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Sample records for rat rubrospinal tract

  1. Lewis, Fischer 344, and Sprague-Dawley Rats Display Differences in Lipid Peroxidation, Motor Recovery, and Rubrospinal Tract Preservation after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Humberto; Ramirez, Manuel; Garcia, Elisa; Martiñón, Susana; Cruz, Yolanda; Campos, Maria G.; Ibarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The rat is the most common animal model for the preclinical validation of neuroprotective therapies in spinal cord injury (SCI). Lipid peroxidation (LP) is a hallmark of the damage triggered after SCI. Free radicals react with fatty acids causing cellular and membrane disruption. LP accounts for a considerable amount of neuronal cell death after SCI. To better understand the implications of inbred and outbred rat strain selection on preclinical SCI research, we evaluated LP after laminectomy sham surgery and a severe contusion of the T9 spinal cord in female Sprague-Dawley (SPD), Lewis (LEW), and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Further analysis included locomotor recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and retrograde rubrospinal tract tracing. LEW had the highest levels of LP products 72 h after sham surgery and SCI, significantly different from both F344 and SPD. SPD rats had the fastest functional recovery and highest BBB scores; these were not significantly different to F344. However, LEW rats achieved the lowest BBB scores throughout the 2-month follow-up, yielding significant differences when compared to SPD and F344. To see if the improvement in locomotion was secondary to an increase in axon survival, we evaluated rubrospinal neurons (RSNs) via retrograde labeling of the rubrospinal tract and quantified cells at the red nuclei. The highest numbers of RSNs were observed in SPD rats then F344; the lowest counts were seen in LEW rats. The BBB scores significantly correlated with the amount of positively stained RSN in the red nuclei. It is critical to identify interstrain variations as a potential confound in preclinical research. Multi-strain validation of neuroprotective therapies may increase chances of successful translation. PMID:26029162

  2. Preferential and Bidirectional Labeling of the Rubrospinal Tract with Adenovirus-GFP for Monitoring Normal and Injured Axons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Smith, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The rodent rubrospinal tract (RST) has been studied extensively to investigate regeneration and remodeling of central nervous system (CNS) axons. Currently no retrograde tracers can specifically label rubrospinal axons and neurons (RSNs). The RST can be anterogradely labeled by injecting tracers into the red nucleus (RN), but accurately locating the RN is a technical challenge. Here we developed a recombinant adenovirus carrying a green fluorescent protein reporter gene (Adv-GFP) which can preferentially, intensely, and bi-directionally label the RST. When Adv-GFP was injected into the second lumbar spinal cord, the GFP was specifically transported throughout the entire RST, with peak labeling seen at 2 weeks post-injection. When Adv-GFP was injected directly into the RN, GFP was anterogradely transported throughout the RST. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), injection of Adv-GFP resulted in visualization of GFP in transected, spared, or sprouted RST axons bi-directionally. Thus Adv-GFP could be used as a novel tool for monitoring and evaluating strategies designed to maximize RST axonal regeneration and remodeling following SCI. PMID:21299337

  3. Treatment of chronically injured spinal cord with neurotrophic factors stimulates betaII-tubulin and GAP-43 expression in rubrospinal tract neurons.

    PubMed

    Storer, Paul D; Dolbeare, Dirk; Houle, John D

    2003-11-15

    Exogenous neurotrophic factors provided at a spinal cord injury site promote regeneration of chronically injured rubrospinal tract (RST) neurons into a peripheral nerve graft. The present study tested whether the response to neurotrophins is associated with changes in the expression of two regeneration-associated genes, betaII-tubulin and growth-associated protein (GAP)-43. Adult female rats were subjected to a right full hemisection lesion via aspiration of the C3 spinal cord. A second aspiration lesion was made 4 weeks later and gel foam saturated in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was applied to the lesion site for 60 min. Using in situ hybridization, RST neurons were examined for changes in mRNA levels of betaII-tubulin and GAP-43 at 1, 3, and 7 days after treatment. Based on analysis of gene expression in single cells, there was no effect of BDNF treatment on either betaII-tubulin or GAP-43 mRNA expression at any time point. betaII-Tubulin mRNA levels were enhanced significantly at 1 and 3 days in animals treated with GDNF relative to levels in animals treated with PBS. Treatment with GDNF did not affect GAP-43 mRNA levels at 1 and 3 days, but at 7 days there was a significant increase in mRNA expression. Interestingly, 7 days after GDNF treatment, the mean cell size of chronically injured RST neurons was increased significantly. Although GDNF and BDNF both promote axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons, only GDNF treatment is associated with upregulation of betaII-tubulin or GAP-43 mRNA. It is not clear from the present study how exogenous BDNF stimulates regrowth of injured axons.

  4. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Preston T.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  5. The role of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus in the switching of descending influences to motor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fanardzhyan, V V; Papoyan, E V; Pogosyan, V I; Gevorkyan, O V

    2002-01-01

    Studies on rats showed that the facilitating influence of preliminary transection of the rubrospinal tract on recovery of motor activity and operant reflexes disrupted by lesioning of the red nucleus was more apparent when lesioning was chemical than when lesioning was electrolytic. This is due to the survival of cerebellothalamic fibers to the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus after chemical lesioning of the red nucleus with quinolinic acid. It was also shown that preliminary lesioning of the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus strongly hindered the switching of motor activity under the control of the corticospinal tract in rats subjected to section of the rubrospinal tract and lesioning of the red nucleus.

  6. The red nucleus and the rubrospinal projection in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-04-01

    We studied the organization and spinal projection of the mouse red nucleus with a range of techniques (Nissl stain, immunofluorescence, retrograde tracer injections into the spinal cord, anterograde tracer injections into the red nucleus, and in situ hybridization) and counted the number of neurons in the red nucleus (3,200.9 ± 230.8). We found that the rubrospinal neurons were mainly located in the parvicellular region of the red nucleus, more lateral in the rostral part and more medial in the caudal part. Labeled neurons were least common in the rostral and caudal most parts of the red nucleus. Neurons projecting to the cervical cord were predominantly dorsomedially placed and neurons projecting to the lumbar cord were predominantly ventrolaterally placed. Immunofluorescence staining with SMI-32 antibody showed that ~60% of SMI-32-positive neurons were cervical cord-projecting neurons and 24% were lumbar cord-projecting neurons. SMI-32-positive neurons were mainly located in the caudomedial part of the red nucleus. A study of vGluT2 expression showed that the number and location of glutamatergic neurons matched with those of the rubrospinal neurons. In the anterograde tracing experiments, rubrospinal fibers travelled in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus, between the lateral spinal nucleus and the calretinin-positive fibers of the lateral funiculus. Rubrospinal fibers terminated in contralateral laminae 5, 6, and the dorsal part of lamina 7 at all spinal cord levels. A few fibers could be seen next to the neurons in the dorsolateral part of lamina 9 at levels of C8-T1 (hand motor neurons) and L5-L6 (foot motor neurons), which is consistent with a view that rubrospinal fibers may play a role in distal limb movement in rodents.

  7. Autophagy Inhibition Favors Survival of Rubrospinal Neurons After Spinal Cord Hemisection.

    PubMed

    Bisicchia, Elisa; Latini, Laura; Cavallucci, Virve; Sasso, Valeria; Nicolin, Vanessa; Molinari, Marco; D'Amelio, Marcello; Viscomi, Maria Teresa

    2016-08-11

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are devastating conditions of the central nervous system (CNS) for which there are no restorative therapies. Neuronal death at the primary lesion site and in remote regions that are functionally connected to it is one of the major contributors to neurological deficits following SCI.Disruption of autophagic flux induces neuronal death in many CNS injuries, but its mechanism and relationship with remote cell death after SCI are unknown. We examined the function and effects of the modulation of autophagy on the fate of axotomized rubrospinal neurons in a rat model of spinal cord dorsal hemisection (SCH) at the cervical level. Following SCH, we observed an accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes (APs) in the axotomized neurons 1 and 5 days after injury. Furthermore, this accumulation was not attributed to greater initiation of autophagy but was caused by a decrease in AP clearance, as demonstrated by the build-up of p62, a widely used marker of the induction of autophagy. In axotomized rubrospinal neurons, the disruption of autophagic flux correlated strongly with remote neuronal death and worse functional recovery. Inhibition of AP biogenesis by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly attenuated remote degeneration and improved spontaneous functional recovery, consistent with the detrimental effects of autophagy in remote damage after SCH. Collectively, our results demonstrate that autophagic flux is blocked in axotomized neurons on SCI and that the inhibition of AP formation improves their survival. Thus, autophagy is a promising target for the development of therapeutic interventions in the treatment of SCIs.

  8. [Absorption of 249Bk from the gastrointestinal tract of rats].

    PubMed

    Zalikin, G A; Nisimov, P G

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel female rats a study was made of the absorption of 249Bk from the gastrointestinal tract after a single per os administration. The bulk of 249Bk (96 per cent) administered either intravenously or per os was mainly deposited in the skeleton and liver. The value of 249Bk absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by days 4 and 8 following administration was 0.05 per cent.

  9. Effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin A on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Beery, J T; Taylor, S L; Schlunz, L R; Freed, R C; Bergdoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was administered orally (15 micrograms) to two groups of rats. A marked immune reaction was evoked in the stomach and proximal small intestine of the first group. The second group of rats was used to study the absorptive fate and sites of action of orally administered SEA, utilizing immunoperoxidase staining. After oral dosing of the second group of rats. SEA-related immunoperoxidase staining was confined to: (i) neutrophils and macrophages, principally in the duodenum, and (ii) glomerular neutrophils and cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. Peroxidase staining of the kidney was noted within 15 min of exposure, indicating that SEA or some major postabsorption antigenic product can promptly pass through an intact gastrointestinal mucous membrane and become renally localized. Intestinal and renal detoxification and removal was indicated by an absence of detectable antigen in rats 180 min postexposure. Neuronal binding of SEA in the gastrointestinal tract was not demonstrable. Images PMID:6370862

  10. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  11. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    PubMed

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  12. Neurogenic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Sann, H; Dux, M; Schemann, M; Jancsó, G

    1996-11-29

    In contrast to the skin and some visceral organs the capability of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves of evoking an inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract is equivocal. We have therefore investigated the neurogenic plasma extravasation induced by local application of capsaicin to the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon of the rat. Permeable vessels were visualised histologically with the vascular labelling technique using colloidal silver. In the smooth muscle layer of the small intestine, capsaicin elicited a 3-fold increase in the density of labelled blood vessels (diameter, 7-35 microns). Significant capsaicin-evoked plasma extravasation was also observed in the submucosa of the jejunum and ileum, and in the basal layer of the jejunal mucosa. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was not noted in the stomach and the colon. The data suggest the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferents in inflammatory processes in the rat small intestine.

  13. Transport of nattokinase across the rat intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Misawa, S; Takeuchi, N; Kariya, K; Nishimuro, S

    1995-09-01

    Intraduodenal administration of nattokinase (NK) at a dose of 80 mg/kg, resulted in the degradation of fibrinogen in plasma suggesting transport of NK across the intestinal tract in normal rats. The action of NK on the cleavage of fibrinogen in the plasma from blood samples drawn at intervals after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting analysis with an anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody. The 270 kDa fragment carrying antigenic sites for the binding of the anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody appeared within 0.5 h and was then degraded gradually to a 105 kDa fragment via a 200 kDa fragment. This suggests that fibrinogen was degraded to a 105 kDa fragment via several intermediates (270 and 200 kDa). In parallel with the degradation process, plasma recalcification times were remarkably prolonged NK was also detected in the plasma from blood samples drawn 3 and 5 h after administration of the enzyme by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis with an anti-NK antibody. The results indicate that NK is absorbed from the rat intestinal tract and that NK cleaves fibrinogen in plasma after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme.

  14. Microbial Biogeography and Core Microbiota of the Rat Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongyao; Chen, Haiqin; Mao, Bingyong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    As a long-standing biomedical model, rats have been frequently used in studies exploring the correlations between gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition. Results showed that the community diversity increased from the upper to lower GI segments and that the stratification of microbial communities as well as shift of microbial metabolites were driven by biogeographic location. A greater proportion of lactate-producing bacteria (such as Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Streptococcus) were found in the stomach and small intestine, while anaerobic Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, fermenting carbohydrates and plant aromatic compounds, constituted the bulk of the large-intestinal core microbiota where topologically distinct co-occurrence networks were constructed for the adjacent luminal and mucosal compartments. When comparing the GI microbiota from different hosts, we found that the rat microbial biogeography might represent a new reference, distinct from other murine animals. Our study provides the first comprehensive characterization of the rat GI microbiota landscape for the research community, laying the foundation for better understanding and predicting the disease-related alterations in microbial communities. PMID:28374781

  15. Characterization of pruriceptive trigeminothalamic tract neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, Hannah R; Giesler, Glenn J

    2014-04-01

    Rodent models of facial itch and pain provide a valuable tool for distinguishing between behaviors related to each sensation. In rats, pruritogens applied to the face elicit scratching using the hindlimb while algogens elicit wiping using the forelimb. We wished to determine the role of trigeminothalamic tract (VTT) neurons in carrying information regarding facial itch and pain to the forebrain. We have characterized responses to facially applied pruritogens (serotonin, BAM8-22, chloroquine, histamine, capsaicin, and cowhage) and noxious stimuli in 104 VTT neurons recorded from anesthetized rats. Each VTT neuron had a mechanically sensitive cutaneous receptive field on the ipsilateral face. All pruriceptive VTT neurons also responded to noxious mechanical and/or thermal stimulation. Over half of VTT neurons responsive to noxious stimuli also responded to at least one pruritogen. Each tested pruritogen, with the exception of cowhage, produced an increase in discharge rate in a subset of VTT neurons. The response to each pruritogen was characterized, including maximum discharge rate, response duration, and spike timing dynamics. Pruriceptive VTT neurons were recorded from throughout superficial and deep layers of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and were shown to project via antidromic mapping to the ventroposterior medial nucleus or posterior thalamic nuclei. These results indicate that pruriceptive VTT neurons are a subset of polymodal nociceptive VTT neurons and characterize a system conducive to future experiments regarding the similarities and differences between facial itch and pain.

  16. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption.

  17. Fermentation of dietary fibre components in the rat intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Nyman, M; Asp, N G

    1982-05-01

    1. The fermentative breakdown of dietary fibre from various sources in the intestinal tract was studied using rat balance experiments and gas-liquid chromatograhic analysis of dietary fibre monomers in feed and faces. 2. On a basal diet with 690 g maize starch/kg but no added fibre, small but detectable amounts of polymeric glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, galactose, mannose and uronic acids, i.e. sugars occurring in dietary fibre, were excreted in faeces. 3. Dietary fibre in wheat bran was rather resistant to fermentation; 63% was recovered in the faeces. Guar gum, on the other hand, was almost completely fermented, whereas 19 and 25% of the uronic acids in low and high methoxylated pectin respectively, were excreted in faeces. The various constituents of sugar-beet dietary fibre (approximately equal amounts of arabinose-based hemicellulose, pectin and non-starch glucan (cellulose)) showed quite variable availability for micro-organisms in that 6-12% of the arabinose, 17-25% of the uronic acids, and 52-58% of the cellulose were recovered in the faeces. 4. Faecal nitrogen excretion increased on addition of any one of the dietary fibre preparations studied, resulting in decreased true and apparent protein digestibility values. 5. The faecal dry weight increment was most pronounced when feeding bran and could then almost be accounted for by the remaining fibre and by protein. The less-prominent bulking effect of guar gum and pectins, that were much more extensively fermented, could be only partly explained by dietary fibre and protein.

  18. Role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1989-09-01

    In order for the role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats to be clarified, this study investigated the effect of parotid-duct ligation on both amylase secretion from the parotid glands and pancreas into the gastro-intestinal tract and on starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal contents during feedings. In both diabetic rats and control rats, parotid-duct ligation reduced amylase activity in both the parotid glands during fasting and in the gastric contents after feeding. The amylase activity in the intestinal contents after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. Starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. The results suggest that most of the amylase activity in the gastric contents and a large part of the amylase activity in the intestinal contents are derived from the parotid glands, and that parotid amylase plays an important role in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

  19. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  20. Respiratory tract lung geometry and dosimetry model for male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2014-08-26

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague- Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  1. Selection of target mutation in rat gastrointestinal tract E. coli by minute dosage of enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Li, Ruichao; Liu, Lizhang; Guo, Jiubiao; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that bacterial resistance is selected within a mutation selection window of antibiotics. More recent studies showed that even extremely low concentration of antibiotic could select resistant bacteria in vitro. Yet little is known about the exact antibiotic concentration range that can effectively select for resistant organisms in animal gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, the effect of different dosages of enrofloxacin on resistance and mutation development in rat GI tract E. coli was investigated by determining the number of resistant E. coli recoverable from rat fecal samples. Our data showed that high dose antibiotic treatment could effectively eliminate E. coli with single gyrA mutation in the early course of treatment, yet the eradication effects diminished upon prolonged treatment. Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dose (1/10 and 1/100 of therapeutic doses) of enrofloxacin could effectively select for mutation in GI tract E. coli at the later course of enrofloxacin treatment and during the cessation periods. Surprisingly, very low dose of enrofloxacin (1/1000 therapeutic dose) could also select for mutation in GI tract E. coli at the later course of enrofloxacin treatment, only with slightly lower efficiency. No enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli could be selected at all test levels of enrofloxacin during long term treatment and the strength of antibiotic treatment does not alter the overall level of E. coli in rat GI tract. This study demonstrated that long term antibiotic treatment seems to be the major trigger for the development of target mutations in GI tract E. coli, which provided insight into the rational use of antibiotics in animal husbandry.

  2. Neurogenic period of ascending tract neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, K.N.; Beal, J.A.; Knight, D.S. )

    1990-02-01

    Although the neurogenic period for neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has been clearly established (Days 12 through 16 of gestation), it is not known when the neurogenesis of ascending tract neurons is completed within this period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the duration of the neurogenic period for projection neurons of the ascending tracts. To label neurons undergoing mitosis during this period, tritiated thymidine was administered to fetal rats on Embryonic (E) Days E13 through E16 of gestation. Ascending tract neurons of the lumbar cord were later (Postnatal Days 40-50) labeled in each animal with a retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, applied at the site of a hemisection at spinal cord segment C3. Ascending tract neurons which were undergoing mitosis in the upper lumbar cord were double labeled, i.e., labeled with both tritiated thymidine and Fluoro-Gold. On Day E13, 89-92% of the ascending tract neurons were double labeled; on Day E14, 35-37%; and on Day E15, 1-4%. Results showed, then, that some ascending tract neurons were double labeled through Day E15 and were, therefore, proliferating in the final one-third of the neurogenic period. Ascending tract neurons proliferating on Day E15 were confined to laminae III, IV, V, and X and the nucleus dorsalis. Long tract neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II), on the other hand, were found to have completed neurogenesis on Day E14 of gestation. Results of the present study show that spinal neurogenesis of ascending projection neurons continues throughout most of the neurogenic period and does not completely follow the well-established ventral to dorsal gradient.

  3. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R) stimulation delays rubrospinal mitochondrial-dependent degeneration and improves functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection by ERK1/2 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Latini, L; Bisicchia, E; Sasso, V; Chiurchiù, V; Cavallucci, V; Molinari, M; Maccarrone, M; Viscomi, M T

    2014-09-04

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition of CNS that often results in severe functional impairments for which there are no restorative therapies. As in other CNS injuries, in addition to the effects that are related to the primary site of damage, these impairments are caused by degeneration of distal regions that are connected functionally to the primary lesion site. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) counteracts this neurodegeneration, and pharmacological modulation of type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) is a promising therapeutic target for several CNS pathologies, including SCI. This study examined the effects of CB2R modulation on the fate of axotomized rubrospinal neurons (RSNs) and functional recovery in a model of spinal cord dorsal hemisection (SCH) at the cervical level in rats. SCH induced CB2R expression, severe atrophy, and cell death in contralateral RSNs. Furthermore, SCH affected molecular changes in the apoptotic cascade in RSNs - increased cytochrome c release, apoptosome formation, and caspase-3 activity. CB2R stimulation by its selective agonist JWH-015 significantly increased the bcl-2/bax ratio, reduced cytochrome c release, delayed atrophy and degeneration, and improved spontaneous functional recovery through ERK1/2 inactivation. These findings implicate the ECS, particularly CB2R, as part of the endogenous neuroprotective response that is triggered after SCI. Thus, CB2R modulation might represent a promising therapeutic target that lacks psychotropic effects and can be used to exploit ECS-based approaches to counteract neuronal degeneration.

  4. Long-range projections of Adelta primary afferents in the Lissauer tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Lidierth, Malcolm

    2007-09-25

    Electrical microstimulation has been used to activate fine myelinated primary afferents running within the Lissauer tract. Stimulation of the tract at the L2/L3 border produced antidromic volleys which were recorded on the dorsal roots of more caudal spinal segments. Antidromic volleys were present in all cases for roots as far caudal as the S2 segment (L3, n=12; L4, n=6; L5, n=6; L6, n=9; S1, n=3; S2, n=6; observations in a total of 15 rats). These fibres were collaterals of primary afferents with conduction velocities in the dorsal root of up to 17.3+/-2.3 ms(-1) (mean+/-S.D., n=6; range 14-20 ms(-1)). Conduction velocities within the Lissauer tract were slower; the fastest contributing fibres had conduction velocities of 9.2+/-2.2 ms(-1) (range 6-12 ms(-1)). Lesions of the Lissauer tract caudal to the stimulation site abolished the volleys on roots lying caudal to the lesion. Most previous works have suggested that primary afferents project in the Lissauer tract for only one or two spinal segments. The present study shows that some fibres project rostrally for up to seven spinal segments (L2-S2).

  5. Diet-induced obesity suppresses ghrelin in rat gastrointestinal tract and serum.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ibrahim; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Guzel, Saadet Pilten; Catak, Zekiye; Ozercan, Mehmet Resat

    2011-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine ghrelin expression in serum and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tissues, and to measure tissue ghrelin levels and obesity-related alterations in some serum biochemical variables in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). The study included 12 male rats, 60 days old. The rats were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 6). Rats in the DIO group were fed a cafeteria-style diet to induce obesity, while those in the control group were fed on standard rat pellets. After a 12 week diet program including an adaptation period all rats were decapitated, tissues were individually fixed, ghrelin expression was examined by immunohistochemistry , and tissue and serum ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum biochemical variables were measured using an autoanalyzer. When the baseline and week 12 body mass index and GIT ghrelin expression were compared between DIO and control rats, BMI had increased and ghrelin expression decreased due to obesity. The RIA results were consistent with these findings. Serum glucose, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels were elevated and HDL cholesterol significantly decreased in the DIO group. A comparison of GIT tissues between the control and obese groups demonstrated that ghrelin was decreased in all tissues of the latter. This decrease was brought about a decline in the circulating ghrelin pool. This suggests that rather than being associated with a change in a single tissue, obesity is a pathological condition in which ghrelin expression is changed in all tissues.

  6. Keratinocyte growth factor induces proliferation of hepatocytes and epithelial cells throughout the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Housley, R M; Morris, C F; Boyle, W; Ring, B; Biltz, R; Tarpley, J E; Aukerman, S L; Devine, P L; Whitehead, R H; Pierce, G F

    1994-11-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, was identified as a specific keratinocyte mitogen after isolation from a lung fibroblast line. Recently, recombinant (r)KGF was found to influence proliferation and differentiation patterns of multiple epithelial cell lineages within skin, lung, and the reproductive tract. In the present study, we designed experiments to identify additional target tissues, and focused on the rat gastrointestinal (GI) system, since a putative receptor, K-sam, was originally identified in a gastric carcinoma. Expression of KGF receptor and KGF mRNA was detected within the entire GI tract, suggesting the gut both synthesized and responded to KGF. Therefore, rKGF was administered to adult rats and was found to induce markedly increased proliferation of epithelial cells from the foregut to the colon, and of hepatocytes, one day after systemic treatment. Daily treatment resulted in the marked selective induction of mucin-producing cell lineages throughout the GI tract in a dose-dependent fashion. Other cell lineages were either unaffected (e.g., Paneth cells), or relatively decreased (e.g., parietal cells, enterocytes) in rKGF-treated rats. The direct effect of rKGF was confirmed by demonstrating markedly increased carcinoembryonic antigen production in a human colon carcinoma cell line, LIM1899. Serum levels of albumin were specifically and significantly elevated after daily treatment. These results demonstrate rKGF can induce epithelial cell activation throughout the GI tract and liver. Further, endogenous KGF may be a normal paracrine mediator of growth within the gut.

  7. Accumulation of organotins in seafood leads to reproductive tract abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; Sena, Gabriela C; Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina M; Matsumoto, Silvia T; da Costa, Mércia B; Zamprogno, Gabriela C; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Miguel, Emilio de C; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-11-01

    Organotins (OTs) are environmental contaminants used as biocides in antifouling paints that have been shown to be endocrine disrupters. However, studies evaluating the effects of OTs accumulated in seafood (LNI) on reproductive health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that LNI leads to impairment in the reproductive tract of female rats, as the estrous cycle development, as well as for ovary and uterus morphology. Rats were treated with LNI, and their reproductive morphophysiology was assessed. Morphophysiological abnormalities, such as irregular estrous cycles, abnormal ovarian follicular development and ovarian collagen deposition, were observed in LNI rats. An increase in luminal epithelia and ERα expression was observed in the LNI uteri. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that LNI are toxic for reproductive morphophysiology, which may be associated with risks to reproductive function.

  8. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE ON MALE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT: ALTERED FETAL STEROID HORMONES AND GENES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to the plasticizers diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) during sexual differentiation causes male reproductive tract malformations in rats and rabbits. In the fetal male rat, these two phthalate esters decrease testosterone (T) production and i...

  9. A comparison of peripheral and rubrospinal synaptic input to slow and fast twitch motor units of triceps surae.

    PubMed

    Burke, R E; Jankowska, E; ten Bruggencate, G

    1970-05-01

    1. Post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by electrical stimulation of a variety of input systems have been compared in triceps surae motoneurones innervating slow and fast muscle units, the speed of contraction of which was also determined.2. Stimulation of high threshold afferents in both flexor and extensor muscle nerves, and of joint afferents, evoked polysynaptic PSPs which were predominantly hyperpolarizing in both fast and slow twitch motor units.3. Volleys in cutaneous afferents in the sural and saphenous nerves evoked polysynaptic PSPs composed of mixtures of inhibitory and excitatory components. The inhibitory components were predominant in slow twitch motor units, while in fast twitch units there was a trend towards excitatory predominance.4. Repetitive stimulation of the red nucleus caused predominantly inhibitory PSPs in slow twitch units and mixed or predominantly excitatory PSPs in fast twitch units. There was a correlation in the excitatory/inhibitory balance between PSPs of cutaneous and rubrospinal origin in those motoneurones in which both types of PSPs were studied.5. The amplitudes of group Ia disynaptic inhibitory PSPs were found to be correlated with motor unit twitch type: IPSPs in slow twitch units were larger than those in fast twitch units. Rubrospinal conditioning volleys were found to facilitate group Ia IPSPs in both fast and slow twitch motor units.6. The results suggest that there may be several basic patterns of synaptic input organization to motoneurones within a given motor unit pool. In addition to quantitative variation in synaptic distribution, there is evidence that qualitative differences in excitatory to inhibitory balance also exist in the pathways conveying input from cutaneous afferents and rubrospinal systems to triceps surae motoneurones. These qualitative differences are correlated with the motor unit twitch type.

  10. Excretory Function of Intestinal Tract Enhanced in Kidney Impaired Rats Caused by Adenine

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yu; Gao, Tao; Li, Yue; Gao, Zhiyi; Duan, Jinlian; Yin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to prove the compensative effect of intestine for renal function. Rat kidney was impaired by intragastrically administrating adenine (400 mg per day for 5 days). Intestinal tract was harvested and equally divided into 20 segments except cecum. Kidneys were harvested and histologically examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining kits. Uric acid, urea (BUN), and creatinine in serum were determined with assay kits, and BUN and creatinine in every intestinal segment were also determined. The results showed that adenine was able to increase uric acid level in serum from 20.98 ± 6.98 μg/mL to 40.77 ± 7.52 μg/mL and cause renal function damage with BUN (from 3.87 ± 0.62 mM to 12.33 ± 3.27 mM) and creatinine (from 51.48 ± 6.98 μM to 118.25 ± 28.63 μM) increasing in serum and with abnormally micromorphological changes in kidney. The amount of BUN and creatinine distributed in intestinal tract was positively correlated with those in blood. In impaired renal function rats, the amount of BUN (from 4.26 ± 0.21 μMole to 10.72 ± 0.55 μMole) and creatinine (from 681.4 ± 23.3 nMole to 928.7 ± 21.3 nMole) distributed in intestinal tract significantly increased. All the results proved that intestinal tract had excretory function compensative for renal function. PMID:27975080

  11. In vivo DTI tractography of the rat brain: an atlas of the main tracts in Paxinos space with histological comparison.

    PubMed

    Figini, Matteo; Zucca, Ileana; Aquino, Domenico; Pennacchio, Paolo; Nava, Simone; Di Marzio, Alessandro; Preti, Maria Giulia; Baselli, Guseppe; Spreafico, Roberto; Frassoni, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance modality that permits to characterize the orientation and integrity of white matter (WM). DTI-based tractography techniques, allowing the virtual reconstruction of WM tract pathways, have found wide application in preclinical neurological research. Recently, anatomically detailed rat brain atlases including DTI data were constructed from ex vivo DTI images, but tractographic atlases of normal rats in vivo are still lacking. We propose here a probabilistic tractographic atlas of the main WM tracts in the healthy rat brain based on in vivo DTI acquisition. Our study was carried out on 10 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats using a 7T preclinical scanner. The MRI protocol permitted a reliable reconstruction of the main rat brain bundles: corpus callosum, cingulum, external capsule, internal capsule, anterior commissure, optic tract. The reconstructed fibers were compared with histological data, proving the viability of in vivo DTI tractography in the rat brain with the proposed acquisition and processing protocol. All the data were registered to a rat brain template in the coordinate system of the commonly used atlas by Paxinos and Watson; then the individual tracts were binarized and averaged, obtaining a probabilistic atlas in Paxinos-Watson space of the main rat brain WM bundles. With respect to the recent high-resolution MRI atlases, the resulting tractographic atlas, available online, provides complementary information about the average anatomical position of the considered WM tracts and their variability between normal animals. Furthermore, reference values for the main DTI-derived parameters, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, were provided. Both these results can be used as references in preclinical studies on pathological rat models involving potential alterations of WM.

  12. Sexual dimorphism in the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract in the rat.

    PubMed

    Collado, P; Guillamón, A; Valencia, A; Segovia, S

    1990-11-01

    This work investigates the existence of sex differences in the volume and number of neurons and glial cells in the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT). Males showed larger volume and number of cells than female rats. Early postnatal (day 1 after birth) orchidectomy in males, and androgenization in females, reversed these differences. No sex differences were found in BAOT glial cells. The sexual dimorphism found in the neuron/glial cell ratio reflects sex differences in neuron number. The existence of sexual dimorphism in the BAOT supports our earlier hypothesis which states that the vomeronasal system (VNS) is sexually dimorphic.

  13. [Length and weight of gastrointestinal tracts of pikas, suncus, millardias, mice and rats].

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, M; Matsuzaki, T; Saito, M

    1983-01-01

    The length and weight of gastrointestinal tracts including contents of ten week old male pikas (Ochotona rufescens rufescens) and suncus (Suncus murinus) were measured and they were investigated and compared with those of millardias, ICR-mice and Wistar-rats. The length from the duodenum to the anus of pikas was much longer and the weight from the stomach to the anus was about 16g per 100g of body weight. The weight of cecum was about 7g per body weight and they were heavier than those of other species. The length from the duodenum to the anus of the suncus was short but the weight of the small intestine plus colon and rectum per body weight did not differ from that of other species. The suncus has no cecum but the weight from the stomach to the anus was almost the same as that of rats.

  14. Endogenous leptin contributes to baroreflex suppression within the solitary tract nucleus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Amy C; Diz, Debra I

    2014-12-01

    The decline in cardiovagal baroreflex function that occurs with aging is accompanied by an increase in circulating leptin levels. Our previous studies showed that exogenous leptin impairs the baroreflex sensitivity for control of heart rate in younger rats, but the contribution of this hormone to baroreflex dysfunction during aging is unknown. Thus we assessed the effect of bilateral leptin microinjection (500 fmol/60 nl) within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) on the baroreflex sensitivity in older (66 ± 2 wk of age) urethane/chloralose anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats with elevated circulating leptin levels. In contrast to the 63% reduction observed in younger rats, leptin did not alter the baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia evoked by phenylephrine in older rats (0.76 ± 0.19 baseline vs. 0.71 ± 0.15 ms/mmHg after leptin; P = 0.806). We hypothesized that this loss of sensitivity reflected endogenous suppression of the baroreflex by elevated leptin, rather than cardiovascular resistance to the peptide. Indeed, NTS administration of a leptin receptor antagonist (75 pmol/120 nl) improved the baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia in older rats (0.73 ± 0.13 baseline vs. 1.19 ± 0.26 at 10 min vs. 1.87 ± 0.32 at 60 min vs. 1.22 ± 0.54 ms/mmHg at 120 min; P = 0.002), with no effect in younger rats. There was no effect of the leptin antagonist on the baroreflex sensitivity for tachycardia, responses to cardiac vagal chemosensitive fiber activation, or resting hemodynamics in older rats. These findings suggest that the actions of endogenous leptin within the NTS, either produced locally or derived from the circulation, contribute to baroreflex suppression during aging.

  15. Effect of time of exposure to rat coronavirus and Mycoplasma pulmonis on respiratory tract lesions in the Wistar rat.

    PubMed Central

    Schunk, M K; Percy, D H; Rosendal, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of time of exposure on the progression of pulmonary lesions in rats inoculated with Mycoplasma pulmonis and the rat coronavirus, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) were studied, using six groups of 18 SPF Wistar rats (n = 108). Rats were inoculated intranasally as follows: Group 1, sterile medium only; Group 2, sterile medium followed one week later by 150 TCID50 SDAV; Group 3, sterile medium followed by 10(5.7) colony forming units of M. pulmonis; Group 4, SDAV followed one week later by M. pulmonis; Group 5, M. pulmonis followed one week later by SDAV; Group 6, M. pulmonis followed two weeks later by SDAV. Six rats from each group were euthanized at one, two and three weeks after the final inoculation. In a separate experiment, six additional animals were inoculated in each of groups 3, 5 and 6 (n = 18) and were sampled at five weeks after they had received M. pulmonis. Bronchoalveolar lavage and quantitative lung mycoplasma cultures were conducted on two-thirds of the rats. Histopathological examination and scoring of lesion severity were performed on all animals. Based on the prevalence and extent of histopathological lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage cell numbers, neutrophil differential cell counts and the isolation of M. pulmonis, the most severe disease occurred in the groups that received both agents. There was no significant difference in lesion severity between the groups receiving both agents other than in those examined during the acute stages of SDAV infection. Based on these results, it is evident that SDAV enhances lower respiratory tract disease in Wistar rats whether exposure occurs at one week prior to or at various intervals following M. pulmonis infections. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:7704844

  16. [Study of the influence of Staphylococcus aureus on gastrointestinal tract microbiocenosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Bogdanova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the modifying effect of Staphylococcus aureus on the microbial composition of gastrointestinal tract microbiocenosis. The subjects were female rats in the condition of eubiosis or dysbiosis. The species and quantitative composition of the fecal microflora and the parietal mucin in different parts of the intestine were studied after an intragastral administration of St. aureus suspension. A single introduction of St. aureus into the gastrointestinal tract of rats led to the appearance of this microbe in the feces and parietal mucin in all the parts of the intestine regardless the initial condition of the intestinal microbiocenosis. The indigenous microflora, both in eubiotic and dysbiotic conditions, practically did not respond to an intragastral administration of staphylococcus, except a little decrease in the proportion of bifidobacteria. Meanwhile, there was a significant increase in the incidence of candid detection. The indigenous parietal microflora changed more substantially, which demonstrates a higher sensitivity of the parietal microbiocenosis to a short-time exposure to an exogenous microbial factor.

  17. Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Renne, Roger; Brix, Amy; Harkema, Jack; Herbert, Ron; Kittel, Birgit; Lewis, David; March, Thomas; Nagano, Kasuke; Pino, Michael; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Rosenbruch, Martin; Tellier, Pierre; Wohrmann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the respiratory tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous developmental and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for respiratory tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.

  18. Encoding of forelimb forces by corticospinal tract activity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Foulds, Richard A.; Adamovich, Sergei V.; Sahin, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    In search of a solution to the long standing problems encountered in traditional brain computer interfaces (BCI), the lateral descending tracts of the spinal cord present an alternative site for taping into the volitional motor signals. Due to the convergence of the cortical outputs into a final common pathway in the descending tracts of the spinal cord, neural interfaces with the spinal cord can potentially acquire signals richer with volitional information in a smaller anatomical region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of extracting motor control signals from the corticospinal tract (CST) of the rat spinal cord. Flexible substrate, multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were implanted in the CST of rats trained for a lever pressing task. This novel use of flexible substrate MEAs allowed recording of CST activity in behaving animals for up to three weeks with the current implantation technique. Time-frequency and principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to the neural signals to reconstruct isometric forelimb forces. Computed regression coefficients were then used to predict isometric forces in additional trials. The correlation between measured and predicted forces in the vertical direction averaged across six animals was 0.67 and R2 value was 0.44. Force regression in the horizontal directions was less successful, possibly due to the small amplitude of forces. Neural signals above and near the high gamma band made the largest contributions to prediction of forces. The results of this study support the feasibility of a spinal cord computer interface (SCCI) for generation of command signals in paralyzed individuals. PMID:24847198

  19. Effects of Primary Blast Overpressure on Retina and Optic Tract in Rats.

    PubMed

    DeMar, James; Sharrow, Keith; Hill, Miya; Berman, Jonathan; Oliver, Thomas; Long, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model. The amplitude of a- and b-waves on the electroretinogram (ERG) for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm postoptic chiasm) were evaluated 14 days after the blast. For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P = 0.005-0.01) Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P = 0.01), and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001). Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both postchiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves.

  20. Effects of Primary Blast Overpressure on Retina and Optic Tract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    DeMar, James; Sharrow, Keith; Hill, Miya; Berman, Jonathan; Oliver, Thomas; Long, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model. The amplitude of a- and b-waves on the electroretinogram (ERG) for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm postoptic chiasm) were evaluated 14 days after the blast. For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P = 0.005–0.01) Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P = 0.01), and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001). Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both postchiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves. PMID:27199884

  1. Effect of orchiectomy and testosterone replacement on lower urinary tract function in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Li; de Groat, William C

    2016-11-01

    Lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms (LUTS), including frequency, urgency, incomplete voiding, and slow stream, are common in both men and women with advancing age. The most common cause for LUTS in aging men is benign prostatic hyperplasia. Some studies have also revealed an inverse association of serum testosterone levels with LUTS; however, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones affect the LUT have not been clarified. In the present study, we examined the effect of orchiectomy and testosterone replacement on LUT function in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Six weeks after bilateral orchiectomy or sham operations and 3 wk after injection of long-acting testosterone undecanoate (100 mg/kg im), transvesical cystometry and external urethral sphincter electromyogram (EUS EMG) recordings were performed under urethane anesthesia. The micturition reflex was elicited in both sham and orchiectomized animals. In orchiectomized rats, volume threshold for inducing micturition decreased by 47.6%; however, contraction amplitude, duration, and voiding efficiency were similar in sham and orchiectomized rats. The active period during EUS EMG bursting was lengthened during micturition in orchiectomized animals. Testosterone treatment, which normalized plasma testosterone levels, reversed these changes but also increased the duration of EUS EMG bursting. Orchiectomy also reduced mean voiding flow rate estimated from the duration of EUS EMG bursting, an effect that was not reversed by testosterone. The results indicate that orchiectomy affects both the active and passive properties of the bladder and urethra, and that many, but not all, of the changes can be reversed by testosterone.

  2. Morphology of respiratory tract lesions in rats exposed to radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.; Gies, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    We will discuss the morphologic features of lesions in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to radon and radon progeny. Groups of male Wister rats were exposed to from 10 to 1000 working levels (WL) of radon progeny in the presence of less than 1 to about 15 mg m{sup {minus}3} uranium ore dust. Cumulative exposures ranged from 20 to approximately 10,000 working level months (WLM). Higher exposure levels produced radiation pneumonitis characterized by interstitial fibrosis, associated with alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia and accumulations of alveolar macrophages containing phagocytosed uranium ore dust. Nodular fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis were correlated with deposits of uranium ore dust. Vesicular emphysema also occurred at higher exposure levels. Pulmonary adenomatosis appeared to be a preneoplastic lesion; it was composed of nodular proliferation of bronchioloalveolar epithelium without disruption of the general architecture of the parenchyma. At exposure levels where rats lived longer than 1 y, lung tumors and a few tumors of the nasal cavity developed. The principal lung tumors were pulmonary adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas. Occasionally, malignant mesotheliomas and sarcomas were also present. The malignant lung tumors were characterized by invasion and occasionally metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Lower exposure rates produced more tumors, generally of different histologic types, and more fatal tumors than higher exposure rates. The similarity to relationships of human radon progeny exposure as far as incidence and types of lung tumors establish the validity of this animal model for studying radon carcinogenesis in humans.

  3. Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young Bin; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Kiyoung; Choi, Yuna; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Jeon, Tae-In; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo; Lee, Sang Kil; Oh, Seung Jae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated basic properties of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, including glandular stomach (GS), fore stomach (FS), large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), and esophagus (ESO), from a rat model using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging and spectroscopy. The THz images collected from stratified squamous epithelia (SSE) of FS and ESO show a lower peak-to-peak value compared to those from columnar epithelia (CE) of GS, LI, or SI because the SSE contains less water than CE. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of FS were less than those of GS or LI, both having values similar to those of water. Additionally, we report internal reflection THz signals from ESO, although we were unable to determine the exact interface for this internal reflection.

  4. Female's DHT controls sex differences in the rat bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract.

    PubMed

    Collado, P; Segovia, S; Calés, J M; Pérez Laso, C; Rodriquez Zafra, M; Guillamón, A; Valencia, A

    1992-04-01

    In the present study the regulatory action of the non-aromatic androgen dihydrotestoterone (DHT) on the volume of the sexually dimorphic bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) was investigated. Postnatal treatment with DHT (180 micrograms day-1) between days 6 and 20 (D6-D20) induced, in gonadally intact male rats, a drastic reduction in the overall volume to levels typical in control females. Conversely, the postnatal administration of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CA) to the females from D6-D20 produced an increment in the BAOT volume not dissimilar to that found in control males. These findings reveal that sexual organization in this vomeronasal structure is dependent on the presence of DHT in females during postnatal development.

  5. Effects of dehulled adlay on the culture count of some microbiota and their metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract of rats.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W; Cheng, C y; Chiang, M t; Chung, K T

    2000-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of a dietary supplement of dehulled adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) on the culture counts of some important groups of intestinal bacteria and their metabolism in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into four groups, and each group was fed a diet containing different levels of dehulled adlay for 30 days as follows: 0% (control), 5%, 20%, and 40%. All animals fed with adlay had normal healthy intestinal walls and no pathogenic signs whatsoever. There were no significant differences in body weight gain or the cecal pH between different groups of rats. Both the 20% and 40% groups had lower culture counts of enterics in their feces than the 5% and control groups, whereas the culture counts of fecal lactic acid bacteria were higher in feces of rats fed with adlay than in the control group. Cecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content and fecal SCFA were significantly higher in the 20% and 40% groups than in the control and 5% groups. All the adlay-fed rats had a higher fecal butyric acid concentration than the control rats. It is concluded that adlay has a significant influence on the growth of intestinal bacteria, which may ultimately affect the physiology and other functions of GI tracts of rats.

  6. Delayed intervention with transplants and neurotrophic factors supports recovery of forelimb function after cervical spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lynskey, James V; Sandhu, Faheem A; Sandhu, Faheen A; Dai, Hai-Ning; Dai, Hail-Ning; McAtee, Marietta; Slotkin, Jonathan R; Slotkin, Jon R; MacArthur, Linda; Bregman, Barbara S

    2006-05-01

    The adult central nervous system is capable of considerable anatomical reorganization and functional recovery after injury. Functional outcomes, however, vary greatly, depending upon size and location of injury, type and timing of intervention, and type of recovery and plasticity evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the recovery of skilled and unskilled forelimb function in adult rats after a C5/C6 spinal cord over-hemisection and delayed intervention with fetal spinal cord transplants and neurotrophins. Recovery of forelimb function was evaluated during both target reaching (a skilled behavior) and vertical exploration (an unskilled behavior). Anatomical tracing and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the growth of descending raphespinal, corticospinal, and rubrospinal fibers at the injury site, tracts that normally confer forelimb function. Delayed intervention with transplants and either brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) restored skilled left forelimb reaching to pre-injury levels. Animals showed recovery of normal reaching movements rather than compensation with abnormal movements. Transplants and NT-3 also improved right forelimb use during an unskilled vertical exploration, but not skilled right reaching. Intervention with fetal transplant tissue supported the growth of descending serotonergic, corticospinal, and rubrospinal fibers into the transplant at the lesion site. The addition of neurotrophins, however, did not significantly increase axonal growth at the lesion site. These studies suggest that the recovery of skilled and unskilled forelimb use is possible after a large cervical spinal cord injury following delayed intervention with fetal spinal cord and neurotrophins. Plasticity of both spared and axotomized descending pathways likely contributes to the functional recovery observed.

  7. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Jason B; Martin, John H

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system-with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) - is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  8. Electrophysiological Characteristics of the Rubrospinal Neurons in the Nucleus Ruber of the Cat (K Electrofisiologicheskoi Kharakteristike Rubro-Spinalnykh Neironov Krasnogo Yadra Koshki),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The presence of a reflex inhibition in the rubrospinal neurons has been determined by using subthreshold and strict threshold antidromic stimulation...In all tests, the minimum attenuation of the threshold stimulus for the axon of this neuron led to complete disappearance of the antidromic action...cord, according to which reflex inhibition decreases with a decrease in the duration of the subsequent hyperpolarization of an antidromically aroused

  9. Prenatal testosterone exposure permanently masculinizes anogenital distance, nipple development, and reproductive tract morphology in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Lambright, Christy S; Ostby, Joseph S; Parks-Saldutti, Louise; Vandenbergh, John G; Gray, Leon E

    2007-04-01

    In mammals, abnormal increases in fetal androgens disrupt normal development of the female phenotype. Due to the recent concern regarding environmental androgen-active chemicals, there is a need to identify sources of fetal androgen variation and sensitive developmental markers for androgenic activity in female rats. Anogenital distances (AGD), nipple retention, reproductive tract, and external genitalia are morphological parameters organized by prenatal androgens and are predictive of altered masculinized/defeminized phenotype in adult female mice and rats. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the natural prenatal androgen environment of rats including the magnitude of the intrauterine position (IUP) effect, (2) characterize the permanent effects of prenatal androgen exposure on female rats, and (3) determine the ability of AGD and areolas to predict these permanent androgenic alterations in female rats. Untreated male fetal rats had higher tissue testosterone (T) concentrations than females in the amniotic fluid, reproductive tract, gonad, and fetal body. The intrauterine position (IUP) of male and female fetuses did not affect T concentrations or AGD in male or female rats at gestational day (GD) 22. Female offspring exposed to 0, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (TP) on GDs 14-18 displayed increased AGD at postnatal day (PND) 2 and decreased nipples at PND 13 and as adults. TP-induced changes in neonatal AGD and infant areola number were reliable indicators of permanently altered adult phenotype in female rats. Further, females in the two high-dose groups displayed increased incidences of external genital malformations and the presence of prostatic tissue, not normally found in female rats.

  10. Delayed evacuatory function due to specific smooth muscle reactivity in the gastrointestinal tracts of tacrine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Krustev, A; Sirakov, V; Turiiski, V; Getova, D; Velkova, K; Prissadova, N

    2008-01-01

    Most of the side effects induced by tacrine are associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of the study was to analyze the nature of radiographically registered, tacrine-induced changes in evacuatory function, as well as to find a possible correlation with the immediate in vitro action of the drug on smooth muscles from the GI tracts of rats. The tacrine dose we used reliably delayed GI passage: contrast matter was not fully evacuated, predominantly from the stomach and cecum. The delay resulted from changes in tone and peristaltic activity, specific for the various regions of the tract. These changes were associated with a superposing of the responses due to the anticholinesterase and noncholinergic action of tacrine.

  11. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    PubMed Central

    Petrosyan, Tigran R.; Ter-Markosyan, Anna S.; Hovsepyan, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4) (group II; n = 12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup). Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian’s calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system. PMID:27630700

  12. Promotion of the Toxic Action of Cyclophosphamide by Digestive Tract Luminal Ammonia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ivnitsky, Jury Ju.; Schäfer, Timur V.; Rejniuk, Vladimir L.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the influence of the digestive tract luminal ammonia pool on acute toxic effects of cyclophosphamide, the dynamics of blood ammonia, glutamine and urea level, symptoms of toxic action and the survival time have been studied in rats, intraperitoneally treated with cyclophosphamide, at the background of the gavage with non-lethal dose of ammonium acetate (12 mmol/kg, i.e., 0.35 LD50). Ammonium acetate enhanced the hyperammonaemic action of cyclophosphamide while promoting its lethal action: the mean survival time decreased 1.5, 2.1, 2.8, or 6.1 times at the background of cyclophosphamide i/p doses 200, 600, 1000, or 1400 mg/kg, respectively. Animals exposed to the combination of toxicants, manifested symptoms which were characteristic of the effect of lethal doses of ammonia salts. These data provide the evidence of the detrimental role of gastrointestinal luminal ammonia in the acute high-dose cyclophosphamide toxicity. PMID:23724282

  13. Proteus vulgaris urinary tract infections in rats; treatment with nitrofuran derivatives.

    PubMed

    HOSSACK, D J

    1962-10-01

    Ascending urinary tract infections with stone formation have been produced experimentally in rats, using a modification of the method of Vermuelen & Goetz (1954a, b). A zinc disc infected with a culture of Proteus vulgaris was inserted into the bladder by suprapubic cystotomy under ether anaesthesia. The pH of the urine rises from 6.9 to 8 or 9 and calculi develop in the bladder within a few days of infection. The bladder and ureters become swollen, distended and inflamed, and renal abscesses develop. Death from renal failure generally occurs within 10 days of infection. Oral treatment with nitrofurantoin was commenced three days after infection and continued for one month. This arrested the initial rise in urine alkalinity and stone formation, and few, if any, macroscopic lesions were found at post-mortem examination. Of nine nitrofuran derivatives examined for activity against this infection several showed slight activity, but only one, N-(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)-gamma-butyric acid, was as active as nitrofurantoin when given at four times the dose, but it was also one-third as toxic. It is concluded that this technique is suitable for the examination of potential urinary antiseptics.

  14. Application of computational fluid dynamics to regional dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbell, J.S.; Gross, E.A.; Joyner, D.R.; Godo, M.N.; Morgan, K.T. )

    1993-08-01

    For certain inhaled air pollutants, such as reactive, water soluble gases, the distribution of nasal lesions observed in F344 rats may be closely related to regional gas uptake patterns in the nose. These uptake patterns can be influenced by the currents of air flowing through the upper respiratory tract during the breathing cycle. Since data on respiratory tract lesions in F344 rats are extrapolated to humans to make predictions of risk to human health, a better understanding of the factors affecting these responses is needed. To assess potential effects of nasal airflow on lesion location and severity, a methodology was developed for creation of computer simulations of steady-state airflow and gas transport using a three-dimensional finite element grid reconstructed from serial step-sections of the nasal passages of a male F344 rat. Simulations on a supercomputer used the computational fluid dynamics package FIDAP (FDI, Evanston, IL). Distinct streams of bulk flow evident in the simulations matched inspiratory streams reported for the F344 rat. Moreover, simulated regional flow velocities matched measured velocities in concurrent laboratory experiments with a hollow nasal mold. Computer-predicted flows were used in simulations of gas transport to nasal passage walls, with formaldehyde as a test case. Results from the uptake simulations were compared with the reported distribution of formaldehyde-induced nasal lesions observed in the F344 rat, and indicated that airflow-driven uptake patterns probably play an important role in determining the location of certain nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde. This work demonstrated the feasibility of applying computational fluid dynamics to airflow-driven dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract.

  15. Identification in rats of a programming window for reproductive tract masculinization, disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michelle; Saunders, Philippa T K; Fisken, Mark; Scott, Hayley M; Hutchison, Gary R; Smith, Lee B; Sharpe, Richard M

    2008-04-01

    Becoming a phenotypic male is ultimately determined by androgen-induced masculinization. Disorders of fetal masculinization, resulting in hypospadias or cryptorchidism, are common, but their cause remains unclear. Together with the adult-onset disorders low sperm count and testicular cancer, they can constitute a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although masculinization is well studied, no unifying concept explains normal male reproductive development and its abnormalities, including TDS. We exposed rat fetuses to either anti-androgens or androgens and showed that masculinization of all reproductive tract tissues was programmed by androgen action during a common fetal programming window. This preceded morphological differentiation, when androgen action was, surprisingly, unnecessary. Only within the programming window did blocking androgen action induce hypospadias and cryptorchidism and altered penile length in male rats, all of which correlated with anogenital distance (AGD). Androgen-driven masculinization of females was also confined to the same programming window. This work has identified in rats a common programming window in which androgen action is essential for normal reproductive tract masculinization and has highlighted that measuring AGD in neonatal humans could provide a noninvasive method to predict neonatal and adult reproductive disorders. Based on the timings in rats, we believe the programming window in humans is likely to be 8-14 weeks of gestation.

  16. Maternal behavior induced in male rats by bilateral lesions of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M A; Collado, P; Segovia, S; Guillamón, A; del Cerro, M C

    1992-10-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effect of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) in male Wistar rats that did not have care-pups experience, using a test of induced maternal behavior. Consistent with our previous findings in virgin female rats (10), there was a significantly shorter sensitization (3 days) and retrieval (2 days) latencies in the BAOT-lesioned group than in the sham-lesioned and intact-control male groups (12 days for both). Based on these findings, we propose that BAOT, a sexually dimorphic nucleus of the vomeronasal system, exerts an inhibitory modulation in the expression of parental behavior in male and female virgin rats. It may do so by maintaining an olfactory-based tonic inhibition of maternal behavior, thereby resulting in the adults' tonic avoidance of the pups until this inhibition is abolished by lesion, or reduced or overridden by appropriate hormonal and/or sensory influences.

  17. Complete and Partial Lesions of the Pyramidal Tract in the Rat Affect Qualitative Measures of Skilled Movements: Impairment in Fixations as a Model for Clumsy Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Whishaw, Ian Q.; Piecharka, Dionne M.; Drever, Felicia R.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about prenatal and perinatal brain injury resulting in subsequent clumsy behavior in children. One candidate motor system is the pyramidal tract. The tract traverses the entire central nervous system and, through direct and indirect connections to the brainstem and spinal cord sensory and motor nuclei, is involved in the learning and execution of skilled movements. Here, rats, either naive or pretrained on a number of motor tasks, were assessed for acute and chronic impairments following complete or incomplete pyramidal tract lesions. Postsurgery rats with complete lesions were impaired on the qualitative measures of limb aiming, supination, and posture. Impaired movements require fixations, complementary movements in different body segments. The impairment in fixations was manifest acutely and underwent no improvement with subsequent training/testing. The finding that complete and partial pyramidal tract lesions produce chronic impairment in fixations provides insight for understanding clumsy behavior in humans and its potential remediation via specific training in making fixations. PMID:14640310

  18. Respiratory tract changes in guinea pigs, rats, and mice following a single six-hour exposure to methyl isocyanate vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, E.H.; Dodd, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    Groups of male and female Fischer 344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Hartley guinea pigs were exposed once for 6 hr to mean concentrations of 10.5, 5.4, 2.4, 1.0, or 0 (control) ppm of methyl isocyanate (MIC) vapor. Rats and mice were also exposed to 20.4 ppm of MIC. The majority of deaths occurred during postexposure days 1 through 3. The 6-hr LC/sub 50/ values were 6.1 ppm for rats, 12.2 ppm for mice, and 5.4 ppm for guinea pigs. Notable clinical observations during and immediately following MIC exposure were lacrimation, perinasal/perioral wetness, respiratory difficulty (e.g., mouth breathing), decreased activity, ataxia, and hypothermia. Body weight losses were common in all species following MIC exposures of 2.4 ppm or greater. Microscopic lesions included acute necrosis of the epithelial lining throughout the respiratory tract in animals that died shortly after exposure, coupled with congestion, edema, and inflammation. A microscopic lesion that appeared unique to guinea pigs was bronchiolitis obliterans. Additional microscopic lesions observed in some animals that died or were sacrificed at the end of the study (postexposure day 14) consisted of squamous metaplasia of respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity, which extended into the larynx, trachea, and in some cases, the bronchi. In addition, epithelial regeneration throughout the tract and submucosal fibroplasia in the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles were observed, the latter lesion being primarily confined to rodents. Only in guinea pigs were there lesions in the 1.0 ppm group attributed to MIC exposure. In conclusion, guinea pigs were more sensitive to the MIC vapor than were rats, which were in turn more sensitive than mice.

  19. Examination of the stability of hydrophobic (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in the digestive tract of rats.

    PubMed

    Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Zakarevicius, Eugenijus; Sukackaite, Angele; Streckyte, Giedre; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2008-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots show promise as alternatives to organic dyes for biological labelling because of their bright and stable photoluminescence. The typical quantum dots is CdSe because colloidal synthesis for nanocrystals of this semiconductor is well established. CdSe is usually passivated with zinc sulfide. While the cytotoxicity of bulk CdSe is well documented, questions about (CdSe)ZnS potential toxicity and behaviour in vivo remain unanswered. The distribution and stability of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in Wistar line rats' digestive tract were investigated. Hydrophobic quantum dots were mixed with fat or sonificated in water and administered orally. The distribution and stability of quantum dots moving through the digestive system of rats was followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. In both ways prepared quantum dots were degraded in the digestive tract of animals. Quantum dots mixed with fat were more stable and degraded more slowly than quantum dots sonificated in water. The data obtained suggest possible toxicity of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots due to the liberation of Cd(2+).

  20. COMPARATIVE COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF AIRFLOWS AND VAPOR DOSIMETY IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACTS OF RAT, MONKEY, AND HUMAN

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Minard, Kevin R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Timchalk, Charles; Glenny, Robb W.; Pipavath, Sudhaker; Cox, Timothy C.; Wallis, Chris; Larson, Richard; Fanucchi, M.; Postlewait, Ed; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2012-07-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is useful for predicting site-specific dosimetry of airborne materials in the respiratory tract and elucidating the importance of species differences in anatomy, physiology, and breathing patterns. Historically, these models were limited to discrete regions of the respiratory system. CFD/PBPK models have now been developed for the rat, monkey, and human that encompass airways from the nose or mouth to the lung. A PBPK model previously developed to describe acrolein uptake in nasal tissues was adapted to the extended airway models as an example application. Model parameters for each anatomic region were obtained from the literature, measured directly, or estimated from published data. Airflow and site-specific acrolein uptake patterns were determined under steadystate inhalation conditions to provide direct comparisons with prior data and nasalonly simulations. Results confirmed that regional uptake was dependent upon airflow rates and acrolein concentrations with nasal extraction efficiencies predicted to be greatest in the rat, followed by the monkey, then the human. For human oral-breathing simulations, acrolein uptake rates in oropharyngeal and laryngeal tissues were comparable to nasal tissues following nasal breathing under the same exposure conditions. For both breathing modes, higher uptake rates were predicted for lower tracheo-bronchial tissues of humans than either the rat or monkey. These extended airway models provide a unique foundation for comparing dosimetry across a significantly more extensive range of conducting airways in the rat, monkey, and human than prior CFD models.

  1. Systematic analysis of axonal damage and inflammatory response in different white matter tracts of acutely injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Leal, W; Corkill, D J; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2005-12-20

    The mechanisms of white matter (WM) damage during secondary degeneration are a fundamental issue in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Our main goal was to describe the pattern of an acute inflammatory response and secondary damage to axons in different WM tracts of acutely injured rat spinal cord. Adult rats were deeply anesthetized and injected with 20 nmol of NMDA into the spinal cord ventral horn on T7. Animals were perfused after survival times of 1 day, 3 days and 7 days. Ten micrometer sections were submitted to immunocytochemical analysis for activated macrophages/microglia, neutrophils and damaged axons. There were inflammatory response and progressive tissue destruction of ventral WM (VWM) with formation of microcysts in both VWM and lateral WM (LWM). In the VWM, the number of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) end-bulbs increased from 1 day with a peak at 3 days, decreasing by 7 days following the injection. APP end-bulbs were present in the dorsal WM (DWM) at 3 days survival time but were not in the LWM. Electron microscopic analysis revealed different degrees of myelin disruption and axonal pathology in the vacuolated WM up to 14 mm along the rostrocaudal axis. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant loss of medium and large axons (P < 0.05), but not of small axons (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that bystander axonal damage and myelin vacuolation are important secondary component of the pathology of WM tracts following rat SCI. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these pathological events.

  2. Pro-resolution, protective and anti-nociceptive effects of a cannabis extract in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J L; Flannigan, K L; McKnight, W; Wang, L; Ferraz, J G P; Tuitt, D

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is widely used for treating a number of gastrointestinal ailments, but its use is associated with several adverse effects, particularly when the route of administration is via smoking. In the present study, we tested the effects (in rats) of a simple extract of medicinal cannabis (called "MFF") for its ability to promote resolution of colitis, to prevent gastric damage induced by naproxen, and to reduce gastric distention-induced visceral pain. Intracolonic, but not oral administration of MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of hapten-induced colitis, an effect not reduced by pretreatment with antagonists of CB1 or CB2 receptors. Significant improvement of symptoms (diarrhea, weight loss) and healing of ulcerated tissue was evident with MFF treatment at doses that did not produce detectable urinary levels of 9-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). MFF increased colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis in healthy rats, but not in rats with colitis, and had no effect on colonic prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Orally, but not systemically administered MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of naproxen-induced gastric damage, and a CB1 antagonist reversed this effect. MFF prevented gastric distention-induced visceral pain via a CB2-dependent mechanism. These results demonstrate that a simple extract of medicinal cannabis can significantly enhance resolution of inflammation and injury, as well as prevent injury, in the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different cannabinoid receptors were involved in some of the effects. MFF may serve as the basis for a simple preparation of cannabis that would produce beneficial effects in the GI tract with reduced systemic toxicity.

  3. Simvastatin reduces fetal testosterone production and permanently alters reproductive tract development in the male rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgen signaling by fetal Leydig cells is critical in the proper development of the male reproductive tract. As cholesterol is a precursor for hormone biosynthesis,inhibition of the cholesterol pathway during sex differentiation may reduce testosterone {T). We hypothesized tha...

  4. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer through natural transformation of members of the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mammals has not yet been described. Insufficient DNA sequence similarity for homologous recombination to occur has been identified as the major barrier to interspecies transfer of chromosomal DNA in bacteria. In this study we determined if regions of high DNA similarity between the genomes of the indigenous bacteria in the GIT of rats and feed introduced DNA could lead to homologous recombination and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. Results Plasmid DNA with two resistance genes (nptI and aadA) and regions of high DNA similarity to 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes present in a broad range of bacterial species present in the GIT, were constructed and added to standard rat feed. Six rats, with a normal microbiota, were fed DNA containing pellets daily over four days before sampling of the microbiota from the different GI compartments (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon). In addition, two rats were included as negative controls. Antibiotic resistant colonies growing on selective media were screened for recombination with feed introduced DNA by PCR targeting unique sites in the putatively recombined regions. No transformants were identified among 441 tested isolates. Conclusions The analyses showed that extensive ingestion of DNA (100 μg plasmid) per day did not lead to increased proportions of kanamycin resistant bacteria, nor did it produce detectable transformants among the aerobic microbiota examined for 6 rats (detection limit < 1 transformant per 1,1 × 108 cultured bacteria). The key methodological challenges to HGT detection in animal feedings trials are identified and discussed. This study is consistent with other studies suggesting natural transformation is not detectable in the GIT of mammals. PMID:22463741

  5. Comparative Computational Modeling of Airflows and Vapor Dosimetry in the Respiratory Tracts of Rat, Monkey, and Human

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are useful for predicting site-specific dosimetry of airborne materials in the respiratory tract and elucidating the importance of species differences in anatomy, physiology, and breathing patterns. We improved the imaging and model development methods to the point where CFD models for the rat, monkey, and human now encompass airways from the nose or mouth to the lung. A total of 1272, 2172, and 135 pulmonary airways representing 17±7, 19±9, or 9±2 airway generations were included in the rat, monkey and human models, respectively. A CFD/physiologically based pharmacokinetic model previously developed for acrolein was adapted for these anatomically correct extended airway models. Model parameters were obtained from the literature or measured directly. Airflow and acrolein uptake patterns were determined under steady-state inhalation conditions to provide direct comparisons with prior data and nasal-only simulations. Results confirmed that regional uptake was sensitive to airway geometry, airflow rates, acrolein concentrations, air:tissue partition coefficients, tissue thickness, and the maximum rate of metabolism. Nasal extraction efficiencies were predicted to be greatest in the rat, followed by the monkey, and then the human. For both nasal and oral breathing modes in humans, higher uptake rates were predicted for lower tracheobronchial tissues than either the rat or monkey. These extended airway models provide a unique foundation for comparing material transport and site-specific tissue uptake across a significantly greater range of conducting airways in the rat, monkey, and human than prior CFD models. PMID:22584687

  6. Defining the Borders of Dose Addition: Mixture Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibutyl phthalate on Male Rat Reproductive Tract Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to either dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) disrupts male rat reproductive tract differentiation. However, they act via different modes of toxicity and induce distinct postnatal phenotypes. DBP exposure decreases anogenital di...

  7. EFFECT OF RAPID SHALLOW BREATHING ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF 18-O-LABELED OZONE REACTION PRODUCT IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the effect of breathing pattern on ozone reaction product content within the respiratory tract. Thirty-four anesthetized, maleWistar rats were exposed to oxygen-18 (18O)-labeled ozone at 1.0 ppm for 2 h using a dual-chamber, negative-pressure ventilation system. Fre...

  8. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON THE MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Gerald A. LeBlanc, Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Environmental contaminants with estrogen...

  9. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  10. RESPIRATORY RESPONSE AND INTERNAL TISSUE DOSE OF INHALED CHLORINE IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF F344 RATS: SEX AND SPECIES COMPARISONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled Cl2 causes irritant effects in the respiratory tract. Females of various toxicological studies show more severe effects than males, notably a decrease in survivability observed in rats of a 2-year bioassay (CIIT, 1993; Wolf et al., 1995, Fundam. Appl. Toxic...

  11. Sensorimotor Processing in the Newborn Rat Red Nucleus during Active Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Sokoloff, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Sensory feedback from sleep-related myoclonic twitches is thought to drive activity-dependent development in spinal cord and brain. However, little is known about the neural pathways involved in the generation of twitches early in development. The red nucleus (RN), source of the rubrospinal tract, has been implicated in the production of phasic motor activity during active sleep in adults. Here we hypothesized that the RN is also a major source of motor output for twitching in early infancy, a period when twitching is an especially abundant motor behavior. We recorded extracellular neural activity in the RN during sleep and wakefulness in 1-week-old unanesthetized rats. Neurons in the RN fired phasically before twitching and wake movements of the contralateral forelimb. A subpopulation of neurons in the RN exhibited a significant peak of activity after forelimb movement onset, suggesting reafferent sensory processing. Consistent with this observation, manual stimulation of the forelimb evoked RN responses. Unilateral inactivation of the RN using a mixture comprising GABAA, GABAB, and glycine receptor agonists caused an immediate and temporary increase in motor activity followed by a marked and prolonged decrease in twitching and wake movements. Altogether, these data support a causal role for the RN in infant motor behavior. Furthermore, they indicate that twitching, which is characterized by discrete motor output and reafferent input, provides an opportunity for sensorimotor integration and activity-dependent development of topography within the newborn RN. PMID:26019345

  12. Sensorimotor processing in the newborn rat red nucleus during active sleep.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Sokoloff, Greta; Blumberg, Mark S

    2015-05-27

    Sensory feedback from sleep-related myoclonic twitches is thought to drive activity-dependent development in spinal cord and brain. However, little is known about the neural pathways involved in the generation of twitches early in development. The red nucleus (RN), source of the rubrospinal tract, has been implicated in the production of phasic motor activity during active sleep in adults. Here we hypothesized that the RN is also a major source of motor output for twitching in early infancy, a period when twitching is an especially abundant motor behavior. We recorded extracellular neural activity in the RN during sleep and wakefulness in 1-week-old unanesthetized rats. Neurons in the RN fired phasically before twitching and wake movements of the contralateral forelimb. A subpopulation of neurons in the RN exhibited a significant peak of activity after forelimb movement onset, suggesting reafferent sensory processing. Consistent with this observation, manual stimulation of the forelimb evoked RN responses. Unilateral inactivation of the RN using a mixture comprising GABAA, GABAB, and glycine receptor agonists caused an immediate and temporary increase in motor activity followed by a marked and prolonged decrease in twitching and wake movements. Altogether, these data support a causal role for the RN in infant motor behavior. Furthermore, they indicate that twitching, which is characterized by discrete motor output and reafferent input, provides an opportunity for sensorimotor integration and activity-dependent development of topography within the newborn RN.

  13. Forebrain Projections of Arcuate Neurokinin B Neurons Demonstrated by Anterograde Tract-Tracing and Monosodium Glutamate Lesions in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski, Sally J.; Burke, Michelle C.; Anderson, Miranda J.; McMullen, Nathaniel T.; Rance, Naomi E.

    2010-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin receptor signaling are essential components of the reproductive axis. A population of neurons resides within the arcuate nucleus of the rat that expresses NKB, kisspeptin, dynorphin, NK3 receptors and estrogen receptor α. Here we investigate the projections of these neurons using NKB-immunocytochemistry as a marker. First, the loss of NKB-immunoreactive (ir) somata and fibers was characterized after ablation of the arcuate nucleus by neonatal injections of monosodium glutamate. Second, biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the arcuate nucleus and anterogradely labeled NKB-ir fibers were identified using dual-labeled immunofluorescence. Four major projection pathways are described: 1) Local projections within the arcuate nucleus bilaterally, 2) Projections to the median eminence including the lateral palisade zone, 3) Projections to a periventricular pathway extending rostrally to multiple hypothalamic nuclei, the septal region and BNST and dorsally to the dorsomedial nucleus and 4) Projections to a ventral hypothalamic tract to the lateral hypothalamus and medial forebrain bundle. The diverse projections provide evidence that NKB/kisspeptin/dynorphin neurons could integrate the reproductive axis with multiple homeostatic, behavioral and neuroendocrine processes. Interestingly, anterograde tract-tracing revealed NKB-ir axons originating from arcuate neurons terminating on other NKB-ir somata within the arcuate nucleus. Combined with previous studies, these experiments reveal a bilateral interconnected network of sex-steroid responsive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the rat that express NKB, kisspeptin, dynorphin, NK3 receptors and ERα and project to GnRH terminals in the median eminence. This circuitry provides a mechanism for bilateral synchronization of arcuate NKB/kisspeptin/dynorphin neurons to modulate the pulsatile secretion of GnRH. PMID:20038444

  14. Fermentation of dietary fibre in the intestinal tract: comparison between man and rat.

    PubMed

    Nyman, M; Asp, N G; Cummings, J; Wiggins, H

    1986-05-01

    1. The breakdown and faecal bulking capacity of dietary fibre preparations from wheat bran, apple, cabbage, carrot, and guar gum were compared in man and rat. 2. The degradation of the fibre showed good correlation between man and rat (r 0.99, regression coefficient 0.86). Wheat bran was the least well-digested, 66 and 59% of the neutral sugars being excreted in faeces of man and rat respectively. The breakdown of the fibre in apple, cabbage, carrot and guar gum was more complete and 4-29% of the neutral sugars were recovered in faeces. 3. The main dietary fibre constituents in each preparation were degraded to a similar extent in man and rat. The main dietary fibre constituents of apple, carrot, cabbage and guar gum were almost completely degraded. Of the xylose in wheat bran 45% (man) and 48% (rat) were recovered in faeces. However, the percentage excretion of glucose and arabinose from bran was higher in man. 4. A faecal glucan other than cellulose was identified in human faeces after guar gum, and has been provisionally identified as starch. No such glucan occurred in rat faeces. 5. A good correlation between the faecal bulking capacity in man and rat was seen (r 0.97, regression coefficient 0.56). Wheat bran had the best bulking capacity, while that of apple, cabbage, carrot and guar gum was less pronounced. Faecal bulking was inversely related to the amount of fibre which was water-soluble in each preparation. 6. It is concluded that this rat experimental model is useful for the prediction of fermentative breakdown and bulking capacity of dietary fibre in man. However, more comparative studies are needed to evaluate animal experiments regarding other physiological effects of dietary fibre.

  15. Surgical Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Its Vasculature in the Laboratory Rat.

    PubMed

    Vdoviaková, Katarína; Petrovová, Eva; Maloveská, Marcela; Krešáková, Lenka; Teleky, Jana; Elias, Mario Zefanias Joao; Petrášová, Darina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate the morphology of the stomach, liver, intestine, and their vasculature to support the planning of surgical therapeutic methods in abdominal cavity. On adult Wistar rats corrosion casts were prepared from the arterial system and Duracryl Dental and PUR SP were used as a casting medium and was performed macroscopic anatomical dissection of the stomach, liver, and intestine was performed. The rat stomach was a large, semilunar shaped sac with composite lining. On the stomach was very marked fundus, which formed a blind sac (saccus cecus). The rat liver was divided into six lobes, but without gall bladder. Intestine of the rat was simple, but cecum had a shape as a stomach. The following variations were observed in the origin of the cranial mesenteric artery. On the corrosion cast specimens we noticed the presence of the anastomosis between middle colic artery (a. colica media) and left colic artery (a. colica sinistra). We investigated the second anastomosis between middle colic artery and left colic artery. The results of this study reveal that the functional anatomical relationship between the rat stomach, liver and intestine is important for the development of surgical research in human and veterinary medicine.

  16. Semi-automated 3D segmentation of major tracts in the rat brain: comparing DTI with standard histological methods.

    PubMed

    Gyengesi, Erika; Calabrese, Evan; Sherrier, Matthew C; Johnson, G Allan; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Researchers working with rodent models of neurological disease often require an accurate map of the anatomical organization of the white matter of the rodent brain. With the increasing popularity of small animal MRI techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), there is considerable interest in rapid segmentation methods of neurological structures for quantitative comparisons. DTI-derived tractography allows simple and rapid segmentation of major white matter tracts, but the anatomic accuracy of these computer-generated fibers is open to question and has not been rigorously evaluated in the rat brain. In this study, we examine the anatomic accuracy of tractography-based segmentation in the adult rat brain. We analysed 12 major white matter pathways using semi-automated tractography-based segmentation alongside manual segmentation of Gallyas silver-stained histology sections. We applied four fiber-tracking algorithms to the DTI data-two integration methods and two deflection methods. In many cases, tractography-based segmentation closely matched histology-based segmentation; however different tractography algorithms produced dramatically different results. Results suggest that certain white matter pathways are more amenable to tractography-based segmentation than others. We believe that these data will help researchers decide whether it is appropriate to use tractography-based segmentation of white matter structures for quantitative DTI-based analysis of neurologic disease models.

  17. The Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of the Nucleus of Solitary Tract Was Potentiated by Chronic Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ban; Zhang, Zi-Nan; Lei, Jie; Li, Yun-Qing; Du, Jian-Qing; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Angina pectoris is a common clinical symptom that often results from myocardial infarction. One typical characteristic of angina pectoris is that the pain does not match the severity of the myocardial ischemia. One possible explanation is that the intensity of cardiac nociceptive information could be dynamically regulated by certain brain areas. As an important nucleus for processing cardiac nociception, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has been studied to some extent. However, until now, the morphological and functional involvement of the NTS in chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) has remained unknown. In the present study, by exploring left anterior descending coronary artery ligation surgery, we found that the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta and Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the rat NTS two weeks after ligation surgery increased significantly. Excitatory pre- and postsynaptic transmission was potentiated. A bath application of a Ca2+ channel inhibitor GABApentin and Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist NASPM could reverse the potentiated pre- and postsynaptic transmission, respectively. Meanwhile, rats with CMI showed significantly increased visceral pain behaviors. Microinjection of GABApentin or NASPM into the NTS decreased the CMI-induced visceral pain behaviors. In sum, our results suggest that the NTS is an important area for the process of cardiac afference in chronic myocardial infarction condition. PMID:25756354

  18. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NTS noradrenergic A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n= 5; HPA study, n= 5], or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n= 6; HPA study, n= 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress. PMID:25765732

  19. The comparative anatomy of the abdominal gastrointestinal tract of six species of African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet H; Van Der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Nigel C; O'Riain, M Justin

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of six species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae) were compared. The aim was to provide a comprehensive anatomical comparison between the different species. The relative shape, length, and surface areas were taken into account to determine whether the GITs are phylogenetically constrained or exhibit anatomical adaptations in response to diets. In all six species the stomach was simple and glandular. With the exception of Heterocephalus glaber, the caecum was coiled in a flat spiral, the ascending colon was arranged in a loop of varying lengths, and a mucosal colonic papillary-lined groove was present in the ascending colon in all species. By contrast, the caecum in H. glaber was uncoiled, the ascending colon was not looped, and the groove was not papillated. A caeco-appendix was observed only in Bathyergus suillus and Georychus capensis. Hierarchical multivariate cluster analysis on the presence/absence of nine anatomical structures associated with the GIT of mole-rats revealed that H. glaber was anatomically the least similar of the six species (77.6% similarity) with respect to the nine GIT variables included. All Cryptomys species were the same (100% similarity), and two species B. suillus and G. capensis grouped together and were more similar to the Cryptomys genus (95% similarity) than they were to H. glaber. These findings support previous phylogenetic classifications. The voluminous caeco-colon in B. suillus may be explained by its ingestion of grasses in addition to below-ground storage organs of plants. We conclude that phylogeny and diet affect the GIT anatomy of the African mole rats studied here.

  20. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Herman, James P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NTS NA A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n = 5; HPA study, n = 5] or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n = 6; HPA study, n = 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 d of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress.

  1. Changes of the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the diabetic rat's alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Erzsébet; Batbayar, Bayarchimeg; Vér, Agota; Zelles, Tivadar

    2006-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, where neuropeptides and immunocells might play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this article we have quantified the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat's alimentary tract (tongue, duodenum, colon) using immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers were found in all layers of the alimentary tract and their distribution pattern was similar in both control and diabetic groups. Mast cell-nerve fiber contacts were rarely found in the controls. However, after 4 weeks duration of diabetes the number of IR nerve fibers and the immunocompetent cells increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the number of mast cell-nerve fiber contacts was even more significantly increased (P < 0.001). The distance between nerve fibers and immunocells was about 1 mum or even less. Some of the mast cells were degranulated in the vicinity of nerve fibers. No immunocompetent cells were IR for any antisera in the control. However, after the streptozotocin treatment, a large number of the immunocompetent cells showed immunoreactivity for SP and NPY. Counting all immunocompetent cells in whole sections showed that 12.3% of them were IR for SP and 25.4% were IR for NPY. Increased number of SP-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in diabetes mellitus might be the reason for painful neuropathy and might amplify the inflammatory reaction in an axon reflex manner; the released histamine and leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines might cause inflammations and lesions of the mucosa.

  2. Responses in the respiratory tract of rats following exposure to sulphuric acid aerosols for 5 or 28 days.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Joanne D; Foster, John; Soames, Anthony; Farrar, David G; Hext, Paul M

    2002-01-01

    Sulphuric acid mists have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as being carcinogenic to humans based on epidemiological findings of respiratory tract tumours. To determine if early changes in the respiratory tract following exposure to sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) aerosols are consistent with the possible development of tumours after extended periods of exposure, groups of female rats were exposed to respirable aerosols of H(2)SO(4) at target concentrations of 0, 0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 mg m(-3) for 6 h per day for either 5 days or for 5 days a week over a 28-day period. Additional groups exposed to 0 or 5.0 mg m(-3) over the 28-day period were retained after exposure for 4 or 8 weeks to assess recovery. Histopathological examinations and quantitative cell proliferation measurements were conducted on the nasal passages, larynx and lung. Achieved concentrations were 0.3, 1.38 and 5.52 mg m(-3) H(2)SO(4). Histological and cell proliferative changes were confined to the larynx and no effects were seen in the nasal passages or lungs. At the two highest concentrations, squamous metaplasia accompanied by significant cell proliferation was apparent after 5 and 28 days of exposure and there was a reduction in the severity of the pathological changes following the recovery periods. No effects were seen at 0.3 mg m(-3) after 5 days of exposure and only minimal metaplastic change was seen after 28 days in a few animals and was not accompanied by cell proliferation. The toxicological relevance of these findings is discussed.

  3. Radiologic evaluation of the liver and gastrointestinal tract in rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed

    Perry, R L; Williams, J F; Carrig, C B; Kaneene, J B; Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1994-08-01

    In rats infected with the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis, hepatomegaly results from development of parasitic cysts in the liver. Diffuse nodular mucosal hyperplasia in the glandular region (corpus and antrum) of the stomach, and gross thickening of the intestinal mucosa also result. Between postinfection days (PID) 21 and 84, radiologic observations were made after oral administration of a barium sulfate suspension in T taeniaeformis-infected rats and in age/sex-matched controls. There was radiographic evidence of hepatic enlargement at PID 21. Enlargement of the gastric folds was first observed along the greater curvature of the stomach at PID 35. Fimbriation of small intestinal mucosal surfaces resulted from thickening of the intestinal villi and was observed in the duodenum at PID 21. Intestinal motility was assessed, and contractions were counted, using image intensification fluoroscopy, then were recorded on videotape. There were no significant differences between control and infected rats for gastric emptying time, intestinal transit time, and number of intestinal contractions per minute. Barium contrast radiography clearly indicated large gastric folds, thickening of the small intestinal villi, and hepatic enlargement, and was useful for assessing gastrointestinal motility.

  4. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on volume and albumin content of respiratory tract fluid but not on epithelial secretory cell number in "smoking" rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N; Brattsand, R; Dahlbäck, M

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to look at the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on epithelial secretory cells and the respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content from the lower airways of "bronchitic" rats. Rats were exposed either to tobacco smoke (TS), TS and NAC, or NAC alone. TS caused a significant increase in epithelial secretory cell number which was not reduced by concomitant NAC administration; NAC alone had no effect on cell numbers. TS increased respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content by a small but non-significant amount, whereas TS and NAC increased the volume and albumin content by a greater and significant amount; NAC alone was also shown to significantly increase both fluid volume and albumin content.

  5. Glutamatergic phenotype of glucagon-like peptide 1 neurons in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, H.; Stornetta, R. L.; Agassandian, K.

    2017-01-01

    The expression of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) suffices to assign a glutamatergic phenotype to neurons and other secretory cells. For example, intestinal L cells express VGLUT2 and secrete glutamate along with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). We hypothesized that GLP1-positive neurons within the caudal (visceral) nucleus of the solitary tract (cNST) also are glutamatergic. To test this, the axonal projections of GLP1 and other neurons within the cNST were labeled in rats via iontophoretic delivery of anterograde tracer. Dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy was used to visualize tracer-, GLP1-, and VGLUT2-positive fibers within brainstem, hypothalamic, and limbic forebrain nuclei that receive input from the cNST. Electron microscopy was used to confirm GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling within the same axon varicosities, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to examine VGLUT2 mRNA expression by GLP1-positive neurons. Most anterograde tracer-labeled fibers displayed VGLUT2-positive varicosities, providing new evidence that ascending axonal projections from the cNST are primarily glutamatergic. Virtually all GLP1-positive varicosities also were VGLUT2-positive. Electron microscopy confirmed the colocalization of GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling in axon terminals that formed asymmetric (excitatory-type) synapses with unlabeled dendrites in the hypothalamus. Finally, in situ hybridization confirmed that GLP1-positive cNST neurons express VGLUT2 mRNA. Thus, hindbrain GLP1 neurons in rats are equipped to store glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and likely co-release both glutamate and GLP1 from axon varicosities and terminals in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. PMID:25012114

  6. Glutamatergic phenotype of glucagon-like peptide 1 neurons in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H; Stornetta, R L; Agassandian, K; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-09-01

    The expression of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) suffices to assign a glutamatergic phenotype to neurons and other secretory cells. For example, intestinal L cells express VGLUT2 and secrete glutamate along with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). We hypothesized that GLP1-positive neurons within the caudal (visceral) nucleus of the solitary tract (cNST) also are glutamatergic. To test this, the axonal projections of GLP1 and other neurons within the cNST were labeled in rats via iontophoretic delivery of anterograde tracer. Dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy was used to visualize tracer-, GLP1-, and VGLUT2-positive fibers within brainstem, hypothalamic, and limbic forebrain nuclei that receive input from the cNST. Electron microscopy was used to confirm GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling within the same axon varicosities, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to examine VGLUT2 mRNA expression by GLP1-positive neurons. Most anterograde tracer-labeled fibers displayed VGLUT2-positive varicosities, providing new evidence that ascending axonal projections from the cNST are primarily glutamatergic. Virtually all GLP1-positive varicosities also were VGLUT2-positive. Electron microscopy confirmed the colocalization of GLP1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling in axon terminals that formed asymmetric (excitatory-type) synapses with unlabeled dendrites in the hypothalamus. Finally, in situ hybridization confirmed that GLP1-positive cNST neurons express VGLUT2 mRNA. Thus, hindbrain GLP1 neurons in rats are equipped to store glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and likely co-release both glutamate and GLP1 from axon varicosities and terminals in the hypothalamus and other brain regions.

  7. Immunohistochemical study about the Flt-1/VEGFR1 expression in the gastrointestinal tract of mouse, rat, dog, swine and monkey.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, A; Germann, P-G; Junker-Walker, U; Tomovic, A; Seewald, W; Polkinghorne, A; Pospischil, A

    2005-11-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt-1) performs a subordinate effector role in mesenchymal angiogenesis and potentially serves an equally important functional role as a self-contained receptor in epithelial cells. In both endothelial cells and epithelial cells, Flt-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) downstream signalling is involved in regulating cellular processes such as cytoskeletal changes and cellular survival protection. Cellular renewal of the gastrointestinal mucosa is based on these processes and might involve Flt-1/VEGFR1 pathway activities; the molecular mechanisms regulating these cellular dynamics remain unclear. This study was performed to investigate the presence and distribution of Flt-1/VEGFR1 in epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Gastrointestinal tissues were taken from eight anatomical sites from mouse, rat, dog, swine and monkey. Present results revealed a cytosolic Flt-1/VEGFR1 staining pattern in mucosal epithelial cells for all investigated species. Non-epithelial structures also displayed a distinct Flt-1/VEGFR1 positivity and included vascular smooth muscle walls, enteric smooth muscle layers, the enteric nervous system and capillary endothelial cells. Diverse intensities of the Flt-1/VEGFR1 binding reaction within each species were observed in the intestinal mucosa with a strong immunoreaction in enterocytes and with a low protein expression in the ileum in most species. Crypt cells in the large intestine were mostly negative for Flt-1/VEGFR1. A peculiar and mainly intranuclear antibody binding reaction was found in Brunner's gland epithelial cells of mouse and rat whereas Brunner's glands of dog, swine and monkey remained completely negative. These results indicate a potential involvement of Flt-1/VEGFR1 in normal restitution of gastrointestinal structures in the species studied. Additionally, intranuclear Flt-1/VEGFR1 antibody binding in Brunner's glands of rodents may suggest

  8. Effects of fasting and/or oxidizing and reducing agents on absorption of neptunium from the gastrointestinal tract of mice and adult or neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Ruemmler, P S; Ryan, J L

    1984-12-01

    Neptunium-237(V) nitrate was administered by gavage to groups of fed or fasted adult and 5-day-old rats. Some groups also received the oxidants quinhydrone or ferric iron, and others received the reducing agent ferrous iron. Adult mice received ferric or ferrous iron and 235Np. When the adult rats were killed at 7 days after gavage, measurements showed that, compared with rats that were fed, a 24-hr fast caused a fivefold increase in 237Np absorption and retention. Both quinhydrone and ferric iron caused an even greater increase in absorption in both fed and fasted rats. Ferrous iron, on the other hand, decreased absorption in fasted rats to values lower than those obtained in fed rats. Similar results were obtained in mice treated with 235Np and either ferric or ferrous iron. The highest absorption obtained after gavage of ferric iron to fasted rats and mice was about two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained in animals that were fed before gavage. The effects of ferric and ferrous iron on neptunium absorption by neonatal rats were similar to their effects on adult animals but of lesser magnitude. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Np(V), when given in small mass quantities to fed animals, is reduced in the gastrointestinal tract to Np(IV), which is less well absorbed than Np(V).

  9. Bromochloromethane, a Methane Analogue, Affects the Microbiota and Metabolic Profiles of the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Mu, Chun-Long; Luo, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Bromochloromethane (BCM), an inhibitor of methanogenesis, has been used in animal production. However, little is known about its impact on the intestinal microbiota and metabolic patterns. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of BCM on the colonic bacterial community and metabolism by establishing a Wistar rat model. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (control and treated with BCM) and raised for 6 weeks. Bacterial fermentation products in the cecum were determined, and colonic methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were quantified. The colonic microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, and metabolites were profiled by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results showed that BCM did not affect body weight and feed intake, but it did significantly change the intestinal metabolic profiles. Cecal protein fermentation was enhanced by BCM, as methylamine, putrescine, phenylethylamine, tyramine, and skatole were significantly increased. Colonic fatty acid and carbohydrate concentrations were significantly decreased, indicating the perturbation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by BCM. BCM treatment decreased the abundance of methanogen populations, while SRB were increased in the colon. BCM did not affect the total colonic bacterial counts but significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing the abundance of actinobacteria, acidobacteria, and proteobacteria. The results demonstrated that BCM treatment significantly altered the microbiotic and metabolite profiles in the intestines, which may provide further information on the use of BCM in animal production. PMID:26567308

  10. Is Remodelling of Corticospinal Tract Terminations Originating in the Intact Hemisphere Associated with Recovery following Transient Ischaemic Stroke in the Rat?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma J.; Dewar, Deborah; Maxwell, David J

    2016-01-01

    Following large strokes that encompass the cerebral cortex, it has been suggested that the corticospinal tract originating from the non-ischaemic hemisphere reorganises its pattern of terminal arborisation within the spinal cord to compensate for loss of function. However many strokes in humans predominantly affect subcortical structures with minimal involvement of the cerebral cortex. The aim of the present study was to determine whether remodelling of corticospinal terminals arising from the non-ischaemic hemisphere was associated with spontaneous recovery in rats with subcortical infarcts. Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery and 28 days later, when animals exhibited functional recovery, cholera toxin b subunit was injected into the contralesional, intact forelimb motor cortex in order to anterogradely label terminals within cervical spinal cord segments. Infarcts were limited to subcortical structures and resulted in partial loss of corticospinal tract axons from the ischaemic hemisphere. Quantitative analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the numbers of terminals on the contralesional side of the spinal grey matter between ischaemic and sham rats. The results indicate that significant remodelling of the corticospinal tract from the non-ischaemic hemisphere is not associated with functional recovery in animals with subcortical infarcts. PMID:27014870

  11. The neural code for taste in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat: effects of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, P M; Lemon, C H

    2000-01-10

    Adaptation of the tongue to NaCl, HCl, quinine or sucrose was used as a tool to study the stability and organization of response profiles in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Taste responses in the NTS were recorded in anesthetized rats before and after adaptation of the tongue to NaCl, HCl, sucrose or quinine. Results showed that the magnitude of response to test stimuli following adaptation was a function of the context, i.e., adaptation condition, in which the stimuli were presented. Over half of all taste responses were either attenuated or enhanced following the adaptation procedure: NaCl adaptation produced the most widespread, non-stimulus-selective cross-adaptation and sucrose adaptation produced the least frequent cross-adaptation and the most frequent enhancement of taste responses. Adaptation to quinine cross-adapted to sucrose and adaptation to HCl cross-adapted to quinine in over half of the units tested. The adaptation procedure sometimes unmasked taste responses where none were present beforehand and sometimes altered taste responses to test stimuli even though the adapting stimulus did not itself produce a response. These effects demonstrated a form of context-dependency of taste responsiveness in the NTS and further suggest a broad potentiality in the sensitivity of NTS units across taste stimuli. Across unit patterns of response remained distinct from each other under all adaptation conditions. Discriminability of these patterns may provide a neurophysiological basis for residual psychophysical abilities following adaptation.

  12. Odor-Taste Convergence in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract of the Awake Freely Licking Rat

    PubMed Central

    Escanilla, Olga D.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Flavor is produced by the integration of taste, olfaction, texture, and temperature, currently thought to occur in the cortex. However, previous work has shown that brainstem taste-related nuclei also respond to multisensory inputs. Here, we test the hypothesis that taste and olfaction interact in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS; the first neural relay in the central gustatory pathway) in awake, freely licking rats. Electrophysiological recordings of taste and taste + odor responses were conducted in an experimental chamber following surgical electrode implantation and recovery. Tastants (0.1 m NaCl, 0.1 m sucrose, 0.01 m citric acid, and 0.0001 m quinine) were delivered for five consecutive licks interspersed with five licks of artificial saliva rinse delivered on a VR5 schedule. Odorants were n-amyl acetate (banana), acetic acid (vinegar), octanoic acid (rancid), and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). For each cell, metric space analyses were used to quantify the information conveyed by spike count, by the rate envelope, and by individual spike timing. Results revealed diverse effects of odorants on taste-response magnitude and latency across cells. Importantly, NTS cells were more competent at discriminating taste + odor stimuli versus tastants presented alone for all taste qualities using both rate and temporal coding. The strong interaction of odorants and tastants at the NTS underscores its role as the initial node in the neural circuit that controls food identification and ingestion. PMID:25904782

  13. Effect of Calabash Chalk on the Histomorphology of the Gastro-Oesophageal Tract of Growing Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moses, B Ekong; Emma, E John; Christopher, C Mbadugha; Enobong I, Bassey; Theresa, B Ekanem

    2012-01-01

    Background: Calabash chalk is a naturally occurring mineral consumed by members of some Nigerian communities for pleasure and by pregnant women as a remedy for morning sickness. The consumption of this geophagic material motivated our interest on the effect of the chalk on the histomorphology of the gastro-oesophageal tract. Methods: Twenty-eight young Wistar rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into 4 groups of equal size. Group 1 animals served as controls and received 1 mL of distilled water. Groups 2, 3, and 4 received orally 1 mL of a Calabash chalk suspension containing 40 mg/mL for 14, 21, and 28 days, respectively. Upon completion of the treatments, the animals in groups 2, 3, and 4 were sacrificed on days 15, 22, and 29, respectively, and the control group animals were sacrificed on day 29. All animals were euthanised using chloroform anaesthesia. The oesophagus and the stomach of each animal were dissected out and routinely processed for histological studies. Results: There was oedema with haemorrhages in the mucosa of the stomach, and acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and koilocytic changes were observed in the mucosa of the oesophagus of the groups treated with 40 mg/mL of Calabash chalk suspension. Conclusion: Calabash chalk caused histological changes to the stomach and the oesophagus that may lead to other pathophysiological conditions. PMID:22977372

  14. Enhanced heat shock protein 25 immunoreactivity in cranial nerve motoneurons and their related fiber tracts in rats prenatally-exposed to X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazuhiko; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Murase, Kenya

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in histoarchitecture of the brainstem were examined immunohistochemically in 4-week-old rats with a single whole body X-irradiation at a dose of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 Gy on embryonic day (ED) 15 using anti-heat shock protein 25 (HSP25). HSP25 immunostaining was seen in the neuronal perikarya of cranial nerve motoneurons, that is, the motor and mesencephalic nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, facial nucleus, abducens nucleus and accessory facial nucleus in the pons, and the ambiguous nucleus, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and hypoglossus nucleus in the medulla oblongata of intact controls. In 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, HSP25 immunostaining in those neurons was more intense than in controls, while the most intense immunostaining was marked in 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. HSP25 immunostaining was also apparent in the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve tracts in 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, but was faint in controls. Interestingly, HSP25 immunostaining was aberrantly enhanced in dendritic arbors in the magnocellular region of medial vestibular nucleus of 0.5-1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. Those arbors were identified as excitatory secondary vestibulo-ocular neurons by double immunofluorescence for HSP25 and SMI-32. The results suggest an increase of HSP25 expression in cranial nerve motoneurons and their related fiber tracts from prenatal exposure to ionizing irradiation. This may be an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia due to malformed brain arteries caused by prenatal ionizing irradiation.

  15. Inhibition by tianeptine of neuronally mediated contractions in the rat isolated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Victoria N; Bassil, Anna K; Lee, Kevin; Sanger, Gareth J

    2008-05-01

    The antidepressant tianeptine is associated with a small but significant incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, including nausea and constipation. Since the site of action of tianeptine is not clear, we looked for an ability of this drug to directly interfere with GI motility. The effects of tianeptine were studied in rat isolated stomach and colon preparations, in which neuronally mediated (predominantly cholinergic) contractions were evoked by electrical field stimulation. Tianeptine concentration dependently inhibited these contractions in both stomach (0.3-10microM; n=2-5) and colon (1-10microM; n=3-6). This activity was likely to be prejunctional, since contractions evoked by carbachol were unaffected by tianeptine 1microM. Further, the inhibitory activity of tianeptine was unaffected by inhibitors of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline re-uptake, adenosine metabolism, nitric oxide synthesis and tryptophan dehydroxylase. Thus, our experiments demonstrate a pathway by which tianeptine affects GI functions and this could explain the side effects observed. It is not known if the mechanism of this activity is also related in any way to the therapeutic action of tianeptine within the CNS.

  16. Bombesin receptor subtype-3 is expressed by the enteric nervous system and by interstitial cells of Cajal in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Christophe; Juhem, Aurélie; Peinnequin, André; Bonaz, Bruno

    2005-04-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3), a G-protein-coupled orphan receptor, shares 47% and 55% homology with other known mammalian bombesin receptors. Despite the molecular characterization of BRS-3, its function remains unclear as a consequence of its low affinity for bombesin and the absence of an identified natural ligand. Although the other mammalian bombesin receptors are widely distributed in the gut and central nervous system, expression of BRS-3 in the gastrointestinal tract has not been previously described. We report the expression of BRS-3 mRNA and protein in the tunica muscularis of the rat gastrointestinal tract. The mRNA expression pattern was studied by reverse transcription followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To identify the cellular sites of expression of BRS-3, we performed immunocytochemistry by using a N-terminus-specific affinity-purified antiserum. BRS-3 was found to be widely expressed in the rat gastrointestinal tract at both the mRNA and protein levels. BRS-3-like immunoreactivity (BRS-3-LI) was localized in neurons of the myenteric and submucosal ganglia, being primarily concentrated near the neuronal plasma membrane, and in fibers distributed in the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. In addition, BRS-3-LI was observed in the cell bodies and processes of c-kit+ interstitial cells of Cajal. These data have functional applications for the effects mediated by the activation of BRS-3 on gut motility through distinct neuronal and non-neuronal pathways.

  17. Individual sympathetic postganglionic neurons coinnervate myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle layers in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gary C; Phillips, Robert J; McAdams, Jennifer L; Powley, Terry L

    2016-09-01

    A full description of the terminal architecture of sympathetic axons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has not been available. To label sympathetic fibers projecting to the gut muscle wall, dextran biotin was injected into the celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG) of rats. Nine days postinjection, animals were euthanized and stomachs and small intestines were processed as whole mounts (submucosa and mucosa removed) to examine CSMG efferent terminals. Myenteric neurons were counterstained with Cuprolinic Blue; catecholaminergic axons were stained immunohistochemically for tyrosine hydroxylase. Essentially all dextran-labeled axons (135 of 136 sampled) were tyrosine hydroxylase-positive. Complete postganglionic arbors (n = 154) in the muscle wall were digitized and analyzed morphometrically. Individual sympathetic axons formed complex arbors of varicose neurites within myenteric ganglia/primary plexus and, concomitantly, long rectilinear arrays of neurites within circular muscle/secondary plexus or longitudinal muscle/tertiary plexus. Very few CSMG neurons projected exclusively (i.e., ∼100% of an arbor's varicose branches) to myenteric plexus (∼2%) or smooth muscle (∼14%). With less stringent inclusion criteria (i.e., ≥85% of an axon's varicose branches), larger minorities of neurons projected predominantly to either myenteric plexus (∼13%) or smooth muscle (∼27%). The majority (i.e., ∼60%) of all individual CSMG postganglionics formed mixed, heterotypic arbors that coinnervated extensively (>15% of their varicose branches per target) both myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle. The fact that ∼87% of all sympathetics projected either extensively or even predominantly to smooth muscle, while simultaneously contacting myenteric plexus, is consistent with the view that these neurons control GI muscle directly, if not exclusively. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2577-2603, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Degradation of polyphenols (catechin and tannic acid) in the rat intestinal tract. Effect on colonic fermentation and faecal output.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L; Abia, R; Eastwood, M A; Saura-Calixto, F

    1994-06-01

    Low- and intermediate-molecular-weight polyphenols are usually extracted by using different solvents (e.g. water, methanol, aqueous acetone). The aim of the present work was to study the possible effects of some extractable polyphenols (EPP) on fat and protein digestibilities and on the colonic microflora. Degradability of these compounds through the intestinal tract was also studied. Catechin and tannic acid (TA) were chosen as representatives of the most common basic structures of EPP (flavonoids and gallic acid respectively). Three groups of eight male Wistar rats were given either a control diet free of EPP, or diets containing 20 g/kg dry matter of catechin and TA. Body-weight and food intake were monitored during a 3-week experimental period. Faeces and urine were collected daily during the third experimental week. EPP and fat were determined in faeces, and N in both urine and faeces. Only 3.1 and 4.6% of the ingested catechin and TA respectively were excreted in faeces, indicating that absorption and/or degradation of these EPP had occurred. HPLC analysis of the polyphenolic content of faeces showed qualitative differences between groups. A significant increase of total faecal weight as well as water, fat and N excretion was produced by TA. Catechin only caused an increase in fat excretion. In vitro fermentation assays were also performed to study the effect of EPP on the colonic microflora. Both catechin and TA affected the yield of end-products of fermentation, and were also degraded during the fermentation process.

  19. Dorsal horn cells connected to the lissauer tract and their relation to the dorsal root potential in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lidierth, M; Wall, P D

    1998-08-01

    We have examined the role of dorsal horn cells that respond to Lissauer tract stimulation in regulating primary afferent depolarization (PAD). PAD was monitored by recording the dorsal root potential (DRP) in the roots of the lumbar cord. Recordings were made of the discharges of Lissauer tract-responsive cells, and their discharges were correlated with the DRPs occurring spontaneously and those evoked by stimulation. Electrical microstimulation of the Lissauer tract (<10 microA; 200 micros) was used to activate the tract selectively and evoke a characteristic long-latency DRP. Cells that were excited by Lissauer tract stimulation were found in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. They exhibited low rates of ongoing discharge and responded to Lissauer tract stimulation typically with a burst of impulses with a latency to onset of 5.6 +/- 2.7 ms (mean +/- SD) and to termination of 13.6 +/- 4.1 ms (n = 105). Lissauer tract-responsive cells in L5 were shown to receive convergent inputs from cutaneous and muscle afferents as they responded to stimulation of the sural nerve (100%, n = 19) and the nerve to gastrocnemius (95%, n = 19). The latency of the response to sural nerve stimulation was 3.7 +/- 1.5 ms and to gastrocnemius nerve stimulation, 8.3 +/- 3.6 ms. Stimulation through a microelectrode at a depth of 1.5 mm in the sensorimotor cortex (100 microA, 200 micros) evoked a response in 17 of 31 Lissauer tract-responsive cells (55%) with a latency to onset of 21.9 +/- 2.8 ms (n = 17). Stimulation of the sural nerve, nerve to gastrocnemius or sensorimotor cortex was shown to depress the response of Lissauer tract-responsive cells to a subsequent Lissauer tract stimulus. The ongoing discharges of Lissauer tract-responsive cells were correlated to the spontaneous DRP using spike-triggered averaging. Of 123 cells analyzed in this way, 117 (95%) were shown to be correlated to the DRP. In addition, the peaks of spontaneous negative DRPs in spinally transected

  20. Aromatase inhibition exacerbates pain and reactive gliosis in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of female rats caused by spinothalamic tract injury.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanpoor, Samar; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Haeri-Rohani, Ali; Khodagholi, Fariba; Jorjani, Masoumeh

    2014-11-01

    Central pain syndrome is characterized by severe and excruciating pain resulting from a lesion in the central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that estradiol decreases pain and that inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase, which synthesizes estradiol from aromatizable androgens, increases pain sensitivity. In this study we have assessed whether aromatase expression in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord is altered in a rat model of central pain syndrome, induced by the unilateral electrolytic lesion of the spinothalamic tract. Protein and mRNA levels of aromatase, as well as the protein and mRNA levels of estrogen receptors α and β, were increased in the dorsal horn of female rats after spinothalamic tract injury, suggesting that the injury increased estradiol synthesis and signaling in the dorsal horn. To determine whether the increased aromatase expression in this pain model may participate in the control of pain, mechanical allodynia thresholds were determined in both hind paws after the intrathecal administration of letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor. Aromatase inhibition enhanced mechanical allodynia in both hind paws. Because estradiol is known to regulate gliosis we assessed whether the spinothalamic tract injury and aromatase inhibition regulated gliosis in the dorsal horn. The proportion of microglia with a reactive phenotype and the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes were increased by the injury in the dorsal horn. Aromatase inhibition enhanced the effect of the injury on gliosis. Furthermore, a significant a positive correlation of mechanical allodynia and gliosis in the dorsal horn was detected. These findings suggest that aromatase is up-regulated in the dorsal horn in a model of central pain syndrome and that aromatase activity in the spinal cord reduces mechanical allodynia by controlling reactive gliosis in the dorsal horn.

  1. UPTAKE AND INTERNAL DOSIMETRY OF INHALED CHLORINE IN THE ISOLATED UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT (URT) OF F344 RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to large-volume commercial uses as an intermediate and for water disinfection, chlorine (Cl2) is an important hazardous air pollutant (HAP). Inhaled Cl2 causes irritant effects in the respiratory tract. We conducted studies to characterize determinants...

  2. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  3. A critical examination of the mode of action of quinacrine in the reproductive tract in a 2-year rat cancer bioassay and its implications for human clinical use.

    PubMed

    Haseman, Joseph K; Growe, Roger G; Zeiger, Errol; McConnell, Ernest E; Luster, Michael I; Lippes, Jack

    2015-04-01

    A rat carcinogenicity bioassay (CaBio) of quinacrine was reanalyzed to investigate its mode of tumor induction. Quinacrine's effects in the rat uterus when administered as a slurry in methylcellulose were contrasted with the human clinical experience which uses a solid form of the drug, to determine the relevance of the tumors produced in the rat to safe clinical use of quinacrine for permanent contraception (QS). A review was performed of the study report, dose feasibility studies, and clinical evaluations of women who had undergone the QS procedure. The top three doses of quinacrine in the CaBio exceeded the maximum tolerated dose, and produced chronic damage, including inflammation, resulting in reproductive tract tumors. Chronic inflammation was significantly correlated with the tumors; there was no evidence of treatment-related tumors in animals without chronic inflammation or other reproductive system toxicity. Because such permanent uterine damage and chronic toxicity have not been observed in humans under therapeutic conditions, we conclude that this mode of action for tumor production will not occur at clinically relevant doses in women who choose quinacrine for permanent contraception.

  4. Inflammation and Edema in the Lung and Kidney of Hemorrhagic Shock Rats Are Alleviated by Biliary Tract External Drainage via the Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhao, Bing; Chen, Ying; Ma, Li; Chen, Er-Zhen; Mao, En-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The lung and kidney are two organs that are easily affected by hemorrhagic shock (HS). We investigated roles of biliary tract external drainage (BTED) in inflammation and edema of the lung and kidney in HS and its relationship with the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Rat models of HS were induced by drawing blood from the femoral artery until a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 ± 5 mmHg was achieved. A MAP of 40 ± 5 mmHg was maintained for 60 min. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to the following groups: sham group; HS group; HS + zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, group; HS + BTED group; HS + BTED + ZnPP group; and HS + BTED + bile infusion (BI) group. HO-1 levels, aquaporin-1 levels, and ratios of dry/wet in the lung and kidney increased markedly after BTED, but tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase levels in the lung and kidney decreased significantly after BTED under HS conditions. Under the condition that HO-1 was inhibited by ZnPP, all these effects induced by BTED disappeared in the lung and kidney. These results demonstrated that inflammation and edema of the lung and kidney of HS rats are alleviated by BTED via the HO-1 pathway.

  5. Alterations of action potentials and the localization of Nav1.6 sodium channels in spared axons after hemisection injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hunanyan, Arsen S; Alessi, Valentina; Patel, Samik; Pearse, Damien D; Matthews, Gary; Arvanian, Victor L

    2011-03-01

    Previously, we reported a pronounced reduction in transmission through surviving axons contralateral to chronic hemisection (HX) of adult rat spinal cord. To examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for this diminished transmission, we recorded intracellularly from lumbar lateral white matter axons in deeply anesthetized adult rats in vivo and measured the propagation of action potentials (APs) through rubrospinal/reticulospinal tract (RST/RtST) axons contralateral to chronic HX at T10. We found decreased excitability in these axons, manifested by an increased rheobase to trigger APs and longer latency for AP propagation passing the injury level, without significant differences in axonal resting membrane potential and input resistance. These electrophysiological changes were associated with altered spatial localization of Nav1.6 sodium channels along axons: a subset of axons contralateral to the injury exhibited a diffuse localization (>10 μm spread) of Nav1.6 channels, a pattern characteristic of demyelinated axons (Craner MJ, Newcombe J, Black JA, Hartle C, Cuzner ML, Waxman SG. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 8168-8173, 2004b). This result was substantiated by ultrastructural changes seen with electron microscopy, in which an increased number of large-caliber, demyelinated RST axons were found contralateral to the chronic HX. Therefore, an increased rheobase, pathological changes in the distribution of Nav1.6 sodium channels, and the demyelination of contralateral RST axons are likely responsible for their decreased conduction chronically after HX and thus may provide novel targets for strategies to improve function following incomplete spinal cord injury.

  6. Implications of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) with codissolved brain-derived neurotrophic factor injectable scaffold on motor function recovery rate following cervical dorsolateral funiculotomy in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Grous, Lauren Conova; Vernengo, Jennifer; Jin, Ying; Himes, B. Timothy; Shumsky, Jed S.; Fischer, Itzhak; Lowman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Object In a follow-up study to their prior work, the authors evaluated a novel delivery system for a previously established treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), based on a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), lightly cross-linked with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) injectable scaffold. The primary aim of this work was to assess the recovery of both spontaneous and skilled forelimb function following a cervical dorsolateral funiculotomy in the rat. This injury ablates the rubrospinal tract (RST) but spares the dorsal and ventral corticospinal tract and can severely impair reaching and grasping abilities. Methods Animals received an implant of either PNIPAAm-g-PEG or PNIPAAm-g-PEG + brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The single-pellet reach-to-grasp task and the staircase-reaching task were used to assess skilled motor function associated with reaching and grasping abilities, and the cylinder task was used to assess spontaneous motor function, both before and after injury. Results Because BDNF can stimulate regenerating RST axons, the authors showed that animals receiving an implant of PNIPAAm-g-PEG with codissolved BDNF had an increased recovery rate of fine motor function when compared with a control group (PNIPAAm-g-PEG only) on both a staircase-reaching task at 4 and 8 weeks post-SCI and on a single-pellet reach-to-grasp task at 5 weeks post-SCI. In addition, spontaneous motor function, as measured in the cylinder test, recovered to preinjury values in animals receiving PNIPAAm-g-PEG + BDNF. Fluorescence immunochemistry indicated the presence of both regenerating axons and BDA-labeled fibers growing up to or within the host-graft interface in animals receiving PNIPAAm-g-PEG + BDNF. Conclusions Based on their results, the authors suggest that BDNF delivered by the scaffold promoted the growth of RST axons into the lesion, which may have contributed in part to the increased recovery rate. PMID:23581453

  7. Activation of neurons in the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus via hypothalamic projections of the nucleus of the solitary tract following refeeding of fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Renner, Eva; Szabó-Meltzer, Kinga I; Puskás, Nela; Tóth, Zsuzsanna E; Dobolyi, Arpád; Palkovits, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    We report that satiation evokes neuronal activity in the ventral subdivision of the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) as indicated by increased c-fos expression in response to refeeding in fasted rats. The absence of significant Fos activation following food presentation without consumption suggests that satiation but not craving for food elicits the activation of ventral DMH neurons. The distribution pattern of the prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP)-immunoreactive (ir) network showed remarkable correlations with the distribution of activated neurons within the DMH. The PrRP-ir fibers and terminals were immunolabeled with tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting their origin in lower brainstem instead of local, hypothalamic PrRP cells. PrRP-ir fibers arising from neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract could be followed to the hypothalamus. Unilateral transections of these fibers at pontine and caudal hypothalamic levels resulted in a disappearance of the dense PrRP-ir network in the ventral DMH while PrRP immunoreactivity was increased in transected fibers caudal to the knife cuts as well as in perikarya of the nucleus of the solitary tract ipsilateral to the transections. In accord with these changes, the number of Fos-expressing neurons following refeeding declined in the ipsilateral but remained high in the contralateral DMH. However, the Fos response in the ventral DMH was not attenuated following chemical lesion (neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment) of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, another possible source of DMH inputs. These findings suggest that PrRP projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract contribute to the activation of ventral DMH neurons during refeeding, possibly by transferring information on cholecystokinin-mediated satiation.

  8. Dose Addition Models Based on Biologically Relevant Reductions in Fetal Testosterone Accurately Predict Postnatal Reproductive Tract Alterations by a Phthalate Mixture in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Rider, Cynthia V.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Furr, Johnathan R.; Lambright, Christy R.; Gray, L. Earl

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the current study were 2-fold: (1) to test whether a mixture model of dose addition based on the fetal T production data of individual phthalates would predict the effects of a 5 phthalate mixture on androgen-sensitive postnatal male reproductive tract development, and (2) to determine the biological relevance of the reductions in fetal T to induce abnormal postnatal reproductive tract development using data from the mixture study. We administered a dose range of the mixture (60, 40, 20, 10, and 5% of the top dose used in the previous fetal T production study consisting of 300 mg/kg per chemical of benzyl butyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and 100 mg dipentyl (DPP) phthalate/kg; the individual phthalates were present in equipotent doses based on their ability to reduce fetal T production) via gavage to Sprague Dawley rat dams on GD8-postnatal day 3. We compared observed mixture responses to predictions of dose addition based on the previously published potencies of the individual phthalates to reduce fetal T production relative to a reference chemical and published postnatal data for the reference chemical (called DAref). In addition, we predicted DA (called DAall) and response addition (RA) based on logistic regression analysis of all 5 individual phthalates when complete data were available. DA ref and DA all accurately predicted the observed mixture effect for 11 of 14 endpoints. Furthermore, reproductive tract malformations were seen in 17–100% of F1 males when fetal T production was reduced by about 25–72%, respectively. PMID:26350170

  9. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the baroreceptor reflex arc: connections between the nucleus of the solitary tract and the ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the rat.

    PubMed

    Palkovits, M; Mezey, E; Fodor, M; Ganten, D; Bahner, U; Geiger, H; Heidland, A

    1995-01-01

    The primary baroreceptor area (nucleus of the solitary tract-NTS) is anatomically interconnected with the rostral ("vasomotor area") and the caudal ("vasodepressor area") ventrolateral medulla by a well-defined arc of neuronal pathways. The chemical character and the direction of these pathways have been investigated with immunohistochemical and neurochemical techniques in intact and brainstem-operated rats. The transection of the neuronal arc resulted in an accumulation of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in a small group of cells in the NTS adjacent to the area postrema, ipsilateral to the knife cut. Decreased angiotensinogen mRNA and atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations were measured in the ventrolateral medulla after the cut, and an accumulation of angiotensin II-immunoreactivity was found in neuronal perikarya in the ipsilateral NTS. Intracranial vagotomy caused marked depletions in glutamate levels in the subcommissural portion of the NTS and in the caudal ventrolateral medulla but nowhere else in the brainstem investigated including the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

  10. Content and in vitro release of endogenous amino acids in the area of the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Meeley, M P; Underwood, M D; Talman, W T; Reis, D J

    1989-12-01

    We sought to identify amino acid neurotransmitter candidates within the nucleus of the solitary tract in rats. Twenty endogenous amino acids were quantified by reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection (30-fmol limit). Micropunches (1 mm) of the intermediate area of the solitary nucleus were prepared, and the amino acid content determined. Of all the components measured, the putative transmitters Glu, Gly, gamma-aminobutyric acid, taurine, Asp, and Ala appeared in greatest concentrations. Bilateral micropunches superfused in vitro with buffered medium containing 56 mM potassium released Glu, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and Gly in a significant manner (p less than 0.05) compared with basal levels. With Glu, 78% was calcium-dependent and, therefore, presumably from nerve endings; 99% of gamma-aminobutyric acid and 42% of Gly were dependent on calcium. After removal of the nodose ganglion, a bilateral decrease in the calcium-dependent release of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid, but not Gly, was observed; decreases were significant ipsilateral to the site of ablation. We conclude that (a) Glu is a transmitter of primary afferents in the nucleus of the solitary tract; (b) glutamatergic afferents may interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid system(s) in this region; (c) Gly also may participate in the mediation and/or modulation of cardiovascular or other visceral reflexes; and (d) amino acid neurotransmission may play an integral role in the neurogenic control of arterial pressure.

  11. Manifestation of the Se, Cd and Mo levels in different components of the peripheral blood of Sprague-Dawley rats poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Fang; Sun, Xuan; Cao, Bing; Wen, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Duo-Jian; Yan, Lai-Lai; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Lu, Qing-Bin; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of exogenous element exposure via the respiratory tract on the Se, Cd and Mo concentrations in different components of the peripheral blood in rats as well as to determine the correlations of the three trace elements concentrations among the components. The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and several experimental groups treated with different doses. The rats were exposed to a mixed trace element solution through 10 days of intratracheal instillation. The whole blood of all rats was collected and separated into three parts with Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The Se, Cd and Mo levels in whole blood, plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the three trace elements increased together with the increase of the given doses (P<0.05), except Cd and Mo in the PBMCs. The three trace elements lacked linearity with the exposure doses in the PBMCs (r, 0.249-0.508), while the opposite was the case for the other components of the peripheral blood (r, 0.806-0.934). The correlation coefficients were higher (0.842-0.962) among the whole blood, plasma and RBCs than between PBMCs and other components, such as Se (0.376-0.529), Cd (0.495-0.604) and, especially, Mo (0.160-0.257). In conclusion, PBMCs might provide information about endogenous factors, and whole blood could more accurately reflect the effects of exogenous factors compared to other blood components.

  12. Cortical PKC inhibition promotes axonal regeneration of the corticospinal tract and forelimb functional recovery after cervical dorsal spinal hemisection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hu, Jianguo; She, Yun; Smith, George M; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Our previous study shows that conventional protein kinases C (cPKCs) are key signaling mediators that are activated by extracellular inhibitory molecules. Inhibition of cPKC by intrathecal infusion of a cPKC inhibitor, GÖ6976, into the site of dorsal hemisection (DH) induces regeneration of lesioned dorsal column sensory, but not corticospinal tract (CST), axons. Here, we investigated whether a direct cortical delivery of GÖ6976 into the soma of corticospinal neurons promotes regeneration of CST and the recovery of forelimb function in rats with cervical spinal cord injuries. We report that cortical delivery of GÖ6976 reduced injury-induced activation of conventional PKCα and PKCβ1 in CST neurons, promoted regeneration of CST axons through and beyond a cervical DH at C4, formed new synapses on target neurons caudal to the injury, and enhanced forelimb functional recovery in adult rats. When combined with lenti-Chondroitinase ABC treatment, cortical administration of GÖ6976 promoted even greater CST axonal regeneration and recovery of forelimb function. Thus, this study has demonstrated a novel strategy that can promote anatomical regeneration of damaged CST axons and partial recovery of forelimb function. Importantly, such an effect is critically dependent on the efficient blockage of injury-induced PKC activation in the soma of layer V CST neurons.

  13. Elevated mu-opioid receptor expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract accompanies attenuated withdrawal signs after chronic low dose naltrexone in opiate-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, E J; Rudoy, C; Mannelli, P; Oropeza, V; Qian, Y

    2006-02-15

    We previously described a decrease in withdrawal behaviors in opiate-dependent rats that were chronically treated with very low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. Attenuated expression of withdrawal behaviors correlated with decreased c-Fos expression and intracellular signal transduction elements [protein kinase A regulatory subunit II (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB)] in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. In this study, to determine whether similar cellular changes occurred in forebrain nuclei associated with drug reward, expressions of PKA and pCREB were analyzed in the ventral tegmental area, frontal cortex, striatum, and amygdala of opiate-treated rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. No significant difference in PKA or pCREB was detected in these regions following drug treatment. To examine further the cellular mechanisms in noradrenergic nuclei that could underlie attenuated withdrawal behaviors following low dose naltrexone administration, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and locus coeruleus (LC) were examined for opioid receptor (OR) protein expression. Results showed a significant increase in muOR expression in the NTS of morphine-dependent rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water, and increases in muOR expression were also found to be dose dependent. Protein expression of muOR in the LC and deltaOR in either brain region remained unchanged. In conclusion, our previously reported decreases in c-Fos and PKA expression in the NTS following pretreatment with low doses of naltrexone may be partially explained by a greater inhibition of NTS neurons resulting from increased muOR expression in this region.

  14. Immunoreactivity for Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 in the Adult Rat Oro-Gastro-Intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Nemolato, S; Ekstrom, J.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Fanni, D.; Di Felice, E.; Locci, A.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2013-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the β-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: Tβ4 was absent in salivary glands whereas Tβ10 was expressed in parotid and in submandibular glands. Tβ4 was mildly expressed in the tongue and in the esophagus, where Tβ10 was absent. A similar expression was found in the stomach, ileum and colon mucosa. In pancreas Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the Langerhans islet cells; Tβ4 was also detected in the exocrine cells. Both peptide were not expressed in liver cells. When the rat expression pattern in rat organs was compared to reactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 in humans, marked differences were found. Our data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of Tβ4 and Tβ10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. The common high expression of Tβ4 in mast cells, both in humans and in rats, represents one of the few similarities between these two species. PMID:23807296

  15. The effect of x rays, DTPA, and aspirin on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Miller, B.M.

    1983-04-01

    To measure the effect of radiation on plutonium transport, rats that were exposed to 250-kVp X rays were given /sup 238/Pu 3 days afterwards by either gavage or injection into a ligated segment of the duodenum. In a second group of experiments, rats were either injected intraduodenally with /sup 238/Pu-DTPA or administered the chelate intravenously and the /sup 238/Pu by gavage. In a third experiment, rats that had been gavaged with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of aspirin for 2 days were injected intragastrically with /sup 238/Pu nitrate. Results of the first experiment showed a dose-dependent increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption between 800 and 1500 rad of lower-body X irradiation. Intravenous or intraduodenal injections of DTPA caused a marked increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption but resulted in decreased plutonium deposition in the skeleton and liver. Retention of /sup 238/Pu in the skeleton of rats given aspirin was double that of controls, but the effect on plutonium absorption was less marked than that of DTPA.

  16. ATRAZINE-INDUCED REPRODUCTIVE TRACT ALTERATIONS AFTER TRANSPLACENTAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE IN MALE LONG-EVANS RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR wou...

  17. ATRAZINE-INDUCED REPRODUCTIVE TRACT ALTERATIONS AFTER TRANSPLACENTAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE IN LONG-EVANS RAT PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that early postnatal exposure to the common herbicide atrazine (ATR) will delay preputial separation (PPS) in Wistar rats and increase incidence of prostate inflammation in adults. To evaluate ATR exposure parameters required for pubertal delays (PPS), we used...

  18. Temporal and spatial expression of Muc2 and Muc5ac mucins during rat respiratory and digestive tracts development.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, V A; Segal-Eiras, A; Barbeito, C G; Croce, M V

    2016-02-01

    Secreted mucins constitute a crucial part of the gel that protects respiratory and digestive epithelia, being MUC2/Muc2 the predominant gel-forming mucin of the intestine while MUC5AC/Muc5ac is one of the gel-forming mucins most expressed at the airways. In this study, we have analyzed Muc2 and Muc5ac during rat development by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and RT-PCR. We demonstrated that rat Muc2 was expressed in fetal intestinal goblet cells of surface epithelium of villi and developing Lieberkühn crypts. In neonates and adults, Muc2 was expressed at luminal goblet cells of small and large intestine and at gastric mucous and glandular cells. Muc5ac protein was observed in embryonic gastric and lung samples; expression increased during development and postnatal and adult life. After birth, a low reaction was detected at the tracheal surface epithelium and glands, which increased in adults.

  19. Atrazine-induced reproductive tract alterations after transplacental and/or lactational exposure in male Long-Evans rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, Jennifer L.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Fenton, Suzanne E. . E-mail: fenton.suzanne@epa.gov

    2007-02-01

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time.

  20. Stimulation of Baroresponsive Parts of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract Produces Nitric Oxide-mediated Choroidal Vasodilation in Rat Eye

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyan; Fitzgerald, Malinda E. C.; Del Mar, Nobel; Reiner, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the ventromedial part of the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) mediate vasodilation of orbital and choroidal blood vessels, via their projection to the nitrergic pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) neurons that innervate these vessels. We recently showed that the baroresponsive part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) innervates choroidal control parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of SSN in rats. As this projection provides a means by which blood pressure (BP) signals may modulate choroidal blood flow (ChBF), we investigated if activation of baroresponsive NTS evokes ChBF increases in rat eye, using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) to measure ChBF transclerally. We found that electrical activation of ipsilateral baroresponsive NTS and its efferent fiber pathway to choroidal SSN increased mean ChBF by about 40–80% above baseline, depending on current level. The ChBF responses obtained with stimulation of baroresponsive NTS were driven by increases in both choroidal blood volume (ChBVol; i.e., vasodilation) and choroidal blood velocity (ChBVel; possibly due to orbital vessel dilation). Stimulation of baroresponsive NTS, by contrast, yielded no significant mean increases in systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP). We further found that the increases in ChBF with NTS stimulation were significantly reduced by administration of the neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nω-propyl-l-arginine (NPA), thus implicating nitrergic PPG terminals in the NTS-elicited ChBF increases. Our results show that the NTS neurons projecting to choroidal SSN do mediate increase in ChBF, and thus suggest a role of baroresponsive NTS in the BP-dependent regulation of ChBF. PMID:27774055

  1. Taste coding in the parabrachial nucleus of the pons in awake, freely licking rats and comparison with the nucleus of the solitary tract

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Michael S.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    In the rodent, the parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) receives information about taste directly from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Here we examined how information about taste quality (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) is conveyed in the PbN of awake, freely licking rats, with a focus on how this information is transformed from the incoming NTS signals. Awake rats with electrodes in the PbN had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli (5 consecutive licks; 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM citric acid, 0.01 mM quinine HCl, or 100 mM sucrose and water) or water (as a rinse) on a variable-ratio schedule. To assess temporal coding, a family of metrics that quantifies the similarity of two spike trains in terms of spike count and spike timing was used. PbN neurons (n = 49) were generally broadly tuned across taste qualities with variable response latencies. Some PbN neurons were quiescent during lick bouts, and others, some taste responsive, showed time-locked firing to the lick pattern. Compared with NTS neurons, spike timing played a larger role in signaling taste in the first 2 s of the response, contributing significantly in 78% (38/49) of PbN cells compared with 45% of NTS cells. Also, information from temporal coding increased at a faster rate as the response unfolded over time in PbN compared with NTS. Collectively, these data suggest that taste-related information from NTS converges in the PbN to enable a subset of PbN cells to carry a larger information load. PMID:24381029

  2. Total N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in hot dogs and in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of rats and mice: possible etiologic agents for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Mirvish, Sidney S; Haorah, James; Zhou, Lin; Clapper, Marge L; Harrison, Kathryn L; Povey, Andrew C

    2002-11-01

    We review evidence that red and processed meat are causes of colon cancer and that processed meat is a risk factor for childhood cancer and type 2 diabetes. Associations could be due to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) derived from nitrosation of NOC precursors (NOCPs). We review our survey of total NOC and NOCP content of foods. Only rapidly nitrosated amines, including a glycosyl amino acid, were efficiently determined as NOCPs. NOCPs in hot dogs and rat feces were partly purified by adsorption-desorption and HPLC. After nitrosation, purified hot dog fractions were directly mutagenic in Ames test. The main NOCPs in these materials may be N-glycosyl amino acids and peptides. NOC levels in rat gastrointestinal tract rose steadily from stomach to feces. NOCP levels showed similar trend but with sharp increases from stomach to duodenum. One day after Min and C57BL/6J mice were fed 4% dextran sulfate sodium to induce acute colitis, fecal NOC levels increased 1.9-fold compared with untreated mice (P < 0.05). For 7 d Swiss mice received semipurified diet, 180 g beef-pork hot dogs mixed with 820 g diet or 180 g sautéed beef mixed with 820 g diet. Fecal NOC outputs on day 7 were 3.7-5.0 (hot dog) and 2.0-2.9 (beef) times those for control groups (P < 0.002 for combined groups), perhaps reflecting higher dietary NOC intakes. Feeding a similar hot dog mixture to mice did not affect normal 7-methyldeoxyguanosine level in colonic mucosal DNA. Overall, results support the hypothesis that colonic NOCs are a cause of colon cancer.

  3. [Diamine oxidase as blood biomarker in rats and humans to GI tract toxicity of fluorouracil anti-cancer drugs].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsuhiro; Matsubara, Taketo; Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Sasaya, Shouji; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Yutaka; Moriyama, Kenji; Kouchi, Yasuhide

    2011-05-01

    Diarrhea is a side effect of a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) anti-cancer drug-induced intestinal mucosal disorder, which sometimes becomes more severe. Blood diamine oxidase (DAO; EC1. 4. 3. 6) activity is reported to be significantly correlated with activity in the small intestinal mucosal tissue, and to be a reliable indicator of small intestinal mucosal integrity and maturity. Here, we investigated whether blood DAO activity can be a biomarker for the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal disorder caused by 5-FU anti-cancer drugs, both in rats and humans. From results of the rat study, the degree of jejunal mucosal disorder caused by the 5-FU anti-cancer drug was well correlated with a decrease in blood DAO activity. Clinically, 12 out of 28 patients (43%) administered 5-FU anti-cancer drug suffered from diarrhea. The plasma DAO activity within one week of the onset of diarrhea significantly decreased compared with that before the administration. Furthermore, before drug administration, plasma DAO activity in patients suffering from diarrhea was higher than those in patients without diarrhea. Although DAO activity differs by the individual, it is a useful biomarker for estimating the degree of intestinal mucosal disorder, and possibly for estimating manifestations of diarrhea induced by 5-FU anti-cancer drug administration.

  4. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas and Salivary Glands of the Rat and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Thomas; Brander-Weber, Patricia; Dangler, Charles; Deschl, Ulrich; Elwell, Michael R.; Greaves, Peter; Hailey, Richard; Leach, Michael W.; Pandiri, Arun R.; Rogers, Arlin; Shackelford, Cynthia C.; Spencer, Andrew; Tanaka, Takuji; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for nonproliferative and proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for classifying lesions in the digestive system including the salivary glands and the exocrine pancreas of laboratory rats and mice. Most lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature, the diagnostic criteria, and the photomicrographs are also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and age related lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test items. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for the digestive system will decrease misunderstandings among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:26973378

  5. Electrical stimulation of the medullary pyramid promotes proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corticospinal tract of the adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qun; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Martin, John H.; McDonald, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous tri-potential neural stem cells (eNSCs) exist in the adult spinal cord and differentiate primarily into oligodendrocytes (OLs) and astrocytes. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that during development proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) depend on activity in neighboring axons. However, this activity-dependent development of OPCs has not been examined in the adult CNS. In the present study, we stimulated unilateral corticospinal (CS) axons of the adult rat and investigated proliferation and differentiation of OPCs in dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST). eNSCs were labeled with the mitotic indicator 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Phenotypes of proliferating cells were identified by double-immunolabeling of BrdU with a panel of antibodies to cell markers: NG2, Nkx2.2, APC, GFAP, and Glut-1. Electrical stimulation of CS axons increased BrdU labeled eNSCs and promoted the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs, but not astrocytes and endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate the importance of neural activity in regulating OPC proliferation/differentiation in the mature CNS. Selective pathway electrical stimulation could be used to promote remyelination and recovery of function in CNS injury and disease. PMID:20493923

  6. Characteristics of rostral solitary tract nucleus neurons with identified afferent connections that project to the parabrachial nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Takeshi; Bradley, Robert M

    2009-07-01

    Afferent information derived from oral chemoreceptors is transmitted to second-order neurons in the rostral solitary tract nucleus (rNST) and then relayed to other CNS locations responsible for complex sensory and motor behaviors. Here we investigate the characteristics of rNST neurons sending information rostrally to the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Afferent connections to these rNST-PBN projection neurons were identified by anterograde labeling of the chorda tympani (CT), glossopharyngeal (IX), and lingual (LV) nerves. We used voltage- and current-clamp recordings in brain slices to characterize the expression of both the transient A-type potassium current, IKA and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih, important determinants of neuronal repetitive discharge characteristics. The majority of rNST-PBN neurons express IKA, and these IKA-expressing neurons predominate in CT and IX terminal fields but were expressed in approximately half of the neurons in the LV field. rNST-PBN neurons expressing Ih were evenly distributed among CT, IX and LV terminal fields. However, expression patterns of IKA and Ih differed among CT, IX, and LV fields. IKA-expressing neurons frequently coexpress Ih in CT and IX terminal fields, whereas neurons in LV terminal field often express only Ih. After GABAA receptor block all rNST-PBN neurons responded to afferent stimulation with all-or-none excitatory synaptic responses. rNST-PBN neurons had either multipolar or elongate morphologies and were distributed throughout the rNST, but multipolar neurons were more often encountered in CT and IX terminal fields. No correlation was found between the biophysical and morphological characteristics of the rNST-PBN projection neurons in each terminal field.

  7. Caudal Nuclei Of The Rat Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract Differentially Innervate Respiratory Compartments Within The Ventrolateral Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Alheid, George F.; Jiao, Weijie; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial array of respiratory, cardiovascular, visceral and somatic afferents are relayed via the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) to the brainstem (and forebrain). Despite some degree of overlap within the NTS, specificity is maintained in central respiratory reflexes driven by 2nd order afferent relay neurons in the NTS. While the topographical arrangement of respiratory-related afferents targeting the NTS has been extensively investigated, their higher order brainstem targets beyond the NTS has only rarely been defined with any precision. Nonetheless, the various brainstem circuits serving blood gas homeostasis and airway protective reflexes must clearly receive a differential innervation from the NTS in order to evoke stimulus appropriate behavioral responses. Accordingly, we have examined the question of which specific NTS nuclei project to particular compartments within the ventral respiratory column (VRC) of the ventrolateral medulla. Our analyses of NTS labeling after retrograde tracer injections in the VRC and the nearby neuronal groups controlling autonomic function indicate a significant distinction between projections to the Bötzinger complex and preBötzinger complex compared to the remainder of the VRC. Specifically, the caudomedial NTS, including caudal portions of the medial solitary nucleus and the commissural division of NTS project relatively densely to the region of the retrotrapezoid nucleus and rostral ventrolateral medullary nucleus as well as to the rostral ventral respiratory group while avoiding the intervening Bötzinger and preBötzinger complexes. Area postrema appears to demonstrate a pattern of projections similar to that of caudal medial and commissural NTS nuclei. Other, less pronounced differential projections of lateral NTS nuclei to the various VRC compartments are additionally noted. PMID:21704133

  8. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H

    1980-10-15

    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  9. Multiple neuroanatomical tract-tracing using fluorescent Alexa Fluor conjugates of cholera toxin subunit B in rats.

    PubMed

    Conte, William L; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Reep, Roger L

    2009-01-01

    Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) is a highly sensitive retrograde neuroanatomical tracer. With the new availability of fluorescent Alexa Fluor (AF) conjugates of CTB, multiple neuroanatomical connections can be reliably studied and compared in the same animal. Here we provide a protocol that describes the use of AF-CTB for studying connections in the central nervous system of rats. The viscous properties of CTB allow small and discreet injection sites yet still show robust retrograde labeling. Furthermore, the AF conjugates are extremely bright and photostable, compared with other conventional fluorescent tracers. This protocol can also be adapted for use with other neuroanatomical tracers. Including a 7-d survival period, this protocol takes approximately 11 to 12 d to complete in its entirety.

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenases of the rat colon: comparison with other tissues of the alimentary tract and the liver.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, T; Salaspuro, M

    1996-05-01

    Intracolonic bacteria have previously been shown to produce substantial amounts of acetaldehyde during ethanol oxidation, and it has been suggested that this acetaldehyde might be associated with alcohol-related colonic disorders, as well as other alcohol-induced organ injuries. The capacity of colonic mucosa to remove this bacterial acetaldehyde by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is, however, poorly known. We therefore measured ALDH activities and determined ALDH isoenzyme profiles from different subcellular fractions of rat colonic mucosa. For comparison, hepatic, gastric, and small intestinal samples were studied similarly. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were also measured from all of these tissues. Rat colonic mucosa was found to possess detectable amounts of ALDH activity with both micromolar and millimolar acetaldehyde concentrations and in all subcellular fractions. The ALDH activities of colonic mucosa were, however, generally low when compared with the liver and stomach, and they also tended to be lower than in small intestine. Mitochondrial low K(m) ALDH2 and cytosolic ALDH with low K(m) for acetaldehyde were expressed in the colonic mucosa, whereas some cytosolic high K(m) isoenzymes found in the small intestine and stomach were not detectable in colonic samples. Cytosolic ADH activity corresponded well to ALDH activity in different tissues: in colonic mucosa, it was approximately 6 times lower than in the liver and about one-half of gastric ADH activity. ALDH activity of the colonic mucosa should, thus, be sufficient for the removal of acetaldehyde produced by colonic mucosal ADH during ethanol oxidation. It may, however, be insufficient for the removal of the acetaldehyde produced by intracolonic bacteria. This may lead to the accumulation of acetaldehyde in the colon and colonic mucosa after ingestion of ethanol that might, at least after chronic heavy alcohol consumption, contribute to the development of alcohol-related colonic morbidity

  11. Nucleus of the solitary tract (pro)renin receptor-mediated antihypertensive effect involves nuclear factor-κB-cytokine signaling in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Zubcevic, Jasenka; Jun, Joo Y; Lamont, Gwyneth; Murça, Tatiane M; Shi, Peng; Yuan, Wei; Lin, Fan; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Li, Qiuhong; Sumners, Colin; Raizada, Mohan K; Shan, Zhiying

    2013-03-01

    The importance of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) in the function of the central nervous system is increasingly evident because PRR seems to play a role in neuronal control of cardiovascular function. PRR expression is elevated in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that altered activity of PRR in the NTS is linked to hypertension. Eight weeks of chronic knockdown of the NTS PRR, using recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2)-PRR-small hairpain RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene transduction, caused a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the SHR (shRNA, 173±5; Control, 151±6 mm Hg) but not in Wistar Kyoto rats (shRNA, 108±7; Control, 106±6 mm Hg). The MAP elevation in the SHR was associated with decreased inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, C-C motif ligand 5, and their transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB. Consistent with the pressor effects of the PRR knockdown, acute bilateral NTS injection of human renin (2 pmol/side) decreased MAP and heart rate (HR) in SHR (ΔMAP, -38±4 mm Hg; Δheart rate, -40±10 bpm), with negligible responses in Wistar Kyoto rats (ΔMAP, -4±3 mm Hg; Δheart rate, -12±7 bpm). These effects in SHR were attenuated (80%) by prorenin handle region peptide but were not affected by angiotensin II type 1 or angiotensin II type 2 receptor blockers. Finally, PRR activation in SHR neuronal cultures by prorenin activated nuclear factor-κB and increased mRNA levels of interleukin-1β (250-fold), tumor necrosis factor-α (32-fold), interleukin-6 (35-fold), C-C motif ligand 5 (12-fold), and interleukin-10 (7-fold) in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent but angiotensin II type 1 receptor-independent manner. Therefore, NTS PRR mediates antihypertensive effects via an angiotensin II-independent mechanism in SHR, which involves stimulation of the nuclear factor-κB-cytokine signaling pathway.

  12. N-nitroso compounds in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and in the feces of mice with induced colitis or fed hot dogs or beef.

    PubMed

    Mirvish, Sidney S; Haorah, James; Zhou, Lin; Hartman, Melissa; Morris, Chantey R; Clapper, Marge L

    2003-03-01

    Because colonic N-nitroso compounds (NOC) may be a cause of colon cancer, we determined total NOC levels by Walters' method in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of rodents: (i) feces of C57BL mice fed chow and semi-purified diets contained 3.2 +/- 0.4 and 0.46 +/- 0.06 NOC/g, respectively (P < 0.01, mean +/- SD). (ii) NOC levels for gastrointestinal contents of three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats fed chow diet were 0.9 +/- 0.05 (diet), 0.2 +/- 0 (stomach), 0.3-0.4 (small intestine), 0.7-1.6 (cecum and colon) and 2.6 +/- 0.6 (feces) nmol/g. NOC precursor (NOCP) levels (measured as NOC after mild nitrosation) for two rat groups fed chow diet showed a 16-fold increase from stomach to proximal small intestine (mean, 6.2 micromol/g), and a 1.7-fold increase from distal colon to feces (mean, 11.6 micromol/g). (iii) Eight Min and five C57BL/6J mice received 4% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water on days 1-4 to induce acute colitis. This increased fecal NOC levels 1.9-fold on day 5 in both strains (P < or = 0.04), probably due to NO synthase-derived nitrosating agents in the colon. (iv) Following studies on humans fed beef [Hughes et al. (2001) Carcinogenesis, 22, 199], Swiss mice received semi-purified diets mixed with 18% of beef plus pork hot dogs or sautéed beef for 7 days. On day 7, individual 24-h fecal NOC outputs were determined. In three hot dog and two beef groups with 5 mice/group, mean fecal NOC output/day was 3.7-5.0 (hot dog) and 2.0-2.9 (beef) times that for control groups fed semi-purified diet alone (P < 0.002 for each of combined groups). These groups showed little change in fecal NOCP output. (v) Initial purification of rat fecal NOCP by adsorption-desorption and HPLC is described. Results should help evaluate the view that colonic NOC causes colon cancer associated with colitis and ingestion of red and nitrite-preserved meat.

  13. Intramuscular Neurotrophin-3 normalizes low threshold spinal reflexes, reduces spasms and improves mobility after bilateral corticospinal tract injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kathe, Claudia; Hutson, Thomas Haynes; McMahon, Stephen Brendan; Moon, Lawrence David Falcon

    2016-01-01

    Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity. Neurotrophin-3 normalized the short latency Hoffmann reflex to a treated hand muscle as well as low threshold polysynaptic spinal reflexes involving afferents from other treated muscles. Neurotrophin-3 also enhanced locomotor recovery. Furthermore, the balance of inhibitory and excitatory boutons in the spinal cord and the level of an ion co-transporter in motor neuron membranes required for normal reflexes were normalized. Our findings pave the way for Neurotrophin-3 as a therapy that treats the underlying causes of spasticity and not only its symptoms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18146.001 PMID:27759565

  14. Inhibition of rat respiratory-tract cytochrome P-450 isozymes following inhalation of m-Xylene: possible role of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Anu; Foy, J W-D; Schatz, Robert

    2003-06-27

    Xylene is used as a solvent in paints, cleaning agents, and gasoline. Exposure occurs primarily by inhalation. The volatility and lipophilicity of the xylenes make the lung and nasal mucosa the primary target organs. m-Xylene (m-XYL) has been shown to alter cytochrome P-450 (CYP) activity in an organ- and isozyme-specific manner. The purpose of this work was to determine if the metabolism of m-XYL to the inhibitory metabolite m-tolualdehyde (m-ALD) is the cause of inhibition of CYP isozymes following in vivo inhalation exposure to m-XYL (100, 300 ppm), 3-methylbenzyl alcohol (3-MBA) (50, 100 ppm), or m-ALD (50, 100 ppm). A single 6-h inhalation exposure of rats to m-XYL inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1, 2E1, and 4B1 in a dose-dependent manner. Inhalation of 3-MBA inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1 and 4B1 in a dose-dependent manner. m-ALD inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1 and 2E1 in a dose-dependent manner, while 4B1 activity was increased dose dependently. Nasal mucosa CYP 2B1 and 2E1 activity was inhibited following exposure to m-XYL dose dependently, 3-MBA inhibited nasal mucosa CYPs 2E1 and 4B1 dose dependently. CYPs 2B1, 2E1, and 4B1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion following inhalation of m-ALD. Following high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, m-ALD was detected after in vivo exposure to m-XYL, m-ALD, and 3-MBA in a dose-dependent manner, with highest m-ALD levels in the nasal mucosa and lung. Alteration of cytochrome P-450 activity by m-XYL could result in increased or decreased toxicity, changing the metabolic profiles of xenobiotics in coexposure scenarios in an organ-specific manner.

  15. Role of protein kinase A in phosphorylation of NMDA receptor 1 subunits in dorsal horn and spinothalamic tract neurons after intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, X; Lin, Q; Willis, W D

    2002-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism for regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. The NMDA receptor 1 subunit (NR1) is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) on serine 890 and 897. We have recently reported that there is enhanced phosphorylation of NR1 on serine 897 in dorsal horn and spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons after intradermal injection of capsaicin (CAP) in rats [Zou et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20, 6989-6997]. Whether or not this phosphorylation, which develops during central sensitization following CAP injection, is mediated by PKA remains to be determined. In this study, western blots and immunofluorescence staining were employed to observe if pretreatment with a PKA inhibitor, N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, HCl (H89), blocks the enhanced phosphorylation of NR1 on serine 897 following injection of CAP into the glabrous skin of one hind paw of anesthetized rats. Western blots showed that pretreatment with H89 caused a decrease in CAP-induced phosphorylation of NR1 protein in spinal cord segments L(4)-S(1). In experiments using immunofluorescence staining, the numbers of phospho-NR1-like immunoreactive (p-NR1-LI) neurons seen after CAP injection were significantly decreased in the dorsal horn of the L(4)-L(5) segments on the side ipsilateral to the injection after PKA was inhibited. When STT cells were labeled by microinjection of the retrograde tracer, fluorogold, we found that the proportion of p-NR1-LI STT cells on the side ipsilateral to the injection in the superficial laminae of spinal cord segments L(4)-L(5) was markedly reduced when H89 was administered intrathecally before CAP injection. However, the proportion of p-NR1-LI STT cells in deep laminae was unchanged unless the PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride, was co-administered with H89. Combined with our previous findings, the present results indicate that NR1 in spinal dorsal horn neurons, including the superficial dorsal horn STT

  16. Characterization of obestatin- and ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of rats: an immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Furnes, Marianne W; Stenström, Björn; Kulseng, Bård; Chen, Duan

    2008-03-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. We have morphologically characterized the cells that produce obestatin and ghrelin in new-born and adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were freely fed, fasted, or subjected to gastric bypass surgery or reserpine treatment. Tissue samples collected from the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas were examined by double-immunofluorescence staining, immunoelectron microscopy, and conventional electron microscopy. Obestatin was present in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, and pancreas. In the stomach, differences were noted in the development of obestatin- and preproghrelin-immunreactive (IR) cells on the one hand and ghrelin-IR cells on the other, particularly 2 weeks after birth. Preproghrelin- and obestatin-IR cells were more numerous than ghrelin-IR cells in the stomach, suggesting the lack of ghrelin in some A-like cells. Most obestatin-producing cells in the stomach were distributed in the basal part of the oxyntic mucosa; these cells co-localized with chromogranin A (pancreastatin) and vesicle monoamine transporters type 1 and 2, but not with serotonin or histidine decarboxylase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the obestatin- and ghrelin-producing cells to be A-like cells, characterized by numerous highly electron-dense granules containing ghrelin and obestatin. Some granules exhibited an even electron density with thin electron-lucent halos, suggestive of monoamines. Feeding status, gastric bypass surgery, and reserpine treatment had no obvious effect on the A-like cells. In the pancreas, obestatin was present in the peripheral part of the islets, with a distribution distinct from that of glucagon-producing A cells, insulin-producing beta cells, and cells producing pancreatic polypeptide Y. Thus, obestatin and ghrelin co-localize with an anticipated monoamine in A-like cells in the stomach, and obestatin is found in pancreatic islets.

  17. Three-Dimensional Histology Volume Reconstruction of Axonal Tract Tracing Data: Exploring Topographical Organization in Subcortical Projections from Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zakiewicz, Izabela M.; Majka, Piotr; Wójcik, Daniel K.; Bjaalie, Jan G.; Leergaard, Trygve B.

    2015-01-01

    Topographical organization is a hallmark of the mammalian brain, and the spatial organization of axonal connections in different brain regions provides a structural framework accommodating specific patterns of neural activity. The presence, amount, and spatial distribution of axonal connections are typically studied in tract tracing experiments in which axons or neurons are labeled and examined in histological sections. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction techniques are used to achieve more complete visualization and improved understanding of complex topographical relationships. 3-D reconstruction approaches based on manually or semi-automatically recorded spatial points representing axonal labeling have been successfully applied for investigation of smaller brain regions, but are not practically feasible for whole-brain analysis of multiple regions. We here reconstruct serial histological images from four whole brains (originally acquired for conventional microscopic analysis) into volumetric images that are spatially registered to a 3-D atlas template. The aims were firstly to evaluate the quality of the 3-D reconstructions and the usefulness of the approach, and secondly to investigate axonal projection patterns and topographical organization in rat corticostriatal and corticothalamic pathways. We demonstrate that even with the limitations of the original routine histological material, the 3-D reconstructed volumetric images allow efficient visualization of tracer injection sites and axonal labeling, facilitating detection of spatial distributions and across-case comparisons. Our results further show that clusters of S1 corticostriatal and corticothalamic projections are distributed within narrow, elongated or spherical subspaces extending across the entire striatum / thalamus. We conclude that histology volume reconstructions facilitate mapping of spatial distribution patterns and topographical organization. The reconstructed image volumes are shared via the

  18. Three-Dimensional Histology Volume Reconstruction of Axonal Tract Tracing Data: Exploring Topographical Organization in Subcortical Projections from Rat Barrel Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zakiewicz, Izabela M; Majka, Piotr; Wójcik, Daniel K; Bjaalie, Jan G; Leergaard, Trygve B

    2015-01-01

    Topographical organization is a hallmark of the mammalian brain, and the spatial organization of axonal connections in different brain regions provides a structural framework accommodating specific patterns of neural activity. The presence, amount, and spatial distribution of axonal connections are typically studied in tract tracing experiments in which axons or neurons are labeled and examined in histological sections. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction techniques are used to achieve more complete visualization and improved understanding of complex topographical relationships. 3-D reconstruction approaches based on manually or semi-automatically recorded spatial points representing axonal labeling have been successfully applied for investigation of smaller brain regions, but are not practically feasible for whole-brain analysis of multiple regions. We here reconstruct serial histological images from four whole brains (originally acquired for conventional microscopic analysis) into volumetric images that are spatially registered to a 3-D atlas template. The aims were firstly to evaluate the quality of the 3-D reconstructions and the usefulness of the approach, and secondly to investigate axonal projection patterns and topographical organization in rat corticostriatal and corticothalamic pathways. We demonstrate that even with the limitations of the original routine histological material, the 3-D reconstructed volumetric images allow efficient visualization of tracer injection sites and axonal labeling, facilitating detection of spatial distributions and across-case comparisons. Our results further show that clusters of S1 corticostriatal and corticothalamic projections are distributed within narrow, elongated or spherical subspaces extending across the entire striatum / thalamus. We conclude that histology volume reconstructions facilitate mapping of spatial distribution patterns and topographical organization. The reconstructed image volumes are shared via the

  19. A HYBRID CFD-PBPK MODEL OF INHALED CHLORINE GAS UPTAKE AND TISSUE DOSIMETRY IN THE ISOLATED UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT (URT) OF F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine (Cl2), an important commercial gas, is highly reactive in water, causing irritant effects in the respiratory tract on inhalation. Nasal extraction of Cl2 is high and resultant lesions in the respiratory tract show a proximal to distal distribution ...

  20. Spinothalamic and spinohypothalamic tract neurons in the cervical enlargement of rats. II. Responses to innocuous and noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Dado, R J; Katter, J T; Giesler, G J

    1994-03-01

    1. The goal of this study was to gather data that would increase our understanding of nociceptive processing by spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons that receive inputs from the hand and arm. Fifty neurons in the cervical enlargement of urethan-anesthetized rats were antidromically activated from the contralateral posterior thalamus. A stimulating electrode was moved systematically within an anterior-posterior plane in the thalamus until a point was located where the smallest amount of current antidromically activated the neuron. The antidromic thresholds at each of these lowest threshold points was < or = 30 microA; the mean antidromic threshold was 15.4 +/- 1.0 (SE) microA. Lowest threshold points were found primarily in the posterior thalamic group (Po), zona incerta, and in or near the supraoptic decussation. 2. The recording sites of 47 neurons were marked and recovered. Recording sites were located in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH, n = 15), deep dorsal horn (DDH, n = 31), and ventral horn (n = 1). Recording sites were located across the mediolateral extent of the SDH. Within the DDH, recording sites were concentrated laterally in nucleus proprius and dorsally in the lateral reticulated area. The locations of the recording points confirm previous anatomic descriptions of STT neurons in the cervical enlargement. 3. Cutaneous excitatory receptive fields were restricted to the ipsilateral forepaw or forelimb in 67% (10/15) of the neurons recorded in the SDH and 42% (13/31) of the neurons recorded in the DDH. Neurons having larger, more complex receptive fields were also commonly encountered. Thirty-three percent (5/15) of the neurons recorded in the SDH and 58% (18/31) recorded in the DDH had receptive fields that were often discontinuous and included areas of the ipsilateral shoulder, thorax, and head, including the face. 4. Innocuous and noxious mechanical stimuli were applied to the receptive field of each neuron. Fifty percent (25/50) responded to innocuous

  1. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidneys and ... be a sign of diabetes . continue What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys ...

  2. Effects of estradiol on the development of sexual dimorphism in the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract in the rat.

    PubMed

    Collado, P; Valencia, A; Del Abril, A; Rodríguez-Zafra, M; Pérez-Laso, C; Segovia, S; Guillamón, A

    1993-10-15

    Orchidectomized males injected with a single dose of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of birth (D1) showed a volume and neuron number in the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) similar to that of control males. However, orchidectomized males and those orchidectomized and given a single dose of DHT on D1 showed a decrease in BAOT volume and neuron number with respect to control males. These results support the notion that estradiol induces the morphological masculinization of this structure. The inability of DHT in counteracting the effect of orchidectomy is addressed taking into account the inhibitory action of androgens.

  3. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  4. Pubertal administration of DEHP delays puberty, suppresses testosterone production and inhibits reproductive tract development in male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    While is clear that exposure to high dosage levels of some phthalates delays the onset of puberty in the male rat it has been hypothesized that low levels of DEHP accelerate puberty by enhancing testicular androgen synthesis. The current study was designed to determine if the do...

  5. 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) DISRUPTS EARLY MORPHOGENETIC EVENTS THAT FORM THE LOWER REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN FEMALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In female rats, in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during critical periods of organogenesis causes a permanent thread of tissue across the vaginal opening, which consists of a core of mesenchyme surrounded by keratinized epithelia. The objective of t...

  6. Diamine oxidase as a marker of intestinal mucosal injury and the effect of soluble dietary fiber on gastrointestinal tract toxicity after intravenous 5-fluorouracil treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukudome, Ian; Kobayashi, Michiya; Dabanaka, Ken; Maeda, Hiromichi; Okamoto, Ken; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Baba, Ryoko; Kumagai, Nana; Oba, Koji; Fujita, Mamoru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    The level of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity is associated with the maturation and integrity of small intestinal mucosa. This study in rats investigated whether a decreased level of plasma DAO could reflect the severity of mucosal injury due to intravenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. The beneficial effect of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) on preventing diarrhea after 5-FU treatment was also examined. To induce diarrhea, 5-FU (50 mg/kg/day for four days) was administered via the tail vein with or without SDF supplementation. After 5-FU treatment, the majority of rats developed moderate to severe diarrhea, and levels of plasma DAO activity significantly decreased compared to those of control group (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed disarrangement of the small intestinal villi. Contrarily, the rats supplemented with SDF had diarrhea less frequently (50.0 vs. 91.7 %, P = 0.025) on day five, and DAO activity levels were significantly higher than in those rats administered 5-FU alone (8.25 ± 5.34 vs. 5.50 ± 4.32, P = 0.023). In conclusion, plasma DAO activity decreases in response to severe intestinal mucosal injury after 5-FU treatment, and SDF supplementation might be a practical and useful treatment for reducing the intestinal toxicity of 5-FU.

  7. Segmental distribution of the motor neuron columns that supply the rat hindlimb: A muscle/motor neuron tract-tracing analysis targeting the motor end plates.

    PubMed

    Mohan, R; Tosolini, A P; Morris, R

    2015-10-29

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) that disrupts input from higher brain centers to the lumbar region of the spinal cord results in paraplegia, one of the most debilitating conditions affecting locomotion. Non-human primates have long been considered to be the most appropriate animal to model lower limb dysfunction. More recently, however, there has been a wealth of scientific information gathered in the rat regarding the central control of locomotion. Moreover, rodent models of SCI at lumbar levels have been widely used to validate therapeutic scenarios aimed at the restoration of locomotor activities. Despite the growing use of the rat as a model of locomotor dysfunction, knowledge regarding the anatomical relationship between spinal cord motor neurons and the hindlimb muscles that they innervate is incomplete. Previous studies performed in our laboratory have shown the details of the muscle/motor neuron topographical relationship for the mouse forelimb and hindlimb as well as for the rat forelimb. The present analysis aims to characterize the segmental distribution of the motor neuron pools that innervate the muscles of the rat hindlimb, hence completing this series of studies. The location of the motor end plate (MEP) regions on the main muscles of the rat hindlimb was first revealed with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. For each muscle under scrutiny, injections of Fluoro-Gold were then performed along the length of the MEP region. Targeting the MEPs gave rise to columns of motor neurons that span more spinal cord segments than previously reported. The importance of this study is discussed in terms of its application to gene therapy for SCI.

  8. Acute stress modulates the histamine content of mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract through interleukin-1 and corticotropin-releasing factor release in rats.

    PubMed

    Eutamene, Helene; Theodorou, Vassilia; Fioramonti, Jean; Bueno, Lionel

    2003-12-15

    Stress results in activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and affects illnesses such as neuroinflammatory syndrome. In vivo acute stress (restraint stress) induces gastrointestinal function disturbances through colonic mast cell activation. This study investigated the effect of acute stress in histamine content of colonic mast cells, and the central role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in this effect. After a restraint stress session colonic segments were isolated and submitted to three protocols: (i) determination of histamine levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after incubation with 48/80 compound, (ii) evaluation by histology of mucosal mast cell (MMC) number and (iii) determination of histamine immunoreactivity of MMC. These procedures were conducted (1) in sham or stressed rats, (2) in stressed rats previously treated with intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) IL-1ra or alpha-helical CRF9-41, (3) in naive rats pretreated with I.C.V. rhIL-1beta or CRF and (4) in rats treated with central IL-1beta and CRF plus alpha-helical CRF and IL-1ra, respectively (cross-antagonism reaction). Acute stress increases histamine content in colonic mast cells, without degranulation. I.C.V. pretreatment with IL-1ra or alpha-helical CRF9-41 blocked stress-induced mast cell histamine content increase. Both I.C.V. rhIL-1beta and CRF injections reproduced the stress-linked changes. I.C.V. treatment with CRF antagonist blocked I.C.V. rhIL-1beta-induced mast cell histamine content increase, whereas central IL-1ra did not affect stress events induced by I.C.V. CRF administration. These results suggest that in rats acute stress increases colonic mast cell histamine content. This effect is mediated by the release in cascade in the brain first of IL-1 and secondly of CRF.

  9. Enhanced Behavioral Recovery from Sensorimotor Cortex Lesions After Pyramidotomy in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fanardjian, V. V.; Gevorkyan, O. V.; Mallina, R. K.; Melik-Moussian, A. B.; Meliksetyan, I. B.

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral transection of the bulbar pyramid, performed before the ablation of the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex, has been shown to facilitate the recovery of operantly conditioned reflexes and compensatory processes in rats. Such enhanced behaviorai recovery was absent when only the sensorimotor cortex was ablated. This phenomenon is explained by the switching of motor activity under the control of the cortico-rubrospinal system. Switching of the descending influences is accomplished through the following loop: cortico-rubrai projectionred nucleus-inferior olive-cerebellum-thalamuscerebral cortex. This suggests that a preliminary lesion of the peripheral part of the system, represented by a descending spinal projection, facilitates the recovery processes to develop during the subsequent destruction of its central part. PMID:11486486

  10. Antimicrobial agent, tetracycline, enhanced upper alimentary tract Candida albicans infection and its related mucosal proliferation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sano, Tomoya; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Narama, Isao

    2012-10-01

    Alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed proliferative changes in the forestomach, accompanied by chronic inflammation, and one lesion progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without distant metastasis. The authors demonstrated that these lesions might be caused by Candida albicans infection. Antimicrobial therapy, particularly tetracycline treatment, has been blamed for a reduction in the number of competing bacterial organisms, which is frequently mentioned as a cause of candidiasis. The objective of this study is to ascertain whether or not tetracycline treatment can accelerate early-onset of C. albicans infection and the proliferative changes in this diabetic model. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were given chlorinated water (AL group) and tetracycline solution (0.1% during week 1 and 0.01% thereafter) as drinking water (AT group). They were sacrificed after 25 weeks of drinking the treated water. The infection rate with C. albicans in the AT group was significantly higher than in the AL group. The incidence and severity of the squamous cell hyperplasia were enhanced in the AT group compared to the AL group. The proliferative lesions were consistently accompanied by inflammation and C. albicans infection in both groups. SCC was detected in one case in the AT group. These findings demonstrate that tetracycline induces C. albicans infection and enhances forestomach proliferative lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  11. [Comparative analysis of the susceptibility and productivity of respiratory tract target cells of mice and rats exposed to inflienza virus in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhukov, V A; Shishkina, L N; Sergeev, A A; Malkova, E M; Riabchikova, E I; Petrishchenko, V A; Sergeev, A N; Ustiuzhanina, N V; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Vorob'ev, A A

    2008-01-01

    The levels of susceptibility to influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2 and the virus yield were determined using primary cells of the trachea and lungs of CD-1 mice and Wistar rats, and for 3 sets of cells obtained from primary lung cells of the both species by centrifugation in the gradient of density and by sedimentation on a surface. The values of ID50 virus dose for 10(6) cells and virus yield per 1 infected cell determined for primary mice cells were 4.0+/-0.47 and 3.2+/-0.27 IgEID50 (lung cells), 3.8+/-0.17 and 3.3+/-0.20 IgEID50 (tracheal cells), and those determined for primary rat cells were 4.0+/-0.35 and 2.1+/-0.24 IgEID50 (lung cells), 3.7+/-0.27 and 2.2+/-0.46 IgEID50 (tracheal cells). The values of ID50 and yield measured for mixtures of cells obtained from primary lung cells by centrifugation in gradient of density and by sedimentation on a surface differed insignificantly (p = 0.05) from the values of the corresponding parameters measured for lung and tracheal cells for both rats and mice. The analysis of data on the variation of the concentrations of different cell types in the experimental cell mixtures shows that type 1 and 2 alveolocytes possess significantly lower (p = 0.05) susceptibility and productivity vs. ciliated cells of the both species. The investigation was conducted within the frame of the ISTC/DARPA#450p project.

  12. Hypoxia may increase rat insulin mRNA levels by promoting binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the pyrimidine-rich insulin mRNA 3'-untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Tillmar, Linda; Welsh, Nils

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent reports identify the 3'-UTR of insulin mRNA as crucial for control of insulin messenger stability. This region contains a pyrimidine-rich sequence, which is similar to the hypoxia-responsive mRNA-stabilizing element of tyrosine hydroxylase. This study aimed to determine whether hypoxia affects insulin mRNA levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat islets were incubated at normoxic or hypoxic conditions and with or without hydrogen peroxide and a nitric oxide donor. Insulin mRNA was determined by Northern hybridization. Islet homogenates were used for electrophoretic mobility shift assay with an RNA-oligonucleotide, corresponding to the pyrimidine-rich sequence of the 3'-UTR of rat insulin I mRNA. The expression of reporter gene mRNA, in islets transfected with reporter gene constructs containing the wild-type or mutated insulin mRNA pyrimidine-rich sequences, was measured by semiquantitive RT-PCR. RESULTS: Insulin mRNA was increased in response to hypoxia. This was paralleled by increased binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the pyrimidine-rich sequence of the 3'-UTR of insulin mRNA, which was counteracted by hydrogen peroxide. The reporter gene mRNA level containing the wild-type binding site was not increased in response to hypoxia, but mutation of the site resulted in a destabilization of the mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: The complete understanding of different diabetic conditions requires the elucidation of mechanisms that control insulin gene expression. Our data show that hypoxia may increase insulin mRNA levels by promoting the binding of PTB to the insulin mRNA 3'-UTR. Hydrogen peroxide abolishes the hypoxic effect indicating involvement of reactive oxygen species and/or the redox potential in the oxygen-signaling pathway. PMID:12359957

  13. Congenital optic tract hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Fujio, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taylor, David

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of isolated unilateral optic tract hypoplasia, described only twice previously. Bilateral optic disk hypoplasia was seen ophthalmoscopically and visual field studies showed an incongruous right homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hypoplasia of both optic nerves and the left optic tract. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography mapping correlated well with the visual field studies.

  14. Nonspecific labeling limits the utility of Cre-Lox bred CST-YFP mice for studies of corticospinal tract regeneration.

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Rafer; Steward, Oswald

    2015-12-15

    Studies of axon regeneration in the spinal cord often assess regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Emx1-Cre x Thy1-STOP-YFP mice have been reported to have yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) selectively expressed in forebrain neurons leading to genetic labeling of CST axons in the spinal cord, and it was suggested that these CST-YFP mice would be useful for studies of CST regeneration. Because regeneration past a lesion may involve only a few axons, the presence of labeled non-CST axons compromises interpretation. We show here that in CST-YFP mice, some YFP-labeled axons are not from the CST. Specifically, YFP-labeled axons are present in regions beyond those with anterogradely labeled CST axons, most YFP-labeled axons beyond established CST locations do not undergo Wallerian degeneration following a large lesion of the sensorimotor cortex, some rubrospinal and reticulospinal neurons are labeled with YFP, and some YFP-labeled cells in the spinal gray matter have YFP-labeled projections into the spinal cord white matter. We further demonstrate that the density of YFP-labeled axon arbors hinders tracing of single axons to their point of origin in the main descending tracts. In light of recent advances in 3D imaging for visualizing axons in unsectioned blocks of spinal cord, we also assessed CST-YFP mice for 3D imaging and found that YFP fluorescence in CST-YFP mice is faint for clearing-based 3D imaging in comparison with fluorescence in Thy1-YFP-H mice and fluorescence of mini-ruby biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Overall, the nonspecific and faint YFP labeling in CST-YFP mice limits their utility for assessments of CST axon regeneration.

  15. [Effect of green tea (matcha) on gastrointestinal tract absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rats].

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Matsueda, T; Iida, T

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents the liver distribution and fecal excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) congeners and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) congeners, in male rats fed with powdered green tea (matcha). The rats were given a treatment diet containing 10% matcha for the first five days. Then, the animals were administered 4 g of 10% matcha diet containing 0.5 ml of the casual rice-bran oil of Yusho that had occurred in the Southwest part of Japan in 1968 and kept on the same diet for another five days. The fecal excretion of PCB, PCDF and PCDD in the group fed with 10% matcha were 4.4, 2.4-9.1 and 2.5-4.7 times higher (p < 0.01), respectively, than that in the control group. The liver distribution of PCB, PCDF and PCDD in the same groups were 79%, 20-75% and 26-67% of the control group, respectively. These findings suggest that administration of matcha is useful as a treatment of Yusho patients exposed to PCB, PCDF and PCDD.

  16. Effects of in utero exposure to DI(n-Butyl) phthalate on development of male reproductive tracts in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Sung; Jung, Ki Kyung; Kim, Soon Sun; Kang, Il Hyun; Baek, Jung Hee; Nam, Hye-Seon; Hong, Soon-Keun; Lee, Byung Mu; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki Wan; Kim, Hyung Sik; Han, Soon Young; Kang, Tae Seok

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) administration on male reproductive organ development in F1 Sprague-Dawley rats following in utero exposure. During gestation days (GD) 10-19, pregnant rats were administered daily, orally, DBP at 250, 500, or 700 mg/kg or flutamide (1, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg/d) as a positive control. The male offspring were sacrificed at 31 d of age. DBP and flutamide dose-dependently significantly increased the incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in F1 male offspring. The weights of testes and accessory sex organs (epididymides, seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC), and Cowper's glands) were significantly reduced in DBP-treated animals. Furthermore, cauda agenesis of epididymides and ventral prostate atrophy were observed in high-dose 700-mg/kg DBP males. Anogenital distance (AGD) and levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone were significantly decreased in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In particular, the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase type 2 in the proximal penis was markedly depressed following administration of DBP (700 mg/kg/d) or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d). The expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the urethral epithelium of the proximal penis was significantly less in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)- or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In addition, DBP dose-dependently significantly increased the expression of estrogen receptor (ER α) in the undescended testis. Data demonstrated that in utero exposure to DBP produced several abnormal responses in male reproductive organs, and these effects may be due to disruption of the stage-specific expression of genes related to androgen-dependent organs development.

  17. Electrophysiological characterisation of tachykinin receptors in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Maubach, Karen A; Jones, Roland S G

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown antagonists at the NK1 subtype of receptor for tachykinins are anti-emetics and suggested that this may result from blockade of tachykinin-mediated synaptic transmission at a central site in the emetic reflex. We have used intracellular recording in vitro to study the pharmacology of tachykinins in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). Neurones in the NST were depolarized by substance P (SP), the presumed endogenous ligand for the NK1 receptor and these effects were mimicked by the NK1 agonists, SP-O-methylester (SPOMe), GR73632 and septide; however, SP was nearly an order of magnitude less potent than the latter two agonists. In the DMNV, SP and NK1 receptor agonists evoked similar depolarising responses but SP appeared to be more potent than in the NST and was closer in potency to the other agonists. NK1-receptor antagonists blocked responses to septide and GR73632 in the NST but had little effect on responses to SP and SPOMe. In contrast, in the DMNV the NK1-receptor antagonists blocked responses to septide and GR73632 but also reduced responses to SP and SPOMe. Neurokinin A (NKA) was almost equipotent with septide and GR73632 in depolarizing both NST and DMNV neurones but these effects were not mimicked by a specific NK2-receptor agonist. Responses to NKA were unaffected by an NK2-receptor antagonist; however, the depolarizing effects of NKA were blocked by NK1-receptor antagonists. Neurones in both DMNV and NST were unaffected by the endogenous NK3-receptor ligand, neurokinin B and by a specific agonist for this site, senktide. The results with NK1 receptor agonists and antagonists suggest that the septide-sensitive NK1 site is involved in the excitation of both NST and DMNV neurones. The ‘classical' NK1 receptor may play more of a role in the DMNV and a third unknown site may be responsible for the depolarizing response to SP in the NST. The effects of NKA are best interpreted as an

  18. [Effects of hypothalamic microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on estral cycle and morphology of the genital tract in the female rat (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sala, M A; Oteui, J T; Benedetti, W I

    1975-01-01

    To determine whether central catecholaminergic pathways are involved in the neural contral of gonadotrophin secretion, they were interrupted at the hypothalamic level by microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The effects on ovulation, estral cycle and ovarian and uterine histology were studied. Microinjections of 50 mug of 6-OHDA hydrobromyde were made bilaterally into the anterolateral hypothalamus in a group of rats. Another group was injected with 25 mug of 6-OHDA, while a control group recieved an equivalent volume (5 mul) of saline with ascorbic acid. Animals injected with 50 mug of 6-OHDA showed blockade of ovulation, vaginal cytology characteristics of persistent estrous, polyfollicular ovaries and enlarged uteri with hypertrophic endometrial glands. In the group injected with 25 mug, similiar effects were demonstrated, but the number of affected animals was smaller than that in the 50 mug group. Control animals dit not show modifications, either in estral cycle or in ovarian and uterine histology. These results suggest that 6-OHDA injected into the anterolateral hypothalmus interferes with catecholaminergic pathways that participate in the neural control of ovulation.

  19. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  20. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended.

  1. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    PubMed

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions.

  2. Rat Bite Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Rat Bite Fever Health Issues Listen ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  4. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs.

  5. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case–control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease. We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease. We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03–25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6–204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3–500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002). The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:27442665

  6. Xenobiotic Transporter Expression along the Male Genital Tract1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Wright, Stephen H.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2015-01-01

    The male genital tract plays an important role in protecting sperm by forming a distinct compartment separate from the body which limits exposure to potentially toxic substrates. Transporters along this tract can influence the distribution of xenobiotics into the male genital tract through efflux back into the blood or facilitating the accumulation of toxicants. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive mRNA expression of 30 xenobiotic transporters in caput and cauda regions of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The epididymis was found to express at least moderate levels of 18 transporters, vas deferens 15, seminal vesicles 23, and prostate 18. Constitutive expression of these xenobiotic transporters in the male genital tract may provide insight into the xenobiotics that can potentially be transported into these tissues and may provide the molecular mechanism for site specific toxicity of select agents. PMID:24814985

  7. Xenobiotic transporter expression along the male genital tract.

    PubMed

    Klein, David M; Wright, Stephen H; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2014-08-01

    The male genital tract plays an important role in protecting sperm by forming a distinct compartment separate from the body which limits exposure to potentially toxic substrates. Transporters along this tract can influence the distribution of xenobiotics into the male genital tract through efflux back into the blood or facilitating the accumulation of toxicants. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive mRNA expression of 30 xenobiotic transporters in caput and cauda regions of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The epididymis was found to express at least moderate levels of 18 transporters, vas deferens 15, seminal vesicles 23, and prostate 18. Constitutive expression of these xenobiotic transporters in the male genital tract may provide insight into the xenobiotics that can potentially be transported into these tissues and may provide the molecular mechanism for site specific toxicity of select agents.

  8. [Nocosomial urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTI) are mainly related to urinary catheterisation. In this paper we review the pathogenic mechanisms, particularly the route by which the microorganisms colonise the urinary tract, their adhesion ability, and their capacity to form biofilms, and are related not only to the microorganism but also to the type of urinary catheter. The aetiology of catheter related UTI is variable, and multiresistant microorganisms are often isolated, making empirical antibiotic therapy complex. Clinical findings are frequently atypical, and its diagnosis is difficult. The therapeutic management of catheter-related UTI should be stratified according to the type of UTI: asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be habitually treated, but patients with septic shock should receive a broad spectrum antibiotic. In this review, the value of the different preventive measures are discussed.

  9. Hawaii Census 2000 Tracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  10. Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PERTWEE, R

    2001-01-01

    The enteric nervous system of several species, including the mouse, rat, guinea pig and humans, contains cannabinoid CB1 receptors that depress gastrointestinal motility, mainly by inhibiting ongoing contractile transmitter release. Signs of this depressant effect are, in the whole organism, delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of the transit of non-absorbable markers through the small intestine and, in isolated strips of ileal tissue, inhibition of evoked acetylcholine release, peristalsis, and cholinergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) contractions of longitudinal or circular smooth muscle. These are contractions evoked electrically or by agents that are thought to stimulate contractile transmitter release either in tissue taken from morphine pretreated animals (naloxone) or in unpretreated tissue (γ-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine). The inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastric emptying and intestinal transit are mediated to some extent by CB1 receptors in the brain as well as by enteric CB1 receptors. Gastric acid secretion is also inhibited in response to CB1 receptor activation, although the detailed underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Cannabinoid receptor agonists delay gastric emptying in humans as well as in rodents and probably also inhibit human gastric acid secretion. Cannabinoid pretreatment induces tolerance to the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastrointestinal motility. Findings that the CB1 selective antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A produces in vivo and in vitro signs of increased motility of rodent small intestine probably reflect the presence in the enteric nervous system of a population of CB1 receptors that are precoupled to their effector mechanisms. SR141716A has been reported not to behave in this manner in the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation (MPLM) of human ileum unless this has first been rendered cannabinoid tolerant. Nor has it been

  11. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Litza, Janice A; Brill, John R

    2010-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common urologic disorder and one of the most common conditions for which physicians are consulted. Patients at increased risk for UTI include women; diabetics; the immunocompromised; and those with anatomic abnormalities, impaired mobility, incontinence, advanced age, and instrumentation. Antibiotic therapy aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications such as pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Distinguishing asymptomatic bacteriuria from a UTI can be difficult, especially in those with comorbidities. Most experts do not recommend screening for UTI, except in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  13. Managing urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  14. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Emonet, Stéphane; Harbarth, Stephan; van Delden, Christian

    2011-04-27

    Urinary tract infections are commonly seen by general practitioners. Quinolones are frequently prescribed in this setting. The emergence of resistance to these antibiotics has led to new guidelines for the management of uncomplicated UTI, based on the use of fosfomycin and furadantine. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults.

  15. Advances in alimentary tract imaging.

    PubMed

    Maglinte, Dean-Dt; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Tann, Mark

    2006-05-28

    Advances in imaging techniques are changing the way radiologists undertake imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and their ability to answer questions posed by surgeons. In this paper we discuss the technological improvements of imaging studies that have occurred in the last few years and how these help to better diagnosing alimentary tract disease.

  16. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Saint, Sanjay

    2011-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for approximately 40% of all health care-associated infections. Despite studies showing benefit of interventions for prevention of CAUTI, adoption of these practices has not occurred in many healthcare facilities in the United States. As urinary catheters account for the majority of healthcare-associated UTIs, the most important interventions are directed at avoiding placement of urinary catheters and promoting early removal when appropriate. Alternatives to indwelling catheters such as intermittent catheterization and condom catheters should be considered. If indwelling catheterization is appropriate, proper aseptic practices for catheter insertion and maintenance and use of a closed catheter collection system are essential for preventing CAUTI. The use of antimicrobial catheters also may be considered when the rates of CAUTI remain persistently high despite adherence to other evidence-based practices, or in patients deemed to be at high risk for CAUTI or its complications. Attention toward prevention of CAUTI will likely increase as Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other third-party payers no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired UTI.

  17. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI.

  18. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  19. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Evan B; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2004-06-07

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  20. Atrio-His bundle tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Brechenmacher, C

    1975-01-01

    The atrio-His bundle tracts are very rare; only two have been found in 687 hearts studied histologically. These tracts have a similar appearance to those of the atrioventricular bundle and form a complete bypass of the atrioventricular node. In their presence the electrocardiogram may show a short or normal PR interval. They may be responsible for some cases of very rapid ventricular response to supraventricular arrhythmias. Images PMID:1191446

  1. Inhalation dosimetry modeling provides insights into regional respiratory tract toxicity of inhaled diacetyl.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Joseph A; Morris, John B

    2016-11-13

    Vapor dosimetry models provide a means of assessing the role of delivered dose in determining the regional airway response to inspired vapors. A validated hybrid computational fluid dynamics physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for inhaled diacetyl has been developed to describe inhaled diacetyl dosimetry in both the rat and human respiratory tracts. Comparison of the distribution of respiratory tract injury with dosimetry estimates provides strong evidence that regional delivered dose rather than regional airway tissue sensitivity to diacetyl-induced injury is the critical determinant of the regional respiratory tract response to this water soluble reactive vapor. In the rat, inhalation exposure to diacetyl causes much lesser injury in the distal bronchiolar airways compared to nose and large tracheobronchial airways. The degree of injury correlates very strongly to model based estimates of local airway diacetyl concentrations. According to the model, regional dosimetry patterns of diacetyl in the human differ greatly from those in the rat with much greater penetration of diacetyl to the bronchiolar airways in the lightly exercising mouth breathing human compared to the rat, providing evidence that rat inhalation toxicity studies underpredict the risk of bronchiolar injury in the human. For example, repeated exposure of the rat to 200ppm diacetyl results in bronchiolar injury; the estimated bronchiolar tissue concentration in rats exposed to 200ppm diacetyl would occur in lightly exercising mouth breathing humans exposed to 12ppm. Consideration of airway dosimetry patterns of inspired diacetyl is critical to the proper evaluation of rodent toxicity data and its relevance for predicting human risk.

  2. Fine motor skill training enhances functional plasticity of the corticospinal tract after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Xiao-yu; Xia, Wei-wei; Dong, Jian; Yang, Mao-guang; Jiao, Jian-hang

    2016-01-01

    Following central nervous system injury, axonal sprouts form distal to the injury site and extend into the denervated area, reconstructing neural circuits through neural plasticity. How to facilitate this plasticity has become the key to the success of central nervous system repair. It remains controversial whether fine motor skill training contributes to the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Therefore, we established a rat model of unilateral corticospinal tract injury using a pyramidal tract cutting method. Horizontal ladder crawling and food ball grasping training procedures were conducted 2 weeks before injury and 3 days after injury. The neurological function of rat forelimbs was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Axon growth was observed with biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing in the healthy corticospinal tract of the denervated area at different time periods. Our results demonstrate that compared with untrained rats, functional recovery was better in the forelimbs and forepaws of trained rats. The number of axons and the expression of growth associated protein 43 were increased at the injury site 3 weeks after corticospinal tract injury. These findings confirm that fine motor skill training promotes central nervous system plasticity in spinal cord injury rats. PMID:28197197

  3. Simultaneous determination of nine lignans from Schisandra chinensis extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in rat plasma, urine, and gastrointestinal tract samples: application to the pharmacokinetic study of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Jin; Lee, Hee Ju; Kim, Chul Young; Han, Sun-Young; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2014-10-01

    The fruit of Schisandra chinensis is a well-known herbal medicine and dietary supplement due to a variety of biological activities including antihepatotoxic and antihyperlipidemic activities. However, the simultaneous validation methodology and pharmacokinetic investigation of nine lignans of S. chinensis extract in biological samples have not been proved yet. Thus, the present study was undertaken to develop the proper sample preparation method and simultaneous analytical method of schisandrol A, gomisin J, schisandrol B, tigloylgomisin H, angeloylgomisin H, schisandrin A, schisandrin B, gomisin N, and schisandrin C in the hexane-soluble extract of S. chinensis to apply for the pharmacokinetic study in rats. All intra- and interprecisions of nine lignans were below 13.7% and accuracies were 85.1-115% and it is enough to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters after both intravenous and oral administration of hexane-soluble extract of S. chinensis to rats.

  4. Syntactic processing depends on dorsal language tracts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Rising, Kindle; Patterson, Dianne K; Henry, Maya L; Ogar, Jennifer M; DeLeon, Jessica; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-20

    Frontal and temporal language areas involved in syntactic processing are connected by several dorsal and ventral tracts, but the functional roles of the different tracts are not well understood. To identify which white matter tract(s) are important for syntactic processing, we examined the relationship between white matter damage and syntactic deficits in patients with primary progressive aphasia, using multimodal neuroimaging and neurolinguistic assessment. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that microstructural damage to left hemisphere dorsal tracts--the superior longitudinal fasciculus including its arcuate component--was strongly associated with deficits in comprehension and production of syntax. Damage to these dorsal tracts predicted syntactic deficits after gray matter atrophy was taken into account, and fMRI confirmed that these tracts connect regions modulated by syntactic processing. In contrast, damage to ventral tracts--the extreme capsule fiber system or the uncinate fasciculus--was not associated with syntactic deficits. Our findings show that syntactic processing depends primarily on dorsal language tracts.

  5. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  6. Candida urinary tract infection: pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John F; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

    2011-05-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thigmotropism, and hydrolytic enzymes, to colonize and then invade the urinary tract. Antegrade infection occurs primarily among patients predisposed to candidemia. The process of adherence to and invasion of the glomerulus, renal blood vessels, and renal tubules by Candida species was elegantly described in early histopathologic studies. Armed with modern molecular biologic techniques, the various virulence factors involved in bloodborne infection of the kidney are gradually being elucidated. Disturbances of urine flow, whether congenital or acquired, instrumentation of the urinary tract, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobial therapy, and immunosuppression underlie most instances of retrograde Candida UTI. In addition, bacterial UTIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae may facilitate the initial step in the process. Ascending infections generally do not result in candidemia in the absence of obstruction.

  7. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  8. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  9. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... younger than 6 years old and affects more boys than girls. It's often treated with steroids. Urinary tract infections ( ... tract (the bladder and urethra). UTIs affect both boys and girls, but in school-age children, girls are more ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract where stool is changed from liquid to solid. The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes most ... tract where stool is changed from liquid to solid. Any child can get a UTI, though girls ...

  11. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents computed tomography of the major disease states involving the gastrointestinal tract, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. Computed Tomography of the Gastrointestinal Tract combined experience of l5 authorities includes illustrations (most of these radiographs).

  12. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or lower GI ... of Lower GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal ( ...

  13. Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, David; Morris, Rachel K; Kilby, Mark D

    2007-12-01

    Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction affects 2.2 per 10,000 births. It is a consequence of a range of pathological processes, most commonly posterior urethral valves (64%) or urethral atresia (39%). It is a condition of high mortality and morbidity associated with progressive renal dysfunction and oligohydramnios, and hence fetal pulmonary hypoplasia. Accurate detection is possible via ultrasound, but the underlying pathology is often unknown. In future, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be increasingly used alongside ultrasound in the diagnosis and assessment of fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Fetal urine analysis may provide improvements in prenatal determination of renal prognosis, but the optimum criteria to be used remain unclear. It is now possible to decompress the obstruction in utero via percutaneous vesico-amniotic shunting or cystoscopic techniques. In appropriately selected fetuses intervention may improve perinatal survival, but long-term renal morbidity amongst survivors remains problematic.

  14. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  15. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kato, Ken; Kitao, Akihito; Kosami, Koki; Minami, Kensuke; Yahata, Shinsuke; Fukui, Miho; Okayama, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized. We assessed each patient's level of consciousness on admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and performed urine and blood cultures. We also assessed hearing prior to hospitalization using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS). In cases with high ammonia levels on admission, plasma ammonia and GCS were measured 24 hours and 5–7 days later. Results Sixty-seven candidates were enrolled; of these, 60 cases (89.6%) with bacterial cell counts ≥104 CFU/mL were studied. Five cases (8.3%) presented with high plasma ammonia levels. Cases with hyperammonemia were significantly more likely to present with low GCS scores and urinary retention rate. All five cases received antimicrobial therapy with an indwelling bladder catheter to relieve urinary retention. The case 5 patient died shortly after admission due to complicated aspiration pneumonia; in the remaining cases, plasma ammonia levels were rapidly normalized and the level of consciousness improved. Conclusions The occurrence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections is not rare. The cause of hyperammonemia is urinary retention obstruction. Therefore, along with antimicrobial administration, relief of obstruction is important for the treatment of hyperammonemia caused by this mechanism. PMID:26292215

  16. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  17. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, R; Wong, E S

    1999-03-01

    Urinary tract infections remain a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. Recent studies have helped to better define the population groups at risk for these infections, as well as the most cost-effective management strategies. Initially, a urinary tract infection should be categorized as complicated or uncomplicated. Further categorization of the infection by clinical syndrome and by host (i.e., acute cystitis in young women, acute pyelonephritis, catheter-related infection, infection in men, asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly) helps the physician determine the appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are caused by a predictable group of susceptible organisms. These infections can be empirically treated without the need for urine cultures. The most effective therapy for an uncomplicated infection is a three-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complicated infections are diagnosed by quantitative urine cultures and require a more prolonged course of therapy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria rarely requires treatment and is not associated with increased morbidity in elderly patients.

  18. Mucoadhesion and the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Varum, Felipe J O; McConnell, Emma L; Sousa, Joao J S; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2008-01-01

    The concept of mucoadhesion is one that has the potential to improve the highly variable residence times experienced by drugs and dosage forms at various sites in the gastrointestinal tract, and consequently, to reduce variability and improve efficacy. Intimate contact with the mucosa should enhance absorption or improve topical therapy. A variety of approaches have been investigated for mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly for the stomach and small intestine. Despite interesting results in these sites, mucoadhesive approaches have not yet shown success in humans. The potential of the lower gut for these applications has been largely neglected, although the large intestine in particular may benefit, and the colon has several factors that suggest mucoadhesion could be successful there, including lower motility and the possibility of a lower mucus turnover and thicker mucus layer. In vitro studies on colonic mucoadhesion show promise, and rectal administration has shown some positive results in vivo. This review considers the background to mucoadhesion with respect to the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the principles that underlie this concept. Mucoadhesive approaches to gastrointestinal drug delivery will be examined, with particular attention given to the lower gut.

  19. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. Material and methods For writing this review, Google Scholar –a scholarly search engine– (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Results Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Conclusions Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future. PMID:25914847

  20. Genomic Characterization of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sfakianos, John P.; Cha, Eugene K.; Iyer, Gopa; Scott, Sasinya N.; Zabor, Emily C.; Shah, Ronak H.; Ren, Qinghu; Bagrodia, Aditya; Kim, Philip H.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Ramirez, Ricardo; Hanrahan, Aphrothiti J.; Desai, Neil B.; Sun, Arony; Pinciroli, Patrizia; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Dalbagni, Guido; Schultz, Nikolaus; Bajorin, Dean F.; Reuter, Victor E.; Berger, Michael F.; Bochner, Bernard H.; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Solit, David B.; Coleman, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a similar histologic appearance, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) tumors have distinct epidemiologic and clinicopathologic differences. Objective To investigate whether the differences between UTUC and UCB result from intrinsic biological diversity. Design, setting, and participants Tumor and germline DNA from patients with UTUC (n = 83) and UCB (n = 102) were analyzed using a custom next-generation sequencing assay to identify somatic mutations and copy-number alterations in 300 cancer-associated genes. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We described co-mutation patterns and copy-number alterations in UTUC. We also compared mutation frequencies in high-grade UTUC (n = 59) and high-grade UCB (n = 102). Results and limitations Comparison of high-grade UTUC and UCB revealed significant differences in the prevalence of somatic alterations. Alterations more common in high-grade UTUC included fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3; 35.6% vs 21.6%; p = 0.065), Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS; 13.6% vs 1.0%; p = 0.001), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2B; 15.3% vs 3.9%; p = 0.016). Genes less frequently mutated in high-grade UTUC included tumor protein p53 (TP53; 25.4% vs 57.8%; p < 0.001), retinoblastoma 1 (RB1; 0.0% vs 18.6%; p < 0.001), and AT rich interactive domain 1A (SWI-like) (ARID1A; 13.6% vs 27.5%; p = 0.050). Because our assay was restricted to genomic alterations in a targeted panel, rare mutations and epigenetic changes were not analyzed. Conclusions High-grade UTUC tumors display a spectrum of genetic alterations similar to high-grade UCB. However, there were significant differences in the prevalence of several recurrently mutated genes including HRAS, TP53, and RB1. As relevant targeted inhibitors are being developed and tested, these results may have important implications for the site-specific management of patients

  1. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world.

  2. Effect of Fe(2)O(3) on the capacity of benzo(a)pyrene to induce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-metabolizing enzymes in the respiratory tract of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Guillaume; Gosset, Pierre; Zerimech, Farid; Grave-Descampiaux, Béatrice; Shirali, Pirouz

    2004-04-21

    In this work, the question that needs to be answered was whether concurrent exposure to iron oxides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could affect the induction of PAH-metabolizing enzymes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with hematite (Fe(2)O(3); 3mg), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P; 3mg), or B(a)P (3mg)-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles (3mg). Forty-eight hours later, we investigated mRNA expressions of cytochrome p4501a1 (cyp1a1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (meh), and glutathione-S-transferase-ya and -yc (gst-ya and gst-yc, respectively), protein concentrations of CYP1A1, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in lungs. Exposure to B(a)P alone or coated-onto Fe(2)O(3) particles induced cyp1a1 gene transcription (P < 0.01) and increased both the CYP1A1 protein levels (P < 0.01) and the EROD activities (P < 0.001). However, in this work, we focused our attention on the potential of Fe(2)O(3) in B(a)P/Fe(2)O(3) mixtures to affect the capacity of B(a)P to induce PAH-metabolizing enzymes. Exposure to B(a)P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles increased meh mRNA expressions (1.15-fold, P < 0.05), CYP1A1 protein concentrations (1.85-fold, P < 0.05), and EROD activities (1.95-fold, P < 0.01), versus exposure to B(a)P alone. Hence, animal short-term exposure to B(a)P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles favored dramatically the induction of PAH-bioactivating enzymes to the detriment of PAH-inactivating enzymes in lungs. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that the Fe(2)O(3)-induced increase of the metabolic activation of B(a)P might rely on several properties of Fe(2)O(3), including its capacity to enhance the rate of CYP1A1 hemoprotein elaboration. The influence of Fe(2)O(3) in B(a)P/Fe(2)O(3) mixtures on the ability of B(a)P to induce PAH-metabolizing enzymes will also be one of the fundamental ways that Fe(2)O(3) can affect B(a)P carcinogenicity in lungs.

  3. Approach to urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Najar, M. S.; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  4. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  5. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with 22 chemicals using young adult rats: summary of the collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) - Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Takashima, Rie; Shimada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Kazumi; Kawakami, Satoru; Uno, Fuyumi; Sui, Hajime; Shimada, Yasushi; Imamura, Tadashi; Matsumura, Shoji; Sanada, Hisakazu; Inoue, Kenji; Muto, Shigeharu; Ogawa, Izumi; Hayashi, Aya; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Maeda, Akihisa; Okada, Emiko; Terashima, Yukari; Takasawa, Hironao; Narumi, Kazunori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Sano, Masaki; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Morita, Takeshi; Kojima, Hajime; Honma, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group, a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, participated in this trial. Twenty-two model chemicals, including some hepatocarcinogens, were tested in 14- and/or 28-day RDLMN assays. As a result, 14 out of the 16 hepatocarcinogens were positive, including 9 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, which were reported negative in the bone marrow/peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay by a single treatment. These outcomes show the high sensitivity of the RDLMN assay to hepatocarcinogens. Regarding the specificity, 4 out of the 6 non-liver targeted genotoxic carcinogens gave negative responses. This shows the high organ specificity of the RDLMN assay. In addition to the RDLMN assay, we simultaneously conducted gastrointestinal tract MN assays using 6 of the above carcinogens as an optional trial of the collaborative study. The MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first contact site of the test chemical when administered by oral gavage, was able to detect chromosomal aberrations with 3 test chemicals including a stomach-targeted carcinogen. The treatment regime was the 14- and/or 28-day repeated-dose, and the regime is sufficiently promising to incorporate these methods into repeated-dose toxicological studies. The outcomes of our collaborative study indicated that the new techniques to detect chromosomal aberrations in vivo in several tissues worked successfully.

  6. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  7. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials. PMID:22760907

  8. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Wei; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-09-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors. Simple uncomplicated cystitis responds very well to oral antibiotics, but complicated UTIs may require early imaging, and referral to the emergency department or hospitalisation to prevent urosepsis may be warranted. Escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen in acute community-acquired uncomplicated UTIs and amoxicillin-clavulanate is useful as a first-line antibiotic. Family physicians are capable of managing most UTIs if guided by appropriate history, investigations and appropriate antibiotics to achieve good outcomes and minimise antibiotic resistance.

  9. Urinary tract infections in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors. Simple uncomplicated cystitis responds very well to oral antibiotics, but complicated UTIs may require early imaging, and referral to the emergency department or hospitalisation to prevent urosepsis may be warranted. Escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen in acute community-acquired uncomplicated UTIs and amoxicillin-clavulanate is useful as a first-line antibiotic. Family physicians are capable of managing most UTIs if guided by appropriate history, investigations and appropriate antibiotics to achieve good outcomes and minimise antibiotic resistance. PMID:27662890

  10. Urinary tract infections. An overview.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, O B

    1987-06-01

    Urinary tract infection remains the most prevalent infection acquired by hospitalized patients. The association with manipulations of the urinary tract is well known and the etiology of these infections is studied in detail. The excess cost of preventable UTI has not been established. It may be negligible for the single case but a high prevalence of nosocomial UTI could add substantially to hospital expenses. Differences in practices of bladder drainage between hospitals and countries have been identified, and educational efforts would seem effective in the management of incontinent patients when hospitalized. Though the infection is often self-limiting, when the catheter is removed, complications are seen. The lower survival with bacteriuria in old age is best explained by the presence of fatal disease in bacteriuric patients. Prevention of the infection with the catheter in situ is discouraging, and measures intended to interfere with the endogenous source of infection have largely failed or postponed infection. A radical approach to the use of indwelling catheters in hospitalized patients may seem the only way out, requiring highly skilled nursing care instead.

  11. Treatment of urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, J E

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of open surgery with minimally invasive techniques for treating stones in the renal tract has greatly reduced patients' morbidity and mortality and the period of hospitalisation and convalescence. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy does not require anaesthesia and requires little analgesia so that treatment can be given on an outpatient basis, and there is no wound to heal. Only a small puncture site is needed for percutaneous endoscopic lithotomy, and with the advent of prophylactic antibiotics there are few complications. Of renal stones, about 85% can now be successfully treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy alone, and almost all of the stones too large or hard for lithotripsy can be treated endoscopically, with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes being used to fragment the stone. Stones in the upper and lower thirds of the ureter can be treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy, but stones in the middle third, which cannot normally be visualised to allow focusing of the shockwaves, usually require ureteroscopy. Nearly all bladder stones can be treated by transurethral endoscopy with an electrohydraulic probe. Only the largest renal tract stones still require open surgery. Images FIG 10 p1415-a p1415-b p1416-a p1416-b p1417-a PMID:8274898

  12. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    PubMed

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  13. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Naline, Charlotte; Cudennec, Tristan; Teillet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    In the elderly, urinary tract infections are frequent. Diagnosis is not always evident because symptoms are often absent. In doubt, a urinary strip evaluation must be performed. Prevention begins with simple lifestyle and dietary rules, such as good voiding and adequate fluid intake. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is treated only in certain cases. Other urinary tract infections require antibiotics, which must be adapted to renal function.

  14. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  15. Infectious keratitis in a paracentesis tract.

    PubMed

    Azuara-Blanco, A; Katz, L J

    1997-04-01

    A paracentesis is performed in glaucoma procedures as a flat, beveled tract to allow access into the anterior chamber after the filtration fistula is made. Complications related to the paracentesis are infrequent because it is a self-sealing wound. The authors report a case of infectious keratitis that developed in a paracentesis tract.

  16. GI tract tumors with melanocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Karamchandani, Dipti M; Patil, Deepa T; Goldblum, John R

    2013-11-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) tract tumors with melanocytic differentiation may present significant diagnostic challenges both for the pathologist and the clinician. This comprehensive review discusses the relatively common as well as rare entities that have melanocytic differentiation in the GI tract. Clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features are discussed along with prognosis and differential diagnosis.

  17. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidneys and ... en español Los riñones y las vías urinarias Kidneys and Urinary Tract Basics Our bodies produce several ...

  18. [Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Cicinskaite, Ilona; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Macas, Andrius; Tamosiūnas, Ramūnas; Kinderyte, Aida

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are responsible for 40-60% of all hospital-acquired infections. Increased age of patients and comorbid diseases render hospitalized patients more susceptible to infection. Almost 80% of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are associated with urinary catheters, and only 5-10% of urinary infections are caused by invasive manipulations in the urogenital tract. Pathogens of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are frequently multi-resistant, and antibiotic therapy can only be successful when the complicating factors are eliminated or urodynamic function is restored. For treatment of complicated hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, the antibiotics must exhibit adequate pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties: high renal clearance of unmetabolized form with good antimicrobial activity in both acidic and alkaline urine. For selection of empirical treatment of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, it is necessary to evaluate localization of infection, its severity, possible isolates, and the most frequent pathogens in the department where patient is treated. The best choice for the starting the antimicrobial therapy is the cheapest narrow-spectrum effective antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infection until microbiological evaluation of pathogens will be received. Adequate management of urinary tract infections lowers the rate of complications, requirements for antibacterial treatment, selection of multi-resistant isolates and is cost effective.

  19. 30 CFR 281.15 - Tract size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tract size. 281.15 Section 281.15 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Leasing Procedures § 281.15 Tract size. The...

  20. Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; de Boer, Bart; Mathur, Neil; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2016-01-01

    For four decades, the inability of nonhuman primates to produce human speech sounds has been claimed to stem from limitations in their vocal tract anatomy, a conclusion based on plaster casts made from the vocal tract of a monkey cadaver. We used x-ray videos to quantify vocal tract dynamics in living macaques during vocalization, facial displays, and feeding. We demonstrate that the macaque vocal tract could easily produce an adequate range of speech sounds to support spoken language, showing that previous techniques based on postmortem samples drastically underestimated primate vocal capabilities. Our findings imply that the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural changes rather than modifications of vocal anatomy. Macaques have a speech-ready vocal tract but lack a speech-ready brain to control it. PMID:27957536

  1. A mixture of five phthalate esters inhibits fetal testicular testosterone production in a cummulative manner consistent with their predicted reproductive toxicity in the Sprague Dawley rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are plasticizers to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. Exposure to certain phthalates during sexual differentiation causes reproductive tract malformations in male rats. In the fetal rat, exposure to the phthalates benzylbutyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), and...

  2. Characterization of Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat, and proposal for the reclassification of five closely related members of the genus Clostridium into the genera Romboutsia gen. nov., Intestinibacter gen. nov., Terrisporobacter gen. nov. and Asaccharospora gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Jacoline; Fuentes, Susana; Grievink, Wieke; van Niftrik, Laura; Tindall, Brian J; Timmerman, Harro M; Rijkers, Ger T; Smidt, Hauke

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped, non-motile, spore-forming obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated CRIBT, was isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat and characterized. The major cellular fatty acids of strain CRIBT were saturated and unsaturated straight-chain C12-C19 fatty acids, with C16:0 being the predominant fatty acid. The polar lipid profile comprised six glycolipids, four phospholipids and one lipid that did not stain with any of the specific spray reagents used. The only quinone was MK-6. The predominating cell-wall sugars were glucose and galactose. The peptidoglycan type of strain CRIBT was A1σ lanthionine-direct. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CRIBT was 28.1 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CRIBT was most closely related to a number of species of the genus Clostridium, including Clostridium lituseburense (97.2%), Clostridium glycolicum (96.2%), Clostridium mayombei (96.2%), Clostridium bartlettii (96.0%) and Clostridium irregulare (95.5%). All these species show very low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (<85%) to the type strain of Clostridium butyricum, the type species of the genus Clostridium. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related reference strains indicated reassociation values below 32%. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic studies, a novel genus, Romboutsia gen. nov., is proposed. The novel isolate CRIBT (=DSM 25109T=NIZO 4048T) is proposed as the type strain of the type species, Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., of the proposed novel genus. It is proposed that C. lituseburense is transferred to this genus as Romboutsia lituseburensis comb. nov. Furthermore, the reclassification into novel genera is proposed for C. bartlettii, as Intestinibacter bartlettii gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. glycolicum, as Terrisporobacter glycolicus gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. mayombei, as Terrisporobacter mayombei gen. nov., comb. nov., and C

  3. Urinary tract infection and hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Hülya; Ozek, Eren; Unver, Tamer; Biyikli, Neşe; Alpay, Harika; Cebeci, Dilşat

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in newborns with asymptomatic, unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two weeks of life. Jaundiced infants, otherwise clinically well, less than two weeks of ages, with a total bilirubin level above 15 mg/dl were eligible for the study. A bilirubin work-up including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) level, as well as urinalysis and a urine culture were performed in all patients. Patients with UTI, defined as more than 10,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single pathogen obtained by bladder catheterization, were evaluated for sepsis. Renal function tests and renal ultrasound were performed in cases with UTI. During follow-up, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) were performed as well. A total of 102 patients were enrolled. The bilirubin work-up of patients did not demonstrate any significant underlying disorder. None of the infants had a high direct bilirubin level. UTI was diagnosed in eight (8%) cases [Enterobacter aerogenes (3/8:38%), Enterococcus faecalis (2/8:25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2/8:25%) and Escherichia coli (1/8:12%)]. Of those eight patients, only four (50%) had pyuria. Bacteriuria was present in seven (88%) patients. The sepsis screen was negative in all but one case with a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level. None of the patients had a positive blood culture. Renal function tests were within normal levels in all patients. Renal ultrasound showed urinary tract abnormalities in three (38%) patients (hydronephrosis, n=1 and pelviectasis, n=2). VCUG was performed in all patients during the study period and one had unilateral grade 3-4 reflux, while only one patient had a diverticulum of the bladder. DMSA was performed in seven patients and none had renal scars. It is of importance that UTI can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced infants even in the first week of life. Although it is well known

  4. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  5. Renal tract malformations: perspectives for nephrologists.

    PubMed

    Kerecuk, Larissa; Schreuder, Michiel F; Woolf, Adrian S

    2008-06-01

    Renal tract malformations are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and/or lower urinary tract. One challenging feature of these conditions is that they can present not only prenatally but also in childhood or adulthood. The most severe types of malformations, such as bilateral renal agenesis or dysplasia, although rare, lead to renal failure. With advances in dialysis and transplantation for young children, it is now possible to prevent the early death of at least some individuals with severe malformations. Other renal tract malformations, such as congenital pelviureteric junction obstruction and primary vesicoureteric reflux, are relatively common. Renal tract malformations are, collectively, the major cause of childhood end-stage renal disease. Their contribution to the number of adults on renal replacement therapy is less clear and has possibly been underestimated. Renal tract malformations can be familial, and specific mutations of genes involved in renal tract development can sometimes be found in affected individuals. These features provide information about the causes of malformations but also raise questions about whether to screen relatives. Whether prenatal decompression of obstructed renal tracts, or postnatal initiation of therapies such as prophylactic antibiotics or angiotensin blockade, improve long-term renal outcomes remains unclear.

  6. Vasculitides of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eric; Luk, Adriana; Chetty, Runjan; Butany, Jagdish

    2009-05-01

    Systemic vasculitis is often not considered as a possible diagnosis by clinicians because of its low prevalence compared with other more common diseases. Vasculitis can affect any end organ, and it is therefore often missed early on in disease progression. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of vasculitis are considered rare and the presentation is often nonspecific. However, if there is significant involvement of the major vessels of the gastrointestinal system, life-threatening sequelae, including perforation and bowel ischemia, may occur. This makes early and immediate management crucial to improve long-term morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of various GI vasculitides often relies on correlation of clinical manifestations with pathology and additional investigations. This paper reviews the various vasculitides that affect the GI tract, including systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, Henoch Schönlein purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis, and Behcet's disease. Segmental arterial mediolysis, mistakenly believed to be a vasculitis, is also discussed.

  7. Management of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Nassar, N T

    2000-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly encountered in medical practice and range from asymptomatic bacteruria to acute pyelonephritis. Enterobacteriaceae with E. coli being the most prevalent, are responsible for most commonly acquired uncomplicated UTIs and usually respond promptly to oral antibiotics. In contradistinction, more resistant pathogens cause nosocomially acquired infections which often require parenteral antibiotic therapy. Patients with acute bacterial prostatitis, usually caused by Enterobacteriaceae present with a tender prostate gland and respond promptly to antibiotic therapy. Chronic bacterial prostatitis on the other hand, is a subacute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of bacterial UTI where the patient presents with vague symptoms of pelvic pain and voiding problems. Treatment is protracted and may be frustrating. Nonbacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome produce symptoms similar to those of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Treatment is not well defined due to their uncertain etiologies. Most episodes of catheter associated bacteruria are asymptomatic, where less than 5% will be complicated by bacteremia. The use of systemic antibiotics for treatment or prevention of bacteruria is not recommended, particularly in the geriatric age group, since it helps select for resistant organisms. Prevention thus remains the best option to control it. Few patients without catheters who have asymptomatic bacteruria develop serious complications and therefore routine antimicrobial therapy is not justified with only two exceptions : before urologic surgery and during pregnancy.

  8. Pulmonary and respiratory tract receptors.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, J G

    1982-10-01

    Nervous receptors in the lungs and respiratory tract can be grouped into four general categories. 1. Deep, slowly adapting end-organs, which respond to stretch of the airway wall and have large-diameter myelinated fibres; those in the lungs are responsible for the Breuer-Hering reflex. 2. Endings in and under the epithelium which respond to a variety of chemical and mechanical stimuli (i.e. are polymodal), usually with a rapidly adapting discharge, and with small-diameter myelinated fibres; they are responsible for defensive reflexes such as cough and sneeze, and for the reflex actions to inhaled irritants and to some respiratory disease processes. 3. Receptors with nonmyelinated nerve fibres which, being polymodal, are stimulated by tissue damage and oedema and by the mediators released in these conditions; these receptors may be similar in function to 'nociceptors' in other viscera, and set up appropriate reflexes as a reaction to respiratory damage. 4. Specialized receptors such as those for taste and swallowing, and those around joints and in skeletal muscle. Stimulation of any group of receptors may cause reflex changes in breathing (including defensive reflexes), bronchomotor tone, airway mucus secretion, the cardiovascular system (including the vascular bed of the airways), laryngeal calibre, spinal reflexes and sensation. The total pattern of motor responses is unique for each group of receptors, although it is probably unusual for one type of receptor to be stimulated in isolation. The variety of patterns of motor responses must reflect the complexity of brainstem organization of these systems.

  9. METHOXYCHLOR ACCELERATES EMBRYO TRANSPORT THROUGH THE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is known to reduce implantation, and, in our previous work, this reduction has been attributed to a direct effect on uterine function. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of MXC on embryo transport rate, another phe...

  10. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria.

  11. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    SciTech Connect

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with (3H)prazosin, (3H)yohimbine, (3H)dihydroalprenolol and (3H)quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype.

  12. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... end of the penis in boys and in front of the vagina in girls. Front view of the urinary tract Side view of ... some children are more prone to getting coughs, colds, or ear infections. Who gets UTIs? Any child ...

  14. 43 CFR 3922.40 - Tract delineation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING Application Processing § 3922.40 Tract... the oil shale resource. (b) The BLM may delineate more or less lands than were covered by...

  15. Leptin impairs cardiovagal baroreflex function at the level of the solitary tract nucleus.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Amy C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Gallagher, Patricia E; Diz, Debra I

    2009-11-01

    Circulating leptin is elevated in some forms of obesity-related hypertension, associated with impaired baroreflex function. Leptin receptors are present on vagal afferent fibers and neurons within the solitary tract nucleus, providing an anatomic distribution consistent with baroreflex modulation. Although solitary tract nucleus microinjection of 144 fmol/60 nL of leptin had no significant effect on baroreflex sensitivity for control of the heart rate in urethane/chloralose-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, 500 fmol of leptin impaired baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia in response to increases in pressure (1.15+/-0.04 versus 0.52+/-0.12 ms/mm Hg; P<0.01). Transgenic ASrAOGEN rats with low brain angiotensinogen have an upregulation of the leptin receptor and p85 alpha mRNA in the dorsal medulla relative to Sprague-Dawley rats. Consistent with these observations, the response to leptin was enhanced in ASrAOGEN rats, because both the 144-fmol (1.46+/-0.08 versus 0.75+/-0.10 ms/mm Hg; P<0.001) and 500-fmol (1.36+/-0.32 versus 0.44+/-0.06 ms/mm Hg; P<0.05) leptin microinjections impaired baroreflex sensitivity. At these doses, leptin microinjection had no effect on resting pressure, heart rate, or the tachycardic response to decreases in pressure in Sprague-Dawley or ASrAOGEN rats. Thus, exogenous leptin at sites within the solitary tract nucleus impairs the baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia induced by increases in arterial pressure, consistent with a permissive role in mediating increases in arterial pressure. Baroreflex inhibition was enhanced in animals with evidence of increased leptin receptor and relevant signaling pathway mRNA.

  16. Cranberry and urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Guay, David R P

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) refers to the presence of clinical signs and symptoms arising from the genitourinary tract plus the presence of one or more micro-organisms in the urine exceeding a threshold value for significance (ranges from 102 to 103 colony-forming units/mL). Infections are localized to the bladder (cystitis), renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis) or prostate (acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis). Single UTI episodes are very common, especially in adult women where there is a 50-fold predominance compared with adult men. In addition, recurrent UTIs are also common, occurring in up to one-third of women after first-episode UTIs. Recurrences requiring intervention are usually defined as two or more episodes over 6 months or three or more episodes over 1 year (this definition applies only to young women with acute uncomplicated UTIs). A cornerstone of prevention of UTI recurrence has been the use of low-dose once-daily or post-coital antimicrobials; however, much interest has surrounded non-antimicrobial-based approaches undergoing investigation such as use of probiotics, vaccines, oligosaccharide inhibitors of bacterial adherence and colonization, and bacterial interference with immunoreactive extracts of Escherichia coli. Local (intravaginal) estrogen therapy has had mixed results to date. Cranberry products in a variety of formulations have also undergone extensive evaluation over several decades in the management of UTIs. At present, there is no evidence that cranberry can be used to treat UTIs. Hence, the focus has been on its use as a preventative strategy. Cranberry has been effective in vitro and in vivo in animals for the prevention of UTI. Cranberry appears to work by inhibiting the adhesion of type I and P-fimbriated uropathogens (e.g. uropathogenic E. coli) to the uroepithelium, thus impairing colonization and subsequent infection. The isolation of the component(s) of cranberry with this activity has been a daunting task, considering the

  17. [Imaging in urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Puech, P; Lagard, D; Leroy, C; Dracon, M; Biserte, J; Lemaître, L

    2004-02-01

    Uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract is frequent and usually resolves rapidly with treatment and imaging is unnecessary. Progression to complex infection often occurs in patients with predisposing factors. Imaging assists in evaluating the extent of disease, plays a role in directing therapy and guides interventional procedures if necessary. This pictorial essay reviews the role of imaging and intervention in infections of the urinary tract.

  18. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    PubMed

    Okrągła, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-06-02

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  19. Immunization of the Female Genital Tract with a DNA-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Julie B.; Lu, Shan; Robinson, Harriet; Anderson, Deborah J.

    1998-01-01

    Vaccines are being sought for contraception and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. However, progress is slow in this area largely because of lack of information on induction of protective immune responses in genital tract mucosa. In this study, we investigated whether in vivo transfection with a model DNA-based antigen delivered by gene gun technology would induce an antibody response detectable in vaginal secretions. Female rats were immunized with plasmids encoding human growth hormone (HGH) under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV/HGH) via vaginal mucosa (V), Peyer’s patch (PP), and/or abdominal skin (S) routes. Localization of HGH in the target tissues demonstrated that all three sites can be transfected in vivo with pCMV/HGH. Vaginal tissues expressed roughly the same level of plasmid as skin. Antibodies to HGH were detectable in serum and vaginal secretions in rats immunized with pCMV/HGH. In the rats primed and boosted vaginally, vaginal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody titers to HGH were sustained for at least 14 weeks, whereas rats immunized via other routes and protocols (S/V, S/S, PP/PP, or PP/V) did not consistently sustain significant vaginal antibody titers beyond week 6. DNA-based immunizations administered by the gene gun may be an effective method of inducing local immunity in the female genital tract. PMID:9423874

  20. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  1. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  2. Noninvasive stimulation of the human corticospinal tract.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

    2004-04-01

    Spinal tracts can be stimulated noninvasively in human subjects by passing a high-voltage stimulus between the mastoids or by magnetic stimulation over the back of the head. The stimulus probably activates the corticospinal tract at the cervicomedullary junction (pyramidal decussation) and evokes large, short-latency motor responses in the arm muscles. These responses have a large monosynaptic component. Responses in leg muscles can be elicited by cervicomedullary junction stimulation or by stimulation over the cervical or thoracic spine. Because nerve roots are more easily activated than spinal tracts, stimulus spread to motor axons can occur. Facilitation of responses by voluntary activity confirms that the responses are evoked synaptically. Stimulation of the corticospinal tract is useful in studies of central conduction and studies of the behavior of motoneurons during different tasks. It also provides an important comparison to allow interpretation of changes in responses to stimulation of the motor cortex. The major drawback to the use of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract is that each stimulus is transiently painful.

  3. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  4. A Proteomic Analysis of the Body Wall, Digestive Tract, and Reproductive Tract of Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Morris, C Paul; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Kropp, Laura E; Zweben, Jesse A; Meng, Zhaojing; Taylor, Rebekah T; Chan, King; Veenstra, Timothy D; Nutman, Thomas B; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that cause devastating diseases such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. Filariae are nematodes with complex anatomy including fully developed digestive tracts and reproductive organs. To better understand the basic biology of filarial parasites and to provide insights into drug targets and vaccine design, we conducted a proteomic analysis of different anatomic fractions of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of LF. Approximately 500 adult female B. malayi worms were dissected, and three anatomical fractions (body wall, digestive tract, and reproductive tract) were obtained. Proteins from each anatomical fraction were extracted, desalted, trypsinized, and analyzed by microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry. In total, we identified 4,785 B. malayi proteins. While 1,894 were identified in all three anatomic fractions, 396 were positively identified only within the digestive tract, 114 only within the body wall, and 1,011 only within the reproductive tract. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed a bias for transporters to be present within the digestive tract, suggesting that the intestine of adult filariae is functional and important for nutrient uptake or waste removal. As expected, the body wall exhibited increased frequencies of cytoskeletal proteins, and the reproductive tract had increased frequencies of proteins involved in nuclear regulation and transcription. In assessing for possible vaccine candidates, we focused on proteins sequestered within the digestive tract, as these could possibly represent "hidden antigens" with low risk of prior allergic sensitization. We identified 106 proteins that are enriched in the digestive tract and are predicted to localize to the surface of cells in the the digestive tract. It is possible that some of these proteins are on the luminal surface and may be accessible by antibodies ingested by the worm. A subset of 27 of these proteins appear

  5. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy.

  6. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, Klaus Friedrich; Klempien, Ingo; Wiedemann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Acute infection of the urinary tract is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial infections in the frail elderly population and is responsible for substantial morbidity and recurrent infections with antibiotic resistance. Although generally considered to be self-limiting without treatment or easily treated with a short antibiotic regime, urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have a dramatic history, associated with incomplete resolution and frequent recurrence. The biological complexity of the infections combined with a dramatic rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens highlight the need for an anticipating strategy for therapy necessary for a rapid recovery. The first crucial step is the classification in asymptomatic bacteriuria or complicated pyelonephritis, on which the decision for the intensity of treatment and diagnostic effort is based. For the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy, knowledge about the predominant uropathogens as well as local resistance patterns is important. In this manner, most urinary tract infections in the elderly can be treated without greater expense.

  7. Mathematical modelling of the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Paya, Antonio Soriano; Fernandez, Daniel Ruiz; Gil, David; Garcia Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Perez, Francisco Macia

    2013-03-01

    The lower urinary tract is one of the most complex biological systems of the human body as it involved hydrodynamic properties of urine and muscle. Moreover, its complexity is increased to be managed by voluntary and involuntary neural systems. In this paper, a mathematical model of the lower urinary tract it is proposed as a preliminary study to better understand its functioning. Furthermore, another goal of that mathematical model proposal is to provide a basis for developing artificial control systems. Lower urinary tract is comprised of two interacting systems: the mechanical system and the neural regulator. The latter has the function of controlling the mechanical system to perform the voiding process. The results of the tests reproduce experimental data with high degree of accuracy. Also, these results indicate that simulations not only with healthy patients but also of patients with dysfunctions with neurological etiology present urodynamic curves very similar to those obtained in clinical studies.

  8. Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment. PMID:19096525

  9. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  10. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various developmental abnormalities of the reproductive tract that are manifested later in adult life. Induction of these malformations is associated with declines in fetal testicular testoste...

  11. The Forminalized Rat: A Convenient Microbial Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments built around the bacteria found in the intestinal tract of formalinized rats as a model for discussing microbial ecology. Describes methods of examination of intestinal content, student tasks, and discussion questions; also gives a challenge problem to solve.

  12. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    PubMed

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  13. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing.

  14. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Badr, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50–60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics. PMID:23984019

  15. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2016-04-21

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population.

  17. Fungal infections of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J D; Vazquez, J A

    1999-12-01

    Funguria, fungal urinary tract infections, are most commonly caused by Candida species but may also be caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. Candiduria presents as an increasingly common nosocomial infection, which may involve all anatomic levels of the urinary tract, resulting in a spectrum of disease varying from asymptomatic candiduria to clinical sepsis. Although several successful systemic or local therapeutic options exist for the eradication of candiduria, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of candiduria has lagged. This has resulted in confusion among practitioners as to when antifungal therapy is indicated. Treatment guidelines have recently been formulated and are described herein.

  18. Urinary tract infections: treatment/comparative therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Olin, Shelly J; Bartges, Joseph W

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when there is compromise of host defense mechanisms and a virulent microbe adheres, multiplies, and persists in a portion of the urinary tract. Most commonly, UTI is caused by bacteria, but fungi and viruses are possible. Urine culture and sensitivity are the gold standards for diagnosis of bacterial UTI. Identifying the location of infection (eg, bladder, kidney, prostate) as well as comorbidities (eg, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression) is essential to guide the diagnostic and therapeutic plan. Antimicrobial agents are the mainstay of therapy for bacterial UTI and selected ideally based on culture and sensitivity.

  19. Foreign Bodies in the Aerodigestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Victor G.; Middleton, William G.

    1986-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract are common. They may cause minimal disturbance of function, severe morbidity or even sudden death. They enter the aerodigestive tract because of haste during eating, disturbances in physical function, impairments due to extreme youth or age, or contamination of food with foreign bodies. Common symptoms are pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, cough, airway distress, hemoptysis and hematemesis. Signs include point tenderness, respiratory distress and surgical emphysema. Clinical, radiological and endoscopic investigations are described, as are principles of crisis and elective management. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:21267132

  20. Urinary tract infection by chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Swain, Bichitrananda; Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

    2014-08-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report.

  1. Expanded HOXA13 polyalanine tracts in a monotreme.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, Jessica A; Innis, Jeffrey W

    2008-01-01

    The N-terminal region of human HOXA13 has seven discrete polyalanine tracts. Our previous analysis of these tracts in multiple major vertebrate clades suggested that three are mammal-specific. We now report the N-terminal HOXA13 repetitive tract structures in the monotreme Tachyglossus aculeatus (echidna). Contrary to our expectations, echidna HOXA13 possesses a unique set of polyalanine tracts and an unprecedented polyglycine tract. The data support the conclusion that the emergence of expanded polyalanine tracts in proteins occurred very early in the stem lineage that gave rise to mammals, between 162 and 315 Ma.

  2. Tanshinone IIA improves functional recovery in spinal cord injury-induced lower urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong-dong; Yu, Xing; Wang, Xiu-mei; Mu, Xiao-hong; He, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA, extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, exerts neuroprotective effects through its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. This study intravenously injected tanshinone IIA 20 mg/kg into rat models of spinal cord injury for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that tanshinone IIA could reduce the inflammation, edema as well as compensatory thickening of the bladder tissue, improve urodynamic parameters, attenuate secondary injury, and promote spinal cord regeneration. The number of hypertrophic and apoptotic dorsal root ganglion (L6–S1) cells was less after treatment with tanshinone IIA. The effects of tanshinone IIA were similar to intravenous injection of 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone. These findings suggested that tanshinone IIA improved functional recovery after spinal cord injury-induced lower urinary tract dysfunction by remodeling the spinal pathway involved in lower urinary tract control.

  3. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Doern, Christopher D; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review.

  4. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  5. Parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Brandt, L J

    1999-08-01

    Parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increased international travel means that gastroenterologists are now more likely to care for patients with parasitic diseases. This article reviews various aspects of the more common intestinal parasites and their infections, including epidemiology, life cycle, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  6. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  7. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  8. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  9. Management of suspected bacterial urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Beckford-Ball, Jason

    New guidelines on the management of suspected bacterial urinary tract infection in adults have just been released by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). The guidance states that the presence of bacteriuria should lead to antibiotic treatment only when there is definitive evidence that eradicating the bacterial infection will result in a tangible health gain at a reasonable level of risk (SIGN, 2006).

  10. 30 CFR 281.15 - Tract size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tract size. 281.15 Section 281.15 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  11. Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

    2014-04-01

    The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E. coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E. coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E. coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E. coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E. coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E. coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment

  12. Ruthenium-97 hepatobiliary agents for delayed studies of the bilary tract I: Ru-97 PIPIDA: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Schachner, E.R.; Gil, M.C.; Atkins, H.L.; Som, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Badia, J.; Sacker, D.F.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.

    1981-04-01

    Failure of early diagnosis of biliary atresia results in the development of cirrhosis and death. Commonly used hepatobiliary agents are not ideal for follow-up studies because of their unfavorable physical properties or short half-life. The excellent physical properties of Ru-97 should overcome these limitations. Therefore, Ru-97 PIPIDA (N,..cap alpha..-(p-isopropyl acetanilide) iminoacetic acid) is being investigated as a potential hepatobiliary agent that would allow an improved diagnosis of the disease. Ruthenium-97 PIPIDA and Tc-99m PIPIDA showed similar blood clearance rates in dogs. Ru-97 PIPIDA scintigrams in dogs showed early uptake in liver and gallbladder and slow excretion through the gastrointestinal tract. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal rats and rats with biliary obstruction. The findings suggest that Ru-97 PIPIDA should be useful for delayed studies ( 1 to 3 days) of the biliary tract.

  13. Embryogenic cervico-thyro-piriform tract.

    PubMed

    Madana, J; Yolmo, Deeke; Saxena, Sunil Kumar; Gopalakrishnan, S

    2012-10-01

    Branchial cleft fistulae are rare congenital anomalies that arise from the abnormal persistence of branchial remnants. Branchial arch anomalies are rare. They usually present as a lateral neck mass or abscess in the form of acute suppurative thyroiditis. A complete fistula of the third arch is extremely rare. We describe such a case in a 13-year-old girl who presented with a small opening in the left lower neck, from which a mucoid discharge had been present since birth. The fistula was accompanied by recurrent neck swelling. Computed tomography with contrast injection into the external skin opening revealed a continuous tract that extended to the base of the piriform sinus. Total excision of the tract up to the piriform sinus with a left hemithyroidectomy was performed. At follow-up 28 months postoperatively, the patient exhibited no evidence of recurrence.

  14. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Megibow, A.J.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    New generation CT scans combined with high-detail barium studies have now allowed radiologists to see and gain a more complete understanding of the wall and surrounding structures of the gastrointestinal tract. The editors state that their intent is to ''present in a comprehensive volume an up-to-date evaluation o the role, significance, indications, and limitations of computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract.'' There is an initial chapter on CT scanning techniques and the use of oral contrast agents. Chapters follow on Ct of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon. The chapters start with a description of the anatomic structures and then cover in detail common pathologic conditions that affect the organ. Indications for examinations are also included in many chapters. There are final chapters on percutaneous drainage of abscesses and fluid collections and on radiologic-patholoic correlation of some of the more common entities.

  15. Sense of taste in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the investigation of the molecular mechanism by which chemicals such as odors and tastants are perceived by specific chemosensory organs. For example, G protein-coupled receptors expressed within the nasal epithelium and taste receptors in the oral cavity have been identified as odorant and taste receptors, respectively. However, there is much evidence to indicate that these chemosensory receptors are not restricted to primary chemosensory cells; they are also expressed and have function in other cells such as those in the airways and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This short review describes the possible mechanisms by which taste signal transduction occurs in the oral cavity and tastants/nutrients are sensed in the GI tract by taste-like cells, mainly enteroendocrine and brush cells. Furthermore, it discusses the future perspectives of chemosensory studies.

  16. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report.

  17. White matter tracts of speech and language.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Jiskoot, Lize C; Papma, Janne M

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate the white matter (WM) tracts underlying the perisylvian cortical regions known to be associated with language function. The arcuate fasciculus is composed of 3 segments (1 long and 2 short) whose separate functions correlate with traditional models of conductive and transcortical motor or sensory aphasia, respectively. DTI mapping of language fibers is useful in presurgical planning for patients with dominant hemisphere tumors, particularly when combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. DTI has found damage to language networks in stroke patients and has the potential to influence poststroke rehabilitation and treatment. Assessment of the WM tracts involved in the default mode network has been found to correlate with mild cognitive impairment, potentially explaining language deficits in patients with apparently mild small vessel ischemic disease. Different patterns of involvement of language-related WM structures appear to correlate with different clinical subtypes of primary progressive aphasias.

  18. Urinary tract infections in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Duane, Therese M

    2014-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are common in surgical patients. CAUTI are associated with adverse patient outcomes, and negatively affects public safety reporting and reimbursement. Inappropriate catheter use and prolonged catheter duration are major risk factors for CAUTI. CAUTI pathogenesis and treatment are complicated by the presence of biofilms. Prevention strategies include accurate identification and tracking of CAUTIs, and the development of institutional guidelines for the appropriate use, duration, alternatives, and removal of indwelling urinary catheters.

  19. Percutaneous nephrostomy tract incision using modified Otis urethrotome.

    PubMed

    Ireton, R C

    1990-02-01

    An Otis urethrotome has been modified to permit passage into the kidney over an 0.038-inch guidewire by drilling a 3/16-inch hole through the tip. I have used this instrument to aid in the performance of 36 nephrostomy tract dilations without significant complications. When compared with 20 Amplatz tract nephrostomy dilations, the new method was quicker, requiring 4.3 minutes versus 6.5 minutes. This instrument is especially useful for tracts where significant renal fascial scarring makes Amplatz dilation difficult. Ease of tract dilation, as well as decreased time to dilate, make this technique a useful addition to standard nephrostomy tract dilation techniques.

  20. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  1. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis.

  2. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  3. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Lilian M.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:27025743

  4. Vocal Tract Articulation in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Ohms, Verena R.; Snelderwaard, Peter Ch.; ten Cate, Carel; Beckers, Gabriël J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. Methodology/Principal Findings Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC) as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. Conclusion These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation. PMID:20689831

  5. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    PubMed

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  6. Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Toka, Hakan R; Toka, Okan; Hariri, Ali; Nguyen, Hiep T

    2010-07-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract anatomy (CAKUT) are common in children and represent approximately 30% of all prenatally diagnosed malformations. CAKUT is phenotypically variable and can affect the kidney(s) alone and/or the lower urinary tract. The spectrum includes more common anomalies such as vesicoureteral reflux and, rarely, more severe malformations such as bilateral renal agenesis. In young children, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of kidney failure and for kidney transplantation or dialysis. CAKUT can also lead to significant renal problems in adulthood and may present itself with hypertension and/or proteinuria. Congenital renal anomalies can be sporadic or familial, syndromic (also affecting nonrenal or non-urinary tract tissues), or nonsyndromic. Genetic causes have been identified for the syndromic forms and have shed some light into the molecular mechanisms of kidney development in human beings. The genetic causes for the more common nonsyndromic forms of CAKUT are unknown. The role of prenatal interventions and postnatal therapies as well as the benefits of screening affected individuals and their family members are not clear.

  7. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  8. Atypical pathogens and respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Blasi, F

    2004-07-01

    The atypical respiratory pathogens Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila are now recognised as a significant cause of acute respiratory-tract infections, implicated in community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, asthma, and less frequently, upper respiratory-tract infections. Chronic infection with C. pneumoniae is common among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and may also play a role in the natural history of asthma, including exacerbations. The lack of a gold standard for diagnosis of these pathogens still handicaps the current understanding of their true prevalence and role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic respiratory infections. While molecular diagnostic techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction, offer improvements in sensitivity, specificity and rapidity over culture and serology, the need remains for a consistent and reproducible diagnostic technique, available to all microbiology laboratories. Current treatment guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia recognise the importance of atypical respiratory pathogens in its aetiology, for which macrolides are considered suitable first-line agents. The value of atypical coverage in antibiotic therapy for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and exacerbations of asthma is less clear, while there is no evidence to suggest that atypical pathogens should be covered in antibiotic treatment of upper respiratory-tract infections.

  9. Allopregnanolone and neurogenesis in the nigrostriatal tract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun Ming

    2014-01-01

    Reinstalling the neurobiological circuits to effectively change the debilitating course of neurodegenerative diseases is of utmost importance. This reinstallation requires generation of new cells which are able to differentiate into specific types of neurons and modification of the local environment suitable for integration of these new neurons into the neuronal circuits. Allopregnanolone (APα) seems to be involved in both of these processes, and therefore, is a potential neurotrophic agent. Loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is one of the main pathological features of Parkinson’s and also in, at least, a subset of Alzheimer’s patients. Therefore, reinstallation of the dopamine neurons in nigrostriatal tract is of unique importance for these neurodegenerative diseases. However, for the neurogenic status and the roles of allopregnanolone in the nigrostriatal tract, the evidence is accumulating and debating. This review summarizes recent studies regarding the neurogenic status in the nigrostriatal tract. Furthermore, special attention is placed on evidence suggesting that reductions in allopregnenalone levels are one of the major pathological features in PD and AD. This evidence has also been confirmed in brains of mice that were lesioned with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or those bearing neurodegenerative mutations. Lastly, we highlight studies showing that allopregnanalone can augment the number of total cells and dopaminergic neurons via peripheral exogenous administration. PMID:25161608

  10. COMBINATION DOSE OF TWO PHTHALATES ADDITIVELY DEPRESSES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) are phthalate esters used to modify plastic and polymer textures. Individually,DEHP and DBP reduce testosterone production, inhibit reproductive tract development, andinduce reproductive organ malformationsin male rats...

  11. Axon guidance of outgrowing corticospinal fibres in the rat

    PubMed Central

    JOOSTEN, ELBERT A. J.; BÄR, DOP P. R.

    1999-01-01

    This review is concerned with the development of the rat corticospinal tract (CST). The CST is a long descending central pathway, restricted to mammals, which is involved both in motor and sensory control. The rat CST is a very useful model in experimental research on the development of fibre systems in mammals because of its postnatal outgrowth throughout the spinal cord as well as its experimental accessibility. Hence mechanisms underlying axon outgrowth and subsequent target cell finding can be studied relatively easily. In this respect the corticospinal tract forms an important example and model system for the better understanding of central nervous system development in general. PMID:10227663

  12. Diffusion-based population statistics using tract probability maps.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Demian; Kanterakis, Efstathios; Gur, Ruben C; Deriche, Rachid; Verma, Ragini

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel technique for the tract-based statistical analysis of diffusion imaging data. In our technique, we represent each white matter (WM) tract as a tract probability map (TPM): a function mapping a point to its probability of belonging to the tract. We start by automatically clustering the tracts identified in the brain via tractography into TPMs using a novel Gaussian process framework. Then, each tract is modeled by the skeleton of its TPM, a medial representation with a tubular or sheet-like geometry. The appropriate geometry for each tract is implicitly inferred from the data instead of being selected a priori, as is done by current tract-specific approaches. The TPM representation makes it possible to average diffusion imaging based features along directions locally perpendicular to the skeleton of each WM tract, increasing the sensitivity and specificity of statistical analyses on the WM. Our framework therefore facilitates the automated analysis of WM tract bundles, and enables the quantification and visualization of tract-based statistical differences between groups. We have demonstrated the applicability of our framework by studying WM differences between 34 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy controls.

  13. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Abe, Masayuki; Umegaki, Keizo; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5α-reductase. Today, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically relevant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as α1-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine receptors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of α1-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:19262550

  14. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Abe, Masayuki; Umegaki, Keizo; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-03-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Today, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically relevant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine receptors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  15. Long-term outcomes of urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E U; Singh, Gurpreet

    2013-10-01

    The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outcomes of these reconstructive procedures. To achieve this, we conducted a world-wide electronic literature search of long-term outcomes published in English. As the premise of this review is long-term outcomes, we have focused on pathologies where evidence of long-term outcome is available such as patients with spinal injuries and spina bifida. Therapeutic success following urinary tract reconstruction is usually measured by preservation of renal function, improvement in quality-of-life, the satisfactory achievement of agreed outcomes and the prevention of serious complications. Prognostic factors include neuropathic detrusor overactivity; sphincter dyssynergia; bladder over distension; high pressure storage and high leak point pressures; vesicoureteric reflex, stone formation and urinary tract infections. Although, the past decade has witnessed a reduction in the total number of bladder reconstructive surgeries in the UK, these procedures are essentially safe and effective; but require long-term clinical and functional follow-up/monitoring. Until tissue engineering and gene therapy becomes more mainstream, we feel there is still a place for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  16. Long-term outcomes of urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. U.; Singh, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outcomes of these reconstructive procedures. To achieve this, we conducted a world-wide electronic literature search of long-term outcomes published in English. As the premise of this review is long-term outcomes, we have focused on pathologies where evidence of long-term outcome is available such as patients with spinal injuries and spina bifida. Therapeutic success following urinary tract reconstruction is usually measured by preservation of renal function, improvement in quality-of-life, the satisfactory achievement of agreed outcomes and the prevention of serious complications. Prognostic factors include neuropathic detrusor overactivity; sphincter dyssynergia; bladder over distension; high pressure storage and high leak point pressures; vesicoureteric reflex, stone formation and urinary tract infections. Although, the past decade has witnessed a reduction in the total number of bladder reconstructive surgeries in the UK, these procedures are essentially safe and effective; but require long-term clinical and functional follow-up/monitoring. Until tissue engineering and gene therapy becomes more mainstream, we feel there is still a place for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:24235796

  17. The Genetics of Urinary Tract Infections and the Innate Defense of the Kidney and Urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Ambite, Ines; Rydstrom, Gustav; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Hains, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract is a sterile organ system. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and often serious infections. Research has focused on uropathogen, environment, and host factors leading to UTI pathogenesis. A growing body of evidence exists implicating genetic factors that can contribute to UTI risks. In this review, we highlight genetic variations in aspects of the innate immune system critical to the host response to uropathogens. This overview includes genetic variations in pattern recognition receptor molecules, chemokines/cytokines, and neutrophil activation. We also comprehensively cover murine knockout models of UTI, genetic variations involved in renal scarring as a result of ascending UTIs, and asymptomatic bacteriuria. PMID:27617139

  18. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  19. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results.

  20. [Nosocomial urinary tract infection in adults].

    PubMed

    Hug, B L; Flückiger, U; Widmer, A F

    2006-11-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in hospitalized adults. Nosocomial UTIs are mainly associated with the use of urinary catheters. Thus, the decision for catheterization should be made carefully and catheters removed in time. In order to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with urinary catheters correct diagnosis is crucial. Chinolones, broad-spectrum penicillins and third-generation cephalosporins are the mainstay of therapy. Comorbidities should be considered and potential obstructions of urinary flow removed. Economically important are the normally higher prices of i.v. antibiotics compared to oral use.

  1. Right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm with thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Syed Murfad; Bhat, P.S. Seetharama; Furtado, Arul Dominic; Chikkatur, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) aneurysm is a known complication of tetralogy of Fallot repair when a ventriculotomy is done. It leads to RV dysfunction and may require re-operation. We describe a rare instance of a patient who developed an RVOT aneurysm after trans-ventricular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, which was complicated with the formation of a thrombus in the aneurysm sac. The patient underwent re-operation with thrombectomy, excision of the RVOT aneurysm and pulmonary valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of this combination and its implications have not been reported. PMID:22232231

  2. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  4. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Velchik, M G

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable.

  5. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes.

  6. Urinary tract infections. Current approaches, future directions.

    PubMed

    Colgan, R; Hooton, T M; Gupta, K; Gomolin, I H; Childs, S; Gould, M

    2000-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem that is distressing for patients and costly for the healthcare system. UTIs commonly affect young, sexually active women; the elderly; and patients who have predisposing factors, such as catheterization. Recurrent infections are likely to occur in all these patients groups. Patients who are pregnant or have predisposing factors are at increased risk for complications related to untreated UTIs, such as long-term renal damage. Given these risks and the public health burden associated with the condition, it is important that clinicians have up-to-date information regarding the classification, symptoms, pathogenesis, and empiric treatment of UTIs.

  7. Microbial Translocation Across the GI Tract*

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, Jason M.; Douek, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    The lumen of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to an enormous quantity of different bacterial species, our microbiota, that thrive in an often symbiotic relationship with the host. Given that the healthy host must regulate contact between the microbiota and its immune system to avoid overwhelming systemic immune activation, humans have evolved several mechanisms to attenuate systemic microbial translocation (MT) and its consequences. However, several diseases are associated with the failure of one or more of these mechanisms, with consequent immune activation and deleterious effects on health. Here, we discuss the mechanisms underlying MT, diseases associated with MT, and therapeutic interventions that aim to decrease it. PMID:22224779

  8. Urinary tract infections in the infant.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Mehreen; Seed, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in an infant may be the first indication of an underlying renal disorder. Early recognition and initiation of adequate therapy for UTI is important to reduce the risk of long-term renal scarring. Ampicillin and gentamicin are traditionally the empiric treatment of choice; however, local antibiotic resistance patterns should be considered. Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy also increase the risk of resistant pathogens during neonatal UTI. Long-term management after the first UTI in infants remains controversial because of lack of specific studies in this age group and the risk-benefit issues for antibiotic prophylaxis between reduced recurrent disease and emergent antibiotic resistance.

  9. Dendritic cells and macrophages in the uveal tract of the normal mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages are components of the immune cell populations in the uveal tract whose density, distribution, turnover, and function may play a role in the maintenance of immunological homeostasis in the eye. Little is known of these cells in the mouse eye despite this being the predominant experimental model in many studies of ocular immune responses and immunoinflammatory mediated eye diseases. The aim of the present study was to obtain further immunophenotypic data on resident tissue macrophages and DC populations in the mouse uveal tract.
METHODS—Pieces of iris, ciliary body, and choroid dissected from perfusion fixed BALB/c mice were incubated whole in a variety of anti-macrophage and DC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Labelled cells were visualised using either single or double immunoperoxidase techniques.
RESULTS—Quantitative analysis and double immunolabelling revealed that 80% of F4/80+ cells (a mAb that recognises both DC and macrophages) in the iris are macrophages (SER4+). The iris contained a network of Ia+ cells (412 (SD 130) cells/mm2) of which two thirds appear to be DC. A similar pattern was observed in the ciliary body and choroid. Only a few DC in the uveal tract were very weakly reactive for mAbs which recognise B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), β2 integrin (mAb N418), and multivesicular bodies associated with antigen presentation (mAb M342).
CONCLUSIONS—The present study reveals that the mouse uveal tract, like the rat, contains rich networks of DC and resident tissue macrophages. The networks of resident tissue macrophages in the mouse uveal tract closely resemble similar networks in non-ocular tissues. The phenotype of uveal tract DC suggests they are in the "immature" phase of their life cycle, similar to Langerhans cells of the skin, thus implying their role in situ within the eye is antigen capture and not antigen presentation.

 PMID:10216062

  10. The management of urinary tract infections in octogenarian women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Urinary Tract Infections are common in women of all ages and the incidence increases with age. Whilst they are a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in all women they may be associated with increased morbidity in the elderly. Appropriate investigation and treatment in primary and secondary care are essential to effectively manage urinary tract infection and decrease morbidity and hospitalisation rates. Loss of endogenous oestrogen at the time of the menopause is associated with the urogenital atrophy and an increased incidence of urinary tract infection. Consequently vaginal oestrogen therapy may offer a rationale for treatment and prevent of urinary tract infection. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical management of elderly women presenting with primary and recurrent urinary tract infection.

  11. Toxicologic disease of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Garland, T

    2000-03-01

    There is a diverse and long list of toxicants that can affect the digestive system of food-producing animals. The plants and other natural toxicants discussed in this article are those primarily affecting the GI system. A number of other plants may also affect the digestive tract, but the effects from these are considered secondary and less pronounced. Often, plant poisonings affecting the digestive tract present with similar clinical signs, and a good thorough history is necessary to help differentiate between them. Moreover, a careful walk through the pasture with a keen eye to note plants that have been browsed or grazed may greatly assist the history. In cases where toxins are suspected as the cause of a GI disorder, consultation with a veterinary toxicologist at a diagnostic laboratory may be indicated. These professionals are knowledgeable about a wide variety of natural and other toxicants that may be present in your area. They can help with developing a differential diagnosis and the selection of appropriate samples to confirm the diagnosis.

  12. Transversal mixing in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainchtein, Dmitri; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We discuss results of numerical simulations and analytical modeling of transversal intraluminal mixing in the GI tract produced by segmentation and peristaltic contractions. Particles that start in different parts of the small intestine are traced over several contractions and mixing is described using the particles' probability distribution function. We show that there is optimal set of parameters of contractions, such as the depth and frequency, that produces the most efficient mixing. We show that contractions create well-defined advection patterns in transversal direction. The research is inspired by several applications. First, there is the study of bacteria populating the walls of the intestine, which rely on fluid mixing for nutrients. Second, there are gastrointestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, which can be treated effectively using a drug delivery capsule through GI tract, for which it is needed to know how long it takes for a released drug to reach the intestinal wall. And finally, certain neurological and muscular deceases change the parameters of contractions, thus reducing the efficiency of mixing. Understanding an admissible range of the parameters (when mixing is still sufficient for biological purposes) may indicate when the medical action is required.

  13. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  14. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Thiong'o, Grace Muthoni; Luzzio, Christopher; Albright, A Leland

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purposes of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which children presented with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, to determine the type of shunts that caused the perforations, and to compare the stiffness of perforating catheters with the stiffness of catheters from other manufacturers. METHODS Medical records were reviewed of 197 children who were admitted with VP shunt malfunction. Catheter stiffness was evaluated by measuring relative resistance to cross-sectional compression, resistance to column buckling, and elasticity in longitudinal bending. Catheter frictional force was measured per unit length. RESULTS Six children were identified whose VP shunts had perforated the GI tract; 2 shunts subsequently protruded through the anal orifice, 1 protruded through the oral cavity, and 3 presented with subcutaneous abscesses that tracked upward from the intestine to the chest. All perforating shunts were Chhabra shunts. Catheter stiffness and resistance to bending were greatest with a Medtronic shunt catheter, intermediate with a Codman catheter, and least with a Chhabra catheter. Frictional force was greatest with a Chhabra catheter and least with a Medtronic catheter. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of perforations by Chhabra shunts appears to be higher than the frequency associated with other shunts. The increased frequency does not correlate with their stiffness but may reflect their greater frictional forces.

  16. Botulinum Toxin and Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Kirsten; Kennedy, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The history of botulinum toxin is fascinating. First recognized as the cause of botulism nearly 200 years ago, it was originally feared as a deadly poison. Over the last 30 years, however, botulinum toxin has been transformed into a readily available medication used to treat a variety of medical disorders. Interest in the use of botulinum toxin has been particularly strong for patients with spastic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, gastroparesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and anal fissures have all been treated with botulinum toxin injections, often with impressive results. However, not all patients respond to botulinum toxin therapy, and large randomized controlled trials are lacking for many conditions commonly treated with botulinum toxin. This paper reviews the history, microbiology, and pharmacology of botulinum toxin, discusses its mechanism of action, and then presents recent evidence from the literature regarding the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:21960915

  17. Smooth muscle tumours of the alimentary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, T.; Danton, M. H.; Parks, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Neoplasms arising from smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are uncommon, comprising only 1% of gastrointestinal tumours. A total of 51 cases of smooth muscle tumour of the GI tract were analysed; 44 leiomyomas and 7 leiomyosarcomas. Lesions occurred in all areas from the oesophagus to the rectum, the stomach being the commonest site. Thirty-six patients had clinical features referable to the tumour. The tumour was detected during investigation or management of an unrelated disease process in 15 patients. The clinical presentation varied depending on tumour location, but abdominal pain and GI bleeding were the commonest presenting symptoms. The lesion was demonstrated preoperatively, mainly by endoscopy and barium studies, in 27 patients. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice, where possible. There was no recurrence in the leiomyoma group but four patients died in the leiomyosarcoma group. Although rare, smooth muscle tumours should be considered in situations where clinical presentation and investigations are not suggestive of any common GI disorder. The preoperative assessment and diagnosis is difficult because of the variability in clinical features and their inaccessibility to routine GI investigation. It is recommended that, where possible, the lesion, whether symptomatic or discovered incidentally, should be excised completely to achieve a cure and prevent future complications. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2221768

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The current literature regarding the effects of the gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gastrointestinal system is reviewed. Bacterial, host and pharmaceutical-derived H2S are all considered and presented according to the physiological or pathophysiological effects of the gaseous signal molecule. These subjects include the toxicology of intestinal H2S with emphasis on bacterial-derived H2S, especially from sulfate-reducing bacteria, the role of endogenous and exogenous H2S in intestinal inflammation, and the roles of H2S in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and nociception. Recent Advances: While its pro- and anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, prosecretory, and pro- and antinociceptive actions continue to remain the major effects of H2S in this system; recent findings have expanded the potential molecular targets for H2S in the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Issues: Numerous discrepancies remain in the literature, and definitive molecular targets in this system have not been supported by the use of competitive antagonism. Future Directions: Future work will hopefully resolve discrepancies in the literature and identify molecular targets and mechanisms of action for H2S. It is clear from the current literature that the long-appreciated relationship between H2S and the gastrointestinal tract continues to be strong as we endeavor to unravel its mysteries. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 818–830. PMID:23582008

  19. Prion diseases and the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Davies, G A; Bryant, Adam R; Reynolds, John D; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These are human and animal diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are uniformly fatal neurological diseases, which are characterized by ataxia and vacuolation in the central nervous system. Although they are known to be caused by the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to its infectious conformational isoform (PrPsc) the process by which this isoform is propagated and transported to the brain remains poorly understood. M cells, dendritic cells and possibly enteroendocrine cells are important in the movement of infectious prions across the GI epithelium. From there, PrPsc propagation requires B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and follicular dendritic cells of Peyer's patches. The early accumulation of the disease-causing agent in the plexuses of the enteric nervous system supports the contention that the autonomic nervous system is important in disease transmission. This is further supported by the presence of PrPsc in the ganglia of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that innervate the GI tract. Additionally, the lymphoreticular system has been implicated as the route of transmission from the gut to the brain. Although normal cellular prion protein is found in the enteric nervous system, its role has not been characterized. Further research is required to understand how the cellular components of the gut wall interact to propagate and transmit infectious prions to develop potential therapies that may prevent the progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

  20. [Kidney and urinary tract diseases in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Sulser, T; John, H; Zimmermann, R

    1999-10-01

    Management of urologic disorders in pregnant patients often increases the anxiety of all involved. Based on a thorough understanding of the physiologic changes seen in various organ systems the urologist has to assume the responsibility for the well-being of the mother and the fetus. Apart from the urinary tract infection, which occurs as frequent as in non-pregnant patients but has a significantly higher risk of acute bacterial pyelonephritis, it is mainly the pregnancy-associated symptomatic hydronephrosis and the urolithiasis which are complicating approximately 1 of every 1000-1500 pregnancies. Urinary tract infections should be treated in any case by antibiotics according to a antibiogram. High risk patients with history of vesicoureteral reflux or recurrent pyelonephritis should be treated prophylactically. Following parturition these patients should be investigated urologically to exclude structural abnormalities of the genitourinary system. In case of symptomatic hydronephrosis and calculous disease the first approach should be a watchful conservatism with symptomatic relief. If the symptoms persist insertion of a double-J-stent or in case of live-threatening situations (e.g. urosepsis) when urgent decompression and rapid evacuation is mandatory a percutaneous nephrostomy can be brought in place under sonographic monitoring completely thereby avoiding any radiation exposure.

  1. Estrogens and Male Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, Jalissa L.; Nicholson, Tristan M.; DeFranco, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common clinical problems in urology and affect the majority of men at some time during their lives. The development of BPH/LUTS is associated with an increased ratio of estrogen to androgen levels, and this ratio, when mimicked in a variety of animals, induces BPH and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). While the precise molecular etiology remains unclear, estrogens have been implicated in the development and maintenance of BPH. Numerous endogenous and exogenous estrogens exist in humans. These estrogens act via multiple estrogen receptors to promote or inhibit prostatic hyperplasia and other BPH-associated processes. The prostate is an estrogen target tissue, and estrogens directly and indirectly affect growth and differentiation of prostate. The precise role of estrogen action directly affecting prostate growth and differentiation in the context of BPH is an understudied area and remains to be elucidated. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been shown to promote or inhibit prostate proliferation illustrating their potential roles in the development of BPH as therapy. More work will be required to identify estrogen signaling pathways associated with LUTD in order to develop more efficacious drugs for BPH treatment and prevention. PMID:26156791

  2. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

  3. Listeria monocytogenes-Associated Biliary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis. In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases. Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32–85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n = 6), IIb (n = 5), and IIa (n = 1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P = 0.033). Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  4. Origin of the Cheney-Palouse Scabland tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, P. C.; Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    The Cheney-Palouse tract of the channeled scabland is the largest continuous tract of scabland in eastern Washington. The tract is composed of a varied assortment of bedrock erosional forms, loess islands, and gravel bars. Prominent bedrock longitudinal grooves and inner channels formed by macroturbulent plucking erosion of the jointed rock. Loess island forms vary as a function of their position within the flow. The three major types (submerged, partially submerged, and subaerially exposed) created sedimentologic conditions and resulting bar forms distinct from one another. Other bar forms, notably expansion bars, account for most of the sedimentation in the tract.

  5. Histopathological changes in small and large intestines during hymenolepidosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kolasa, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a chronic parasite living in the small intestine of rats, mice and humans. The aim of this study was to determine histopathological changes in the rat intestine during experimental hymenolepidosis. Our results showed that in rats infected with H. diminuta slight changes occurred in the length of the villus and crypts in different parts of the digestive tract. The changes were most distinct in the duodenum and jejunum on the 16 days post H. diminuta infection.

  6. Minimal contribution of the gastrointestinal tract to splanchnic uptake of intravenously infused ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Mingta )

    1992-02-26

    The uptake of iv infused ethanol in the liver and the GI tract were determined by the portal-hepatic and arterial-portal gradients of ethanol in this report. Male Wistar rats were cannulated either in the portal vein (P), the hepatic vein (H) and the inferior vena cava (V) or in the common carotid artery (A), the portal vein (P) and the inferior vena cava (V). The experiments were performed in the fed state only on those animals whose daily food consumption has returned to pre-cannulation level. Ethanol was infused into V at a rate of 15.2 umol/min/rat for 90 min. Five sets of P and H blood or A and P blood were simultaneously taken from PHV and APV cannulated rats between 60 and 90 min of infusion when plasma ethanol concentrations in A,P and H were found to reach plateau. Ethanol concentration P was 3.10 {plus minus} 1.17 mM (SD), H was 2.64 {plus minus} 1.19 mM(SD). The difference between the two was highly significant. P-H gradient was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.06 mM(SD). A-P gradients of ethanol in APV cannulated were 0.03 {approximately} 0.04 mM, 12 {approximately} 15 times lower than hepatic gradient. It was concluded that the role of alcohol dehydrogenase activity recently found in the GI tract in metabolizing blood ethanol is insignificant in comparison to that of the liver.

  7. Sex hormones and the female urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Miodrag, A; Castleden, C M; Vallance, T R

    1988-10-01

    Symptomatic clinical changes and urodynamic changes are apparent in the female urinary tract system during pregnancy, the menstrual cycle and following the menopause. The sex hormones exert physiological effects on the female urinary tract, from the ureters to the urethra, with oestrogens having an additional influence on the structures of the pelvic floor. High affinity oestrogen receptors have been identified in bladder, trigone, urethra and pubococcygeus muscle of women. Oestrogen pretreatment enhances the contractile response of animal detrusor muscle to alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, cholinomimetics and prostaglandins, as well as enhancing the contractile response to alpha-agonists in ureter and urethra. Progesterone on the other hand decreases tone in the ureter, bladder and urethra by enhancing beta-adrenergic responses. The dependence on oestrogens of the tissues of the lower urinary tract contributes to increased urinary problems in postmenopausal women. Urinary symptoms due to atrophic mucosal changes respond well to oestrogen replacement therapy. However, because they recur when treatment is stopped, continuous therapy with low dose natural oestrogens is recommended. Oestrogens may be of benefit in postmenopausal women with stress incontinence, but the doses necessary for clinical effect are higher than for the treatment of atrophic urethritis. The practice of adding a progestagen to long term oestrogen therapy to reduce the risk of endometrial carcinoma may, however, exacerbate stress incontinence by decreasing urethral pressure. Cyclical therapy with oestrogens may therefore be more appropriate particularly in women who are not suitable for surgery or have a mild degree of stress incontinence, along with other conservative measures such as pelvic floor exercises and alpha-adrenoceptor agonists. The place of oestrogen therapy in motor urge incontinence has not been determined. The risk of developing endometrial carcinoma as a result of long term high dose

  8. Kinetics of DNA duplex formation: A-tracts versus AT-tracts.

    PubMed

    Wyer, Jean Ann; Kristensen, Mads Bejder; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-09-21

    The hybridisation and melting of DNA strands are critical steps in many biological processes, but still a deeper understanding of the kinetics is lacking. This is evident from the absence of a clear correlation between rate constants for duplex formation and the number of bases in the strand or the sequence. Here we have probed differences between formation times of A-tracts and AT-tracts by studying complementary model strands mainly comprised of adenine (A) and thymine (T) in stopped-flow (SF) experiments. These strands are relevant as DNA replication begins in regions with a large number of AT base pairs. Interpretation of our results is aided by secondary-structure modelling where both the fractions of the different types of structures and the number of paired bases in the lowest-energy ones are determined. The model is based on calculation of free energies using fixed values for enthalpies and entropies associated with base pairing and a stochastic sampling of the possible structures. We find that the strand length affects rates: the activation energy for the formation of short (16-base pairs) A-tracts is larger than that for longer ones (20-base pairs). Activation energies for the formation of AT-tracts are an order of magnitude larger, and larger for shorter strands than for long ones. These higher activation energies are in agreement with the fact that the fraction of unpaired bases in the constituent AT-tract strands is less than in those which comprise the A-tracts. That the pre-structures of the single strands significantly affect rates is also used to rationalise the results obtained for two pairs of complementary 12-mer strands that have the same bases but in a different sequence; we report here similar activation energies as reported earlier and that these are strongly sequence dependent. Finally, we demonstrate that SF can be coupled with the measurement of circular dichroism (CD) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region, taking advantage of a

  9. Do cranberries help prevent urinary tract infections?

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Janet

    Cranberries are widely used in the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and for those at risk of such infections. With the growing resistance to antibiotics, cranberries can be viewed as a useful non-pharmaceutical remedy (Lavender, 2000). The initial studies that looked at the effects of cranberries on urine showed that the excretion of hippuric acid from the berries helped the urine to remain acidic, which could explain why they could be used to treat and prevent infection (Harkin, 2000). Recent studies argue that cranberries prevent Escherichia coli (E. coli) from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the bladder (Howell and Foxman, 2002). Cranberries contain a group of compounds, called proanthocyanidins, which are condensed tannins (Gray, 2002; Lowe and Fagelman, 2001; Kuzminski, 1996). These are thought to be the key factors in inhibiting E. coli adherence.

  10. Nursing management of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older people and can lead to serious complications. Infections can worsen underlying medical conditions, adversely affect recovery and be alarming to patients, their families and caregivers. UTIs have a complex pathophysiology but the most common cause is the ascent of bacteria from the periurethral area, which explains their prevalence in older women. As a result of antibiotic resistance, an accurate diagnosis is imperative and should be based on clinical history, presence of typical signs and symptoms and test results. Nurses can assist patients through the diagnostic process, treatment and prevention of UTIs, promoting their wellbeing and empowerment. This article explores the pathophysiology of UTIs and diagnosis, prevention and nursing management in a variety of care settings.

  11. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mirsaidov, N; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and asymptomatic bacteriuria are frequent in elderly patients. Distinguishing UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, might be a challenge for physicians due to the presence of confounding factors, such as an overactive bladder, prostate enlargement, and an indwelling bladder catheter. The absence of standards in the definition and treatment of UTI in the elderly frequently leads to overtreatment. Consequently, antibiotic selection pressure increases and as a result multidrug-resistant organisms might arise. On the other hand, insufficient treatment can result in prolonged and complicated courses of infections or increased morbidity. This review covers the definition, prevalence, diagnosis and management of UTI in older adults.

  12. Urinary tract infections in adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A; Ludwig, E

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract (UTI) is a major disease burden for many patients with diabetes. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is several-fold more common among women and acute plyelonephritis is five to ten times more common in both sexes. The complications of pyelonephritis are also more common in patients with diabetes. These complications include acute papillary necrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis, and bacteremia with metastatic localization to other sites. The management of urinary infection in patients with diabetes is essentially the same as patients without diabetes. Most infections should be managed as uncomplicated except when they occur in a milieu with obstruction or other factors that merit a diagnosis of complicated UTI. Strategies to prevent these infections and reduce morbidity should be a priority for research.

  13. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, S.; Hughes, T.; Boettcher, T.; Barman, R.; Langer, R.; Swiston, A.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine) experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage. PMID:26580216

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Stultz, Jeremy S; Doern, Christopher D; Godbout, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. Data regarding the impact of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation on UTI treatment outcomes is lacking.

  15. The Microbiome and the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2016-01-01

    Although the notion that “the normal lung is free from bacteria” remains common in textbooks, it is virtually always stated without citation or argument. The lungs are constantly exposed to diverse communities of microbes from the oropharynx and other sources, and over the past decade, novel culture-independent techniques of microbial identification have revealed that the lungs, previously considered sterile in health, harbor diverse communities of microbes. In this review, we describe the topography and population dynamics of the respiratory tract, both in health and as altered by acute and chronic lung disease. We provide a survey of current techniques of sampling, sequencing, and analysis of respiratory microbiota and review technical challenges and controversies in the field. We review and synthesize what is known about lung microbiota in various diseases and identify key lessons learned across disease states. PMID:26527186

  16. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Warren, J W

    2001-04-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection acquired in both hospitals and nursing homes and is usually associated with catheterization. This infection would be even more common but for the use of the closed catheter system. Most modifications have not improved on the closed catheter itself. Even with meticulous care, this system will not prevent bacteriuria. After bacteriuria develops, the ability to limit its complications is minimal. Once a catheter is put in place, the clinician must keep two concepts in mind: keep the catheter system closed in order to postpone the onset of bacteriuria, and remove the catheter as soon as possible. If the catheter can be removed before bacteriuria develops, postponement becomes prevention.

  17. Urinary tract infections in the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Asher, E F; Oliver, B G; Fry, D E

    1988-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) continues to be a common nosocomial infection. From a 2-year city-county hospital experience, 212 nosocomial UTI were identified in 153 patients from 3747 admissions. Mean age was 54 years; 102 were men. Foley catheterization was an associated factor in 129 patients (84%). UTI was caused by 40 different species of bacteria. In 28 infections (13%), the UTI was polymicrobial. Only nine patients had bacteremia. The bacteriology of the UTI depended on whether the patient had received systemic antibiotics previously during the hospitalization. Prior antibiotic administration increased the probability of Pseudomonas and Serratia as pathogens. Thus, patients that have had antibiotic therapy demonstrate a distribution of pathogens that are different from patients not receiving antibiotics, and a distribution different from the community-acquired UTI. Continued emphasis on the shorter duration and more judicious use of systemic antibiotics for both prophylaxis and therapy is warranted.

  18. Urinary tract infection in febrile convulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P; Verrier Jones, K

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective review of the casenotes of 403 children admitted to hospital with febrile convulsions was performed to estimate the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection and examine medical practice in making this diagnosis. A total of 228 (56%) children had urine cultured: 150 bag specimens, 76 clean voided samples, and two suprapubic aspirates. There were 13 'probable' and six 'possible' infected urine samples together representing 5% of the whole study population (n = 403), 8% of those having urine cultured (n = 228), and 12% of those providing uncontaminated urine samples (n = 155). Those with first febrile convulsions and those aged under 18 months were more likely to have urine examined. Practices varied significantly between different hospitals. These results suggest that there has indeed been a need for practice guidelines, and that further audit of practice is required to assess their impact. PMID:1755639

  19. Crohn's disease with respiratory tract involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Lemann, M; Messing, B; D'Agay, F; Modigliani, R

    1987-01-01

    Symptomatic respiratory tract involvement with granulomatous bronchial lesions has not yet been described in Crohn's disease. We report two patients with colonic Crohn's disease and severe respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea associated in one of the patients with voicelessness); erythema, aphthoid and superficial ulcerations were found in the colon and whitish granulations in the bronchi at endoscopy. Non-caseating tuberculoid granulomas were found in the colonic mucosa of both patients, as well as in the bronchial mucosa of one of them; in the second a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate including epithelioid cells was found underneath an erosion of bronchial epithelium. Both patients improved on oral prednisone. These two patients probably had bronchial involvement by Crohn's disease. Images Figure PMID:3428695

  20. Review of adolescent urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Mark; Cohen, Jacob

    2007-07-01

    The diagnosis and management of adolescent urinary tract infection (UTI) share some of the clinical features seen in infections of the young and old. Whereas most infections in the young patient demand an extensive radiologic work-up, the teenager with a UTI is not so straightforward. The clinician must balance being too aggressive with being too conservative in the diagnosis and management of these patients. UTIs occur most frequently among adolescent females and are usually uncomplicated and not associated with underlying anatomic abnormalities. Smaller numbers of adolescent males suffer from UTIs, and the need to search for underlying abnormalities is not clear. Adolescent UTI is associated with nascent sexual activity and is also more common in voiding/elimination syndromes. Future studies examining UTI, specifically in the adolescent age group, will help provide clinicians with a more focused algorithm in the diagnosis and management of adolescent UTIs.

  1. Imaging in upper urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ifergan, J; Pommier, R; Brion, M-C; Glas, L; Rocher, L; Bellin, M-F

    2012-06-01

    Most infections of the upper urinary tract are straightforward and do not require any emergency radiological investigations. A sonogram carried out within 48 hours will in most cases be sufficient to eliminate obstructed pyelonephritis requiring emergency drainage of urine. In complicated cases, or those affecting already weakened areas, an urgent CT scan is necessary, preferably after injection of iodinated contrast medium if renal function permits. CT scanning is far better at diagnosis than sonography as well as at investigating whether there are complications. Furthermore, it is essential that the radiologist is aware of unusual and rare forms of pyelonephritis, especially pseudotumoural forms, so that clinicians can be pointed towards the appropriate treatment, avoiding unnecessary and invasive interventions.

  2. Generating vocal tract shapes from formant frequencies.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, P; Harshman, R; Goldstein, L; Rice, L

    1978-10-01

    An algorithm that uses only the first three formant frequencies has been devised for generating vocal tract shapes as seen on midsagittal x-ray diagrams of most English vowels. The shape of the tongue is characterized in terms of the sum of two factors derived from PARAFAC analysis: a front raising component and a back raising component. Stepwise multiple regression techniques were used to show that the proportions of these two components, and of a third parameter corresponding to the distance between the lips, are highly correlated with the formant frequencies in 50 vowels. The recovery algorithm developed from these correlations was tested on a number of published sets of tracings from x-ray diagrams, and appears to be generalizable to other speakers.

  3. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required.

  4. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate.

  5. Congenital diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lentze, M

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in knowledge on the genetic origin of diseases within the gastrointestinal tract the number of congenital diseases, which already manifest during childhood have drastically increased. Due to the large application of molecular genetics the number is steadily increasing. To make the access to these rare diseases fast and efficient the data base of the National Library of Medicine (Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man - OMIN) is a very helpful online tool, with which all these disease entities can be found easily (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). Detailed tables are given to find most of the congenitally inherited disease, which affect the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of congenital diarrheas with disturbances of digestion, hydrolysis, absorption and secretion is described in detail: lactose intolerance, sucrose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, fructose malabsorption, trehalase and enterokinase deficiency, congenital chloride and sodium diarrhea, congenital hypomagnesaemia, primary bile acid malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica and Menke's syndrome. Also described in detail are diseases with structural anomalies of the intestine like microvillous inclusion disease, congenital tufting enteropathy and IPEX syndrome. The diagnosis in the disturbances of carbohydrate hydrolysis or absorption can be established by H2-breath tests after appropriate sugar challenge. Treatment consists of elimination of the responsible sugar from the diet. The diagnosis of the congenital secretory diarrheas is established by investigation of electrolytes in blood and stool. Substitution of high doses of the responsible mineral can improve the clinical outcome. In acrodermatitis enteropathica low serum zinc level together with the typical skin lesions guide to the diagnosis. High doses of oral zinc aspartate can cure the symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis of structural congenital lesions of the intestine can be established by histology and

  6. Microtomographic analysis of lower urinary tract obstruction.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Joseph R; Smith, Kenneth J; Cox, Liza L; Glass, Ian A; Cox, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal obstruction of the lower urinary tract may result in megacystis, with subsequent development of hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and renal damage. Oligo- or anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and prune belly syndrome are lethal consequences. Causes and mechanisms responsible for obstruction remain unclear but might be clarified by anatomic study at autopsy. To this end, we employed 2 methods of tomographic imaging-optical projection tomography and contrast-enhanced microCT scanning-to elucidate the anatomy of the intact urinary bladder and urethra in 10 male fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Images were compared with those from 9 age-matched controls. Three-dimensional images, rotated and sectioned digitally in multiple planes, permitted thorough examination while preserving specimens for later study. Both external and internal features of the bladder and urethra were demonstrated; small structures (ie, urethral crest, verumontanum, prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts) were seen in detail. Types of obstruction consisted of urethral atresia (n  =  5), severe urethral stenosis (n  =  2), urethral diaphragm (n  =  2), or physical kinking (n  =  1); classic (Young type I) posterior urethral valves were not encountered. Traditional light microscopy was then used to verify tomographic findings. The prostate gland was hypoplastic or absent in all cases; in 1, prostatic tissue was displaced inferior to the verumontanum. Findings support previous views that dissection may produce valve-like artifacts (eg, bisection of an obstructing diaphragm) and that deformation of an otherwise normal urethra may result in megacystis. The designation "posterior urethral valves" should not be used as a generic expression of urethral obstruction unless actual valves are demonstrated.

  7. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  8. Myocardialization of the cardiac outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van den Hoff, M. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Ruijter, J. M.; Lamers, W. H.; Bennington, R. W.; Markwald, R. R.; Wessels, A.

    1999-01-01

    During development, the single-circuited cardiac tube transforms into a double-circuited four-chambered heart by a complex process of remodeling, differential growth, and septation. In this process the endocardial cushion tissues of the atrioventricular junction and outflow tract (OFT) play a crucial role as they contribute to the mesenchymal components of the developing septa and valves in the developing heart. After fusion, the endocardial ridges in the proximal portion of the OFT initially form a mesenchymal outlet septum. In the adult heart, however, this outlet septum is basically a muscular structure. Hence, the mesenchyme of the proximal outlet septum has to be replaced by cardiomyocytes. We have dubbed this process "myocardialization." Our immunohistochemical analysis of staged chicken hearts demonstrates that myocardialization takes place by ingrowth of existing myocardium into the mesenchymal outlet septum. Compared to other events in cardiac septation, it is a relatively late process, being initialized around stage H/H28 and being basically completed around stage H/H38. To unravel the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the induction and regulation of myocardialization, an in vitro culture system in which myocardialization could be mimicked and manipulated was developed. Using this in vitro myocardialization assay it was observed that under the standard culture conditions (i) whole OFT explants from stage H/H20 and younger did not spontaneously myocardialize the collagen matrix, (ii) explants from stage H/H21 and older spontaneously formed extensive myocardial networks, (iii) the myocardium of the OFT could be induced to myocardialize and was therefore "myocardialization-competent" at all stages tested (H/H16-30), (iv) myocardialization was induced by factors produced by, most likely, the nonmyocardial component of the outflow tract, (v) at none of the embryonic stages analyzed was ventricular myocardium myocardialization-competent, and finally

  9. A novel device with 36 channels for imaging and signal acquisition of the gastrointestinal tract based on AC biosusceptometry.

    PubMed

    Paixao, Fabiano C; Quini, Caio C; Baffa, Oswaldo; Miranda, Jose Ricardo de A

    2010-01-01

    The alternate current biosusceptometry (ACB) is a biomagnetic technique used to study some physiological parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For this purpose it applies an AC magnetic field and measures the response originating from magnetic marks or tracers. This paper presents an equipment based on the ACB which uses anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors and an inexpensive electronic support. The ACB-AMR developed consists of a square array of 6×6 sensors arranged in a first-order gradiometer configuration with one reference sensor. The equipment was applied to capture magnetic images of different phantoms and to acquire gastric contraction activity of healthy rats. The results show a reasonable sensitivity and spatial-temporal resolution, so that it may be applied for imaging of phantoms and signal acquisition of the GI tract of small animals.

  10. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh; Tran, Thu Thuy; Rasch, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections included: inadequate training of health staff, lack of equipment, and cultural assumptions regarding the overwhelming prevalence of reproductive tract infections in Vietnamese women, especially among those who receive abortion services. Misconceptions of reproductive tract infections led to substantial over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of reproductive tract infections in this hospital. To enhance reproductive tract infection care, providers need to be sensitized to the social and medical consequences of their own cultural perceptions and to increase their awareness of the risks associated with overuse of antibiotics.

  11. The effect of spaceflight on retino-hypothalamic tract development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, D. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Tang, I. H.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers examined the effect of late prenatal exposure to microgravity on the development of the retina, retinohypothalamic tract, geniculo-hypothalamic tract, and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Results indicate an effect on c-fos activity in the intergeniculate leaflet between gestational day 20 and postnatal day 8, suggesting a delay in development of the circadian timing system.

  12. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, you ... make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you ...

  13. Extensive gastrointestinal tract and thyroid involvement with Wegeners granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raja Shekhar; Biyyani, Sappati; Pauskar, Privi; Fahmy, Nabil M; King, James F

    2007-01-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) is a pauci-immune systemic vasculitis involving small to medium sized blood vessels of the respiratory tract and renal vasculature. We report a 34-year-old lady with extensive gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and thyroid involvement. Literature review revealed only two prior reports of esophageal involvement, two reports of pancreatic involvement and few cases of thyroid involvement.

  14. Bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tract: Antigenic and genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine corona viruses (BoCV) isolated from respiratory tract, nasal swab and broncho alveolar washing fluid samples were evaluated for genetic and antigenic differences. These BoCV from the respiratory tract of healthy and clinically ill cattle with BRD signs were compared to reference and vaccine ...

  15. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Man, Wing Ho; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-03-20

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity. The ecological and environmental factors that direct the development of microbial communities in the respiratory tract and how these communities affect respiratory health are the focus of current research. Concurrently, the functions of the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the physiology of the human host are being studied in detail. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiological, biological and functional evidence that support the physiological role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

  16. Development and Morphology of the Ventricular Outflow Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E.; Brown, Nigel A.; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    It is customary, at the current time, to consider many, if not most, of the lesions involving the ventricular outflow tract in terms of conotruncal malformations. This reflects the introduction, in the early 1940s, of the terms conus and truncus to describe the components of the developing outflow tract. The definitive outflow tracts in the postnatal heart, however, possess three, rather than two, components. These are the intrapericardial arterial trunks, the arterial roots, and the subvalvar ventricular outflow tracts. Congenital lesions afflicting the arterial roots, however, are not currently considered to be conotruncal malformations. This suggests a lack of logic in the description of cardiac development and its use as a means of categorizing congenital malformations. It is our belief that the developing outflow tract, like the postnatal outflow tracts, can readily be described in tripartite fashion, with its distal, intermediate, and proximal components forming the primordiums of the postnatal parts. In this review, we present evidence obtained from developing mice and human hearts to substantiate this notion. We show that the outflow tract, initially with a common lumen, is divided into its aortic and pulmonary components by a combination of an aortopulmonary septum derived from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac and outflow tract cushions that spiral through its intermediate and proximal components. These embryonic septal structures, however, subsequently lose their septal functions as the outflow tracts develop their own discrete walls. We then compare the developmental findings with the anatomic arrangements seen postnatally in the normal human heart. We show how correlations with the embryologic findings permit logical analysis of the congenital lesions involving the outflow tracts. PMID:27587491

  17. Deciphering bacterial community changes in zucker diabetic fatty rats based on 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hong; Li, Shu; Liang, Lina; Sui, Hua; Zhan, Libin; Lu, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was deciphering bacterial community changes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF rats), a model of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies unmasked that the status of gastrointestinal tract microbiota has a marked impact on nutrition-related syndromes such as obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, samples taken from the gastrointestinal tracts (GI tracts) of ZDF and their lean littermates (ZL rats) were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analysis to examine the characteristic bacterial communities, including those located in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and feces. Results revealed that the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased and greater numbers of Lactobacillus were detected along GI tracts in ZDF rats compared to ZL rats. In conclusion, this work is the first study to systematically characterize bacterial communities along ZDF rat GI tract and provides substantial evidence supporting a prospective strategy to alter the GI microbial communities improving obesity and T2D. PMID:27418144

  18. Contemporary management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Guay, David R P

    2008-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidences of approximately 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. By definition, UTIs in males or pregnant females and those associated with risk factors known to increase the risk of infection or treatment failure (e.g. acquisition in a hospital setting, presence of an indwelling urinary catheter, urinary tract instrumentation/interventions, diabetes mellitus or immunosuppression) are not considered herein. The majority of uUTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (70-95%), with Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp. and Staphylococcus saprophyticus accounting for 1-2%, 1-2% and 5-10% of infections, respectively. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with uUTI are present (e.g. dysuria, frequency, back pain or costovertebral angle tenderness) and there is no vaginal discharge or irritation present, the likelihood of uUTI is >90-95%. Laboratory testing (i.e. urinary nitrites, leukocyte esterase, culture) is not necessary in this circumstance and empirical treatment can be initiated. The ever-increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance of the common uropathogens in uUTI has been and is a continuing focus of intensive study. Resistance to cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) has made the empirical use of this drug problematic in many geographical areas. If local uropathogen resistance rates to cotrimoxazole exceed 10-25%, empirical cotrimoxazole therapy should not be utilized (fluoroquinolones become the new first-line agents). In a few countries, uropathogen resistance rates to the fluoroquinolones now exceed 10-25%, rendering empirical use of fluoroquinolones problematic. With the exception of fosfomycin (a second-line therapy), single-dose therapy is not recommended because of suboptimal cure rates and high relapse rates. Cotrimoxazole and the fluoroquinolones can be administered in 3-day regimens

  19. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    In both the voice and musical wind instruments, a valve (vocal folds, lips, or reed) lies between an upstream and downstream duct: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player’s lips, and∕or the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments. PMID:19649157

  20. Detecting sweet and umami tastes in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, K; Ichikawa, R; Uematsu, A; Kitamura, A; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

    2012-02-01

    Information about nutrients is a critical part of food selection in living creatures. Each animal species has developed its own way to safely seek and obtain the foods necessary for them to survive and propagate. Necessarily, humans and other vertebrates have developed special chemosensory organs such as taste and olfactory organs. Much attention, recently, has been given to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as another chemosensory organ. Although the GI tract had been considered to be solely for digestion and absorption of foods and nutrients, researchers have recently found taste-signalling elements, including receptors, in this tissue. Further studies have revealed that taste cells in the oral cavity and taste-like cells in the GI tract appear to share common characteristics. Major receptors to detect umami, sweet and bitter are found in the GI tract, and it is now proposed that taste-like cells reside in the GI tract to sense nutrients and help maintain homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent findings of chemoreception especially through sweet and umami sensors in the GI tract. In addition, the possibility of purinergic transmission from taste-like cells in the GI tract to vagus nerves is discussed.

  1. [The tension band effect of the iliotibial tract].

    PubMed

    Tichy, P; Tillmann, B

    1989-05-01

    There is an unreconciled discrepancy between the course of the iliotibial tract described in most anatomical textbooks and the results of photoelastic experiments performed by Pauwels (1948), in which he demonstrated the principle of the tension band effect that decreases the bending stress of the femur. If the photoelastic experiments are performed according to the anatomical description of the attachments of the iliotibial tract between iliac bone and tibial condyle not only is the tension band effect lacking; the stress is even increased. Our reinvestigation of the course of the iliotibial tract shows that the iliotibial tract is not fixed at the greater trochanter, as Pauwels assumed in his photoelastic experiments. Rather, the tendon of the gluteus maximus and a major portion of the iliotibial tract intermingle near the gluteal tuberosity. As a result, the iliotibial tract is also attached to the proximal end of the femur. If a model is constructed on the basis of this finding, the simulation of traction between gluteal tuberosity and the tibial condyle results in a decrease in the bending stress on the femoral shaft. Thus, the results of the present morphological and functional investigations confirm the biomechanical tension band effect of the iliotibial tract on the femur via the attachment to the femur mediated by the tendon of the gluteus maximus.

  2. Endoscopic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Forster, James A; Palit, Victor; Browning, Anthony J; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar

    2010-04-01

    Upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for up to 10% of cases of neoplasm of the upper urinary tract. The "gold standard" management of upper tract TCC is nephroureterectomy. Technological innovations, miniaturisations and increased availability of energy sources such as Holmium laser fibers have improved the armamentarium of endoscopic management of upper tract TCC. Endoscopic management of upper tract TCC includes the percutaneous (antegrade) and retrograde approaches. Modern flexible ureterorenoscopy allows retrograde approach to small (<1.5cm), low grade and noninvasive tumors, which is inaccessible to standard rigid ureteroscopes without breaching the urothelial barrier. In patients with large tumors or in whom retrograde access is difficult, the percutaneous approach to the renal pelvis, although more invasive, provides an alternative access and control. Both retrograde and percutaneous approaches allow instillation of various chemotherapeutic agents. Careful selection of patients is the key point in the successful endoscopic management of upper tract TCC. Patient selection is based on tumor size, grade and multifocality and other patient factors such as comorbidities, single kidney, post kidney transplant and patient choice. Both motivation and compliance of patients are needed for long-term successes. However, until large randomized trials with long term follow-up are available, endoscopic management of upper tract TCC should be reserved for only selected group of patients. This review summarizes the current techniques, indications, contraindications and outcomes of endoscopic management of UTTCC and the key published data.

  3. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  4. The Corticospinal Tract in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, O; Squitieri, F; Sanchez-Castaneda, C; Elifani, F; Griguoli, A; Maglione, V; Caltagirone, C; Sabatini, U; Di Paola, M

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by progressive motor impairment. Therefore, the connectivity of the corticospinal tract (CST), which is the main white matter (WM) pathway that conducts motor impulses from the primary motor cortex to the spinal cord, merits particular attention. WM abnormalities have already been shown in presymptomatic (Pre-HD) and symptomatic HD subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, we examined CST microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based tractography in 30-direction DTI data collected from 100 subjects: Pre-HD subjects (n = 25), HD patients (n = 25) and control subjects (n = 50), and T2*-weighted (iron sensitive) imaging. Results show decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased axial (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the bilateral CST of HD patients. Pre-HD subjects had elevated iron in the left CST, regionally localized between the brainstem and thalamus. CAG repeat length in conjunction with age, as well as motor (UHDRS) assessment were correlated with CST FA, AD, and RD both in Pre-HD and HD. In the presymptomatic phase, increased iron in the inferior portion supports the "dying back" hypothesis that axonal damage advances in a retrograde fashion. Furthermore, early iron alteration may cause a high level of toxicity, which may contribute to further damage.

  5. Fluorescence diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Kate C.; Inada, Natalia M.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    The pharyngitis and laryngitis are respiratory tract infections highly common. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by fever, especially if caused by a systemic infection. Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) from irritation or infection. The conventional treatment is the antibiotics administration, which may be responsible by an increase of identification of bacterial strains resistant to drug. This fact associated to high incidence of these infections become important to develop new technologies for diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the use of widefield fluorescence imaging for the characterization of oropharynx infections, in order to diagnose the bacteria colonization. The imaging system for wide field fluorescence visualization is Evince® (MMOptics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) coupled to an Apple iPhone® cell phone device. The system consists of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) operating in the violet blue region centered at green-red spectrum 450 nm and optical filters that allow viewing of fluorescence. A tongue depressor was adapted to Evince® for mouth opening. The same images were captured with white light and fluorescence with an optical system. The red fluorescence may be a bacterial marker for physiological monitoring of oropharynx infection processes. The bacterial biofilm on tissue were assigned to the presence of protoporphyrin IX. This work indicates that the autofluorescence of the tissue may be used as a non-invasive technique to aid in the oropharynx infection diagnostic.

  6. [Subepithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Stupnik, Silvio; Rafaelli, Claudio; González, Graciela Osorio; Pestalardo, María Luján; Quesada, Matías; Viúdez, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are related to mesenchymal tumors and 80% of them are GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors). However, there are also other tumors, such as: leiomyomas, schwannomas, lipomas, glomus tumors, carcinoid tumors, aberrant pancreas and polyps or inflammatory tumors. Diagnosis of submucosal tumors is often performed during routine endoscopic examination, they are frequently located at the stomach and in most cases are clinically evidenced by their complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the elected method for their staging; but other imaging diagnosis methods include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography scan (PET). The differential diagnosis is made by inmunohistochemical techniques, revealing in the GIST the expression of the antigen CD117, and prognostic factors are determined by size and mitotic index. Surgery is the recommended therapeutic, although in small lesions not exceeding 2 cm it has also been suggested the endoscopic resection guided by EUS and a watchful behaviour based on periodical controls in lesions with benignity criteria. The series here exhibited (2 GIST 1 lyposarcoma, 1 schwannoma and 1 inflammatory fibroid polyp) shows that all these tumors were symptomatic; have been diagnosed using endoscopy and recognized by means of histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis after surgery.

  7. Urinary tract infection in renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Giessing, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI), especially recurrent UTI, is a common problem, occurring in >75% of kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. UTI degrades the health-related quality of life and can impair graft function, potentially reducing graft and patient survival. As urologists are often involved in treating UTI after KTX, previous reports were searched to elucidate underlying causes, risk factors and treatment options, as well as recommendations for prophylaxis of UTI after KTX. Methods Pubmed/Medline was searched and international guidelines and recommendations for prevention and treatment of UTI after KTX were also assessed. Results Most studies on UTI after KTX have a small sample, and are descriptive and retrospective. Many transplant- and recipient-related risk factors have been identified. While asymptomatic bacteriuria is often treated, even though some studies advise against it, symptomatic UTI should be treated empirically after collecting urine for microbiological analysis, to avoid the development of transplant pyelonephritis with a high chance of urosepsis. The duration of treatment has not been determined in studies and recommendations refer to the treatment of complicated UTI in the non-transplant population. Prophylaxis has not been the focus of studies either. Conclusion UTI after KTX is still largely an under-represented field of study, despite many recipients developing UTI after KTX. Prospective studies on this topic are urgently needed. PMID:26558020

  8. Work up of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Hillary L.; Schmidt, Bogdana

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric UTI costs the healthcare system upwards of 180 million dollars annually, and accounts for over 1.5 million clinician visits per year. Accurate and timely diagnosis of these infections is important for determining appropriate treatment and preventing long-term complications such as renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. Outside of the first 12 months, girls are more likely to be diagnosed with a UTI. About half of boys with UTI will be diagnosed within the first 12 months of life. The prevalence and incidence of pediatric UTI varies by age, race/ethnicity, sex and circumcision status. Diagnosis of UTI is made based on history and exam findings and confirmed with appropriately collected urine. If a bag specimen is negative, this can be used to rule out UTI without the need for confirmatory culture; however positive urinalysis tests from bag specimen warrant further investigation with a catheterized specimen or suprapubic aspiration. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosing UTI: Greater than 50,000 CFU on a catheterized specimen or suprapubic aspiration indicate presence of a UTI. Greater than 100,000 CFU on a voided specimen is considered a positive culture. There is no consensus on the need and optimal strategy for imaging in the setting of urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. Prompt recognition of UTI and antibiogram-based, empiric treatment or culture-based, targeted treatment should be initiated within 72 of presentation. PMID:26475948

  9. Environmentally mediated disorders of the respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Samet, J.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Although much of the evidence in environmental lung disease remains equivocal, some environmental exposures are known to be clinically relevant. Ambient air pollution remains of concern as a source of morbidity, particularly for susceptible populations such as persons with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac disease and the elderly. The adverse effects of several components of indoor air pollution have been established. Environmental tobacco smoke contributes to lower-respiratory illness in infants; office workers exposed to thermophilic actinomycetes contaminating ventilation systems have developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and in the home, components of house dust and fungus spores may provoke asthma via immediate hypersensitivity. The evidence is less compelling for a link between other exposures and disorders of the respiratory tract. For example, formaldehyde may be responsible for provoking vague respiratory symptoms and even nasal cancers; however, the associations are unproved. Likewise, the relation between low-level exposure to asbestos and the development of lung cancer, although a concern, is not conclusively established. The clinician should be aware of practical measures for patients who inquire about air cleaning. Often, relatively simple solutions are effective. A knowledge of sources and exposures as well as an understanding of the principles of inhalation lung injury should prove useful in directing patient care. 33 references.

  10. Use of antioxidants in urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Allameh, Zahra; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory process, and oxidative stress plays a major role in it. Anti-inflammatory or antioxidant therapy given concomitantly with antibiotics should lower the risk of postpyelonephritic scarring. As the lack of review studies in the use of antioxidants in urinary tract infections was detected, this study was designed. We conducted a review of available articles in PubMed and Google Scholar with a simple review, using keywords of “antioxidant” and “pyelonephritis” with all their possible synonyms and combinations. Only interventional studies were collected. There were neither limitations on time, nor the location of the study, type of subjects, administration rout of the antioxidant drug, and the antioxidant drug used. After studying the abstracts or in some cases the full text of articles, they were categorized based on the type of antioxidant, type and number of subjects, rout of administration, dosing, duration of treatment, year of publication of the paper, and the results. A total of 66 articles published from 1991 to 2015 were found by studying just the title of the papers. Studying the abstracts reduced this number to 51 studies. Antioxidants used for this condition were Vitamins A, E, and C, cytoflavin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, ebselen, allopurinol, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, oleuropein, montelukast, oxytocin, ozon, dapsone, pentoxifyllin, tadalafil, bilirubin, cranberry, meloxicam, L-carnitine, colchicine, perfluoran, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone. Studies show that antioxidants are capable of reducing oxidative stress and can be used effectively along with antibiotics to reduce the scar formation. PMID:27162800

  11. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    PubMed

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  12. Inflammation in the bovine female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Bondurant, R H

    1999-01-01

    Inflammation of the reproductive tract of a cow occurs when the physical and functional barriers to contamination are breached or specific infection occurs. Commonly, contamination occurs at parturition and to a lesser extent at estrus. Uterine contamination following calving is common, but most healthy cows are able to clear the uterus of bacteria in the first 2 to 3 wk after calving. Persistent infections are more likely to be caused by Actinomyces pyogenes. Specific venereal infections tend to be more host-adapted and produce a lower grade inflammation. Nonspecific bacterial contamination of the endometrium generally induces a neutrophilic influx into the stratum compactum and uterine lumen. Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria with the aid of opsonins in the uterine fluid. Mast cells and eosinophils may also contribute to the inflammatory reaction, which may damage the surface epithelium and release vasoactive substances that allow leakage of serum antibodies into the uterine secretions. Specific antibodies of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype A, M, G1, and G2 in uterine secretions have been described. In model species, the immune capability of the uterus is influenced by steroid hormones, especially estradiol, which increases secretory component and both IgA and IgG content in uterine secretions and increases the activity of antigen-presenting cells in the uterus. Similar cyclic fluctuations in immune components have been described for cows, including changes in the population of subsurface cytotoxic and helper T cells and changes in the expression of major histocompatibility II antigen on surface cells.

  13. [Ultrasonographic elastography in alimentary tract lesions diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuńi, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy; Jałocha, Łukasz; Krzysztof, Kosik; Błaszak, Antoni; Wojtkowiak, Marek

    2009-05-01

    Technology development in data processing in ultrasonography let new imaging method feasible. New method of imaging is elastography (elastosonography, ultrasonographic elastography). It relays on the presumption that pathologically changed tissues have different elasticity and change their shape in different way than health tissue. Elastography is used in lesions in alimentary tract diagnostics. Sensitivity and specificity in malignant lesions differentiation is 85% and 90%. In elastography there is used conventional ultrasonography device that is equipped with additional transformator that is located in probe. Examination is performed with multiple pressing the organ. Imaging is acquired in real-time regime they are colour-coded and they are created during compression. As a result of computer analysis images are generated in two colours. On the basis of character of normal and increased rigidity images were classified in five point scale from one to five. Indication to elastography is suspicion of malignant lesions in traditional ultrasonography and monitoring of liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. More trials are required to evaluate this method more reliably. Then it could be recommended for everyday clinical use.

  14. Respiratory tract infections in the military environment.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Konior, Monika; Lass, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Military personnel fighting in contemporary battlefields as well as those participating in combat training are at risk of contracting respiratory infections. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that soldiers deployed to the harsh environment have higher rates of newly reported respiratory symptoms than non-deployers. Acute respiratory diseases are the principle reason for outpatient treatment and hospitalization among military personnel, with an incidence exceeding that of the adult civilian population by up to three-fold. Adenoviruses, influenza A and B viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, coronaviruses and rhinoviruses have been identified as the main causes of acute respiratory infections among the military population. Although infective pathogens have been extensively studied, a significant proportion of illnesses (over 40%) have been due to unknown causative agents. Other health hazards, which can lead to respiratory illnesses among troops, are extreme air temperatures, desert dust, emissions from burn pits, industrial pollutants, and airborne contaminants originating from degraded soil. Limited diagnostic capabilities, especially inside the area of operations, make it difficult to accurately estimate the exact number of respiratory diseases in the military environment. The aim of the study was to discuss the occurrence of respiratory tract infections in army personnel, existing risk factors and preventive measures.

  15. Bacterial biofilms in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Probert, H M; Gibson, G R

    2002-09-01

    Microbial biofilms were first described in 1936 and subsequent research has unveiled their ubiquity and physiological distinction from free-living (planktonic) microorganisms. In light of their emerging significance this review examines the bacterial biofilms within the human gastrointestinal tract. Attention is paid to the nature of these mucosally- associated populations, focusing on the protected environment afforded by the continual secretion of mucus by host epithelial cells. It also examines the attributes possessed by various bacterial species that facilitate habitation of this microenvironment. Additionally, contrasts are drawn between planktonic bacteria of the lumen and sessile (biofilm) bacteria growing in close association with host cells and food particles. In particular the different fermentation profiles exhibited by these two fractions are discussed. The potential role of these communities in host health and disease, as well as the stabilisation of the lumenal population, is also considered. Reference is made to the state of mutualism that exists between these little understood populations and the host epithelia, thus highlighting their ecological significance in terms of gastrointestinal health.

  16. Interactions of cadmium compounds with endogenous iron in the intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, N.; Sugawara, C. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors previously reported that when cadmium (Cd) given orally to mice or rats, they showed a decrease of hemoglobin, or of hepatic and renal iron (Fe). The decrease may be due to the decrease of Fe uptake into the intestinal mucosa brush border membrane. In a related work, it was suggested that internalized-Cd blocks the transferrin cycle within intestinal cells. Recently, the role of ferritin in the process of intestinal Fe absorption has been evaluated. Even now, Fe absorption from the GI tract is still under discussion. In order to understand the competition of Cd with Fe further, the authors gave some Cd compounds known to be taken up in different manners into the intestinal mucosa to mice.

  17. Some aspects of the effects of PL-10.1.AK-15 on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Erceg, D; Simicevic, V N; Kolega, M; Dohoczky, C

    1997-01-01

    PL-10.1.AK-15 is an active fragment of a naturally occurring protein first isolated from human gastric juice. Among its other protective effects, PL-10.1.AK-15 has demonstrated a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PL-10.1.AK-15 on two functional parameters of gastrointestinal function: gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Gastric acid secretion was assessed in male Wistar rats using a modified method of Shay, while gastrointestinal motility was assessed in male NMRI mice by charcoal propulsion. PL-10.1.AK-15 was given in three different doses (3, 10 and 100 micrograms/kg body weight) in accordance with the experimental protocol. The results of these experiments indicate that PL-10.1.AK-15 in the investigated doses had no influence on gastric acid secretion or gastrointestinal motility.

  18. Emphysematous renal tract disease due to Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Dakshinamurty, K V

    2004-06-01

    Emphysematous renal tract disease (ERTD) is a rare necrotizing infection of renal parenchyma and/or urinary tract caused by gas producing organisms. A case of acute emphysematous renal tract disease (ERTD) (emphysematous pyelonephritis along with emphysematous cystitis) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a non-diabetic patient, who did not apparently have any risk factor for fungal infection, is presented. Patient had refused for any surgical intervention. He was treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B and 5-flucytosin and achieved complete recovery. Various causes of ERTD and available therapeutic options are discussed.

  19. Bacteriology of the Upper Respiratory Tract: What is Important?

    PubMed Central

    Cimolai, Nevio

    1988-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs are commonly collected from patients with a variety of respiratory infections. Unfortunately, the significance of potential pathogens in such specimens is clouded by the prevalence of these organisms in asymptomatic patients and in patients with non-bacterial upper respiratory tract illnesses. Specimens from the oro-and nasopharynx seldom predict the flora in other parts of the respiratory tract, and empiric antibiotic therapy for infections such as acute otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonia is usually inevitable. The author of this article reviews the bacteriology of the upper respiratory tract and makes recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21253244

  20. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Macejko, Amanda M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2007-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common complications of pregnancy; upper tract infections in particular may lead to significant morbidity for both the mother and fetus. Bacteriuria is a significant risk factor for developing pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Therefore, proper screening and treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy is necessary to prevent complications. All women should be screened for bacteriuria in the first trimester, and women with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections or anomalies should have repeat bacteriuria screening throughout pregnancy. Treatment of bacteriuria should include 3-day therapy with appropriate antimicrobials, and women should be followed closely after treatment because recurrence may occur in up to one third of patients.

  1. Advances in the Management of Biliary Tract Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ciombor, Kristen Keon; Goff, Laura Williams

    2013-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTC), though uncommon, are highly fatal malignancies, and current treatments fail to cure or control the majority of tumors. Given the complexity of the anatomy and often aggressive nature of the disease, multidisciplinary treatment, including palliation, is often required. However, systemic therapy with cytotoxics and/or targeted agents are routinely the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced biliary tract cancers, and new targets and agents provide hope for this disease. This article focuses on recent advances in the management of biliary tract cancers, with a special focus on the molecular basis for current therapeutic investigation in this disease. PMID:23416860

  2. [Respiratory responses to microinjections of leptin into the solitary tract nucleus].

    PubMed

    Iniushkin, A N; Iniushkina, E M; Merkulova, N A

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory polypeptide leptin, apart from its well-known hypothalamic effects, stimulates ventilation. The present study on anaesthetised rats was undertaken to elucidate the respiratory effects of 10(-10)-10(-4) M leptin microinjected into the solitary tract nucleus, containing a high concentration of leptin receptors. Injections of 10(-8)-10(-4) M leptin induced dose-dependent increase in ventilation, tidal volume and electric activity of inspiratory muscles; 10(-6) M leptin additionally induced a short-term increase in respiratory frequency and a shortening of both inspiratory and expiratory duration. The respiratory responses to leptin is also characterised by appearance of sighs: deep and prolonged inspirations associated with an augmented burst in the activity of the inspiratory muscles and prolonged post-sigh inter-burst interval. The results taken together with evidence of high concentration of specific leptin ObRb-receptor in the solitary tract nucleus suggest involvement of endogenous leptin in the control of breathing via dorsal structures of the respiratory center.

  3. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  4. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent.

  5. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to help prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections if I have a catheter? • Always clean your hands before and after doing catheter care. • Always keep your urine bag below the level ...

  6. Nasal Sinus Tract of Odontogenic Origin: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Sagar; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Purwar, Parth; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Divya; Sajjanhar, Isha; Goel, Kopal; Gupta, Vaibhav Sheel

    2015-01-01

    Extraoral sinus tract often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician owing to its rare occurrence and absence of symptoms. The accurate diagnosis and comprehensive management are inevitable as the aetiology of such lesions is often masked and requires holistic approach. The present case report encompasses the management of an extraoral discharging sinus tract at the base of the right nostril in a chronic smoker. The lesion which was earlier diagnosed to be of nonodontogenic origin persisted even after erratic treatment modalities. Our investigations showed the aetiology of sinus tract to be odontogenic. Initially, a five-step program as recommended by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality was used for smoking cessation followed by root canal therapy (RCT) and surgical management of the sinus tract. The patient has been under stringent follow-up and no reoccurrence has been noted. PMID:26649208

  7. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria.

  8. 14. VIEW TO WESTSOUTHWEST ACROSS CAR TEST TRACT SITE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST ACROSS CAR TEST TRACT SITE TO NORTH END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, SHOWING NORTH END ADDITIONS. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Tract specific analysis in patients with sickle cell disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yaqiong; Coloigner, Julie; Qu, Xiaoping; Choi, Soyoung; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Vu, Chau; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder in which the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells is abnormal. It affects numerous people in the world and leads to a shorter life span, pain, anemia, serious infections and neurocognitive decline. Tract-Specific Analysis (TSA) is a statistical method to evaluate white matter alterations due to neurocognitive diseases, using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. Here, for the first time, TSA is used to compare 11 major brain white matter (WM) tracts between SCD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Alterations are found in the corpus callosum (CC), the cortico-spinal tract (CST), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and uncinated fasciculus (UNC). Based on previous studies on the neurocognitive functions of these tracts, the significant areas found in this paper might be related to several cognitive impairments and depression, both of which are observed in SCD patients.

  10. Particle size and pathogenicity in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard James

    2013-01-01

    Particle size dictates where aerosolized pathogens deposit in the respiratory tract, thereafter the pathogens potential to cause disease is influenced by tissue tropism, clearance kinetics and the host immunological response. This interplay brings pathogens into contact with a range of tissues spanning the respiratory tract and associated anatomical structures. In animal models, differential deposition within the respiratory tract influences infection kinetics for numerous select agents. Greater numbers of pathogens are required to infect the upper (URT) compared with the lower respiratory tract (LRT), and in comparison the URT infections are protracted with reduced mortality. Pathogenesis in the URT is characterized by infection of the URT lymphoid tissues, cervical lymphadenopathy and septicemia, closely resembling reported human infections of the URT. The olfactory, gastrointestinal, and ophthalmic systems are also infected in a pathogen-dependent manner. The relevant literature is reviewed with respect to particle size and infection of the URT in animal models and humans. PMID:24225380

  11. Iatrogenic Urinary Tract Injuries: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Esparaz, Anthony M.; Pearl, Jeffrey A.; Herts, Brian R.; LeBlanc, Justin; Kapoor, Baljendra

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic injury to the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, is a potential complication of surgical procedures performed in or around the retroperitoneal abdominal space or pelvis. While both diagnostic and interventional radiologists often play a central and decisive role in the identification and initial management of a variety of iatrogenic injuries, discussions of these injuries are often directed toward specialists such as urologists, obstetricians, gynecologists, and general surgeons whose procedures are most often implicated in iatrogenic urinary tract injuries. Interventional radiologic procedures can also be a source of an iatrogenic urinary tract injury. This review describes the clinical presentation, risk factors, imaging findings, and management of iatrogenic renal vascular and urinary tract injuries, as well as the radiologist's role in the diagnosis, treatment, and cause of these injuries. PMID:26038626

  12. Molecular identification of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) and its functional role in the gastrointestinal tract of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Saeki, Atsuki; Teraoka, Hiroki; Hiraga, Takeo; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility in vivo in the guinea-pig through activation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In this study, we identified GHS-R1a in the guinea-pig, and examined its distribution and cellular function and compared them with those in the rat. Effects of ghrelin in different regions of gastrointestinal tract were also examined. GHS-R1a was identified in guinea-pig brain cDNA. Amino acid identities of guinea-pig GHS-R1a were 93% to horses and 85% to dogs. Expression levels of GHS-R1a mRNA were high in the pituitary and hypothalamus, moderate in the thalamus, cerebral cortex, pons, medulla oblongata and olfactory bulb, and low in the cerebellum and peripheral tissues including gastrointestinal tract. Comparison of GHS-R1a expression patterns showed that those in the brain were similar but the expression level in the gastrointestinal tract was higher in rats than in guinea-pigs. Guinea-pig GHS-R1a expressed in HEK 293 cells responded to rat ghrelin and GHS-R agonists. Rat ghrelin was ineffective in inducing mechanical changes in the stomach and colon but caused a slight contraction in the small intestine. 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium and electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused cholinergic contraction in the intestine, and these contractions were not affected by ghrelin. Ghrelin did not change spontaneous and EFS-evoked [(3)H]-efflux from [(3)H]-choline-loaded ileal strips. In summary, guinea-pig GHS-R1a was identified and its functions in isolated gastrointestinal strips were characterized. The distribution of GHS-R1a in peripheral tissues was different from that in rats, suggesting that the functional role of ghrelin in the guinea-pig is different from that in other animal species.

  13. DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  14. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  15. [Alcohol and oropharyngolaryngeal and digestive tract cancer].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Omori, T

    2001-12-01

    Epidemiology has demonstrated that alcoholic beverages are causally related to oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal, liver, colorectal, and female breast cancer. Among Japanese male alcoholics screened by endoscopy combined with esophageal iodine staining and immunofecal occult blood tests, 4.2% had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); 1.2%, oropharyngolaryngeal SCC; 1.4%, stomach adenocarcinoma; 1.9%, colorectal adenocarcinoma. The inactive form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2, which is prevalent in Asians, exposes them to higher levels of acetaldehyde after drinking and was a strong risk factor for these cancers among Japanese heavy drinkers. Inactive ALDH2 was also associated with synchronous and metachronous multiple esophageal cancers. These results suggest a general role of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen, in carcinogenesis of the human alimentary tract. The oropharyngolarynx and esophagus lack ALDH2 activity, suggesting that after exposure to acetaldehyde derived from systemic, mucosal, salivary, or bacterial production or alcoholic beverages, these organs' inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde enhances the chances for local acetaldehyde-associated carcinogenesis. The normal alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), encoded by ADH2*1/2*1, is another risk factor for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For patients with both normal ADH2 and inactive ALDH2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer are enhanced in a multiplicative fashion. The responses to a simple questionnaire about both current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer can indicate an individual's ALDH2 phenotype fairly well. Use of this questionnaire to obtain information on ALDH2-associated cancer susceptibility could contribute to the prevention of alcohol-related cancer in Asians.

  16. Update on hidradenitis suppurativa: connecting the tracts

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Liza; Williams, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating skin disease characterized by recurrent abscesses, sinus tract formation, and scarring. Prevalence estimates range from 0.053% to 4.1%, although HS is likely an underdiagnosed disease. Although the first reports of HS date back to the mid-19th century, the disease continues to plague patients and physicians desperate for a definitive treatment. Advances in the understanding of the disease process include the possibility of a defective basement membrane at the sebofollicular junction of the folliculopilosebaceous unit (FPSU; that is, where the sebaceous gland empties into the hair follicle) as an initiating event followed by secondary bacterial colonization. New evidence suggests that bacteria living in a community, known as a biofilm, rather than single planktonic bacteria in HS lesions may explain why HS can be resistant to current antibiotic treatment regimens. Available treatment options have expanded to include triple-antibiotic therapy, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors (biologics), laser therapy, and surgical excision, including the skin tissue-sparing excision with electrosurgical peeling procedure. Despite the array of treatments available, many patients continue to struggle with the embarrassment, pain, odor, and frustration that accompany this often isolating disease. Physicians should address comorbidities in HS, including the psychosocial issues patients with HS frequently encounter. Patients can be directed to HS support groups, where they can openly discuss their frustrations, share their experiences in dealing with HS, and band together to advocate for themselves. HS is misunderstood by both patients and physicians, often resulting in a delay in clinical presentation and diagnosis. Patients and physicians across multiple specialties must work together to expand awareness of and interest in HS, so that one day, individuals with HS can be freed from this crippling disease

  17. Multidrug resistance in pediatric urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Dickson, Eric; Karlowsky, James; Doern, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common infection in the pediatric population. Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen in children, and antimicrobial resistance in this species complicates the treatment of pediatric UTIs. Despite the impact of resistance on empiric antibiotic choice, there is little data on multidrug resistance in pediatric patients. In this paper, we describe characteristics of multidrug-resistant E. coli in pediatric patients using a large national database of uropathogens antimicrobial sensitivities. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to commonly prescribed antibiotics were performed on uropathogens isolated from children presenting to participating hospitals between 1999 and 2001. Data were analyzed separately for four pediatric age groups. Single and multidrug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were performed on all specimens. There were a total of 11,341 E. coli urine cultures from 343 infants (0-4 weeks), 1,801 toddlers (5 weeks-24 months), 6,742 preteens (2-12 years), and 2,455 teens (13-17 years). E. coli resistance to ampicillin peaked in toddlers (52.8%) but was high in preteens (52.1%), infants (50.4%), and teens (40.6%). Resistance to two or more antibiotics varied across age groups, with toddlers (27%) leading preteens (23.1%), infants (21%), and teens (15.9%). Resistance to three or more antibiotics was low in all age groups (range 3.1-5.2%). The most common co-resistance in all age groups was ampicillin/TMP-SMZ. In conclusion, less than half of all pediatric UTIs are susceptible to all commonly used antibiotics. In some age groups, there is a significant percentage of co-resistance between the two most commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin and TMP-SMZ).

  18. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references.

  19. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract.

    PubMed

    González-Pedraza Avilés, A; Ortíz-Zaragoza, M C; Inzunza-Montiel, A E; Ponce-Rosas, E R

    1996-01-01

    A modified scheme is proposed for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic women based on detection of hippurate hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and lipase, and fermentation of arabinose, galactose and xylose. Thirty biotypes were found among 73 strains. The distribution of biotypes was similar in both populations but the biotypes 1H, 5G and 7G were found more frequently in women without symptoms of urinary tract infection.

  20. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Female Reproductive Tract: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the female reproductive tract are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that display various histologic findings and biologic behaviors. In this review, the classification and clinicopathologic characteristics of neuroendocrine tumors of the female reproductive tract are described. Differential diagnoses are discussed, especially for non-neuroendocrine tumors showing high-grade nuclei with neuroendocrine differentiation. This review also discusses recent advances in our pathogenetic understanding of these disorders. PMID:26459408

  1. Functional organization of human occipital-callosal fiber tracts

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Robert F.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Bammer, Roland; Brewer, Alyssa A.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking (FT) were used to measure the occipital lobe fiber tracts connecting the two hemispheres in individual human subjects. These tracts are important for normal vision. Also, damage to portions of these tracts is associated with alexia. To assess the reliability of the DTI-FT measurements, occipital-callosal projections were estimated from each subject's left and right hemispheres independently. The left and right estimates converged onto the same positions within the splenium. We further characterized the properties of the estimated occipital-callosal fiber tracts by combining them with functional MRI. We used functional MRI to identify visual field maps in cortex and labeled fibers by the cortical functional response at the fiber endpoint. This labeling reveals a regular organization of the fibers within the splenium. The dorsal visual maps (dorsal V3, V3A, V3B, V7) send projections through a large band in the middle of the splenium, whereas ventral visual maps (ventral V3, V4) send projections through the inferior-anterior corner of the splenium. The agreement between the independent left/right estimates, further supported by previous descriptions of homologous tracts in macaque, validates the DTI-FT methods. However, a principal limitation of these methods is low sensitivity: a large number of fiber tracts that connect homotopic regions of ventral and lateral visual cortex were undetected. We conclude that most of the estimated tracts are real and can be localized with a precision of 1-2 mm, but many tracts are missed because of data and algorithm limitations. PMID:15883384

  2. Recurrent pulmonary intimal sarcoma involving the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dipesh K; Joyce, Lyle D; Grogan, Martha; Aubry, Marie Christine; Miller, John A; Ding, Wei; Haddock, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is commonly misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary embolism. Rarely, it can involve the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. We report a patient who was treated surgically for an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery involving the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. The sarcoma recurred in about 8 weeks. It responded favorably to chemoradiation therapy and shows some signs of regression.

  3. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones.

  4. Salmonella-related urinary tract infection in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Scott Anthony

    2014-09-05

    An elderly female patient with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection from Salmonella newport is presented. Radiological and laboratory studies were performed because of her systemic and exposure risk factors as well as prior urinary tract abnormalities. While this patient was successfully treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, complications and recurrence are common and deserve close follow-up with repeat urine cultures at a minimum. Further laboratory and radiological testing should be guided by patient gender, risk factors and recurrence.

  5. [Pharmacological effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the respiratory tract. (I). Quantitative and qualitative changes in respiratory tract fluid and sputum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kogi, K; Saito, T; Kasé, Y; Hitoshi, T

    1981-06-01

    The following three experiments were performed to determine the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the quantity and quality of respiratory tract fluid (RTF) and sputum. All drugs used were administered into the stomach through a gastric tube. 1) Indirect measurement of bronchial secretion in rats, which was expressed by the amounts of dye excreted into the respiratory tract, was carried out according the the Sakuno's method, with some modification. Some expectorants of the secretomotor type, such as bromhexine and pilocarpine, significantly increased the secretion, even at low doses. On the other hand, mucolytic agents such as NAC augmented the secretion only in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg. 2)As a direct method of measurements, Kasé's modification of Perry and Boyd's method was used to collect RTF, quantitatively, from rabbits. The RTF of healthy rabbits was colorless and watery. The administration of NAC in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg augmented the output volume and RTF became slightly turbid, probably due to an increase in the viscous mucus. 3) Rabbits with subacute bronchitis were prepared by long-term exposure to air contaminated with SO2 gas and sputa were collected before and after administration of NAC, respectively, according to the Kase's method. The sputa were opalescent and viscous gel included nodular masses. The administration of NAC, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the relative viscosity. The percent-decreased in viscosity with NAC was statistically correlated with that in amounts of dry matter, those in protein and polysaccharide in the sputa. From the results described above, it was concluded that NAC given into the stomach can liquefy sputum by splitting mucoprotein disulphide linkages, that is, altering the rheological characteristics of sputum to facilitate expectoration.

  6. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Ly, Melissa; Bonilla, Natasha; Pride, David T.

    2014-01-01

    While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans. PMID:25667584

  7. Sonographic investigations of the gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Stahl, Anja; Pees, Michael; Enders, Frank; Bartels, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the sonographic examination of the normal gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds. Preliminary tests with dead birds were performed to get an idea of the sonographic echotexture of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Later, clinically healthy seedeaters of different weights were examined sonographically. As equipment a convex microcurved scanner with a particularly small coupling surface and an adjustable frequency from 5.5-7.5 MHz was used. For the investigation of the gastrointestinal tract, six sonographic approaches are described. After a starving time of 18 hours in the granivorous birds and water input, the best sonographic image quality could be obtained. Using this method, the crop, ventriculus, intestines, and cloaca could be demonstrated sonographically; whereas, it was not possible to visualize the normal proventriculus in granivorous birds. In contrast to mammals, the different layers of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract could not be visualized with the equipment used. Motility of individual parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), however, could be well demonstrated.

  8. Imaging of malignancies of the biliary tract- an update

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malignancies of the biliary tract include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancers and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Biliary tract adenocarcinomas are the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer. Due to their slow growing nature, non-specific and late symptomatology, these malignancies are often diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis. Apart from incidental discovery of gall bladder carcinoma upon cholecystectomy, early stage biliary tract cancers are now detected with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Accurate characterization and staging of these indolent cancers will determine outcome as majority of the patients’ are inoperable at the time of presentation. Ultrasound is useful for initial evaluation of the biliary tract and gallbladder masses and in determining the next suitable modality for further evaluation. Multimodality imaging plays an integral role in the management of the biliary tract malignancies. The imaging techniques most useful are MRI with MRCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In this review we will discuss epidemiology and the role of imaging in detection, characterization and management of the biliary tract malignancies under the three broad categories of cholangiocarcinomas (intra- and extrahepatic), gallbladder cancers and ampullary carcinomas. PMID:25608662

  9. Group d salmonella urinary tract infection in an immunocompetent male.

    PubMed

    Jehangir, Asad; Poudel, Dilli; Fareedy, Shoaib Bilal; Salman, Ahmed; Qureshi, Anam; Jehangir, Qasim; Alweis, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  10. R2 & NE Tract - 2010 Census; Housing and Population Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER/Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county or equivalent entity, and were defined by local participants as part of the 2010 Census Participant Statistical Areas Program. The Census Bureau delineated the census tracts in situations where no local participant existed or where all the potential participants declined to participate. The primary purpose of census tracts is to provide a stable set of geographic units for the presentation of census data and comparison back to previous decennial censuses. Census tracts generally have a population size between 1,200 and 8,000 people, with an optimum size of 4,000 people. When first delineated, census tracts were designed to be homogeneous with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions. The spatial size of census tracts varies widely depending on the density of settlement. Physical changes in street patterns caused by highway construction, new

  11. Effective G-protein coupling of Y2 receptors along axonal fiber tracts and its relevance for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dum, Elisabeth; Fürtinger, Sabine; Gasser, Elisabeth; Bukovac, Anneliese; Drexel, Meinrad; Tasan, Ramon; Sperk, Günther

    2017-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y2 receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and, upon activation, induce opening of potassium channels or closing of calcium channels. They are generally presynaptically located. Depending on the neuron in which they are expressed they mediate inhibition of release of NPY and of the neuron's classical transmitter GABA, glutamate or noradrenaline, respectively. Here we provide evidence that Y2 receptor binding is inhibited dose-dependently by GTPγS along Schaffer collaterals, the stria terminalis and the fimbria indicating that Y2 receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins along these fiber tracts. Double immune fluorescence revealed coexistence of Y2-immunoreactivity with β-tubulin, a marker for axons in the stria terminalis, but not with synaptophysin labeling presynaptic terminals, supporting the localization of Y2 receptors along axonal tracts. After kainic acid-induced seizures in rats, GTPγS-induced inhibition of Y2 receptor binding is facilitated in the Schaffer collaterals but not in the stria terminalis. Our data indicate that Y2 receptors are not only located at nerve terminals but also along fiber tracts and are there functionally coupled to G-proteins.

  12. A therapeutic dose of ketoprofen causes acute gastrointestinal bleeding, erosions, and ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Shientag, Lisa J; Wheeler, Suzanne M; Garlick, David S; Maranda, Louise S

    2012-11-01

    Perioperative treatment of several rats in our facility with ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) resulted in blood loss, peritonitis, and death within a day to a little more than a week after surgery that was not related to the gastrointestinal tract. Published reports have established the 5-mg/kg dose as safe and effective for rats. Because ketoprofen is a nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that can damage the gastrointestinal tract, the putative diagnosis for these morbidities and mortalities was gastrointestinal toxicity caused by ketoprofen (5 mg/kg). We conducted a prospective study evaluating the effect of this therapeutic dose of ketoprofen on the rat gastrointestinal tract within 24 h. Ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) was administered to one group of rats that then received gas anesthesia for 30 min and to another group without subsequent anesthesia. A third group was injected with saline followed by 30 min of gas anesthesia. Our primary hypothesis was that noteworthy gastrointestinal bleeding and lesions would occur in both groups treated with ketoprofen but not in rats that received saline and anesthesia. Our results showed marked gastrointestinal bleeding, erosions, and small intestinal ulcers in the ketoprofen-treated rats and minimal damages in the saline-treated group. The combination of ketoprofen and anesthesia resulted in worse clinical signs than did ketoprofen alone. We conclude that a single 5-mg/kg dose of ketoprofen causes acute mucosal damage to the rat small intestine.

  13. Urinary tract infection in men with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    De Pinho, A M; Lopes, G S; Ramos-Filho, C F; Santos, O da R; De Oliveira, M P; Halpern, M; Gouvea, C A; Schechter, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether bacteriuria and, specifically, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) occur with increased frequency in men with HIV infection. METHODS--In this cross-sectional study we investigated three groups of men, aged from 18 to 50 years. Group A was composed of patients with a diagnosis of AIDS; Group B, of patients without HIV infection, and group C of patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. Patients with any known predisposing factor for UTI were excluded from the study. A clean-catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient on the first day of hospital admission (groups A and B) or during a visit to the outpatient clinic (group C). Bacteriuria was diagnosed when > or = 100,000 colony forming units/ml, urine were grown. RESULTS--There were 415 patients, 151 in group A, 170 in group B and 94 in group C. Bacteriuria was significantly more frequently in group A (20 cases, 13.3%) than in groups B (3 cases, 1.8%, p = 0.00007) and C (3 cases, 3.2%, p = 0.009). Ten cases of bacteriuria in group A (6.6%) were symptomatic while no case of symptomatic UTI was seen in groups B (p = 0.0004) and C (p = 0.008). The frequency of UTI in homosexual men with AIDS (7 cases, 6.7%) was not significantly different from that observed in men with AIDS who denied homosexuality (3 cases, 6.5%). E coli was the predominant pathogen associated with UTI. Although adequate response to a two-week course of antibiotics was observed in most cases, an in-hospital mortality rate of 20% was found among AIDS patients with symptomatic UTI. CONCLUSIONS--In the present study, the frequency of bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI was found to be increased in men with AIDS. E coli was the predominant pathogen in these cases. These data suggest that symptomatic UTI may represent a relevant cause of morbidity for men with AIDS. PMID:8300097

  14. Upper airway tract and upper gastrointestinal tract involvement in patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide; Meric Teker, Aysenur; Cinkaya, Ayse; Yasemin Korkut, Arzu; Seremet, Sila; Davutoglu, Can; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2010-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disease involving the skin and mucous membranes. The frequency of upper airway tract (UAT) and upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) involvement in PV is not clearly known. Our aim was to determine the incidence of UAT and UGIT involvement in patients with PV. Thirty-seven patients who were diagnosed with PV and treated between March 2008 and April 2009 at the Dermatology Department of the Vakif Gureba Teaching and Research Hospital were included. All patients were evaluated for UAT manifestations by endoscopic examination, and 22 of 37 patients were investigated for UGIT involvement by gastrointestinal endoscopy. Mucosal biopsies were obtained by UGIT endoscopy for direct immunofluorescence (DIF) examination, and a histopathological examination was conducted in patients with active UGIT mucosal lesions. Thirty-five of 37 patients (94.6%) had active pharyngeal, laryngeal, or nasal PV lesions on endoscopic evaluation. Oral symptoms (83.8%) and active oral PV lesions were the most frequent findings (100%). Pharyngeal lesions (64.9%) were the most commonly present lesions on UAT examination. The frequency for laryngeal and nasal lesions was 51.4% and 21.6%, respectively. Five of 22 patients (22.7%) presented with active laryngeal and esophageal lesions. Twenty-one of 22 (95.4%) patients had positive DIF results. We believe that UAT and UGIT endoscopies are useful and necessary diagnostic methods in patients with PV with or without UAT and UGIT symptoms. UAT and UGIT endoscopies should be performed as standard diagnostic procedures in all patients with PV.

  15. Lesions of the commissural subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract increase isoproterenol-induced water intake.

    PubMed

    Blanch, G T; Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Colombari, E; Menani, J V; Colombari, D S A

    2007-08-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the primary site of the cardiovascular afferent information about arterial blood pressure and volume. The NTS projects to areas in the central nervous system involved in cardiovascular regulation and hydroelectrolyte balance, such as the anteroventral third ventricle region and the lateral parabrachial nucleus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of electrolytic lesion of the commissural NTS on water and 0.3 M NaCl intake and the cardiovascular responses to subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol. Male Holtzman rats weighing 280 to 320 g were submitted to sham lesion or electrolytic lesion of the commissural NTS (N = 6-15/group). The sham-lesioned rats had the electrode placed along the same coordinates, except that no current was passed. Water intake induced by subcutaneous isoproterenol (30 microg/kg body weight) significantly increased in chronic (15 days) commissural NTS-lesioned rats (to 2.4 +/- 0.2 vs sham: 1.9 +/- 0.2 mL 100 g body weight-1 60 min-1). Isoproterenol did not induce any sodium intake in sham or in commissural NTS-lesioned rats. The isoproterenol-induced hypotension (sham: -27 +/- 4 vs commissural NTS-lesioned rats: -22 +/- 4 mmHg/20 min) and tachycardia (sham: 168 +/- 10 vs commissural NTS: 144 +/- 24 bpm/20 min) were not different between groups. The present results suggest that the commissural NTS is part of an inhibitory neural pathway involved in the control of water intake induced by subcutaneous isoproterenol, and that the overdrinking observed in lesioned rats is not the result of a cardiovascular imbalance in these animals.

  16. Cystitis, Pyelonephritis, and Urolithiasis in Rats Accidentally Fed a Diet Deficient in Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Munday, John S; McKinnon, Hilary; Aberdein, Danielle; Collett, Mark G; Parton, Kathleen; Thompson, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Female Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 100; age, 3 wk) were fed diets that included a vitamin premix and either albumin or milk powder. Rats fed the albumin diet gained weight more slowly than did the other group. Between 19 and 28 wk of being fed the albumin diet, 12 rats died of bacterial cystitis and pyelonephritis. In addition, 2 more rats from the same dietary group developed peritonitis after ovariohysterectomy. Examination of the 44 rats fed the albumin diet that completed the 34-wk experiment revealed pyelonephritis in 68%, cystitis in 66%, urolithiasis in 27%, and nephrolithiasis in 5%. Squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium was present in all 44 rats, although other epithelia were histologically normal. Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed after analyses of blood and liver samples. Analysis of the vitamin premix revealed approximately 25% of the expected amount of vitamin A. Because the milk powder contained sufficient vitamin A, deficiency did not occur in rats fed the milk powder diet. The major consequences of vitamin A deficiency in the rats were squamous metaplasia, bacterial infection, and calculus formation within the urinary tract. This report illustrates the importance of careful formulation and storage of vitamin premixes used in experimental diets. Vitamin A deficiency should be considered in rats with decreased weight gain and urinary tract disease even if ocular lesions are not present. PMID:19930829

  17. Quinolones in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Graninger, W; Wenisch, C; Presterl, E

    1994-07-01

    Complicated and recurrent urinary tract infections present intriguing clinical management problems. The underlying conditions in patients with complicated urinary tract infections are anatomical abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, neurologic disorders resulting in urinary stasis, obstruction, instrumentation, surgery, diabeters mellitus, renal transplantation, and renal calculi. In comparative studies the quinolones have been shown to be effective in 7-14-day treatment courses in complicated urinary tract infection. Several comparative trials which compare the fluoroquinolones with beta-lactam antibiotics or cotrimoxazole yielded equal or better results for the quinolones. A cost-saving option is given with some of the fluoroquinolones that can be administered parenterally and orally which enables the patient to be discharged from the hospital earlier. There are few differences in antimicrobial activity between the newer quinolones, but differences in the pharmacokinetic properties are evident. The fluoroquinolones are suitable therapeutics for complicated urinary tract infection, because they offer rapid oral absorption, high tissue concentration, broad activity against most Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, the possibility of a once-a-day administration, and relatively few side effects.

  18. Urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern among diabetics.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, R

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a major health problem of today's world. Urinary tract infection is its common complication. A descriptive, cross sectional study was designed to know the prevalence of culture positive Urinary Tract Infection in diabetic patients, to know their common clinical features and to find out the proportion of asymptomatic bacteriuria, to know the causative organisms and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity. Mid stream urine sample was collected using full aseptic precaution. Among 100 patients included, 53 were female and 47 were male. In total, 21% of them had culture positive Urinary Tract Infection. Urinary Tract Infection was more in female (P = 0.047). Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found more common in female as compared to male. Common clinical features in symptomatic were burning micturation (90%), frequency of micturation (80%), suprapubic pain (60%), urgency (70%), loin pain (30%), and fever and vomiting (20%). Urinary Tract Infection was common among those who had prolong duration of diabetes (P = 0.039) and among those receiving insulin as compared to those under oral medications (P = 0.08). Escherichia-coli was most common organism followed by klebsiella, proteus and pseudomonas. Most of the urinary isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and ceftriaxone, where as resistance was high for ampicillin.

  19. [High-frequency transistor tract for UHF therapy device].

    PubMed

    Tamarchak, D Ia

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of construction of a common circuit and individual units of high-frequency transistor tracts for physiotherapeutic UHF apparatuses whose design is a possible way of conversion of radioelectron equipment. The design of UHF tracts gives rise to some radio engineering problems due to the low output resistance of bipolar transistors and to the operational characteristics of physiotherapeutic equipment and, as a result, the load of the tract is a two-conductor long line loaded with complex resistance whose active part changes slightly and the reactive one varies very greatly. The structure of a high-frequency, which transfers power from the generator with external excitement to the active part of complex load by changing its reactive part in the wide range, was analyzed. It is shown that for reliable operation of the UHF apparatus, its tract should have a multichannel structure with subsequent summation of the power and automatic compensation of the reactive component of alternating load. This provides a measuring mode for the power connected to the patient. The tract structure in question may serve the basis for the designing transistor physiotherapy apparatuses of average and high power (Poutput = 50-400 W).

  20. Variations in lowstand systems tracts: Constraints on exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    Results of worldwide exploration of lowstand systems tracts support continued application and evaluation of Exxon's cyclic sequence concepts but indicate the need for a better understanding of erosional and depositional variations possible along ancient lowstand coastlines. Exxon's idealized siliciclastic (type 1) model applies where a major highstand fluvial system was entrenched during falling relative sea level, eroding canyons and contributing sediments to lowstand depositional systems. Canyons and incised valleys were filled by late lowstand and retrogradational (transgressive) systems. Not explicit in Exxon's scenario are lowstand tracts at sites of minor entrenched coastal-plain streams or along interdeltaic or nondeltaic margins. A spectrum of systems tracts, identified along ancient basin margins, provides clues for predicting lowstand targets. In the absence of rivers, basin-floor sediments were supplied locally by headward-slumping submarine canyons and erosion of contributary valleys into subaerially exposed highstand shelf and/or strandline systems. Submarine erosion typically continued during subsequent rise and highstand of sea level, and sediments may have been introduced to basin floors through canyons from active retrogradational and highstand longshore systems. Headwardly eroded canyons and valleys were not always filled during subsequent transgression and highstand, leading to long-term multiple erosional/depositional cycles to produce some of the world's major ancient canyon complexes. The type and distribution of highstand systems tracts strongly influenced the quality and distribution of sandstone reservoir potential in subsequent lowstand tracts and, therefore, may help guide deep-water exploration along ancient basin margins.

  1. Catheter-related urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2005-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are used frequently in older populations. For either short- or long-term catheters, the infection rate is about 5% per day. Escherichia coli remains the most common infecting organism, but a wide variety of other organisms may be isolated, including yeast species. Bacteria tend to show increased resistance because of the repeated antimicrobial courses. Urinary tract infection (UTI) usually follows formation of biofilm on both the internal and external catheter surface. The biofilm protects organisms from both antimicrobials and the host immune response. Morbidity from UTI with short-term catheter use is limited if appropriate catheter care is practised. In patients with long-term catheters, fever from a urinary source is common with a frequency varying from 1 per 100 to 1 per 1000 catheter days. Long-term care facility residents with chronic indwelling catheters have a much greater risk for bacteraemia and other urinary complications than residents without catheters. Asymptomatic catheter-acquired UTI should not be treated with antimicrobials. Antimicrobial treatment does not decrease symptomatic episodes but will lead to emergence of more resistant organisms. For treatment of symptomatic infection, many antimicrobials are effective. Wherever possible, antimicrobial selection should be delayed until culture results are available. Whether to administer initial treatment by an oral or parenteral route is determined by clinical presentation. If empirical therapy is required, antimicrobial selection is based on variables such as route of administration, anticipated infecting organism and susceptibility, and patient tolerance. Renal function, concomitant medications, local formulary and cost may also be considered in selection of the antimicrobial agent. The duration of therapy is usually 10-14 days, but patients who respond promptly and in whom the catheter must remain in situ may be treated with a shorter 7-day course to reduce

  2. Urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fünfstück, Reinhard; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Hanefeld, Markolf; Naber, Kurt G

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infection occurs with increased frequency and severity in patients with diabetes mellitus. General host factors enhancing risk for urinary tract infection in diabetics include age, metabolic control, and long term complications, primarily diabetic nephropathy and cystopathy. Alterations in the innate immune system have been described and may also contribute. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetic patients is not indicated. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention is recommended to limit morbidity of symptomatic infection. Clinical studies comparing management of urinary tract infection in persons with diabetes compared to those without as well as diabetic patients with good or poor glucose control will be necessary to improve care of urinary infection in persons with diabetes mellitus.

  3. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dennis J; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Li, Birong; Vanderbrink, Brian A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2012-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  4. Management of upper respiratory tract infections by telephone.

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, S; Holbrook, J H; Hale, D; Lyon, J

    1994-01-01

    We surveyed Utah general internists (N = 134) regarding their attitudes toward and practices associated with telephone management of upper respiratory tract infections. The questionnaire contained 3 case vignettes--viral upper respiratory tract infection, streptococcal pharyngitis, and acute infectious epiglottitis--and a series of questions were asked about telephone diagnosis, management preferences (clinic versus telephone), and telephone management practices. The 53 respondents (40%) were able to make important diagnostic distinctions about upper respiratory tract infections from a written vignette. As the likelihood of a complicated or serious condition increased, patients would be appropriately triaged for clinical evaluation. Most internists would make a written record of the telephone conversation. Only 1 internist of the 53 would charge for telephone management. PMID:8053174

  5. The human aerodigestive tract and gastroesophageal reflux: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Laitman, J T; Reidenberg, J S

    1997-11-24

    In order to appreciate fully the nature of supraesophageal complications of gastroesophageal reflux in humans, it is essential to view the problem within an evolutionary framework. Examination of the aerodigestive tract anatomy of our mammalian relatives shows that this region in humans is highly derived as compared to other mammals. Among the specializations that adult humans exhibit is a caudal position of the larynx, which results in a permanently expanded oropharynx. These anatomical features underlie our distinctive breathing and swallowing patterns and provide the substrate that allows for the production of articulate speech. While the selection factors that have shaped human evolution obviously favored our derived aerodigestive tract, aspects of this anatomy appear particularly unsuited to accommodate gastroesophageal reflux. Indeed, our unique aerodigestive tract morphology may predispose us to an array of supraesophageal complications of gastroesophageal reflux.

  6. Managing the Cutaneous Sinus Tract of Dental Origine

    PubMed Central

    Janev, Edvard; Redzep, Enis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Draining cutaneous sinus tract in chin area may be caused by chronic periapical dental infections. Misdiagnosis of these lesions usually leads to destructive invasive treatment of the sinus tract that is not correct and curative. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old male patient referred to us with a chronically draining lesion on his chin. The lesion previously was misdiagnosed by medical doctors and had undergone two times surgery with a focus on the skin lesion and had received antibiotic therapy for a prolonged period of time. After clinical and radiologic examination the dental origin of the lesion was evident and proper endodontic and surgical treatment was performed. Three months later, after the treatment, the lesion showed total healing and reoccurrence occurred. CONCLUSION: The key to successful treatment of cutaneous sinus tract of dental origin must be in appropriate communication between the dentist and the physician in order to achieve correct diagnosis and therapy in such cases. PMID:27703580

  7. [Patients compliance with antibiotherapy of respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Kardas, Przemysław

    2003-01-01

    Non-compliance frequently occurs during outpatient antibiotherapy of respiratory tract infections. The most frequent form of non-compliance in such circumstances is omittion of single doses. Patient non-compliance during antibiotherapy is of practical importance. It leads to therapy failure, need of additional health services, growth of direct and indirect therapy cost and development of resistant strains. This paper summarises the methods of evaluating compliance and the results of research on compliance during antibiotherapy of respiratory tract infections. The reasons of patient non-compliance as well as the factors influencing this phenomenon are reviewed. Practical methods of augmenting compliance are suggested with particular stress on the relationship between dosage frequency and compliance. It should be remembered that when the antibiotic is needed for respiratory tract infections treatment, once daily dosing ensures the best possible compliance.

  8. [Tomato peel: rare cause of biliary tract obstruction].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Péter, Zoltán; Csöregh, Eva; Szabó, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2011-11-20

    Foreign bodies in the biliary tree are rare causes of obstructive jaundice. Food bezoars are infrequent as well. They can cause biliary obstruction after biliary tract interventions, or in the presence of biliary-bowel fistula or duodenum diverticulum. Food bezoars usually pass the gastrointestinal tract without any symptoms, but they can cause abdominal pain and obstructive jaundice in the case of biliary tract obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography has the major role in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease. Authors summarize the medical history of a 91-year-old female patient, who developed vomiting and right subcostal pain due to the presence of tomato peel within the ductus choledochus.

  9. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

  10. The iliotibial tract: imaging, anatomy, injuries, and other pathology.

    PubMed

    Flato, Russell; Passanante, Giovanni J; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Matcuk, George R

    2017-02-25

    The iliotibial tract, also known as Maissiat's band or the iliotibial band, and its associated muscles function to extend, abduct, and laterally rotate the hip, as well as aid in the stabilization of the knee. A select group of associated injuries and pathologies of the iliotibial tract are seen as sequela of repetitive stress and direct trauma. This article intends to educate the radiologist, orthopedist, and other clinicians about iliotibial tract anatomy and function and the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and imaging findings of associated pathologies. Specifically, this article will review proximal iliotibial band syndrome, Morel-Lavallée lesions, external snapping hip syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome and bursitis, traumatic tears, iliotibial insertional tendinosis and peritendonitis, avulsion fractures at Gerdy's tubercle, and Segond fractures. The clinical management of these pathologies will also be discussed in brief.

  11. [Gynaecological and obstetrical aspects of recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hoyme, U B; Schneede, P

    2006-04-01

    The microbial colonization of vulva, vagina and cervix uteri represents the reservoir for recurrent urinary tract infection. All bacterial species of normal cutaneous or gastrointestinal flora can be found in the external genital tract even under physiological conditions. The higher concentration of microbes adds to the predisposition for urinary tract infection in cases of dysbiosis or inflammation, apart from specific infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. The specific immunological interaction between bacteria and host, i.e. between virulence factors and intrinsic defense, appears to be the major mechanism paving the way for recurrent infection. The elimination of predisposing factors is the clue for successful therapy as well as for prevention of recurrence.

  12. Interpolating U.S. Decennial Census Tract Data from as Early as 1970 to 2010: A Longtitudinal Tract Database

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Xu, Zengwang; Stults, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the reporting units of data from diverse sources and changes in units over time are common obstacles to analysis of areal data. We compare common approaches to this problem in the context of changes over time in the boundaries of U.S. census tracts. In every decennial census many tracts are split, consolidated, or changed in other ways from the previous boundaries to reflect population growth or decline. We examine two interpolation methods to create a bridge between years, one that relies only on areal weighting and another that also introduces population weights. Results demonstrate that these approaches produce substantially different estimates for variables that involve population counts, but they have a high degree of convergence for variables defined as rates or averages. Finally the paper describes the Longitudinal Tract Data Base (LTDB), through which we are making available public-use tools to implement these methods to create estimates within 2010 tract boundaries for any tract-level data (from the census or other sources) that are available for prior years as early as 1970. PMID:25140068

  13. Diet and biliary tract cancer risk in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Shakira M; Gao, Yu-Tang; Nogueira, Leticia M; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bingsheng; Rashid, Asif; Hsing, Ann W; Koshiol, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Trends in biliary tract cancer incidence rates have increased in Shanghai, China. These trends have coincided with economic and developmental growth, as well as a shift in dietary patterns to a more Westernized diet. To examine the effect of dietary changes on incident disease, we evaluated associations between diet and biliary tract cancers amongst men and women from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Biliary tract cancer cases were recruited from 42 collaborating hospitals in urban Shanghai, and population-based controls were randomly selected from the Shanghai Household Registry. Food frequency questionnaire data were available for 225 gallbladder, 190 extrahepatic bile duct, and 68 ampulla of Vater cancer cases. A total of 39 food groups were created and examined for associations with biliary tract cancer. Interestingly, only four food groups demonstrated a suggested association with gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, or ampulla of Vater cancers. The allium food group, consisting of onions, garlic, and shallots showed an inverse association with gallbladder cancer (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68-0.97). Similar trends were seen in the food group containing seaweed and kelp (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67-0.96). In contrast, both preserved vegetables and salted meats food groups showed positive associations with gallbladder cancer (OR:1.27, 95% CI: 1.06-1.52; OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37, respectively). Each of these four food groups showed similar trends for extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers. The results of our analysis suggest intake of foods with greater anti-inflammatory properties may play a role in decreasing the risk of biliary tract cancers. Future studies should be done to better understand effects of cultural changes on diet, and to further examine the impact diet and inflammation have on biliary tract cancer incidence.

  14. Diet and biliary tract cancer risk in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shakira M.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Nogueira, Leticia M.; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bingsheng; Rashid, Asif; Hsing, Ann W.; Koshiol, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Trends in biliary tract cancer incidence rates have increased in Shanghai, China. These trends have coincided with economic and developmental growth, as well as a shift in dietary patterns to a more Westernized diet. To examine the effect of dietary changes on incident disease, we evaluated associations between diet and biliary tract cancers amongst men and women from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Biliary tract cancer cases were recruited from 42 collaborating hospitals in urban Shanghai, and population-based controls were randomly selected from the Shanghai Household Registry. Food frequency questionnaire data were available for 225 gallbladder, 190 extrahepatic bile duct, and 68 ampulla of Vater cancer cases. A total of 39 food groups were created and examined for associations with biliary tract cancer. Interestingly, only four food groups demonstrated a suggested association with gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, or ampulla of Vater cancers. The allium food group, consisting of onions, garlic, and shallots showed an inverse association with gallbladder cancer (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68–0.97). Similar trends were seen in the food group containing seaweed and kelp (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67–0.96). In contrast, both preserved vegetables and salted meats food groups showed positive associations with gallbladder cancer (OR:1.27, 95% CI: 1.06–1.52; OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02–1.37, respectively). Each of these four food groups showed similar trends for extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers. The results of our analysis suggest intake of foods with greater anti-inflammatory properties may play a role in decreasing the risk of biliary tract cancers. Future studies should be done to better understand effects of cultural changes on diet, and to further examine the impact diet and inflammation have on biliary tract cancer incidence. PMID:28288186

  15. [Urinary tract abnormalities with anorrectal malformations (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nogués, A; Ceres, M L; Olagüe, R; Andrés, V; Lanuza, A

    1978-01-01

    Thirty five patients with anorrectal malformations are reviewed. These are divided in high and low anomalies according to some simple clinical data, better than the drawing of reference lines to determinate the height of puborrectalis muscle. Malformations were associated in 13 cases with urinary tract estructural anomalies and in four cases with isolated vesico-ureteral reflux. Diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made in 14 patients, 12 of them with recto-urinary fistula. A point is made about the complete and early exploration of all these patients to prevent irreparable renal damage that could be developed.

  16. [Mascs of functional disorders of the biliary tract].

    PubMed

    Kazyulin, A N

    2015-01-01

    The survey of its own and literature data describes the clinical "masks" of the primary and second functional disorders of the biliary tract, describes the mechanisms of their formation, which include the plural disturbances of the organs interactions, psycho - emotional and vegetative disturbances, development ofbiliar and pancreatic insufficiency. It is shown that Hymecromone (Odeston) can be successfully used, as the base means, with the treatment of patients with primary and second functional disorders of the biliary tract with different clinical "masks" of this pathology.

  17. Abdomen: Retroperitoneum, peritoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book the author explores aspiration biopsy as it can be applied to lesions of the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, peritoneum, and adrenal gland. With experience from two different institutions - one an acute general care hospital, the other a cancer referral center - Dr. Suen has achieved in creating a text that reflects a wide range of experience. Throughout the work, Dr. Suen stresses pattern recognition of cytologic material. And a chapter on unusual and interesting lesions is included. Contents: Introduction and General Considerations; Abdomen Imaging Techniques; Clinical Relevance; Indentification of Normal ABC; retroperitoneum; Gastrointestinal Tract; Kidney; Adrenal Gland; Unusual Lesions; Immunocytochemistry and Electron Microscopy; Index.

  18. Stenting of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Sabharwal, Tarun Adam, Andreas

    2010-08-15

    Minimally invasive image-guided insertion of self-expanding metal stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract is the current treatment of choice for palliation of malignant esophageal or gastroduodenal outlet obstructions. A concise review is presented of contemporary stenting practice of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the procedures in terms of appropriate patient evaluation, indications, and contraindications for treatment are analyzed, along with available stent designs, procedural steps, clinical outcomes, inadvertent complications, and future technology. Latest developments include biodegradable polymeric stents for benign disease and radioactive or drug-eluting stents for malignant obstructions.

  19. Radiologic Evaluation of Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Brent W.; Lin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred for palpitations. On transthoracic echocardiography, he was found to have a right ventricular outflow tract mass. Further cardiac imaging was conducted by means of transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance. Complete surgical resection of the tumor was achieved, and pathologic examination revealed the lesion to be a myxoma. Cardiac tumors located in the right ventricular outflow tract are rare and can present unusual diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are becoming more widely available and can be useful adjuncts in the management of such tumors. PMID:23466872

  20. White matter tracts critical for recognition of sarcasm.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cameron L; Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia V; Hsu, John; Gomez, Yessenia; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E

    2016-01-01

    Failure to recognize sarcasm can lead to important miscommunications. Few previous studies have identified brain lesions associated with impaired recognition of sarcasm. We tested the hypothesis that percent damage to specific white matter tracts, age, and education together predict accuracy in sarcasm recognition. Using multivariable linear regression, with age, education, and percent damage to each of eight white matter tracts as independent variables, and percent accuracy on sarcasm recognition as the dependent variable, we developed a model for predicting sarcasm recognition. Percent damage to the sagittal stratum had the greatest weight and was the only independent predictor of sarcasm recognition.

  1. Fluoroscopic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: techniques and indications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carpintero de la Vega, M; García Villar, C

    2017-01-25

    Fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasing less common due to the introduction of other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and to the increased availability of endoscopy. Nevertheless, fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract continue to appear in clinical guidelines and some of their indications are still valid. These studies are dynamic, operator-dependent examinations that require training to obtain the maximum diagnostic performance. This review aims to describe the technique and bring the indications for this imaging modality up to date.

  2. Extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J; Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was the macromorphological analysis of extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina). Bile ducts, the gall bladder and portal vein were injected with coloured latex. Using the technique of dissection, bile ducts were isolated from the liver lobes. It was found that the cystic duct in this species is rarely single. Hepatic ducts form a system of multiple anastomosing structures running in the hepatoduodenal ligament. Many bile duct openings were observed in the duodenal papilla. The results confirm wide variations of the biliary tract in mammals and may be important for comparative analysis of the morphological differentiation of these structures in small mammals.

  3. The Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Dexamethasone on Gastrointestinal Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramalhosa, Fátima; Soares-Cunha, Carina; Seixal, Rui Miguel; Sousa, Nuno; Carvalho, Ana Franky

    2016-01-01

    Antenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids is commonly used in pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery to accelerate tissue maturation. Exposure to glucocorticoids during development has been hypothesized to underlie different functional gastrointestinal (GI) and motility disorders. Herein, we investigated the impact of in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids (iuGC) on GI function of adult rats. Wistar male rats, born from pregnant dams treated with dexamethasone (DEX), were studied at different ages. Length, histologic analysis, proliferation and apoptosis assays, GI transit, permeability and serotonin (5-HT) content of GI tract were measured. iuGC treatment decreased small intestine size and decreased gut transit. However, iuGC had no impact on intestinal permeability. iuGC differentially impacts the structure and function of the GI tract, which leads to long-lasting alterations in the small intestine that may predispose subjects prone to disorders of the GI tract. PMID:27584049

  4. Toluene alters p75NTR expression in the rat brainstem.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jesús; Morón, Lena; Zárate, Jon; Gutiérrez, Arantza; Churruca, Itziar; Echevarría, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Toluene is a neurotoxic organic solvent widely used in industry. Acute toluene administration in rats induced a significant increase in the numbers of neural cells immunostained for p75NTR in several brainstem regions, such as the raphe magnus and the nucleus of the solitary tract, as well as in the lateral reticular, gigantocellular, vestibular and ventral cochlear nuclei, without any in the facial and spinal trigeminal nuclei and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These data suggest that p75NTR could be involved in toluene-induced neurotoxic efffects in the rat brainstem.

  5. PRESENTED AT THE TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING ON 2/11/06: DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  6. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, SPERM QUANTITY AND QUALITY AFTER SHORT-TERM STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin rat model suggest that sexual dysfunctions may result from diabetes-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-reproductive tract axis. Our investigation was performed to better define the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on ra...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS: LOW DOSES OF VINCLOZOLIN ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In humans and rodents, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of 100 or 200 mg vinclozolin (V) kg-1 day-1 during sexual differentiation in rats induces female-like anogenital...

  8. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Feron, V.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Spit, B.J.; Reuzel, P.G.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man.

  9. Aminomethyl Spectinomycins as Novel Therapeutics for Drug Resistant Respiratory Tract and Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhura, Dora B.; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M.; Singh, Aman P.; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B.; Belland, Robert J.; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W.; Böttger, Erik C.; Lee, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A novel series of N-benzyl substituted 3'-(R)- 3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed based on a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome binding 3'-(S) isomers of the leads demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target. In addition to improved antibacterial potency, compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series, compound 1, exhibited excellent chemical stability, which was superior to spectinomycin and had no significant interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo. Compound 1 was active in vitro against a panel of penicillin, macrolide, and cephalosporin resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates and cured mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins possess suitable properties for further development as novel antibacterial agents to treat drug resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  10. Vanilloids selectively sensitize thermal glutamate release from TRPV1 expressing solitary tract afferents.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Andresen, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Vanilloids, high temperature, and low pH activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. In spinal dorsal root ganglia, co-activation of one of these gating sites on TRPV1 sensitized receptor gating by other modes. Here in rat brainstem slices, we examined glutamate synaptic transmission in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) neurons where most cranial primary afferents express TRPV1, but TRPV1 sensitization is unknown. Electrical shocks to the solitary tract (ST) evoked EPSCs (ST-EPSCs). Activation of TRPV1 with capsaicin (100 nM) increased spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) but inhibited ST-EPSCs. High concentrations of the ultra-potent vanilloid resiniferatoxin (RTX, 1 nM) similarly increased sEPSC rates but blocked ST-EPSCs. Lowering the RTX concentration to 150 pM modestly increased the frequency of the sEPSCs without causing failures in the evoked ST-EPSCs. The sEPSC rate increased with raising bath temperature to 36 °C. Such thermal responses were larger in 150 pM RTX, while the ST-EPSCs remained unaffected. Vanilloid sensitization of thermal responses persisted in TTX but was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Our results demonstrate that multimodal activation of TRPV1 facilitates sEPSC responses in more than the arithmetic sum of the two activators, i.e. co-activation sensitizes TRPV1 control of spontaneous glutamate release. Since action potential evoked glutamate release is unaltered, the work provides evidence for cooperativity in gating TRPV1 plus a remarkable separation of calcium mechanisms governing the independent vesicle pools responsible for spontaneous and evoked release at primary afferents in the NTS.

  11. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Joseph; Gertner, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach) in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract. PMID:28203138

  12. Identification of glucagon in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, H; Rubalcava, B; Baetens, D; Blazquez, E; Srikant, C B; Orci, L; Unger, R H

    1975-01-01

    Gel filtration studies on Bio-Gel P-10 columns of a 50-fold purified porcine duodenal extract revealed a main peak of glucagon-like immunoreactivity (GLI) in the 2,900 mol wt zone and a smaller peak in the 3,500 mol wt zone, the same zone as the pancreatic glucagon marker. Like pancreatic glucagon, samples of 3,500 mol wt material gave essentially identical measurements in radioimmunoassays employing the pancreatic glucagon-specific antiserum 30K and the GLI crossreacting antiserum 78J, whereas the 2,900 mol wt peptide gave 60-fold higher readings in the 78J assay. On disk gel electrophoresis, the 3,500 mol wt fraction, like pancreatic glucagon, migrated at pH 8.3, whereas the 2,900 mol wt peptide remained at the origin; at pH 4.7, the 2,900 mol wt peptide migrated while the 3,500 mol wt immunoreactive peptide and glucagon remained at the origin. Isoelectric focusing revealed the 3,500 mol wt moiety to have an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.2, the same as pancreatic glucagon, whereas the 2,900 mol wt peptide had an pI greater than 10. The glycogenolytic activity of the 3,500 mol wt peptide in the perfused rat liver did not differ significantly from glucagon, and its adenylate cyclase stimulating activity in partially purified liver cell membranes was comparable to that of glucagon; the 2,900 mol wt peptide had less than 20% of these activities. In samples of 3,500 mol wt material subjected to isoelectric focusing, adenylate cyclase-stimulating activity was confirmed to fractions containing 30K immunoreactivity with a pI of 6.2. In samples of 2,900 mol wt material subjected to isoelectric focusing, adenylate cyclase-stimulating activity was confined to fractions containing 78J immunoreactivity with an pI greater than 10. Displacement of [125-I]glucagon from the membranes was limited to these two biologically active fractions. However, the affinity of both pancreatic glucagon and the 3,500 mol wt peptide was an order of magnitude greater than of the 2,900 mol wt peptide

  13. Kidney transplantation procedures in rats: assessments, complications, and management.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Payam S; Smallegange, Corry; Adams, Michael A; Schumacher, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in rats is an experimental model often used for the development of general microsurgical or transplantation techniques, for immunologic studies, and for analyzing transplant-associated long-term arterial blood-pressure changes. The aim of the present study was to analyze different surgical techniques of kidney transplantation in rats, with emphasis on minimizing surgical complications and establishing guidelines for their prevention and management. Complications were categorized into general (e.g., core body temperature drop, ischemic time) and surgically related vascular and urinary tract complications. In conclusion, a significant reduction of the complication rate in renal transplantation in rats can be achieved by placing the animal on a heating pad at an appropriate temperature. To reduce the risk of vascular thrombosis, ice-cold saline with heparin and careful flushing of the donor kidneys are recommended. Vascular complications can be avoided by performing "end-to-end" anastomosis techniques. The use of stents and cannulas in the urinary tract is associated with a high risk of urinary tract obstruction, and therefore is not recommended.

  14. Digestive tract morphology and digestion in the wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae).

    PubMed

    Barboza, P S; Hume, I D

    1992-01-01

    Wombats consume grasses and sedges which are often highly fibrous. The morphology of the digestive tract and the sequence of digestion were studied in two species of wombats from contrasting habitats: Vombatus ursinus from mesic habitats and Lasiorhinus latifrons from xeric regions. Studies were performed on wild wombats consuming their natural winter diets, and on captive wombats fed a high-fibre pelleted straw diet. Vombatus had a shorter digestive tract (9.2 vs 12.5 times body length) of greater capacity (wet contents 17.9 vs 13.7% body weight) than Lasiorhinus. The most capacious region of the digestive tract was the proximal colon (62-79% of contents). The proportional length and surface area of the proximal colon were greater in Vombatus, but those of the distal colon were greater in Lasiorhinus. These digestive morphologies may reflect adaptations for greater capacity and longer retention of digesta in Vombatus, but greater absorption and lower faecal water loss in Lasiorhinus. Apparent digestion along the digestive tract was estimated by reference to lignin. The proximal colon was the principal site of fibre and dry matter digestion, whereas nitrogen was mainly digested in the small intestine. Depot fats in captive wombats were highly unsaturated and reflected those in the diet. Therefore, lipids, proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the plant cell contents were digested and absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Conversely, dietary fibre was probably retained and digested by microbial fermentation along the proximal colon.

  15. Urinary tract infections: children are not little adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, K L

    1996-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed condition in pediatric practice caused by a wide variety of organisms and conditions. Presenting with multiple signs and symptoms, UTI is frequently unrecognized and has the potential to cause permanent renal damage if recurrent or untreated. Nurses have a unique opportunity to prevent this condition, assist in the diagnosis, and contribute to management.

  16. Management and treatment of mucosal melanoma of the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Sabina; Barisani, Alessia; Dika, Emi; Fanti, Pier A; DE Iaco, Pierandrea; Gurioli, Carlotta; Tosti, Giulio

    2017-01-24

    Melanoma of the genital mucosa is a rare melanocytic neoplasm that affects both sexes. The diagnosis is often delayed; a useful diagnostic tool may be represented by videodermatoscopy, The treatment is complex and multidisciplinary. We report the main diagnostic features and therapeutic approaches for mucosal melanoma of the genital tract.

  17. FLOW SIMULATION IN THE HUMAN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT

    Computer simulations of airflow patterns within the human upper respiratory tract (URT) are presented. The URT model includes airways of the head (nasal and oral), throat (pharyngeal and laryngeal), and lungs (trachea and main bronchi). The head and throat mor...

  18. Acute renal damage in infants after first urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Salvatore; Chertin, Boris; Yoneda, Akihiro; Rolle, Udo; Kelleher, Jeremiah; Puri, Prem

    2002-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common causes of unexplained fever in neonates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of urinary tract anomalies and acute renal damage in neonates who presented with first urinary tract infection in the first 8 weeks of life. We reviewed the records of 95 infants, who were hospitalised with UTI during a 6-year period (1994-1999). Patients with antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis and incomplete radiological investigations were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 57 patients, 42 were boys and 15 girls. The mean age at diagnosis was 32 days (range 5-60 days). All patients underwent renal ultrasonography (US), voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Urinary tract abnormalities were detected in 20 (35%) patients. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was found in 19 (33%) neonates, 7 girls and 12 boys. Acute cortical defects on DMSA scan were present in 19 kidneys of patients with VUR and in 25 of those without reflux. Only one-third of neonates after first symptomatic UTI had VUR. We recommend that US, VCUG, and DMSA scan should be routinely performed after the first UTI in infants younger than 8 weeks.

  19. Novel Approaches to Preventing Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    in young women, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , as well as their interactions with glycosphingolipids (GSLs) on the cell surface of...Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. -ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Urinary tract infections (UTIs), generally caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus ... saprophyticus , are extremely common among young women and 25% of these patients develop frequent recurrent infections. Although UTIs can be treated, we

  20. Unusual cause of right ventricular outflow tract compression: mediastinal lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Bulakci, Mesut; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Ucar, Adem; Erer, Burak; Erer, Betul; Dursun, Memduh

    2011-11-01

    Mediastinal lipomatosis (ML) is a benign condition characterized by the accumulation of mature adipose tissue within the mediastinum. ML is usually associated with Cushing syndrome and obesity. Most patients are asymptomatic, but some have thoracic pain, dyspnea, cough, dysphonia, dysphagia, and supraventricular tachycardia. We report a case of ML compressing the right ventricular outflow tract in a patient with Behçet disease.

  1. Vocal Tract Representation in the Recognition of Cerebral Palsied Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudzicz, Frank; Hirst, Graeme; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored articulatory information as a means of improving the recognition of dysarthric speech by machine. Method: Data were derived chiefly from the TORGO database of dysarthric articulation (Rudzicz, Namasivayam, & Wolff, 2011) in which motions of various points in the vocal tract are measured during speech.…

  2. Molecular genetics and targeted therapeutics in biliary tract carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marks, Eric I; Yee, Nelson S

    2016-01-28

    The primary malignancies of the biliary tract, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, often present at an advanced stage and are marginally sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that molecularly targeted agents may provide new hope for improving treatment response in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). In this article, we provide a critical review of the pathogenesis and genetic abnormalities of biliary tract neoplasms, in addition to discussing the current and emerging targeted therapeutics in BTC. Genetic studies of biliary tumors have identified the growth factors and receptors as well as their downstream signaling pathways that control the growth and survival of biliary epithelia. Target-specific monoclonal antibodies and small molecules inhibitors directed against the signaling pathways that drive BTC growth and invasion have been developed. Numerous clinical trials designed to test these agents as either monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy have been completed or are currently underway. Research focusing on understanding the molecular basis of biliary tumorigenesis will continue to identify for targeted therapy the key mutations that drive growth and invasion of biliary neoplasms. Additional strategies that have emerged for treating this malignant disease include targeting the epigenetic alterations of BTC and immunotherapy. By integrating targeted therapy with molecular profiles of biliary tumor, we hope to provide precision treatment for patients with malignant diseases of the biliary tract.

  3. 3-D PARTICLE TRANSPORT WITHIN THE HUMAN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study trajectories of inhaled particulate matter (PM) were simulated within a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the human upper respiratory tract (URT). The airways were described by computer-reconstructed images of a silicone rubber cast of the human head, throat...

  4. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ronald P.; Haith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance to antibiotics of "Escherichia coli" in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) in female college students. Participants: Symptomatic patients presenting to a student health service from September 2008 to December 2009. Methods: Clean catch midstream urine samples were tested for urinalysis (UA) and…

  5. [How Does Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Affekt Female Sexuality?].

    PubMed

    Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Rantell, A; Wiedemann, A

    2016-08-01

    With increasing age many women suffer from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and female sexual dysfunction. An increasing body of evidence supports an association between the 2 conditions. Especially women with urodynamically proved detrusor hyperactivity suffer from sexual dysfunction and there is some evidence that in patients with stress incontinence sexual health improves after successful surgery.

  6. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete’s health were discussed. PMID:28149415

  7. [Evaluation of occupational allergic diseases of the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the basic etiological and pathogenetic aspects of occupational allergic diseases of the respiratory tract, discusses the clinical course, diagnosis, and priorities of the prevention of allergic diseases of the upper airways and bronchopulmonary apparatus from the action of industrial allergens.

  8. Reproductive tract infections: prevalence and risk factors in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Sarah; Morison, Linda; Chakraborty, Jyotsnamoy; Gausia, Kaniz; Ahmed, Farid; Islam, Shamim Sufia; Alam, Nazmul; Brown, David; Mabey, David

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for reproductive tract infections among men and women in a rural community in Bangladesh. METHODS: In the Matlab area a systematic sample of married non-pregnant women aged 15-50 years was drawn from a comprehensive household registration system for married women. A systematic sample of married and unmarried men in the same age group was drawn from a census-derived demographic surveillance list. Private interviews were conducted with 804 women in a clinic, and cervical, vaginal, urinary and serological samples were collected. Urine and blood specimens were obtained from 969 men who were interviewed at home. FINDINGS: The prevalence of bacterial and viral reproductive tract infections was low to moderate. For example, fewer than 1% of the women had a cervical infection. No cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were found. However, among men there was a high level of reported risk behaviour and a low level of protection against infection. CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of reproductive tract infections, coupled with a high level of reported risk behaviour, indicated a need for primary programmes that would prevent an increase in the incidence of reproductive tract infections, sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection. PMID:11984603

  9. 43 CFR 3131.2 - Tentative tract selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM... Director shall also request comments on tracts which should receive special concern and analysis. (b) The State Director, after completion of the required environmental analysis (see 40 CFR 1500-1508),...

  10. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42... Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisition. The... National Forest System land made by any persons other than the Government may be excluded from the...

  11. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42... Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisition. The... National Forest System land made by any persons other than the Government may be excluded from the...

  12. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42... Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisition. The... National Forest System land made by any persons other than the Government may be excluded from the...

  13. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42... Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisition. The... National Forest System land made by any persons other than the Government may be excluded from the...

  14. Exploring white matter tracts in band heterotopia using diffusion tractography.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sofia H; Symms, Mark R; Rugg-Gunn, Fergus J; Boulby, Philip A; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Barker, Gareth J; Duncan, John S; Parker, Geoffrey J M

    2002-09-01

    Band heterotopia is a malformation of cortical development characterized by bands of gray matter in the white matter parallel to the surface of the neocortex. Histopathological studies have suggested that small white matter tracts pass through the heterotopia, and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown activation in the malformation. We used diffusion tractography to explore the anatomical connectivity of band heterotopia and, in particular, whether in vivo white matter tracts traverse the heterotopic gray matter. Five patients with band heterotopia and five control subjects were scanned with whole brain diffusion tensor imaging. Anisotropy maps were calculated. Using fast marching tractography, we produced maps of connectivity and tract traces from two seed points, in the splenium of the corpus callosum and the right parietal lobe. Eigenvectors were found to pass through the band heterotopia in an aligned fashion. Patterns for maps of connectivity were similar in patients and control subjects. Areas of high connectivity were found in the band heterotopia and in cortical areas on the far side of the malformation from the seed point. The tracts hence appeared to traverse or end within the band heterotopia. The results are in agreement with previous histopathological studies and indicate the structural basis of the functional connectivity and absence of focal deficits in these patients.

  15. Management of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed.

  16. Traditional serrated adenomas of the upper digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, CA

    2016-01-01

    For many years, it was generally accepted that the vast majority of the colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) evolved from conventional adenomas, via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. More recently, serrated colorectal polyps (hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated polyps and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs)) have emerged as an alternative pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. It has been estimated that about 30% of the CRC progress via the serrated pathway. Recently, TSAs were also detected in the upper digestive tract. In this work, we review the literature on TSA in the oesophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the pancreatic main duct and the gallbladder. The review indicated that 53.4% (n=39) out of the 73 TSA of the upper digestive tract now in record showed a simultaneously growing invasive carcinoma. As a corollary, TSAs of the upper digestive tract are aggressive adenomas that should be radically excised, either endoscopically or surgically, to rule out the possibility of a synchronously growing invasive adenocarcinoma or to prevent cancer progression. The present findings substantiate a TSA pathway of carcinogenesis in the upper digestive tract. PMID:26468393

  17. Effects of ghrelin and motilin on smooth muscle contractility of the isolated gastrointestinal tract from the bullfrog and Japanese fire belly newt.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Shimazaki, Misato; Kikuta, Ayumi; Yaosaka, Noriko; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin has been identified in some amphibians and is known to stimulate growth hormone release and food intake as seen in mammals. Ghrelin regulates gastrointestinal motility in mammals and birds. The aim of this study was to determine whether ghrelin affects gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility in bullfrogs (anuran) and Japanese fire belly newts (urodelian) in vitro. Neither bullfrog ghrelin nor rat ghrelin affected longitudinal smooth muscle contractility of gastrointestinal strips from the bullfrog. Expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) mRNA was confirmed in the bullfrog gastrointestinal tract, and the expression level in the gastric mucosa was lower than that in the intestinal mucosa. In contrast, some gastrointestinal peptides, including substance P, neurotensin and motilin, and the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol showed marked contraction, indicating normality of the smooth muscle preparations. Similar results were obtained in another amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt. Newt ghrelin and rat ghrelin did not cause any contraction in gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle, whereas substance P and carbachol were effective causing contraction. In conclusion, ghrelin does not affect contractility of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle in anuran and urodelian amphibians, similar to results for rainbow trout and goldfish (fish) but different from results for rats and chickens. The results suggest diversity of ghrelin actions on the gastrointestinal tract across animals. This study also showed for the first time that motilin induces gastrointestinal contraction in amphibians.

  18. A re-assessment of the effects of intracortical delivery of inosine on transmidline growth of corticospinal tract axons after unilateral lesions of the medullary pyramid.

    PubMed

    Steward, Oswald; Sharp, Kelli; Yee, Kelly Matsudaira

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken as part of the NIH "Facilities of Research Excellence-Spinal Cord Injury", which supports independent replication of published studies. Here, we repeat an experiment reporting that intracortical delivery of inosine promoted trans-midline growth of corticospinal tract (CST) axons in the spinal cord after unilateral injury to the medullary pyramid. Rats received unilateral transections of the medullary pyramid and 1 day later, a cannula assembly was implanted into the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the pyramidotomy to deliver either inosine or vehicle. The cannula assembly was attached to an osmotic minipump that was implanted sub-cutaneously. Seventeen or 18 days post-injury, the CST was traced by making multiple injections of miniruby-BDA into the sensorimotor cortex. Rats were killed for tract tracing 14 days after the BDA injections. Sections through the cervical spinal cord were stained for BDA and immunostained for GAP43 and GFAP. Our results revealed no evidence for enhanced growth of CST axons across the midline of the dorsal column in rats that received intracortical infusion of inosine. Possible reasons for the failure to replicate are discussed.

  19. Biliary Tract Anatomy and its Relationship with Venous Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S.; Sharma, Malay

    2013-01-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

  20. Biliary tract anatomy and its relationship with venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S; Sharma, Malay

    2014-02-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma.

  1. Open surgical partial nephrectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Macari, David; Faerber, Gary J; Hafez, Khaled S; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Montie, James E; Wood, David P; Wolf, J Stuart

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to determine the ability of partial nephrectomy to prevent end-stage renal disease and tumor recurrence or progression in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Retrospectively, eight patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma were identified and their medical records reviewed. All patients had imperative indications for nephron sparing, and diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma not adequately amenable to endoscopic management. Although three patients suffered acute tubular necrosis, only one required postoperative hemodialysis. During the follow-up period 25% (2/8) developed end-stage renal disease, including the one patient who had received postoperative hemodialysis. Recurrences occurred in five of seven patients with adequate oncological surveillance. Recurrences were successfully treated endoscopically in 80% (4/5) patients, and one patient had metastases. Of the eight patients, four have died. Death occurred 4 months, 1 year, 1.2 years and 3.5 years after partial nephrectomy. Of these patients, one succumbed to metastatic disease; the exact cause of death is unknown in the other three, but there was no documentation of metastatic cancer. The mean duration of follow up in the remaining four patients, all without evidence of metastatic urothelial cancer, is 71 months (range 22-108 months). In summary, partial nephrectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in patients with imperative indications averts end-stage renal disease in most patients, and appears to be associated with acceptable disease-specific survival. Partial nephrectomy is a sparingly used option in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma refractory to endoscopic management who have imperative indications for nephron sparing.

  2. Prefrontal cortex white matter tracts in prodromal Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Joy T.; Vaidya, Jatin G.; Wassermann, Demian; Kim, Regina Eunyoung; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Johnson, Hans J.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is most widely known for its selective degeneration of striatal neurons but there is also growing evidence for white matter (WM) deterioration. The primary objective of this research was to conduct a large-scale analysis using multisite diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography data to quantify diffusivity properties along major prefrontal cortex WM tracts in prodromal HD. Fifteen international sites participating in the PREDICT-HD study collected imaging and neuropsychological data on gene-positive HD participants without a clinical diagnosis (i.e. prodromal) and gene-negative control participants. The anatomical prefrontal WM tracts of the corpus callosum (PFCC), anterior thalamic radiations (ATR), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO), and uncinate fasciculi (UNC) were identified using streamline tractography of DWI. Within each of these tracts, tensor scalars for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity coefficients were calculated. We divided prodromal HD subjects into three CAG-age product (CAP) groups having Low, Medium, or High probabilities of onset indexed by genetic exposure. We observed significant differences in WM properties for each of the four anatomical tracts for the High CAP group in comparison to controls. Additionally, the Medium CAP group presented differences in the ATR and IFO in comparison to controls. Furthermore, WM alterations in the PFCC, ATR, and IFO showed robust associations with neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. These results suggest long-range tracts essential for cross-region information transfer show early vulnerability in HD and may explain cognitive problems often present in the prodromal stage. PMID:26179962

  3. Prefrontal cortex white matter tracts in prodromal Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Joy T; Vaidya, Jatin G; Wassermann, Demian; Kim, Regina Eunyoung; Magnotta, Vincent A; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is most widely known for its selective degeneration of striatal neurons but there is also growing evidence for white matter (WM) deterioration. The primary objective of this research was to conduct a large-scale analysis using multisite diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography data to quantify diffusivity properties along major prefrontal cortex WM tracts in prodromal HD. Fifteen international sites participating in the PREDICT-HD study collected imaging and neuropsychological data on gene-positive HD participants without a clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal) and gene-negative control participants. The anatomical prefrontal WM tracts of the corpus callosum (PFCC), anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO), and uncinate fasciculi (UNC) were identified using streamline tractography of DWI. Within each of these tracts, tensor scalars for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity coefficients were calculated. We divided prodromal HD subjects into three CAG-age product (CAP) groups having Low, Medium, or High probabilities of onset indexed by genetic exposure. We observed significant differences in WM properties for each of the four anatomical tracts for the High CAP group in comparison to controls. Additionally, the Medium CAP group presented differences in the ATR and IFO in comparison to controls. Furthermore, WM alterations in the PFCC, ATR, and IFO showed robust associations with neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. These results suggest long-range tracts essential for cross-region information transfer show early vulnerability in HD and may explain cognitive problems often present in the prodromal stage. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3717-3732, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Digestive tract cancer: after ten years in Santa Fe].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Félix; Elias, Roberto Emanuel; Osella, Francisco Javier; Padilla, Juan Francisco Antonio

    2009-12-01

    In our earlier paper we found that esophageal cancer was the most frequent localization among all the digestive tract cancers. Furthermore, in four departments belonging to our province we also observed a colon-esophagus relationship of virtually 1 to 1. In this study we aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of esophagus and stomach tumors: a) in the Endoscopy Department, b) in all the hospital, comparing it with colon cancer and, c) as causes of death in our region of influence, in relation to all the neoplastic pathologies. 2) analyze the histological lineage and the anatomical location, according to sex, age and origin. We evaluated: 3,396 upper digestive tract endoscopies, the diagnoses of digestive tract cancer from the Histopathology Service, the discharges from hospital as the result of digestive tract cancer from the General Archives, all of them from Cullen Hospital, and death register of the province of Santa Fe accounting for digestive tract cancer. A descriptive analysis was carried out and spreadsheet from the Open Office 2.2 version and SPSS 10.0 version were used. We observed that esophageal cancer is still very frequent in the Endoscopy Department and in the Histopathology Service but not in the diagnoses at discharge from hospital. It shares similar epidemiological features to the ones observed in the international literature. The reduction of the relationship between colon and esophageal cancer in the global mortality rate of the country turns out to be surprising. In three departments situated on the north of the province it was observed a colon-esophagus cancer relationship of 1:1.

  5. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging Reveals a Long-Lasting Chlamydial Infection in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract following Genital Tract Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yumeng; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Schenken, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum in mice can ascend to the upper genital tract, resulting in hydrosalpinx, a pathological hallmark for tubal infertility in women infected with C. trachomatis. Here, we utilized in vivo imaging of C. muridarum infection in mice following an intravaginal inoculation and confirmed the rapid ascent of the chlamydial organisms from the lower to upper genital tracts. Unexpectedly, the C. muridarum-derived signal was still detectable in the abdominal area 100 days after inoculation. Ex vivo imaging of the mouse organs revealed that the long-lasting presence of the chlamydial signal was restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was validated by directly measuring the chlamydial live organisms and genomes in the same organs. The C. muridarum organisms spreading from the genital to the GI tracts were detected in different mouse strains and appeared to be independent of oral or rectal routes. Mice prevented from orally taking up excretions also developed the long-lasting GI tract infection. Inoculation of C. muridarum directly into the upper genital tract, which resulted in a delayed vaginal shedding of live organisms, accelerated the chlamydial spreading to the GI tract. Thus, we have demonstrated that the genital tract chlamydial organisms may use a systemic route to spread to and establish a long-lasting infection in the GI tract. The significance of the chlamydial spreading from the genital to GI tracts is discussed. PMID:26099591

  6. 77 FR 11133 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... guidance for industry entitled ``Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment... treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Specifically, this guidance addresses...

  7. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  8. Dilatation and nontraumatic rupture of the urinary tract during pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Meyers, S J; Lee, R V; Munschauer, R W

    1985-12-01

    Rupture of the urinary tract during pregnancy is uncommonly reported. Nevertheless, pregnancy-induced changes in the urinary tract predispose to tears and leaks in the renal parenchyma or collecting system. Pyelonephritis, painful overdistension, and rupture are consequences of the effects of pregnancy on the urinary tract. Thirteen cases of urinary tract rupture from the literature and one from the authors' experience illustrate the clinical manifestations of this serious complication of pregnancy.

  9. Bilateral Cervical Contusion Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kim D.; Sharp, Kelli G.; Steward, Oswald

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing motivation to develop clinically relevant experimental models for cervical SCI in rodents and techniques to assess deficits in forelimb function. Here we describe a bilateral cervical contusion model in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received mild or moderate cervical contusion injuries (using the Infinite Horizons device) at C5, C6, or C7/8. Forelimb motor function was assessed using a Grip Strength Meter (GSM); sensory function was assessed by the von Frey hair test; the integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) was assessed by biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) tract tracing. Mild contusions caused primarily dorsal column (DC) and gray matter (GM) damage while moderate contusions produced additional damage to lateral and ventral tissue. Forelimb and hindlimb function was severely impaired immediately post-injury, but all rats regained the ability to use their hindlimbs for locomotion. Gripping ability was abolished immediately after injury but recovered partially, depending upon the spinal level and severity of the injury. Rats exhibited a loss of sensation in both fore- and hindlimbs that partially recovered, and did not exhibit allodynia. Tract tracing revealed that the main contingent of CST axons in the DC was completely interrupted in all but one animal whereas the dorsolateral CST (dlCST) was partially spared, and dlCST axons gave rise to axons that arborized in the GM caudal to the injury. Our data demonstrate that rats can survive significant bilateral cervical contusion injuries at or below C5 and that forepaw gripping function recovers after mild injuries even when the main component of CST axons in the dorsal column is completely interrupted. PMID:19559699

  10. Role of fronto-striatal tract and frontal aslant tract in movement and speech: an axonal mapping study.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Masashi; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jeremy; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-11-01

    Despite a better understanding of their anatomy, the functional role of frontal pathways, i.e., the fronto-striatal tract (FST) and frontal aslant tract (FAT), remains obscure. We studied 19 patients who underwent awake surgery for a frontal glioma (14 left, 5 right) by performing intraoperative electrical mapping of both fascicles during motor and language tasks. Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship between these tracts and the eventual onset of transient postoperative disorders. We also performed post-surgical tract-specific measurements on probabilistic tractography. All patients but one experienced intraoperative inhibition of movement and/or speech during subcortical electrostimulation. On postoperative tractography, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites corresponded to the spatial course of the FST and/or FAT. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between postoperative worsening and distances between these tracts and resection cavity. A resection close to the (right or left) FST was correlated with transitory motor initiation disorders (p = 0.026), while a resection close to the left FAT was associated with transient speech initiation disorders (p = 0.003). Moreover, the measurements of average distances between resection cavity and left FAT showed a positive correlation with verbal fluency in both semantic (p = 0.019) and phonemic scores (p = 0.017), while average distances between surgical cavity and left FST showed a positive correlation with verbal fluency scores in both semantic (p = 0.0003) and phonemic modalities (p = 0.037). We suggest that FST and FAT would cooperatively play a role in self-initiated movement and speech, as a part of "negative motor network" involving the pre-supplementary motor area, left inferior frontal gyrus and caudate nucleus.

  11. Phonation Threshold Pressure Measurement with a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine if a semi-occluded vocal tract could be used to measure phonation threshold pressure. This is in contrast to the shutter technique, where an alternation between a fully occluded tract and an unoccluded tract is used. Method: Five male and 5 female volunteers phonated through a thin straw held…

  12. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  13. Recent Advances in Urinary Tract Reconstruction for Neuropathic Bladder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Lorenzo, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic bladder usually causes several limitations to patients’ quality of life, including urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, and upper urinary tract damage. Its management has significantly changed over the last few years. The aim of our paper is to address some salient features of recent literature dealing with reconstructive procedures in pediatric and adolescent patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26962441

  14. Ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract and blood circulation of perinatal low and normal weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Willemen, S A; De Vos, M; Huygelen, V; Fransen, E; Tambuyzer, B R; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2013-12-01

    Ghrelin, the 'hunger' hormone, is an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue that exerts a wide range of physiological functions. Its perinatal presence suggests that ghrelin might be involved in growth and metabolism processes during intrauterine and postnatal life. Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) neonates have altered endocrine and metabolic pathways because of malnutrition during foetal development. These changes might include an altered gastrointestinal presence of ghrelin cells (GCs). As ghrelin is mainly secreted by the stomach, this altered presence might be reflected in its serum concentrations. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) pigs appear to be a natural occurring model for IUGR children. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gastrointestinal GCs expressing active ghrelin in normal weight (NW) foetal and postnatal piglets compared with their SGA littermates using immunohistochemical analysis in combination with stereological methods. Second, total ghrelin serum concentrations of these piglets were analysed with a porcine radioactive immunoassay. In addition, the growth of the gastric pars fundica in the NW and SGA piglets was analysed stereologically. Corresponding with humans and rats, it was shown that opened- and closed-type immunoreactive GCs are distributed along the entire gastrointestinal tract of the perinatal NW and SGA piglets. However, in contrast to the rat's stomach, the porcine GCs do not disperse from the glandular base to the glandular neck during perinatal development. Furthermore, stereological analysis demonstrated that the NW neonates have a higher amount of gastric cells expressing active ghrelin compared with the SGA piglets that could result in higher milk consumption during the neonatal period. This finding is, however, not reflected in total serum ghrelin levels, which showed no difference between the NW and SGA piglets. Moreover, the stereological volume densities of the fundic layers

  15. Nal-IRI With 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and Leucovorin or Gemcitabine Plus Cisplatin in Advanced Biliary-tract Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-03

    Adenocarcinoma Metastatic; Biliary Tract Cancer; Adenocarcinoma of the Biliary Tract; Adenocarinoma Locally Advanced; Non-Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Intrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma

  16. Characterization of an Unusual Strain of Proteus rettgeri Associated with an Outbreak of Nosocomial Urinary-Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Traub, W. H.; Craddock, M. E.; Raymond, E. A.; Fox, M.; McCall, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial urinary-tract infection was caused by a strain of Proteus rettgeri that fermented lactose overnight and was resistant to all antimicrobial drugs tested. The nonmotile isolates shared an O (somatic) antigen that differed from those of wild-type P. rettgeri. The organisms proved markedly serum-sensitive. In rats, the isolates elicited an acute interstitial nephritis with associated transient bacteriuria. Attempts to transfer the lac+ trait and drug-resistance markers to recipient strains of Escherichia coli K-12 failed; exposure of the isolates to acridine orange yielded small numbers of non-lactose-fermenting variants which, however, were still as drug-resistant as before. Epidemiological studies failed to uncover the source of this unique strain and appeared to indicate exogenous spread of infection. PMID:4940869

  17. Optical Imaging of the Motor Cortex Following Antidromic Activation of the Corticospinal Tract after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung H.; Kim, Un J.; Park, Se W.; Park, Yong G.; Lee, Bae H.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts neuronal networks of ascending and descending tracts at the site of injury, leading to a loss of motor function. Restoration and new circuit formation are important components of the recovery process, which involves collateral sprouting of injured and uninjured fibers. The present study was conducted to determine cortical responses to antidromic stimulation of the corticospinal tracts, to compare changes in the reorganization of neural pathways within normal and spinal cord-injured rats, and to elucidate differences in spatiotemporal activity patterns of the natural progression and reorganization of neural pathways in normal and SCI animals using optical imaging. Optical signals were recorded from the motor cortex in response to electrical stimulation of the ventral horn of the L1 spinal cord. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were evaluated to demonstrate endogenous recovery of physiological functions after SCI. A significantly shorter N1 peak latency and broader activation in the MEP optical recordings were observed at 4 weeks after SCI, compared to 1 week after SCI. Spatiotemporal patterns in the cerebral cortex differed depending on functional recovery. In the present study, optical imaging was found to be useful in revealing functional changes and may reflect conditions of reorganization and/or changes in surviving neurons after SCI.

  18. Dose-dependent lipid peroxidation induction on ex vivo intestine tracts exposed to chyme samples from fumonisins contaminated corn samples.

    PubMed

    Garbetta, A; Debellis, L; De Girolamo, A; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Minervini, F

    2015-08-01

    Fumonisins (FBs), Fusarium mycotoxins common food contaminant, are a potent inducer of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in intestinal cells. In order to verify this toxic effect in intestine tract, the aim was to assess lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde MDA increased levels) on intestine rat samples exposed to chyme samples from in vitro digestion of FBs contaminated corn samples. Naturally (9.61±3.2 μg/gr), artificially (726±94 μg/gr) and spiked corn samples at EU permitted FBs levels were digested and added to luminal side of Ussing chamber for 120 min. Fumonisins-free corn sample was used as control. The MDA increase was observed just in 83% of intestine samples exposed at EU FBs levels and the digestion process seems to reduce this incidence (50% of samples). Malondialdehyde levels were FBs dose- and subject-related and ranged from 0.07±0.01 to 3.59±0.6 nmol/mg. Highest incidence and MDA % increment (I) were found when intestine tracts were exposed to chymes from artificially corn sample. The induction of lipid peroxidation induced by FBs could be due to interactions between FBs and intestinal membranes, with consequent modifications in membrane permeability and oxygen diffusion-concentration, as suggested by other authors.

  19. The balance between oligodendrocyte and astrocyte production in major white matter tracts is linearly related to serum total thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Sharlin, David S; Tighe, Daniel; Gilbert, Mary E; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) may control the ratio of oligodendrocytes to astrocytes in white matter by acting on a common precursor of these two cell types. If so, then TH should produce an equal but opposite effect on the density of these two cells types across all TH levels. To test this, we induced graded TH insufficiency by treating pregnant rats with increasing doses of propylthiouracil. Propylthiouracil induced a dose-dependent decrease in serum T(4) in postnatal d 15 pups, a dose-dependent decrease in the density of MAG-positive oligodendrocytes, and an equal increase in the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes in both the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a strong correlation between glial densities and serum T(4); this correlation was positive for astrocytes and negative for oligodendrocytes. Surprisingly, oligodendrocyte density in the corpus callosum was more sensitive to changes in TH than in the anterior commissure, as indicated by the slope of the regressions. Furthermore, we measured an overall reduction in the cellular density that was independent of changes in myelin-associated glycoprotein and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. These data strongly support the interpretation that TH controls the balance of production of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in major white matter tracts of the developing brain by acting on a common precursor of these cell types. Moreover, these findings indicate that major white matter tracts may differ in their sensitivity to TH insufficiency.

  20. The biopharmaceutics of successful controlled release drug product: Segmental-dependent permeability of glipizide vs. metoprolol throughout the intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Zur, Moran; Cohen, Noa; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to study the challenges and prospects of regional-dependent absorption in a controlled-release scenario, through the oral biopharmaceutics of the sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug glipizide. The BCS solubility class of glipizide was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in-vitro (PAMPA and Caco-2) and in-vivo in rats. Metoprolol was used as the low/high permeability class boundary marker. Glipizide was found to be a low-solubility compound. All intestinal permeability experimental methods revealed similar trend; a mirror image small intestinal permeability with opposite regional/pH-dependency was obtained, a downward trend for glipizide, and an upward trend for metoprolol. Yet the lowest permeability of glipizide (terminal Ileum) was comparable to the lowest permeability of metoprolol (proximal jejunum). At the colon, similar permeability was evident for glipizide and metoprolol, that was higher than metoprolol's jejunal permeability. We present an analysis that identifies metoprolol's jejunal permeability as the low/high permeability class benchmark anywhere throughout the intestinal tract; we show that the permeability of both glipizide and metoprolol matches/exceeds this threshold throughout the entire intestinal tract, accounting for their success as controlled-release dosage form. This represents a key biopharmaceutical characteristic for a successful controlled-release dosage form.