivo model of focal ischemia-reperfusion (FIR) in the rat heart. Male Wistar albino rats, under general anesthesia and artificial ventilation, underwent thoracotomy, the pericardium was opened, and a silk suture was placed around the left descending coronary artery; ischemia was induced by tightening the suture and was monitored for 30 min. Subsequently, the ligature was released to allow reperfusion lasting for 60 min. The first group of rats was sham operated and injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with saline. The second group underwent FIR. The third group was treated ip 18 hr before FIR with hemin (4 mg/kg). The fourth group was pretreated ip 24 hr before FIR and 6 hr before hemin with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX, 50 microg/kg). Specimens of the left ventricle were taken for determination of HO expression and activity, infarct size, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) production, and tissue calcium content. FIR led to a significant increase in the generation of MDA and notably raised tissue calcium levels. Induction of HO-1 by hemin significantly decreased infarct size, incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias, MDA generation, and calcium overload induced by FIR. These effects were prevented by the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-IX. The present experiments show that the concerted actions of CO, iron, and biliverdin/bilirubin modulate the FIR-induced myocardial injury. PMID:12709584

  10. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  11. Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Chichorium intybus on ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Najmeh; Dianat, Mahin; Badavi, Mohammad; Malekzadeh, Ahad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that Chichorium intybus (C. intybus) which possesses flavonoid compounds has an effective role in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Contractile dysfunction mostly occurs after acute myocardial infarction, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplantation and coronary angioplasty. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of C. intybus on ischemia- reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into four groups (Sham, Control, 1 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of extract) of 8 rats. The aorta was cannulated, and then the heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. Next, a balloon was inserted into the left ventricle (LV) and peak positive value of time derivate of LV pressure (+dp/dt), coronary flow (CF), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) in pre-ischemia and reperfusion period were calculated by a Power Lab system. All groups underwent a 30-minute global ischemia followed by a 60-minute reperfusion. Results: The results showed that heart rate (HR), coronary flow, and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate of pressure product (RPP) significantly decreased in the control group during reperfusion, while these values in the groups receiving the extract (3mg/ml) improved significantly during reperfusion (p<0.001). Conclusion: It seems that flavonoid compounds of aqueous extract of C. intybus reduce ischemia - reperfusion injuries, suggesting its protective effect on heart function after ischemia. PMID:26693414

  12. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia’s score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia’s score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259800

  13. Phytic acid suppresses ischemia-induced hydroxyl radical generation in rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Obata, Toshio; Nakashima, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined whether ischemia-reperfusion-induced hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation was attenuated by myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid (phytic acid). A flexibly mounted microdialysis technique was used to detect the generation of ·OH in in vivo rat hearts. To measure the level of ·OH, sodium salicylate in Ringer's solution (0.5mM or 0.5 nmol/μl/min) was infused directly through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of ·OH as reflected by the nonenzymatic formation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA). To confirm the generation of ·OH by Fenton-type reaction, iron(II) was infused through a microdialysis probe. A positive linear correlation between iron(II) and the formation of 2,3-DHBA (R(2)=0.983) was observed. However, the level of 2,3-DHBA in norepinephrine (100 μM) plus phytic acid (100 μM) treated group were significantly lower than those observed in norepinephrine-only-treated group (n=6, *p<0.05). To examine the effect of phytic acid on ischemia-reperfusion-induced ·OH generation, the heart was subjected to myocardial ischemia for 15 min by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). When the heart was reperfused, the normal elevation of 2,3-DHBA in the heart dialysate was not observed in animals pretreated with phytic acid. These results suggest that phytic acid is associated with antioxidant effect due to the suppression of iron-induced ·OH generation.

  14. Involvement of calcium-sensing receptor in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Weihua; Fu Songbin; Lu Fanghao . E-mail: lufanghao1973@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Bo; Gong Dongmei; Pan, Zhen-wei; Lv Yanjie; Zhao Yajun; Li Quanfeng; Wang Rui; Yang Baofeng; Xu Changqing . E-mail: xucq@163.com

    2006-09-08

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, which activates intracellular effectors, for example, it causes inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation to increase the release of intracellular calcium. Although intracellular calcium overload has been implicated in the cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis, the role of CaR in the induction of apoptosis has not been fully understood. This study tested the hypothesis that CaR is involved in I/R cardiomyocyte apoptosis by increasing [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The isolated rat hearts were subjected to 40-min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, meanwhile GdCl{sub 3} was added to reperfusion solution. The expression of CaR increased at the exposure to GdCl{sub 3} during I/R. By laser confocal microscopy, it was observed that the intracellular calcium was significantly increased and exhibited a collapsed {delta}{psi} {sub m}, as monitored by 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) during reperfusion with GdCl{sub 3}. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased as shown by TUNEL assay. Typical apoptotic cells were observed with transmission electron microscopy in I/R with GdCl{sub 3} but not in the control group. The expression of cytosolic cytochrome c and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly increased whereas the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c significantly decreased in I/R with GdCl{sub 3} in comparison to the control. In conclusion, these results suggest that CaR is involved in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion through activation of cytochrome c-caspase-3 signaling pathway.

  15. Dietary lipid modification of myocardial eicosanoids following ischemia and reperfusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, M Y; Charnock, J S

    1995-12-01

    Several different edible oils were compared for their ability to modify eicosanoid biosynthesis following experimentally-induced myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in the rat. Two types of palm oil [neutralized, bleached, and deodorized (NBDPO) and refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBDPO)] and partially hydrogenated soybean oil (SBO) were tested against a diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil (SSO) rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 PUFA, with its known cardioprotective actions, served as an internal reference point for the study. Test oils were fed as a 12% (w/w) supplement for nine months before the induction of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Palm oil diets exerted effects indistinguishable from the SBO group against cardiac arrhythmia, which occurred following alterations to coronary blood flow. Arrhythmic potentials, as expressed by a hierarchical scale (0-9) of arrhythmia score, were: SSO, 1.5 +/- 0.5; FO, 0.9 +/- 0.4; SBO, 3.1 +/- 0.5*; NBDPO, 3.2 +/- 0.5*; RBDPO, 3.3 +/- 0.6*; *P < 0.05 vs. SSO. Following ischemia and reperfusion, both SSO and RBDPO groups tended to show an increase in myocardial prostacyclin, with the effect being more prominent in the RBDPO group (SSO, 10%; RBDPO, 25%). Thromboxane production was reduced in the FO group. Interestingly, cardiac muscle from both FO and palm oil groups displayed a reduced capacity to produce 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid SSO, 591 +/- 95.8; SBO, 375.5 +/- 48.9; NBDPO, 287.2 +/- 64.7*; RBDPO, 230.9 +/- 80.2**; FO, 203.7 +/- 81.4** (ng/g dry wt, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01). No clear relationship was seen between the availability of 20:4n-6 in myocardial phospholipids and eicosanoid profile. Data suggests that fatty acid composition of edible oils is not the only determinant of arrhythmic vulnerability and eicosanoid production.

  16. Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N.; Rothwell, Nancy J.; Metz, Gerlinde A.S.; Allan, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24 h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

  17. [Effect of salvianolic acid B on neural cells damage and neurogenesis after brain ischemia-reperfusion in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jing; Tang, Min-ke; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Qiu-ping; Zhang, Jun-tian

    2007-07-01

    This study is to observe the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on neural cells damage and neurogenesis in sub-granular zone (SGZ) and sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) after brain ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats. A modified middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was used. The rats were divided into four groups: sham control group, ischemia-reperfusion group, Sal B 1 and 10 mg x kg(-1) groups. Sal B was consecutively administrated once a day by ip injection after MCAO. The neurogenesis in SGZ and SVZ was investigated by BrdU method 7 days after MCAO. The Nissl staining for neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and cerebral cortex was performed 14 days after MCAO. A beam-walking test was used to monitor the motor function recovery. We found that brain ischemia resulted in an increase of BrdU positive cells both in ipsilateral SGZ and SVZ at 7th day after MCAO. Sal B (10 mg x kg(-1)) significantly increased further the number of BrdU positive cells both in SGZ and SVZ (P < 0.01). Ipsilateral hippocampal neuron damage occurred and CA1 almost lost 14 days after MCAO. Sal B (10 mg x kg(-1)) obviously attenuated the neuron damage and increased the number of neuron both in ipsilateral CA1 and cerebral cortex (P < 0.01). We also observed an obvious improvement of motor function recovery when Sal B (10 mg x kg(-1)) administrated. From the results above we concluded that Sal B stimulated neurogenesis process both in SGZ and SVZ after brain ischemia, and also alleviated neural cells loss and improved motor function recovery after brain ischemia in rats.

  18. Preischemic Administration of Sevoflurane Does not Exert Dose-dependent Effects on the Outcome of Severe Forebrain Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshihide; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Nasu, Ikuko

    2015-07-01

    We previously showed that preischemic administration of high-dose isoflurane worsened the outcome from severe forebrain ischemia in rats. Conversely, high doses of sevoflurane have been reported to improve the outcome from forebrain ischemia when the insult is moderate. To clarify the dose-dependent effects of sevoflurane on severe forebrain ischemia, we performed an outcome study using an identical protocol to that in our previous study with isoflurane. Fasting male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgical preparation for forebrain ischemia under halothane anesthesia. Anesthesia was changed to fentanyl/nitrous oxide to eliminate the halothane, after which 30 minutes of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 minimum alveolar concentration sevoflurane was administered. Ten minutes of ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid occlusion plus systemic hypotension, in which cessation of electroencephalographic activity was confirmed. Sevoflurane was discontinued and anesthesia continued with fentanyl/nitrous oxide for an additional 100 minutes. Outcome evaluation at 5 days postischemia included seizure incidence, mortality rate, neuromotor score, and histologic injuries to the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 and CA3. Different doses of sevoflurane did not statistically affect seizure incidence (10.0% to 18.2%), mortality rate (20.0% to 46.7%), cortical damage (mild to moderate degree), or hippocampal CA1 damage (93.7% to 96.7% neuronal necrosis) or CA3 damage (36.3% to 41.7%). Dose-dependent effects of sevoflurane were not observed for any of the outcome variables assessed in this rat model of severe forebrain ischemia. PMID:25390656

  19. Diosmin pretreatment improves cardiac function and suppresses oxidative stress in rat heart after ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Senthamizhselvan, Oomaidurai; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Raja, Boobalan

    2014-08-01

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissue leads to the generation of oxygen derived free radicals which plays an important role in cellular damage. Objective of the current study is to evaluate the cardio-protective and antioxidant effect of diosmin on ischemia-reperfusion related cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Diosmin (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (bw)) was given every day to the rats orally throughout the experimental period. Ischemia/reperfusion protocol was carried out ex vivo using langendorff perfusion method and the cardiac functional recovery was assessed in terms of percentage rate pressure product. Coronary effluents of LDH and CK-MB activities, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation products, activity of TCA cycle enzymes were evaluated. Moreover, in vitro superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging potential of diosmin was also quantified. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR was used for assessing Bcl-2 mRNA expression in heart. Cardiac functional recovery was impaired after reperfusion compared with continuously perfused heart. It was significantly prevented by diosmin treatment. Impaired antioxidant enzyme activities and elevated lipid peroxidation products level were also significantly suppressed. The activity of TCA cycle enzymes was protected against reperfusion stress. Down regulated Bcl-2 was also significantly increased. This study concluded that diosmin pretreatment prevents all the impaired patterns including cardiac function, oxidative stress and apoptosis associated with reperfusion in control heart by its antioxidant role.

  20. Continuous adenosine A2A receptor antagonism after focal cerebral ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Fronz, Ulrike; Deten, Alexander; Baumann, Frank; Kranz, Alexander; Weidlich, Sarah; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nieber, Karen; Boltze, Johannes; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has been shown to elicit substantial neuroprotective properties when given immediately after cerebral ischemia. We asked whether the continuous application of a selective A2AR antagonist within a clinically relevant time window will be a feasible and effective approach to treat focal cerebral ischemia. To answer this question, we subjected 20 male spontaneously hypertensive rats to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and randomized them equally to a verum and a control group. Two hours after stroke onset, the animals received a subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic minipump filled with 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or vehicle solution. The serum level of CSC was measured twice a day for three consecutive days. The infarct volume was determined at days 1 and 3 using magnetic resonance imaging. We found the serum level of CSC showing a bell-shaped curve with its maximum at 36 h. The infarct volume was not affected by continuous CSC treatment. These results suggest that delayed and continuous CSC application was not sufficient to treat acute ischemic stroke, potentially due to unfavorable hepatic elimination and metabolization of the pharmaceutical. PMID:24170241

  1. Lung Matrix Metalloproteinase Activation following Partial Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferrigno, Andrea; Rizzo, Vittoria; Tarantola, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute liver I/R does affect the function and/or structure of remote organs such as lung, kidney, and heart via modulation of extracellular matrix remodelling. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min partial hepatic ischemia by clamping the hepatic artery and the portal vein. After a 60 min reperfusion, liver, lung, kidney, and heart biopsies and blood samples were collected. Serum hepatic enzymes, creatinine, urea, Troponin I and TNF-alpha, and tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and morphology were monitored. Results. Serum levels of hepatic enzymes and TNF-alpha were concomitantly increased during hepatic I/R. An increase in hepatic MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities was substantiated by tissue morphology alterations. Notably, acute hepatic I/R affect the lung inasmuch as MMP-9 activity and MPO levels were increased. No difference in MMPs and MPO was observed in kidney and heart. Conclusions. Although the underlying mechanism needs further investigation, this is the first study in which the MMP activation in a distant organ is reported; this event is probably TNF-alpha-mediated and the lung appears as the first remote organ to be involved in hepatic I/R injury. PMID:24592193

  2. Ischemia-reperfusion model in rat spinal cord: cell viability and apoptosis signaling study

    PubMed Central

    de Lavor, Mário Sérgio Lima; Binda, Nancy Scardua; Fukushima, Fabíola Bono; Caldeira, Fátima Maria Caetano; da Silva, Juliana Figueira; Silva, Carla Maria Osório; de Oliveira, Karen Maciel; Martins, Bernardo de Caro; Torres, Bruno Benetti Junta; Rosado, Isabel Rodrigues; Gomez, Renato Santiago; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; de Melo, Eliane Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at determining the ideal ischemia time in an in vitro ischemia-reperfusion model of spinal cord injury. Rat spinal cord slices were prepared and then exposed or not to oxygen deprivation and low glucose (ODLG) for 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Cell viability was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium (TTC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and fluorochrome dyes specific for cell dead (ethidium homodimer) using the apotome system. Glutamate release was enzymatically measured by a fluorescent method. Gene expression of apoptotic factors was assessed by real time RT-PCR. Whereas spinal cord slices exposed to ODLG exhibited mild increase in fluorescence for 30 minutes after the insult, the 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes caused a 2-fold increase. ODLG exposure for 45, 60, 75 or 90 minutes, glutamate and LDH release were significantly elevated. nNOS mRNA expression was overexpressed for 45 minutes and moderately increased for 60 minutes in ODLG groups. Bax/bcl-xl ratio, caspase 9 and caspase 3 mRNA expressions were significantly increased for 45 minutes of ODLG, but not for 30, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Results showed that cell viability reduction in the spinal cord was dependent on ischemic time, resulting in glutamate and LDH release. ODLG for 45 minutes was adequate for gene expression evaluation of proteins and proteases involved in apoptosis pathways. PMID:26617703

  3. Possible involvement of P2X7 receptor activation in microglial neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Takata, Kazuyuki; Hide, Izumi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    Microglia play important roles in the pathogenic cascade following cerebral ischemia, since they express growth factors, chemokines and regulatory cytokines as well as free radicals and other toxic mediators. P2X7 receptor, a subtype of a family of P2 purinoceptors, is primarily expressed in microglia and macrophages, suggesting that it regulates immune function and inflammatory responses. However, the involvement of ATP in such microglial responses after cerebral ischemia is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of ATP, especially through the P2X7 receptors, in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. In immunohistochemical analysis, P2X7 receptor-like immunoreactivity was predominantly detected in microglia, and then activated microglia accumulated in the ischemic region, in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. Intracerebroventricular injection with P2X7 receptor agonist 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) improved behavioral dysfunction accessed by rota-rod test and ischemic neural injury induced by MCAO. In contrast, P2X7 receptor antagonist adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde (OxATP) exacerbated ischemic brain damage. These results suggest that microglia play an important role in neuroprotection against rat cerebral ischemia, which is regulated by a P2X7 receptor-mediated ATP signal.

  4. Ginkgolide B Reduces the Degradation of Membrane Phospholipids to Prevent Ischemia/Reperfusion Myocardial Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pei, Hong-Xia; Hua, Rong; Guan, Cha-Xiang; Fang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a bioactive phospholipid, plays an important role in the integrity of the cellular membrane structure, and is involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injuries. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blockage of PAF receptor by BN 52021 (Ginkgolide B) can prevent IR-induced degradation of the myocardial membrane phospholipid, and deterioration of the cardiac function. Rat hearts in situ were subjected to 5 min ischemia and followed by 10 min reperfusion. Cardiac performances during periods of ischemia and reperfusion were monitored, and the amount of membrane phospholipids was analyzed. Myocardial total phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine were decreased significantly in ischemia-reperfusion rat hearts compared with those of sham-operated rat hearts. Degradation of the membrane phospholipid was accompanied by the deterioration of cardiac functions and increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. BN 52021 (15 mg/kg), given by intravenous infusion 10 min prior to the left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, reduced IR-related degradation of the myocardial phospholipids, the activity of serum LDH, and was concomitant with improvement of cardiac function. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the production of PAF was increased and BN 52021 decreased cellular damage in cultured anoxic cardiomyocytes. These results indicated that PAF antagonist BN 52021 has a protective effect against IR-induced myocardial dysfunction and degradation of the membrane phospholipids. PMID:26382046

  5. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The TOS activity levels in blood samples were significantly higher in Control group and than the other groups (p <  0.01 for all comparison). The OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in the sham, CUR, DEX, and CUR-DEX groups, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion causes histopathological changes in the kidneys. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and renal histopathologic injury in an acute hind limb I/R rat model. PMID:26983591

  6. Neuroprotective Role of Nanoencapsulated Quercetin in Combating Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Neuronal Damage in Young and Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sarkar, Sibani; Mandal, Ardhendu K.; Das, Nirmalendu

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is the leading cause of death and permanent disability among elderly people. In both humans and animals, cerebral ischemia damages the nerve cells in vulnerable regions of the brain, viz., hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of nanoencapsulated quercetin (QC) in combating ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal damage in young and aged Swiss Albino rats. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the common carotid arteries of both young and aged rats followed by reperfusion. Nanoencapsulated quercetin (2.7 mg/kg b wt) was administered to both groups of animals via oral gavage two hours prior to ischemic insults as well as post-operation till day 3. Cerebral ischemia and 30 min consecutive reperfusion caused a substantial increase in lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and tissue osmolality in different brain regions of both groups of animals. It also decreased mitochondrial membrane microviscosity and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in different brain regions of young and aged rats. Among the brain regions studied, the hippocampus appeared to be the worst affected region showing increased upregulation of iNOS and caspase-3 activity with decreased neuronal count in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of both young and aged rats. Furthermore, three days of continuous reperfusion after ischemia caused massive damage to neuronal cells. However, it was observed that oral treatment of nanoencapsulated quercetin (2.7 mg/kg b wt) resulted in downregulation of iNOS and caspase-3 activities and improved neuronal count in the hippocampal subfields even 3 days after reperfusion. Moreover, the nanoformulation imparted a significant level of protection in the antioxidant status in different brain regions, thus contributing to a better understanding of the given pathophysiological processes causing ischemic neuronal damage. PMID:23620721

  7. In vivo spectroscopic monitoring of renal ischemia and reperfusion in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2006-02-01

    Currently no clinical tool exists that measures the degree of ischemic injury incurred in tissue and assesses tissue function following transplantation. In response to this clinical problem, we explore optical spectroscopy to quantitatively assess ischemic injury. In our method we monitor the autofluorescence intensities under excitation suitable to excite specific tissue fluorophores. Specifically, a first excitation probes NADH, a biomolecule known to change its emission properties depending on the tissue's metabolic state. A second excitation is used to mainly probe tryptophan, a biomolecule expected to be minimally affected by metabolism. We postulate that the ratio of the two autofluorescence signals can be used to monitor tissue behavior during ischemia and reperfusion. To evaluate this approach, we acquire autofluorescence images of the injured and contralateral control kidney in vivo in a rat model under excitation at both wavelengths during injury and reperfusion. Our results indicate that this approach has the potential to provide real-time monitoring of organ function during transplantation.

  8. [Evaluation of a long-term sensomotor deficit after neonatal rat brain ischemia/hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Silachev, D N; Shubina, M I; Iankauskas, S S; Mkrtchian, V P; Manskikh, V N; Guliaev, M V; Zorov, D B

    2013-01-01

    The application of magnetic resonance imaging method showed that ischemia/hypoxia of the brain of neonatal rats made by the protocol suggested by Levine-Rice induces one-sided lesions in the areas of cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Unilateral ischemic injury leads to a long-term sensorimotor and behavioral distortions within 90-115 days after the operation which has been tested in animals by the battery of tests including Cylinder, Beam-walking, Staircase and Limb-placing test. Chosen battery of tests in combination with magnetic resonance imaging allows to reliably estimate the long-term sensorimotor recovery in adult animals suffered an injury in neonatal age. PMID:24450172

  9. Inflation with carbon monoxide in rat donor lung during cold ischemia phase ameliorates graft injury

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Chao; Ma, Liangjuan; Liu, Jinfeng; Cui, Xiaoguang; Liu, Rongfang; Xing, Jingchun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) attenuates lung ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) via inhalation, and as an additive dissolved in flush/preservation solution. This study observed the effects of lung inflation with CO on lung graft function in the setting of cold ischemia. Donor lungs were inflated with 40% oxygen + 60% nitrogen (control group) or with 500 ppm CO + 40% oxygen + nitrogen (CO group) during the cold ischemia phase and were kept at 4℃ for 180 min. Recipients were sacrificed by exsanguinations at 180 min after reperfusion. Rats in the sham group had no transplantation and were performed as the recipients. Compared with the sham group, the oxygenation determined by blood gas analysis and the pressure–volume curves of the lung grafts decreased significantly, while the wet weight/dry weight (W/D) ratio, inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis increased markedly (P < 0.05). However, compared to the control group, CO treatment improved the oxygenation (381 ± 58 vs. 308 ± 78 mm Hg) and the pressure–volume curves (15.8 ± 2.4 vs. 11.6 ± 1.7 mL/kg) (P < 0.05). The W/D ratio (4.6 ± 0.6) and the serum levels of interleukin-8 (279 ± 46 pg/mL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (377 ± 59 pg/mL) in the CO group decreased significantly compared to the control group (5.8 ± 0.8, 456 ± 63 pg/mL, and 520 ± 91 pg/mL) (P < 0.05). In addition, CO inflation also significantly decreased malondialdehyde activity and apoptotic cells in grafts, and increased the superoxide dismutase content. Briefly, CO inflation in donor lungs in the setting of cold ischemia attenuated lung IRI and improved the graft function compared with oxygen. PMID:26290141

  10. Lung inflation with hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase decreases lung graft injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rongfang; Fang, Xianhai; Meng, Chao; Xing, Jingchun; Liu, Jinfeng; Yang, Wanchao

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on lung ischemia–reperfusion injury when it is inhaled by donor or/and recipient. This study examined the effects of lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase on lung graft function in rats. The donor lung was inflated with 3% hydrogen, 40% oxygen, and 57% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg, and the gas was replaced every 20 min during the cold ischemia phase for 2 h. In the control group, the donor lung was inflated with 40% oxygen and 60% nitrogen at 5 mL/kg. The recipient was euthanized 2 h after orthotropic lung transplantation. The hydrogen concentration in the donor lung during the cold ischemia phase was 1.99–3%. The oxygenation indices in the arterial blood and pulmonary vein blood were improved in the hydrogen group. The inflammation response indices, including lung W/D ratio, the myeloperoxidase activity in the grafts, and the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α in serum, were significantly lower in the hydrogen group (5.2 ± 0.8, 0.76 ± 0.32 U/g, 340 ± 84 pg/mL, and 405 ± 115 pg/mL, respectively) than those in the control group (6.5 ± 0.7, 1.1 ± 0.5 U/g, 443 ± 94 pg/mL, and 657 ± 96 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05), and the oxidative stress indices, including the superoxide dismutase activity and the level of malonaldehyde in lung grafts were improved after hydrogen application. Furthermore, the lung injury score determined by histopathology, the cell apoptotic index, and the caspase-3 protein expression in lung grafts were decreased after hydrogen treatment, and the static pressure–volume curve of lung graft was improved by hydrogen inflation. In conclusion, lung inflation with 3% hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase alleviated lung graft injury and improved graft function. PMID:25662956

  11. Inflation with carbon monoxide in rat donor lung during cold ischemia phase ameliorates graft injury.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chao; Ma, Liangjuan; Liu, Jinfeng; Cui, Xiaoguang; Liu, Rongfang; Xing, Jingchun; Zhou, Huacheng

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) attenuates lung ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) via inhalation, and as an additive dissolved in flush/preservation solution. This study observed the effects of lung inflation with CO on lung graft function in the setting of cold ischemia. Donor lungs were inflated with 40% oxygen + 60% nitrogen (control group) or with 500 ppm CO + 40% oxygen + nitrogen (CO group) during the cold ischemia phase and were kept at 4℃ for 180 min. Recipients were sacrificed by exsanguinations at 180 min after reperfusion. Rats in the sham group had no transplantation and were performed as the recipients. Compared with the sham group, the oxygenation determined by blood gas analysis and the pressure-volume curves of the lung grafts decreased significantly, while the wet weight/dry weight (W/D) ratio, inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis increased markedly (P < 0.05). However, compared to the control group, CO treatment improved the oxygenation (381 ± 58 vs. 308 ± 78 mm Hg) and the pressure-volume curves (15.8 ± 2.4 vs. 11.6 ± 1.7 mL/kg) (P < 0.05). The W/D ratio (4.6 ± 0.6) and the serum levels of interleukin-8 (279 ± 46 pg/mL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (377 ± 59 pg/mL) in the CO group decreased significantly compared to the control group (5.8 ± 0.8, 456 ± 63 pg/mL, and 520 ± 91 pg/mL) (P < 0.05). In addition, CO inflation also significantly decreased malondialdehyde activity and apoptotic cells in grafts, and increased the superoxide dismutase content. Briefly, CO inflation in donor lungs in the setting of cold ischemia attenuated lung IRI and improved the graft function compared with oxygen.

  12. Transient ischemic attack induced by melted solid lipid microparticles protects rat brains from permanent focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-J; Kuo, Y-M; Tsai, Y-H

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to develop a transient ischemic attack (TIA) model in conscious animals and uses this model to investigate the effect of TIA on subsequent permanent ischemia. TIA was induced by injecting designed temperature-sensitive melted solid lipid microparticles with a melting point around body temperature into male Wistar rats via arterial cannulation. Neurologic deficit was monitored immediately after the injection without anesthesia. According to the clinical definition of TIA, rats were divided into neurologic symptom durations <24-h, 24-48-h and ≥48-h groups. The lipid microparticle-induced infarct volumes were small in the <24-h and 24-48-h groups, while the volumes were five times larger in the ≥48-h group. Permanent ischemic stroke was induced 3d after the induction of TIA by injecting a different kind of embolic particle manufactured by blending chitin and PLGA. The <24-h group had less severe neurologic deficits and smaller infarct volumes than that of 24-48-h and control (without prior lipid microparticle treatment) rats. Taken together, we successfully develop a TIA animal model which allows us to monitor the neurologic deficit in real-time. By adopting this model, we validate that TIA (<24h) preconditioning protects the brain from subsequent permanent ischemic stroke.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide post-conditioning preserves interfibrillar mitochondria of rat heart during ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Banu, Shakila A; Ravindran, Sriram; Kurian, Gino A

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be the main manifestation in the pathology of ischemia reperfusion injury, and by restoring its functional activity, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gaseotransmitter renders cardioprotection. Given that interfibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemmal (SSM) mitochondria are the two main types in the heart, the present study investigates the specific H2S-mediated action on IFM and SSM during ischemic reperfusion in the Langendorff rat heart model. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely normal, ischemic control, reperfusion control (I/R), ischemic post-conditioning (POC), and H2S post-conditioning (POC_H2S). In reperfusion control, cardiac contractility decreased, and lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and infracted size increased compared to both normal and ischemic group. In hearts post-conditioned with H2S and the classical method improved cardiac mechanical function and decreased cardiac markers in the perfusate and infarct size significantly. Both POC and POC_H2S exerts its cardioprotective effect of preserving the IFM, as evident by significant improvement in electron transport chain enzyme activities and mitochondrial respiration. The in vitro action of H2S on IFM and SSM from normal and I/R rat heart supports H2S and mediates cardioprotection via IFM preservation. Our study indicates that IFM play an important role in POC_H2S mediated cardioprotection from reperfusion injury. PMID:26951457

  14. Evaluation of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii in unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Punuru, Priyanka; Sujatha, D.; Kumari, B. Pushpa; Charisma, V. V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aqueous extract of leaves of Murraya koenigii was studied for its renoprotective potential against unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR) injury in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 8) and were treated with 200 mg/kg., p.o. of aqueous extract of M. koenigii (AEMK) for 30 days to assess both preventive and curative effects of AEMK. Except Group I, RIR was induced to all the groups by clamping the left renal artery using artery clamp for 1 h followed by reperfusion by removing the clamp. Groups II and III underwent RIR at 30th day whereas RIR was induced in Groups IV and V at 1st day of treatment schedule. Biochemical parameters (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and serum Na+), urinary parameters (urine output, urinary creatinine, urinary urea, urinary total protein, urinary Na+), in vivo anti-oxidants, renal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathology of kidneys were monitored. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Rats were treated with AEMK significantly (P < 0.05) restored the serum and urinary parameters with significant (P < 0.05) improvement in endogenous anti-oxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and decreased levels of malondialdehyde and renal MPO when compared with the control groups. Histopathological examination also supported the biochemical and urinary tests. Conclusions: Aqueous extract of M. koenigii possesses both preventive and curative effects against RIR injury. PMID:24741188

  15. The neuroprotective effects of intravascular low level laser irradiation on cerebral ischemia rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yongming; Lu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhongguang; Jiang, Jiyao

    2005-07-01

    The effects of intravascular low level laser irradiation of He-Ne on rat MCAo-induced cerebral injury were studied. The results showed that control rats (subjected to MCAo injury without laser treatment) at 7d exhibited striatal and cortical brain infarction in the right hemisphere from approximately 3 to 11mm from the front pole. the total infarct volume in this group was 34.5+/-8.1mm3. For experimental rats (with laser management), the total infarct volume was 29.0+/-9.0mm3. P was gained less than 0.05. The neurological score of control group was 4.7+/-0.6 and it was 5.2+/-1.0 in experimental group, comparison by statistical analysis showed P less than 0.05. The cerebral pathological damages in the control group were more severe than in experimental group. We concluded that the intravascular low level laser irradiation has no remarked complication and is helpful to reduce ischemic damage. There is clinically potential for the application of intravascular He-Ne low level laser irradiation in ischemia stroke.

  16. EFFECTS OF HELIUM PRECONDITIONING ON INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION INJURY IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Rongjia; Luo, Tianhang; Nie, Mingming; Bi, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur in clinical settings such as organ transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass and trauma. The noble gas helium attenuates I/R injury in a number of animal organs and thus may offer a strategy for reducing I/R-induced intestinal injury in clinical settings. In the present study, we used four different helium preconditioning (HPC) profiles to investigate the potential beneficial effect of HPC on I/R-induced intestinal injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with three cycles of air breathing for 5 min combined with three cycles of breathing a 70% helium:30% oxygen mixture for either 2, 5, 10, or 15 min, after which they were subjected to 60-min intestinal ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. Sixty minutes after reperfusion, the intestinal tissues of the variously treated rats were analyzed using histology, immunohistochemistry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining, myeloperoxidase activity assay, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tumor necrosis factor α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α. Intestinal permeability was assayed by measuring fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran release in blood samples. The results showed that the HPC profile consisting of three cycles of 10 or 15 min of helium breathing and three cycles of 5 min of air breathing reduced I/R-induced intestinal injury, cell apoptosis, and the inflammatory response. However, the 2- or 5-min helium breathing did not confer any protective effects. It seems that longer helium episodes should be used in HPC profiles designed to attenuate intestinal I/R injury.

  17. Bromelain induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/FOXO pathway in rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Bela; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Pant, Rima; Zhan, Lijun; Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Secor, Eric R; Srivastava, Sapna; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Menon, Venugopal P; Otani, Hajime; Thrall, Roger S; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2008-03-01

    Bromelain (Br), a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to reduce blood viscosity, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets, and improve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a skeletal muscle model. We investigated the capacity of Br to limit myocardial injury in a global I/R model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control (PBS) and Br at 10 mg/kg in PBS administered via intraperitoneal injection (twice/day) for 15 consecutive days. On day 16, the hearts were excised and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Br treatment showed higher left ventricular functional recovery throughout reperfusion compared with the controls [maximum rate of rise in intraventricular pressure (dP/dt max), 2,225 vs. 1,578 mmHg/s at 2 h reperfusion]. Aortic flow was also found to be increased in Br treatment when compared with that in untreated rats (11 vs. 1 ml). Furthermore, Br treatment reduced both the infarct size (34% vs. 43%) and the degree of apoptosis (28% vs. 37%) compared with the control animals. Western blot analysis showed an increased phosphorylation of both Akt and FOXO3A in the treatment group compared with the control. These results demonstrated for the first time that Br triggers an Akt-dependent survival pathway in the heart, revealing a novel mechanism of cardioprotective action and a potential therapeutic target against I/R injury.

  18. Bromelain induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/FOXO pathway in rat myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Bela; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Pant, Rima; Zhan, Lijun; Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Secor, Eric R.; Srivastava, Sapna; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Menon, Venugopal P.; Otani, Hajime; Thrall, Roger S.; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain (Br), a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to reduce blood viscosity, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets, and improve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a skeletal muscle model. We investigated the capacity of Br to limit myocardial injury in a global I/R model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control (PBS) and Br at 10 mg/kg in PBS administered via intraperitoneal injection (twice/day) for 15 consecutive days. On day 16, the hearts were excised and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Br treatment showed higher left ventricular functional recovery throughout reperfusion compared with the controls [maximum rate of rise in intraventricular pressure (dP/dtmax), 2,225 vs. 1,578 mmHg/s at 2 h reperfusion]. Aortic flow was also found to be increased in Br treatment when compared with that in untreated rats (11 vs. 1 ml). Furthermore, Br treatment reduced both the infarct size (34% vs. 43%) and the degree of apoptosis (28% vs. 37%) compared with the control animals. Western blot analysis showed an increased phosphorylation of both Akt and FOXO3A in the treatment group compared with the control. These results demonstrated for the first time that Br triggers an Akt-dependent survival pathway in the heart, revealing a novel mechanism of cardioprotective action and a potential therapeutic target against I/R injury. PMID:18192224

  19. EFFECTS OF HELIUM PRECONDITIONING ON INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION INJURY IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Rongjia; Luo, Tianhang; Nie, Mingming; Bi, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur in clinical settings such as organ transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass and trauma. The noble gas helium attenuates I/R injury in a number of animal organs and thus may offer a strategy for reducing I/R-induced intestinal injury in clinical settings. In the present study, we used four different helium preconditioning (HPC) profiles to investigate the potential beneficial effect of HPC on I/R-induced intestinal injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with three cycles of air breathing for 5 min combined with three cycles of breathing a 70% helium:30% oxygen mixture for either 2, 5, 10, or 15 min, after which they were subjected to 60-min intestinal ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. Sixty minutes after reperfusion, the intestinal tissues of the variously treated rats were analyzed using histology, immunohistochemistry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining, myeloperoxidase activity assay, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tumor necrosis factor α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α. Intestinal permeability was assayed by measuring fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran release in blood samples. The results showed that the HPC profile consisting of three cycles of 10 or 15 min of helium breathing and three cycles of 5 min of air breathing reduced I/R-induced intestinal injury, cell apoptosis, and the inflammatory response. However, the 2- or 5-min helium breathing did not confer any protective effects. It seems that longer helium episodes should be used in HPC profiles designed to attenuate intestinal I/R injury. PMID:26052960

  20. Melatonin reduces cerebral edema formation caused by transient forebrain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Takashi; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Nishino, Hitoo; Torii, Kunio

    2002-12-20

    Reduction of cerebral edema, an early symptom of ischemia, is one of the most important remedies for reducing subsequent chronic neural damage in stroke. Melatonin, a metabolite of tryptophan released from the pineal gland, has been found to be effective against neurotoxicity in vitro. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of melatonin in vivo in reducing ischemia-induced edema using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Melatonin was administered twice (6.0 mg/kg, p.o.): just prior to 1 h MCA occlusion and 1 day after the surgery. T2-weighted multislice spin-echo images were acquired 1 day after the surgery. Increases in T2-weighted signals in ischemic sites of the brain were clearly observed after MCA occlusion. The signal increase was found mainly in the striatum and in the cerebral cortex in saline-treated control rats. In the melatonin-treated group, the total volume of cerebral edema was reduced by 45.3% compared to control group (P < 0.01). The protective effect of melatonin against cerebral edema was more clearly observed in the cerebral cortex (reduced by 56.1%, P < 0.01), while the reduction of edema volume in the striatum was weak (reduced by 23.0%). The present MRI study clearly demonstrated that melatonin is effective in reducing edema formation in ischemic animals in vivo, especially in the cerebral cortex. Melatonin may be highly useful in preventing cortical dysfunctions such as motor, sensory, memory, and psychological impairments.

  1. Oral administration of polyamines ameliorates liver ischemia/reperfusion injury and promotes liver regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Shinya; Teratani, Takumi; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Zhao, Xiangdong; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Masano, Yuki; Kasahara, Naoya; Iida, Taku; Yagi, Shintaro; Uemura, Tadahiro; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    Polyamines are essential for cell growth and differentiation. They play important roles in protection from liver damage and promotion of liver regeneration. However, little is known about the effect of oral exogenous polyamine administration on liver damage and regeneration. This study investigated the impact of polyamines (spermidine and spermine) on ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and liver regeneration. We used a rat model in which a 70% hepatectomy after 40 minutes of ischemia was performed to mimic the clinical condition of living donor partial liver transplantation (LT). Male Lewis rats were separated into 2 groups: a polyamine group given polyamines before and after operation as treatment and a vehicle group given distilled water as placebo. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase at 6, 24, and 48 hours after reperfusion were significantly lower in the polyamine group compared with those in the vehicle group. Polyamine treatment reduced the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines at 6 hours after reperfusion. Histological analysis showed significantly less necrosis and apoptosis in the polyamine group at 6 hours after reperfusion. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were also well preserved in the polyamine group. In addition, the regeneration of the remnant liver at 24, 48, and 168 hours after reperfusion was significantly accelerated, and the Ki-67 labeling index and the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein at 24 hours after reperfusion were significantly higher in the polyamine group compared with those in the vehicle group. In conclusion, perioperative oral polyamine administration attenuates liver IRI and promotes liver regeneration. It might be a new therapeutic option to improve the outcomes of partial LT. Liver Transplantation 22 1231-1244 2016 AASLD. PMID:27102080

  2. Curcuma oil reduces endothelial cell-mediated inflammation in postmyocardial ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Manhas, Amit; Khanna, Vivek; Prakash, Prem; Goyal, Dipika; Malasoni, Richa; Naqvi, Arshi; Dwivedi, Anil K; Dikshit, Madhu; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial cells initiated inflammation persisting in postmyocardial infarction needs to be controlled and moderated for avoiding fatal complications. Curcuma oil (C.oil, Herbal Medicament), a standardized hexane soluble fraction of Curcuma longa has possessed neuroprotective effect. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/RP) and endothelial cells remains incompletely defined. Here, using in vivo rat MI/RP injury model and in vitro cellular approaches using EA.hy926 endothelial cells, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and myograph, we provide evidence that with effective regimen and preconditioning of rats with C.oil (250 mg/kg, PO), before and after MI/RP surgery protects rats from MI/RP-induced injury. C.oil treatment reduces left ventricular ischemic area and endothelial cell-induced inflammation, specifically in the ischemic region (*P < 0.0001) and improved endothelial function by reducing the expression of proinflammatory genes and adhesion factors on endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, mechanistic studies have revealed that C.oil reduced the expression of adhesion factors like E-selectin (#P = 0.0016) and ICAM-1 ($P = 0.0069) in initiating endothelial cells-induced inflammation. In line to the real-time polymerase chain reaction expression data, C.oil reduced the adhesion of inflammatory cells to endothelial cells as assessed by the interaction of THP-1 monocytes with the endothelial cells using flow-based adhesion and under inflammatory conditions. These studies provide evidence that salutary effect of C.oil on MI/RP could be achieved with pretreatment and posttreatment of rats, C.oil reduced MI/RP-induced injury by reducing the endothelial cell-mediated inflammation, specifically in the ischemic zone of MI/RP rat heart.

  3. Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Stimulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats Following Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Oumei; Li, Rong; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Lijuan; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jia; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Junqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation (SD) plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR). Methods One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d. Results The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects. Conclusions Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process. PMID:26039740

  4. Danaparoid sodium reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury in rats by attenuating inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji; Kohmura, Hidefumi; Uchiba, Mitsuhiro; Tomita, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the mechanism by which danaparoid sodium (DS), a heparinoid that contains mainly heparan sulfate, prevents reperfusion-induced hepatic damage in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced liver injury. Administration of DS significantly reduced liver injury and inhibited the decrease in hepatic tissue blood flow in rats. DS attenuated hepatic I/R-induced increases in hepatic tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in vivo. In contrast, neither monocytic TNF production nor neutrophil activation was inhibited by DS in vitro. DS enhanced I/R-induced increases in levels of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory neurons, and of 6-ketoprostaglandin (PG) F (1a) , a stable metabolite of PGI (2) , in liver tissues. The therapeutic effects of DS were not seen in animals pretreated with capsazepine, an inhibitor of sensory neuron activation. The distribution of heparan sulfate in the perivascular area was significantly increased by DS administration in this rat model. DS significantly increased CGRP release from isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) in vitro, while DX-9065a, a selective inhibitor of activated factor X, did not. DS enhanced anandamide-induced CGRP release from DRG in vitro. These observations strongly suggested that DS might reduce I/R-induced liver injury in rats by attenuating inflammatory responses. These therapeutic effects of DS might be at least partly explained by its enhancement of sensory neuron activation, leading to the increase the endothelial production of PGI (2) . PMID:17200774

  5. Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Preconditioning Provides Cardioprotection in a Rat Model of Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Duomao; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yanyan; Wang, Zhaoqi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impacts and related mechanisms of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. A rat model of myocardial I/R injury was established by the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 3 h perfusion. Before I/R, the rats were pretreated with or without PHC. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. The activities/levels of myocardial enzymes, oxidants and antioxidant enzymes were detected. Evans blue/TTC double staining was performed to assess infarct size. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay. The release of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators was detected by ELISA. Western blot was performed to analyze the expression of COX-2, IκB, p-IκB and NF-κB. Meanwhile, the rats were given a single injection of H-PHC before I/R. The effects of PHC on myocardial infarct and cardiac function were investigated after 7 days post-reperfusion. We found that PHC remarkably improved cardiac function, alleviated myocardial injury by decreasing myocardial enzyme levels and attenuated oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PHC preconditioning significantly reduced infarct size and the apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes. Administration of PHC significantly decreased serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 levels and myocardium COX-2 level. Meanwhile, the expression levels of p-IκB and NF-κB were downregulated, while IκB expression was upregulated. H-PHC also exerted long-term cardioprotection in a rat model of I/R injury by decreasing infarct size and improving cardiac function. These results suggest that PHC can efficiently protect the rats against I/R-induced myocardial injury. PMID:26632817

  6. Targeting Cell Signaling and Apoptotic Pathways by Luteolin: Cardioprotective Role in Rat Cardiomyocytes Following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongda; Li, Dongye; Jiang, Dehua

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia often results in damaged heart structure and function, which can be restored through ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in most cases. However, I/R can exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Luteolin, a widely distributed flavonoid, a member of a group of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds found in many fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. In recent years, luteolin has been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotection of IRI. However, its role and mechanism in cardioprotection against IRI has not been clearly elucidated with respect to the apoptosis pathway. The purpose of this paper is to review luteolin’s anti-apoptotic role and mechanism following I/R in rats, and indicate luteolin as a potential candidate for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23235403

  7. Precise Characterization of the Penumbra Revealed by MRI: A Modified Photothrombotic Stroke Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yun; Yao, Hong-Hong; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yang, Jian; Ding, Jie; Yang, Xiang-Yu; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Aims To precisely characterize the penumbra by MRI based on a modified photothrombotic stroke mouse model. Methods The proximal middle cerebral artery was occluded by a convenient laser system in conjunction with an intravenous injection of Rose Bengal in mice. And the suture MCAO model was performed in seven mice as a comparison of the reproducibility. One hour after occlusion, the penumbra was defined in six random photothrombotic stroke mice by mismatch between perfusion-weighted imaging and the apparent diffusion coefficient map on a home-made workstation. After imaging, three random mice of them were chosen to perform the reperfusion surgery. And the other three mice were sacrificed to stain for several potential penumbra markers, such as c-fos and heart shock protein 90. In the remaining mice, the evolution of the lesions was detected on the apparent diffusion coefficient map, diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. After evaluating the neurological deficit scores, the brains were sectioned and stained by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Nissl. Results The mice subjected to photothrombosis showed significant behavioral deficits. One hour after occlusion, the low perfusion areas on the perfusion-weighted imaging interlaced with the hypointense areas on the apparent diffusion coefficient map, demonstrating that the penumbra was located both surrounding and inside the lesions. This phenomenon was subsequently confirmed by the c-fos and heart shock protein 90 staining. The final T2-weighted images of the mice subjected to the reperfusion surgery were also consistent with the penumbra images at one hour. At early stages, the lesions were clearly identified on the apparent diffusion coefficient map; the volumes of the lesions on the diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging did not reach a maximum until 12 hours. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the final lesions in the photothrombotic stroke mice was 21.7% (0

  8. Reoxygenation, but neither hypoxia nor intermittent ischemia, increases ( sup 125 I)endothelin-1 binding to rat cardiac membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.J.; Gu, X.H.; Casley, D.J.; Nayler, W.G. )

    1990-03-01

    Standard binding techniques were used to establish whether either hypoxia, reoxygenation, perfusion under acidotic conditions, or stunning of the myocardium resembles ischemia and postischemic reperfusion in increasing cardiac membrane ({sup 125}I)endothelin-1 (ET-1) binding site density (Bmax). Membranes from aerobically perfused rat hearts bound ({sup 125}I)ET-1 to a single population of sites, with an affinity (KD) of 0.093 +/- 0.004 nM and a Bmax of 98.8 +/- 5.2 fmol/mg of protein. Bmax was increased (p less than 0.01) after 30 min of global ischemia, and further increased upon reperfusion, without changes in KD or selectivity. Neither three 10 min episodes of ischemia separated by 15 min of perfusion, nor perfusion at pH 6.8 instead of 7.4, nor 60 min of hypoxia altered Bmax, KD, or selectivity. Reoxygenation after 60 min of hypoxia increased Bmax (p less than 0.01) and KD (p less than 0.01) without changing selectivity. These results are interpreted to mean that the ischemia-induced increase in Bmax for ({sup 125}I)ET-1 cannot be explained simply in terms of the ischemia-induced acidosis, or the accompanying reduction in tissue adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate.

  9. Evaluation of the PBR/TSPO radioligand [(18)F]DPA-714 in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Martín, Abraham; Boisgard, Raphaël; Thézé, Benoit; Van Camp, Nadja; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Damont, Annelaure; Kassiou, Michael; Dollé, Frédéric; Tavitian, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia leads to an inflammatory reaction involving an overexpression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)/18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) in the cerebral monocytic lineage (microglia and monocyte) and in astrocytes. Imaging of PBR/TSPO by positron emission tomography (PET) using radiolabeled ligands can document inflammatory processes induced by cerebral ischemia. We performed in vivo PET imaging with [(18)F]DPA-714 to determine the time course of PBR/TSPO expression over several days after induction of cerebral ischemia in rats. In vivo PET imaging showed significant increase in DPA (N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide) uptake on the injured side compared with that in the contralateral area on days 7, 11, 15, and 21 after ischemia; the maximal binding value was reached 11 days after ischemia. In vitro autoradiography confirmed these in vivo results. In vivo and in vitro [(18)F]DPA-714 binding was displaced from the lesion by PK11195 and DPA-714. Immunohistochemistry showed increased PBR/TSPO expression, peaking at day 11 in cells expressing microglia/macrophage antigens in the ischemic area. At later times, a centripetal migration of astrocytes toward the lesion was observed, promoting the formation of an astrocytic scar. These results show that [(18)F]DPA-714 provides accurate quantitative information of the time course of PBR/TSPO expression in experimental stroke.

  10. Effects of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) on cellular ion homeostasis in rat brain subjected to complete ischemia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Dengler, K; Zacharias, E; Wilffert, B; Tegtmeier, F

    1994-08-01

    Anoxic depolarization (AD) and failure of the cellular ion homeostasis are suggested to play a key role in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Recent studies show that the blockade of Na+ influx significantly improved the neuronal outcome. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 10 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) on ischemia-induced disturbances of ion homeostasis in the isolated perfused rat brain. TTX inhibited the spontaneous EEG activity, delayed the ischemia-induced tissue acidification, and significantly postponed the occurrence of AD by 65%. The [Ca2+]e elevation prior to AD was attenuated from 17.8% to 6% while the increase of the [Na+]e in this period was enhanced (from 2.9% to 7.3%). These findings implied that the ischemia-induced early cellular sodium load and the corresponding shrinkage of the extracellular space was counteracted by TTX. Our results suggest that the Na+ influx via voltage-dependent channels preceding complete breakdown of ion homeostasis is one major factor leading to cell depolarization. The massive Na+ influx coinciding with AD, however, may be mainly via non-selective cation channels or/and receptor-operated channels. Persistent Na+ influx deteriorates neuronal tissue integrity by favouring Ca2+ influx and edema formation. Blockade of ischemia-induced excessive Na+ influx is, therefore, a promising pharmacological approach for stroke treatment. PMID:7953733

  11. Enhanced Endothelin-1 Mediated Vasoconstriction of the Ophthalmic Artery May Exacerbate Retinal Damage after Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blixt, Frank W.; Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Johnson, Leif; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Warfvinge, Karin; Edvinsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculature is often the target of stroke studies. However, the vasculature supplying the eye might also be affected by ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the transient global cerebral ischemia (GCI) enhances vascular effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine/serotonin (5-HT) on the ophthalmic artery in rats, leading to delayed retinal damage. This was preformed using myography on the ophthalmic artery, coupled with immunohistochemistry and electroretinogram (ERG) to assess the ischemic consequences on the retina. Results showed a significant increase of ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction at 48 hours post ischemia. The retina did not exhibit any morphological changes throughout the study. However, we found an increase of GFAP and vimentin expression at 72 hours and 7 days after ischemia, indicating Müller cell mediated gliosis. ERG revealed significantly decreased function at 72 hours, but recovered almost completely after 7 days. In conclusion, we propose that the increased contractile response via ET-1 receptors in the ophthalmic artery after 48 hours may elicit negative retinal consequences due to a second ischemic period. This may exacerbate retinal damage after ischemia as illustrated by the decreased retinal function and Müller cell activation. The ophthalmic artery and ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction may be a valid and novel therapeutic target after longer periods of ischemic insults. PMID:27322388

  12. Dose-dependent, protective effect of FK506 against white matter changes in the rat brain after chronic cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wakita, H; Tomimoto, H; Akiguchi, I; Kimura, J

    1998-05-01

    Neuroprotective effects of immunosuppressive agents have been shown in cerebral ischemia. To investigate the role of immunosuppressive agents in chronic cerebral ischemia and to design a drug protocol with safe therapeutic windows, we examined the effects of FK506, a potent immunosuppressive agent, on chronic cerebral ischemia. Both common carotid arteries were ligated in 73 male Wistar rats. Fifty-eight of these rats received a chronic injection of FK506 (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) and the remaining 15 received a vehicle solution injection. Microglia/macrophage was investigated with immunohistochemistry for leukocyte common antigen and major histocompatibility complex, and astroglia was examined with glial fibrillary acidic protein as markers. White matter rarefaction and the number of immunopositive glial cells were assessed from 7 to 30 days after the ligation. In the vehicle-treated animals, there was persistent and extensive activation of the microglia/macrophages and astroglia in the white matter, including the optic nerve, optic tract, corpus callosum, internal capsule, anterior commissure and traversing fiber bundles of the caudoputamen. In the FK506-treated rats, the number of activated microglia/macrophages was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01) as compared to the vehicle-treated rats. Rarefaction of the white matter was also inhibited by FK506 in a dose-dependent manner (p<0. 01). Thus, a clinically-relevant dosage of FK506 attenuated both glial activation and white matter changes in chronic cerebral ischemia in the rat. These results indicate a potential use for FK506 in cerebrovascular diseases.

  13. Vitexin exerts cardioprotective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via inhibiting myocardial apoptosis and lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xia; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Junyan; Peng, Chengfeng; Zhen, Yilan; Shao, Xu; Zhang, Gongliang; Dong, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the cardioprotective effect of vitexin on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and potential mechanisms. Methods: A chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary for 60 minutes, and followed by reperfusion for 14 days. After 2 weeks ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac function was measured to assess myocardial injury. The level of ST segment was recorded in different periods by electrocardiograph. The change of left ventricular function and myocardial reaction degree of fibrosis of heart was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Sirius red staining. Endothelium-dependent relaxations due to acetylcholine were observed in isolated rat thoracic aortic ring preparation. The blood samples were collected to measure the levels of MDA, the activities of SOD and NADPH in serum. Epac1, Rap1, Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by using Western Blotting. Results: Vitexin exerted significant protective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, improved obviously left ventricular diastolic function and reduced myocardial reactive fibrosis degree in rats of myocardial ischemia. Medium and high-dose vitexin groups presented a significant decrease in Bax, Epac1 and Rap1 production and increase in Bcl-2 compared to the I/R group. It may be related to preventing myocardial cells from apoptosis, improving myocardial diastolic function and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Vitexin is a cardioprotective herb, which may be a promising useful complementary and alternative medicine for patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:27648122

  14. In vivo estimation of optical properties of rat liver using single-reflectance fiber probe during ischemia and reperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Sharmin; Tanabe, Tomoki; Maejima, Satoshi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Hinoki, Akinari; Aosasa, Suefumi; Yamamoto, Junji; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-04-01

    To quantify the changes in optical properties of in vivo rat liver tissue, we applied diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system using single-reflectance fiber probe during ischemia and reperfusion evoked by hepatic portal occlusion (hepatic artery, portal vein and bile duct). Changes in the reduced scattering coefficient μ s', the absorption coefficient μ a, the tissue oxygen saturation StO2, and the oxidation of heme aa3 in cytochrome c oxidase (C cO) OHaa3 of in vivo rat liver (n = 6) were evaluated. Heme aa3 in C cO were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) during ischemia, which indicates a sign of mitochondrial energy failure induced by oxygen insufficiency of liver tissue. We found that OHaa3 obtained from the proposed method was unchanged immediately after the onset of ischemia and started gradually decreasing at 2 min after the onset of ischemia. Difference in the time course between OHaa3 and the conventional ratio metric analysis with μ a(605)/ μ a(620) reported in literature demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in reduction of optical cross talk between hemoglobin and heme aa3. Our results suggest that DRS technique is applicable and useful for assessing in vivo tissue viability and hemodynamics in liver intraoperatively.

  15. MRI Dynamically Evaluates the Therapeutic Effect of Recombinant Human MANF on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Yun; Song, Meng-Meng; Bi, Si-Xing; Shen, Yu-Jun; Shen, Yu-Xian; Yu, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    As an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible protein, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) has been proven to protect dopaminergic neurons and nondopaminergic cells. Our previous studies had shown that MANF protected against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to dynamically evaluate the therapeutic effects of MANF on ischemia/reperfusion injury. We established a rat focal ischemic model by using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MRI was performed to investigate the dynamics of lesion formation. MANF protein was injected into the right lateral ventricle at 3 h after reperfusion following MCAO for 90 min, when the obvious lesion firstly appeared according to MRI investigation. T2-weighted imaging for evaluating the therapeutic effects of MANF protein was performed in ischemia/reperfusion injury rats on Days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 post-reperfusion combined with histology methods. The results indicated that the administration of MANF protein at the early stage after ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased the mortality, improved the neurological function, reduced the cerebral infarct volume, and alleviated the brain tissue injury. The findings collected from MRI are consistent with the morphological and pathological changes, which suggest that MRI is a useful technology for evaluating the therapeutic effects of drugs. PMID:27608005

  16. MRI Dynamically Evaluates the Therapeutic Effect of Recombinant Human MANF on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian-Yun; Song, Meng-Meng; Bi, Si-Xing; Shen, Yu-Jun; Shen, Yu-Xian; Yu, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    As an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible protein, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) has been proven to protect dopaminergic neurons and nondopaminergic cells. Our previous studies had shown that MANF protected against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to dynamically evaluate the therapeutic effects of MANF on ischemia/reperfusion injury. We established a rat focal ischemic model by using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MRI was performed to investigate the dynamics of lesion formation. MANF protein was injected into the right lateral ventricle at 3 h after reperfusion following MCAO for 90 min, when the obvious lesion firstly appeared according to MRI investigation. T2-weighted imaging for evaluating the therapeutic effects of MANF protein was performed in ischemia/reperfusion injury rats on Days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 post-reperfusion combined with histology methods. The results indicated that the administration of MANF protein at the early stage after ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased the mortality, improved the neurological function, reduced the cerebral infarct volume, and alleviated the brain tissue injury. The findings collected from MRI are consistent with the morphological and pathological changes, which suggest that MRI is a useful technology for evaluating the therapeutic effects of drugs. PMID:27608005

  17. Role of autophagy in the bimodal stage after spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Qian; Bao, Na-Ren; Tan, Wen-Fei; Chen, Feng-Shou; Pi, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Hong

    2016-07-22

    Autophagy plays an important role in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its neuroprotective or neurodegenerative role remains controversial. The extent and persistence of autophagy activation may be the critical factor to explain the opposing effects. In this study, the different roles and action mechanisms of autophagy in the early and later stages after I/R injury were investigated in rats. Thespinal cord I/R injury was induced by 14-min occlusion of the aortic arch, after which rats were treated with autophagic inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA) or agonist (rapamycin) immediately or 48h following the injury. Autophagy markers, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and Beclin 1 increased and peaked at the early stage (8h) and the later stage (72h) after spinal cord I/R injury. Beclin 1 was mostly expressed in neurons, but was also expressed to an extent in astrocytes, microglia and vascular endothelial cells. 8h after injury, rats treated with 3-MA showed a decrease in the hind-limb Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) motor function scores, surviving motor neurons, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, and increase in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, and activation of microglia, while those treated with rapamycin showed opposing effects. However, 72h after injury, rats treated with 3-MA improved the BBB scores, and the surviving motor neurons, and reduced the autophagic cell death, while those treated with rapamycin had adverse effects. These findings provide the first evidence that early activated autophagy alleviates spinal cord I/R injury via inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation; however later excessively elevated autophagy aggravates I/R injury through inducing autophagic cell death. PMID:27109922

  18. Role of autophagy in the bimodal stage after spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Qian; Bao, Na-Ren; Tan, Wen-Fei; Chen, Feng-Shou; Pi, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Hong

    2016-07-22

    Autophagy plays an important role in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its neuroprotective or neurodegenerative role remains controversial. The extent and persistence of autophagy activation may be the critical factor to explain the opposing effects. In this study, the different roles and action mechanisms of autophagy in the early and later stages after I/R injury were investigated in rats. Thespinal cord I/R injury was induced by 14-min occlusion of the aortic arch, after which rats were treated with autophagic inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA) or agonist (rapamycin) immediately or 48h following the injury. Autophagy markers, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and Beclin 1 increased and peaked at the early stage (8h) and the later stage (72h) after spinal cord I/R injury. Beclin 1 was mostly expressed in neurons, but was also expressed to an extent in astrocytes, microglia and vascular endothelial cells. 8h after injury, rats treated with 3-MA showed a decrease in the hind-limb Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) motor function scores, surviving motor neurons, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, and increase in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, and activation of microglia, while those treated with rapamycin showed opposing effects. However, 72h after injury, rats treated with 3-MA improved the BBB scores, and the surviving motor neurons, and reduced the autophagic cell death, while those treated with rapamycin had adverse effects. These findings provide the first evidence that early activated autophagy alleviates spinal cord I/R injury via inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation; however later excessively elevated autophagy aggravates I/R injury through inducing autophagic cell death.

  19. Intermedin protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients, through incompletely understood mechanisms, endure exacerbated ischemic heart injury compared to non-diabetic patients. Intermedin (IMD) is a novel calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) superfamily member with established cardiovascular protective effects. However, whether IMD protects against diabetic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is unknown. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in Sprague–Dawley rats. Animals were subjected to MI via left circumflex artery ligation for 30 minutes followed by 2 hours R. IMD was administered formally 10 minutes before R. Outcome measures included left ventricular function, oxidative stress, cellular death, infarct size, and inflammation. Results IMD levels were significantly decreased in diabetic rats compared to control animals. After MI/R, diabetic rats manifested elevated intermedin levels, both in plasma (64.95 ± 4.84 pmol/L, p < 0.05) and myocardial tissue (9.8 ± 0.60 pmol/L, p < 0.01) compared to pre-MI control values (43.62 ± 3.47 pmol/L and 4.4 ± 0.41). IMD administration to diabetic rats subjected to MI/R decreased oxidative stress product generation, apoptosis, infarct size, and inflammatory cytokine release (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Conclusions By reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, IMD may represent a promising novel therapeutic target mitigating diabetic ischemic heart injury. PMID:23777472

  20. Gastrodin improves cognitive dysfunction and decreases oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the potential protective effects of gastrodin on reducing tissue oxidative stress and attenuating cognitive deficits in vascular dementia induced by cerebral chronic hyperfusion. To explore the detailed molecular mechanisms. Methods: 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Animals were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (sham group with no occlusion), Group 2 (control group with 2VO procedure), Group 3 (sham group with gastrodin administration), Group 4 (2VO group with gastrodin administration). Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats within different groups. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate of SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and rescued by gastrodin treatments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by the 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. qPCR and Western blot (WB) were adopted to detect the molecular mechanisms related to the anti-apoptosis and ROS scavenging effects of gastrodin. Results: Our results indicated an obvious protective effect of gastrodin on vascular dementia induced brain ischemia. Administration of gastrodin could improve the impaired learning and memory function induced by 2VO procedure in rats. The levels of MDA were partially decreased by the administration of gastrodin. The levels of glutathione peroxidase and total thiol were partially restored by the administration of gastrodin. Cell viability was improved by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis rate was reduced by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Gastrodin could scavenge ROS generation induced by pre

  1. Effect of sildenafil citrate in nicotine-induced ischemia: An experimental study using a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Baykan, Halit; Ozyazgan, Irfan; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Altiparmak, Mehmet; Özköse, Mehmet; Özyurt, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the negative effects of nicotine on the viability of skin flaps. Necrotic damage to skin flaps can result in significant complications including delayed wound healing, dehiscence and wound contraction. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil citrate, have a protective effect in ischemic injuries of the brain, kidney, myocardium, spinal cord, ileum and testes. In the present study, the authors evaluated the effect of sildenafil citrate on the viability of skin exposed to nicotine-induced ischemia in Sprague Dawley rats. In the preoperative period, the rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Group C was treated with subcutaneous saline and group S and group N were treated with 2 mg/kg nicotine, administered subcutaneously twice per day for 28 days. McFarlane flaps were created in all experimental animals using an incision measuring 7 cm × 3 cm. Postoperative treatment varied among the groups: group S was treated with 20 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate, while group C and group N were treated with equivalent doses of saline for seven days. A laser Doppler flow meter was used to monitor the microvasculature. Preoperative measurements of the microvasculature revealed decreased blood flow in group N and group S, both of which were treated with subcutaneous nicotine. During the postoperative evaluation, a trend toward increased blood flow was observed in group S compared with the group with nicotine-induced ischemia treated with saline alone postoperatively (group N). A visual fluorescein dye test was used to predict skin viability and demonstrated diminished skin viability in group N and group S (P<0.05) during the preoperative period. Following treatment with sildenafil for seven days, a statically significant improvement in skin viability was observed in group S (P<0.05). Nicotine decreased blood flow within the skin and impaired skin viability, while postoperative application of

  2. Effect of sildenafil citrate in nicotine-induced ischemia: An experimental study using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Baykan, Halit; Ozyazgan, Irfan; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Altiparmak, Mehmet; Ozköse, Mehmet; Ozyurt, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the negative effects of nicotine on the viability of skin flaps. Necrotic damage to skin flaps can result in significant complications including delayed wound healing, dehiscence and wound contraction. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil citrate, have a protective effect in ischemic injuries of the brain, kidney, myocardium, spinal cord, ileum and testes. In the present study, the authors evaluated the effect of sildenafil citrate on the viability of skin exposed to nicotine-induced ischemia in Sprague Dawley rats. In the preoperative period, the rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Group C was treated with subcutaneous saline and group S and group N were treated with 2 mg/kg nicotine, administered subcutaneously twice per day for 28 days. McFarlane flaps were created in all experimental animals using an incision measuring 7 cm × 3 cm. Postoperative treatment varied among the groups: group S was treated with 20 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate, while group C and group N were treated with equivalent doses of saline for seven days. A laser Doppler flow meter was used to monitor the microvasculature. Preoperative measurements of the microvasculature revealed decreased blood flow in group N and group S, both of which were treated with subcutaneous nicotine. During the postoperative evaluation, a trend toward increased blood flow was observed in group S compared with the group with nicotine-induced ischemia treated with saline alone postoperatively (group N). A visual fluorescein dye test was used to predict skin viability and demonstrated diminished skin viability in group N and group S (P<0.05) during the preoperative period. Following treatment with sildenafil for seven days, a statically significant improvement in skin viability was observed in group S (P<0.05). Nicotine decreased blood flow within the skin and impaired skin viability, while postoperative application of

  3. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Carletti, Jaqueline Vieira; Deckmann, Iohanna; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Pires, Augusto Viana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Among environmental factors, perinatal complications are related, such as neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HI contributes to the development of characteristics related to ADHD in adult rats, and to correlate the behavioral results with brain damage volume. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: HI and control. The HI procedure consisted of a permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by a period of hypoxia (90 min; 8% O₂ and 92% N₂) on the 7th postnatal day. Two months later, animals were evaluated in the open field test during a single 5-min session, and in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), over 25 weeks. Our results demonstrated that animals submitted to HI manifest cognitive impairments in task acquisition, deficits in sustained attention, and increases in impulsivity and compulsivity in response to task manipulation in the 5-CSRTT. Locomotor activity observed in open field did not differ between groups. Moreover, brain volume loss in the total hemisphere, cerebral cortex, white matter, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in HI animals, especially on the side ipsilateral to the lesion. From these results, we can infer that neonatal HI is an environmental factor that could contribute to the development of behavioral characteristics observed in ADHD that are associated with general brain atrophy. PMID:26030430

  4. Exogenous NAD(+) administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD(+) can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD(+) can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD(+). We further found that the injection of NAD(+) can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD(+) administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD(+) administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD(+) can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD(+) may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  5. Cardioprotective Effects of Astragalin against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart.

    PubMed

    Qu, Daoxu; Han, Jichun; Ren, Huanhuan; Yang, Wenxiao; Zhang, Xinjie; Zheng, Qiusheng; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of astragalin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat heart. The cardioprotective effects of astragalin on myocardial I/R injury were investigated on Langendorff apparatus. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The results showed that astragalin pretreatment improved myocardial function. Compared with I/R group, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in coronary flow decreased in astragalin pretreatment groups, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio significantly increased. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) decreased in astragalin-treated groups. The infarct size (IS) and apoptosis rate in hearts from astragalin-treated groups were lower than those in hearts from the I/R group. Western blot analysis also revealed that astragalin preconditioning significantly reduced Bax level, whereas Bcl-2 was increased in the myocardium. Therefore, astragalin exhibited cardioprotective effects via its antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities.

  6. Cardioprotective Effects of Astragalin against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Daoxu; Ren, Huanhuan; Yang, Wenxiao; Zhang, Xinjie; Zheng, Qiusheng; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of astragalin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat heart. The cardioprotective effects of astragalin on myocardial I/R injury were investigated on Langendorff apparatus. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The results showed that astragalin pretreatment improved myocardial function. Compared with I/R group, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in coronary flow decreased in astragalin pretreatment groups, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio significantly increased. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) decreased in astragalin-treated groups. The infarct size (IS) and apoptosis rate in hearts from astragalin-treated groups were lower than those in hearts from the I/R group. Western blot analysis also revealed that astragalin preconditioning significantly reduced Bax level, whereas Bcl-2 was increased in the myocardium. Therefore, astragalin exhibited cardioprotective effects via its antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26788251

  7. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Carletti, Jaqueline Vieira; Deckmann, Iohanna; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Pires, Augusto Viana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Among environmental factors, perinatal complications are related, such as neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HI contributes to the development of characteristics related to ADHD in adult rats, and to correlate the behavioral results with brain damage volume. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: HI and control. The HI procedure consisted of a permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by a period of hypoxia (90 min; 8% O₂ and 92% N₂) on the 7th postnatal day. Two months later, animals were evaluated in the open field test during a single 5-min session, and in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), over 25 weeks. Our results demonstrated that animals submitted to HI manifest cognitive impairments in task acquisition, deficits in sustained attention, and increases in impulsivity and compulsivity in response to task manipulation in the 5-CSRTT. Locomotor activity observed in open field did not differ between groups. Moreover, brain volume loss in the total hemisphere, cerebral cortex, white matter, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in HI animals, especially on the side ipsilateral to the lesion. From these results, we can infer that neonatal HI is an environmental factor that could contribute to the development of behavioral characteristics observed in ADHD that are associated with general brain atrophy.

  8. Ischemic postconditioning provides protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Weiwei; Li, Sheng; Wang, Shanwei; Yan, Aili; Nie, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protective role of ischemic postconditioning (IPOST) against intestine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operation group (S), I/R group (I/R), ischemic preconditioning group (IPC), ischemic postconditioning group (IPOST). After reperfusion, small intestines were resected for histopathologic evaluations. To evaluate DNA fragmentation, resolving agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. To measure cellular apoptotic rates in intestine tissues, we performed TUNEL staining. To examine lipid peroxidation, production of superoxide radicals and tissue neutrophil infiltration, we tested the content of malondialdehyde and activities of superoxidase dismutase and myeloperoxidase in intestine tissues, respectively. Under light microscope, intestinal mucosal impairment in IPOST and IPC groups was found milder than that in I/R group (P < 0.05). The number of apoptosis cells in I/R group was significantly higher than that in IPOST and IPC groups (P < 0.05). The content of malondialdehyde and activity of myeloperoxidase were significantly reduced in IPOST group and IPC group compared with I/R group, but the activity of superoxidase dismutase in IPOST group and IPC group was enhanced compared with I/R group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that IPOST results in protection against intestine I/R injury, which may be related to reduced production of reactive oxygen species, enhanced activities of antioxidant systems and inhibited apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells.

  9. Assessment transcallosal Diaschisis in a model of focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Ospina, Beatriz Elena; Castaño, Daniel Manrique; Potes, Laura; Umbarila Prieto, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate transcallosal changes after a local ischemic injury in rats by using the monoclonal marker anti-NeuN (Mouse anti-neuronal nuclei). Methods: Twenty-eight adult, male, Wistar rats were subjected to focal injury in the right hemisphere. The technique used was the experimental model of focal ischemic injury through intraluminal suture of the middle cerebral artery. Analyses were made for the five groups: after the lesion (control), at 24 h, 96 h, 10 days and 20 days. Exofocal neuronal damage was inferred from neuronal immunoreactivity changes to NeuN. Results: In the cortex contralateral to the lesion, immunoreactivity was diminished. This finding was most notable in the supra-granular sheets 24 h post ischemia. After 96 h, there was a generalized diminishment of the inmmunoreactivity in the supra and infra-granular sheets. At 10 and 20 days, the tissue recovered some immunoreactivity to NeuN, but there were some changes in the VI layer. Conclusion: The immunoreactive changes to NeuN support the process of inter-hemispheric diaschisis. Changes in immunoreactivity could indicate metabolic stress secondary to the disruption in connectivity to the site of lesion. PMID:27546930

  10. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  11. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury.

  12. Effects of high and low 17β-estradiol doses on focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ingberg, Edvin; Theodorsson, Elvar; Theodorsson, Annette; Ström, Jakob O.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the numerous animal studies of the effects of estrogens on cerebral ischemia have reported neuroprotective results, but a few have shown increased damage. Differences in hormone administration methods, resulting in highly different 17β-estradiol levels, may explain the discrepancies in previously reported effects. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that it is the delivered dose per se, and not the route and method of administration, that determines the effect, and that high doses are damaging while lower doses are protective. One hundred and twenty ovariectomized female Wistar rats (n = 40 per group) were randomized into three groups, subcutaneously administered different doses of 17β-estradiol and subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The modified sticky tape test was performed after 24 h and the rats were subsequently sacrificed for infarct size measurements. In contrast to our hypothesis, a significant negative correlation between 17β-estradiol dose and infarct size was found (p = 0.018). Thus, no support was found for the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol can be both neuroprotective and neurotoxic merely depending on dose. In fact, on the contrary, the findings indicate that the higher the dose of 17β-estradiol, the smaller the infarct. PMID:26839007

  13. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages.

  14. Optical coherence tomography reveals in vivo cortical structures of adult rats in response to cerebral ischemia injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yi-rong; Guo, Zhou-yi; Shu, So-yun; Bao, Xin-min

    2008-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography(OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique which uses light to directly image living tissue. we investigate the potential use of OCT for structural imaging of the ischemia injury mammalian cerebral cortex. And we examine models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats in vivo using OCT. In particular, we show that OCT can perform in vivo detection of cortex and differentiate normal and abnormal cortical anatomy. This OCT system in this study provided an axial resolution of 10~15μ m, the transverse resolution of the system is about 25 μm. OCT can provide cross-sectional images of cortical of adult rats in response to cerebral ischemia injury.We conclude that OCT represents an exciting new approach to visualize, in real-time, pathological changes in the cerebral cortex structures and may offer a new tool for Possible neuroscience clinical applications.

  15. Olmesartan restores the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Bi, Yan-Wen; Chen, Ke-Biao

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Remote ischemic perconditioning is the newest technique used to lessen ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, its effect in hypertensive animals has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning in spontaneously hypertensive rats and determine whether chronic treatment with Olmesartan could influence the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: vehicle-sham, vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion injury, vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning, olmesartan-sham, olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion and olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning. The left ventricular mass index, creatine kinase concentration, infarct size, arrhythmia scores, HIF–1α mRNA expression, miR-21 expression and miR-210 expression were measured. RESULTS: Olmesartan significantly reduced the left ventricular mass index, decreased the creatine kinase concentration, limited the infarct size and reduced the arrhythmia score. The infarct size, creatine kinase concentration and arrhythmia score during reperfusion were similar for the vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion group and vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning group. However, these values were significantly decreased in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. HIF–1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression were markedly down-regulated in the Olmesartan-sham group compared to the vehicle-sham group and significantly up-regulated in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that 1 the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning is lost in vehicle-treated rats and that chronic treatment with Olmesartan restores the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning; 2 chronic treatment with Olmesartan down-regulates HIF–1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression and

  16. Cryptotanshinone Ameliorates Hepatic Normothermic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats by Anti-mitochondrial Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping-Ping; Yuan, Fang; Xu, Jing; Sai, Ke; Chen, Jie; Guan, Su

    2014-01-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CT), isolated from the dried roots of Salvia militorrhiza, has been reported to have protective effects on myocardial and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury both in vitro and in vivo. However, its effects and underlying mechanism on hepatic I/R injury remain unclear. To investigate its effects on hepatic I/R injury, thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: a sham group, a vehicle-treated hepatic I/R group and a CT-treated (50 mg/kg) group. The hepatic I/R and CT-treated groups were subjected to 60 min of normothermic ischemia of the left lateral lobe of the liver, followed by 4 h of reperfusion. The animals were then sacrificed to collect the serum and the left liver lobe for assay. Hepatic function was protected, as evidenced by significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the CT-treated group as compared with I/R group. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) demonstrated significantly decreased apoptosis in the CT-administration animals. Western blotting demonstrated upregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2, as well as decreased levels of the activated form of caspase-3 and the cleaved form of its substrate, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in the CT-treated group compared with those of the I/R group. In addition, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was inhibited by CT. Our data suggest that CT attenuates hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, mediated partly through the inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK phosporylation. PMID:25366482

  17. Fucoidan reduces inflammatory response in a rat model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jing; Ye, Qi-Fa

    2015-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after a liver transplant is a major cause of severe complications that lead to graft dysfunction. Fucoidan, a complex of sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine brown algae, demonstrated antiapoptotic as well as potential anti-inflammatory properties in previous studies. Fucoidan has also shown protective effects on I/R-injured kidney and heart. However, whether fucoidan can attenuate hepatic I/R injury has not been examined. To clarify the role of fucoidan in hepatic I/R injury, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham operation or ischemia followed by reperfusion with treatment of saline or fucoidan (50, 100, or 200 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·d(-1)). The fucoidan-treated group showed decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase compared with the control group. Myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities and mRNA levels of CD11b in the fucoidan-treated group were significantly decreased. Hepatocellular swelling/necrosis, sinusoidal/vascular congestion, and inflammatory cell infiltration were also attenuated in the fucoidan group. The expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL-10, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 were markedly decreased in the samples from the fucoidan-treated group. Fucoidan largely prevented activation of the inflammatory signaling pathway, compared with the control group. In summary, fucoidan can protect the liver from I/R injury through suppressing activation of the inflammatory signaling pathway, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators, and inflammatory cell infiltration.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Inhalation Protects Rat Intestinal Grafts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Kimizuka, Kei; Stolz, Donna B.; Neto, Joao Seda; Kaizu, Takashi; Choi, Augustine M. K.; Uchiyama, Takashi; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Nalesnik, Michael A.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Murase, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catalysis by heme oxygenases, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This study examines the cytoprotective efficacy of inhaled CO during intestinal cold ischemia/reperfusion injury associated with small intestinal transplantation. Orthotopic syngenic intestinal transplantation was performed in Lewis rats after 6 hours of cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Three groups were examined: normal untreated controls, control intestinal transplant recipients kept in room air, and recipients exposed to CO (250 ppm) for 1 hour before and 24 hours after surgery. In air grafts, mRNA levels for interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and inducible nitric oxide synthase rapidly increased after intestinal transplant. Histopathological analysis revealed severe mucosal erosion, villous congestion, and inflammatory infiltrates. CO effectively blocked an early up-regulation of these mediators, showed less severe histopathological changes, and resulted in significantly improved animal survival of 92% from 58% in air-treated controls. CO also significantly reduced mRNA for proapoptotic Bax, while it up-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These changes in CO-treated grafts correlated with well-preserved CD31+ vascular endothelial cells, less frequent apoptosis/necrosis in intestinal epithelial and capillary endothelial cells, and improved graft tissue blood circulation. Protective effects of CO in this study were mediated via soluble guanylyl cyclase, because 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole (4,3-α) quinoxaline-1-one (soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) completely reversed the beneficial effect conferred by CO. Perioperative CO inhalation at a low concentration resulted in protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury to intestinal grafts with prolonged cold preservation. PMID:14507665

  19. Hypertension produced by placental ischemia in pregnant rats is associated with increased soluble endoglin expression.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Sara A B; Arany, Marietta; Granger, Joey P

    2009-02-01

    Recent clinical studies indicate that an excess of angiostatic factors, such as soluble endoglin (sEng), is related to the occurrence of preeclampsia. Although recent clinical studies report that sEng is increased in preeclamptic women, the mechanisms underlying its overexpression remain unclear. Evidence suggests that hypoxia and induction of heme oxygenase-1 have opposing effects on sEng expression, the former stimulatory and the latter inhibitory. Hence, we hypothesized that placental ischemia because of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) in the pregnant rat would increase sEng expression and decrease heme oxygenase-1. Mean arterial pressure was obtained via arterial catheter, and serum and placental proteins were measured by Western blot. Mean arterial pressure was increased (132+/-3 mm Hg versus 102+/-2 mm Hg; P<0.001), and fetal (2.35+/-0.05 g versus 1.76+/-0.08 g; P<0.001) and placental weight were decreased (0.47+/-0.04 g versus 0.58+/-0.03 g; P<0.01) in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant controls. Serum sEng (0.10+/-0.02 arbitrary pixel units [apu] versus 0.05+/-0.01 apu; P<0.05) and placental endoglin (4.7+/-2.3 apu versus 1.45+/-0.42 apu; P<0.05) were increased along with placental hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (1.42+/-0.25 apu versus 0.68+/-0.09 apu; P<0.05) expression in the RUPP versus the normal pregnant dams. Placental HO-1 (1.4+/-0.3 apu versus 2.5+/-0.1 apu; P<0.05) expression decreased in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant dams. The present findings support our hypothesis that placental ischemia because of RUPP increases the expression of sEng and shifts the balance of angiogenic factors in the maternal circulation toward an angiostatic state. The present study provides further evidence that placental ischemia is a strong in vivo stimulus of angiostatic factors during pregnancy.

  20. Hypertension produced by placental ischemia in pregnant rats is associated with increased soluble endoglin expression.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Sara A B; Arany, Marietta; Granger, Joey P

    2009-02-01

    Recent clinical studies indicate that an excess of angiostatic factors, such as soluble endoglin (sEng), is related to the occurrence of preeclampsia. Although recent clinical studies report that sEng is increased in preeclamptic women, the mechanisms underlying its overexpression remain unclear. Evidence suggests that hypoxia and induction of heme oxygenase-1 have opposing effects on sEng expression, the former stimulatory and the latter inhibitory. Hence, we hypothesized that placental ischemia because of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) in the pregnant rat would increase sEng expression and decrease heme oxygenase-1. Mean arterial pressure was obtained via arterial catheter, and serum and placental proteins were measured by Western blot. Mean arterial pressure was increased (132+/-3 mm Hg versus 102+/-2 mm Hg; P<0.001), and fetal (2.35+/-0.05 g versus 1.76+/-0.08 g; P<0.001) and placental weight were decreased (0.47+/-0.04 g versus 0.58+/-0.03 g; P<0.01) in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant controls. Serum sEng (0.10+/-0.02 arbitrary pixel units [apu] versus 0.05+/-0.01 apu; P<0.05) and placental endoglin (4.7+/-2.3 apu versus 1.45+/-0.42 apu; P<0.05) were increased along with placental hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (1.42+/-0.25 apu versus 0.68+/-0.09 apu; P<0.05) expression in the RUPP versus the normal pregnant dams. Placental HO-1 (1.4+/-0.3 apu versus 2.5+/-0.1 apu; P<0.05) expression decreased in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant dams. The present findings support our hypothesis that placental ischemia because of RUPP increases the expression of sEng and shifts the balance of angiogenic factors in the maternal circulation toward an angiostatic state. The present study provides further evidence that placental ischemia is a strong in vivo stimulus of angiostatic factors during pregnancy. PMID:19075097

  1. Naotaifang extract treatment results in increased ferroportin expression in the hippocampus of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jun; Xia, Xing; Wang, Guo-Zuo; Shi, Yong-Mei; Ge, Jin-Wen

    2015-06-01

    The expression of Ferroportin (Fpn) was examined at different time points in rats following focal cerebral ischemia treated with or without the traditional Chinese medicine Naotaifang. Initially, rats were randomly divided into 2, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h groups following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the mRNA and protein level of Fpn was detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) at the above time points. Secondly, the rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: Sham surgery group, model group, low‑dose group (3 g/kg NTE), medium dose group (9 g/kg NTE) and the high‑dose group (27 g/kg NTE). After 3 days of corresponding therapy by intragastric administration once a day, the regional cerebral ischemia model was reproduced by the MCAO suture method. On the third day, the neurological behavior of the rats was analyzed by neurobehavioral assessment. Fpn in the hippocampal CA2 region was measured by immunohistochemistry and the mRNA level of Fpn was detected by RT‑PCR. Expression of Fpn in the hippocampal CA2 region reached a peak 12 h after surgery (P<0.05, compared with the model group). The high‑dose group (27 g/kg NTE) exhibited a lower neurological behavior score (P<0.05) and a higher level of expression of Fpn at the mRNA and protein level compared with the sham surgery group and model group (P<0.05). Dysregulation of intracellular iron balance is possibly a new mechanism underlying cerebral ischemia. NTE can protect the neuronal population in the hippocampal CA2 region by adjusting the expression of Fpn to balance iron levels following cerebral ischemia.

  2. Pretreatment with low-dose gadolinium chloride attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Zheng, Yuan-yuan; Song, Yun-tao; Xue, Jing-yi; Liang, Zheng-yang; Yan, Xin-xin; Luo, Da-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We have shown that low-dose gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) abolishes arachidonic acid (AA)-induced increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+, which is known to play a crucial role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study sought to determine whether low-dose GdCl3 pretreatment protected rat myocardium against I/R injury in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were treated with GdCl3 or nifedipine, followed by exposure to anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). Cell apoptosis was detected; the levels of related signaling molecules were assessed. SD rats were intravenously injected with GdCl3 or nifedipine. Thirty min after the administration the rats were subjected to LAD coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion. Infarction size, the release of serum myocardial injury markers and AA were measured; cell apoptosis and related molecules were assessed. Results: In A/R-treated NRVMs, pretreatment with GdCl3 (2.5, 5, 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited caspase-3 activation, death receptor-related molecules DR5/Fas/FADD/caspase-8 expression, cytochrome c release, AA release and sustained cytoplasmic Ca2+ increases induced by exogenous AA. In I/R-treated rats, pre-administration of GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size, and the serum levels of CK-MB, cardiac troponin-I, LDH and AA. Pre-administration of GdCl3 also significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells, caspase-3 activity, death receptor-related molecules (DR5/Fas/FADD) expression and cytochrome c release in heart tissues. The positive control drug nifedipine produced comparable cardioprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Pretreatment with low-dose GdCl3 significantly attenuates I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis in rats by suppressing activation of both death receptor and mitochondria-mediated pathways. PMID:26948086

  3. Inhibition of the NMDA receptor protects the rat sciatic nerve against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    KE, TIE; LI, RENBIN; CHEN, WENCHANG

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by MK-801 reduces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the central nervous system. However, few previous studies have evaluated the neuroprotective effects of MK-801 against peripheral I/R injury. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of MK-801 pretreatment against I/R injury in the rat sciatic nerve (SN). Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a sham surgery (n=8) or to a 5-h ischemic insult by femoral artery clamping (I/R and I/R+MK-801 groups; n=48 per group). I/R+MK-801 rats were intraperitoneally injected with MK-801 (0.5 ml or 1 mg/kg) at 15 min prior to reperfusion. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 72 h, or 7 days following reperfusion. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, and SN inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression levels, were measured using colorimetry. In addition, the protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured using immunohistochemistry, and histological analyses of the rat SN were conducted using light and electron microscopy. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) in the rat SN were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In the I/R group, plasma concentrations of NO (175.3±4.2 µmol/l) and MDA (16.2±1.9 mmol/l), and the levels of iNOS (2.5±0.3) in the SN, peaked at 24 h post-reperfusion. At 24 h, pretreatment with MK-801 significantly reduced plasma NO (107.3±3.6 µmol/l) and MDA (11.8±1.6 mmol/l), and SN iNOS (1.65±0.2) levels (all P<0.01). The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TACE in the SN were significantly reduced in the I/R+MK-801 group, as compared with the I/R group (P<0.05). Furthermore, MK-801 pretreatment was shown to have alleviated histological signs of I/R injury, including immune cell infiltration and axon demyelination. The results of the present study suggested that pretreatment

  4. Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Alterations in Subacute and Chronic Stages of a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Haller, Edward; Tajiri, Naoki; Thomson, Avery; Barretta, Jennifer; Williams, Stephanie N; Haim, Eithan D; Qin, Hua; Frisina-Deyo, Aric; Abraham, Jerry V; Sanberg, Paul R; Van Loveren, Harry; Borlongan, Cesario V

    2016-07-01

    We previously demonstrated blood-brain barrier impairment in remote contralateral brain areas in rats at 7 and 30 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), indicating ischemic diaschisis. Here, we focused on effects of subacute and chronic focal cerebral ischemia on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We observed BSCB damage on both sides of the cervical spinal cord in rats at 7 and 30 days post-tMCAO. Major BSCB ultrastructural changes in spinal cord gray and white matter included vacuolated endothelial cells containing autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration with enlarged mitochondria, astrocyte end-feet degeneration and perivascular edema; damaged motor neurons, swollen axons with unraveled myelin in ascending and descending tracts and astrogliosis were also observed. Evans Blue dye extravasation was maximal at 7 days. There was immunofluorescence evidence of reduction of microvascular expression of tight junction occludin, upregulation of Beclin-1 and LC3B immunoreactivities at 7 days and a reduction of the latter at 30 days post-ischemia. These novel pathological alterations on the cervical spinal cord microvasculature in rats after tMCAO suggest pervasive and long-lasting BSCB damage after focal cerebral ischemia, and that spinal cord ischemic diaschisis should be considered in the pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches in patients with ischemic cerebral infarction. PMID:27283328

  5. The excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents the hypersensitivity induced by spinal cord ischemia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, J.X.; Xu, X.J.; Aldskogius, H.; Seiger, A.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. )

    1991-08-01

    Protection by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 against transient spinal cord ischemia-induced hypersensitivity was studied in rats. The spinal ischemia was initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye Erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The hypersensitivity, termed allodynia, where the animals reacted by vocalization to nonnoxious mechanical stimuli in the flank area, was consistently observed during several days after induction of the ischemia. Pretreatment with MK-801 (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, iv) 10 min before laser irradiation dose dependently prevented the occurrence of allodynia. The neuroprotective effect of MK-801 was not reduced by maintaining normal body temperature during and after irradiation. There was a significant negative correlation between the delay in the administration of MK-801 after irradiation and the protective effect of the drug. Histological examination revealed slight morphological damage in the spinal cord in 38% of control rats after 1 min of laser irradiation without pretreatment with MK-801. No morphological abnormalities were observed in rats after pretreatment with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg). The present results provide further evidence for the involvement of excitatory amino acids, through activation of the NMDA receptor, in the development of dysfunction following ischemic trauma to the spinal cord.

  6. Effect of Candida albicans on Intestinal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lei; Wu, Chun-Rong; Wang, Chen; Yang, Chun-Hui; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Tang, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is supposed to play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IIRI), and Candida albicans in human gut commonly elevates inflammatory cytokines in intestinal mucosa. This study aimed to explore the effect of C. albicans on IIRI. Methods: Fifty female Wistar rats were divided into five groups according to the status of C. albicans infection and IIRI operation: group blank and sham; group blank and IIRI; group cefoperazone plus IIRI; group C. albicans plus cefoperazone and IIRI (CCI); and group C. albicans plus cefoperazone and sham. The levels of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and diamine oxidase (DAO) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to evaluate the inflammation reactivity as well as the integrity of small intestine. Histological scores were used to assess the mucosal damage, and the C. albicans blood translocation was detected to judge the permeability of intestinal mucosal barrier. Results: The levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in serum and intestine were higher in rats undergone both C. albicans infection and IIRI operation compared with rats in other groups. The levels of DAO (serum: 44.13 ± 4.30 pg/ml, intestine: 346.21 ± 37.03 pg/g) and Chiu scores (3.41 ± 1.09) which reflected intestinal mucosal disruption were highest in group CCI after the operation. The number of C. albicans translocated into blood was most in group CCI ([33.80 ± 6.60] ×102 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml). Conclusion: Intestinal C. albicans infection worsened the IIRI-induced disruption of intestinal mucosal barrier and facilitated the subsequent C. albicans translocation and dissemination. PMID:27411459

  7. N-Acetylcysteine Restores Sevoflurane Postconditioning Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiefu; Wang, Tingting; Li, Yalan; Wang, Mengxia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sevoflurane postconditioning (sevo-postC) cardioprotection is compromised in diabetes which is associated with increased oxidative stress. We hypothesized that antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine may enhance or restore sevo-postC cardioprotection in diabetes. Control or streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with N-Acetylcysteine for four weeks starting at five weeks after streptozotocin injection and were subjected to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), in the absence or presence of sevo-postC. Diabetes showed reduction of cardiac STAT3 activation (p-STAT3) and adiponectin with concomitantly increase of FoxO1 and CD36, which associated with reduced sevo-postC cardioprotection. N-Acetylcysteine and sevo-postC synergistically reduced the infarct size in diabetic groups. N-Acetylcysteine remarkably increased cardiac p-STAT3 which was further enhanced by sevo-postC. N-Acetylcysteine but not sevo-postC decreased myocardial FoxO1 while sevo-postC but not N-Acetylcysteine significantly increased myocardiac adiponectin in diabetic rats. It is concluded that late stage diabetic rats displayed reduction of cardiac p-STAT3, adiponectin deficiency, and increase of FoxO1 and CD36 expression, which may be responsible for the loss of myocardial responsiveness to sevo-postC cardioprotection. N-Acetylcysteine restored Sevo-postC cardioprotection in diabetes possibly through enhancing cardiac p-STAT3 and adiponectin and reducing Fox1 and CD36. PMID:26783539

  8. Diosgenin attenuates the brain injury induced by transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Xue, Xuanji; Zhao, Jing; Qian, Chunxiang; Guo, Zengjun; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the potential cerebroprotection of diosgenin against the transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and its possible underlying mechanisms. The diosgenin at two dose levels, namely 100 and 200mgkg(-1), was intragastrically administrated once daily for 7-day period prior to the surgery. Then, the rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the intraluminal thread for 90min. After 24h reperfusion, several diagnostic indicators were evaluated and all animals were sacrificed to harvest their brains and blood for subsequent biochemical analyses. The results indicated that diosgenin treatment significantly inhibited the death rate and improved the impaired neurological functions along with neurological deficit scores and cerebral infarct size as compared with the rats exposed to I/R insult without agents administration. The increase in the number of apoptotic cells determined by TUNEL in the hippocampus CA1 and cortex was also apparently attenuated in the diosgenin treatment group, which was closely correlated with suppression of Caspase-3 activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In addition the elevated concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in blood serum of the I/R treated rats were reduced almost to their normal level. Further results obtained from the Western blotting analysis revealed that the protein expression of IκBα in the injured brain was up-regulated, while the p65 subunit of NF-κB was down-regulated in nucleus after the treatment. Collectively, this neuroprotection of diosgenin against I/R injury may be attained through its anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation and intervening the NF-κB signal pathway properties. Due to the satisfactory findings, diosgenin might be a powerful therapeutic agent to combat the similar disease in future clinic. PMID:27425638

  9. Partial Enteral Nutrition Mitigated Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage of Rat Small Intestinal Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Li, Chaojun; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study was designed to investigate a relatively optimum dose of partial enteral nutrition (PEN) which effectively attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction initiated by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods: In experiment 1, 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to intestinal IRI and assigned to six groups according to the different proportion of EN administrations: namely total parenteral nutrition (TPN or 0%EN), 10%EN, 20%EN, 40%EN, 60%EN, and total enteral nutrition (TEN or 100%) groups, the deficits of intraluminal calorie were supplemented by PN. In experiment 2, 50 male SD rats were subjected to intestinal IRI and divided into five groups based on the results of experiment 1: TPN, TEN, 20%EN, TPN plus pretreatment with NF-κB antagonist 30 min before IRI (TPN+PDTC), and TPN plus pretreatment with HIF-1α antagonist 30 min before IRI (TPN+YC-1) groups. Results: In experiment 1, previous IRI combined with subsequent EN shortage disrupted the structure of intestinal epithelial cell and tight junctions (TJs). While 20% dose of EN had an obviously protective effect on these detrimental consequences. In experiment 2, compared with TPN only, 20%EN exerted a significant protection of barrier function of intestinal epithelium. Analogous results were observed when TPN combined with specific NF-κB/HIF-1α inhibitors (PDTC and YC-1). Meanwhile, the expression of NF-κB/HIF-1α had a similar trend among the groups. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 20%EN is the minimally effective dosage of EN which promotes the recovery of intestinal barrier function after IRI in a rat model. Furthermore, we discreetly speculate that this benefit is, at least partly, related to NF-κB/HIF-1α pathway expression. PMID:27548209

  10. Mechanisms of angiogenesis in a Curculigoside A-treated rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haibo; He, Jie; Ye, Liang; Lin, Fei; Hou, Jian; Zhong, Yan; Jiang, Wanglin

    2015-11-01

    Curculigoside A has shown protective effects against rat cortical neuron damage in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms through which Curculigoside A affords this protection are unclear. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of angiogenesis in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC), rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) as well as a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury following treatment with Curculigoside A. We examined the role of Curculigoside A on RAEC and RASMC proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro and in a cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury rat model. We used the recombinant Dickkopf (DKK)-1 protein, a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, and the recombinant WIF-1 protein, a Wnt5a antagonist to determine mechanisms. In addition, we measured leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and tested for angiogenesis associated proteins. Our data suggest that Curculigoside A induces angiogenesis in vitro by increasing proliferation, migration and tube formation in RAEC and RASMC. The increase in Curculigoside A-induced proliferation and tube formation was counteracted by DKK-1 and WIF-1. Curculigoside A increased expression of VEGF, p-VEGFR, p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2 while prohibiting BBB leakage in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injured rats. However, Cyclosporine A, a CREB inhibitor, reduced the expression of p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2. These data suggest that Curculigoside A induces cell proliferation and angiogenesis through the Wnt5a/β-catenin and VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis and promotes maturation and stability of new blood vessels via increasing Ang1 and Tie-2 expression.

  11. The neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and neurotrophic factors after focal brain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shotaro; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Sumizono, Megumi; Takada, Seiya; Terashi, Takuto; Yoshida, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-15

    Preconditioning exercise can exert neuroprotective effects after stroke. However, the mechanism underlying these neuroprotective effects by preconditioning exercise remains unclear. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and the expression levels of the midkine (MK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after brain ischemia. Animals were assigned to one of 4 groups: exercise and ischemia (Ex), no exercise and ischemia (No-Ex), exercise and no ischemia (Ex-only), and no exercise and intact (Control). Rats ran on a treadmill for 30 min once a day at a speed of 25 m/min for 5 days a week for 3 weeks. After the exercise program, stroke was induced by a 60 min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. The infarct volume, motor function, neurological deficits, and the cellular expressions levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, PECAM-1, caspase 3, and nitrotyrosine (NT) were evaluated 48 h after the induction of ischemia. The infarct volume, neurological deficits and motor function in the Ex group were significantly improved compared to that of the No-Ex group. The expression levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, and PECAM-1 were enhanced in the Ex group compared to the expression levels in the No-Ex group after brain ischemia, while the expression levels of activated caspase 3 and NT were reduced in the area surrounding the necrotic lesion. Our findings suggest that preconditioning exercise reduced the infract volume and ameliorated motor function, enhanced expression levels of MK and BDNF, increased astrocyte proliferation, increased angiogenesis, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress. PMID:26808606

  12. The neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and neurotrophic factors after focal brain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shotaro; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Sumizono, Megumi; Takada, Seiya; Terashi, Takuto; Yoshida, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-15

    Preconditioning exercise can exert neuroprotective effects after stroke. However, the mechanism underlying these neuroprotective effects by preconditioning exercise remains unclear. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and the expression levels of the midkine (MK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after brain ischemia. Animals were assigned to one of 4 groups: exercise and ischemia (Ex), no exercise and ischemia (No-Ex), exercise and no ischemia (Ex-only), and no exercise and intact (Control). Rats ran on a treadmill for 30 min once a day at a speed of 25 m/min for 5 days a week for 3 weeks. After the exercise program, stroke was induced by a 60 min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. The infarct volume, motor function, neurological deficits, and the cellular expressions levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, PECAM-1, caspase 3, and nitrotyrosine (NT) were evaluated 48 h after the induction of ischemia. The infarct volume, neurological deficits and motor function in the Ex group were significantly improved compared to that of the No-Ex group. The expression levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, and PECAM-1 were enhanced in the Ex group compared to the expression levels in the No-Ex group after brain ischemia, while the expression levels of activated caspase 3 and NT were reduced in the area surrounding the necrotic lesion. Our findings suggest that preconditioning exercise reduced the infract volume and ameliorated motor function, enhanced expression levels of MK and BDNF, increased astrocyte proliferation, increased angiogenesis, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  13. Anti-CD163-dexamethasone protects against apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Lin Nanna Okholm; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Andersen, Kasper Jarlhelt; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Okholm Møller, Elise Marie; Svendsen, Pia; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2015-01-01

    Aim The Pringle maneuver is a way to reduce blood loss during liver surgery. However, this may result in ischemia/reperfusion injury in the development of which Kupffer cells play a central role. Corticosteroids are known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our aim was to investigate whether a conjugate of dexamethasone and antibody against the CD163 macrophage cell surface receptor could reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat liver. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were used for the experiments. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight receiving anti-CD163-dexamethasone, high dose dexamethasone, low dose dexamethasone or placebo intravenously 18 h before laparotomy with subsequent 60 min of liver ischemia. After reperfusion for 24 h the animals had their liver removed. Bloods were drawn 30 min and 24 h post ischemia induction. Liver cell apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by stereological quantification. Results After 24 h' reperfusion, the fraction of cell in non-necrotic tissues exhibiting apoptotic profiles was significantly lower in the high dose dexamethasone (p = 0.03) and anti-CD163-dex (p = 0.03) groups compared with the low dose dexamethasone and placebo groups. There was no difference in necrotic cell volume between groups. After 30 min of reperfusion, levels of haptoglobin were significantly higher in the anti-CD163-dex and high dose dexamethasone groups. Alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in the high dose dexamethasone group compared to controls after 24 h' reperfusion. Conclusions We show that pharmacological preconditioning with anti-CD163-dex and high dose dexamethasone reduces the number of apoptotic cells following ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26566435

  14. Ischemia enhances activation by Ca2+ and redox modification of ryanodine receptor channels from rat brain cortex.

    PubMed

    Bull, Ricardo; Finkelstein, José Pablo; Gálvez, Jorge; Sánchez, Gina; Donoso, Paulina; Behrens, María Isabel; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2008-09-17

    Cerebral ischemia stimulates Ca2+ influx and thus increases neuronal intracellular free [Ca2+]. Using a rat model of cerebral ischemia without recirculation, we tested whether ischemia enhances the activation by Ca2+ of ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels, a requisite feature of RyR-mediated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). To this aim, we evaluated how single RyR channels from endoplasmic reticulum vesicles, fused into planar lipid bilayers, responded to cytoplasmic [Ca2+] changes. Endoplasmic reticulum vesicles were isolated from the cortex of rat brains incubated without blood flow for 5 min at 37 degrees C (ischemic) or at 4 degrees C (control). Ischemic brains displayed increased oxidative intracellular conditions, as evidenced by a lower ratio (approximately 130:1) of reduced/oxidized glutathione than controls (approximately 200:1). Single RyR channels from ischemic or control brains displayed the same three responses to Ca2+ reported previously, characterized by low, moderate, or high maximal activity. Relative to controls, RyR channels from ischemic brains displayed with increased frequency the high activity response and with lower frequency the low activity response. Both control and ischemic cortical vesicles contained the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in a 3:1 proportion, with undetectable amounts of RyR1. Ischemia reduced [3H]ryanodine binding and total RyR protein content by 35%, and increased at least twofold endogenous RyR2 S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation without affecting the corresponding RyR3 endogenous levels. In vitro RyR S-glutathionylation but not S-nitrosylation favored the emergence of high activity channels. We propose that ischemia, by enhancing RyR2 S-glutathionylation, allows RyR2 to sustain CICR; the resulting amplification of Ca2+ entry signals may contribute to cortical neuronal death. PMID:18799678

  15. Intraventricular brain-derived neurotrophic factor reduces infarct size after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Schäbitz, W R; Schwab, S; Spranger, M; Hacke, W

    1997-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acting through the high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase (TrkB), is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and displays in vitro trophic effects on a wide range of neuronal cells, including hippocampal, cerebellar, and cortical neurons. In vivo, BDNF rescues motorneurons, hippocampal, and substantia nigral dopaminergic cells from traumatic and toxic brain injury. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), upregulation of BDNF-mRNA in cortical neurons suggests that BDNF potentially plays a neuroprotective role in focal cerebral ischemia. In the current study, BDNF (2.1 micrograms/d) in vehicle or vehicle alone (controls) was delivered intraventricularly for 8 days, beginning 24 hours before permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture in Wistar rats (n = 13 per group). There were no differences in physiological variables recorded during surgery for the two groups. Neurological deficit (0 to 4 scale), which was assessed on a daily basis, improved in BDNF-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.05; analysis of variance and Scheffe's test). There were no significant differences in weight in BDNF-treated animals and controls during the experiment. After elective killing on day 7 after MCAO, brains underwent 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining for calculation of the infarct volume and for histology (hematoxylin and eosin and glial fibrillary acid protein). The mean total infarct volume was 83.1 +/- 27.1 mm3 in BDNF-treated animals and 139.2 +/- 56.4 mm3 in controls (mean +/- SD; P < 0.01, unpaired, two-tailed t-test). The cortical infarct volume was 10.8 +/- 7.1 mm3 in BDNF-treated animals and 37.9 +/- 19.8 mm3 in controls (mean +/- SD; P < 0.05; unpaired, two-tailed t-test), whereas ischemic lesion volume in caudoputaminal infarction was not significantly different. These results show that pretreatment with intraventricular BDNF reduces infarct size after focal

  16. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking tests after 14-day Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were detected using immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg Ruyi Zhenbao for 14 days significantly improved neurological function, and increased the number of von Willebrand Factor- and neuronal nuclear antigen-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of rats. Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment also significantly enhanced the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF in the ischemic hemisphere. The results demonstrated that the Ruyi Zhenbao pill improved neurological function following ischemia in rats. The mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill are associated with increasing the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF, and subsequently promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic zone. PMID:26893831

  17. Down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Chen, Yang-Mei; Zhu, Fei; Tang, Shi-Ting; Xiao, Ji-Dong; Li, Lv-Li; Lin, Xin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine whether the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activity in ischemic penumbra is associated with the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. An experimental model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was made by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats and the changes of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the ischemic penumbra was examined by Enzyme Assay Kit. Extensive infarction was observed in the frontal and parietal cortical and subcortical areas at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 3 d and 7 d after tMCAO. Enzyme Assay analyses revealed the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was decreased in the ischemic penumbra of model rats after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion compared with sham-operated rats, and reduced to its minimum at 48 h, while the infarct volume was enlarged gradually. In addition, accompanied by increased brain water content, apoptosis-related bcl-2 and Bax proteins, apoptotic index and neurologic deficits Longa scores, but fluctuated the ratio of bcl-2/Bax. Correlation analysis showed that the infarct volume, apoptotic index, neurologic deficits Longa scores and brain water content were negatively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity, while the ratio of bcl-2/Bax was positively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results suggest that down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra might be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury presumably through the imbalance ratio of bcl-2/Bax and neuronal apoptosis, and identify novel target for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention in cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:26722460

  18. Postischemic, systemic administration of polyamine-modified superoxide dismutase reduces hippocampal CA1 neurodegeneration in rat global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wengenack, T M; Curran, G L; Poduslo, J F

    1997-04-18

    Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) have shown neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia, but only at very high doses. Modifications to increase the plasma half-life or blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of SOD have resulted in limited neuroprotective effects. No one has demonstrated neuroprotection with postischemic administration. The specific aim of the present study was to administer systemically a polyamine-modified SOD, having increased BBB permeability and preserved enzymatic activity, following global cerebral ischemia in rats and analyze the effects on the selective vulnerability of CA1 hippocampal neurons. Following 12 min of four-vessel occlusion, global cerebral ischemia, male Wistar rats were dosed (i.v.) with either saline, native SOD (5000 U/kg), polyamine-modified SOD (5000 U/kg), or enzymatically inactive, polyamine-modified SOD (2.1 mg/kg) twice daily for 3 days. Neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neurons were assessed using standard histological methods. Saline-treated animals had very few remaining CA1 neurons (1.44 +/- 0.60 neurons/reticle; x +/- S.E.M.) compared to sham rats (58.57 +/- 0.69). Native (10.38 +/- 2.96) or inactive, polyamine-modified SOD (7.32 +/- 2.68) did not show significant neuroprotective effects. Polyamine-modified SOD, however, resulted in the survival of significantly more CA1 neurons (24.61 +/- 5.90; P < 0.01). Postischemic, systemic administration of polyamine-modified SOD, having increased BBB permeability and preserved enzymatic activity, significantly reduced hippocampal CA1 neuron loss following global cerebral ischemia. Similar modification of other antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors with polyamines may provide a useful technique for the systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins across the BBB for the treatment of stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9134958

  19. Preventive Role of Estradiol on Kidney Injury Induced by Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iran-Nejad, Akram; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) is the main cause of renal failure. The incidence of RIR injury seems to be gender-related due to female sex hormone; estrogen. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of estrogen against RIR injury in male and ovariectomized female rats. Methods: Thirty-nine Wistar rats were used in this study as male and ovariectomized female rats in the sham-operated, RIR, and estradiol-treated plus RIR groups. The RIR was induced by clamping the renal vessels for 45 min and then 24 h of reperfusion. All animals finally were sacrificed for the measurements. Results: The serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and kidney tissue damage score significantly increased in both male and female RIR rats (P < 0.05). Estradiol however significantly attenuated theses parameters (P < 0.05) toward normal levels in female (P < 0.05), but not in male rats. Kidney weight increased in both genders and estradiol intensified it in the male rats (P < 0.05). Uterus weight was increased by estradiol in female rats (P < 0.05) and testis weight did not alter in male rats. Conclusions: Estradiol demonstrated a protective role against RIR injury in female rats; however, estradiol as an antioxidant could not protect the male kidney from RIR injury. PMID:25830011

  20. Procaspase-9 induces its cleavage by transnitrosylating XIAP via the Thioredoxin system during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dengyue; Zhao, Ningjun; Ma, Bin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Gongliang; Yan, Xianliang; Hu, Shuqun; Xu, Tie

    2016-01-01

    Transnitrosylation is an important mechanism by which nitric oxide (NO) modulates cell signaling pathways. For instance, SNO-caspase-3 can transnitrosylate the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) to enhance apoptosis. XIAP is a potent antagonist of caspase apoptotic activity. Decrease in XIAP activity via nitrosylation results in SNO-XIAP-mediated caspase activation. Considering the functional liaison of procaspase-9 and XIAP, we hypothesized that procaspase-9 nitrosylates XIAP directly. Our data confirmed that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced XIAP nitrosylation, procaspase-9 denitrosylation and cleavage. Interestingly, the time courses of the nitrosylation of procaspase-9 and XIAP were negatively correlated, which was more prominent after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting a direct interaction. The nitrosylation of XIAP, as well as the denitrosylation and cleavage of procaspase-9, were inhibited by DNCB, TrxR1 AS-ODNs, or TAT-AVPY treatment. Meanwhile, DNCB, TrxR1 AS-ODNs, or TAT-AVPY also inhibited the decrease in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. The denitrosylation and cleavage of procaspase-9 induced by OGD/reoxygenation in SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited when cells were co-transfected with wild-type procaspase-9 and XIAP mutant (C449G). These data suggest that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induces a transnitrosylation from procaspase-9 to XIAP via the Trx system to consequently cause apoptosis. Additionally, Cys325 is a critical S-nitrosylation site of procaspase-9. PMID:27052476

  1. Action of creatinol-O-phosphate on the contractility changes evoked by hypoxia and ischemia in rat isolated heart.

    PubMed

    Godfraind, T; Saleh, M M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of creatinol-O-phosphate (N-methyl-N-(beta-hydroxyethyl)guanidine O-phosphate, creatinolfosfate, Aplodan) pretreatment has been studied on the recovery of contractility of rat isolated heart after hypoxia or ischemia. In normoxia creatinol-O-phosphate (100 mumol/l) evoked a positive inotropic effect only when glucose was present in the physiological solution, it also evoked a slight negative chronotropic effect that was independent of glucose. When creatinol-O-phosphate was present during hypoxia, in the physiological solution, the recovery of the contraction after reoxygenation (in the absence of the drug) was improved in a dose-dependent manner. When creatinol-O-phosphate was present in the physiological solution before ischemia, the recovery of the contractility after reperfusion was higher than in controls; the presence of creatinol-O-phosphate during reperfusion after ischemia accelerated the recovery of contractility. The action of creatinol-O-phosphate on the recovery of cardiac contractility after ischemia was also observed in hearts partially protected with a cardioplegic solution. It is suggested that creatinol-O-phosphate could exert its cardioprotective effect by an action on anaerobic glycolysis.

  2. Multiphoton microscopy can visualize zonal damage and decreased cellular metabolic activity in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Liu, Xin; Burczynski, Frank J.; Fletcher, Linda M.; Gobe, Glenda C.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common occurrence in liver surgery. In orthotopic transplantation, the donor liver is exposed to periods of ischemia and when oxygenated blood is reintroduced to the liver, oxidative stress may develop and lead to graft failure. The aim of this project was to investigate whether noninvasive multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, without external markers, were useful in detecting early liver damage caused by I/R injury. Localized hepatic ischemia was induced in rats for 1 h followed by 4 h reperfusion. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy was conducted prior to ischemia and up to 4 h of reperfusion and compared to morphological and biochemical assessment of liver damage. Liver function was significantly impaired at 2 and 4 h of reperfusion. Multiphoton microscopy detected liver damage at 1 h of reperfusion, manifested by vacuolated cells and heterogeneous spread of damage over the liver. The damage was mainly localized in the midzonal region of the liver acinus. In addition, fluorescence lifetime imaging showed a decrease in cellular metabolic activity. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy detected evidence of early I/R injury both structurally and functionally. This provides a simple noninvasive technique useful for following progressive liver injury without external markers.

  3. Procaspase-9 induces its cleavage by transnitrosylating XIAP via the Thioredoxin system during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dengyue; Zhao, Ningjun; Ma, Bin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Gongliang; Yan, Xianliang; Hu, Shuqun; Xu, Tie

    2016-01-01

    Transnitrosylation is an important mechanism by which nitric oxide (NO) modulates cell signaling pathways. For instance, SNO-caspase-3 can transnitrosylate the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) to enhance apoptosis. XIAP is a potent antagonist of caspase apoptotic activity. Decrease in XIAP activity via nitrosylation results in SNO-XIAP-mediated caspase activation. Considering the functional liaison of procaspase-9 and XIAP, we hypothesized that procaspase-9 nitrosylates XIAP directly. Our data confirmed that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced XIAP nitrosylation, procaspase-9 denitrosylation and cleavage. Interestingly, the time courses of the nitrosylation of procaspase-9 and XIAP were negatively correlated, which was more prominent after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting a direct interaction. The nitrosylation of XIAP, as well as the denitrosylation and cleavage of procaspase-9, were inhibited by DNCB, TrxR1 AS-ODNs, or TAT-AVPY treatment. Meanwhile, DNCB, TrxR1 AS-ODNs, or TAT-AVPY also inhibited the decrease in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. The denitrosylation and cleavage of procaspase-9 induced by OGD/reoxygenation in SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited when cells were co-transfected with wild-type procaspase-9 and XIAP mutant (C449G). These data suggest that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induces a transnitrosylation from procaspase-9 to XIAP via the Trx system to consequently cause apoptosis. Additionally, Cys325 is a critical S-nitrosylation site of procaspase-9. PMID:27052476

  4. Ischemia deteriorates the spike encoding of rat cerebellar Purkinje cells by raising intracellular Ca{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Shidi; Chen Na; Yang Zhilai; Huang Li; Zhu Yan; Guan Sudong; Chen Qianfen; Wang Jinhui

    2008-02-08

    Ischemia-induced excitotoxicity at cerebellar Purkinje cells is presumably due to a persistent glutamate action. To the fact that they are more vulnerable to ischemia than other glutamate-innervated neurons, we studied whether additional mechanisms are present and whether cytoplasm Ca{sup 2+} plays a key role in their ischemic excitotoxicity. Ischemic changes in the excitability of Purkinje cells were measured by whole-cell recording in cerebellar slices of rats with less glutamate action. The role of cytoplasm Ca{sup 2+} was examined by two-photon cellular imaging and BAPTA infusion in Purkinje cells. Lowering perfusion rate to cerebellar slices deteriorated spike timing and raised spike capacity of Purkinje cells. These changes were associated with the reduction of spike refractory periods and threshold potentials, as well as the loss of their control to spike encoding. Ischemia-induced functional deterioration at Purkinje neurons was accompanied by cytoplasm Ca{sup 2+} rise and prevented by BAPTA infusion. Therefore, the ischemia destabilizes the spike encoding of Purkinje cells via raising cytoplasm Ca{sup 2+} without a need for glutamate, which subsequently causes their excitotoxic death.

  5. Beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingyan; Tian, Xia; Gou, Lingshan; Ling, Xin; Wang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Yin, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Theanine and caffeine, 2 naturally occurring components in tea, have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. In this study, we assessed the beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral damage in rats. Theanine and caffeine had no effect on physiological variables, including pH, partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial blood pressure, plasma glucose, or regional cerebral blood flow. Treatment with theanine (1 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal injection) alone significantly reduced cerebral infarction induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, intravenous administration) alone only had a marginal effect. However, the combination of theanine plus caffeine resulted in a significant reduction of cerebral infarction and brain edema compared with theanine monotherapy. Meanwhile, increased malondialdehyde levels as well as decreased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione levels observed in the cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by the combination therapy. Furthermore, the elevated inflammatory response levels observed in the cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were markedly attenuated by the combined treatment. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroprotective potential of a combination therapy with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is partly ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  6. Protective effect of α-terpineol against impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory following transient cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Moghimi, Mahsa; Parvardeh, Siavash; Zanjani, Taraneh Moini; Ghafghazi, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Cerebral ischemia is often associated with cognitive impairment. Oxidative stress has a crucial role in the memory deficit following ischemia/reperfusion injury. α-Terpineol is a monoterpenoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of α-terpineol against memory impairment following cerebral ischemia in rats. Materials and Methods: Cerebral ischemia was induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in male Wistar rats. The rats were allocated to sham, ischemia, and α-terpineol-treated groups. α-Terpineol was given at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, IP once daily for 7 days post ischemia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess spatial memory and in vivo extracellular recording of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was carried out to evaluate synaptic plasticity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured to assess the extent of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. Results: In MWM test, α-terpineol (100 mg/kg, IP) significantly decreased the escape latency during training trials (P<0.01). In addition, α-terpineol increased the number of crossings over the platform location and decreased average proximity to the target in probe trial (P<0.05). In electrophysiological recording, α-terpineol (100 mg/kg) facilitated the induction of LTP in the hippocampus which was persistent over 2 hr. α-Terpineol (100 and 200 mg/kg) also significantly lowered hippocampal MDA levels in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Conclusion: These findings indicate that α-terpineol improves cerebral ischemia-related memory impairment in rats through the facilitation of LTP and suppression of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. PMID:27803783

  7. Electroacupuncture attenuates cervical spinal cord injury following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    TAN, FENG; CHEN, JIE; LIANG, YANGUI; GU, MINHUA; LI, YANPING; WANG, XUEWEN; MENG, DI

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces injury, not only in the ischemic core and surrounding penumbra tissues, but also in remote areas such as the cervical spinal cord. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on cervical spinal cord injury following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive (RHRSP) rats. The results demonstrated that neuronal loss, which was assayed by Nissl staining in the cervical spinal cords of RHRSP rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), was markedly decreased by EA stimulation at the GV20 (Baihui) and GV14 (Dazhui) acupoints compared with that in rats undergoing sham stimulation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis demonstrated that EA stimulation blocked the MCAO-induced elevated protein expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and amyloid precursor protein in the cervical spinal cord at days 24 and 48. To further investigate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective role of EA stimulation, the protein expression levels of Nogo-A and Nogo-66 receptor-1 (NgR1), two key regulatory molecules for neurite growth, were recorded in each group. The results revealed that EA stimulation reduced the MCAO-induced elevation of Nogo-A and NgR1 protein levels at day 14 and 28 in RHRSP rats. Therefore, the results demonstrated that EA reduced cervical spinal cord injury following cerebral ischemia in RHRSP rats, indicating that EA has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic treatment agent for cervical spinal cord injury following stroke. PMID:24926338

  8. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. Methods: A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. Results: In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. Conclusion: The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation. PMID:27186297

  9. Green tea extract given before regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats improves myocardial contractility by attenuating calcium overload.

    PubMed

    Liou, Ying-Ming; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Chen, Jan-Yow

    2010-11-01

    There is evidence for a negative correlation between green tea consumption and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine whether green tea extract (GTE) given before regional myocardial ischemia could improve depression of myocardial contractility by preventing cytosolic Ca(2+) overload. Regional ischemia-reperfusion (IR) was induced in rats by ligating the left anterior descending branch for 20 min, then releasing the ligature. Ligation induced ventricular arrhythmias in rats without GTE pretreatment, but decreased arrhythmogenesis was seen in rats pretreated 30 min earlier with GTE (400 mg/kg). During reperfusion, arrhythmias only occurred during the initial 5 min, and GTE pretreatment had no effect. After overnight recovery, serum cTnI levels were greatly increased in control post-IR rats but only slightly elevated in GTE-pretreated post-IR rats. Myocardial contractility measured by echocardiography was still depressed after 3 days in control post-IR rats, but not in GTE-pretreated post-IR rats. No myocardial ischemic injury was seen in post-IR rats with or without GTE pretreatment. Using freshly isolated single heart myocytes, GTE was found to attenuate the post-IR injury-associated cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and modulate changes in the levels and distribution of myofibril, adherens junction, and gap junction proteins. In summary, GTE pretreatment protects cardiomyocytes from IR injury by preventing cytosolic Ca(2+) overload, myofibril disruption, and alterations in adherens and gap junction protein expression and distribution. PMID:20922441

  10. 31P NMR spectroscopy of hypertrophied rat heart: effect of graded global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Clarke, K; Sunn, N; Willis, R J

    1989-12-01

    To investigate the cause for the greater susceptibility of hypertrophied hearts to ischemic injury, we determined the interrelations of total work output, contractile function and energy metabolism in isolated, perfused normal and hypertrophied rat hearts subjected to graded global ischemia. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by giving rats seven daily injections of either triiodothyronine (0.2 mg/kg) or isoproterenol (5 mg/kg). All hearts were perfused at an aortic pressure of 100 mmHg in the isovolumic mode in an NMR spectrometer (7.05 Tesla). Heart rate, developed pressure, and coronary flow were monitored simultaneously with changes in pH, creatine phosphate, ATP and inorganic phosphate. During pre-ischemic perfusion, the total work output (rate-pressure product) of hyperthyroid hearts was 28% higher than that of control hearts, whereas hearts from isoproterenol-treated animals showed no difference. However, when related to unit muscle mass, work was normal in hyperthyroid hearts and 26% lower after isoproterenol. Contractile function per unit myocardium (developed pressure/g wet weight) was lower in the hypertrophied hearts. ATP content was the same in all groups. Creatine phosphate decreased 41% after triiodothyronine and 25% after isoproterenol. Inorganic phosphate levels and intracellular pH were similar in control and isoproterenol-treated rat hearts, but were higher in the hyperthyroid rat hearts. The phosphorylation potential and the free energy change of ATP hydrolysis were lowered by hypertrophy, the levels correlating with the depressed contractile function. At each ischemic flow rate, both work and contractile function per unit myocardium were the same for all hearts, but the relations between flow and phosphorylation potential were different for each type of heart. Thus, at low flow rates, hypertrophied hearts perform the same amount of work and have the same contractile function as control hearts, but with abnormal changes in energy metabolism

  11. Intravenous administration of tetramethylpyrazine reduces intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Štefan; Pekárová, Tímea; Varga, Ján; Tóth, Štefan; Tomečková, Vladimíra; Gál, Peter; Veselá, Jarmila; Guzy, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IIRI) is a life-threatening condition requiring prompt medical intervention. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biologically active alkaloid isolated from Ligusticum wallichii. Previously, it was shown that TMP causes vasodilatation and inhibition of platelet aggregation as well as exhibits significant antioxidant effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate possible therapeutic effects of TMP in the prevention of IIRI. Wistar rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into eight experimental groups and subjected to a 1 h occlusion of cranial mesenteric artery followed by 0, 1, 12, and 24 h period of reperfusion. Thirty minutes before the IIRI animals received either TMP (30 mg/kg, i.v.) or identical volume of saline. In addition, a control group of 10 animals was not exposed to IIRI. Intestine morphology was evaluated by using histopathological injury index examination (HII), goblet and Paneth cells quantification as well as by applying immunofluorescent methods such as InSitu TUNEL and caspase-3 positivity assessment. Here we showed that preconditioning with TMP prior IIRI decreases the grade of injury. Significant reduction of HII was detected in TMP pretreated groups after 0, 1, and 12 h of reperfusion where injury reduction up to 75% was found. Lower histopathological damage in preconditioned groups was accompanied with increased number of secretory epithelial cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate the protective effect of TMP on the small intestine mucosa, suggesting administration of TMP as a molecule for pharmacological intervention against IIRI. PMID:23895154

  12. Neuroprotective effects of systemic cerebral endothelial cell transplantation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol; Choi, Kang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Kil; Min, Jung-Joon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC)/D3 cells, which are from a stable clonal cell line of human immortalized cerebral endothelial cells, were intra-arterially transplanted through the common carotid artery in a rat model of photochemical-induced cerebral ischemia. Their therapeutic effects on infarct size, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and outcome were examined. The hCMEC/D3 cells were genetically modified with the firefly luciferase gene for in vivo imaging post-transplantation. Transplanted hCMEC/D3 cells were identified in the infarcted brain by bioluminescence imaging at 1 day after transplantation. Compared with the control group, the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group showed reduced infarct size on day 3, reduced Evans blue dye leakage on day 1 indicating decreased BBB breakdown, and early recovery from Rotarod test neurological deficits. The hCMEC/D3-transplanted group also showed decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which were inversely correlated with TIMP-1 levels on post-transplantation days 1 and 3. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were markedly diminished in the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group compared with controls. The systemically transplanted cells selectively migrated and integrated into the ischemically lesioned area, which accelerated neurological recovery. This new cerebral endothelial cell-based therapy may hold promise for clinical trials in patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:27347342

  13. Neuroprotective effects of systemic cerebral endothelial cell transplantation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol; Choi, Kang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Kil; Min, Jung-Joon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC)/D3 cells, which are from a stable clonal cell line of human immortalized cerebral endothelial cells, were intra-arterially transplanted through the common carotid artery in a rat model of photochemical-induced cerebral ischemia. Their therapeutic effects on infarct size, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and outcome were examined. The hCMEC/D3 cells were genetically modified with the firefly luciferase gene for in vivo imaging post-transplantation. Transplanted hCMEC/D3 cells were identified in the infarcted brain by bioluminescence imaging at 1 day after transplantation. Compared with the control group, the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group showed reduced infarct size on day 3, reduced Evans blue dye leakage on day 1 indicating decreased BBB breakdown, and early recovery from Rotarod test neurological deficits. The hCMEC/D3-transplanted group also showed decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which were inversely correlated with TIMP-1 levels on post-transplantation days 1 and 3. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were markedly diminished in the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group compared with controls. The systemically transplanted cells selectively migrated and integrated into the ischemically lesioned area, which accelerated neurological recovery. This new cerebral endothelial cell-based therapy may hold promise for clinical trials in patients with ischemic stroke.

  14. Molecular and Cellular Responses to Interleukin-4 Treatment in a Rat Model of Transient Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lively, Starlee; Hutchings, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Within hours after stroke, potentially cytotoxic pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated within the brain; thus, one potential therapeutic strategy is to reduce them and skew the brain toward an anti-inflammatory state. Because interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment induces an anti-inflammatory, “alternative-activation” state in microglia and macrophages in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that early supplementation of the brain with IL-4 can shift it toward an anti-inflammatory state and reduce damage after transient focal ischemia. Adult male rat striata were injected with endothelin-1, with or without co-injection of IL-4. Inflammation, glial responses and damage to neurons and white matter were quantified from 1 to 7 days later. At 1 day, IL-4 treatment increased striatal expression of several anti-inflammatory markers (ARG1, CCL22, CD163, PPARγ), increased phagocytic (Iba1-positive, CD68-positive) microglia/macrophages, and increased VEGF-A-positive infiltrating neutrophils in the infarcts. At 7 days, there was evidence of sustained, propagating responses. IL-4 increased CD206, CD200R1, IL-4Rα, STAT6, PPARγ, CD11b, and TLR2 expression and increased microglia/macrophages in the infarct and astrogliosis outside the infarct. Neurodegeneration and myelin damage were not reduced, however. The sustained immune and glial responses when resolution and repair processes have begun warrant further studies of IL-4 treatment regimens and long-term outcomes. PMID:27634961

  15. Lipoxin A4 Preconditioning and Postconditioning Protect Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qifeng; Shao, Lan; Hu, Xingti; Wu, Guowei; Du, Jie; Xia, Jie; Qiu, Huixian

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the pre- and postconditioning effects of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) on myocardial damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Seventy-two rats were divided into 6 groups: sham groups (C1 and C2), I/R groups (I/R1 and I/R2), and I/R plus LXA4 preconditioning and postconditioning groups (LX1 and LX2). The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were measured. The content and the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Along with the examination of myocardium ultrastructure and ventricular arrhythmia scores (VAS), connexin 43 (Cx43) expression were also detected. Lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cTnI, MDA content, and VAS and higher levels of IL-10, SOD activity, Na+-K+-ATPase content and activity, and Cx43 expression appeared in LX groups than I/R groups. Besides, H&E staining, TEM examination as well as analysis of gene, and protein confirmed that LXA4 preconditioning was more effective than postconditioning in preventing arrhythmogenesis via the upregulation of Cx43. That is, LXA4 postconditioning had better protective effect on Na+-K+-ATPase and myocardial ultrastructure. PMID:23956501

  16. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerová, Táňa

    2011-01-01

    Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394

  17. Total flavonoid extract from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. protects rats against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Yuan, Changsheng; Fang, He; Li, Jia; Su, Shanshan; Chen, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of total flavonoid extract from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (CTF) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) using an isolated Langendorff rat heart model. Materials and Methods: Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximum rate of rise and fall of LV pressure (±dp/dtmax) were recorded. Cardiac injury was assessed by analyzing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released in the coronary effluent. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Myocardial inflammation was assessed by monitoring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Myocardial infarct size was estimated. Cell morphology was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results: Pretreatment with CTF significantly increased the heart rate and increased LVDP, as well as SOD and GSH-Px levels. In addition, CTF pretreatment decreased the TUNEL-positive cell ratio, infarct size, and levels of CK, LDH, MDA, TNF-α, CRP, IL-6, and IL-8. Conclusion: These results suggest that CTF exerts cardio-protective effects against MIRI via anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID:27803790

  18. Induction and Assessment of Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Langendorff-perfused Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Daniel J.; Aune, Sverre E.; Menick, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical events surrounding ischemia reperfusion injury in the acute setting are of great importance to furthering novel treatment options for myocardial infarction and cardiac complications of thoracic surgery. The ability of certain drugs to precondition the myocardium against ischemia reperfusion injury has led to multiple clinical trials, with little success. The isolated heart model allows acute observation of the functional effects of ischemia reperfusion injury in real time, including the effects of various pharmacological interventions administered at any time-point before or within the ischemia-reperfusion injury window. Since brief periods of ischemia can precondition the heart against ischemic injury, in situ aortic cannulation is performed to allow for functional assessment of non-preconditioned myocardium. A saline filled balloon is placed into the left ventricle to allow for real-time measurement of pressure generation. Ischemic injury is simulated by the cessation of perfusion buffer flow, followed by reperfusion. The duration of both ischemia and reperfusion can be modulated to examine biochemical events at any given time-point. Although the Langendorff isolated heart model does not allow for the consideration of systemic events affecting ischemia and reperfusion, it is an excellent model for the examination of acute functional and biochemical events within the window of ischemia reperfusion injury as well as the effect of pharmacological intervention on cardiac pre- and postconditioning. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate how to perform in situ aortic cannulation and heart excision followed by ischemia/reperfusion injury in the Langendorff model. PMID:26274877

  19. NFAT5 Is Activated by Hypoxia: Role in Ischemia and Reperfusion in the Rat Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Sandra; Suazo, Cristian; Santapau, Daniela; Pérez, Francisco; Quiroz, Mariana; Carreño, Juan E.; Illanes, Sebastián; Lavandero, Sergio; Michea, Luis; Irarrazabal, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    The current hypothesis postulates that NFAT5 activation in the kidney's inner medulla is due to hypertonicity, resulting in cell protection. Additionally, the renal medulla is hypoxic (10–18 mmHg); however there is no information about the effect of hypoxia on NFAT5. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we evaluated the effect of reducing the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) on NFAT5 activity. We found that 1) Anoxia increased NFAT5 expression and nuclear translocation in primary cultures of IMCD cells from rat kidney. 2) Anoxia increased transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of NFAT5 in HEK293 cells. 3) The dose-response curve demonstrated that HIF-1α peaked at 2.5% and NFAT5 at 1% of O2. 4) At 2.5% of O2, the time-course curve of hypoxia demonstrated earlier induction of HIF-1α gene expression than NFAT5. 5) siRNA knockdown of NFAT5 increased the hypoxia-induced cell death. 6) siRNA knockdown of HIF-1α did not affect the NFAT5 induction by hypoxia. Additionally, HIF-1α was still induced by hypoxia even when NFAT5 was knocked down. 7) NFAT5 and HIF-1α expression were increased in kidney (cortex and medulla) from rats subjected to an experimental model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). 7) Experimental I/R increased the NFAT5-target gene aldose reductase (AR). 8) NFAT5 activators (ATM and PI3K) were induced in vitro (HEK293 cells) and in vivo (I/R kidneys) with the same timing of NFAT5. 8) Wortmannin, which inhibits ATM and PI3K, reduces hypoxia-induced NFAT5 transcriptional activation in HEK293 cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that NFAT5 is induced by hypoxia and could be a protective factor against ischemic damage. PMID:22768306

  20. The effect of erythropoietin on serum uric acid levels during renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to assess the effect of erythropoietin on a rat model, particularly under a renal ischemia reperfusion protocol. The beneficial or lack of effects of that molecule on the excreted renal product of serum uric acid were studied biochemically. Material and methods: Forty rats were used with a mean weight of 247.7 gr. Serum uric acid levels were measured measured at 60 min after reperfusion (Groups A and C) and at 120 min after reperfusion (groups B and D). Results: 1) Erythropoietin administration non-significantly decreased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.02 mg/dL [−0.2415423 mg/dL-0.2015423 mg/dL] (p=0.8560), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.8438). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.17 mg/dL [−0.0444933 mg/dL-0.3844933 mg/dL] (p=0.1169), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.1648). 3) The interaction of erythropoietin administration and reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.1 mg/dL [−0.0295564 mg/dL-0.2295564 mg/dL] (p=0.1264). Conclusion: Erythropoietin administration, reperfusion time and their interaction have no significant short-term alterations on serum uric acid levels. Conclusions cannot be extracted by non-significant p-values within 2 hours. Obviously, longer study times may permit safer results. PMID:26328161

  1. Occurrence of nonconvulsive seizures, periodic epileptiform discharges, and intermittent rhythmic delta activity in rat focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hartings, Jed A; Williams, Anthony J; Tortella, Frank C

    2003-02-01

    A significant proportion of neurologic patients suffer electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures in the acute phase following traumatic or ischemic brain injury, including many without overt behavioral manifestations. Although such nonconvulsive seizures may exacerbate neuropathological processes, they have received limited attention clinically and experimentally. Here we characterize seizure episodes following focal cerebral ischemia in the rat as a model for brain injury-induced seizures. Cortical EEG activity was recorded continuously from both hemispheres up to 72 h following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Seizure discharges appeared in EEG recordings within 1 h of MCAo in 13/16 (81%) animals and consisted predominantly of generalized 1-3 Hz rhythmic spiking. During seizures animals engaged in quiet awake or normal motor behaviors, but exhibited no motor convulsant activity. Animals had a mean of 10.6 seizure episodes within 2 h, with a mean duration of 60 s per episode. On average, seizures ceased at 1 h 59 min post-MCAo in permanently occluded animals and did not occur following reperfusion at 2 h in transiently occluded animals. In addition to seizures, periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) appeared over penumbral regions in the injured hemisphere while intermittent rhythmic delta activity (IRDA) recurred in the contralateral hemisphere with frontoparietal dominance. PLEDs and IRDA persisted up to 72 h in permanent MCAo animals, and early onset of the former was predictive of prolonged seizure activity. The presentation of these EEG waveforms, each with characteristic features replicating those in clinical neurologic populations, validates rat MCAo for study of acutely induced brain seizures and other neurophysiological aspects of brain injury.

  2. Enriched rehabilitation promotes motor recovery in rats exposed to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Jeffers, Matthew Strider; Antonescu, Sabina; Nguemeni, Carine; Gomez-Smith, Mariana; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi; Morshead, Cindi M; Corbett, Dale

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuous improvement in neonatology there is no clinically effective treatment for perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI). Therefore, development of a new therapeutic intervention to minimize the resulting neurological consequences is urgently needed. The immature brain is highly responsive to environmental stimuli, such as environmental enrichment but a more effective paradigm is enriched rehabilitation (ER), which combines environmental enrichment with daily reach training. Another neurorestorative strategy to promote tissue repair and functional recovery is cyclosporine A (CsA). However, potential benefits of CsA after neonatal HI have yet to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a combinational therapy of CsA and ER in attempts to promote cognitive and motor recovery in a rat model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. Seven-day old rats were submitted to the HI procedure and divided into 4 groups: CsA+Rehabilitation; CsA+NoRehabilitation; Vehicle+Rehabilitation; Vehicle+NoRehabilitation. Behavioural parameters were evaluated pre (experiment 1) and post 4 weeks of combinational therapy (experiment 2). Results of experiment 1 demonstrated reduced open field activity of HI animals and increased foot faults relative to shams in the ladder rung walking test. In experiment 2, we showed that ER facilitated acquisition of a staircase skilled-reaching task, increased number of zone crosses in open-field exploration and enhanced coordinated limb use during locomotion on the ladder rung task. There were no evident deficits in novel object recognition testing. Delayed administration of CsA, had no effect on functional recovery after neonatal HI. There was a significant reduction of cortical and hemispherical volume and hippocampal area, ipsilateral to arterial occlusion in HI animals; combinational therapy had no effect on these morphological measurements. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ER, but not CsA was the main

  3. Enriched rehabilitation promotes motor recovery in rats exposed to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Jeffers, Matthew Strider; Antonescu, Sabina; Nguemeni, Carine; Gomez-Smith, Mariana; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi; Morshead, Cindi M; Corbett, Dale

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuous improvement in neonatology there is no clinically effective treatment for perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI). Therefore, development of a new therapeutic intervention to minimize the resulting neurological consequences is urgently needed. The immature brain is highly responsive to environmental stimuli, such as environmental enrichment but a more effective paradigm is enriched rehabilitation (ER), which combines environmental enrichment with daily reach training. Another neurorestorative strategy to promote tissue repair and functional recovery is cyclosporine A (CsA). However, potential benefits of CsA after neonatal HI have yet to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a combinational therapy of CsA and ER in attempts to promote cognitive and motor recovery in a rat model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. Seven-day old rats were submitted to the HI procedure and divided into 4 groups: CsA+Rehabilitation; CsA+NoRehabilitation; Vehicle+Rehabilitation; Vehicle+NoRehabilitation. Behavioural parameters were evaluated pre (experiment 1) and post 4 weeks of combinational therapy (experiment 2). Results of experiment 1 demonstrated reduced open field activity of HI animals and increased foot faults relative to shams in the ladder rung walking test. In experiment 2, we showed that ER facilitated acquisition of a staircase skilled-reaching task, increased number of zone crosses in open-field exploration and enhanced coordinated limb use during locomotion on the ladder rung task. There were no evident deficits in novel object recognition testing. Delayed administration of CsA, had no effect on functional recovery after neonatal HI. There was a significant reduction of cortical and hemispherical volume and hippocampal area, ipsilateral to arterial occlusion in HI animals; combinational therapy had no effect on these morphological measurements. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ER, but not CsA was the main

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines in the embolic model of cerebral ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Jafarinaveh, Hamid Reza; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Rezazadeh, Hossein; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza

    2014-04-01

    Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been recorded after the onset of transient or permanent brain ischemia and are usually associated with exacerbation of ischemic injury. Embolic stroke model is more relevant to the pathophysiological situation in such patients, because the majority of ischemic injuries in humans are induced by old thrombi that originate from the heart and carotid arteries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate changes of inflammatory cytokines after embolic stroke. Rats were subjected to embolic stroke, induced by a natural old clot which was injected in Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA), or sham stroke, which the same volume of saline was injected into the MCA. At 48 h after stroke induction, the levels of 5 cytokines (IL-1α and β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α) were determined in 500 µg of total protein using the Bio-Plex Rat Cytokine Array (BioRad), according to the manufacturer's instructions in ischemic and non-ischemic cortices. While stroke animals showed infarctions and neurological deficits, we did not observe any cerebral infarction and neurological deficits in sham-operated animals. The levels of IL-1α (p=0.000) and -β (p =0.004), IL-6 (p =0.008), TNF-α (p =0.000) and IFN-γ (p =0.044) were significantly increased compared to sham treated animals. The findings of the present study suggest that part of ischemic injury in the embolic stroke may be mediated through the increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24338258

  5. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages. PMID:26119914

  6. Anxiolytic Effects of Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Ischemia-Induced Anxiety in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunjing; Gao, Xiulan; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xiaojie; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Ying; Yu, Haitao; Cui, Guangcheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the anxiolytic effects Agaricus brasiliensis extract (AbSE) on ischemia-induced anxiety using the plus-maze test and the social interaction test. The animals were treated orally with AbSE (4, 8, and 10 mg/kg/d, respectively) for 30 d, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral ischemia. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin in the cerebral cortex of rats, as well as oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels were analyzed, respectively. The rota-rod test was carried out to exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures related to anxiety disorders, and the catalepsy test was carried out to investigate whether AbSE induces catalepsy. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of AbSE presented anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test and the social interaction test. Furthermore, AbSE did not induce extrapyramidal symptoms in the catalepsy test. The mechanism underlying the anxiolytic effect of AbSE might be increased brain monoamine levels and plasma corticosterone levels and decreased oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of nobiletin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in transient middle cerebral artery-occluded rats.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Nodoka; Ishii, Takayuki; Oyama, Dai; Fukuta, Tatsuya; Agato, Yurika; Sato, Akihiko; Shimizu, Kosuke; Asai, Tomohiro; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Kan, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Shizuo; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Oku, Naoto

    2014-04-22

    Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, is reported to possess various pharmacological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant effects. Recently, nobiletin was shown to provide therapeutic benefit for the treatment of Alzheimer׳s disease by activating cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). In the present study, we investigated whether nobiletin could protect the brain against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and improve functional outcome in cerebral I/R model rats, since CREB activation is known to protect neuronal cells in cerebral ischemia. Nobiletin was injected twice at 0 and 1h after the start of reperfusion in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (t-MCAO) rats. Cerebral I/R induced prominent brain damage in the ischemic hemisphere of t-MCAO rat brains; however, nobiletin treatment significantly reduced the infarct volume and suppressed the brain edema. Immunohistochemical and TUNEL staining indicated that nobiletin treatment significantly suppressed neutrophil invasion into the ischemic region and significantly decreased apoptotic brain cell death in ischemic hemisphere, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect and anti-apoptotic effect should be regarded as the neuroprotective mechanism of nobiletin. Moreover, nobiletin treatment ameliorated motor functional deficits in the ischemic rats compared with those deficits of the vehicle-treated group. These results indicate that nobiletin is a potential neuroprotectant for the treatment of cerebral I/R injury.

  8. Improving Active and Passive Avoidance Memories Deficits Due to Permanent Cerebral Ischemia by Pomegranate Seed Extract in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Rezaiei, Moslem; Gharib naseri, MohammadKazem; Rafieirad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of pomegranate seed extract (PGSE) on active and passive avoidance memories after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) to induce permanent cerebral ischemia in adult female rats. Methods: Seventy adult female Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were used. Animals were divided randomly into seven groups with 10 in each: 1) Sham-operated; 2) Ischemic; 3–6) Ischemic received PGSE (100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/2mL/kg, orally) for 14 days; 7) Ischemic received vehicle. In order to create 2CCAO, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. Active and passive avoidance task were measured using criterion condition responses (CCRs) in Y-maze and step-through latency (STL) in two-way shuttle box in all female rats. Results: Both active and passive avoidance memories were significantly impaired in rats after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (CHI) (P < 0.001). PGSE treatment significantly improved passive and active memory impairments with 2CCAO (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001). No toxicity was observed even with high-dose PGSE consumption (800 mg/kg, for 14 days). Conclusion: PGSE exhibits therapeutic potential for avoidance memories, which is most likely related at least in part to its antioxidative and free radical scavenging actions. PMID:23983574

  9. Carbon Monoxide Improves Neurologic Outcomes by Mitochondrial Biogenesis after Global Cerebral Ischemia Induced by Cardiac Arrest in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Yao, Lan; Zhou, Li-li; Liu, Yuan-shan; Chen, Ming-di; Wu, Hai-dong; Chang, Rui-ming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Ming-gen; Fang, Xiang-shao; Yu, Tao; Jiang, Long-yuan; Huang, Zi-tong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to brain injury following global cerebral ischemia after cardiac arrest. Carbon monoxide treatment has shown potent cytoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules on brain mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury following resuscitation after cardiac arrest in rats. A rat model of cardiac arrest was established by asphyxia. The animals were randomly divided into the following 3 groups: cardiac arrest and resuscitation group, cardiac arrest and resuscitation plus carbon monoxide intervention group, and sham control group (no cardiac arrest). After the return of spontaneous circulation, neurologic deficit scores (NDS) and S-100B levels were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 h, but carbon monoxide treatment improved the NDS and S-100B levels at 24 h and the 3-day survival rates of the rats. This treatment also decreased the number of damaged neurons in the hippocampus CA1 area and increased the brain mitochondrial activity. In addition, it increased mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing the expression of biogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, nuclear respiratory factor-2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Thus, this study showed that carbon monoxide treatment alleviated brain injury after cardiac arrest in rats by increased brain mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:27489503

  10. Carbon Monoxide Improves Neurologic Outcomes by Mitochondrial Biogenesis after Global Cerebral Ischemia Induced by Cardiac Arrest in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Yao, Lan; Zhou, Li-Li; Liu, Yuan-Shan; Chen, Ming-di; Wu, Hai-Dong; Chang, Rui-Ming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Ming-Gen; Fang, Xiang-Shao; Yu, Tao; Jiang, Long-Yuan; Huang, Zi-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to brain injury following global cerebral ischemia after cardiac arrest. Carbon monoxide treatment has shown potent cytoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules on brain mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury following resuscitation after cardiac arrest in rats. A rat model of cardiac arrest was established by asphyxia. The animals were randomly divided into the following 3 groups: cardiac arrest and resuscitation group, cardiac arrest and resuscitation plus carbon monoxide intervention group, and sham control group (no cardiac arrest). After the return of spontaneous circulation, neurologic deficit scores (NDS) and S-100B levels were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 h, but carbon monoxide treatment improved the NDS and S-100B levels at 24 h and the 3-day survival rates of the rats. This treatment also decreased the number of damaged neurons in the hippocampus CA1 area and increased the brain mitochondrial activity. In addition, it increased mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing the expression of biogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, nuclear respiratory factor-2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Thus, this study showed that carbon monoxide treatment alleviated brain injury after cardiac arrest in rats by increased brain mitochondrial biogenesis.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Improves Neurologic Outcomes by Mitochondrial Biogenesis after Global Cerebral Ischemia Induced by Cardiac Arrest in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Yao, Lan; Zhou, Li-Li; Liu, Yuan-Shan; Chen, Ming-di; Wu, Hai-Dong; Chang, Rui-Ming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Ming-Gen; Fang, Xiang-Shao; Yu, Tao; Jiang, Long-Yuan; Huang, Zi-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to brain injury following global cerebral ischemia after cardiac arrest. Carbon monoxide treatment has shown potent cytoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules on brain mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury following resuscitation after cardiac arrest in rats. A rat model of cardiac arrest was established by asphyxia. The animals were randomly divided into the following 3 groups: cardiac arrest and resuscitation group, cardiac arrest and resuscitation plus carbon monoxide intervention group, and sham control group (no cardiac arrest). After the return of spontaneous circulation, neurologic deficit scores (NDS) and S-100B levels were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 h, but carbon monoxide treatment improved the NDS and S-100B levels at 24 h and the 3-day survival rates of the rats. This treatment also decreased the number of damaged neurons in the hippocampus CA1 area and increased the brain mitochondrial activity. In addition, it increased mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing the expression of biogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, nuclear respiratory factor-2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Thus, this study showed that carbon monoxide treatment alleviated brain injury after cardiac arrest in rats by increased brain mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:27489503

  12. Activation of the Nrf2 defense pathway contributes to neuroprotective effects of phloretin on oxidative stress injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Liang, Jiangjiu

    2015-04-15

    Oxidative stress is considered a major contributing factor in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Phloretin, a dihydrochalcone belonging to the flavonoid family, is particularly rich in apples and apple-derived products. A large body of evidence demonstrates that phloretin exhibits anti-oxidant properties, and phloretin has potential implications for treating oxidative stress injuries in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Therefore, the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of phloretin against ischemia/reperfusion injury, as well as related probable mechanisms, were investigated. The cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury model was reproduced in male Sprague-Dawley rats through middle cerebral artery occlusion. At 24h after reperfusion, neurological score, infarct volume, and brain water content were assessed. Oxidative stress was evaluated by superoxide dismutases (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nrf2 expression was measured by RT-PCR and western blot. Consequently, results showed that phloretin pretreatment for 14days significantly reduced infarct volume and brain edema, and ameliorated neurological scores in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats. SOD, GSH and GSH-Px activities were greatly decreased, and MDA levels significantly increased after ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, phloretin pretreatment dramatically suppressed these oxidative stress processes. Furthermore, phloretin upregulated Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression of in ischemia/reperfusion brain tissue. Taken together, phloretin exhibited neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and the mechanisms are associated with oxidative stress inhibition and Nrf2 defense pathway activation. PMID:25770876

  13. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain.

  14. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain. PMID:26490459

  15. [GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM ACTIVITY IN RAT TISSUES UNDER PHENYLETHYL BIGUANIDE ACTION ON THE BACKGROUND OF EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION DEVELOPMENT].

    PubMed

    Safonova, O A; Popova, T N; Kryl'skii, D V

    2016-01-01

    It was studied the total antioxidant activity, content of primary lipid peroxidation (LPO) products and reduced glutathione, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase in rat tissues under phenylethyl biguanide (phenfor- min) action on the background of experimental brain ischemia/reperfusion development. It is stablished the analyzed parameters, increasing under ischemia/reperfusion conditions in the brain and blood serum of animals, exhibit a decrease upon the introduction of this biguanide derivative. The obtained data can be explained by a decrease in degree of mobilization of the antioxidant system--in particular, of its glutathione chain--in the pathologic state. Hence, there is a need in NADPH supply for the system functioning compared with the pathology. Thus, phenylethyl biguanide demonstrates its antioxidant and protective properties under oxidative stress development that is accompanied by accumulation of the products of free radical oxidation of biomolecules during the ischemic brain injury. PMID:27159954

  16. [Studying the neuroprotective effect of the novel glutamic acid derivative neiroglutam on focal cerebral ischemia in rats].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Kurkin, D V; Bakulin, D A; Volotova, E V

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the neuroprotective effect of the novel glutamic acid derivative neiroglutam on reversible focal cerebral ischemia in rats. The neuroprotective drug action was assessed by the ability to reduce the severity of neurological deficit (1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days), forelimb fine-motor disorders (in the ladder test), hind limb motor activity (beam-walking test), and volume of the infarct zone upon 7-day pathologic exposure. It was found that the therapeutic administration of neiroglutam (26 mg/kg, i.p., for 7 days) reduces the volume of necrosis of cerebral tissues in case of focal brain ischemia in animals (on the average by 38%, (p < 0.05) and decreases the severity of motor disorders, which indicates the presence of neuroprotective effect of this compound. PMID:25365863

  17. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation and Quercetin Treatment in a Rat Model of Experimental Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Hong-Tian; Cai, Ying-Qian; Han, Yan-Jiang; Yao, Fang; Yuan, Zhao-Hu; Wu, Bing-Yi

    2016-10-01

    Here, we have investigated the synergistic effect of quercetin administration and transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (HUMSCs) following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat. Combining quercetin treatment with delayed transplantation of HUMSCs after local cerebral ischemia significantly (i) improved neurological functional recovery; (ii) reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin(IL)-1β and IL-6), increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1), and reduced ED-1 positive areas; (iii) inhibited cell apoptosis (caspase-3 expression); and (iv) improved the survival rate of HUMSCs in the injury site. Altogether, our results demonstrate that combined HUMSC transplantation and quercetin treatment is a potential strategy for reducing secondary damage and promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia.

  18. Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 Ameliorates Neuronal Loss in the Ganglion Cell Layer of Rats in Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tu; You, Qiuting; Chen, Dan; Tong, Jianbin; Shang, Lei; Luo, Jia; Qiu, Yi; Yu, Huimin; Zeng, Leping; Huang, Jufang

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) is integrally involved in the neuronal degeneration of the central nervous system by promoting glial activation, neuronal apoptosis and damage to the brain-blood barrier. However, whether MMP3 also contributes to the neuronal degeneration induced by retinal ischemia/reperfusion is still uncertain. In the present study, we detected the cellular localization of MMP3 in adult rat retinae and explored the relationship of its expression with neuronal loss in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in retinal ischemia/reperfusion. We found that MMP3 was widely expressed in many cells throughout the layers of the rat retinae, including Vertebrate neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-, parvalbumin-, calbindin-, protein kinase C-α-, glial fibrillary acidic protein-, glutamine synthetase- and CD11b-positive cells. Furthermore, all rats were treated with high intraocular pressure (HIOP) for 1 h (h) and sacrificed at 6 h, 1 day (d), 3 d, and 7 d after HIOP. Compared to the normal control, the expression of both proenzyme MMP3 and active MMP3 were significantly up-regulated after HIOP treatment without alteration of the laminar distribution pattern. Moreover, inhibiting MMP3 ameliorated the loss of NeuN-positive cells in the GCL following HIOP. In summary, our data demonstrates that MMP3 is expressed in multiple types of neurons and glial cells in normal rat retinae. Simultaneously, the up-regulation of its expression and activity are closely involved in neuronal loss in the GCL in retinal ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:26830289

  19. Honokiol protects brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through disrupting PSD95-nNOS interaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenyu; Bian, Xiling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yuanjun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Chen, Shizhong; Wang, Kewei; Wang, Yinye

    2013-01-23

    Honokiol, a major bioactive constituent of the bark of Magnolia officinalis has been confirmed to have the neuroprotective effect on ischemic stroke in rats. This study was designed to observe the therapeutic time window of honokiol microemulsion on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury to support its potential for future clinical trials and further explore the underlying mechanisms. Honokiol microemulsion (50μg/kg, i.v. at 0, 1 or 3h after reperfusion) significantly reduced neurological deficit, infarct volume and brain water content in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, and honokiol (0.1-10μM) significantly attenuated oxygen-glucose deprivation- or glutamate-induced injury of fetal rat cortical neurons. In co-immunoprecipitation and western blot test, honokiol decreased the intensity of nNOS related to PSD95 but failed to affect that of PSD95 related to NR2B in NR2B-PSD95-nNOS complex, and it also inhibited the translocation of nNOS from cytosol to membrane without affecting total nNOS expression, and then markedly decreased NO production in cortical neurons. Besides, the results of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed that honokiol reversibly inhibited the NMDA current by about 64%. In conclusion, honokiol has a therapeutic window of at least 5h after the onset of cerebral ischemia or 3h after reperfusion in rats, which may be in part ascribed to the disruption of the PSD95-nNOS interaction leading to the inhibition of neurotoxic NO production.

  20. Low birth weight increases susceptibility to renal injury in a rat model of mild ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Norma B

    2011-08-01

    Renal injury due to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is the major cause of acute kidney injury. Whether enhanced susceptibility to renal injury due to I/R can be programmed during fetal life is unknown. Epidemiological studies indicate that low birth weight (LBW) individuals are more susceptible to renal injury than normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that LBW is associated with an increased susceptibility to renal injury induced by mild renal I/R (15-min ischemia). Systemic and renal hemodynamic parameters were determined in NBW and LBW adult male rats after mild renal I/R; renal superoxide production and tubular injury were also assessed. A subgroup was pretreated with tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, initiated 15 min before ischemia. Mild renal I/R did not alter renal hemodynamic parameters, induce tubular injury, or induce superoxide production in NBW rats. However, renal hemodynamic parameters declined, superoxide production increased, and histological indicators of tubular injury were present following mild renal I/R in LBW rats. Acute treatment with tempol prevented these alterations in LBW rats subjected to mild renal I/R. Thus, these findings suggest that adverse conditions during fetal life can compromise the renal response to subtle insults leading to an increased susceptibility to renal injury, suggesting that LBW individuals may be an "at risk" population for renal disease. Additionally, the outcome of tempol treatment proposes a possible mechanistic pathway involved in mediating enhanced susceptibility to renal injury programmed during fetal life.

  1. The effect of high intensity interval training on cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Asgari, Ali Reza; Khoshbaten, Ali; Rajabi, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether short term high intensity interval training (HIIT) could protect the heart against ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury; and if so, to evaluate how long the exercise-associated protection can be lasted. Sixty-three rats were randomly assigned into sedentary (n = 15), sham (n = 7), and exercise groups (n = 41). Rats in the exercise groups performed 5 consecutive days of HIIT on treadmill: 5 min warm up with 50 % VO2max, 6×2 min with 95-105 % VO2max (about 40 to 45 m/min), 5×2 min recovery with 65-75 % VO2max (about 28 to 32 m/min), and 3 min cool down with 50 % VO2max, all at 0 % grade. Animals exposed to an in vivo cardiac IR surgery, performed at days 1, 7, and 14 following the final exercise session. Ischemia-induced arrhythmias, myocardial infarct size (IS), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were measured in all animals. Compared to sedentary rats, exercised animals sustained less IR injury as evidenced by a lower size of infarction and lower levels of LDH and CK at day one and day 7 post exercise. In comparison of sedentary group, IS significantly decreased in EX-IR1 and EX-IR7 groups (50 and 35 %, respectively), but not in EX-IR14 group (19 %). The exercise-induced cardioprotection disappeared 14 days following exercise cessation. There were no significant changes in ischemia-induced arrhythmia between exercised and sedentary rats. The results clearly demonstrate that HIIT protects the heart against myocardial IR injury. This protective effect can be sustained for at least one week following the cessation of the training. PMID:26417361

  2. Effects of erythropoietin preconditioning on rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and the GLT-1/GLAST pathway

    PubMed Central

    YU, DAIHUA; FAN, YUANHUA; SUN, XUDE; YAO, LINONG; CHAI, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythropoietin (EPO) preconditioning affects the expression of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and protects against rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. A total of 140 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: Sham, EPO-sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and EPO-MCAO. Neurological function scores were obtained 24, 36 and 72 h after reperfusion. Seventy-two hours after the induction of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, the number of apoptotic neural cells and the cerebral infarct volume of each group were measured. The mRNA levels of GLT-1 and GLAST were determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, while the GLT-1 and GLAST protein levels were assessed using western blotting. The cerebral infarct volume was significantly increased in the MCAO group compared with that in the sham group (P<0.01); however, the infarct volume of the EPO-MCAO group was significantly lower than that of the MCAO group (P<0.01). In addition, the number of apoptotic cells found in the MCAO group was higher than that in the sham group (P<0.01), but the number of apoptotic cells in the EPO-MCAO group was significantly lower than that in the MCAO group (P<0.01). The GLT-1 and GLAST mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased 72 h after the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (P<0.01) compared with those in the sham group, whereas the same levels were increased significantly in the EPO-MCAO group relative to those in the MCAO group (P<0.01). In conclusion, EPO preconditioning protected against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and upregulated the GLT-1 and GLAST expression. PMID:26893639

  3. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia on microRNA-1 expression in the rat heart in vivo.

    PubMed

    Brandenburger, Timo; Grievink, Hilbert; Heinen, Nicole; Barthel, Franziska; Huhn, Ragnar; Stachuletz, Friederike; Kohns, Malte; Pannen, Benedikt; Bauer, Inge

    2014-09-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an easily applicable method for protecting the heart against a subsequent ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying RIPC are unknown. We examined the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) and in particular the expression of miRNA-1 (miR-1) in RIPC and myocardial ischemia. Remote ischemic preconditioning was conducted by four cycles of 5-min bilateral hind-limb ischemia in male Wistar rats. Cardiac ischemia was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 35 min followed by 2 or 6 h of reperfusion. MicroRNA expression was analyzed by Taqman miRNA arrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Luciferase assays were performed to validate the miR-1 target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Remote ischemic preconditioning led to a differential expression of miRNAs. The most abundant cardiac miRNA, miR-1, was downregulated by RIPC without following ischemia as well as after I/R and RIPC followed by I/R after 2 h of reperfusion. After 6 h of reperfusion, RIPC led to an upregulation of miR-1, whereas ischemia had no effect on miR-1 expression. Luciferase assays confirmed the interaction of miR-1 with BDNF, a protein that has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels in rat hearts measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were not significantly altered after 2 or 6 h of reperfusion in all intervention groups. Remote ischemic preconditioning leads to changes in the expression levels of the most abundant cardiac miRNA, miR-1. MicroRNA 1 levels did not correlate with protein levels of BDNF, a known miR-1 target, in vivo. Further studies are needed to explore the biological significance of changes in miR-1 expression levels and the

  4. Transient Mesenteric Ischemia Leads to Remodeling of Rat Mesenteric Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Caracuel, Laura; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Romo, Mónica; Márquez-Martín, Ana; Dantas, Ana P.; Vila, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    Mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. We studied the effect of mesenteric I/R on structural and mechanical properties of rat mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) that, once disrupted, might impact the outcome of this devastating clinical condition. Superior mesenteric artery from Wistar–Kyoto rats was occluded (90 min) and reperfused (24 h). The effect of tezosentan, a dual endothelin (ET)-receptor antagonist, was studied in ischemic (IO) and sham-operated (SO) animals. MRA structure and mechanics were assessed by pressure myography. Nuclei distribution, elastin content and organization, collagen I/III and ET-1 expression, ET-1 plasma levels, superoxide anion (O2⋅−) production, and mRNA levels of NAD(P)H-oxidase subunits were measured. To assess ET-1 effects on O2⋅− production, MRA from non-operated rats were incubated in culture medium with ET-1. Mesenteric I/R increased MRA wall thickness (P < 0.05) and cross-sectional area (P < 0.05) but decreased wall stiffness (P < 0.05). Arterial remodeling was paralleled by enhancement of: (i) collagen I/III expression (P < 0.01), ET-1 expression (P < 0.05), and O2⋅− formation (P < 0.01) in the vessel wall; (ii) number of internal elastic lamina (IEL) fenestrae (P < 0.05); and (iii) plasma levels of ET-1 (P < 0.05). Moreover, ET-1 increased O2⋅− (P < 0.05) production in cultured MRA. Tezosentan prevented hypertrophic remodeling and collagen I/III deposition, and enhanced O2⋅− production, but it did not affect the decreased wall stiffness after mesenteric I/R. These results indicate that 90 min occlusion/24 h reperfusion induces hypertrophic remodeling of MRA linked to ET-1-mediated increase of collagen and O2⋅−. Decreased stiffness may be associated with increased number of IEL fenestrae. The resulting MRA remodeling, initially adaptive, might become maladaptive contributing to the pathology and poor

  5. In vivo mechanism study of NGAL in rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zang, X J; An, S X; Feng, Z; Xia, Y P; Song, Y; Yu, Q

    2014-10-27

    This study aimed to determine the protective effect and mechanism of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in rat kidney on ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The rat I/R model was set up by cutting one kidney and clamping the contralateral renal pedicle for 45 min. Male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operation, I/R and NGAL groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the renal pathological changes in the 3 groups; serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) determined in blood samples taken from the inferior vena cava 24 h after the reperfusion were measured; TUNEL was used to observe the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells; immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expressions of Bax and activated caspase-3; Western blotting was used to determine the expression changes in apoptotic proteins Fas and Bcl-2. Compared with the I/R group, Scr and BUN of the NGAL group were 63.400 ± 11.908 vs 121.857 ± 17.151 μM and 14.840 ± 2.868 vs 28.557 ± 6.434 mM, respectively. The number of apoptotic tubular epithelial cells was reduced (7.800 ± 1.924 vs 15.400 ± 3.049); the expression of renal tissue Fas mRNA of the NGAL group was decreased (2.34 ± 0.51 vs 6.84 ± 2.34); the expression of the Bax protein was lower (7.440 ± 1.640 vs 15.456 ± 1.955%); the expression of the CC3 protein was decreased (3.171 ± 0.321 vs 7.291 ± 1.059%), while the expression of the Bcl-2 protein increased (6.91 ± 1.64 vs 5.30 ± 1.48), P < 0.05. NGAL had a protective effect towards the renal tubular epithelial cells in I/R, and the effect might have been associated with the reduction in apoptosis and the altered expression of apoptotic proteins, which would thereby reduce tissue damage and protect the kidney.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of prior exposure to enriched environment on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: the possible molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yongshan; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Zhenzhen; Jia, Jie

    2013-11-13

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is neuroprotective in animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that animals housed in an enriched environment condition after an experimental stroke obtained a better functional outcome than those housed in a standard condition. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of enriched environment exposure prior to injury. The current study examined the neuroprotective effects of prior enriched environment exposure after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 55-65g at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly assigned to a pre-ischemic enriched environment (PIEE) or pre-ischemic standard condition (PISC) group for 1 month. They were weighed on days1, 7, 18, and 28, and their locomotor activity was tracked during the period between 9:00am and 3:00pm daily. After 1 month, ischemia was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 90min, followed by reperfusion. After approximately 24h of the operation, functional outcomes were assessed using the beam-walking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. We measured the expression of extracellular signal regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) by western blotting and gene expression levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthasen (iNOS) by Real-Time PCR in the cortical area affected by ischemia. Finally, we measured the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which is a biomarker of oxidative stress. The results showed that rats in the PIEE group had lighter weight than those in the PISC group. The functional outcomes of rats in the PIEE group were better than those in the PISC group, and substances associated with inflammation, such as MDA, nNOS, iNOS, and phospho-ERK1/2, were lower in the PIEE group compared with the PISC group. These results

  7. Neuroprotective effects of prior exposure to enriched environment on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: the possible molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yongshan; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Zhenzhen; Jia, Jie

    2013-11-13

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is neuroprotective in animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that animals housed in an enriched environment condition after an experimental stroke obtained a better functional outcome than those housed in a standard condition. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of enriched environment exposure prior to injury. The current study examined the neuroprotective effects of prior enriched environment exposure after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 55-65g at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly assigned to a pre-ischemic enriched environment (PIEE) or pre-ischemic standard condition (PISC) group for 1 month. They were weighed on days1, 7, 18, and 28, and their locomotor activity was tracked during the period between 9:00am and 3:00pm daily. After 1 month, ischemia was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 90min, followed by reperfusion. After approximately 24h of the operation, functional outcomes were assessed using the beam-walking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. We measured the expression of extracellular signal regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) by western blotting and gene expression levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthasen (iNOS) by Real-Time PCR in the cortical area affected by ischemia. Finally, we measured the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which is a biomarker of oxidative stress. The results showed that rats in the PIEE group had lighter weight than those in the PISC group. The functional outcomes of rats in the PIEE group were better than those in the PISC group, and substances associated with inflammation, such as MDA, nNOS, iNOS, and phospho-ERK1/2, were lower in the PIEE group compared with the PISC group. These results

  8. Erythropoietin Ameliorates Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits, Neuroinflammation, and Hippocampal Injury in the Juvenile Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Kuo-Mao; Tien, Lu-Tai; Cai, Zhengwei; Lin, Shuying; Pang, Yi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Rhodes, Philip G.; Bhatt, Abhay J.; Savich, Renate D.; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in Postnatal Day 7 (P7)–P10 or adult animal models. The current study was aimed to determine whether EPO also provides long-lasting neuroprotection against HI in P5 rats, which is relevant to immature human infants. Sprague-Dawley rats at P5 were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by an exposure to 6% oxygen with balanced nitrogen for 1.5 h. Human recombinant EPO (rEPO, at a dose of 5 units/g) was administered intraperitoneally one hour before or immediately after insult, followed by additional injections at 24 and 48 h post-insult. The control rats were injected with normal saline following HI. Neurobehavioral tests were performed on P8 and P20, and brain injury was examined on P21. HI insult significantly impaired neurobehavioral performance including sensorimotor, locomotor activity and cognitive ability on the P8 and P20 rats. HI insult also resulted in brain inflammation (as indicated by microglia activation) and neuronal death (as indicated by Jade B positive staining) in the white matter, striatum, cortex, and hippocampal areas of the P21 rat. Both pre- and post-treatment with rEPO significantly improved neurobehavioral performance and protected against the HI-induced neuronal death, microglia activation (OX42+) as well as loss of mature oligodendrocytes (APC-CC1+) and hippocampal neurons (Nissl+). The long-lasting protective effects of rEPO in the neonatal rat HI model suggest that to exert neurotrophic activity in the brain might be an effective approach for therapeutic treatment of neonatal brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26927081

  9. Erythropoietin Ameliorates Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits, Neuroinflammation, and Hippocampal Injury in the Juvenile Rat.

    PubMed

    Lan, Kuo-Mao; Tien, Lu-Tai; Cai, Zhengwei; Lin, Shuying; Pang, Yi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Rhodes, Philip G; Bhatt, Abhay J; Savich, Renate D; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in Postnatal Day 7 (P7)-P10 or adult animal models. The current study was aimed to determine whether EPO also provides long-lasting neuroprotection against HI in P5 rats, which is relevant to immature human infants. Sprague-Dawley rats at P5 were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by an exposure to 6% oxygen with balanced nitrogen for 1.5 h. Human recombinant EPO (rEPO, at a dose of 5 units/g) was administered intraperitoneally one hour before or immediately after insult, followed by additional injections at 24 and 48 h post-insult. The control rats were injected with normal saline following HI. Neurobehavioral tests were performed on P8 and P20, and brain injury was examined on P21. HI insult significantly impaired neurobehavioral performance including sensorimotor, locomotor activity and cognitive ability on the P8 and P20 rats. HI insult also resulted in brain inflammation (as indicated by microglia activation) and neuronal death (as indicated by Jade B positive staining) in the white matter, striatum, cortex, and hippocampal areas of the P21 rat. Both pre- and post-treatment with rEPO significantly improved neurobehavioral performance and protected against the HI-induced neuronal death, microglia activation (OX42+) as well as loss of mature oligodendrocytes (APC-CC1+) and hippocampal neurons (Nissl+). The long-lasting protective effects of rEPO in the neonatal rat HI model suggest that to exert neurotrophic activity in the brain might be an effective approach for therapeutic treatment of neonatal brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26927081

  10. The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Cardiac Function and Tolerance to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Sajad; Asl, Amir Nezami; Asgari, Alireza; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation (SD) is strongly associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective To determine the effect of SD on basal hemodynamic functions and tolerance to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in male rats. Method SD was induced by using the flowerpot method for 4 days. Isolated hearts were perfused with Langendorff setup, and the following parameters were measured at baseline and after IR: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP); heart rate (HR); and the maximum rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt). Heart NOx level, infarct size and coronary flow CK-MB and LDH were measured after IR. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at start and end of study. Results In the SD group, the baseline levels of LVDP (19%), +dp/dt (18%), and -dp/dt (21%) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, and HR (32%) was significantly higher compared to the controls. After ischemia, hearts from SD group displayed a significant increase in HR together with a low hemodynamic function recovery compared to the controls. In the SD group, NOx level in heart, coronary flow CK-MB and LDH and infarct size significantly increased after IR; also SD rats had higher SBP after 4 days. Conclusion Hearts from SD rats had lower basal cardiac function and less tolerance to IR injury, which may be linked to an increase in NO production following IR. PMID:26559853

  11. Sex-dependent mitophagy and neuronal death following rat neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Demarest, T G; Waite, E L; Kristian, T; Puche, A C; Waddell, J; McKenna, M C; Fiskum, G

    2016-10-29

    Males are more susceptible than females to long-term cognitive deficits following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI), but the influence of sex on mitochondrial quality control (MQC) after HI is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mitophagy is sexually dimorphic and neuroprotective 20-24h following the Rice-Vannucci model of rat neonatal HI at postnatal day 7 (PN7). Mitochondrial and lysosomal morphology and degree of co-localization were determined by immunofluorescence in the cerebral cortex. No difference in mitochondrial abundance was detected in the cortex after HI. However, net mitochondrial fission increased in both hemispheres of female brain, but was most extensive in the ipsilateral hemisphere of male brain following HI. Basal autophagy, assessed by immunoblot for the autophagosome marker LC3BI/II, was greater in males suggesting less intrinsic reserve capacity for autophagy following HI. Autophagosome formation, lysosome size, and TOM20/LAMP2 co-localization were increased in the contralateral hemisphere following HI in female, but not male brain. An accumulation of ubiquitinated mitochondrial protein was observed in male, but not female brain following HI. Moreover, neuronal cell death with NeuN/TUNEL co-staining occurred in both hemispheres of male brain, but only in the ipsilateral hemisphere of female brain after HI. In summary, mitophagy induction and neuronal cell death are sex dependent following HI. The deficit in elimination of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria in the male brain following HI may contribute to male vulnerability to neuronal death and long-term neurobehavioral deficits following HIE.

  12. Spinal Neuronal NOS Signaling Contributes to Morphine Cardioprotection in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingling; Hu, Jun; He, Shufang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ye

    2016-09-01

    Morphine has been widely used as rescue treatment for heart attack and failure in humans for many decades. Relatively little has been known about the role of spinal opioid receptors in morphine cardioprotection. Recent studies have shown that intrathecal injection of morphine can reduce the heart injury caused by ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) in rats. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying intrathecal morphine cardioprotection has not been determined. Here, we report that intrathecal morphine postconditioning (IMPOC) rescued mean artery pressure (MAP) and reduced myocardial injury in I/R. Pretreatment with either naloxone (NAL), a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors via intrathecal delivery completely abolished IMPOC cardioprotection, suggesting that the spinal mu-opioid receptor and its downstream NOS signaling pathway are involved in the mechanism of the morphine-induced effect. Consistent with this, IMPOC significantly enhanced spinal neural NOS phosphorylation, nitric oxide, and cGMP content in a similar time course. Intrathecal application of 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a specific inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, completely ablated IMPOC-induced enhancement of cardioprotection and spinal cGMP content. IMPOC rescue of MAP and ischemic injury is correlated with IMPOC enhancement of NOS signaling. Collectively, these findings strengthen the concept of spinal mu-opioid receptors as a therapeutic target that mediates morphine-induced cardioprotection. We also provide evidence suggesting that the activation of spinal NOS signaling is essential for morphine cardioprotection. PMID:27358482

  13. UNFEASIBLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF NORMOTHERMIC HEPATIC ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION IN RATS USING THE PRINGLE MANEUVER

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Helbert Minuncio Pereira; SERIGIOLLE, Leonardo Carvalho; RODRIGUES, Daren Athiê Boy; LOPES, Carolina Marques; STUDART, Sarah do Valle; LEME, Pedro Luiz Squilacci

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative result of a research does not always indicate failure, and when the data do not permit a proper conclusion, or are contrary to the initial project, should not simply be discarded and archived. Aim To report failure after performing experimental model of liver ischemia and reperfusion normothermic, continuous or intermittent, in small animals aiming at the study of biochemical and histological parameters after postoperative recovery. Methods Fifteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups of five animals each; all underwent surgery, the abdomen was sutured after the proposed procedures for each group and the animals were observed for 6 h or until they died, and then were reoperated. In Group 1, control (sham-operated): dissection of the hepatic hilum was performed; in Group 2: clamping of the hepatic hilum for 30 m; in Group 3: clamping of the hepatic hilum for 15 m, reperfusion for 5 m and another 15 m of clamping. Data from Groups 2 and 3 were compared with Student's t test. Results All animals of Group 1 survived for 6 h. Two animals in Group 2 died before the 6 h needed to validate the experiment; two did not recover from anesthesia and one survived until the end. In Group 3, four animals died before the 6 h established and one of them survived the required time. Only one animal in Group 2 and one in Group 3 survived and were able to accomplish the study. There was no statistical significance when the results of Groups 2 and 3 were compared (p>0.05). Conclusion The death of six animals before the necessary period of observation turned the initial proposal of the experiment unfeasible. PMID:25184771

  14. Poppy seed oil protection of the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia and re-perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Cevik-Demirkan, A; Oztaşan, N; Oguzhan, E O; Cil, N; Coskun, S

    2012-11-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to hypoxia; this is true particularly of parts that are crucial for cognitive function. The effects of hypoxia are especially dramatic in the hippocampus. We evaluated the potential protective effects of poppy seed oil on the number of hippocampus cells and the serum antioxidant/oxidant status after cerebral ischemia and re-perfusion (CIR). Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group without CIR. Group 2 received poppy seed oil daily by oral gavage at a dose of 0.4 ml/kg, while group 3 was given 0.4 ml/kg saline solution by oral gavage per day; these treatments were continued for one month. Groups 2 and 3 were subjected to CIR induced by clamps on two points of both of the carotid arteries for 45 min followed by 45 min re-perfusion. There were significant decreases in the number of hippocampus cells between groups 1 and 2, and between groups 1 and 3. The mean cell number in group 2 was not significantly different from that of group 3. The serum nitric oxide levels in CIR groups were elevated significantly compared to controls, and were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 3. The glutathione levels were increased significantly in the poppy seed oil treated group compared to the saline CIR groups. The malondialdehyde levels were markedly increased in group 3 compared to both groups 1 and 2. Our study suggests that poppy seed oil can improve antioxidant defense capacity after CIR, although this treatment did not alter significantly the frequency of cell death.

  15. Delayed neurological deterioration after surgery for intraspinal meningiomas: Ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    WU, LIANG; YANG, TAO; YANG, CHENLONG; YAO, NING; WANG, HUILIANG; FANG, JINGYI; XU, YULUN

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurological deterioration in the absence of direct cord insult following surgical removal and cord decompression is a rare but severe postoperative complication in a small subset of patients with intraspinal meningiomas. To date, the underlying pathophysiology of such a finding remains unclear and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is considered as the potential etiology in the literature. However, no experimental research has been reported to prove this hypothesis. The present study investigated whether IRI occurs following decompression surgery using an experimental rat model of chronic compressive spinal cord injury (SCI). A chronic spinal cord compression model was developed with various sizes of polymer sheets (mild and severe compression) that were microsurgically implanted underneath the T8-9 laminae, and occurrence of IRI in the spinal cord following decompression was determined by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. In the mild compression groups, after decompression SOD activities significantly increased along with a reduction in MDA content compared with the non-decompression group (P<0.05), which exhibited diminishment of lipid peroxidation and relief of the secondary injury. These findings indicated that decompression is effective to improve neurological recovery and may deliver improved outcomes for chronic mild compression of the spinal cord. However, in severe compression groups, after decompression, SOD activities markedly reduced further along with a significant increase in MDA content compared with non-decompression group (P<0.05). The results indicated that lipid peroxidation increased immediately after decompression surgery which resulted from reperfusion of the spinal cord. These findings demonstrated IRI may occur as a result of chronic severe compression of the spinal cord. In clinical practice, sudden cord expansion and reperfusion may have lead to disruption in the blood spinal cord

  16. Evaluation the development of focal cerebral ischemia in rats by optical imaging based on the spreading depression signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangbin; Feng, Zhe; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-01

    Spreading depression (SD) has been found involved in focal cerebral ischemia which may result in severe or lethal neurological deficits. Electrical recording of SD has been used for acute and long term monitoring of focal cerebral ischemia but with an inherently low resolution. Here, we presented optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) to characterize the spontaneous SD waves following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats with high spatial resolution. During each SD episode, the measured optical reflectance varied regionally: decreased (-12.5+/-2.8%) in the area near the midline, remained flat (3.1+/-2.5%) in the lateral region, and increased (12.1+/-3.6%) in the intermediate cortex. The three types of changes yielded identifications for three biological relevant zones: nonischemic cortex, penumbra and infarct core. Accompanying recurrent SD waves, the suggested penumbral area reduced by about 6.4+/-2.5% of the whole imaged area per SD event, indicating a growth of the infracted area. Staining with 2% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) 4 h post-occlusion proved the infarct cortex to be consistent with the lateral region where the final SD wave did not invade (r=0.86+/-0.10). The results suggest that OISI based on SD can effectively used to distinguish nonischemic cortex, penumbra and infarct core in the ischemic hemisphere and monitor the development of ischemia with high spatial resolution.

  17. [Cardioprotective effect of heme oxygenase-1 induction by hemin on the isolated rat heart during ischemia--reperfusion].

    PubMed

    Kukoba, T V; Moĭbenko, O O; Kotsioruba, A V

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of both an inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO-1) and products of heme catabolism (carbon monoxide (CO), cardiac bilirubin and Fe2+) in protecting myocardium against post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction. Rat hearts were isolated and perfused according to the Langendorff technique to evaluate the recovery of myocardial function after total ischemia (20 min) and reperfusion (40 min) and production of reactive oxygen forms at a reperfusion phase. Ischemia/reperfusion caused impairment in myocardial function: left ventricular developing pressure (LVDP) was shown to be decreased, while end-diastolic pressure (EDP) and both coronary perfusion pressure and coronary resistance increased. Free oxygen radicals were generated at the reperfusion phase which led to injuries to cardiomyocytes and creatine kinase efflux into perfusate. We have found that upregulation of HO-1 by preliminary (24 h before ischemia) injections of 25 mg/kg hemin (i.p.) resulted in improving the myocardial function due to increasing the enzyme activity and forming the cardial bilirubine, while generation of reactive oxygen forms was inhibited, as well as the contents of creatine kinase reduced. As a result, impairment in cardiomyocytes diminished, and coronary vessels dilated to improve the functional parametres of the heart work.

  18. Protective effect of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm. against transient global ischemia-induced brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, B S; Nagakannan, P; Shivasharan, B D; Mahendran, S; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S

    2011-11-01

    Embelia ribes is being used in Indian traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of mental disorders and as brain tonic. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of embelin from E. ribes on global ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. Transient global ischemia was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24-h reperfusion. Neurological functions were measured using sensorimotor tests. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury was assessed by cerebral infarct area, biochemical and histopathological examination. Pretreatment of embelin (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased locomotor activity and hanging latency time and decreased beam walking latency when compared with ischemic control. The treatment also reduced significantly the lipid peroxidation and increased the total thiol content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in brain homogenates. The decreased cerebral infarction area in embelin-treated groups and histopathological observations confirmed the above findings. These observations suggested that embelin is a neuroprotective agent and may prove to be useful adjunct in the treatment of stroke. PMID:21751076

  19. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Atherosclerosis-induced Chronic Pelvic Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Dae Hee; Bae, Jae Hyun; Moon, Du Geon

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the omega-3 fatty acids help to improve erectile function in an atherosclerosis-induced erectile dysfunction rat model. A total of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats at age 8 weeks were divided into three groups: Control group (n = 6, untreated sham operated rats), Pathologic group (n = 7, untreated rats with chronic pelvic ischemia [CPI]), and Treatment group (n = 7, CPI rats treated with omega-3 fatty acids). For the in vivo study, electrical stimulation of the cavernosal nerve was performed and erectile function was measured in all groups. Immunohistochemical antibody staining was performed for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α). In vivo measurement of erectile function in the Pathologic group showed significantly lower values than those in the Control group, whereas the Treatment group showed significantly improved values in comparison with those in the Pathologic group. The results of western blot analysis revealed that systemically administered omega-3 fatty acids ameliorated the cavernosal molecular environment. Our study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids improve intracavernosal pressure and have a beneficial role against pathophysiological consequences such as fibrosis or hypoxic damage on a CPI rat model, which represents a structural erectile dysfunction model. PMID:27051243

  20. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Atherosclerosis-induced Chronic Pelvic Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Dae Hee; Bae, Jae Hyun; Moon, Du Geon

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the omega-3 fatty acids help to improve erectile function in an atherosclerosis-induced erectile dysfunction rat model. A total of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats at age 8 weeks were divided into three groups: Control group (n = 6, untreated sham operated rats), Pathologic group (n = 7, untreated rats with chronic pelvic ischemia [CPI]), and Treatment group (n = 7, CPI rats treated with omega-3 fatty acids). For the in vivo study, electrical stimulation of the cavernosal nerve was performed and erectile function was measured in all groups. Immunohistochemical antibody staining was performed for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α). In vivo measurement of erectile function in the Pathologic group showed significantly lower values than those in the Control group, whereas the Treatment group showed significantly improved values in comparison with those in the Pathologic group. The results of western blot analysis revealed that systemically administered omega-3 fatty acids ameliorated the cavernosal molecular environment. Our study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids improve intracavernosal pressure and have a beneficial role against pathophysiological consequences such as fibrosis or hypoxic damage on a CPI rat model, which represents a structural erectile dysfunction model.

  1. Xenon-delayed postconditioning attenuates spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation AKT and ERK signaling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyao; Yang, Yanwei; Jin, Mu; Hou, Siyu; Dong, Xiuhua; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have shown that xenon-delayed postconditioning for up to 2h after reperfusion provides protection against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. This study was designed to determine the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in this neuroprotection. The rats were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n=16∗9): 1) I/R+N2 group, 2) I/R+Xe group, 3) I/R+PD98059+N2 group (ERK blocking agent), 4) I/R+wortmannin+N2 group (PI3K-Akt blocking agent), 5) I/R+PD98059+Xe group, 6) I/R+wortmannin+Xe group, 7) I/R+DMSO+Xe group (dimethyl sulfoxide, vehicle control), 8) I/R+DMSO+N2 group, and 9) sham group (no spinal cord ischemia and no xenon). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 25min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor scale at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after reperfusion. Histological examination of the lumbar spinal cord was performed using Nissl staining and TUNEL staining at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8)h after reperfusion. Western blotting was performed to evaluate p-Akt and p-ERK expression in the spinal cord at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8) h after reperfusion. Compared with the sham group, all rats in the I/R groups had lower BBB scores, fewer normal motor neurons, more apoptotic neurons and lower p-Akt and p-ERK levels at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, rats in the I/R+Xe group had higher neurological scores, more normal motor neurons, fewer apoptotic neurons and significantly higher levels of p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+Xe group, the I/R+PD98059+Xe and I/R+wortmannin+Xe groups showed worse neurological outcomes and less p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). These results suggest that xenon-delayed postconditioning improves neurological outcomes to spinal cord I/R injury in rats through the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling

  2. Xenon-delayed postconditioning attenuates spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation AKT and ERK signaling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyao; Yang, Yanwei; Jin, Mu; Hou, Siyu; Dong, Xiuhua; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have shown that xenon-delayed postconditioning for up to 2h after reperfusion provides protection against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. This study was designed to determine the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in this neuroprotection. The rats were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n=16∗9): 1) I/R+N2 group, 2) I/R+Xe group, 3) I/R+PD98059+N2 group (ERK blocking agent), 4) I/R+wortmannin+N2 group (PI3K-Akt blocking agent), 5) I/R+PD98059+Xe group, 6) I/R+wortmannin+Xe group, 7) I/R+DMSO+Xe group (dimethyl sulfoxide, vehicle control), 8) I/R+DMSO+N2 group, and 9) sham group (no spinal cord ischemia and no xenon). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 25min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor scale at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after reperfusion. Histological examination of the lumbar spinal cord was performed using Nissl staining and TUNEL staining at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8)h after reperfusion. Western blotting was performed to evaluate p-Akt and p-ERK expression in the spinal cord at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8) h after reperfusion. Compared with the sham group, all rats in the I/R groups had lower BBB scores, fewer normal motor neurons, more apoptotic neurons and lower p-Akt and p-ERK levels at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, rats in the I/R+Xe group had higher neurological scores, more normal motor neurons, fewer apoptotic neurons and significantly higher levels of p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+Xe group, the I/R+PD98059+Xe and I/R+wortmannin+Xe groups showed worse neurological outcomes and less p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). These results suggest that xenon-delayed postconditioning improves neurological outcomes to spinal cord I/R injury in rats through the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling

  3. The effect of acute stress exposure on ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat heart: role of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Moghimian, Maryam; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Imani, Alireza

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies showed the protective effects of oxytocin (OT) on myocardial injury in ischemic and reperfused rat heart. Moreover, exposure to various stressors not only evokes sudden cardiovascular effects but also triggers the release of OT in the rat. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible cardioprotective effects of endogenous OT released in response to stress (St), and effects of administration of exogenous OT on the ischemic-reperfused isolated heart of rats previously exposed to St. Wistar rats were divided into six groups: ischemia/reperfusion (IR); St: rats exposed to swim St for 10 min before anesthesia; St+atosiban (ATO): an OT receptor antagonist, was administered (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) prior to St; St+OT: OT was administered (0.03 mg/kg i.p.) prior to St; OT: OT was administrated prior to anesthesia; ATO was given prior to anesthesia. Isolated hearts were perfused with Krebs buffer solution by the Langendorff method and subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The infarct size (IS) and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in coronary effluent were measured. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the experiment. The plasma concentrations of OT and corticosterone were significantly increased by St. Unexpectedly St decreased IR injury compared with the IR alone group. OT administration significantly inhibited myocardial injury, and administration of ATO with St abolished recovery of the rate pressure product, and increased IS and levels of CK-MB and LDH. These findings indicate that activation of cardiac OT receptors by OT released in response to St may participate in cardioprotection and inhibition of myocardial IR injury.

  4. Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats display pronounced hyperglycemia and longer-lasting cognitive impairments following ischemia induced by cortical compression.

    PubMed

    Moreira, T; Cebers, G; Pickering, C; Ostenson, C-G; Efendic, S; Liljequist, S

    2007-02-23

    Hyperglycemia has been shown to worsen the outcome of brain ischemia in several animal models but few experimental studies have investigated impairments in cognition induced by ischemic brain lesions in hyperglycemic animals. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat naturally develops type 2 diabetes characterized by mild hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that GK rats would display more severe cerebral damage due to hyperglycemia-aggravated brain injury and, accordingly, more severe cognitive impairments. In this study, recovery of motor and cognitive functions of GK and healthy Wistar rats was examined following extradural compression (EC) of the sensorimotor cortex. For this purpose, tests of vestibulomotor function (beam-walking) and combined tests of motor function and learning (locomotor activity from day (D) 1 to D5, operant lever-pressing from D14 to D25) were used. EC consistently reduced cerebral blood flow in both strains. Anesthesia-challenge and EC resulted in pronounced hyperglycemia in GK but not in Wistar rats. Lower beam-walking scores, increased locomotor activity, impairments in long-term habituation and learning of operant lever-pressing were more pronounced and observed at later time-points in GK rats. Fluoro-Jade, a marker of irreversible neuronal degeneration, revealed consistent degeneration in the ipsilateral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus at 2, 7 and 14 days post-compression. The amount of degeneration in these structures was considerably higher in GK rats. Thus, GK rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia during EC, as well as longer-lasting behavioral deficits and increased neurodegeneration during recovery. The GK rat is thus an attractive model for neuropathologic and cognitive studies after ischemic brain injury in hyperglycemic rats. PMID:17175109

  5. Differential changes in phospholipase D and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities in ischemia-reperfusion of rat heart.

    PubMed

    Asemu, Girma; Dent, Melissa R; Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2005-04-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD2) produces phosphatidic acid (PA), which is converted to 1,2 diacylglycerol (DAG) by phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP2). Since PA and DAG regulate Ca(2+) movements, we examined PLD2 and PAP2 in the sarcolemma (SL) and sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) membranes from hearts subjected to ischemia and reperfusion (I-R). Although SL and SR PLD2 activities were unaltered after 30 min ischemia, 5 min reperfusion resulted in a 36% increase in SL PLD2 activity, whereas 30 min reperfusion resulted in a 30% decrease in SL PLD2 activity, as compared to the control value. SR PLD2 activity was decreased (39%) after 5 min reperfusion, but returned to control levels after 30 min reperfusion. Ischemia for 60 min resulted in depressed SL and SR PLD2 activities, characterized with reduced V(max) and increased K(m) values, which were not reversed during reperfusion. Although the SL PAP2 activity was decreased (31%) during ischemia and at 30 min reperfusion (28%), the SR PAP2 activity was unchanged after 30 min ischemia, but was decreased after 5 min reperfusion (25%) and almost completely recovered after 30 min reperfusion. A 60 min period of ischemia followed by reperfusion caused an irreversible depression of SL and SR PAP2 activities. Our results indicate that I-R induced cardiac dysfunction is associated with subcellular changes in PLD2 and PAP2 activities. PMID:15752718

  6. [THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON THE PARAMETERS OF PROOXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT BALANCE DURING HEPATIC ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION SYNDROME IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Khodosovsky, M N; Zinchuk, V V; Gulyai, I E

    2015-10-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide on the blood and liver prooxidant-antioxidant parameters: lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde, Schiff bases) and antioxidant system parameters (catalase, retinol, α-tocopherol, glutathione) were investigated in rats during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Hepatic ischemia was induced by Pringle maneuver for 30 min, reperfusion period was 120 min. It is detected, that hepatic ischemia-reperfusion leads to intensification of lipid peroxidation with declining of antioxidant defense. Infusion of the donor CO before reperfusion period improves the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the blood and liver. In conclusion, CO increases the antioxidant activity of the blood and liver, decreases lipid peroxidation processes, that's correct oxidative damages during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

  7. Severe instead of mild hyperglycemia inhibits neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S; Zhi, P K; Luo, Z K; Shi, J

    2015-09-10

    Accumulated evidence suggests that enhanced neurogenesis stimulated by ischemic injury contributes to stroke outcome. However, it is unclear whether hyperglycemia, which is frequently tested positive in patients with acute ischemic stroke, influences stroke-induced neurogenesis. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on stroke-induced neurogenesis in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Glucose was administered during ischemia to produce target blood levels ranging from 4.83 ± 0.94 mM (normoglycemia) to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM. To label proliferating cells in ischemic ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 24h after MCAO. Brains were harvested 2h post-BrdU to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on infarct volume and SVZ cell proliferation. Rats that were severely hyperglycemic (19.26 ± 1.48 mM to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM) during ischemia had 24.26% increase in infarct volume (P<0.05) and more serious neurological function deficits (P<0.05). The severe hyperglycemic rats also showed dramatically decreased proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) (P<0.05) and down-regulation of the phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) (P<0.05)and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (P<0.05) in ipsilateral SVZ. But the above-mentioned detrimental effects were not observed in rats that were rendered with mild hyperglycemia (9.43 ± 1.39-10.13 ± 1.24 mM). Our findings indicate that severe instead of mild hyperglycemia exacerbates ischemic injury and inhibits stroke-induced SVZ neurogenesis by a mechanism involving suppression of CREB and BDNF signaling.

  8. The effect of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinals Rosc) on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Uz, Ebru; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Mete, Emin; Bayrak, Reyhan; Bayrak, Omer; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Atis, Omer; Yildirim, Mehmet Erol; Akcay, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the possible mechanisms of ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in the kidney. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible protective effect of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinals Rosc), a free radical scavenger, on renal I/R injury in rats. The protective effect of ginger against the damage inflicted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during renal I/R was investigated in Wistar albino rats using histopathological and biochemical parameters. Thirty rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups (i.e., control, sham-operated, ginger, I/R, and I/R + ginger groups, n = 6 each). The ginger and I/R + ginger groups were fed on the test diet containing 5% ginger. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia followed by reperfusion in I/R and I/R + ginger groups. At the end of the reperfusion period, rats were sacrificed, and kidney function tests, serum and tissue oxidants and antioxidants, and renal morphology were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine, and cystatin C (CYC) levels were significantly elevated in the ischemia group, but these levels remained unchanged in the ginger + I/R group compared to the I/R group. Reduction of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity was significantly improved by the treatment with ginger compared to I/R group. Administration of ginger resulted in significant reduction levels of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), NO, protein carbonyl contents (PCC) in the ginger + I/R group compared with the I/R group. Ginger supplementation in the diet before I/R injury resulted in higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lower total oxidant status (TOS) levels than I/R group. The ginger supplemented diet prior to I/R process demonstrated marked reduction of the histological features of renal injury. The findings imply that ROS play a causal role in I/R-induced renal injury, and ginger exerts renoprotective effects probably by the radical scavenging and

  9. Resveratrol pretreatment protects rat hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury partly via a NALP3 inflammasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wusong; Yang, Rui; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jun; Ding, Jiawang; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses are key players in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our previous studies showed that resveratrol alleviated I/R injury in myocardial I/R animal models, but whether the NALP3 inflammasome pathway contributes to the mechanisms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the modulation effect of resveratrol on myocardial I/R-induced inflammatory responses in rats. Myocardial I/R rat animal models were induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary arteries (LADs) for 30 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Resveratrol was administered in different doses (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) at the same time as the onset of reperfusion. The serum concentrations of the trinitrotoluene (TnT) and MB isoenzyme creatine kinase (CK-MB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Myocardial ultrastructure and morphology were observed with an electron microscope and a light microscope. Myocardial ischemia and infarct sizes were evaluated using Evans blue and tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The NALP3, Caspase1, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) mRNA levels were evaluated using RT-PCR. The NALP3 and Caspase1 protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. The IL-1β and IL-18 content in peripheral blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The myocardial structure in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MI/RI) rats was extensively damaged. After preconditioning with different concentrations of resveratrol (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg), the pathology and morphology were significantly improved in a dose-dependent manner. Our results showed that resveratrol treatment significantly reduced the infarct volume and myocardial fibrosis, resulting in myocardial cells that lined up in a more orderly fashion and dose-dependent decreases in TnT and CK-MB levels in the serum of the I/R rats. Resveratrol also significantly modulated mRNA and protein levels by down-regulating NALP3 and

  10. Quantification of infarct size on focal cerebral ischemia model of rats using a simple and economical method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Shuaib, A; Li, Q

    1998-10-01

    Quantification of infarct size is a very useful index to assess models of focal cerebral ischemia and effects of new therapies. Currently-used image analysis systems to carry out this task usually involve dedicated and expensive equipment. We present a low-cost and simple method to perform the image acquisition and analysis. Twelve Wistar rats were subject to focal cerebral ischemia and scarified 24 h after the insult. 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain was used as a conventional method to differentiate ischemic damage from healthy brain tissue. Digital images were captured from the stained coronal sections using a flatbed color scanner and analyzed with a commercial image processing software. To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of this method, the data obtained with the current procedure was correlated with those from a dedicated standard image analysis system and intra-observor correlation coefficient was estimated. Also the sensitivity of this method in quantification of infarct volume was tested in two different experimental settings. There was close correlation in the outcome of infarct size measurement between the current method and the standard system (r = 0.93, p < 0.001). A high agreement of measurement of the percentage of infarct volume between two different examiners with the same source of samples (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). We demonstrated that this method was sensitive in detection of difference of infarct sizes when placebo-treated animals (n = 6) were compared to the group treated with a neuroprotective agent (n = 6). Our data demonstrated that ischemic lesion of focal cerebral ischemia in rat can be accurately and reproducibly quantified using this method. The low-cost and simplicity of this method may facilitate the application in determination of ischemic damage.

  11. Renal tubular injury induced by ischemia promotes the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in rats with hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Wanpeng; Hui, Limei; Zhao, Jianjun; Yang, Xuecheng; Wang, Yonghua; Niu, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    Hyperoxaluria and cell injury are key factors in urolithiasis. Oxalate metabolism may be altered by renal dysfunction and therefore, impact the deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. We investigated the relationship of renal function, oxalate metabolism and CaOx crystal deposition in renal ischemia. One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Hyperoxaluria model (Group A and B) was established by feeding rats with 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG). The left renal pedicle was clamped for 30 min to establish renal ischemia Groups (B and C), while Groups A and D underwent sham operation. Then, serum and urine oxalate (Ox), creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (UN) levels were evaluated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and ion mass spectrum (IMS) at days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. CaOx crystallization was assessed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). A temporal and significant increase of serum Cr and UN levels was observed in Groups B and C compared to values obtained for Groups A and D (P < 0.05). Ox levels in serum and urine were significantly higher in Groups A and B than in the other two groups from day 7 (P < 0.05). In addition, CaOx crystallization was observed in both Groups A and B, but Group B showed earlier and more pronounced crystal deposition in the renal tissue. Our results indicated that renal tubular injury induced by renal ischemia might not affect Ox levels but could promote CaOx crystal retention under hyperoxaluria.

  12. Application of Mathematical Modelling as a Tool to Analyze the EEG Signals in Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Pandey, A. K.; Patnaik, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper envisages the application of mathematical modelling with the autoregressive (AR) model method as a tool to analyze electroencephalogram data in rat subjects of transient focal cerebral ischemia. This modelling method was used to determine the frequencies and characteristic changes in brain waveforms which occur as a result of disorders or fluctuating physiological states. This method of analysis was utilized to ensure actual correlation of the different mathematical paradigms. The EEG data was obtained from different regions of the rat brain and was modelled by AR method in a MATLAB platform. AR modelling was utilized to study the long-term functional outcomes of a stroke and also is preferable for EEG signal analysis because the signals consist of discrete frequency intervals. Modern spectral analysis, namely AR spectrum analysis, was used to correlate the conditional and prevalent changes in brain function in response to a stroke.

  13. Extraction, chemical analysis of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides in ischemia-reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; He, Ben; Ge, Junbo; Li, Huibin; Luo, Xiuying; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuhui; Zhai, Changlin; Liu, Pingang; Liu, Xin; Fei, Xuetao

    2010-11-01

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The major sugar of the polysaccharide was saccharose (18.55%); and the sugar constituted about 83% of the monomer content. Glucose and fructose were found as minor components of the polysaccharides. The FT-IR spectra of A. sinensis polysaccharides are used for determination of their structural features. The FT-IR spectrum of A. sinensis polysaccharides showed bands at 1641 cm(-1), 1415 cm(-1), 1050 cm(-1) and 926 cm(-1) characteristic for the carboxylic group. Absorptions at 2920-2930 cm(-1) are attributed to asymmetrical stretching vibration of CH(2)-group. Medium stretch observed in the range 1650-1400 cm(-1) is assigned to C-C stretching of polysaccharides. Cardioprotective effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides were evaluated by using myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) rats. A. sinensis polysaccharides treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction size, enhanced CT-1 and antioxidant enzymes activity, downregulated caspase-12 mRNA expression in rats. The study strongly suggests the cardioprotective activity of A. sinensis polysaccharides in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury. PMID:20691723

  14. Antioxidant action of mangrove polyphenols against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol and ischemia-reperfusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Takayama, Christiane; Dunder, Ricardo José; da Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Salvador, Marcos José; Abdelnur, Patrícia Verardi; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Vilegas, Wagner; Toma, Walber; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle, the red mangrove, has long been known as a traditional medicine. Its bark has been used as astringent, antiseptic, hemostatic, with antifungic and antiulcerogenic properties. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a buthanolic fraction of the R. mangle bark extract (RM) against experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Unib-Wh rats received pretreatment of R. mangle after the induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol and ischemia-reperfusion. Gastric tissues from both methods were prepared to the enzymatic assays, the levels of sulfhydril compounds (GSH), lipid peroxides (LPO), and the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. The RM protected the gastric mucosa in both methods used, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and ischemia-reperfusion, probably, by modulating the activities of the enzymes SOD, GPx, and GR and increasing or maintaining the levels of GSH; in addition, LPO levels were reduced. The results suggest that the RM antioxidant activity leads to tissue protection; thus one of the antiulcer mechanisms present on the pharmacological effects of R. mangle is the antioxidant property. PMID:22654592

  15. Additional Effects of Back-Shu Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion in Cardioprotection of Rat Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kathy Lee, Seung Min; Yoon, Kang Hyun; Park, Jimin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, So Ra; Lee, Kyung Hye; Jang, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Woo Shik; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Weon

    2015-01-01

    Many preclinical studies show that electroacupuncture (EA) on PC6 and ST36 can reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Yet studies to enhance the treatment effect size are limited. The purpose of this study was to explore whether EA has additional myocardial protective effects on an ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury rat model when back-shu EA and moxibustion are added. SD rats were divided into several groups and treated with either EA only, EA + back-shu EA (B), or EA + B + moxibustion (M) for 5 consecutive days. Transthoracic echocardiography and molecular and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. It was found that although myocardial infarct areas were significantly lower and cardiac function was also significantly preserved in the three treatment groups compared to the placebo group, there were no additional differences between the three treatment groups. In addition, HSP20 and HSP27 were expressed significantly more in the treatment groups. The results suggest that adding several treatments does not necessarily increase protection. Our study corroborates previous findings that more treatment, such as prolonging EA duration or increasing EA intensity, does not always lead to better results. Other methods of increasing treatment effect size should be explored. PMID:26881000

  16. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans. PMID:26872850

  17. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans.

  18. Lactulose ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by inducing hydrogen by activating Nrf2 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiao; Chen, Xiao; Shi, Jiazi; Shi, Duo; Ye, Zhouheng; Liu, Wenwu; Li, Ming; Wang, Qijin; Kang, Zhimin; Bi, Hongda; Sun, Xuejun

    2013-12-01

    Molecular hydrogen has been proven effective in ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by selectively neutralizing reactive oxygen species. Lactulose can produce a considerable amount of hydrogen through fermentation by the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the neuroprotective effects of lactulose against cerebral I/R injury in rats and explore the probable mechanisms, we carried out this study. The stroke model was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats through middle cerebral artery occlusion. Intragastric administration of lactulose substantially increased breath hydrogen concentration. Behavioral and histopathological verifications matched biochemical findings. Behaviorally, rats in the lactulose administration group won higher neurological scores and showed shorter escape latency time in the Morris test. Morphologically, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride showed smaller infarction volume; Nissl staining manifested relatively clear and intact neurons and TUNEL staining showed fewer apoptotic neurons. Biochemically, lactulose decreased brain malondialdehyde content, caspase-3 activity, and 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine concentration and increased superoxide dismutase activity. The effects of lactulose were superior to those of edaravone. Lactulose orally administered activated the expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the brain as verified by RT-PCR and Western blot. The antibiotics suppressed the neuroprotective effects of lactulose by reducing hydrogen production. Our study for the first time demonstrates a novel therapeutic effect of lactulose on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and the probable underlying mechanisms. Lactulose intragastrically administered possessed neuroprotective effects on cerebral I/R injury in rats, which could be attributed to hydrogen production by the fermentation of lactulose through intestinal bacteria and Nrf2 activation.

  19. C60 Exposure Augments Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Coronary Artery Contraction in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Nathan A.; Vidanapathirana, Achini K.; Pitzer, Joshua E.; Han, Li; Sumner, Susan J.; Lewin, Anita H.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Lust, Robert M.; Brown, Jared M.; Wingard, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The potential uses of engineered C60 fullerene (C60) have expanded in recent decades to include industrial and biomedical applications. Based on clinical findings associated with particulate matter exposure and our data with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, we hypothesized that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and pharmacological responses in isolated coronary arteries would depend upon the route of exposure and gender in rats instilled with C60. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were used to test this hypothesis by surgical induction of cardiac I/R injury in situ 24 h after intratracheal (IT) or intravenous (IV) instillation of 28 μg of C60 formulated in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or PVP vehicle. Serum was collected for quantification of various cytokines. Coronary artery segments were isolated for assessment of vasoactive pharmacology via wire myography. Both IV and IT exposure to C60 resulted in expansion of myocardial infarction in male and female rats following I/R injury. Serum-collected post-I/R showed elevated concentrations of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in male rats exposed to IV C60. Coronary arteries isolated from male rats exposed to IT C60 demonstrated augmented vasocontraction in response to endothelin-1 that was attenuated with Indomethacin. IV C60 exposure resulted in impaired acetylcholine relaxation in male rats and IT C60 exposure resulted in depressed vasorelaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside in female rats. Based on these data, we conclude that IT and IV exposure to C60 results in unique cardiovascular consequences that may favor heightened coronary resistance and myocardial susceptibility to I/R injury. PMID:24431213

  20. Aged garlic extract attenuates cerebral damage and cyclooxygenase-2 induction after ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Barrera, Diana; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Maldonado, Perla D

    2011-11-01

    Different garlic products reduce the cerebral ischemic damage due to their antioxidant properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels and activity, and its role as a possible mechanism of neuroprotection in a cerebral ischemia model. Animals were subjected to 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. AGE (1.2 ml/kg weight, i.p.) was administered at onset of reperfusion. To evaluate the damage induced by cerebral ischemia, the neurological deficit, the infarct area, and the histological alterations were measured. As an oxidative stress marker to deoxyribonucleic acid, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were determined. Finally, as inflammatory markers, TNFα levels and COX-2 protein levels and activity were measured. AGE treatment diminished the neurological alterations (61.6%), the infarct area (54.8%) and the histological damage (37.7%) induced by cerebral ischemia. AGE administration attenuated the increase in 8-OHdG levels (77.8%), in TNFα levels (76.6%), and in COX-2 protein levels (73.6%) and activity (30.7%) induced after 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of AGE is associated not only to its antioxidant properties, but also with its capacity to diminish the increase in TNFα levels and COX-2 protein expression and activity. AGE may have the potential to attenuate the cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation.

  1. 2-vessel occlusion/hypotension: a rat model of global brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Thomas H; Wider, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest followed by resuscitation often results in dramatic brain damage caused by ischemia and subsequent reperfusion of the brain. Global brain ischemia produces damage to specific brain regions shown to be highly sensitive to ischemia (1). Hippocampal neurons have higher sensitivity to ischemic insults compared to other cell populations, and specifically, the CA1 region of the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to ischemia/reperfusion (2). The design of therapeutic interventions, or study of mechanisms involved in cerebral damage, requires a model that produces damage similar to the clinical condition and in a reproducible manner. Bilateral carotid vessel occlusion with hypotension (2VOH) is a model that produces reversible forebrain ischemia, emulating the cerebral events that can occur during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. We describe a model modified from Smith et al. (1984) (2), as first presented in its current form in Sanderson, et al. (2008) (3), which produces reproducible injury to selectively vulnerable brain regions (3-6). The reliability of this model is dictated by precise control of systemic blood pressure during applied hypotension, the duration of ischemia, close temperature control, a specific anesthesia regimen, and diligent post-operative care. An 8-minute ischemic insult produces cell death of CA1 hippocampal neurons that progresses over the course of 6 to 24 hr of reperfusion, while less vulnerable brain regions are spared. This progressive cell death is easily quantified after 7-14 days of reperfusion, as a near complete loss of CA1 neurons is evident at this time. In addition to this brain injury model, we present a method for CA1 damage quantification using a simple, yet thorough, methodology. Importantly, quantification can be accomplished using a simple camera-mounted microscope, and a free ImageJ (NIH) software plugin, obviating the need for cost-prohibitive stereology software programs and a motorized microscopic stage

  2. Aged garlic extract attenuates cerebral damage and cyclooxygenase-2 induction after ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Barrera, Diana; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Maldonado, Perla D

    2011-11-01

    Different garlic products reduce the cerebral ischemic damage due to their antioxidant properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels and activity, and its role as a possible mechanism of neuroprotection in a cerebral ischemia model. Animals were subjected to 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. AGE (1.2 ml/kg weight, i.p.) was administered at onset of reperfusion. To evaluate the damage induced by cerebral ischemia, the neurological deficit, the infarct area, and the histological alterations were measured. As an oxidative stress marker to deoxyribonucleic acid, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were determined. Finally, as inflammatory markers, TNFα levels and COX-2 protein levels and activity were measured. AGE treatment diminished the neurological alterations (61.6%), the infarct area (54.8%) and the histological damage (37.7%) induced by cerebral ischemia. AGE administration attenuated the increase in 8-OHdG levels (77.8%), in TNFα levels (76.6%), and in COX-2 protein levels (73.6%) and activity (30.7%) induced after 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of AGE is associated not only to its antioxidant properties, but also with its capacity to diminish the increase in TNFα levels and COX-2 protein expression and activity. AGE may have the potential to attenuate the cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation. PMID:21850441

  3. Seabuckthorn Pulp Oil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Activation of Akt/eNOS.

    PubMed

    Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Malik, Salma; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Gamad, Nanda; Goyal, Sameer; Nag, Tapas C; Arya, Dharamvir S; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT) pulp oil obtained from the fruits of seabuckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)] has been used traditionally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, its role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium in rats has not been elucidated so far. The present study reports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil in IR-induced model of myocardial infarction in rats and underlying mechanism mediating activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Male albino Wistar rats were orally administered SBT pulp oil (5, 10, and 20 ml/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. On the day 31, ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. SBT pulp oil pretreatment at the dose of 20 ml/kg observed to stabilize cardiac function and myocardial antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibited lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to IR-control group. SBT pulp oil also improved hemodynamic and contractile function and decreased tumor necrosis factor and activities of myocyte injury marker enzymes; lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. Additionally, a remarkable rise in expression of pAkt-eNOS, Bcl-2 and decline in expression of IKKβ/NF-κB and Bax was observed in the myocardium. The histopathological and ultrastructural salvage of cardiomyocytes further supports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil. Based on findings, it can be concluded that SBT pulp oil protects against myocardial IR injury mediating favorable modulation of Akt-eNOS and IKKβ/NF-κB expression. PMID:27445803

  4. Aged Garlic Extract Attenuates Neuronal Injury in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Cemil, Berker; Gokce, Emre Cemal; Kahveci, Ramazan; Gokce, Aysun; Aksoy, Nurkan; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Erdogan, Bulent; Kosem, Bahadir

    2016-06-01

    Garlic has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is claimed to promote human health through antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with neuroprotective effects. We evaluated the possible beneficial effect of AGE neurologically, pathologically, ultrastructurally, and biochemically in a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham (no I/R), I/R, and AGE (I/R+AGE); each group consisted of eight animals. Animals were evaluated neurologically with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested for pathological and ultrastructural examinations. Oxidative products (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), inflammatory cytokines (tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1), and caspase-3 activity were analyzed. The AGE group had significantly higher BBB scores than the I/R group. Pathologically, AGE group revealed reduced degree of ischemia and spinal cord edema. Ultrastructural results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the AGE group. Oxidative product levels of the I/R group were significantly higher than both the other groups, and antioxidant enzyme levels of AGE group were significantly higher than the I/R group. There was also significant difference between the sham and AGE groups in terms of total antioxidant enzyme levels. Furthermore, AGE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity than the I/R group. This study demonstrates the considerable neuroprotective effect of AGE on the neurological, pathological, ultrastructural, and biochemical status of rats with I/R-induced spinal cord injury.

  5. Luteolin Limits Infarct Size and Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardium Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haokao; Li, Jiayi; Shen, Min; Cao, Feng; Wang, Haichang

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Luteolin on myocardial infarct size, cardiac function and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methodology/Principal Findings Diabetic rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Animals were pretreated with or without Luteolin before coronary artery ligation. The severity of myocardial I/R induced LDH release, arrhythmia, infarct size, cardiac function impairment, cardiomyocyte apoptosis were compared. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the target proteins of Luteolin. The inflammatory cytokine production were also examined in ischemic myocardium underwent I/R injury. Our results revealed that Luteolin administration significantly reduced LDH release, decreased the incidence of arrhythmia, attenuated myocardial infarct size, enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction and decreased myocardial apoptotic death compared with I/R group. Western blot analysis showed that Luteolin treatment up-regulated anti-apoptotic proteins FGFR2 and LIF expression, increased BAD phosphorylation while decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Luteolin treatment also inhibited MPO expression and inflammatory cytokine production including IL-6, IL-1a and TNF-a. Moreover, co-administration of wortmannin and Luteolin abolished the beneficial effects of Luteolin. Conclusions/Significance This study indicates that Luteolin preserves cardiac function, reduces infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptotic rate after I/R injury in diabetic rats. Luteolin exerts its action by up-regulating of anti-apoptotic proteins FGFR2 and LIF expression, activating PI3K/Akt pathway while increasing BAD phosphorylation and decreasing ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. PMID:22432030

  6. Methane Attenuates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats Through Antiapoptotic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhouheng; Chen, Ouyang; Zhang, Rongjia; Nakao, Atsunori; Fan, Danfeng; Zhang, Ting; Gu, Zhengyong; Tao, Hengyi; Sun, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which occurs in various diseases, introduces severe tissue damage and liver dysfunction. However, no promising therapies for such a significant condition currently exist. Methane has been suggested to exert a protective effect against intestinal I/R injury. In this study, we introduced methane to treat hepatic I/R injury to show its promising protective effect. Also, intraperitoneal injection with methane-rich saline, which could have potential clinical applications, was applied as a new method. Partial liver warm ischemia was applied in Sprague-Dawley rats for 60 min followed by succedent reperfusion. In the test for effective dosage, methane-rich saline was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats at doses of 1, 5, 20, or 40 mL/kg at onset of reperfusion. In the test for protective effect, rats received methane-rich saline intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mL/kg before the initiation of reperfusion. We found that methane-rich saline significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and the occurrence of necrosis. Moreover, methane-rich saline reduced the amount of caspase-3 and the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, methane-rich saline increased the level of superoxide dismutase and decreased the level of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxyguanosine. Furthermore, research indicated that methane-rich saline markedly decreased gene expression and content of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Also, reduced CD68-positive cells showed decreased inflammatory cells in the liver. Our results suggest that methane protects the liver against I/R injury through antiapoptotic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory actions.

  7. 64Cu-ATSM Hypoxia Positron Emission Tomography for Detection of Conduit Ischemia in an Experimental Rat Esophagectomy Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Yong; Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Arthur; Chae, Ju Ri; Cho, Ye Lim; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Ji Woong; Chung, Kyung Young

    2015-01-01

    Background We designed a hypoxia-imaging modality to detect ischemia of the gastric conduit after esophagectomy. Materials and Methods A rat esophagectomy model was created using 12-16-week-old, 300-350 g male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the operation group (n=6), partial gastric devascularization was performed by ligating the left gastric artery and the short gastric arteries and an esophagogastric anastomosis was performed. In the control group (n=6), the esophageal-gastric junction was incised and suturing was performed without gastric devascularization. Positron emission tomography (PET) images were taken using a microPET rodent model scanner, 24 h after the initial operation, after injection of 200 μCi 64Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylsemicarbazone) (64Cu-ATSM) and pimonidazole 120 mg/kg. After microPET imaging, autoradiography and immunohistochemistry were performed. Results The PET image revealed 64Cu-ATSM uptake at the fundus in the operation group 3 h after 64Cu-ATSM injection. The maximum percentage of the injected dose per gram of tissue was higher in the operation group (0.047±0.015 vs. 0.026±0.006, p=0.021). The fundus/liver ratio was also higher in the operation group (0.541±0.126 vs. 0.278±0.049, p=0.002). Upon autoradiography, 64Cu-ATSM uptake was observed in the fundus in the operation group, and was well-correlated to that observed on the PET image. Upon immunohistochemistry, expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a and pimonidazole were significantly increased at the fundus and lesser curvature compared to the greater curvature in the operation group. Conclusion Hypoxia PET imaging with 64Cu-ATSM can detect ischemia in a rat esophagectomy model. Further clinical studies are needed to verify whether hypoxia imaging may be useful in humans. PMID:26098420

  8. Aged Garlic Extract Attenuates Neuronal Injury in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Cemil, Berker; Gokce, Emre Cemal; Kahveci, Ramazan; Gokce, Aysun; Aksoy, Nurkan; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Erdogan, Bulent; Kosem, Bahadir

    2016-06-01

    Garlic has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is claimed to promote human health through antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with neuroprotective effects. We evaluated the possible beneficial effect of AGE neurologically, pathologically, ultrastructurally, and biochemically in a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham (no I/R), I/R, and AGE (I/R+AGE); each group consisted of eight animals. Animals were evaluated neurologically with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested for pathological and ultrastructural examinations. Oxidative products (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), inflammatory cytokines (tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1), and caspase-3 activity were analyzed. The AGE group had significantly higher BBB scores than the I/R group. Pathologically, AGE group revealed reduced degree of ischemia and spinal cord edema. Ultrastructural results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the AGE group. Oxidative product levels of the I/R group were significantly higher than both the other groups, and antioxidant enzyme levels of AGE group were significantly higher than the I/R group. There was also significant difference between the sham and AGE groups in terms of total antioxidant enzyme levels. Furthermore, AGE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity than the I/R group. This study demonstrates the considerable neuroprotective effect of AGE on the neurological, pathological, ultrastructural, and biochemical status of rats with I/R-induced spinal cord injury. PMID:27183321

  9. Intrathecally Transplanting Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Activates ERK1/2 in Spinal Cords of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Rats and Improves Nerve Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghong; Liu, He; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether an intrathecal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) activates extracellular adjusting protein kinase1 and 2(ERK1/2) in the spinal cords of rats following an ischemia-reperfusion injury, resulting in improved spinal cord function and inhibition of apoptosis. Material/Methods We observed the relationship between the activation of ERK1/2 in the rat spinal cord and intrathecal transplantation of MSCs, as well as the effect of U0126, a MEK1/2 (upstream protein of ERK1/2) inhibitor, on a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury model in rats using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scoring, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Results After transplantation of MSCs, the lower limb motor function score increased, and the incubation period of SSEPs and amplitude were improved. Moreover, following transplantation of MSCs, Bcl2 expression increased, whereas Bax expression decreased after reperfusion. Transplantation of MSCs significantly enhanced pERK1/2 expression in the spinal cord, as well as pERK1/2 in immunoreactive cells located in the grey matter of the L4/5 levels of the spinal cord, following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The effective dose of U0126 required to inhibit pERK1/2 expression was 200 μg/kg. Bcl-2 decreased and the level of Bax expression increased in the spinal cord after ischemia reperfusion injury, and the protective effects of MSCs were attenuated. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intrathecal transplantation of MSCs activates ERK1/2 in the spinal cord following ischemia reperfusion injury, partially improves spinal cord function, and inhibits apoptosis in rats. PMID:27135658

  10. Intrathecally Transplanting Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Activates ERK1/2 in Spinal Cords of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Rats and Improves Nerve Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonghong; Liu, He; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We investigated whether an intrathecal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) activates extracellular adjusting protein kinase1 and 2(ERK1/2) in the spinal cords of rats following an ischemia-reperfusion injury, resulting in improved spinal cord function and inhibition of apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We observed the relationship between the activation of ERK1/2 in the rat spinal cord and intrathecal transplantation of MSCs, as well as the effect of U0126, a MEK1/2 (upstream protein of ERK1/2) inhibitor, on a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury model in rats using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scoring, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS After transplantation of MSCs, the lower limb motor function score increased, and the incubation period of SSEPs and amplitude were improved. Moreover, following transplantation of MSCs, Bcl2 expression increased, whereas Bax expression decreased after reperfusion. Transplantation of MSCs significantly enhanced pERK1/2 expression in the spinal cord, as well as pERK1/2 in immunoreactive cells located in the grey matter of the L4/5 levels of the spinal cord, following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The effective dose of U0126 required to inhibit pERK1/2 expression was 200 µg/kg. Bcl-2 decreased and the level of Bax expression increased in the spinal cord after ischemia reperfusion injury, and the protective effects of MSCs were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that intrathecal transplantation of MSCs activates ERK1/2 in the spinal cord following ischemia reperfusion injury, partially improves spinal cord function, and inhibits apoptosis in rats. PMID:27135658

  11. Marginal Copper Deficiency Increases Liver Neutrophil Accumulation After Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper deficiency can lead to an augmented inflammatory response through effects on both neutrophils and the microvascular endothelium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of marginal copper deficiency on the inflammatory injury response to hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Male weanlin...

  12. Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate during Ischemia Limits Infarct Size Via Mitochondrial KATP Channel Activation in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dae-Kyu; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook-Jin; Lee, Deokhee; Xu, Zhelong

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin of green tea, appears to attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in EGCG-induced cardioprotection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia and 2 hr of reperfusion. EGCG was perfused for 40 min, from 10 min before to the end of index ischemia. A nonselective KATP channel blocker glibenclamide (GLI) and a selective mitochondrial KATP (mKATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (HD) were perfused in EGCG-treated hearts. There were no differences in coronary flow and cardiodynamics including heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure, rate-pressure product, +dP/dtmax, and -dP/dtmin throughout the experiments among groups. EGCG-treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction (14.5±2.5% in EGCG 1 µM and 4.0±1.7% in EGCG 10 µM, P<0.001 vs. control 27.2±1.4%). This anti-infarct effect was totally abrogated by 10 µM GLI (24.6±1.5%, P<0.001 vs. EGCG). Similarly, 100 µM HD also aborted the anti-infarct effect of EGCG (24.1±1.2%, P<0.001 vs. EGCG ). These data support a role for the KATP channels in EGCG-induced cardioprotection. The mKATP channels play a crucial role in the cardioprotection by EGCG. PMID:20191036

  13. Arginase inhibition improves coronary microvascular function and reduces infarct size following ischemia-reperfusion in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Grönros, Julia; Kiss, Attila; Palmér, Malin; Jung, Christian; Berkowitz, Dan; Pernow, John

    2013-01-01

    Aim Ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide and microvascular dysfunction. One emerging mechanism behind reduced nitric oxide bioavailability is upregulation of arginase which metabolizes the nitric oxide synthase substrate L-arginine. This study investigated the effects of arginase inhibition on coronary flow velocity and infarct size during reperfusion. Methods Anaesthetized rats, subjected to 30 min coronary artery ligation and reperfusion up to 8 days, were treated with vehicle or the arginase inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA; 100 mg/kg) intravenously 15 min before ischemia. Coronary flow velocity was determined repeatedly during reperfusion. Results Arginase activity in the ischemic-reperfused myocardium was increased already at 20 min of reperfusion and maintained at 8 days. Infarct size was reduced by arginase inhibition at 2 h (39 ± 3% of the area at risk vs. 51 ± 2% in the vehicle group, P<0.01) and at 8 days of reperfusion (13 ± 2% of the left ventricle vs. 22 ± 2%, P<0.05). Basal coronary flow velocity was higher during reperfusion in the group given nor-NOHA and it correlated inversely to infarct size (P<0.01, r=−0.60). Hyperemic coronary flow velocity was also increased in the nor-NOHA treated group compared to vehicle at 24 h and at day 8 (P<0.05). Conclusion It is concluded that arginase activity is increased already during early reperfusion. Arginase inhibition increases coronary flow velocity and reduces infarct size that is sustained 8 days after reperfusion. Inhibition of arginase may thus be a promising therapeutic target to prevent the development of microvascular dysfunction and myocardial injury following ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:23497275

  14. N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone improves recovery of brain energy state in rats following transient focal ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Folbergrová, J; Zhao, Q; Katsura, K; Siesjö, B K

    1995-01-01

    Recent results have demonstrated that the spin trapping agent N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) reduces infarct size due to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), even when given after ischemia. The objective of the present study was to explore whether PBN influences recovery of energy metabolism. MCAO of 2-hr duration was induced in rats by an intraluminal filament technique. Brains were frozen in situ at the end of ischemia and after 1, 2, and 4 hr of recirculation. PBN was given 1 hr after recirculation. Neocortical focal and perifocal ("penumbra") areas were sampled for analyses of phosphocreatine (PCr), creatine, ATP, ADP, AMP, glycogen, glucose, and lactate. The penumbra showed a moderate-to-marked decrease and the focus showed a marked decrease in PCr and ATP concentrations, a decline in the sum of adenine nucleotides, near-depletion of glycogen, and an increase in lactate concentration after 2 hr of ischemia. Recirculation for 1 hr led to only a partial recovery of energy state, with little further improvement after 2 hr and signs of secondary deterioration after 4 hr, particularly in the focus. After 4 hr of recirculation, PBN-treated animals showed pronounced recovery of energy state, with ATP and lactate contents in both focus and penumbra approaching normal values. Although an effect of PBN on mitochondria cannot be excluded, the results suggest that PBN acts by preventing a gradual compromise of microcirculation. The results justify a reevaluation of current views on the pathophysiology of focal ischemic damage and suggest that a therapeutic window of many hours exists in stroke. PMID:7761448

  15. Protective Effect of Antenatal Antioxidant on Nicotine-Induced Heart Ischemia-Sensitive Phenotype in Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, DaLiao; Wang, Lei; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8 month old age male offspring. Isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation. Perinatal nicotine treatment significantly increased ischemia and reperfusion-induced left ventricular injury, and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function and coronary flow rate. In addition, nicotine enhanced cardiac ROS production and significantly attenuated protein kinase Cε (PKCε) protein abundance in the heart. Although nicotine had no effect on total cardiac glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) protein expression, it significantly increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9 residue in the heart. NAC inhibited nicotine-mediated increase in ROS production, recovered PKCε gene expression and abrogated increased phosphorylation of GSK3β. Of importance, NAC blocked perinatal nicotine-induced increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury in the heart. These findings provide novel evidence that increased oxidative stress plays a causal role in perinatal nicotine-induced developmental programming of ischemic sensitive phenotype in the heart, and suggest potential therapeutic targets of anti-oxidative stress in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  16. Effects of endomorphin-1 postconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and myocardial cell apoptosis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Ping; Zong, Qiao-Feng; Gao, Qin; Yu, Ying; Gu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Ya; Li, Zheng-Hong; Ge, Min

    2016-10-01

    Endomorphins (EMs) have important roles in the body with regards to analgesia, feeding behavior, gastrointestinal movement and inflammatory reaction. Recent studies have reported that EMs may also participate in chronic hypoxia in the protection of rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; however, the mediator and underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of EM‑1 postconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) and myocardial cell apoptosis in a rat model, and to assess its likely mechanisms. A total of 48 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham group, ischemia/reperfusion group (IR group), ischemic postconditioning group (IPO group) and EM‑1 postconditioning group (EM50 group). A MIRI model was established via occlusion of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 120 min in vivo. Hemodynamic indexes were recorded and analyzed. Following reperfusion, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase‑MB (CK‑MB), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) contents or activities were measured, infarct size was determined, and the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) mRNA and cleaved caspase‑3 protein were assessed. In the IR group, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were decreased compared with in the sham group. In addition, LDH and CK‑MB levels were increased; IL‑6, TNF‑α and MDA content was increased; SOD activity was decreased; the Bcl‑2/Bax ratio was decreased; and cleaved caspase‑3 protein expression levels were increased in the IR group. Compared with in the IR group, in the IPO and EM50 groups, MAP and heart rate (HR) were recovered to various extents post‑reperfusion; LDH and CK‑MB levels were decreased; IL‑6, TNF‑α and MDA

  17. Effects of warm ischemia and reperfusion on the liver microcirculatory phenotype of rats: underlying mechanisms and pharmacological therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hide, Diana; Ortega-Ribera, Martí; Garcia-Pagan, Juan-Carlos; Peralta, Carmen; Bosch, Jaime; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Warm ischemia and reperfusion (WIR) causes hepatic damage and may lead to liver failure, however the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here we have characterized the microcirculatory status and endothelial phenotype of livers undergoing WIR, and evaluated the use of simvastatin in WIR injury prevention. Male Wistar rats received simvastatin, or vehicle, 30 min before undergoing 60 min of partial warm ischemia (70%) followed by 2 h or 24 h of reperfusion. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, liver injury (AST, ALT, LDH), endothelial function (vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine), KLF2 and nitric oxide pathways, oxidative stress, inflammation (neutrophil and macrophage infiltration) and cell death were evaluated. Profound microcirculatory dysfunction occurred rapidly following WIR. This was evidenced by down-regulation of the KLF2 vasoprotective pathway, impaired vasodilatory capability and endothelial activation, altogether leading to increased hepatic vascular resistance and liver inflammation, with significant leukocyte infiltration, oxidative stress and cell death. Simvastatin preserved the hepatic endothelial phenotype, and blunted the detrimental effects of WIR on liver hemodynamics and organ integrity. In conclusion, WIR-induced injury to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells is mitigated by pre-treatment with Simvastatin probably through a KLF2-dependent mechanism. PMID:26905693

  18. Effects of FK506 on Hippocampal CA1 Cells Following Transient Global Ischemia/Reperfusion in Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Zahra-Nadia; Abolhassani, Farid; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Movassaghi, Shabnam; Rahimian, Nasrin; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Transient global cerebral ischemia causes loss of pyramidal cells in CA1 region of hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the neurotrophic effect of the immunosuppressant agent FK506 in rat after global cerebral ischemia. Both common carotid arteries were occluded for 20 minutes followed by reperfusion. In experimental group 1, FK506 (6 mg/kg) was given as a single dose exactly at the time of reperfusion. In the second group, FK506 was administered at the beginning of reperfusion, followed by its administration intraperitoneally (IP) 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after reperfusion. FK506 failed to show neurotrophic effects on CA1 region when applied as a single dose of 6 mg/kg. The cell number and size of the CA1 pyramidal cells were increased, also the number of cell death decreased in this region when FK506 was administrated 48 h after reperfusion. This work supports the possible use of FK506 in treatment of ischemic brain damage. PMID:21941688

  19. Effects of melatonin on liver function and lipid peroxidation in a rat model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    DENG, WEN-SHENG; XU, QING; LIU, YE; JIANG, CHUN-HUI; ZHOU, HONG; GU, LEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on liver function and lipid peroxidation following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A total of 66 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Normal control (N) group, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group and the MT-treated group. A hepatic IRI model was developed by blocking the first porta hepatis, and subsequently restoring hepatic blood inflow after 35 min. Following reperfusion, changes in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were detected by a chemical method at various time points. In the MT group, the MDA levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05) at all time points, as compared with the IR group. Furthermore, SOD activity was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the MT group, as compared with the IR group at all time points; and the levels of GSH in the MT group were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the IR group at 2, 4, and 8 h post-reperfusion. The levels of ALT, AST and LDH were significantly reduced in the MT group at each time point, as compared with that of the IR group (P<0.05). In conclusion, MT exhibits potent antioxidant properties that may create favorable conditions for the recovery of liver function following IRI. PMID:27168834

  20. Effect of dl-3-n-butylphthalide on brain edema in rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Deng, W; Feng, Y

    1997-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dl-3-n-butylphthalide(NBP), a novel brain protective agent, on brain edema in rats following focal ischemia. Edema was induced by occluding the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO), producing permanent focal ischemia in the right cerebral hemisphere, which developed ipsilateral brain edema reproducibly. Edema was assessed 24 h after MCA occlusion by determining the brain water content from wet and dry weight measurements, and the sodium, potassium concentrations with ion-selective electrodes. In this model, NBP at the dose of 80, 160 and 240 mg/kg p.o. 15 min after MCAO prevented from brain edema in a dose-dependent manner. A significant reduction of sodium content and an increase in potassium level were observed in all drug-treated groups. It showed that NBP strongly attenuated brain water entry, sodium accumulation and potassium loss. Nimodipine treatment (5 mg/kg s.c.) also reduced brain edema (P < 0.05). The results suggest that a strong anti-edema activity of NBP may play an important role to contribute to the treatment of ischemic damage.

  1. Extract of grapefruit-seed reduces acute pancreatitis induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats: possible implication of tissue antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Konturek, S J; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Pawlik, W W; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Naskalski, J W

    2004-12-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to exert antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity possibly due to the presence of naringenin, the flavonoid with cytoprotective action on the gastric mucosa. No study so far has been undertaken to determine whether this GSE is also capable of preventing acute pancreatic damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is known to result from reduction of anti-oxidative capability of pancreatic tissue, and whether its possible preventive effect involves an antioxidative action of this biocomponent. In this study carried out on rats with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis induced by 30 min partial pancreatic ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion, the GSE or vehicle (vegetable glycerin) was applied intragastrically in gradually increasing amounts (50-500 microl) 30 min before I/R. Pretreatment with GSE decreased the extent of pancreatitis with maximal protective effect of GSE at the dose 250 microl. GSE reduced the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum lipase and poly-C specific ribonuclease activity, and attenuated the marked fall in pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. GSE administered alone increased significantly pancreatic tissue content of lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkens, and when administered before I/R, GSE reduced the pancreatitis-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that GSE exerts protective activity against I/R-induced pancreatitis probably due to the activation of antioxidative mechanisms in the pancreas and the improvement of pancreatic blood flow.

  2. The cardioprotective effect of naringenin against ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel in rat.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li-Min; Ma, Hui-Jie; Guo, Hui; Kong, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Naringenin (Nari) has antioxidative and anti-atherosclerosis effects, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can offer cardiac protection. We hypothesized that Nari protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury through activation of KATP. Isolated hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats experienced a 30-min global ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion (120 min for the infarct size determination). The hearts were treated with Nari (NARI); Nari plus glibenclamide (GLI), a non-specific ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+GLI); and Nari plus 5-hydroxy decanoic acid (5-HD), a mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+5-HD). The left ventricular pressure, lactate dehydrogenates (LDH) in coronary effluent, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardium, and myocardial infarct area were measured. Nari above 2.5 μmol/L improved the recovery of left ventricular function, decreased LDH in coronary effluent, and reduced myocardial infarct area. The SOD activity was increased and MDA was decreased in Nari-treated myocardium. The cardioprotective effect of Nari was canceled by GLI and 5-HD. In conclusion, Nari has a cardioprotective effect against I-R injury, which may be carried out through activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels in both cell and mitochondrial membrane, and enhancing myocardial antioxidant capacity. PMID:27408985

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Cardioprotective Effect of a Nonalcoholic Extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz during Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lopera, Yasmin E.; Fantinelli, Juliana; González Arbeláez, Luisa F.; Rojano, Benjamín; Ríos, José Luis; Schinella, Guillermo; Mosca, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the antioxidant properties and the effects against the reperfusion injury of a nonalcoholic extract obtained by fermentation from the Colombian blueberry, mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz, Ericaceae). Antioxidant properties were assessed by in vitro systems. To examine the postischemic myocardial function, isolated rat hearts were treated 10 min before ischemia and during the first 10 min of reperfusion with the extract. To analyze the participation of nitric oxide (NO), other experiments were performed in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, endothelial NOS (eNOS), and Akt expression were also measured. The blueberry extract showed higher total phenols and anthocyanins contents, scavenging activity of superoxide radical and systolic and diastolic function was improved, TBARS diminished, GSH was partially preserved, and both NOS and Akt expression increased in hearts treated with the extract. These beneficial effects were lost when eNOS was inhibited. In resume, these data show that the increase of eNOS expression via Akt and the scavenging activity contribute to the cardioprotection afforded by acute treatment with Colombian blueberry extract against ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:23476693

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Cardioprotective Effect of a Nonalcoholic Extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz during Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Yasmin E; Fantinelli, Juliana; González Arbeláez, Luisa F; Rojano, Benjamín; Ríos, José Luis; Schinella, Guillermo; Mosca, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the antioxidant properties and the effects against the reperfusion injury of a nonalcoholic extract obtained by fermentation from the Colombian blueberry, mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz, Ericaceae). Antioxidant properties were assessed by in vitro systems. To examine the postischemic myocardial function, isolated rat hearts were treated 10 min before ischemia and during the first 10 min of reperfusion with the extract. To analyze the participation of nitric oxide (NO), other experiments were performed in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, endothelial NOS (eNOS), and Akt expression were also measured. The blueberry extract showed higher total phenols and anthocyanins contents, scavenging activity of superoxide radical and systolic and diastolic function was improved, TBARS diminished, GSH was partially preserved, and both NOS and Akt expression increased in hearts treated with the extract. These beneficial effects were lost when eNOS was inhibited. In resume, these data show that the increase of eNOS expression via Akt and the scavenging activity contribute to the cardioprotection afforded by acute treatment with Colombian blueberry extract against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  5. EGCG ameliorates the suppression of long-term potentiation induced by ischemia at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Fu, Gang; Zhao, Yan; Cheng, Zhenyong; Chen, Yang; Zhao, Bo; He, Wei; Guo, Lian-Jun

    2012-03-01

    The function of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a main component of green tea, has been widely investigated, amelioration of synaptic transmission and neuroprotective effects against ischemia-induced brain damage among others. However, the mechanism underlying is still unveiled. We investigated the effects of EGCG on high frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse with or without cerebral ischemia injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo to examine the possible relations between EGCG and synaptic transmission. Application of EGCG modulated synaptic transmission and produced a dose-dependent improvement of the induction of LTP. However, relative high-dose EGCG can block the induction of LTP at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse in normal rat in vivo. In addition, the effects of EGCG were observed on the infarct volume and neurological deficit in rats subjected to MCAO; furthermore, the cell viability of primary cultured rat hippocampal and cortical neurons suffered from oxygen-glucose deprivation were evaluated with MTT and LDH assay, which showed significant neuroprotective properties in vitro. Surprisingly, the contents of the glutamate (Glu), glycine (Gly), and gamma-aminobutyric acid amino acids were totally disequilibrated before and after cerebral ischemia injury and could be rebalanced to original level by application of EGCG. Our results suggest that EGCG is able to improve the efficiency of synaptic transmission in cerebral ischemia injury with attenuated effect related to the neuroprotection of EGCG through regulating excitatory and inhibitory amino acid balance.

  6. The effect of metamizole on ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat ovary: An analysis of biochemistry, molecular gene expression, and histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kumbasar, Serkan; Salman, Suleyman; Al, Ragip Atakan; Ozturk, Cengiz; Yarali, Oguzhan; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Altuner, Durdu; Suleyman, Bahadir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effect of metamizole on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury an analysis of biochemistry, molecular gene expression, and histopathology in the rat ovary of female albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into four groups; control group with induced ischemia-reperfusion (IRC), ischemia-reperfusion +100 mg/kg metamizole sodium (MS) (IRM-100), ischemia-reperfusion +200 mg/kg MS (IRM-200), and healthy group applied sham operation (SG). Results: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and gene expression increased significantly in IRC and IRM-100 group rat ovarian tissue compared with the SG group (P < 0.0001). However, MPO activity and gene expression in IRM-200 group ovarian tissue decreased significantly compared with the IRC and IRM-100 groups (P < 0.0001). Histopathologically, pronounced congestion, dilated vessels, hemorrhage, edema, degenerative cells, and neutrophil migration and adhesion to the endothelium were observed in the IRC and IRM-100 group ovarian tissues. A small number of congested dilated vessels, mild congestion, and edema were observed in the IRM-200 group, but no neutrophil migration and adhesion to the endothelium or degenerative cells. Conclusions: At 200 mg/kg dose metamizole prevented ovarian injury induced with I/R. This data show that metamizole can be used in the ovarian I/R injury treatment. PMID:26997719

  7. Early MEK1/2 Inhibition after Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Outcome by Preventing Delayed Vasoconstrictor Receptor Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background Global cerebral ischemia following cardiac arrest is associated with increased cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, contributing to delayed neuronal cell death and neurological detriments in affected patients. We hypothesize that upregulation of contractile ETB and 5-HT1B receptors, previously demonstrated in cerebral arteries after experimental global ischemia, are a key mechanism behind insufficient perfusion of the post-ischemic brain, proposing blockade of this receptor upregulation as a novel target for prevention of cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed neuronal cell death after global cerebral ischemia. The aim was to characterize the time-course of receptor upregulation and associated neuronal damage after global ischemia and investigate whether treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 can prevent cerebrovascular receptor upregulation and thereby improve functional outcome after global cerebral ischemia. Incomplete global cerebral ischemia was induced in Wistar rats and the time-course of enhanced contractile responses and the effect of U0126 in cerebral arteries were studied by wire myography and the neuronal cell death by TUNEL. The expression of ETB and 5-HT1B receptors was determined by immunofluorescence. Results Enhanced vasoconstriction peaked in fore- and midbrain arteries 3 days after ischemia. Neuronal cell death appeared initially in the hippocampus 3 days after ischemia and gradually increased until 7 days post-ischemia. Treatment with U0126 normalised cerebrovascular ETB and 5-HT1B receptor expression and contractile function, reduced hippocampal cell death and improved survival rate compared to vehicle treated animals. Conclusions Excessive cerebrovascular expression of contractile ETB and 5-HT1B receptors is a delayed response to global cerebral ischemia peaking 3 days after the insult, which likely contributes to the development of delayed neuronal damage. The enhanced cerebrovascular contractility can be

  8. The Effect of the Antioxidant Drug “U-74389G” on Creatinine Levels during Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug “U-74389G” on a rat model using an ischemia reperfusion protocol. The effect of U-74389G was studied biochemically by measuring mean blood creatinine levels. Materials and Methods Forty rats were used in the study. Creatinine levels were measured at 60 min of reperfusion (groups A and C) or at 120 min of reperfusion (groups B and D), where groups A and B were controls and groups C and D received U-74389G administration. Results U-74389G administration significantly decreased the predicted creatinine levels by 21.02 ± 5.06% (p = 0.0001). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the predicted creatinine levels by 4.20 ± 6.12% (p = 0.4103). However, U-74389G administration and reperfusion time together produced a significant combined effect in decreasing the predicted creatinine levels by 11.69 ± 3.16% (p = 0.0005). Conclusion Independent of reperfusion time, U-74389G administration significantly decreased the creatinine levels in an ischemic rat model. This study demonstrates that short-term U-74389G administration improves renal function by increasing creatinine excretion. PMID:27390579

  9. Therapeutic time window of neuroprotection by non-competitive AMPA antagonists in transient and permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Matucz, Eva; Móricz, Krisztina; Gigler, Gábor; Benedek, Angéla; Barkóczy, József; Lévay, György; Hársing, László G; Szénási, Gábor

    2006-12-01

    EGIS-8332 and GYKI 53405 are selective, non-competitive AMPA (2-amino-3[3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl] propionic acid) antagonists that effectively protected against tissue injury caused by global and focal cerebral ischemia in laboratory animals. This study evaluated the therapeutic time window of neuroprotection by EGIS-8332 and GYKI 53405 in permanent and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Infarct size was measured by TTC staining 48 h after permanent MCAO (electrocoagulation), and 24 h after reperfusion following a 1-h transient MCAO carried out using the intraluminal filament technique. Treatment with EGIS-8332 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 or 120 min after permanent MCAO, decreased infarct size by 30% and 36%, respectively, and the effect of GYKI 53405 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was similar (30% and 33%, respectively; p<0.01 all). Neither compound was effective if administered 180 or 240 min after permanent MCAO. Both EGIS-8332 and GYKI 53405 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the core and total (core plus penumbra) volumes of tissue injury in the whole brain and the cerebral cortex when administered 120 or 180 min after transient MCAO. The compounds did not alter tissue damage in the striatum. No neuroprotective effect was obtained at 240 min after transient MCAO. In conclusion, the therapeutic time window of neuroprotection by EGIS-8332 and GYKI 53405 was 2 h in permanent and 3 h in transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. The results suggest that treatment with non-competitive AMPA antagonists can only be expected to produce a neuroprotective action in humans if administered shortly after the appearance of stroke symptoms.

  10. Tandem insults of prenatal ischemia plus postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure in a novel rat model of encephalopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Koltz, Michael T.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Coksaygan, Turhan; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2012-01-01

    Object Encephalopathy of prematurity (EP) is common in preterm, low birth weight infants who require postnatal mechanical ventilation. The worst types of EP are the hemorrhagic forms, including choroid plexus, germinal matrix, periventricular, and intraventricular hemorrhages. Survivors exhibit life-long cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities. Available preclinical models do not fully recapitulate the salient features of hemorrhagic EP encountered in humans. In this study, the authors evaluated a novel model using rats that featured tandem insults of transient prenatal intrauterine ischemia (IUI) plus transient postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure (RIP). Methods Timed-pregnant Wistar rats were anesthetized and underwent laparotomy on embryonic Day 19. Intrauterine ischemia was induced by clamping the uterine and ovarian vasculature for 20 minutes. Natural birth occurred on embryonic Day 22. Six hours after birth, the pups were subjected to an episode of RIP, induced by injecting glycerol (50%, 13 µl/g intraperitoneally). Control groups included naive, sham surgery, and IUI alone. Pathological, histological, and behavioral analyses were performed on pups up to postnatal Day 52. Results Compared with controls, pups subjected to IUI+RIP exhibited significant increases in postnatal mortality and hemorrhages in the choroid plexus, germinal matrix, and periventricular tissues as well as intraventricularly. On postnatal Days 35–52, they exhibited significant abnormalities involving complex vestibulomotor function and rapid spatial learning. On postnatal Day 52, the brain and body mass were significantly reduced. Conclusions Tandem insults of IUI plus postnatal RIP recapitulate many features of the hemorrhagic forms of EP found in humans, suggesting that these insults in combination may play important roles in pathogenesis. PMID:22132923

  11. Dexmedetomidine Protects against Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xichun; Wang, Qi; Li, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    Background Transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major perioperative complication, and diabetes increases the response of oxidative stress and inflammation induced by I/R. The objective of this study was to determine the protective effect of dexmedetomidine against transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. Methods Sixty-four rats were assigned into four experimental groups: normoglycemia, normoglycemia + dexmedetomidine, hyperglycemia, and hyperglycemia + dexmedetomidine and all subsequent neurological examinations were evaluated by a blinded observer. Damage to the brain was histologically assessed using the TUNEL staining method while western blotting was used to investigate changes in the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins as well as the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). Water content in the brain was also analyzed. In addition, hippocampal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nox2 (a member of the Nox family of NADPH oxidases), and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed. Finally, changes in serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 were detected. Results Results showed that diabetes increased brain water content, the number of apoptotic neurons, early neurological deficit scores, oxidative stress (MDA and Nox2) and inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6) levels following transient global I/R injury, but that these symptoms were attenuated following administration of dexmedetomidine. Conclusions These findings suggest that dexmedetomidine can significantly alleviate damage resulting from I/R, and this mechanism may be related to a reduction in both oxidative stress and inflammation which is normally associated with I/R. PMID:26982373

  12. Preconditioning with Triiodothyronine Improves the Clinical Signs and Acute Tubular Necrosis Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferreyra, Carla; Vargas, Félix; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Pérez-Abud, Rocío; O'Valle, Francisco; Osuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is manifested by acute renal failure (ARF) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preconditioning with 3, 3, 5 triiodothyronine (T3) to prevent I/R renal injury. Methodology/Principal Findings The rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, placebo-treated (SO-P), sham-operated T3- treated (SO- T3), I/R-injured placebo-treated (IR-P), and I/R-injured T3-treated (IR- T3) groups. At 24 h before ischemia, the animals received a single dose of T3 (100 μg/kg). Renal function and plasma, urinary, and tissue variables were studied at 4, 24, and 48 h of reperfusion, including biochemical, oxidative stress, and inflammation variables, PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression, and ATN morphology. In comparison to the SO groups, the IR-P groups had higher plasma urea and creatinine levels and greater proteinuria (at all reperfusion times) and also showed: increased oxidative stress-related plasma, urinary, and tissue variables; higher plasma levels of IL6 (proinflammatory cytokine); increased glomerular and tubular nuclear PARP-1 expression; and a greater degree of ATN. The IR-T3 group showed a marked reduction in all of these variables, especially at 48 h of reperfusion. No significant differences were observed between SO-P and SO-T3 groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates that preconditioning rats with a single dose of T3 improves the clinical signs and ATN of renal I/R injury. These beneficial effects are accompanied by reductions in oxidative stress, inflammation, and renal PARP-1 expression, indicating that this sequence of factors plays an important role in the ATN induced by I/R injury. PMID:24086411

  13. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts Cardioprotection against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2015-01-01

    Background Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV) function and heart rate variability (HRV), and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. Methodology ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered) or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF) and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Results Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats. Conclusions Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats. PMID:25822979

  14. Motor and cognitive deficits due to permanent cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia improve by pomegranate seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, Somayeh; Sarkaki, Alireza; Mohammad, Seyed; Mansouri, Taghi; Pilevarian, Asghar; RafieiRad, Maryam

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of Pomegranate Seed Extract (PGSE) on active avoidance memory and motor coordination activities after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) in male adult rats. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain (250 ± 20 g, 3-4 months) were used. Animals were divided into eight groups with 10 in each: (1) Sham operated (Sh); (2) Ischemic (I); (3) Ischemic received 100 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+E100); (4) Ischemic received 200 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+E200); (5) Ischemic received 400 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+E400); (6) Ischemic received 800 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (I+ E800); (7) Ischemic received 2 mL kg(-1) normal saline, orally (I+Veh); (8) Sham operated received 400 mg kg(-1) PGSE, orally (Sh+E400). In order to make 2CCAO an animal Cerebral Hypoperfusion Ischemia (CHI) model, carotid arteries were ligatured and then bilaterally cut. To evaluate active avoidance task, Correct Response Percentages (CRP) was measured by Y-maze apparatus and motor coordination activity was evaluated using standard behavioral tests by rotarod apparatus in all the rats. It was found that memory. Memory and motor coordination activities were significantly impaired in the rats after CHI (p < 0.01). PGSE treatment significantly improved impairment of memory and motor coordination in the rats with 2CCAO (p < 0.001). PGSE exhibited therapeutic potential for memory and muscular coordination, which was most likely related at least in some part to its antioxidative and free radical scavenging actions.

  15. Cardioprotective activity of urocortin by preventing caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Takahashi, Koichi

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Ischemia induces high level of iPLA{sub 2} resulting in caspase-independent myocyte death. {yields} Urocortin causes iPLA{sub 2} down-regulation leading to avoidance of non-apoptotic death. {yields} The survival-promoting effect of urocortin is abrogated by CRH receptor antagonist. -- Abstract: Caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death in ischemic heart disease is considered to be one of the important therapeutic targets, however, the detailed mechanisms of this cell death process are not clear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of non-apoptotic cell death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during ischemia, and the cardioprotection by preventing the mechanisms. We found that ischemia caused elevation of the phospholipase A{sub 2} (iPLA{sub 2}) expression in the myocytes, leading to distinctive non-apoptotic nuclear shrinkage, and cell death. Moreover, we investigated whether the potent cardioprotective corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, which had been less focused on non-apoptotic cell death, inhibits the ischemic myocyte death. Ischemia-augmented nuclear shrinkage of the myocytes was suppressed by the pretreatment of {approx}10 nM urocortin before the cells were exposed to ischemia. Urocortin could significantly suppress the expression and activity of iPLA{sub 2}, resulting in preventing the ischemia-induced cell death. The survival-promoting effect of urocortin was abrogated by the CRH receptor antagonist astressin. These findings provide the first evidence linking the targets of the urocortin-mediated cardioprotection to the suppression of the caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cardiac myocytes exposed to ischemia.

  16. PET imaging of serotoninergic neurotransmission with [11C]DASB and [18F]altanserin after focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Abraham; Szczupak, Boguslaw; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Plaza, Sandra; Padró, Daniel; Cano, Ainhoa; Llop, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has shown functional improvement after stroke. Despite this, the role of serotoninergic neurotransmission after cerebral ischemia evolution and its involvement in functional recovery processes are still largely unknown. For this purpose, we performed in parallel in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]DASB and [18F]altanserin at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. In the ischemic territory, PET with [11C]DASB and [18F]altanserin showed a dramatic decline in serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT2A binding potential in the cortex and striatum after cerebral ischemia. Interestingly, a slight increase in [11C]DASB binding was observed from days 7 to 21 followed by the uppermost binding at day 28 in the ipsilateral midbrain. In contrast, no changes were observed in the contralateral hemisphere by using both radiotracers. Likewise, both functional and behavior testing showed major impaired outcome at day 1 after ischemia onset followed by a recovery of the sensorimotor function and dexterity from day 21 to day 28 after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, these results might evidence that SERT changes in the midbrain could have a key role in the functional recovery process after cerebral ischemia. PMID:23982048

  17. 3-Nitropropionic acid-induced ischemia tolerance in the rat brain is mediated by reduced metabolic activity and cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bracko, Oliver; Di Pietro, Valentina; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Amorini, Angela M; Tavazzi, Barbara; Artmann, Judith; Wong, Eric C; Buxton, Richard B; Weller, Michael; Luft, Andreas R; Wegener, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Tissue tolerance to ischemia can be achieved by noxious stimuli that are below a threshold to cause irreversible damage (‘preconditioning'). Understanding the mechanisms underlying preconditioning may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for diseases such as stroke. We here used the oxidative chain inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA) to induce ischemia tolerance in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and structural integrity were characterized by longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with behavioral, histologic, and biochemical assessment of NPA-preconditioned animals and controls. Using this approach we show that the ischemia-tolerant state is characterized by a lower energy charge potential and lower CBF, indicating a reduced baseline metabolic demand, and therefore a cellular mechanism of neural protection. Blood vessel density and structural integrity were not altered by NPA treatment. When subjected to MCAO, preconditioned animals had a characteristic MRI signature consisting of enhanced CBF maintenance within the ischemic territory and intraischemic reversal of the initial cytotoxic edema, resulting in reduced infarct volumes. Thus, our data show that tissue protection through preconditioning occurs early during ischemia and indicate that a reduced cellular metabolism is associated with tissue tolerance to ischemia. PMID:24938399

  18. Effects of repeated ischemia on release kinetics of troponin T, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in coronary effluent from isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Asayama, J; Yamahara, Y; Miyazaki, H; Ohta, B; Kobara, M; Tatsumi, T; Inoue, D; Nakagawa, M

    1994-04-01

    We studied the release kinetics of cardiac troponin T (TnT) from coronary effluent in a re-stenosis model of 13 isolated rat hearts. After a 20-min period of global ischemia, we reperfused the hearts for 60 min according to the method of Langendorff. A second period of global ischemia was then induced for 5 min (protocol A) or 20 min (protocol B), followed by a second 60-min period of reperfusion. Coronary flow was measured by a timed collection of the coronary effluent. Levels of TnT in the effluent were compared to those of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD). Levels of TnT increased after the second global ischemia, but no differences were found in the released levels of TnT between protocols A and B. However, the amounts of CK and LD released in protocol B were much greater than those released in protocol A. These studies indicate that the release kinetics of TnT are different from that of CK and LD during reperfusion. It appears that after the initial ischemic damage to TnT, subsequent ischemia causes damage to TnT regardless of the duration of the insult, whereas the damage to sarcolemma is dependent on the duration of the ischemia.

  19. Inhalation of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats - A possible new hydrogen resource for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Xiao; Zhai, Xiao; Shi, Dongchen; Zhang, Rongjia; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Gu, Zhengrong; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Sun, Xuejun; Ji, Fang; Hou, Jiong; Su, Jiacan

    2016-10-29

    Hydrogen is a kind of noble gas with the character to selectively neutralize reactive oxygen species. Former researches proved that low-concentration of hydrogen can be used to ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water has a hydrogen concentration of 66.7%, which is much higher than that used in previous studies. And water electrolysis is a potential new hydrogen resource for regular clinical use. This study was designed and carried out for the determination of safety and neuroprotective effects of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to make cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Pathologically, tissues from rats in hydrogen inhalation group showed no significant difference compared with the control group in HE staining pictures. The blood biochemical findings matched the HE staining result. TTC, Nissl, and TUNEL staining showed the significant improvement of infarction volume, neuron morphology, and neuron apoptosis in rat with hydrogen treatment. Biochemically, hydrogen inhalation decreased brain caspase-3, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells and inflammation factors concentration. Water electrolysis-derived hydrogen inhalation had neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats with the effect of suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and it is a possible new hydrogen resource to electrolyze water at the bedside clinically. PMID:27555551

  20. Cardioprotective Effects of Genistin in Rat Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Studies by Regulation of P2X7/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Meng; Zheng, Ai-bin; Jin, Jing; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Ning; Che, Zhi-ping; Wang, Yan; Zhan, Jie; Tu, Wen-juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects and mechanisms of genistin in the rat model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The rat hearts were exposed to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation for 30 min followed by 1 h of reperfusion. In the rat of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), it was found that genistin pretreatment reduced myocardial infarct size, improved the heart rate, and decreased creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in coronary flow. This pretreatment also increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities but decreased glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Furthermore, we determined that genistin can ameliorate the impaired mitochondrial morphology and oxidation system; interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also recovered. Besides, related-proteins of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signal pathway activated by P2X7 were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism of genistin and their expressions were measured by western blot. These results presented here demonstrated that genistin enhanced the protective effect on the rats with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Therefore, the cardioprotective effects of genistin may rely on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via suppression of P2X7/NF-κB pathways. PMID:27087823

  1. Yifei Xuanfei Jiangzhuo formula, a Chinese herbal decoction, improves memory impairment through inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing PKA/CREB signal transduction in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    WU, LIN; ZHAO, QING-SHAN; LI, TIAN-WEI; LI, HAI-YUAN; WANG, QING-BI; BI, XIN-YA; CAI, XIN-KUN; TANG, NONG

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis and the dysfunction of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway have a key role in memory impairment in vascular dementia (VaD), a challenging clinical problem. Yifei Xuanfei Jiangzhuo formula (YXJF), a Chinese herbal decoction, has been used to treat VaD in clinical practice and has produced positive outcomes; however, convincing evidence is currently lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of YXJF on memory impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and to explore the underlying mechanism. YXJF ameliorated memory impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, inhibited hippocampal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated increases in the protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein as well as c-Jun and a reduction in Bcl-2 protein expression in the hippocampal tissue of the rats. Furthermore, administration of YXJF significantly increased the protein expression of PKA C-α and CREB, and promoted CREB phosphorylation. The results indicated that YXJF improves memory impairment through inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing PKA/CREB signal transduction in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:26094797

  2. Inhalation of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats - A possible new hydrogen resource for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Xiao; Zhai, Xiao; Shi, Dongchen; Zhang, Rongjia; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Gu, Zhengrong; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Sun, Xuejun; Ji, Fang; Hou, Jiong; Su, Jiacan

    2016-10-29

    Hydrogen is a kind of noble gas with the character to selectively neutralize reactive oxygen species. Former researches proved that low-concentration of hydrogen can be used to ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water has a hydrogen concentration of 66.7%, which is much higher than that used in previous studies. And water electrolysis is a potential new hydrogen resource for regular clinical use. This study was designed and carried out for the determination of safety and neuroprotective effects of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to make cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Pathologically, tissues from rats in hydrogen inhalation group showed no significant difference compared with the control group in HE staining pictures. The blood biochemical findings matched the HE staining result. TTC, Nissl, and TUNEL staining showed the significant improvement of infarction volume, neuron morphology, and neuron apoptosis in rat with hydrogen treatment. Biochemically, hydrogen inhalation decreased brain caspase-3, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells and inflammation factors concentration. Water electrolysis-derived hydrogen inhalation had neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats with the effect of suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and it is a possible new hydrogen resource to electrolyze water at the bedside clinically.

  3. Neuroprotection of total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis against transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats via anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-xin; Chen, Lin; Liu, Jian-li; Ito, Yoichiro; He, Jiao; Sun, Wen-ji

    2014-11-01

    Total steroid saponins isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis have shown a variety of beneficial bioactivities. However, there are no reports about their neuroprotective effects, until now. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the neuroprotective effects of the total steroid saponins from D. zingiberensis on rats against transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and their underlying mechanisms. Healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups. After pretreatment with D. zingiberensis total steroid saponins intragastrically for six days, the rats were subjected to an ischemia injury by surgery on the middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 min. Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion group, the D. zingiberensis total steroid saponin group of rats, especially those given a 30-mg/kg dose, showed not only a marked reduction in neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct volume, and brain edema, but also an increase in neuron survival (Nissl bodies) in the hippocampal cornuammons 1 and cortex hemisphere of the ipsilateral ischemia. At the same time, the inflammatory cytokines in serum induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion were significantly decreased by the preadministration of D. zingiberensis total steroid saponins. Furthermore, the increase of caspase-3 was evidently reduced in the hippocampal cornuammons 1 and cortex of the hemisphere injured brain. Finally, the downregulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and upregulating proapoptotic Bax proteins were obviously suppressed. Taken together, the current findings suggest that D. zingiberensis total steroid saponins played a potential neuroprotective role against a severe injury induced by transient focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion in a rat experimental model, and this role may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions.

  4. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation regulates expression of growth differentiation factor 11 and activin-like kinase 5 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingxi; Zhang, Lina; He, Guoqian; Tan, Xiaodan; Jin, Xinhao; Li, Changqing

    2016-10-15

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), as a rejuvenation factor in heterochronic parabiosis, can increase proliferation of primary brain capillary endothelial cells (ECs). However, the angiogenic role of GDF11 in ischemia-induced brain injury is still unclear. There are no previous reports on the spatiotemporal expression of GDF11 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rats. Our recent work has strongly suggested that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) reduces infarct size and induces angiogenesis in focal cerebral I/R rats. This study focused on expression of GDF11 and activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) and the effects of ta-VNS in a rat cerebral I/R model. For ta-VNS, electrical stimulation of the left cavum concha (1h duration) using percutaneous needles was initiated 30min after induction of ischemia. Expression of GDF11 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot 24h, 3d, and 7d after reperfusion. In addition, neurobehavioral function, EC proliferation, and expression of ALK5 in ECs in the peri-infarct cortex were measured. Results showed that levels of GDF11 were significantly elevated after cerebral I/R, both in plasma and the peri-infarct cerebral cortex. Interestingly, splenic GDF11 levels decreased after ischemia. ALK5 was expressed in ECs in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex where active vessel remodeling was noted. ta-VNS improved neurobehavioral recovery, upregulated cerebral GDF11 and downregulated splenic GDF11, indicating a brain-spleen communication during stroke. ta-VNS also increased expression of ALK5 in ECs and stimulated proliferation of ECs. These results suggest that, after cerebral ischemia, GDF11 redistributes and participates in angiogenesis as an angiogenic factor that acts at least in part through ALK5. GDF11/ALK5 may represent a new potential therapy target for stroke. PMID:27653860

  5. Effect of crowding stress on tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion injury in young male and female hypertensive rats: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ledvényiová-Farkašová, Veronika; Bernátová, Iveta; Balis, Peter; Puzserova, Angelika; Barteková, Monika; Gablovsky, Ivan; Ravingerová, Tana

    2015-09-01

    Sex and social stress may represent risk factors in the etiology of hypertension and heart response to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) plays an important role in the processes associated with hypertension and myocardial tolerance to I/R, and may be involved in myocardial stress reaction. The impact of chronic stress on the response to I/R was investigated in the hearts of 7-week-old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats of both sexes. Stress was induced by reducing living space to 70 cm(2)/100 g body mass of rat for 2 weeks, while the controls were kept at 200 cm(2)/100 g. Langendorff-perfused hearts, subjected to I/R, exhibited higher vulnerability to ventricular tachycardia in crowd-stressed SHR vs. the control rats, and this was more pronounced in the males. Myocardial infarction was not affected by crowding stress in any of the groups. Male and female SHR showed increased activation of cardiac Akt, whereas nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS) with pro-apoptotic signaling decreased in the males but was not altered in the females (vs. WKY rats). NOS was enhanced in the female SHR and WKY groups by comparison with the respective males. Stress only reduced NOS activity in the SHR groups, and without changes in apoptotic markers. In conclusion, we showed that stress in young SHR mainly affects the nonlethal markers for I/R, and has no impact on myocardial infarction and apoptosis, despite reduced NOS activity.

  6. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet promotes arrhythmic death and increases myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Peipei; Zou, Luyun; Qu, Jing; Litovsky, Silvio; Umeda, Patrick; Zhou, Lufang; Chatham, John; Marsh, Susan A.; Dell'Italia, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets (HFLCD) are often eaten by humans for a variety of reasons, but the effects of such diets on the heart are incompletely understood. We evaluated the impact of HFLCD on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) using an in vivo model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g) were fed HFLCD (60% calories fat, 30% protein, 10% carbohydrate) or control (CONT; 16% fat, 19% protein, 65% carbohydrate) diet for 2 wk and then underwent open chest I/R. At baseline (preischemia), diet did not affect left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. Oil red O staining revealed presence of lipid in the heart with HFLCD but not in CONT. Following I/R, recovery of LV function was decreased in HFLCD. HFLCD hearts exhibited decreased ATP synthase and increased uncoupling protein-3 gene and protein expression. HFLCD downregulated mitochondrial fusion proteins and upregulated fission proteins and store-operated Ca2+ channel proteins. HFLCD led to increased death during I/R; 6 of 22 CONT rats and 16 of 26 HFLCD rats died due to ventricular arrhythmias and hemodynamic shock. In surviving rats, HFLCD led to larger infarct size. We concluded that in vivo HFLCD does not affect nonischemic LV function but leads to greater myocardial injury during I/R, with increased risk of death by pump failure and ventricular arrhythmias, which might be associated with altered cardiac energetics, mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, and store-operated Ca2+ channel expression. PMID:24929857

  7. Compound 49b Restores Retinal Thickness and Reduces Degenerate Capillaries in the Rat Retina following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Jiang, Youde

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that Compound 49b, a novel β-adrenergic receptor agonist, can significantly reduce VEGF levels in retinal endothelial cells (REC) grown in diabetic-like conditions. In this study, we investigated whether Compound 49b could protect the retina under hypoxic conditions using the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced model in rats, as well REC cultured in hypoxic conditions. Some rats received 1mM topical Compound 49b for the 2 (5 rats each group) or 10 (4 rats in each group) days post-I/R. Analyses for retinal thickness and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer was done at 2 days post-I/R, while numbers of degenerate capillaries and pericyte ghosts were measured at 10 days post-I/R. Additionally, REC were cultured in normal oxygen or hypoxia (5% O2) only or treated with 50 nM Compound 49b for 12 hours. Twelve hours after Compound 49b exposure, cells were collected and analyzed for protein levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (KDR), angiopoietin 1 and its receptor Tie2 for Western blotting. Data indicate that exposure to I/R significantly decreased retinal thickness, with increasing numbers of degenerate capillaries and pericyte ghosts. Compound 49b treatment inhibited these retinal changes. In REC cultured in hypoxia, levels of IGFBP-3 were reduced, which were significantly increased by Compound 49b. Hypoxia significantly increased protein levels of VEGF, KDR, Angiopoiein 1, and Tie2, which were reduced following Compound 49b treatment. These data strongly suggested that Compound 49b protected the retina against I/R-induced injury. This provides additional support for a role of β-adrenergic receptor actions in the retina. PMID:27439004

  8. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet promotes arrhythmic death and increases myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Peipei; Zou, Luyun; Qu, Jing; Litovsky, Silvio; Umeda, Patrick; Zhou, Lufang; Chatham, John; Marsh, Susan A; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Lloyd, Steven G

    2014-08-15

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets (HFLCD) are often eaten by humans for a variety of reasons, but the effects of such diets on the heart are incompletely understood. We evaluated the impact of HFLCD on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) using an in vivo model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g) were fed HFLCD (60% calories fat, 30% protein, 10% carbohydrate) or control (CONT; 16% fat, 19% protein, 65% carbohydrate) diet for 2 wk and then underwent open chest I/R. At baseline (preischemia), diet did not affect left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. Oil red O staining revealed presence of lipid in the heart with HFLCD but not in CONT. Following I/R, recovery of LV function was decreased in HFLCD. HFLCD hearts exhibited decreased ATP synthase and increased uncoupling protein-3 gene and protein expression. HFLCD downregulated mitochondrial fusion proteins and upregulated fission proteins and store-operated Ca(2+) channel proteins. HFLCD led to increased death during I/R; 6 of 22 CONT rats and 16 of 26 HFLCD rats died due to ventricular arrhythmias and hemodynamic shock. In surviving rats, HFLCD led to larger infarct size. We concluded that in vivo HFLCD does not affect nonischemic LV function but leads to greater myocardial injury during I/R, with increased risk of death by pump failure and ventricular arrhythmias, which might be associated with altered cardiac energetics, mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, and store-operated Ca(2+) channel expression.

  9. Role of Opioid Receptors Signaling in Remote Electrostimulation - Induced Protection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Tsou, Meng-Ting; Wang, Hsiao-Ting; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2015-01-01

    Aims Our previous studies demonstrated that remote electro-stimulation (RES) increased myocardial GSK3 phosphorylation and attenuated ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat hearts. However, the role of various opioid receptors (OR) subtypes in preconditioned RES-induced myocardial protection remains unknown. We investigated the role of OR subtype signaling in RES-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury of the rat heart. Methods & Results Male Spraque-Dawley rats were used. RES was performed on median nerves area with/without pretreatment with various receptors antagonists such as opioid receptor (OR) subtype receptors (KOR, DOR, and MOR). The expressions of Akt, GSK3, and PKCε expression were analyzed by Western blotting. When RES was preconditioned before the I/R model, the rat's hemodynamic index, infarction size, mortality and serum CK-MB were evaluated. Our results showed that Akt, GSK3 and PKCε expression levels were significantly increased in the RES group compared to the sham group, which were blocked by pretreatment with specific antagonists targeting KOR and DOR, but not MOR subtype. Using the I/R model, the duration of arrhythmia and infarct size were both significantly attenuated in RES group. The mortality rates of the sham RES group, the RES group, RES group + KOR antagonist, RES group + DOR/MOR antagonists (KOR left), RES group + DOR antagonist, and RES group + KOR/MOR antagonists (DOR left) were 50%, 20%, 67%, 13%, 50% and 55%, respectively. Conclusion The mechanism of RES-induced myocardial protection against I/R injury seems to involve multiple target pathways such as Akt, KOR and/or DOR signaling. PMID:26430750

  10. Delayed treatment with intravenous basic fibroblast growth factor reduces infarct size following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Meadows, M E; Do, T; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Charette, M; Finklestein, S P

    1995-11-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide that supports the survival of brain cells (including neurons, glia, and endothelia) and protects neurons against a number of toxins and insults in vitro. This factor is also a potent dilator of cerebral pial arterioles in vivo. In previous studies, we found that intraventricularly administered bFGF reduced infarct volume in a model of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. In the current study, bFGF (45 micrograms/kg/h) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was infused intravenously for 3 h, beginning at 30 min after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture in mature Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h, neurological deficit (as assessed by a 0- to 5-point scale, with 5 = most severe) was 2.6 +/- 1.0 in vehicle-treated and 1.5 +/- 1.3 in bFGF-treated rats (mean +/- SD; N = 12 vs. 11; p = 0.009). Infarct volume was 297 +/- 65 mm3 in vehicle- and 143 +/- 135 mm3 in bFGF-treated animals (p = 0.002). During infusion, there was a modest decrease in mean arterial blood pressure but no changes in arterial blood gases or core or brain temperature in bFGF-treated rats. Autoradiography following intravenous administration of 111In-labeled bFGF showed that labeled bFGF crossed the damaged blood-brain barrier to enter the ischemic (but not the nonischemic) hemisphere. Whether the infarct-reducing effects of bFGF depend on intraparenchymal or intravascular mechanisms requires further study.

  11. Protein kinase C betaII peptide inhibitor exerts cardioprotective effects in rat cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Omiyi, Didi; Brue, Richard J; Taormina, Philip; Harvey, Margaret; Atkinson, Norrell; Young, Lindon H

    2005-08-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) in the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in a marked cardiac contractile dysfunction. A cell-permeable protein kinase C (PKC) betaII peptide inhibitor was used to test the hypothesis that PKC betaII inhibition could attenuate PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction by suppression of superoxide production from PMNs and increase NO release from vascular endothelium. The effects of the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor were examined in isolated ischemic (20 min) and reperfused (45 min) rat hearts with PMNs. The PKC betaII inhibitor (10 microM; n = 7) significantly attenuated PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction compared with I/R hearts (n = 9) receiving PMNs alone in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP (+dP/dt(max)) cardiac function indices (p < 0.01). The PKC betaII inhibitor at 10 microM significantly increased endothelial NO release from a basal value of 1.85 +/- 0.18 pmol NO/mg tissue to 3.49 +/- 0.62 pmol NO/mg tissue from rat aorta. It also significantly inhibited superoxide release (i.e., absorbance) from N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine-stimulated rat PMNs from 0.13 +/- 0.01 to 0.02 +/- 0.004 (p < 0.01) at 10 microM. Histological analysis of the left ventricle of representative rat hearts from each group showed that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor-treated hearts experienced a marked reduction in PMN vascular adherence and infiltration into the postreperfused cardiac tissue compared with I/R + PMN hearts (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor attenuates PMN-induced post-I/R cardiac contractile dysfunction by increasing endothelial NO release and by inhibiting superoxide release from PMNs. PMID:15878997

  12. [Activation of autophagy pathway in hippocampus and deterioration of learning and memory ability by intermittent hypoxia in rats after cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiangfei; Zhao, Yaning; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Wenqian; Chen, Changxiang

    2016-09-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different duration of intermittent hypoxia on the autophagy pathway in the hippocampus and the learning and memory ability after cerebral ischemia in rats. Methods 100 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation (SO) group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, intermittent hypoxia for 7 days combined with ischemia/reperfusion (IH7-I/R) group, intermittent hypoxia for 14 days combined with ischemia/reperfusion (IH14-I/R) group, intermittent hypoxia for 21 days combined with ischemia/reperfusion (IH21-I/R) group, n =20 in each group. The rats in IH7-I/R group, IH14-I/R group and IH21-I/R group were respectively subjected to intermittent hypoxia for 7, 14 and 21 days prior to I/R modeling by improved Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion (4-VO). The morphological changes of nerve cells in the hippocampus of rat brain were detected by HE staining; the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and beclin 1 mRNA in the hippocampus were determined by quantitative real-time PCR; the distribution of mTOR and beclin 1 in the hippocampus was observed by immunohistochemistry; the learning and memory ability of rats was assessed by the Morris water maze test. Results Compared with the SO group, the never cell morphology was damaged, the number of survival neurons in the hippocampus was reduced, the expressions of mTOR and beclin 1 in the hippocampus were strengthened, and the learning and memory ability declined in the I/R group. Compared with the I/R group, the never cell morphology was damaged seriously, the number of survival neurons in the hippocampus decreased, the expressions of mTOR and beclin 1 in the hippocampus increased, and the learning and memory ability dropped in the intermittent hypoxia groups. What's more, the above changes were dependent on the duration of intermittent hypoxia. Conclusion Intermittent hypoxia aggravates the dysfunction of learning and memory after cerebral ischemia and the damages increase

  13. Protective effect of rhGLP-1 (7-36) on brain ischemia/reperfusion damage in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Libo; Xu, Jia; Wang, Qian; Qian, Zhonglian; Feng, Wanyu; Yin, Xiaoxing; Fang, Yi

    2015-03-30

    In recent years, GLP-1 and its analogs have been developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It has been reported that stimulating the GLP-1 receptor can protect neurons against metabolic and oxidative insults, and therefore can be used in the treatment of stroke and Parkinson׳s disease. The present study aimed to examine the neuroprotective effects of rhGLP-1 (7-36) and its possible mechanisms against acute ischemia/reperfusion injuries induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in diabetic rats. The type 2 diabetic rat model was established by a combination of a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). RhGLP-1 (7-36) (20, 40, 80μg/kg) was given intraperitoneally before reperfusion. The neuroprotective effects of rhGLP-1 (7-36) were evaluated by changes in neurological deficit scores and 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Changes in blood glucose were used to assess hypoglycemic effects. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), inducible nitric oxide syntheses (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide syntheses (eNOS) after MCAO/R administration (2h and 46h) were examined to investigate the possible mechanisms of RhGLP-1 (7-36). Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used for histopathological observation. Compared with the control group, rhGLP-1 (7-36)-treated groups decreased nerve function deficiency scores; significantly reduced infarction volume percentage, MDA, iNOS and blood glucose; and significantly increased SOD, GSH-PX and eNOS. In addition, rhGLP-1 (7-36) groups enhanced the density of surviving neurons and increased vascular proliferation. The current study suggests a neuroprotective effect of rhGLP-1 (7-36) in diabetic MCAO/R rats since anti-oxidative and anti-nitrosative stress effects can contribute to beneficial effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  14. Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan mimetic improves pressure ulcer healing in a rat model of cutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Tong, Miao; Tuk, Bastiaan; Hekking, Ineke M; Pleumeekers, Mieke M; Boldewijn, Mireille B; Hovius, Steven E R; van Neck, Johan W

    2011-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a major clinical problem, with a large burden on healthcare resources. This study evaluated the effects of the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan mimetic, OTR4120, on pressure ulceration and healing. Ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) was evoked to induce pressure ulcers by external clamping and then removal of a pair of magnet disks on rat dorsal skin for a single ischemic period of 16 hours. Immediately after magnet removal, rats received an intramuscular injection of OTR4120 weekly for up to 1 month. During the ischemic period, normal skin perfusion was reduced by at least 60% and at least 20-45% reperfused into the ischemic region after compression release. This model caused sustained skin incomplete necrosis for up to 14 days and led to grade 2-3 ulcers. OTR4120 treatment decreased the area of skin incomplete necrosis and degree of ulceration. OTR4120 treatment also reduced inflammation and increased angiogenesis. In OTR4120-treated ulcers, the contents of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta-1 were increased. Moreover, OTR4120 treatment promoted early expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and increased collagen biosynthesis. Long-term restoration of wounded tissue biomechanical strength was significantly enhanced after OTR4120 treatment. Taken together, we conclude that OTR4120 treatment reduces pressure ulcer formation and potentiates the internal healing bioavailability.

  15. Cardioprotective mechanisms of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Nagy, Norbert; Varga, Edit; Varadi, Judit; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szabo, Gergo; Szendrei, Levente; Bacskay, Ildiko; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Antal, Miklos; Fesus, Laszlo; Boucher, Francois; de Leiris, Joel; Tosaki, Arpad

    2006-09-01

    The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium. PMID:16617126

  16. Methane attenuates myocardial ischemia injury in rats through anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ouyang; Ye, Zhouheng; Cao, Zhiyong; Manaenko, Anatol; Ning, Ke; Zhai, Xiao; Zhang, Rongjia; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Wenwu; Sun, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the most frequent cardiovascular disease with high mortality. Recently, methane has been shown protective effects on small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that methane-rich saline (MS) could protect the myocardium again MI via its anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In experiment 1, tetrazolium chloride staining and detection of myocardial enzymes and oxidative and inflammatory parameters were performed at 12h after MI to determine the optimal dose at which intraperitoneal MS exerted the best protective effects on MI. In experiment 2, rats were treated with 10 ml/kg MS. Myocyte apoptosis was detected 72 h after MI, and cardiac function and myocardial remodeling were evaluated 4 weeks after MI. Results showed different dose of MS reduced infarct area, decreased myocardial enzymes, inhibited inflammation and oxidative stress following MI. The optimal dose of MS was 10 mg/kg. Moreover, treatment with 10mg/kg MS for 3 days significantly reduced myocyte apoptosis, improved cardiac function and inhibited myocardial remodeling (reduced anterior wall thickness, attenuated myocyte hypertrophy, and decreased myocardial collagen). MS protects the myocardium of MI rats via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-remodeling activities. Thus, MS provides a novel and promising strategy for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. PMID:26585905

  17. Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats through inhibition of endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changyong; Hu, Min; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Huan; Deng, Jing; Yan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of myocardial damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signal molecule, has drawn considerable attention for its role in various pathophysiological processes. Multiple lines of evidence reveal the protective effects of H2S in various models of cardiac injury, however, the exact mechanism underlying this protective effect of H2S against myocardial I/R injury is not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate whether H2S preconditioning attenuates myocardial I/R injury in rats and whether the observed protection is associated with reduced endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress. We found that H2S preconditioning significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, preserved left ventricular function, and inhibited I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo. Furthermore, H2S preconditioning significantly attenuated I/R-induced ER/SR stress responses, including the increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and activate transcription factor in myocardium. Additionally, we demonstrate that H2S preconditioning attenuates ER/SR stress and inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis in an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation in rat H9c2 cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that H2S-attenuated ER/SR stress plays an important role in its protective effects against I/R-induced myocardial injury. PMID:26339339

  18. The Coagulation Factor XIIa Inhibitor rHA-Infestin-4 Improves Outcome after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Jennifer; May, Frauke; Weimer, Thomas; Pragst, Ingo; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Stoll, Guido; Panousis, Con; Dickneite, Gerhard; Nolte, Marc W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke provokes severe brain damage and remains a predominant disease in industrialized countries. The coagulation factor XII (FXII)-driven contact activation system plays a central, but not yet fully defined pathogenic role in stroke development. Here, we investigated the efficacy of the FXIIa inhibitor rHA-Infestin-4 in a rat model of ischemic stroke using both a prophylactic and a therapeutic approach. Methods For prophylactic treatment, animals were treated intravenously with 100 mg/kg rHA-Infestin-4 or an equal volume of saline 15 min prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) of 90 min. For therapeutic treatment, 100 mg/kg rHA-Infestin-4, or an equal volume of saline, was administered directly after the start of reperfusion. At 24 h after tMCAO, rats were tested for neurological deficits and blood was drawn for coagulation assays. Finally, brains were removed and analyzed for infarct area and edema formation. Results Within prophylactic rHA-Infestin-4 treatment, infarct areas and brain edema formation were reduced accompanied by better neurological scores and survival compared to controls. Following therapeutic treatment, neurological outcome and survival were still improved although overall effects were less pronounced compared to prophylaxis. Conclusions With regard to the central role of the FXII-driven contact activation system in ischemic stroke, inhibition of FXIIa may represent a new and promising treatment approach to prevent cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26815580

  19. [Electrone probe microanalysis of rubidium retention in myocell of rat heart during acute ischemia].

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, A G; Pogorelova, V N; Pogorelova, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the given investigation contents of potassium and its physiological analog, rubidium, are determined in cardiomyocyte. Applying Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), cytoplasmic concentrations of elements (K, Rb) are measured. The data obtained exhibit that for initial acute ischemia phase the active transport is involved in the uptake of rubidium which competes with potassium entry in cardiac myocell. Then, deep deenergization leads to the intracellular potassium depletion and rubidium retention. This suggests that Rb+ is physiologically not complete analog for K+. Results of combined perfusion with and without rubidium allow us to hypothesize the appearance of cascade of ionic transports to compensate acute ischemic disturbances following the oxygen and substrate deficiency. PMID:23136775

  20. Erythropoietin improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Weber, Astrid; Maier, Rolf F; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Grips, Martin; Hoppenz, Marc; Aktas, Ayse G; Heinemann, Uwe; Obladen, Michael; Schuchmann, Sebastian

    2002-12-27

    Erythropoietin (EPO) prevents neuronal damage following ischemic, metabolic, and excitotoxic stress. In this study evoked extracellular field potentials (FP) were used to investigate the effect of EPO on synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice cultures. EPO treated cultured slices (40 units/ml for 48 h) showed significantly increased FP during and following oxygen and glucose deprivation compared with untreated control slices. The addition of the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 (50 microM for 48 h) blocked the EPO effect. These data suggest that EPO improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in hippocampal slice cultures.

  1. Soy Isoflavone Protects Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Decreasing Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Li, Shuangyue; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Jinbiao; Meng, Guoliang; Xie, Liping; Yu, Ying; Ji, Yong; Han, Yi

    2016-01-01

    There is a special role for estrogens in preventing and curing cardiovascular disease in women. Soy isoflavone (SI), a soy-derived phytoestrogen, has similar chemical structure to endogenous estrogen-estradiol. We investigate to elucidate the protective mechanism of SI on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Female SD rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy. One week later, rats were randomly divided into several groups, sham ovariectomy (control group), ovariectomy with MI/R, or ovariectomy with sham MI/R. Other ovariectomy rats were given different doses of SI or 17β-estradiol (E2). Four weeks later, they were exposed to 30 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 6 or 24 hours of reperfusion. SI administration significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved left ventricle function and restored endothelium-dependent relaxation function of thoracic aortas after MI/R in ovariectomized rats. SI also decreased serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity, reduced plasma malonaldehyde, and attenuated oxidative stress in the myocardium. Meanwhile, SI increased phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signal pathway. SI failed to decrease infarct size of hearts with I/R in ovariectomized rats if PI3K was inhibited. Overall, these results indicated that SI protects myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in ovariectomized rats through increasing PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway and decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:27057277

  2. Ischemia-Induced Autophagy Contributes to Neurodegeneration in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells in the Developing Rat Brain and in Primary Cortical Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Au, Alicia K.; Chen, Yaming; Du, Lina; Smith, Craig M.; Manole, Mioara D.; Baltagi, Sirine A.; Chu, Charleen T.; Aneja, Rajesh K.; Bayır, Hülya; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Clark, Robert S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Increased autophagy/mitophagy is thought to contribute to cerebellar dysfunction in Purkinje cell degeneration mice. Intriguingly, cerebellar Purkinje cells are highly vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia (HI), related at least in part to their high metabolic activity. Whether or not excessive or supraphysiologic autophagy plays a role in Purkinje cell susceptibility to HI is unknown. Accordingly, we evaluated the role of autophagy in the cerebellum after global ischemia produced by asphyxial cardiac arrest in postnatal day (PND) 16–18 rats, using siRNA-targeted inhibition of Atg7, necessary for microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and Atg12-Atg5 complex formation. Two days before a 9 min asphyxial cardiac arrest or sham surgery, Atg7 or control siRNA was injected intracisternally to target the cerebellum. Treatment with Atg7 siRNA: 1) reduced Atg7 protein expression in the cerebellum by 56%; 2) prevented the typical ischemia-induced formation of LC3-II in the cerebellum 24 h after asphyxial cardiac arrest; 3) improved performance on the beam-balance apparatus on days 1–5; and 4) increased calbindin-labeled Purkinje cell survival assessed on day 14. Improved Purkinje cell survival was more consistent in female vs. male rats, and improved beam-balance performance was only seen in female rats. Similar responses to Atg7 siRNA i.e. reduced autophagy and neurodegeneration vs. control siRNA were seen when exposing sex-segregated green fluorescent protein-LC3 tagged mouse primary cortical neurons to oxygen glucose deprivation in vitro. Thus, inhibition of autophagy after global ischemia in PND 16–18 rats leads to increased survival of Purkinje cells and improved motor performance in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:26071643

  3. Homocysteine Aggravates Cortical Neural Cell Injury through Neuronal Autophagy Overactivation following Rat Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaqian; Huang, Guowei; Chen, Shuang; Gou, Yun; Dong, Zhiping; Zhang, Xumei

    2016-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be involved in neurotoxicity after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood to date. In the current study, we hypothesized that neuronal autophagy activation may be involved in the toxic effect of Hcy on cortical neurons following cerebral ischemia. Brain cell injury was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining. The level and localization of autophagy were detected by transmission electron microscopy, western blot and immunofluorescence double labeling. The oxidative DNA damage was revealed by immunofluorescence of 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Hcy treatment aggravated neuronal cell death, significantly increased the formation of autophagosomes and the expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 in the brain cortex after middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO). Immunofluorescence analysis of LC3B and Beclin-1 distribution indicated that their expression occurred mainly in neurons (NeuN-positive) and hardly in astrocytes (GFAP-positive). 8-OHdG expression was also increased in the ischemic cortex of Hcy-treated animals. Conversely, LC3B and Beclin-1 overexpression and autophagosome accumulation caused by Hcy were partially blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Hcy administration enhanced neuronal autophagy, which contributes to cell death following cerebral ischemia. The oxidative damage-mediated autophagy may be a molecular mechanism underlying neuronal cell toxicity of elevated Hcy level. PMID:27455253

  4. Using a neodymium magnet to target delivery of ferumoxide-labeled human neural stem cells in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Miyeoun; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Yoon-ha; Roh, Jina; Kim, Seung U; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2010-05-01

    Efficiency of targeted delivery of stem cells via transplantation by intravenous injection is limited because of rapid clearance. Thus, more effective, newer methods are required. We hypothesized that combining the use of ferumoxide labeling and magnetic fields could enhance targeted delivery of stem cells. The effects of a magnetic field on proliferation, viability, and differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSCs) were determined in culture, and the results indicated that the difference between control and cultures exposed to a magnetic field were insignificant. To assess migration in vitro, ferumoxide-labeled cells were seeded into a culture dish that had a neodymium magnet below its center, and the labeled NSCs were found to aggregate above the magnet. To investigate targeted delivery of NSCs in vivo, rats were separated into three groups: ischemia only (IO), ischemia with injection of ferumoxide-labeled cells (IC), and ischemia with injection of labeled cells and magnet exposure (ICM). Twenty-four hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), labeled human NSCs were injected into the tail vein. Seven days after MCAo, ICM rats had a larger number and greater distribution of Prussian blue-positive NSCs as compared with controls. In addition, infarct volume in ICM rats was significantly reduced. Our study suggests that this use of a magnetic field may be useful for improving the efficacy of targeted migration of stem cells in stem-based cell therapy in ischemic brain injury. PMID:20059319

  5. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minwoo A.; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKCδ expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKCε were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKCδ and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26168042

  6. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Minwoo A; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKCδ expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKCε were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKCδ and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  7. Modulation of AMP deaminase in rat hearts subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by purine riboside.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, T; Lipinski, M; Kaminski, R; Krzyminska-Stasiuk, E; Langowska, M; Raczak, G; Slominska, E M; Smolenski, R T

    2008-06-01

    Changes in AMP deaminase (AMPD) activity influence heart function and progression of heart disease, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We evaluated the effect of purine riboside (Purr) on the activity of AMPD in perfused rat hearts and in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Brief perfusion of the pre-ischemic heart with 200 micro M Purr resulted in activation of AMPD, more pronounced degradation of the adenine nucleotides, and reduced recovery of the adenine nucleotide pool during reperfusion. Brief incubation of rat cardiomyocytes with 200 micro M Purr also activated AMPD, while prolonged exposure resulted in enzyme inhibition. We conclude that Purr activates AMPD, whereas metabolites of this compound may inhibit the enzyme.

  8. A selective cysteine protease inhibitor is non-toxic and cerebroprotective in rats undergoing transient middle cerebral artery ischemia.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, D M; Veyna, R; Han, Y; Li, K; Tang, N; Betts, R L; Weinsheimer, S; Chopp, M; Anagli, J

    2001-05-18

    Ischemic neuronal injury mediated by cysteine proteases such as calpains and caspases has been demonstrated in various experimental models. Cathepsins B and L are also cysteine proteases which may contribute to neuronal death after ischemia. The authors measured in vitro and in vivo toxicity and post-ischemic cytoprotective effects of a cysteine protease inhibitor which does not block calpain or caspase but, rather, is relatively selective for cathepsins B and L. The compound belongs to the peptidyl-diazomethane family (cysteine protease inhibitor 1, termed CP-1). In vitro toxicity was measured using an assay of cell viability, and in vivo toxicity was measured by histological tissue analysis after infusion of CP-1 in rats. Two hours of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in rats was performed by the intravascular suture method. Immediately following reperfusion, intravenous infusion of CP-1 or vehicle was performed for 4 h at 0.9 ml/h. After a 7-day survival, the infarct volumes were measured. CP-1 was non-toxic to cultured glial cells to a local concentration of 200 microM, and relatively non-toxic to cultured endothelial cells at concentrations of 100-200 microM. No animal exhibited toxic effects at any of the doses used. Histologic comparisons revealed no signs of tissue toxicity. CP-1 significantly reduced hemispheric infarct volume compared to control (37+/-8.2%) at concentrations of 10, 50, and 250 microM [22+/-15%, P=0.008; 20+/-13%, P=0.002; 23+/-15%, P=0.022, respectively (mean+/-standard deviation; N=7-10 per group)]. CP-1, at the concentration of 50 microM, improved the functional score of the animals, but did not significantly alter cerebral blood flow. This study supports the hypothesis that the lysosomal cathepsins B and/or L contribute to cerebral injury after focal ischemia with reperfusion. Cysteine protease inhibitors which are relatively selective for cathepsins B and L, but not the calpains or caspases, are effective at reducing infarct

  9. Argon Inhalation Attenuates Retinal Apoptosis after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Time- and Dose-Dependent Manner in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Felix; Schallner, Nils; Coburn, Mark; Loop, Torsten; Lagrèze, Wolf Alexander; Biermann, Julia; Goebel, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Retinal ischemia and reperfusion injuries (IRI) permanently affect neuronal tissue and function by apoptosis and inflammation due to the limited regenerative potential of neurons. Recently, evidence emerged that the noble gas Argon exerts protective properties, while lacking any detrimental or adverse effects. We hypothesized that Argon inhalation after IRI would exert antiapoptotic effects in the retina, thereby protecting retinal ganglion cells (RGC) of the rat's eye. Methods IRI was performed on the left eyes of rats (n = 8) with or without inhaled Argon postconditioning (25, 50 and 75 Vol%) for 1 hour immediately or delayed after ischemia (i.e. 1.5 and 3 hours). Retinal tissue was harvested after 24 hours to analyze mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3, NF-κB. Densities of fluorogold-prelabeled RGCs were analyzed 7 days after injury in whole-mounts. Histological tissue samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry and blood was analyzed regarding systemic effects of Argon or IRI. Statistics were performed using One-Way ANOVA. Results IRI induced RGC loss was reduced by Argon 75 Vol% inhalation and was dose-dependently attenuated by lower concentrations, or by delayed Argon inhalation (1504±300 vs. 2761±257; p<0.001). Moreover, Argon inhibited Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA expression significantly (Bax: 1.64±0.30 vs. 0.78±0.29 and Bcl-2: 2.07±0.29 vs. 0.99±0.22; both p<0.01), as well as caspase-3 cleavage (1.91±0.46 vs. 1.05±0.36; p<0.001). Expression of NF-κB was attenuated significantly. Immunohistochemistry revealed an affection of Müller cells and astrocytes. In addition, IRI induced leukocytosis was reduced significantly after Argon inhalation at 75 Vol%. Conclusion Immediate and delayed Argon postconditioning protects IRI induced apoptotic loss of RGC in a time- and dose-dependent manner, possibly mediated by the inhibition of NF-κB. Further studies need to evaluate Argon's possible role as a therapeutic option. PMID

  10. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (Pdose < 0.0001), and PD123319 intensified the reduction of RBF response in female (Pgroup < 0.005), but not in male rats. Conclusion. The impact of the AT2R on vascular responses to Ang II in renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats. PMID:27034657

  11. Alpha-tocopherol acetate significantly suppressed the increase in heart interstitial 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, C S; Chen, W Y; Tsai, P J; Kuo, J S

    1999-07-01

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol acetate, an aqueous form of alpha-tocopherol, on the increase in heart interstitial 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was investigated. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the left ventricular interstitial space of anesthetized rat hearts. Myocardial ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Levels of 8-OH-dG in microdialysates were analyzed via an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with an electrochemical detector. The 8-OH-dG levels significantly increased (maximum 3.6-fold of increase relative to basal value) during the 60-min reperfusion stage following a 20 min ischemia. Administration of alpha-tocopherol acetate (20 mg/kg, intravenous, bolus) at 3 min prior to onset of reperfusion, significantly suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase in 8-OH-dG levels. These results suggested that one of the possible protective effect of alpha-tocopherol acetate was to reduce oxidative DNA damage during in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

  12. Noble Gas (Argon and Xenon)-Saturated Cold Storage Solutions Reduce Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Y.; Pype, J.L.; Martin, A.R.; Chong, C.F.; Daniel, L.; Gaudart, J.; Ibrahim, Z.; Magalon, G.; Lemaire, M.; Hardwigsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Following kidney transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a cold-storage solution saturated with noble gas (xenon or argon) could limit ischemia-reperfusion injury following cold ischemia. Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 experimental groups. Kidneys were harvested and then stored for 6 h before transplantation in cold-storage solution (Celsior®) saturated with either air, nitrogen, xenon or argon. A syngenic orthotopic transplantation was performed. Renal function was determined on days 7 and 14 after transplantation. Transplanted kidneys were removed on day 14 for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and urinary albumin significantly lower in the argon and xenon groups than in the other groups at days 7 and 14. These effects were considerably more pronounced for argon than for xenon. In addition, kidneys stored with argon, and to a lesser extent those stored with xenon, displayed preserved renal architecture as well as higher CD-10 and little active caspase-3 expression compared to other groups. Conclusion Argon- or xenon-satured cold-storage solution preserved renal architecture and function following transplantation by reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:22470401

  13. The window of opportunity for neuronal rescue with insulin-like growth factor-1 after hypoxia-ischemia in rats is critically modulated by cerebral temperature during recovery.

    PubMed

    Guan, J; Gunn, A J; Sirimanne, E S; Tuffin, J; Gunning, M I; Clark, R; Gluckman, P D

    2000-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is induced in damaged brain tissue after hypoxia-ischemia, and exogenous administration of IGF-1 shortly after injury has been shown to be neuroprotective. However, it is unknown whether treatment with IGF-1 delayed by more than a few hours after injury may be protective. Hypothermia after brain injury has been reported to delay the development of ischemic neuronal death. The authors therefore hypothesize that a reduction in the environmental temperature during recovery from hypoxia-ischemia could prolong the window of opportunity for IGF-1 treatment. Unilateral brain damage was induced in adult rats using a modified Levine model of right carotid artery ligation followed by brief hypoxia (6% O2 for 10 minutes). The rats were maintained in either a warm (31 degrees C) or cool (23 degrees C) environment for the first 2 hours after hypoxia. All rats were subsequently transferred to the 23 degrees C environment until the end of the experiment. A single dose of IGF-1 (50 microg) or its vehicle was given intracerebroventricularly at either 2 or 6 hours after hypoxia. Histologic outcome in the lateral cortex was quantified 5 days after hypoxia. Finally, cortical temperature was recorded from 1 hour before and 2 hours after hypoxia in separate groups of rats exposed to the "warm" and "cool" protocols. In rats exposed to the warm recovery environment, IGF-1 reduced cortical damage (P < 0.05) when given 2 hours but not 6 hours after insult. In contrast, with early recovery in the cool environment, a significant protective effect of IGF-1 in the lateral cortex (P < 0.05) was found with administration 6 hours after insult. In conclusion, a reduction in cerebral temperature during the early recovery phase after severe hypoxia-ischemia did not significantly reduce the severity of injury after 5 days' recovery; however, it markedly shifted and extended the window of opportunity for delayed treatment with IGF-1.

  14. Amlodipine Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neovascularization in Diabetic Rats through Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiayin; Xie, Jun; Kang, Lina; Ferro, Albert; Dong, Li; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether amlodipine could improve angiogenic responses in a diabetic rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) through improving bone marrow endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization, in the same way as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods. After induction of AMI by coronary artery ligation, diabetic rats were randomly assigned to receive perindopril (2 mgkg−1 day−1), amlodipine (2.5 mgkg−1 day−1), or vehicle by gavage (n = 20 per group). Circulating EPC counts before ligation and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 after AMI were measured in each group. Microvessel density, cardiac function, and cardiac remodeling were assessed 4 weeks after treatment. The signaling pathway related to EPC mobilization was also measured. Results. Circulating EPC count in amlodipine- and perindopril-treated rats peaked at day 7, to an obvious higher level than the control group peak which was reached earlier (at day 5). Rats treated with amlodipine showed improved postischemia neovascularization and cardiac function, together with reduced cardiac remodeling, decreased interstitial fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Amlodipine treatment also increased cardiac SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and gave rise to activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling in bone marrow. Conclusions. Amlodipine promotes neovascularization by improving EPC mobilization from bone marrow in diabetic rats after AMI, and activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling may in part contribute to this. PMID:27243031

  15. Amlodipine Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neovascularization in Diabetic Rats through Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiayin; Xie, Jun; Kang, Lina; Ferro, Albert; Dong, Li; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether amlodipine could improve angiogenic responses in a diabetic rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) through improving bone marrow endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization, in the same way as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods. After induction of AMI by coronary artery ligation, diabetic rats were randomly assigned to receive perindopril (2 mgkg(-1) day(-1)), amlodipine (2.5 mgkg(-1) day(-1)), or vehicle by gavage (n = 20 per group). Circulating EPC counts before ligation and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 after AMI were measured in each group. Microvessel density, cardiac function, and cardiac remodeling were assessed 4 weeks after treatment. The signaling pathway related to EPC mobilization was also measured. Results. Circulating EPC count in amlodipine- and perindopril-treated rats peaked at day 7, to an obvious higher level than the control group peak which was reached earlier (at day 5). Rats treated with amlodipine showed improved postischemia neovascularization and cardiac function, together with reduced cardiac remodeling, decreased interstitial fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Amlodipine treatment also increased cardiac SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and gave rise to activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling in bone marrow. Conclusions. Amlodipine promotes neovascularization by improving EPC mobilization from bone marrow in diabetic rats after AMI, and activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling may in part contribute to this. PMID:27243031

  16. Curcuma oil: reduces early accumulation of oxidative product and is anti-apoptogenic in transient focal ischemia in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Priyanka; Dohare, Preeti; Varma, Saurabh; Ray, Aparajita; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, N R; Jaganathanan, N R; Ray, Madhur

    2008-09-01

    Turmeric is a source of numerous aromatic compounds isolated from powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. The constituents are present as volatile oil, the Curcuma oil (C.oil), semi-solid oleoresins and non-volatile compounds such as curcumin. A rapidly expanding body of data provides evidence of the anti-cancer action of Curcumin, and most importantly in the present context, its neuroprotective activity. Almost nothing is known about such activity of C.oil. We report that C.oil (500 mg Kg(-1) i.p.) 15 min before 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 24 h reflow in rats significantly diminished infarct volume, improved neurological deficit and counteracted oxidative stress. The percent ischemic lesion volume on diffusion-weighted imaging was significantly attenuated. Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite levels, caspase-3 activities leading to delayed neuronal death were significantly inhibited after treatment with C.oil. These results suggest that the neuroprotective activity of C.oil against cerebral ischemia is associated with its antioxidant activities and further; there is attenuation of delayed neuronal death via a caspase-dependent pathway. C.oil appears to be a promising agent not only for the treatment of cerebral stroke, but also for the treatment of other disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:17955367

  17. Improvement in Regional CBF by L-Serine Contributes to Its Neuroprotective Effect in Rats after Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zheng-Lin; Wang, Guo-Hua; Sun, Li; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Han, Le-Yang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-serine, permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery while monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF). Rats were divided into control and L-serine-treated groups after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neurological deficit score and brain infarct volume were assessed. Nissl staining was used to quantify the cortical injury. L-serine and D-serine levels in the ischemic cortex were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. We found that L-serine treatment: 1) reduced the neurological deficit score, infarct volume and cortical neuron loss in a dose-dependent manner; 2) improved CBF in the cortex, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin while the alleviation of both neurological deficit score and infarct volume was blocked; and 3) increased the amount of L-serine and D-serine in the cortex, and inhibition of the conversion of L-serine into D-serine by aminooxyacetic acid did not affect the reduction of neurological deficit score and infarct volume by L-serine. In conclusion, improvement in regional CBF by L-serine may contribute to its neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, potentially through vasodilation which is mediated by the small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels on the cerebral blood vessel endothelium. PMID:23825613

  18. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26544861

  19. Luteolin Exerts Cardioprotective Effects through Improving Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Rats during Ischemia/Reperfusion In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nai, Changsheng; Xuan, Haochen; Zhang, Yingying; Shen, Mengxiao; Xu, Tongda; Pan, Defeng; Zhang, Congwei; Zhang, Yanbin; Li, Dongye

    2015-01-01

    The flavonoid luteolin exists in many types of fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Our previous studies have demonstrated that luteolin reduced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vitro, which was related with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) activity. However, the effects of luteolin on SERCA2a activity during I/R in vivo remain unclear. To investigate whether luteolin exerts cardioprotective effects and to monitor changes in SERCA2a expression and activity levels in vivo during I/R, we created a myocardial I/R rat model by ligating the coronary artery. We demonstrated that luteolin could reduce the myocardial infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase release, and apoptosis during I/R injury in vivo. Furthermore, we found that luteolin inhibited the I/R-induced decrease in SERCA2a activity in vivo. However, neither I/R nor luteolin altered SERCA2a expression levels in myocardiocytes. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway played a vital role in this mechanism. In conclusion, the present study has confirmed for the first time that luteolin yields cardioprotective effects against I/R injury by inhibiting the I/R-induced decrease in SERCA2a activity partially via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vivo, independent of SERCA2a protein level regulation. SERCA2a activity presents a novel biomarker to assess the progress of I/R injury in experimental research and clinical applications. PMID:26681967

  20. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3-mediated programmed cell necrosis in rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    DONG, YANRU; BAO, CUIFEN; YU, JINGWEI; LIU, XIA

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) were investigated following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham operation group, model group and inhibitor group. The model group and inhibitor group were further divided into 4 subgroups of 6, 12, 24 and 72 h following CIRI. Using right middle cerebral artery embolization, the CIRI model was generated. To confirm that the CIRI model was established, neurological scores, TTC staining and brain water content measurements were conducted. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were conducted to investigate the expression of TNFR1 and RIP3 in the cerebral cortex. It was observed that nerve cell necrosis occurred following 6 h of CIRI. The appearance of necrotic cells was gradually increased with increasing CIRI duration. TNFR1 and RIP3 were positively expressed following 6 h of CIRI. With increasing durations of CIRI, the protein expression levels of TNFR1 and RIP3 were significantly increased. Pre-administration with Z-VAD-FMK (zVAD) significantly increased the protein level of RIP3, however, had no effect on the levels of TNFR1, and was accompanied by a reduction in necrosis. In conclusion, RIP3-mediated cell necrosis was enhanced by caspase blockade zVAD and the function of zVAD was independent of TNFR1 signaling following IR. PMID:27220678

  1. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia.

  2. Protective effects of p-nitro caffeic acid phenethyl ester on acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    DU, QIN; HAO, CHUNZHI; GOU, JING; LI, XIAOLI; ZOU, KAILI; HE, XIAOYAN; LI, ZHUBO

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) causes widespread cardiomyocyte dysfunction, including apoptosis and necrosis. The present study aimed to investigate the possible cardioprotective effects of p-nitro caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE-NO2) on myocardial IR-induced injury in vivo. To generate a rat model of myocardial IR, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. The rats were administered either the sham treatment (the sham and IR control groups) or the therapeutic agents [the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and CAPE-NO2 groups] 10 min prior to the occlusion. Myocardial IR-induced injury is characterized by: A significant increase in the levels of myocardial enzymes, including creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase; a marked increase in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression levels, lipid peroxidation products and inflammatory mediators; and a significant decrease in myocardial antioxidants, including catalase, total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In the present study, pretreatment with CAPE-NO2 significantly ameliorated these changes, and decreased the infarct size, as compared with the IR control group (10.32±3.8 vs. 35.65±5.4%). Furthermore, western blotting demonstrated that pretreatment with CAPE-NO2 downregulated the myocardial IR-induced protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), cleaved caspase-3, P38 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CAPE-NO2 also upregulated the myocardial IR-induced expression levels of Bcl-2, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, phosphorylated Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that CAPE-NO2 demonstrated improved cardioprotective effects, as compared with CAPE; therefore, CAPE-NO2 may represent a novel approach to pharmacological cardioprotection. PMID:27073461

  3. Potential neuroprotection of protodioscin against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through intervening inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Xue, Xuanji; Xian, Liang; Guo, Zengjun; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the current research is to investigate the cerebral-protection of protodioscin on a transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model and to explore its possible underlying mechanisms. The rats were preconditioned with protodioscin at the doses of 25 and 50mgkg(-1) prior to surgery. Then the animals were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using an intraluminal method by inserting a thread (90min surgery). After the blood flow was restored in 24h via withdrawing the thread, some representative indicators for the cerebral injury were evaluated by various methods including TTC-staining, TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. As compared with the operated rats without drug intervening, treatment with protodioscin apparently lowered the death rate and improved motor coordination abilities through reducing the deficit scores and cerebral infarct volume. What's more, an apparent decrease in neuron apoptosis detected in hippocampus CA1 and cortex of the ipsilateral hemisphere might attribute to alleviate the increase in Caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Meanwhile, concentrations of several main pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in the serum were also significantly suppressed. Finally, the NF-κB and IκBa protein expressions in the cytoplasm of right injured brain were remarkably up-regulated, while NF-κB in nucleus was down-regulated. Therefore, these observed findings demonstrated that protodioscin appeared to reveal potential neuroprotection against the I/R injury due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis properties. This therapeutic effect was probably mediated by the inactivation of NF-κB signal pathways. PMID:27343977

  4. Helium preconditioning protects the brain against hypoxia/ischemia injury via improving the neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Peixi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wenwu; Yin, Na

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether helium preconditioning (He-PC) is able to exert neuroprotective effects via improving focal neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury model. Seven day old rat pups were divided into control group, HI group and He-PC group. HI was induced by exposure to 8% oxygen for 90min one day after preconditioning with 70% helium-30% oxygen for three 5-min periods. At 3 and 7 days, the brain was collected for the detection of inflammation related factors (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-10) and growth/neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]); at 7 days, neurobehaviors were evaluated, and the brain was collected for the detection of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) by PCR, protein expression of angiogenesis related molecules (VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1) by Western blotting and microvessel density (MCD) by immunohistochemistry for vWF. Results showed He-PC was able to reduce TNF-α and IL-1β, further increase IL-10, BDNF, bFGF and NGF, elevate the mRNA expression of VEGF and Ang-1, increase the protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1, promote angiogenesis and improve neurobehaviors as compared to HI group. These findings suggest that He-PC may improve the post-stroke neurovascular niche to exert neuroprotective effects on neonatal HI brain injury. PMID:27515290

  5. CD47 Blockade Reduces Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Improves Survival in a Rat Liver Transplantation Model

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jianluo; Manning, Pamela T.; Hiebsch, Ronald R.; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Upadhya, Gundumi A.; Frazier, William A.; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Lin, Yiing; Chapman, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains the standard treatment option for nonresponsive liver failure. Because ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is an important impediment to the success of OLT, new therapeutic strategies are needed to reduce IRI. We investigated whether blocking the CD47/thrombospondin-1 inhibitory action on nitric oxide signaling with a monoclonal antibody specific to CD47 (CD47mAb400) would reduce IRI in liver grafts. Syngeneic OLT was performed with Lewis rats. Control immunoglobulin G or CD47mAb400 was administered to the donor organ at procurement or to both the organ and the recipient at the time of transplant. Serum transaminases, histological changes of the liver, and animal survival were assessed. Oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular damage were also quantified. A significant survival benefit was not achieved when CD47mAb400 was administered to the donor alone. However, CD47mAb400 administration to both the donor and the recipient increased animal survival afterward. The CD47mAb400-treated group showed lower serum transaminases, bilirubin, oxidative stress, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining, caspase-3 activity, and proinflammatory cytokine expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. Thus, CD47 blockade with CD47mAb400 administered both to the donor and the recipient reduced liver graft IRI in a rat liver transplantation model. This may translate to decreased liver dysfunction and increased survival of liver transplant recipients. PMID:25482981

  6. Renoprotective effect of a combination of garlic and telmisartan against ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sousou Ibrahim; Alhusseini, Naglaa Fathy; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Idris, Reham Abd El-Satar; Hasan, Rehab Abdallah

    2016-09-01

    Obesity enhances the frequency and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Telmisartan pre-treatment was used experimentally in the amelioration of ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding its beneficial effects on AKI in obese animals. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore the protective effects of garlic and/or telmisartan against renal damage induced by unilateral IR in obese rats. Meloxicam was used as a standard anti-inflammatory agent. Prophylactic oral administration of meloxicam (3 mg kg(-1)), garlic (500 mg kg(-1)) and/or telmisartan (5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) for 4 wk protected against renal function deterioration induced by IR in obese rats. Both doses of telmisartan significantly reduced serum total cholesterol and triacyglycerol levels as well as peri-renal adipocytes size and renal fibrosis. Renal nuclear factor-kappa B immunoreactivity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha content as well as interleukin-10, adiponectin receptor 1 and macrophages (M1, M2) polarization markers (CD11c, CD206) mRNA expressions were down-regulated in ischemic kidney tissues and white adipose tissues around them by all treatments. Moreover, garlic, telmisartan and their combinations significantly suppressed oxidative stress in renal ischemic tissues. Histological picture was also improved by these treatments. Interestingly, the combinations provided a greater protection than their monotherapy in a dose-dependent manner. We suppose that this combination may be a promising prophylactic regimen for managing AKI in case of obesity. Thus, future experimental and clinical large-scale studies are necessary.

  7. RP105 protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via suppressing TLR4 signaling pathways in rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jian; Dong, Wusong; Li, Song; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

    2016-04-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury severely impacts the postoperative survival rate of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Radioprotective 105 kDa protein (RP105) is a regulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an inflammatory factor whose functions have been reported in myocardial I/R injury. To investigate the roles of RP105 in mediating myocardial I/R injury, we overexpressed RP105 by injecting its adenovirus vectors, and induced myocardial I/R injury rat model in this study. Myocardial structure injuries of rat hearts were examined by hematoxylin eosin staining, and myocardial infarct area was calculated after Evans blue and triphenyltetrazolium chloride dual staining. Expression changes of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in myocardia were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Amount changes of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that RP105 attenuated myocardial injuries and effectively reduced myocardial infarct area after I/R (P<0.05). RP105 was also proved to significantly inhibit TLR4 and downstream inflammatory factors MyD88, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-6 (P<0.05), whose expression levels were up-regulated by I/R induction. These results indicated that RP105 could protect against myocardial I/R injury via suppressing inflammatory responses mediated by TLR4 signaling pathways. This study revealed the anti-inflammatory roles of RP105 and its potential in preventing and treating myocardial I/R injury.

  8. Helium preconditioning protects the brain against hypoxia/ischemia injury via improving the neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Peixi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wenwu; Yin, Na

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether helium preconditioning (He-PC) is able to exert neuroprotective effects via improving focal neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury model. Seven day old rat pups were divided into control group, HI group and He-PC group. HI was induced by exposure to 8% oxygen for 90min one day after preconditioning with 70% helium-30% oxygen for three 5-min periods. At 3 and 7 days, the brain was collected for the detection of inflammation related factors (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-10) and growth/neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]); at 7 days, neurobehaviors were evaluated, and the brain was collected for the detection of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) by PCR, protein expression of angiogenesis related molecules (VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1) by Western blotting and microvessel density (MCD) by immunohistochemistry for vWF. Results showed He-PC was able to reduce TNF-α and IL-1β, further increase IL-10, BDNF, bFGF and NGF, elevate the mRNA expression of VEGF and Ang-1, increase the protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1, promote angiogenesis and improve neurobehaviors as compared to HI group. These findings suggest that He-PC may improve the post-stroke neurovascular niche to exert neuroprotective effects on neonatal HI brain injury.

  9. Protection of rat liver against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by a novel selenocysteine-containing 7-mer peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qianqian; Pan, Yu; Cheng, Yupeng; Li, Huiling; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury causes acute organ damage or dysfunction, and remains a problem for liver transplantation. In the I-R phase, the generation of reactive oxygen species aggravates the injury. In the current study, a novel selenocysteine-containing 7-mer peptide (H-Arg-Sec-Gly-Arg-Asn-Ala-Gln-OH) was constructed to imitate the active site of an antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The 7-mer peptide which has a lower molecular weight, and improved water-solubility, higher stability and improved cell membrane permeability compared with other GPX mimics. Its GPX activity reached 13 U/µmol, which was 13 times that of ebselen (a representative GPX mimic). The effect of this GPX mimic on I-R injury of the liver was assessed in rats. The 7-mer peptide significantly inhibited the increase in serum hepatic amino-transferases, tissue malondialdehyde, nitric oxide contents, myeloperoxidase activity and decrease of GPX activity compared with I-R tissue. Following treatment with the 7-mer peptide, the expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was significantly upregulated at the mRNA and protein level compared with the I-R group, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. By contrast, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) was downregulated by the 7-mer peptide compared the I-R group. Histological and ultrastructural changes of the rat liver tissue were also compared among the experimental groups. The results of the current study suggest that the 7-mer peptide protected the liver against hepatic I-R injury via suppression of oxygen-derived free radicals and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, which are involved in the apoptosis of liver cells. The findings of the present study will further the investigation of the 7-mer peptide as an effective therapeutic agent in hepatic I-R injury. PMID:27431272

  10. Renoprotective effect of a combination of garlic and telmisartan against ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sousou Ibrahim; Alhusseini, Naglaa Fathy; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Idris, Reham Abd El-Satar; Hasan, Rehab Abdallah

    2016-09-01

    Obesity enhances the frequency and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Telmisartan pre-treatment was used experimentally in the amelioration of ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding its beneficial effects on AKI in obese animals. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore the protective effects of garlic and/or telmisartan against renal damage induced by unilateral IR in obese rats. Meloxicam was used as a standard anti-inflammatory agent. Prophylactic oral administration of meloxicam (3 mg kg(-1)), garlic (500 mg kg(-1)) and/or telmisartan (5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) for 4 wk protected against renal function deterioration induced by IR in obese rats. Both doses of telmisartan significantly reduced serum total cholesterol and triacyglycerol levels as well as peri-renal adipocytes size and renal fibrosis. Renal nuclear factor-kappa B immunoreactivity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha content as well as interleukin-10, adiponectin receptor 1 and macrophages (M1, M2) polarization markers (CD11c, CD206) mRNA expressions were down-regulated in ischemic kidney tissues and white adipose tissues around them by all treatments. Moreover, garlic, telmisartan and their combinations significantly suppressed oxidative stress in renal ischemic tissues. Histological picture was also improved by these treatments. Interestingly, the combinations provided a greater protection than their monotherapy in a dose-dependent manner. We suppose that this combination may be a promising prophylactic regimen for managing AKI in case of obesity. Thus, future experimental and clinical large-scale studies are necessary. PMID:27405440

  11. A comparison of the effects of epidural and spinal anesthesia with ischemia-reperfusion injury on the rat transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Acar, Yusuf; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Firat, Ugur; Selcuk, Caferi Tayyar; Kapi, Emin; Isik, Fatma Birgul; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Celik, Feyzi; Bozarslan, Beri Hocaoglu

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of spinal and epidural anesthesia on a rat transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap ischemia-reperfusion injury model.Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: group I (n = 10), sham group; group II (n = 10), control group; group III (n = 10), epidural group; and group IV (n = 10), spinal group. After the elevation of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps, all groups except for the sham group were subjected to normothermic no-flow ischemia for 4 hours, followed by a reperfusion period of 2 hours. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histopathological evaluations were performed on tissue samples.Although there was no significant difference concerning the malonyldialdehyde, nitric oxide, and paraoxonase levels in the spinal and epidural groups, the total antioxidant state levels were significantly increased, and the total oxidative stress levels were significantly decreased in the epidural group in comparison to the spinal group. The pathological evaluation showed that findings related to inflammation, nuclear change rates and hyalinization were significantly higher in the spinal group compared with the epidural group.Epidural anesthesia can be considered as a more suitable method that enables a decrease in ischemia-reperfusion injuries in the muscle flaps.

  12. The role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats involves regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Shilei; Li, Yu; Wang, Peng; Li, Shuhong; Guo, Yunliang; Yao, Ruyong

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) maintains intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis by transporting Ca2+ from the cell cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix and is important for shaping Ca2+ signals and the activation of programmed cell death. Inhibition of MCU by ruthenium red (RR) or Ru360 has previously been reported to protect against neuronal death. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanisms underlying the effects of MCU activity in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; sham, I/R, I/R + RR and I/R + spermine (Sper) and were subjected to reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h of reperfusion. A bolus injection of RR administered 30 min prior to ischemia was found to significantly decrease the total infarct volume and reduce neuronal damage and cell apoptosis compared with ischemia/reperfusion values. However, treatment with Sper, an activator of the MCU, increased the injury induced by I/R. Analysis of energy metabolism revealed that I/R induced progressive inhibition of complexes I‑IV of the electron transport chain, decreased ATP production, dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment with RR ameliorated the condition, while spermine had the opposite effect. In conclusion, blocking MCU was demonstrated to exert protective effects against I/R injury and this process may be mediated by the prevention of energy failure.

  13. Increase of 20-HETE synthase after brain ischemia in rats revealed by PET study with 11C-labeled 20-HETE synthase-specific inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Marumo, Toshiyuki; Shirakami, Keiko; Mori, Tomoko; Doi, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Nakazato, Atsuro; Ago, Yukio; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Onoe, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an arachidonic acid metabolite known to be produced after cerebral ischemia, has been implicated in ischemic and reperfusion injury by mediating vasoconstriction. To develop a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for 20-HETE synthase imaging, which might be useful for monitoring vasoconstrictive processes in patients with brain ischemia, we synthesized a 11C-labeled specific 20-HETE synthase inhibitor, N′(4-dimethylaminohexyloxy)phenyl imidazole ([11C]TROA). Autoradiographic study showed that [11C]TROA has high-specific binding in the kidney and liver consistent with the previously reported distribution of 20-HETE synthase. Using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, PET study showed significant increases in the binding of [11C]TROA in the ipsilateral hemisphere of rat brains after 7 and 10 days, which was blocked by co-injection of excess amounts of TROA (10 mg/kg). The increased [11C]TROA binding on the ipsilateral side returned to basal levels within 14 days. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR revealed that increased expression of 20-HETE synthase was only shown on the ipsilateral side on day 7. These results indicate that [11C]TROA might be a useful PET probe for imaging of 20-HETE synthase in patients with cerebral ischemia. PMID:22669478

  14. No improvement of functional and histological outcome after application of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 agonist CHPG in a model of endothelin-1-induced focal ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Riek-Burchardt, M; Henrich-Noack, P; Reymann, K G

    2007-04-01

    The role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in neurodegeneration is as yet unclear as mGluR1/5 antagonists and agonists yielded contradictory effects in different disease models. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective potency of the selective mGluR5 agonist, (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG), in endothelin-1(ET-1)-induced focal ischemia in rats. In addition to the effect of CHPG on the histologically defined infarct size, we studied its influence on sensorimotor impairments in the ladder rung walking test at late time points up to 4 weeks after the ischemic insult. Rats were treated i.c.v. with an injection of 1mM CHPG beginning 10min after the application of ET-1. Histological analyses 4 weeks after ET-1-induced ischemia demonstrated only a small, insignificant reduction in infarct size after CHPG application. In accordance with this result, there were no significant effects of the used CHPG concentration on sensorimotor impairments in the ladder rung walking test. In conclusion, our data point to the restricted value of CHPG as a neuroprotectant after transient focal ischemia and to the importance of evaluating neuroprotective effects at late post-ischemic time points. PMID:17239461

  15. Acetylcholine- and sodium hydrosulfide-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization in cerebral vessels of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Chen, Zhi-Wu; He, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and the role of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the cerebral vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) rats. CIR was induced by occlusion of bilateral carotid and vertebral arteries. Isolated arterial segments from the cerebral basilar (CBA) and middle artery (MCA) of CIR rats were studied in a pressurized chamber. Transmembrane potential was recorded using glass microelectrodes to evaluate hyperpolarization. In the CIR CBAs and MCAs preconstricted by 30 mM KCl, ACh induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization that were partially attenuated by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 30 μM) and l-NAME plus indomethacin (10 μM). The residual responses were abolished by the H2S inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PPG, 100 μM). The H2S donor NaHS and l-Cys, the substrate of endogenous H2S synthase, elicited similar responses to ACh and was inhibited by tetraethylamonine (1 mM) or PPG. ACh induces EDHF-mediated vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization in rat cerebral arteries. These responses are up-regulated by ischemia-reperfusion while NO-mediated responses are down-regulated. Further, the ACh-induced, EDHF-mediated relaxation, and hyperpolarization and the inhibition of these responses are similar to the H2S-induced responses, suggesting that H2S is a possible candidate for EDHF in rat cerebral vessels.

  16. Vasopressin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury via reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Afshin; Sadr, Seyed Shahabeddin; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Azizi, Yaser; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Mobarra, Naser; Tavakoli, Asadollah; Imani, AliReza

    2015-08-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and oxidative stress in the cardioprotective effect of vasopressin (AVP) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Anesthetized male wistar rats were subjected to regional 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion and randomly divided into nine groups: (1) Control; saline was administered intravenously before ischemia, (2) vasopressin was administrated 10 min prior to ischemia, (3, 4) Atractyloside as MPTP opener, was injected 5 min prior to reperfusion without and with vasopressin, (5, 6) Cyclosporine A as a MPTP closer, was injected 5 min prior to reperfusion without and with vasopressin, (7) mitochondria were isolated from control group and CaCl2 was added as MPTP opener and swelling inducer, (8) isolated mitochondria from Control hearts was incubated with Cyclosporine A before adding the CaCl2 (9) CaCl2 was added to isolated mitochondria from vasopressin group. Infusion of vasopressin decreased infarct size (18.6±1.7% vs. control group 37.6±2.4%), biochemical parameters [LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase), CK-MB (Creatine Kinase-MB) and MDA (Malondialdehyde) plasma levels, PAB (Prooxidant-antioxidant balance)] compared to control group. Atactyloside suppressed the cardioprotective effect of vasopressin (32.5±1.9% vs. 18.6±1.7%) but administration of the Cyclosporine A without and with vasopressin significantly reduced infarct size to 17.7±4% (P<0.001) and 22.7±3% (P<0.01) respectively, vs. 37.6±2.4% in control group. Also, vasopressin, similar to Cyclosporine A, led to decrease in CaCl2-induced swelling. It seems that vasopressin through antioxidant effect and MPTP inhibition has created a cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injuries.

  17. Evaluation of light scattering and absorption properties of in vivo rat liver using a single-reflectance fiber probe during preischemia, ischemia-reperfusion, and postmortem.

    PubMed

    Akter, Sharmin; Maejima, Satoshi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Hinoki, Akinari; Aosasa, Suefumi; Yamamoto, Junji; Nishidate, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been extensively used for characterization of biological tissues as a noninvasive optical technique to evaluate the optical properties of tissue. We investigated a method for evaluating the reduced scattering coefficient μ(s)', the absorption coefficient μ(a), the tissue oxygen saturation StO₂, and the reduction of heme aa3 in cytochrome c oxidase CcO of in vivo liver tissue using a single-reflectance fiber probe with two source-collector geometries. We performed in vivo recordings of diffuse reflectance spectra for exposed rat liver during the ischemia-reperfusion induced by the hepatic portal (hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct) occlusion. The time courses of μ a at 500, 530, 570, and 584 nm indicated the hemodynamic change in liver tissue as well as StO₂. Significant increase in μ(a)(605)/μ(a)(620) during ischemia and after euthanasia induced by nitrogen breathing was observed, which indicates the reduction of heme aa3, representing a sign of mitochondrial energy failure. The time courses of μ(s)' at 500, 530, 570, and 584 nm were well correlated with those of μ(a), which also reflect the scattering by red blood cells. On the other hand, at 700 and 800 nm, a temporary increase in μ(s)' and an irreversible decrease in μ(s)' were observed during ischemia-reperfusion and after euthanasia induced by nitrogen breathing, respectively. The change in μ(s)' in the near-infrared wavelength region during ischemia is indicative of the morphological changes in the cellular and subcellular structures induced by the ischemia, whereas that after euthanasia implies the hepatocyte vacuolation. The results of the present study indicate the potential application of the current DRS system for evaluating the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo liver tissue.

  18. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection. PMID:26982035

  19. Effect of picroside II on erythrocyte deformability and lipid peroxidation in rats subjected to hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Çomu, Faruk Metin; Kılıç, Yiğit; Özer, Abdullah; Kirişçi, Mehmet; Dursun, Ali Doğan; Tatar, Tolga; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Kartal, Hakan; Küçük, Ayşegül; Boyunağa, Hakan; Arslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemia reperfusion injury (I/R) in hind limb is a frequent and important clinical phenomenon. Many structural and functional damages are observed in cells and tissues in these kinds of injuries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of picroside II on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability during I/R in rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups – each containing six animals (sham, I/R, sham + picroside II, and I/R + picroside II). The infrarenal section of the abdominal aorta was occluded with an atraumatic microvascular clamp in I/R groups. The clamp was removed after 120 minutes and reperfusion was provided for a further 120 minutes. Picroside II (10 mg·kg−1) was administered intraperitoneally to the animals in the appropriate groups (sham + picroside II, I/R + picroside II groups). All rats were euthanized by intraperitoneal administration of ketamine (100 mg·kg−1) and taking blood from the abdominal aorta. Erythrocytes were extracted from heparinized complete blood samples. Buffer (PT) and then erythrocytes (PE) were passed through the filtration system and the changes in pressure were measured to investigate the role of serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability index. Results Deformability index was significantly increased in the I/R group compared to groups sham, sham + picroside-II, and I/R + picroside-II (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels were evaluated. MDA level and NO activity were also higher in the I/R group than in the other groups. Picroside II treatment before hind limb I/R prevented these changes. Conclusion These results support that deformability of erythrocytes is decreased in I/R injury and picroside II plays a critical role to prevent these alterations. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to evaluate and clarify the molecular mechanisms of action and clinical importance of these

  20. Caffeic acid phenethyl amide ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by various mechanisms including its antioxidant effect. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of a CAPE analog with more structural stability in plasma, caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA), on I/R injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by a single intravenous injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. To produce the I/R injury, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 45 minutes, followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. CAPA was pretreated intraperitoneally 30 minutes before reperfusion. An analog devoid of the antioxidant property of CAPA, dimethoxyl CAPA (dmCAPA), and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester [l-NAME]) were used to evaluate the mechanism involved in the reduction of the infarct size following CAPA-treatment. Finally, the cardioprotective effect of chronic treatment of CAPA was analyzed in diabetic rats. Results Compared to the control group, CAPA administration (3 and 15 mg/kg) significantly reduced the myocardial infarct size after I/R, while dmCAPA (15 mg/kg) had no cardioprotective effect. Interestingly, pretreatment with a NOS inhibitor, (l-NAME, 3 mg/kg) eliminated the effect of CAPA on myocardial infarction. Additionally, a 4-week CAPA treatment (1 mg/kg, orally, once daily) started 4 weeks after STZ-induction could effectively decrease the infarct size and ameliorate the cardiac dysfunction by pressure-volume loop analysis in STZ-induced diabetic animals. Conclusions CAPA, which is structurally similar to CAPE, exerts cardioprotective activity in I/R injury through its antioxidant property and by preserving nitric oxide levels. On the other hand, chronic CAPA treatment could also ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in diabetic animals. PMID:24923878