Science.gov

Sample records for rat submandibular glands

  1. Preproglucagon mRNA expression in adult rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Egéa, J C; Hirtz, C; Deville de Périère, D

    2003-04-01

    Salivary glands of various animal species have been reported to contain and suggested to produce glucagon or glucagon-like material, but the origin and the nature of this salivary peptide are still doubtful. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the glucagon gene is expressed in rat submandibular glands and in an immortalized murine cell line derived from salivary glands (SCA-9 cell line). For this purpose, total RNA was isolated from submandibular glands or cultured cells and submitted to reverse transcription. The cDNAs obtained were amplified by a nested polymerase chain reaction using preproglucagon primers. The results showed that the preproglucagon mRNA was expressed in adult rat submandibular glands but not in the SCA-9 cell line. Determination of cyclic DNA (cDNA) sequence established identity with the coding regions of rat pancreatic pre-proglucagon gene. In conclusion, these results strongly support the idea that rat submandibular glands could represent a source of extrapancreatic glucagon or of its precursor's peptide.

  2. Effects of thyroxine and dexamethasone on rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and thyroxine are known to have a marked effect on the flow rate and protein composition of rat parotid saliva in hormonally intact animals. In the present study, the effects of a one-week treatment of male rats with dexamethasone and thyroxine were studied by electron microscopy and x-ray micro-analysis, and by measurement of the flow rate and determination of the chemical composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva. Thyroxine had the most extensive effects on the submandibular gland. The acinar cells were enlarged and filled with mucus; the cellular calcium concentration was significantly increased. The flow rate of the submandibular saliva was significantly reduced compared with that in saline-injected control animals. Thyroxine caused an increase in the concentrations of protein, total calcium, and potassium in the saliva. Dexamethasone had no significant effects on gland ultrastructure or on the elemental composition of the acinar cells; flow rate was not affected, but the concentrations of protein, calcium, and potassium were significantly increased. The effects of dexamethasone and thyroxine on the flow rate and protein composition of pilocarpine-induced rat submandibular saliva differ from those reported earlier for rat parotid saliva after simultaneous stimulation with pilocarpine and isoproterenol.

  3. Fatty acid acylation of salivary mucin in rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Slomiany, B.L.; Murty, V.L.; Takagi, A.; Tsukada, H.; Kosmala, M.; Slomiany, A.

    1985-11-01

    The acylation of salivary mucin with fatty acids and its biosynthesis was investigated by incubating rat submandibular salivary gland cells with (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and (/sup 3/H)proline. The elaborated extracellular and intracellular mucus glycoproteins following delipidation, Bio-Gel P-100 chromatography, and CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation were analyzed for the distribution of the labeled tracers. The incorporation of both markers into mucus glycoprotein increased steadily with time up to 4 h, at which time about 65% of (/sup 3/H)palmitate and (/sup 3/H)proline were found in the extracellular glycoprotein and 35% in the intracellular glycoprotein. The incorporation ratio of proline/palmitate, while showing an increase with incubation time in the extracellular glycoprotein, remained essentially unchanged with time in the intracellular glycoprotein and at 4 h reached respective values of 0.14 and 1.12. The fact that the proline/palmitate incorporation ratio in the intracellular glycoprotein at 1 h of incubation was 22 times higher than in the extracellular and 8 times higher after 4 h suggests that acylation occurs intracellularly and that fatty acids are added after apomucin polypeptide synthesis. As the incorporation of palmitate within the intracellular mucin was greater in the mucus glycoprotein subunit, it would appear that fatty acid acylation of mucin subunits preceeds their assembly into the mucus glycoprotein polymer.

  4. Atrophy of submandibular gland by the duct ligation and a blockade of SP receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hishida, Sumiyo; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Honda, Takashi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the mechanisms underlying the submandibular gland atrophies associated with ptyalolithiasis, morphological changes were examined in the rat submandibular gland following either surgical intervention of the duct or functional blockade at substance P receptors (SPRs). Progressive acinar atrophy was observed after duct ligation or avulsion of periductal tissues. This suggested that damage to periductal tissue involving nerve fibers might contribute to ligation-associated acinar atrophy. Immunohistochemically labeled-substance P positive nerve fibers (SPFs) coursed in parallel with the main duct and were distributed around the interlobular, striated, granular and intercalated duct, and glandular acini. Strong SPR immunoreactivity was observed in the duct. Injection into the submandibular gland of a SPR antagonist induced marked acinar atrophy. The results revealed that disturbance of SPFs and SPRs might be involved in the atrophy of the submandibular gland associated with ptyalolithiasis. PMID:27303108

  5. Submandibular gland excision.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, G M; Yarington, C T

    1988-10-01

    A review of 107 submandibular gland excisions was made to determine the relative frequency of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic disease. The results show a preponderance of non-neoplastic pathology. Benign tumors were found in 6% of glands, primary glandular and metastatic carcinoma in 3%. Timely treatment of a submandibular gland mass is indicated due to the relatively aggressive behavior of malignancies originating in this location.

  6. Effect of duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition, and function of rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagstroem, S.S.; Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Obstruction of salivary glands occurs in association with a number of pathological conditions. It has been suggested that the major changes found in the salivary glands of patients with cystic fibrosis are due to obstruction of the excretory duct by viscous mucus. In the present study, the effect of excretory duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition and function of rat submandibular gland was investigated. Obstruction was effected by infusion of a fast-hardening protein emulsion in the main excretory duct. After 1 week, and more pronounced after 2 weeks of obstruction the number of granular duct cells had decreased in the obstructed gland. X-ray microanalysis showed an increase in Mg, Ca and K, and a decrease in Na levels in the acinar cells, compared to normal glands. The contralateral glands apparently underwent compensatory hypertrophy and showed a similar pattern of changes in elemental composition. The composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva was neither in the obstructed nor in the contralateral gland significantly different from that in control glands. However, the flow rate was somewhat lower. Hence, increase in cellular Ca levels in submandibular gland acinar cells in cystic fibrosis could be secondary to duct obstruction, but the present study does not support the hypothesis that duct obstruction would result in changes in the composition of saliva.

  7. Submandibular gland myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    Testa, D; Galera, F; Insabato, L; Vassallo, A; Mesolella, M; Galli, V

    2005-06-01

    Benign myoepithelioma is a very rare form of salivary gland tumor, composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. It accounts for approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumors and is most frequently located in the parotid gland and in the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. We describe herein the ninth reported case of myoepithelioma of the submandibular gland. Benign myoepithelioma must be differentiated from several benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining can help differentiate between these conditions, but histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosing this neoplastic process.

  8. Calcium transport in the microsomal fraction of rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, B.I.

    1981-01-01

    From previous studies, it has been concluded that the microsomal fraction from rate submandibular glands contains an ATP dependent calcium transport system. This thesis describes experiments directed at clarifying the function played by the system in salivary secretion. An effort was made to clarify the function of the transport system through characterization of the biochemical mechanism of transport. A series of experiments directed at understanding the role played by ATP in calcium transport is described. Either Mg or Mn was required for calcium accumulation with Mg being the more effective of the two. A series of experiments directed at determining the cellular location of the system is described. It was found that the membrane responsible for calcium transport did not copurify with the membrane vesicles, which contained the standard enzyme markers for endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, plasma membrane, mitochondria, and secretory granules. The significance of these results are discussed in terms of the insight they provide in (1) understanding the location of the calcium transporting membrane within the cell, (2) understanding the composition of the calcium transporting membrane, and (3) understanding the difficulties faced in organelle purification. Previous studies have suggested that the mechanism by which cAMP stimulates exocytosis is mediated through an intracellular calcium transport system, and a series of experiments directed at determining what effect cAMP may have on the microsomal calcium transport system are described. It was found that neither cAMP nor cAMP plus a cAMP dependent protein kinase (Sigma P5511) had any effect on the calcium transport properties of the microsomes. 73 references, 36 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  9. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Bighetti, Bruna B; d Assis, Gerson F; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P < 0.05). DEX rat islets secreted more insulin in response to glucose (P < 0.05). DEX rats had significant reductions in the masses of the parotid (29%) and submandibular (16%) glands (P < 0.05) that was associated with reduced salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P < 0.05). The total number of acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P < 0.05) but not in the parotid glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis.

  10. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Bighetti, Bruna B; Assis, Gerson F d; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P < 0.05). DEX rat islets secreted more insulin in response to glucose (P < 0.05). DEX rats had significant reductions in the masses of the parotid (29%) and submandibular (16%) glands (P < 0.05) that was associated with reduced salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P < 0.05). The total number of acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P < 0.05) but not in the parotid glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis. PMID:25186305

  11. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Niharika; Parmar, Deepankar; Rao, B Rama Mohan; Rao, Epari Sanjeeva

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare primary tumour of the salivary gland, benign in nature arising from differentiated Sebaceous glands and cells in the salivary gland. Most of the tumours are seen in the parotid gland and very rarely in the submandibular gland. Herein a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma is reported in a 45 years old female with a swelling in the submandibular region. Histopathological study after surgical excision showed islands of sebaceous epithelial cells with dense collections of lymphoid cells in stroma and a diagnosis of sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland was made.

  12. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  13. A functional and chemical study of radiation effects on rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, A.; S-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, W.T. )

    1990-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor composition and rate of secretion of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva following local single doses of X-rays ranging from 5 to 20 Gy. Pilocarpine-stimulated samples of parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva were simultaneously collected with miniaturized Lashley cups before and 1-30 days after irradiation. The lag phase (period between injection of pilocarpine and start of the secretion) and flow rate were recorded and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and amylase were measured. With increasing dose and time, the salivary flow rate as well as sodium concentration decreased, while potassium concentrations increased throughout the follow-up period. The lag phase and the concentration of amylase reached their maximum at 3 and 10 days after irradiation, respectively. The changes in lag phase and flow rate were most obvious after doses of 15 or 20 Gy and showed a great similarity for parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. No dose-response relationship was observed for the changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate. It is concluded that for radiation doses of 10 Gy and above, irreversible changes (lag phase, flow rate, potassium, sodium) were observed. A saturation of the irradiation effects (lag phase, flow rate) seems to exist at doses larger than 15 Gy. No significant differences were observed between the radiation-induced functional changes in parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary gland tissue.

  14. Effects of Diabetes on Post-Menopausal Rat Submandibular Glands: A Histopathological and Stereological Examination

    PubMed Central

    Buyuk, Basak; Parlak, Secil Nazife; Keles, Osman Nuri; Can, Ismail; Yetim, Zeliha; Toktay, Erdem; Selli, Jale; Unal, Bunyami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The menopause in elderly women is a physiological process where ovarian and uterine cycles end. Diabetes means higher blood glucose level that is a metabolic disease and has an increased incidence. The aim of the study was to examine the single or combined effects of menopause and diabetes that causes pathophysiological processes on submandibular gland on ovariectomy and diabetes induced rat models. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley twelve weeks old female (n=24) rats were divided randomly into four groups; Healthy control group (n=6), diabetic group (DM, n=6), ovariectomized group (OVX, n=6), post ovariectomy diabetes induced group (DM+OVX, n=6) individually. Histopathological, histochemical and stereological analyses were done in these groups. Results: Significant neutrophil cell infiltrations and myoepithelial cell proliferations, granular duct and seromucous acini damages and changes in the content of especially seromucous acini secretion in DM and/or OVX groups and distinctive interstitial and striated duct damages in post ovariectomy diabetes induced group were detected. Alterations ingranular ducts hypertrophic and in seromucous acini atrophic were determined in DM and/or OVX groups. Conclusion: The results revealed the pathophysiological processes that lead to morphological and functional alterations on the cellular level in submandibular glands. The molecular mechanisms related with pathogenesis of diabetes and menopause need further investigation. PMID:26644770

  15. Histological changes in the submandibular glands of rats after intraductal injection of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, J; Miura, K; Usizima, H; Katoh, Y

    1975-01-01

    Carcinogens injected into the excretory canal of submandibular gland of Donryu rats revealed the following histologic changes in salivary glands. 20-Methylcholanthrene induced squamous cell metaplasia, fibrosis in the early stages, and "benign lymphoepithelial lesion"-like pattern after 3 months. Dense hyalinization occurred after 4-5 months with so-called "mixed tumor"-like pattern. In the later stages epidermoid carcinoma and fibrosarcoma were observed. 9, 10-Dimethylbenzanthracene caused degenerative change, metaplasia, fibrosis and cell infiltration, and later carcinoma and sarcoma appeared at a high rate. 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide led to dense hyalinization and so-called "mixed tumor"-like pattern was observed in many specimens. N-nitroso-N-methyl urethane and N-methyl-N-nitroso-N'-nitroguanidine revealed metaplastic changes, fibrosis and lymphoid infiltration. Scarlet red induced remarkable infiltration and aggregation of lymphoid cells, showing benign "lymphoepithelial lesion"-like pattern.

  16. Expression and localization of trefoil factor family genes in rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Wu, J F; Zhang, J; Xue, G; Zhang, H Q

    2014-08-01

    The trefoil factor (TFF) family, which comprises TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3, plays an essential role in epithelial regeneration within the gastrointestinal tract. All three TFFs are present in human saliva; TFF3 is the predominant trefoil peptide. Little is known about the expression and tissue distribution of TFFs in rats, which are commonly used as a model system for human studies. We investigated the localization of the TFF genes that encode secretory peptides in rat submandibular glands (SMG). All three TFFs were expressed in rat SMG, although their location varied. Substantial amounts of TFF1 were detected only in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the SMG granular convoluted tubules (GCT), while TFF2 and TFF3 were widely distributed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of intercalated ducts (ID), striated ducts (SD) and interlobular ducts (ILD). The three TFFs also were detected especially in the lumens of the SD and ILD. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization experiments confirmed TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 mRNA expressions in the SMG. Greater expression of TFF peptides and mRNA was observed in male rats than in females. The broad expression of TFFs in rat SMG cells and lumens suggests that TFFs function in this organ by their secretion into the duct lumens. We also found differences in TFF expression profiles between rat and human SMG; therefore, caution should be exercised when using rats as a model for human TFF studies.

  17. Sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti; Ponzoni, Daniela; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Demétrio, Marcos Rogério; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes

    2011-05-01

    Sialolithiasis of the salivary gland is a benign pathology that occurs most frequently in the submandibular gland because of its anatomic features. Depending on the sialolith size and calcification degree, it can be visible in radiographic examinations. Commonly, patients may experience pain and/or edema, when the ducts are obstructed. The authors report the case of sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland in a 42-year-old, female, white-skinned patient, noticed during routine dental examination. Following diagnosis confirmed by clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan consisted of surgery for removal of the calcified mass. The prognosis is often good, and generally there is no recurrence.

  18. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  19. The effect of dietary consistency and water content on the parotid glands of submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M

    2002-05-01

    The aim here was to estimate the significance of oral sensation and mastication on functional changes in the parotid glands of partially desalivated rats. Submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated and sham-operated control rats were fed three diets of similar chemical composition but different physical presentations. Two were solid, either pellets or powder, and one was liquid. Water and food intakes were similar for both the duct-ligated rats and sham-operated control rats when they ate the pelleted or powdered-diet, though more food was wasted by the duct-ligated rats in the powdered-diet group than in the pelleted-diet group. No food was wasted in the rats fed the liquid-diet. Parotid gland weight and amylase activity were greatest with the submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated rats fed the powdered-diet and smallest with the duct-ligated and sham-operated control rats fed the liquid-diet. The amount of food wasted correlated positively with the parotid gland weight and parotid amylase activity of the rats. These findings support the view that it is the contact of dry food with the oral mucosa rather than the jaw movements involved in mastication that increases parotid gland weight and amylase activity in partial desalivated rats.

  20. Intake of indigestible carbohydrates influences IgA response and polymeric Ig receptor expression in the rat submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuko; To, Masahiro; Hayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Kamata, Yohei; Saruta, Juri; Takahashi, Toru; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2015-06-28

    Secretory IgA in the saliva is essential for protection from mucosally transmitted pathogens and maintaining homeostasis at mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity. Expression of submandibular gland polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) is essential for IgA secretion. In the present study, we investigated the influence of indigestible carbohydrates on IgA production in the salivary gland and saliva. Five-week-old rats were fed a fibre-free diet (control), or a diet with 5 % (w/w) fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) or a combination of 2·5 % (w/w) polydextrose (PDX) and 2·5 % (w/w) lactitol for 21-d. IgA concentrations in the caecal digesta, submandibular gland tissue, and saliva in the FOS and PDX+lactitol diet groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0·05). The increase in IgA in the submandibular gland tissue was confirmed using immunohistochemical analysis. However, the IgA concentrations of serum did not differ between the FOS or PDX+lactitol groups and the control group (P= 0·5). In the FOS and PDX+lactitol groups, the pIgR mRNA (pIgR/β-actin) expression level in the submandibular gland tissue was significantly higher than that in the control group (P< 0·05). The present study suggests that indigestible carbohydrates play an important role in the increase in IgA concentrations in the submandibular gland tissue, saliva, and caecal digesta.

  1. Regeneration of acinar cells following ligation of rat submandibular gland retraces the embryonic-perinatal pathway of cytodifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Cotroneo, Emanuele; Proctor, Gordon B; Carpenter, Guy H

    2010-02-01

    Rat submandibular gland can regenerate following ligation-induced atrophy, eventually recovering its normal morphology and function. Previous studies have suggested that the regeneration process implies both self-proliferation of existing acini and formation of new acinar cells. One hypothesis is that new acinar cells may differentiate from the ductal cells in a similar fashion to the process of cytodifferentiation occurring during submandibular glandular development. In this study atrophy was induced, under recovery anaesthesia, by applying a metal clip on the main duct of the submandibular gland without including the chorda lingual nerve. After 2 weeks the duct was deligated for 3, 5 or 7 days or 8 weeks and the glands collected. Tissue was prepared for immunohistochemistry, biochemical analysis and RNA extraction. The histology of the regenerated glands shows several normal-looking acini, which have regained their glycoprotein content (AB/PAS positive), data also confirmed by biochemical analysis (SDS-PAGE/PAS). Regenerating tissue was characterized by the presence of embryonic-like branched structures ending with AB/PAS positive acinar cells. The proteins SMG-B and PSP are normally expressed in acinar cell precursors during development but only by intercalated ductal cells in the adult stage. In the adult regenerating gland mRNA levels of both SMG-B and PSP were found to be up-regulated compared to ligated glands and SMG-B expression localized to acinar cells whilst the ductal cells were negative. This study of rat submandibular gland regeneration suggests new acinar cells have differentiated from ducts and express markers of acinar cell precursors in a similar manner to the cytodifferentiation process occurring during glandular development.

  2. Schwannoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Diaz, D D; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; White, V J

    1991-01-01

    Neurilemmomas (schwannomas) are solitary neurogenic tumors that arise from cells of the neural sheath. They are slow growing and represent a proliferation of Schwann cells. Extracranial neurogenic tumors of the head and neck are uncommon, with benign tumors occurring with greater frequency than malignant tumors. These tumors often mimic primary or metastatic disease in the head and neck. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor, with most presenting in the parotid gland originating from a peripheral branch of the facial nerve. An unusual case of neurilemmoma of the submandibular gland is presented, and the literature concerning this subject is reviewed. We believe this tumor originated in an autonomic nerve of the submandibular gland. The mass was discrete and well demonstrated on CT scan. Total excision of the gland resulted in complete resolution of symptoms with no cranial nerve deficits.

  3. The influence of estrogen and progesterone on parasympathetic vasodilatation in the rat submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua; Lindsay, Michael; Rahimian, Roshanak; Anderson, Leigh

    2009-03-12

    Previous studies suggest that NO- and PGI(2)-independent pathways play a greater role in parasympathetic vasodilatation in the submandibular glands (SMG) of female than of male rats. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether estrogen and progesterone influence the relative contributions of NO and PGI(2) to parasympathetic vasodilatation in the SMG. Vascular responses to chorda-lingual nerve stimulation were examined in sham-operated (SHAM) and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats and in OVX rats treated with either 17beta-estradiol alone or a combination of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone. Compared with SHAM animals, increases in vascular conductance in OVX rats were reduced at 1, 2 and 5 Hz (p<0.05). Blood flow responses in OVX+17beta-estradiol and OVX+17beta-estradiol+progesterone rats were indistinguishable from those observed in SHAM animals. Indomethacin had no effect on vasodilatation in SHAM and OVX+17beta-estradiol rats, but increased vascular responses in OVX animals (p<0.02). The addition of L-NAME resulted in a significant reduction in vasodilatation at all frequencies. In OVX rats treated with both estrogen and progesterone, indomethacin caused a reduction in vasodilatation and L-NAME further diminished the remaining responses. Under all conditions, vasodilatation was due largely, if not exclusively, to direct parasympathetic rather than antidromic sensory nerve activation. Finally, both neuronally-derived and endothelium-derived NO appeared to be responsible for the NO-dependent vasodilatation, but endothelium-derived NO became increasingly important as the frequency of stimulation increased. We conclude that estrogen and progesterone influence parasympathetic vasodilatation through combined effects on NO-, PGI(2)- and non-NO/PGI(2)-mediated pathways.

  4. Blood flow of the submandibular gland in sodium-depleted and -loaded rats: effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vág, J; Hably, C; Csabai, Z; Tost, H; Bartha, J; Fazekas, A

    1998-08-01

    The present investigations were designed to study the hemodynamic effects of different sodium diets in the submandibular gland of rats with or without nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition. Experimental animals were kept on: (1) standard chow and tap water ad libitum (normal group, N), or (2) wheat and distilled water ad libitum for 4 weeks (sodium-depleted animals, SD), or (3) standard chow and saline ad libitum for 4 weeks (sodium-loaded animals, SL). NO synthase was inhibited by N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg per day) in the last week. The rats were anesthetized, and blood pressure, cardiac output (Stewart-Hamilton's principle) and blood flow (BF) of the submandibular gland (Sapirstein's technique) were determined. High sodium intake resulted in a 47% increase of glandular BF as compared to BF measured in the control group. In all groups L-NAME decreased BF (ml/min per 100 g gland) as compared to those of rats with no L-NAME treatment (N: 76.4 +/- 15.4 vs. 56.0 +/- 11.6, P < 0.05; SD: 71.0 +/- 17.7 vs. 56.2 +/- 15.1, n.s.; SL: 112 +/- 29.4 vs. 66.9 +/- 18.4, P < 0.001), whereas the vascular resistance (VR, mm Hg x ml-1 x s x kg-1) increased (N: 11.0 +/- 2.3 vs. 17.5 +/- 4.1, P < 0.001; SD: 11.0 +/- 2.7 vs. 17.0 +/- 4.2, P < 0.01; SL: 8.5 +/- 2.4 vs. 14.9 +/- 4.6, P < 0.001). The increase in VR after L-NAME treatment was 64% in normal, 55% in sodium-depleted and 75% in sodium-loaded rats. Our results suggest that NO takes part in the regulation of vascular resistance and BF in the submandibular gland. Sodium load itself increases BF of the submandibular gland and this phenomenon may partly be mediated by NO.

  5. Effects of tachykinins on the secretion of fluid and glycoproteins from the submandibular glands of rat, mouse, hamster and guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Y; Aoki, C; Masuhara, T

    1989-11-01

    The effects of substance P, neurokinin A, physalamine, and eledoisin on the secretion of fluid and glycoproteins from the submandibular glands of various rodents were investigated. Following i.v. injection of each peptide at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg, the major glycoprotein species secreted from rats and guinea pigs were shown to be electrophoretically identical with those found in the acini. However, saliva was not elicited from the mice and hamsters. These results suggest that in both rats and guinea pigs, tachykinins act on the acinar cells of the submandibular gland only. PMID:2482911

  6. [Thapsigargin-sensitive and insensitive intracellular calcium stores in acinar cells of the submandibular salivary gland in rats].

    PubMed

    Kopach, O V; Kruhlykov, I A; Voĭtenko, N V; Fedirko, N V

    2005-01-01

    Acinar cells of rat submandibular salivary gland are characterized by heterogeneity of intracellular Ca2+ stores. In the present work we have studied this heterogeneity using Arsenazo III dye to measure a cellular total calcium content and Fura-2/AM, to determine free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). We have found that the amount of Ca2+ released by inhibition of Ca2+ ATPase of the ER with thapsigargin comprises approximately 30% of total ER calcium. This result was obtained in experiments on both intact and permeabilized acinar cells. We have also shown that both Ca2+ ATPase inhibition with thapsigargin and emptying the stores with acetylcholine (ACh) led to activation of store-operated Ca2+ influx (an increase in total calcium content of approximately 14%). In permeabilized cells application of ACh after preincubation with thapsigargin led to a further decrease in total cellular calcium content (approximately 38%). At the same time in intact cells it resulted in generation of [Ca2+]i transients with gradually decreasing amplitudes. Thus, ACh is capable of producing an additional release of Ca2+ from thapsigargin-insensitive stores. This additional release is IP3-dependent since it was completely blocked by heparin. We conclude that in acinar cells of rat submandibular gland thapsigargin-sensitive and thapsigargin-insensitive Ca2+ stores could exist.

  7. Characterization of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor in rat submandibular gland: radioligand binding assay in membrane preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-09-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor in membranes from rat submandibular gland was studied using radioligand binding assays with /sup 125/I-VIP and various unlabeled competing ligands. In addition to the necessity of working within the parameters under which all radioligand binding assays should be performed, binding studies with /sup 125/I-VIP, as with other peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, are subject to additional technical difficulties. Specific problems that were addressed included radioligand proteolysis, the identification of an effective protease inhibitor (leupeptin) and the deleterious effects of a commonly used inhibitor (bacitracin); avid radioligand absorption to incubation tubes that was eliminated by precoating of the tubes with a combination of polyethylenimine and an organosilane; and a disproportionate effect of increasing membrane protein concentration on affinity estimates. Under optimized conditions, the affinity (Kd) and density Bmax values for /sup 125/I-VIP obtained from saturation assays (76 pM, 2.0 pmol/mg) were in excellent agreement. Membrane protein (or receptor) levels beyond the linear portion of the receptor concentration curve are often used in radioligand binding assays. Results from /sup 125/I-VIP binding studies at elevated receptor concentrations revealed the predicted marked decrease in receptor affinity. In addition, the rank order potency of unlabeled ligands in inhibition binding assays was changed. The optimization of the assay for measuring VIP receptors in submandibular gland membrane provides a reliable method for studying the role of receptor regulation in stimulus-secretion coupling for this neuropeptide.

  8. Cystadenocarcinoma (papillary cystadenocarcinoma) of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Harimaya, A; Somekawa, Y; Sasaki, M; Ohuchi, T

    2006-12-01

    Cystadenocarcinoma (papillary cystadenocarcinoma) of the salivary gland is a rare malignant neoplasm. Major locations of this neoplasm are the parotid gland, the sublingual gland, and minor salivary glands, while occurrence in the submandibular gland is extremely rare. As far as we know, only one report, written in the French language, has been published concerning cystadenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland, but no report is available in the English language. In this report, we describe a case of cystadenocarcinoma arising from the submandibular gland of a 54-year-old male patient. The neoplasm is a low-grade carcinoma, and pre-operative examination may not show typical characteristics of malignant neoplasms. Therefore, as was true in this case, the differential diagnosis from benign lesions is sometimes difficult. This is the first report on cystadenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland in the English language and the first to show a computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this neoplasm in the submandibular gland.

  9. Uptake and metabolism of D-glucose in isolated acinar and ductal cells from rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Cetik, Sibel; Rzajeva, Aigun; Hupkens, Emeline; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2014-07-01

    The present study deals with the possible effects of selected environmental agents upon the uptake and metabolism of d-glucose in isolated acinar and ductal cells from the rat submandibular salivary gland. In acinar cells, the uptake of d-[U-(14) C]glucose and its non-metabolised analogue 3-O-[(14) C-methyl]-d-glucose was not affected significantly by phloridzin (0.1 mM) or substitution of extracellular NaCl (115 mM) by an equimolar amount of CsCl, whilst cytochalasin B (20 μM) decreased significantly such an uptake. In ductal cells, both phloridzin and cytochalasin B decreased the uptake of d-glucose and 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Although the intracellular space was comparable in acinar and ductal cells, the catabolism of d-glucose (2.8 or 8.3 mM) was two to four times higher in ductal cells than in acinar cells. Phloridzin (0.1 mM), ouabain (1.0 mM) and cytochalasin B (20 μM) all impaired d-glucose catabolism in ductal cells. Such was also the case in ductal cells incubated in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or in media in which NaCl was substituted by CsCl. It is proposed that the ductal cells in the rat submandibular gland are equipped with several systems mediating the insulin-sensitive, cytochalasin B-sensitive and phloridzin-sensitive transport of d-glucose across the plasma membrane.

  10. Oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, M; Shimizu, M; Manabe, T; Ito, J; Ogawa, S

    1998-04-01

    We report a case of oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland, previously unrecognized benign tumor of the salivary gland. The patient was a 66-year-old Japanese woman with a left submandibular mass, measuring 11 x 7.5 x 5 cm. Microscopically, the mass was completely surrounded by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule, and was composed of an intimate admixture of mature fat cells and oncocytes. There have been no English reports of such a neoplasm in the salivary gland with the exception of one recent case report of lipoadenoma of the parotid gland without oncocytic features. We propose the diagnostic term "oncocytic lipoadenoma" for this benign tumor.

  11. Intraductal papilloma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Mirza, S; Dutt, S N; Irving, R M; Jones, E L

    2000-06-01

    Salivary tissue intraductal papillomas are rare, benign tumours that predominantly affect minor salivary glands. We report a case of an intraductal papilloma arising in the unusual site of the submandibular gland. The tumour was completely excised and recurrence is not expected. A brief review of this histologically distinct lesion is presented.

  12. Pleomorphic multicentric adenoma in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Alves, Carlos Augusto Ferreira; Ribeiro Júnior, Ophir; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; Gouveia, Marcia Maria; Guimarães Júnior, Jayro; Aburad, Arlindo; de Souza, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado

    2007-12-01

    Neoplasms of salivary glands represent a small group among the diseases involving the head and neck complex. In this group, the pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequent neoplasm, yet involves the submandibular gland in only 12.3% of cases. A patient presenting a swelling in the region of the submandibular gland was submitted to an incisional biopsy, where a fragment of the gland and one juxtaposed node were removed. Histologically they were defined as pleomorphic adenoma. Later, the patient was submitted to submandibulectomy and two other nodes were found close to the gland and removed. All specimens were histologically defined as pleomorphic adenoma. This multicentric finding is of great interest, perhaps explaining the recurrence rate of this neoplasm. The patient is in continuous follow-up and has not presented signs of recurrence.

  13. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Haruka; Tono, Tetsuya; Ibusuki, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion. PMID:26697254

  14. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Haruka; Tono, Tetsuya; Ibusuki, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion. PMID:26697254

  15. The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on regeneration in a surgical wound model of rat submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Fumitaka; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This study developed an animal model of surgically wounded submandibular glands (SMGs) and investigated the effects of collagen gel with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on tissue regeneration of surgically wounded SMGs in vivo. The animal model was produced by creating a surgical wound using a 3-mm diameter biopsy punch in SMGs. The wound was filled with collagen gel with bFGF (bFGF group) or without bFGF (control group). In the animal model of surgically wounded SMGs, salivary glands without scar tissue around the wound area were observed with smaller areas of collagen gel. Small round and spindle-shape cells invaded the collagen gel in both groups after operation day (AOD) 5, and this invasion dramatically increased at AOD 7. Host tissue completely replaced the collagen gel at AOD 21. The invading immune cells in the group treated with collagen gel with bFGF were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD49f, c-kit and AQP5 at AOD 7. Similarly, the mRNA expression of vimentin, αSMA, CD49f, keratin19 and AQP5 was also increased. This study suggests that the use of collagen gels with bFGF improves salivary gland regeneration. PMID:27025261

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thiemo; Braun, Hannes; Köle, Wolfgang; Beham, Alfred

    2002-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are generally benign, well-circumscribed soft-tissue tumors of mesenchymal origin. CD34 antigen expression is characteristic for this tumor. A rare subgroup shows malignant histological patterns with aggressive behavior. The common site of occurrence is the pleura, but various other sites, including the head and neck, have been described. We present a 56-year-old, white, female patient with a solitary fibrous tumor developing in the right submandibular salivary gland. The tumor was surgically removed, and no recurrence or metastases have occurred during the 43 months of follow-up. All solitary fibrous tumors reported in the salivary glands were benign. However, new cases should be presented and followed up carefully to monitor their biological behavior.

  17. Submandibular ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Aytürk, Semra; Güven, Mehmet; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland which is defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. Nearly 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Simultaneous submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. In this article, we report a 37-year-old female case admitted to our clinic with a complaint of swollen neck in whom ultrasonography revealed submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with an orthotopic thyroid gland.

  18. [Unusual pathology of submandibular gland--Küttner tumor].

    PubMed

    Sołtys, Justyna; Pietniczka-Załeska, Mirosława; Rowicki, Tomasz; Borowska, Karolina

    2009-09-01

    Küttner tumor (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis) is a chronic, benign lesion of salivary gland. Its clinical course resamble malignant process. Authors report two typical cases of CSS affecting submandibular gland. We inform, that we start follow up of those cases consist of--us imaging /twice a year/, indication of LE and IgG level, protein electrophoresis.

  19. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  20. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  1. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  2. Remarkable Triple Pleomorphic Adenoma Affecting both Parotid and Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, L. J.; Demaría-Martínez, G.; Chamorro Pons, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the first case reported in the literature of metachronous pleomorphic adenoma of bilateral parotid glands and submaxillary gland. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female with metachronous mixed tumors in her right parotid and submandibular glands. The patient has no history of previous radiotherapy. All three lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. The histopathologic evaluation of all three major salivary gland masses demonstrated pleomorphic adenomas, with no occult malignancy observed on serial sections. The presentation of pleomorphic adenomas in the parotids and submandibular glands probably represents three unrelated primary sites of tumor, yet the possibility of metastasis from one gland to the other cannot be excluded. PMID:26000084

  3. [Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Ge; Zhao, Ye; Wu, Lan-Yan

    2007-06-01

    Metastasizing pleomorphic adenomas without histological evidence of malignancy have rarely been reported. A case of 30-year-old woman with a mass which showed a benign pleomorphic adenoma appearanced histologically in the left submandibular gland and right supercollarbone respectively was described. Eight years ago, the patient suffered from pleomorphic adenoma of the left submandibular gland. It revealed histopathologic features consistent with the recurrent and metastasizing tumor. The clinic pathological features, possible mechanism and prevention approach of metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma were discussed based on previously reports in the literature.

  4. Intraoral approach for removal of large sialolith in submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    de Santana Santos, Thiago; da Costa Araújo, Fábio Andrey; Frota, Riedel; Caubi, Antonio Figueiredo; de Oliveira E Silva, Emanuel Dias

    2012-11-01

    Sialolithiasis is a benign pathology that occurs most frequently in the submandibular salivary gland due to its anatomic features. Depending on the size and degree of calcification, a sialolith can be visible in radiographic examinations. Patients commonly experience pain and/or edema when the ducts are obstructed. The authors report two cases of sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland after searching for the source of swelling in the submandibular region. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and tomographic examinations. Despite the considerable size of the sialoliths, treatment consisted of the removal of the calcified mass using an intraoral surgical approach. The prognosis is often good and there is generally no recurrence of the condition.

  5. Canine submandibular-gland hyaluronidase. Identification and subcellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y H; Bowness, J M

    1968-11-01

    1. Submandibular glands from four species of mammal have been shown to contain a hyaluronidase active at acid pH; glands from dog and cat had a much higher content of this enzyme than has been found in other sources. 2. Product formation from hyaluronate after 24hr. incubation was almost the same as with testicular hyaluronidase, indicating that the enzyme is an endo-poly-beta-hexosaminidase. 3. When submandibular-gland homogenates were fractionated by the scheme developed for liver by de Duve, Pressman, Gianetto, Wattiaux & Appelmans (1955), all the enzymes assayed, except cytochrome c oxidase, were found to occur partly in the soluble fraction and partly in the particulate fractions. Among the particular fractions, the highest specific activity was found in the heavy-mitochondrial fraction for cytochrome c oxidase, in the microsomal fraction for alkaline phosphatase and in the light-mitochondrial fraction for acid phosphatase, beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase and acid-active hyaluronidase. 4. Release of the enzyme activity from the sedimentable fractions occurred in 0.1% Triton X-100 or after high-speed homogenization. 5. Stimulation of dogs by pilocarpine was found to decrease the hyaluronidase content of the submandibular gland by 5% and to cause the occurrence of a corresponding amount of acid-active hyaluronidase in the submandibular saliva. 6. The results are discussed in relation to the subcellular localization of hyaluronidase. PMID:4301907

  6. [Inflammatory granulation tissue polyp of the submandibular gland].

    PubMed

    Scheiden, R

    1985-04-01

    Case report on a pedunculated granulation tissue formation in a duct of the salivary gland with consecutive obstructive sialadenitis, clinically imposing as submandibular tumour. The morphologically particular and rare form of such a repair process in a salivary gland can be explained by the continuous chronic irritation of a foreign body. The significance of such a benign lesion is primarily given by clinical differential diagnosis to a tumorous process, where the histological verification permits the exclusion of a tumour.

  7. Carcinosarcoma of the submandibular gland: an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Owaki, Shigehiro; Kitano, Hiroya; Hanada, Makoto; Asada, Yuko; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Moritani, Suzuko; Banba, Masamichi

    2003-12-01

    Malignant mixed tumors of salivary glands are classified as three types:carcinoma arising in a pleomorphic adenoma, the most common; benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma; and carcinosarcoma (true malignant mixed tumor), which is very rare [Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. (1982) 91 342]. In carcinoma, both epithelial and soft tissue elements are malignant. In the context of previous reports, we discuss a case of carcinosarcoma of the submandibular gland including the results of postmortem examination.

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland.

  9. Sebaceous adenoma of the submandibular gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zare-Mahmoodabadi, Reza; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Saghafi, Shadi; Ghazi, Narges; Mahmoudi, Parviz; Harraji, Afshin

    2009-12-01

    Sebaceous adenoma of the salivary gland is a rare tumor comprising 0.1% of all salivary gland neoplasms and less than 0.5% of salivary adenomas. Histologically, sebaceous adenomas are benign neoplasms consisting of sebaceous cells arranged in nests forming acinar and duct-like structures. Oncocytic metaplasia may also occur in some areas. We describe a case of sebaceous adenoma in the submandibular gland. Under a presumptive diagnosis of sialadenitis/sialolithiasis, the patient was administered multiple courses of antibiotics; however, these were not effective. Excisional biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of sebaceous adenoma. A 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence.

  10. Gland-preserving surgery can effectively preserve gland function without increased recurrence in treatment of benign submandibular gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Min, Ruan; Zun, Zhang; Siyi, Li; Wenjun, Yang; Jian, Sun; Chenping, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    The most widely accepted treatment for neoplasms of the submandibular gland usually involves excision of the entire gland. Our aim was to establish a gland-preserving operation for benign tumours of the submandibular gland and evaluate its efficacy. We treated 40 patients from January 2007 to December 2008 with benign submandibular gland tumours who were listed to have an operation that either preserved the gland or sacrificed it. Duration of operation, extent of injury to the nerve, postoperative function of the gland, aesthetic appearance, and recurrence were assessed. We found no significant difference in baseline characteristics among the 20 patients in each group (19 men; 21 women, mean (SD) age of 34 (33.8 ± 5.72) years. The extent of injury to the lingual nerve and submandibular branch, together with deformities of the facial contour, were significantly less in the group in which the gland was preserved. Postoperative salivary production and overall patients' satisfaction were also better in that group. There was no recurrence in either group during the follow up period of 38 months-5 years. The gland-preserving procedure has advantages over the typical approach in which the gland is sacrificed. There is less risk of injury to the nerve, less deformity of the facial contour, better preservation of function, and patients are more satisfied. The gland-preserving technique should therefore be the first choice for management of benign submandibular tumours.

  11. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Miladi, S; Mestiri, S; Kermani, W; Ziadi, S; Sriha, B; Bouzouita, K; Mokni, M

    2014-03-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), originally called mixed tumour, is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands. It is usually a benign, slow-growing and well-circumscribed tumour. However, PA may occasionally give rise to metastases that usually occur after a previous recurrence. These tumours display benign histological features in both primary tumours and metastases. Such tumours have been termed metastatic PA or metastatic mixed tumours. We report a case of metastatic PA of the submandibular gland with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes.

  12. Oncocytic Lipoadenoma of Submandibular Gland: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lipomatous tumours of salivary glands are very uncommonly diagnosed and reported tumours. Majority of these tumours present as painless masses which grow slowly over many years. On the histological grounds, they can be subclassified into “monophasic” (lipoma component only) and “biphasic” (lipoma component+epithelial component) tumours. A handful of biphasic tumours contain oncocytic component and they have been omitted from the WHO classification of salivary gland tumours so far and this has remained a matter of persistent confusion and controversy over many years. Other rare variants of monophasic tumours include fibrolipoma, sialolipoma, angiolipoma, sialadenosis and very rarely a liposarcoma can also occur in salivary glands. Pre-operative imaging can help in picking up the fatty component of the tumours and guide in accurate classification. FNAC may not be accurate in diagnosis of these tumours. We report a case of 45-year-old gentleman presenting with submandibular gland swelling for which submandibular gland excision was done. A final diagnosis of oncocytic lipoadenoma was made. We present this rare entity to add to the few cases reported to date and hence, to increase recognisation and understanding of these rare tumours, which may help in establishing a reproducible subclassification. We have discussed the pathological aspects with review of literature of this very rare entity. PMID:25954628

  13. Oncocytic lipoadenoma of submandibular gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Harshad V

    2015-03-01

    Lipomatous tumours of salivary glands are very uncommonly diagnosed and reported tumours. Majority of these tumours present as painless masses which grow slowly over many years. On the histological grounds, they can be subclassified into "monophasic" (lipoma component only) and "biphasic" (lipoma component+epithelial component) tumours. A handful of biphasic tumours contain oncocytic component and they have been omitted from the WHO classification of salivary gland tumours so far and this has remained a matter of persistent confusion and controversy over many years. Other rare variants of monophasic tumours include fibrolipoma, sialolipoma, angiolipoma, sialadenosis and very rarely a liposarcoma can also occur in salivary glands. Pre-operative imaging can help in picking up the fatty component of the tumours and guide in accurate classification. FNAC may not be accurate in diagnosis of these tumours. We report a case of 45-year-old gentleman presenting with submandibular gland swelling for which submandibular gland excision was done. A final diagnosis of oncocytic lipoadenoma was made. We present this rare entity to add to the few cases reported to date and hence, to increase recognisation and understanding of these rare tumours, which may help in establishing a reproducible subclassification. We have discussed the pathological aspects with review of literature of this very rare entity.

  14. [Mixed tumour of submandibular salivary gland. Case report].

    PubMed

    Trandafirescu, Mioara-Florentina; Miron, Ingrith; Mihăilă, Doina

    2004-01-01

    The authors present the case of 14 years male child with tumour located on submandibular salivary glands. It was proceeded the biopsy and tumour excision, the tissue fragments being further processed at paraffin, sectioned and than stained HE, PAS, Alcian-Blue, Van Gieson and Gordon-Sweet. The first biopsy performed from the latero-cervical ganglion revealed the presence of an benign tumour of salivary gland. Totally excision of the tumour emphasized the presence of a salivary gland encapsulated tumour, sized 2.5/2.5/2 cm, nodule shaped, white colored, hard consistency. Histopathologic examination revealed the existence of a proliferating encapsulated tumor, well separated from the normal adjacent tissue. The small sized tumour cells with moderate cytoplasm induce formation of glandular lumens, some of them with cystic dilatation, with mucous content. Other tumour cells form small cords or nests. The tumour stroma forms mucoid areas, some with osteoid appearance. We have presented a case of a 14 years aged child with pleomorphic adenoma with rare location within the submandibular salivary gland. The post biopsy rapid increase of the tumour imposed the totally surgical gland excision.

  15. Questionable Necessity for Removing Submandibular Gland in Neck Dissection in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Nagpure, Prakash S; Chavan, Sushil S

    2016-09-01

    To assess whether submandibular gland is involved by metastasis in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas. It was a retrospective study, where we reviewed the records of the patients who underwent neck dissections for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the oral cavity. It included 112 patients who had undergone 115 neck dissections (three patients had undergone bilateral neck dissection), either therapeutic or prophylactic. No pathologic evidence of metastasis to submandibular gland was seen in any of the case. Preservation of submandibular glands can be a good technique for reducing future complications in a patient undergoing Neck Dissection wherever feasible. Therefore, if there is no need to expose large oral cavity tumors through the submandibular triangle, or when there is no direct extension of the primary and/or regional lymph nodes into the submandibular gland, it may be safe to preserve the submandibular gland. PMID:27508132

  16. True malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Kameda, N; Katayama, K; Hiruta, N; Nakada, M; Takeda, Y

    1990-02-01

    A case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland is reported. The submandibular tumor, occurring in a 52-year-old man, started to grow rapidly after a long history without any change in size. Surgical resection was carried out and the resected tumor measured 5.5 cm with a cut surface showing mixed solid structures. Microscopically, the tumor had both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, the former consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with squamous cell differentiation and the latter consisting of osteosarcoma with chondrosarcomatous and fibrosarcomatous elements. A remnant of benign pleomorphic adenoma could also be identified. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated keratin and epithelial membrane antigen in the carcinoma cells and vimentin in all elements of the osteosarcoma. It is assumed from these clinical and histological findings that the tumor had transformed from a pre-existing benign pleomorphic adenoma.

  17. A Novel Approach to Submandibular Gland Ptosis: Creation of a Platysma Muscle and Hyoid Bone Cradle.

    PubMed

    Lukavsky, Robert; Linkov, Gary; Fundakowski, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Submandibular gland ptosis is a common impediment to obtaining superior surgical aesthetic results in neck lift surgery. Techniques for suspending the submandibular gland have been proposed, but these procedures have the drawbacks of disturbing the floor of the mouth mucosa and periosteum. We present an approach of submandibular gland suspension for the treatment of gland ptosis by employing a platysma and hyoid bone fascia cradle. Our technique was performed on cadaveric models. The platysma muscle and hyoid bone cradle for submandibular gland ptosis was created on the left side of the neck in two cadavers. A submental incision with sharp dissection was performed to raise a supraplatysmal flap. A subplatysmal plane was developed until the submandibular gland was identified. Sutures were used to pexy the platysma to the hyoid bone periosteum and deep cervical fascia, tightening the overlying muscle and in turn elevating the submandibular gland. Submandibular gland ptosis must be corrected in order to achieve exemplary aesthetic results. Our approach of creating a cradle with the platysma and hyoid bone avoids the potential complications of previously described sling procedures, while still maintaining the integrity of the gland and surrounding tissues.

  18. A Novel Approach to Submandibular Gland Ptosis: Creation of a Platysma Muscle and Hyoid Bone Cradle

    PubMed Central

    Lukavsky, Robert; Linkov, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Submandibular gland ptosis is a common impediment to obtaining superior surgical aesthetic results in neck lift surgery. Techniques for suspending the submandibular gland have been proposed, but these procedures have the drawbacks of disturbing the floor of the mouth mucosa and periosteum. We present an approach of submandibular gland suspension for the treatment of gland ptosis by employing a platysma and hyoid bone fascia cradle. Our technique was performed on cadaveric models. The platysma muscle and hyoid bone cradle for submandibular gland ptosis was created on the left side of the neck in two cadavers. A submental incision with sharp dissection was performed to raise a supraplatysmal flap. A subplatysmal plane was developed until the submandibular gland was identified. Sutures were used to pexy the platysma to the hyoid bone periosteum and deep cervical fascia, tightening the overlying muscle and in turn elevating the submandibular gland. Submandibular gland ptosis must be corrected in order to achieve exemplary aesthetic results. Our approach of creating a cradle with the platysma and hyoid bone avoids the potential complications of previously described sling procedures, while still maintaining the integrity of the gland and surrounding tissues. PMID:27462572

  19. A Novel Approach to Submandibular Gland Ptosis: Creation of a Platysma Muscle and Hyoid Bone Cradle.

    PubMed

    Lukavsky, Robert; Linkov, Gary; Fundakowski, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Submandibular gland ptosis is a common impediment to obtaining superior surgical aesthetic results in neck lift surgery. Techniques for suspending the submandibular gland have been proposed, but these procedures have the drawbacks of disturbing the floor of the mouth mucosa and periosteum. We present an approach of submandibular gland suspension for the treatment of gland ptosis by employing a platysma and hyoid bone fascia cradle. Our technique was performed on cadaveric models. The platysma muscle and hyoid bone cradle for submandibular gland ptosis was created on the left side of the neck in two cadavers. A submental incision with sharp dissection was performed to raise a supraplatysmal flap. A subplatysmal plane was developed until the submandibular gland was identified. Sutures were used to pexy the platysma to the hyoid bone periosteum and deep cervical fascia, tightening the overlying muscle and in turn elevating the submandibular gland. Submandibular gland ptosis must be corrected in order to achieve exemplary aesthetic results. Our approach of creating a cradle with the platysma and hyoid bone avoids the potential complications of previously described sling procedures, while still maintaining the integrity of the gland and surrounding tissues. PMID:27462572

  20. Carcinosarcoma of the submandibular salivary gland. Immunohistochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, I J; Huvos, A G; Lara, J; Strong, E W

    1992-04-15

    Carcinosarcomas of the salivary glands are rare lesions that generally have been associated with benign mixed tumors. The authors report a case of a submandibular gland lesion, which occurred in a 64-year-old man, that was composed of intermingled ductal type adenocarcinoma and osteogenic sarcoma with a large component of osteoclast-like giant cells. The local recurrence of the tumor was entirely sarcomatous with no epithelial component observed. There was no histologic evidence of a preexisting or coexisting pleomorphic adenoma. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed two separate populations of tumor cells, corresponding to the histologic growth pattern. The authors review the literature and discuss histogenetic implications of distinction between de novo carcinosarcoma and carcinosarcoma in association with pleomorphic adenoma.

  1. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Junn, Jacqueline C.; Sciubba, James J.; Bishop, Justin A.; Zinreich, Eva; Tang, Mei; Levine, Marshall A.; Palermo, Robert A.; Fakhry, Carole; Blanco, Ray G.; Saunders, John R.; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years) exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P = 0.006). The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation. PMID:22844290

  2. A case of bilateral submandibular gland mucoceles in a 16-month-old child.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jung; Kim, Seoung Geun; Kim, Jong Duk; Kim, Jun Hyeng; Kim, Jun Hyen; Kim, Sung Mi

    2012-06-01

    Mucoceles are common benign cystic lesions of the oral cavity that develop following extravasation or retention of mucous material from the major or minor salivary glands. Mucoceles are usually located in the lower lip (60 to 70% of cases), and the floor of the mouth is only involved in 6 to 15% of cases. Submandibular gland mucocele is extremely rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swelling at the submandibular triangle in young children. We present the rare case of a 16-month-old child who was diagnosed with bilateral submandibular gland mucocele, presenting as serial swellings in both submandibular regions. We removed the cystic mass with the submandibular and sublingual glands to prevent recurrence. PMID:22745647

  3. Hydatid cyst in the duct of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, S; Korres, S; Riga, M; Kouvidou, Ch; Balatsouras, D; Ferekidis, E

    2007-02-01

    The case of a hydatid cyst located in the duct of Wharton of a 56-year-old farmer is reported not only because of the unusual location of the disease, but also because the clinical manifestations and surgical findings of the hydatid cyst strongly resembled those of a salivary calculus in the duct of Wharton. The patient presented with a non-painful swelling of the right submandibular region. The mass, which appeared 5 years before seeking medical advice, augmented progressively during the first year after its onset and remained stable during the next 4 years. The subsequent surgical excision of the mass was uneventful and a round mass, which was palpated intraoperatively in the duct of Wharton was assumed to be a sialolith. The diagnosis for a hydatid cyst of the duct of Wharton was made by histological examination. Although salivary calculus is the most common finding in cases of obliteration of the duct of Wharton, histological examination of the surgically excised submandibular gland may reveal benign tumours. In extremely rare cases where hydatid cysts are located in the cervicofacial area, a detailed further diagnostic procedure is required in order to diagnose possible involvement of other organs.

  4. Rosai Dorfman disease of the parotid and submandibular glands: salivary gland scintigraphy and oral findings in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Güven, G; Ilgan, S; Altun, C; Gerek, M; Gunhan, O

    2007-10-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is an unusual clinical entity characterized by benign pseudolymphomatous proliferation with significant histiocytic infiltration. In the present paper, extranodal RDD of the major salivary glands causing salivary hypofunction and the results of salivary gland scintigraphy and ultrasound are presented in two siblings. Case 1: a 10-year-old boy with bilateral painless masses around the parotid and submandibular glands was referred. Ultrasound examination showed bilateral, well-defined, hypoechoic solid mass lesions within both parotid glands with minimal normal parenchyma in the upper poles. Both submandibular glands were markedly hypoechoic and heterogeneous. Mass lesions within the parotid glands appeared as cold lesions with regular contours on scintigraphy. Dynamic images showed normal uptake and normal response to secretion in the upper poles of the parotid glands, corresponding with ultrasonographically normal parenchyma. Both submandibular glands showed markedly diminished uptake and secretion. Case 2: a 9-year-old boy presented with mass lesions around the submandibular glands. Ultrasound examination showed normal parotid glands and markedly hypoechoic and heterogeneous submandibular glands. Salivary gland scintigraphy showed normal uptake and secretion of parotid glands with markedly diminished uptake and secretion in both submandibular glands. There were severe carious lesions in both patients due to salivary hypofunction. Treatments of the two patients' teeth were performed. Major salivary gland involvement of RDD is important for dentists as it may cause xerostomia and can mimic dental abscess. Functional evaluation of salivary glands with scintigraphy, besides radiological and pathological techniques, will help to explain whether salivary glands are affected or not and improve the diagnostic effectiveness.

  5. Phenylephrine protects autotransplanted rabbit submandibular gland from apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Bin; Zhang Yan; Li Yuming; Gao Yan; Gan Yehua; Wu Liling Yu Guangyan

    2008-12-05

    Submandibular gland (SMG) autotransplantation is an effective treatment for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Our previous studies have shown that phenylephrine attenuates structural injury and promotes cell proliferation in autotransplanted rabbit SMG. However, the mechanism by which phenylephrine reduces the injury has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigate the ability of phenylephrine to inhibit apoptosis in autotransplanted rabbit SMG. We observed that apoptosis occurred in the early phase of SMG transplantation and that phenylephrine treatment protected transplanted SMG from apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that phenylephrine could significantly upregulate the expression of Bcl-2, downregulate the expression of Bax, and inhibit the activation of both caspase-3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in autotransplanted SMG. Therefore, the cytoprotective effects of phenylephrine on autotransplanted SMG may be a novel clinical strategy for autotransplanted SMG protection during the early postoperative stage of transplantation.

  6. Giant mitochondria in a pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Erlandson, R A

    1983-01-01

    A benign pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland was examined by electron microscopy. In some areas, the epithelial cells comprising the tumor formed ductlike structures surrounding a lumen filled with membrane vesicles. The cells actually abutting the lumens had giant mitochondria measuring up to 8 micrometers in diameter; such enlarged organelles were absent from immediately subjacent cells. The giant mitochondria exhibited a variety of cristal arrangements, the most common being a quasireticulate one. They often contained expanded cristae that enclosed a number of helical filaments. Bundles of 14-nm tubules with faintly discernible axial periodicity were frequently present in the matrix compartment, as were amorphous dense inclusions. The basis for the occurrence of giant mitochondria only in duct cells may reside in microenvironmental factors rather than in altered nuclear or mitochondrial genomes.

  7. Submandibular gland tumors. Adverse histologic factors and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Weber, R S; Byers, R M; Petit, B; Wolf, P; Ang, K; Luna, M

    1990-09-01

    We reviewed our 41-year experience with tumors of the submandibular gland to determine what factors influence outcome and their implications for treatment. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (21), while among malignant tumors the adenoid cystic variety (37) predominated. For the 86 patients who had malignant tumors, the 2- and 5-year survivals by the life table method were 82% and 69%, respectively. For patients with malignant tumors, histology, size, perineural invasion, and prior treatment did not affect overall survival. Factors adversely affecting outcome were extraglandular soft-tissue extension and lymph node metastasis. Local-regional control was enhanced in patients with soft-tissue extension if they were treated by surgery followed by radiotherapy rather than by surgery alone.

  8. [Transcutaneous excision of the submandibular and sublingual glands: notes on anatomy and surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Rosario; Frascio, Marco; Stabilini, Cesare; Ricci, Barbara; Mandolfino, Francesca; Sticchi, Camilla; Gianetta, Ezio

    2007-01-01

    Removal of the submandibular and sublingual glands requires in-depth knowledge of the anatomy and scrupulous technique for the purposes of limiting the functional and aesthetic damage, which is unjustifiable above all in the treatment of benign lesions (sialodenitis, lithiasis). After presenting the main aspects of the surgical anatomy of the submandibular space, the operative technique for its dissection with removal of the submandibular gland and excision of the sublingual gland is described. The complexity of the anatomical structures that may be involved in submandibular and sublingual gland lesions is the cause of unsatisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes in some cases. The most feared complications are lesions to nerve formations, due both to the resulting deficits and the possible legal implications.

  9. Schwannomatosis presenting as pancreatic and submandibular gland schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Sedano-Tous, María José

    2013-12-01

    Schwannomatosis is a well-established third form of neurofibromatosis, characterized by the presence of multiple non-vestibular, non-intradermal schwannomas, often associated with chronic pain. Herein, we report a 41-year-old man with a history of paternal neurofibromatosis 1, who presented with partially cystic tumors in the pancreas and in the right submandibular gland. Besides, he complained of neuropathic pain in the right inguinal and suprapubic area. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple intradural-extramedullary tumors at the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal canal, suggestive of schwannomas. The vestibular nerves were not involved. Pathological examination of the glandular tumors disclosed benign schwannomas. These tumors had substantial myxoid stroma and prominent cystic change, and showed a mosaic pattern of loss of INI1/SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Later, the patient developed three nodules in the right lung which were interpreted as schwannomas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of schwannomatosis presenting as pancreatic and salivary gland schwannomas.

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for differential diagnosis of submandibular gland disease.

    PubMed

    Strieth, Sebastian; Siedek, Vanessa; Rytvina, Margarita; Gürkov, Robert; Berghaus, Alexander; Clevert, Dirk-André

    2014-01-01

    Intensity-time gradients (ITGs) of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be used for non-invasive monitoring of gland-preserving treatment effects in sialolithiasis-related chronic sialadenitis as well as for imaging vascularization in tumors. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate feasibility to distinguish different entities of submandibular gland disease including inflammatory alterations of the submandibular gland as well as benign and malignant tumors. In this prospective clinical study, ITGs in 30 patients with sialolithiasis-related chronic sialadenitis or an unilateral submandibular mass and 18 disease-free submandibular gland controls were quantitatively analyzed by CEUS using the contrast agent SonoVue. In addition, clinical complaints according to visual analog scales (VAS) were documented. VAS data documented significantly less complaints only in benign tumors compared with the other pathologies of the submandibular gland. In parallel, CEUS-derived ITGs revealed significantly reduced ITGs only in benign tumors (n = 5) compared to the controls (n = 18). Despite of comparably reduced wash-in velocities in malignant lesions (n = 3) statistical significance was not reached. Chronic sialadenitis (n = 18) and its sclerosing variant (Küttner tumor, n = 4) revealed comparable ITGs as controls. Tumors of the submandibular gland present with reduced functional microcirculatory networks comparing with healthy gland controls and chronically inflamed submandibular glands. Thus, dynamic CEUS-derived ITGs in combination with conventional clinical measures--for example VAS--appear as a safe and promising strategy for non-invasive diagnostic workup of submandibular lesions and warrant further validation in a larger set of patients.

  11. Oncocytoma of the Submandibular Gland: Diagnosis and Treatment Based on Clinicopathology

    PubMed Central

    Hentzelman, Joshua I.; Walker, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Submandibular oncocytomas are rare benign salivary gland neoplasms. They are typically found in Caucasian patients aged 50–70 years with no gender preference. Due to the overlapping histological and clinical features of head and neck tumors, they are often misdiagnosed. Methods. We report a case of unilateral submandibular gland oncocytoma in a 63-year-old Caucasian man. Results. The patient underwent unilateral submandibular gland resection and histopathologic analysis of the tumor specimen. On follow-up at 2 weeks and 1 year, no recurrence was identified. Conclusion. Submandibular oncocytomas are best diagnosed with preoperative FNA and CT imaging and have distinctive findings on cytology and histology. CT followed by fine-needle aspiration cytology would be the preferred diagnostic modalities. Due to its low rate of malignant transformation and recurrence, the best treatment is local resection with follow-up as necessary. PMID:27722003

  12. [Küttner's tumor (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis) - a rare cause of submandibular gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Gierek, Tatiana; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Paluch, Jarosław; Swiderek, Monika; Zielińska-Pająk, Ewa; Pająk, Jacek; Klimczak-Gołąb, Lucyna; Smółka, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Küttner's tumor is a benign tumour-like lesion of the salivary glands. Predominantly affects the submandibular gland. It is also known as chronic sclerosing sialoadenitis or cirrhosis of submandibular gland. This is an underrecognized entity in the surgical pathology and cytology literature. Most patients experience recurrent pain, discharge and swelling that is often associated with eating, but others only have asymptomatic hard swelling of the submandibular gland. Histologic examination of the excised submandibular glands revealed preserved lobular architecture, thickening of interlobular septa by sclerotic tissue, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, preservation of ducts with periductal fibrosis, and variable loss of acini. The morphologic appearance, in conjunction with the elevated IgG4 expression, distinguishes chronic sclerosing sialadenitis from other inflammatory diseases of the salivary glands. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis belongs to the spectrum of IgG4-related diseases. We present a case of Küttner's tumor in a 62-year-old female treated by surgery. Although this disease was first described by Küttner in 1896, this clinical entity which masquerades as carcinoma is underdiagnosed by many surgeons. There is not enough evidence to support any diagnostic means that could help in the differential diagnosis of this benign condition. Given the high rate of malignancy in firm, painless lesions of the submandibular gland, surgical excision is often advocated and Küttner's tumor is usually diagnosed by the histopathologist.

  13. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.

  14. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging. PMID:26884889

  15. Intraoral approach for the treatment of submandibular salivary gland mixed tumors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Yang, Yoon Soo

    2008-05-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma represents a most common benign neoplasm of major salivary glands. Most occurrences of this benign tumor in the submandibular gland have been treated surgically without difficulty via transcervical approach. However, a few clinical problems in the transcervical approach have been mentioned, such as nerve injury or aesthetic scaring. In this study, we introduced the intraoral approach for the removal of the submandibular mixed tumor. In total, 12 cases of pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland were treated via intraoral approach. The surgical technique and morbidity associated with this approach were reviewed. During surgery the tumor and submandibular gland are easily dissected from surrounding tissue and removed through intraoral incision. Early postoperative morbidity developed, such as a temporary paresis of lingual nerve and a temporary limitation of tongue movement, but recovered within a short-term period. No late complaints appeared, such as neurological discomforts. All patients were followed up for the recurrence of the tumor from 20 months to 10 years. One patient showed a tumor recurrence at the early stage of this approach. We propose that the benign mixed tumor of the submandibular gland could be removed easily via intraoral route without an external scar or nerve injury.

  16. Oncocytic variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of submandibular gland: an unusual clinical and morphological entity.

    PubMed

    Krishnanand, Geetha; Kaur, Manpreet; Rao, Ravikala V; Monappa, Vidya

    2007-07-01

    In this case report we describe a rare tumor--Oncocytic variant of Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland with a review of the literature. Oncocytic metaplasia in salivary glands is a benign change that is associated with increasing age and also seen in a few salivary gland neoplasms', which include oncocytoma, Warthin's tumor, and the rare, oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytic differentiation in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is uncommon. Only twelve well-documented cases of oncocytic MEC have been reported previously all of which occurred in the parotid gland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma involving the submandibular salivary gland. The recognition of this entity is important, since most of the other primary oncocytic lesions of the salivary gland are benign.

  17. Diseases of the submandibular gland as demonstrated using high resolution ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Alyas, F; Lewis, K; Williams, M; Moody, A B; Wong, K T; Ahuja, A T; Howlett, D C

    2005-04-01

    In this review the high resolution ultrasound appearances of the normal anatomy and pathology involving the submandibular gland are demonstrated. The submandibular gland is affected by a number of disease processes that may be difficult to distinguish clinically. Its superficial location makes it ideal for ultrasound evaluation and a useful adjunct to clinical examination. In the assessment of submandibular pathology ultrasound allows intraglandular and extraglandular lesions to be localized and differentiated. These lesions can be further characterized as being benign or malignant and the extent of any extraglandular extension determined. Ultrasound is the first-line investigation in the assessment of sialolithiasis due to its high specificity and sensitivity. In severe infective sialadenitis ultrasound can confirm the presence and guide drainage of abscesses. Ultrasound also has an important role in the assessment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as sarcoidosis and Sjogren's syndrome.

  18. PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 expressions in submandibular salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Alves, F A; Pires, F R; De Almeida, O P; Lopes, M A; Kowalski, L P

    2004-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are uncommon with a broad heterogeneity. The most common benign tumour is the pleomorphic adenoma, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma predominate among the malignancies. Most salivary gland tumours occur in the parotid, and consequently clinical and biological data are normally derived from this site. This work describes the expressions of PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 in 15 pleomorphic adenomas, 15 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 15 adenoid cystic carcinomas of the submandibular gland. Our results showed that all pleomorphic adenomas were negative for p53 and Ki-67 with 66.6% being positive for PCNA. Conversely, p53 was positive in 53% of the mucoepidermoid carcinomas and in 20% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas. Ki-67 was expressed in 47.7% of the mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 40% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas. All malignant tumours were positive for PCNA. These results indicate that the proliferative rate analysed with PCNA and Ki-67 and the expression of p53 in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland were similar to those described in the parotid and minor salivary glands. However, mucoepidermoid carcinomas showed higher expression of these markers than those of other salivary glands. This work is the first describing the expression of these immunohistochemical markers exclusively in submandibular salivary gland tumours.

  19. Observations on two cases of apparent submandibular gland cysts in HIV positive patients: MR and CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesman, R.I.; Som, P.M.; Mester, J.; Silvers, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    To present two cases of probable lymphoepithelial cysts of the submandibular glands in patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and who also had lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands. Computed tomography and MRI of two HIV positive patients with lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands and cysts in tile submandibular glands were correlated with the histories and the possible presence of other known causes of submandibular gland multiple cysts. Because of the present treatment philosophy regarding HIV positive patients with major salivary gland cysts, surgical resection of these glands was not performed. All other known causes of multiple submandibular gland cysts were excluded by either history or laboratory data. Computed tomography and MRI on two patients with known HIV infection and bilateral parotid lymphoepithelial cysts are presented. Both patients also had bilateral multiple submandibular gland cysts and no evidence of obstructive glandular diseases autoimmune disease, or other organ system cysts. These cases of presumed submandibular gland lymphoepithelial cysts are rare in the literature. They are presented in the hope that other radiologists will be stimulated to document the occurrence of this entity. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Characterization of Long-Term Cultured Murine Submandibular Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human and rat salivary gland cell lines derived from tumors or genetic modification are currently available for research. Here, we attempted to culture and characterize long-term cultured cells spontaneously derived from wild type murine submandibular glands (SGs). Methods SGs were removed from 3-week-old C57B/6J female mice and dissociated by collagenase type 1 and hyaluronidase digestion. Isolated SG epithelial cells were cultured in low calcium, serum-free growth media in the presence of cholera toxin (CT) during early passages. Single-cell colonies were isolated by limiting dilution culture after 25 passages. Early- and late-stage cell cultures were characterized for keratin 14, keratin 18, α-smooth muscle actin, and p63 by immunostaining and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results SG epithelial cells cultured in optimized media maintained their proliferative ability and morphology for over 80 passages. Long-term cultured cells expressed keratin 14, keratin 18, and p63, indicative of an epithelial phenotype. Conclusions Epithelial cells originating from wild type murine SGs could be cultured for longer periods of time and remain phenotypically similar to ductal basal epithelium. PMID:26800086

  1. [STUDYING OF MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLANDS AFTER GASTRIC RESECTION IN EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Usenko, A Yu; Kosenko, K; Savitskaya, I M

    2016-03-01

    The impact of gastric resection on the submandibular salivary gland (SSG) state, using histological and histochemical methods of investigation in experiment, was studied up. A relative mass of a SSG after gastric resection conduction have had reduced, and the accompanying changes in stroma were revealed with the gland's secretion enhancement. Essential dystrophic changes in the SSG parenchyma and stroma after gastric resection conduction may cause a pronounced disorders of their function. PMID:27514096

  2. The diagnostic dilemma of a parasympathetic schwannoma in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Srinivasan, B; Sharma, S

    2015-03-01

    Schwannomas are benign soft tissue tumours that arise from nerve sheath cells. They are rare in the salivary glands and are thought to arise from the parasympathetic nerves. We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with a painless right submandibular mass that appeared to resemble a pleomorphic adenoma on ultrasonography and, on this basis, proceeded to surgical excision of the gland. We review the relevant literature and highlight the diagnostic pitfalls.

  3. Top-down HPLC-ESI-MS characterization of rat gliadoralin A, a new member of the family of rat submandibular gland glutamine-rich proteins and potential substrate of transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Iavarone, Federica; Pirolli, Davide; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Vitali, Alberto; Faa, Gavino; Cordaro, Massimo; Messana, Irene; Ekström, Jörgen; Castagnola, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    During HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of rat submandibular saliva secreted under isoprenaline stimulation, a protein with an experimental [M+H](1+) = 10,544.24 m/z was detected (17.5 ± 0.7 min). The MS/MS fragmentation pattern, manually investigated, allowed establishing an internal sequence in agreement with a DNA-derived sequence of an unknown rat protein coded D3Z9M3 (Swiss-Prot). To match the experimental MS/MS fragmentation pattern and protein mass with theoretical data, the removal from the N terminus of the signal peptide and from the C terminus of three amino acid (a.a.) residues (Arg-Ala-Val) and the cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine in pyroglutamic had to be supposed, resulting in a mature protein of 90 a.a. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of the trypsin digest ensured 100% sequence coverage. For the high glutamine content (34/90 = 37.8%) we propose to name this protein rat gliadoralin A 1-90. Low amounts of five different isoforms were sporadically detected, which did not significantly change their relative amounts after stimulation. Gliadoralin A is substrate for transglutaminase-2, having Lys 60 and different Gln residues as major determinants for enzyme recognition. In silico investigation of superior structures evidenced that a small part of the protein adopts an α-helical fold, whereas large segments are unfolded, suggesting an unordered conformation.

  4. Benign neurilemmoma (schwannoma) masquerading as a pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Mair, S; Leiman, G

    1989-01-01

    A case of solitary benign neurilemmoma (schwannoma) arising in the submandibular region is presented. The tumor was mistaken clinically for an enlarged submandibular salivary gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology made an erroneous diagnosis of a pleomorphic adenoma, predominantly stromal in composition. Histology of the resection specimen resulted in the correct diagnosis of a benign schwannoma. Review of the needle aspirate demonstrated cytologic features that should enable both the correct diagnosis of this neoplasm and its distinction from pleomorphic adenoma, which it mimicked in this location.

  5. Transcervical extirpation of the submandibular gland: the University of Marburg experience.

    PubMed

    Papaspyrou, Giorgos; Werner, Jochen A; Sesterhenn, Andreas M

    2014-07-01

    Surgical excision of the submandibular gland is the treatment of choice for lesions affecting this gland. The data of 87 patients, who underwent a transcervical extirpation of the submandibular gland as a single operation over the past 10 years at a single institution in Germany, were available for analysis. Sialolithiasis (73.5%) was the most common reason leading to excision, followed by benign (18.5%) and malignant tumors (8%). Complications included temporary palsies of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (5.7%), the lingual nerve (5.7%), and the hypoglossal nerve (1.1%), and wound infections in the form of hematoma (3.4%) and seroma (1.1%).

  6. Oncocytic carcinoma of the submandibular gland: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nakada, M; Nishizaki, K; Akagi, H; Masuda, Y; Yoshino, T

    1998-05-01

    Oncocytes are characterized by a remarkable number of mitochondria as demonstrated by electron microscopy. Oncocytomas are very rare tumors that are usually benign and typically occur in the parotid gland. Oncocytic carcinomas are exceedingly rare in the salivary glands. We describe a 69-year-old Japanese man with an oncocytic carcinoma of the submandibular gland. We reviewed 38 articles describing oncocytic carcinoma of the head and neck that included clinicopathologic features. Oncocytic carcinomas appear to arise from benign oncocytomas, or may also arise de novo. In oncocytic carcinoma of the head and neck, the presence of distant, rather than local lymph node, metastasis is the most important prognostic indicator.

  7. Ipsilateral removal of sublingual gland after excision of submandibular gland for benign disease: 10-year prospective study and comprehensive review 1978-2008.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Barry; Mather, Craig I

    2011-04-01

    The removal of the submandibular salivary gland for non-neoplastic disease is a common procedure that has well documented risks and postoperative complications. Persistent symptoms of pain and swelling in the floor of the mouth that can occur after excision of the submandibular gland may require removal of the sublingual gland, but a causative association between the two has not, to our knowledge, been comprehensively established. We prospectively studied 77 patients who had had excision of the submandibular gland for benign disease, six of whom (8%) returned to theatre for ipsilateral sublingual sialadenectomy within a 5-year period after the initial operation (mean 24 months). These findings suggest that the association is under-reported, and may need to be considered during the consent process for excision of the submandibular salivary gland.

  8. Gland-preserving robotic surgery for benign submandibular gland tumours: a comparison between robotic and open techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Benign tumours of the submandibular gland are usually treated surgically. Gland-preserving techniques, which can be used to completely remove the tumour, preserve the function of the gland and reduce complications, but conventional open operations result in obvious scars on the neck. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of gland-preserving robotic surgery using a hairline approach. We compared robotic with open techniques for gland-preserving operations to remove benign tumours of the submandibular gland. Patients were matched for age and sex (4 in each group). All patients in the robotic surgery group had their tumours removed successfully through hairline approaches. No patient had operative complications or postoperative functional nerve deficit, and an aesthetically pleasing outcome was achieved by concealing the scars within the hairline. Robotic operations took longer than open operations. No recurrence was noted during follow-up. Gland-preserving robotic surgery is a feasible alternative to conventional techniques and has potential advantages for safety and aesthetic outcome.

  9. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  10. Regulation of phospholipase D by muscarinic receptors in rat submandibular ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Pochet, Stéphanie; Métioui, Mourad; Grosfils, Katrina; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio; Marino, Aida; Dehaye, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) in rat submandibular gland (RSMG) ductal cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was inhibited by chelation of extracellular calcium with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). PLD could also be activated by epinephrine and AlF(4)(-), two polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PPI-PLC) activators, and by the phorbol ester o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) which activates protein kinase C (PKC). Ionomycin and thapsigargin only slightly increased PLD activity. Ortho-vanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, also stimulated PLD activity. Both carbachol and o-vanadate increased the formation of inositol phosphates and the tyrosine phosphorylation of at least two proteins (55-60 and 120 kDa). Calphostin C (a PKC inhibitor), U73122 (a PPI-PLC inhibitor) and genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) blocked the activation of PLD, of PLC and the phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in response to carbachol and vanadate. Taken together, these results suggest that rat submandibular gland ductal cells express a calcium-dependent PLD activity. This enzyme is regulated by carbachol via a PLC-PKC-tyrosine kinase pathway. PMID:12401525

  11. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands.

  12. Fine structure of the submandibular salivary gland of the venomous short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda Say (Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Carson, K A; Rose, R K

    1993-01-01

    Adult male short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, (Insectivora: Soricidae) were trapped in Virginia and Pennsylvania, anesthetized, and perfused via the left ventricle of the heart with fixative. The submandibular glands were dissected free and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. The lobular, compound tubuloacinar glands had secretory endpieces consisting of seromucous acini and serous tubules connected to intercalated ducts, granular ducts, striated ducts, and excretory ducts. The general cytology of the submandibular gland of Blarina shared morphological characters with individuals in several other mammalian orders and yet differed in many ways from another Insectivore, the European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus. PMID:8398545

  13. Giant secretory granules in the ducts of the parotid and submandibular glands of the slow loris.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Pinkstaff, C A; Nagato, T; Phillips, C J

    1996-06-01

    The parotid and submandibular glands of a slow loris, a rare Southeast Asian primate, were obtained after the head had been perfused by fixative for a study of the brain. These tissues were processed by conventional means for electron microscopy. Glands also were obtained at autopsy from 2 other lorises, fixed by immersion in formalin, and subjected to a battery of tests for glycoconjugates. In the parotid gland, a short segment of the proximal striated duct lacks both basal striations and any sign of secretory activity. The major portion of the striated duct consists of tall cells that contain a spectrum of secretory granules, some larger than the nuclei (many granules are > 9 mum in diameter). These granules, which are delimited by a single membrane, are capable of chain exocytosis. Many of the giant granules have bundles of cytofilaments (4.5-6.5 nm) in apparent association with their surface. Occasional cells contain numerous small granules. Duct cells with or without granules lack basal striations. The granules contain neutral glycoconjugates but no acidic glycoconjugates. Some, but not all, interlobular excretory ducts also have secretory granules that run the gamut from tiny to giant. Exactly the same situation occurs in the submandibular gland. Unlike other primates, which may have duct cells that contain only a few tiny granules in their apices, the cells in both the striated and excretory ducts in the slow loris appear to be specialized for secretion rather than for transport. The biofunction of the giant granules is unknown.

  14. A case of Kuttner tumor of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mitsuo; Fujita, Yuichi; Murata, Tetsuya; Majima, Yuichi

    2004-09-01

    Kuttner tumor (known as chronic sclerosing sialadenitis) is a totally benign inflammatory lesion and to date there has been no report of malignancy. However, because of its clinical features, the clinical diagnosis is often that of a salivary gland neoplasm. We report a case of Kuttner tumor and discuss its differential diagnosis, especially the pathological diagnosis. Kuttner tumor may be mainly due to T lymphocyte immune reaction and of itself is a benign lesion, but it may provide a state in which a malignant lesion arises.

  15. Indium-111 leukocyte accumulation in submandibular gland saliva as a cause for false-positive gut uptake in children

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, S.L.; Williamson, M.R.; Seibert, J.J.; Boyd, C.M.; Latture, T.

    1987-11-01

    Unexplained false-positive accumulation of In-111 leukocyte in the gastrointestinal tract has been reported previously. In a pediatric population, uptake in the submandibular gland was noted in 19 of 42 children. This is believed to be a normal finding in children that is not seen in adults. In some of these 19 children, unexplained gastrointestinal activity was also noted. Saliva from a patient with false-positive gastrointestinal uptake and positive submandibular activity was positive for In-111. One suggested cause of unexplained gut activity may be secondary to swallowed activity in the saliva from the normal submandibular activity in children.

  16. Recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland treated by rAd-p53 combined with radiotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiangxun; Wang, Hongyan; Shi, Qingming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the case of a patient with recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland without progression for five years following treatment. A 71-year-old male patient presented to hospital with a painless swelling in the region of the right submandibular gland, and received a radical neck dissection on January 29, 2008. A nodule of ~7×4×2 cm was identified at the site of the right submandibular gland, and the pathological results revealed a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma of the right submandibular gland with no lymph node metastasis. However, this case developed local recurrence with wide-spread metastasis in the lungs. Between April and October 2008, the patient underwent several treatment regimens and demonstrated no improvement following 6 cycles of chemotherapy. From then on, the patient was treated with recombinant adenoviral-p53 (rAd-p53) combined with radiotherapy using a 6 millivolt medical linear accelerator. The foci were relieved and the cancer demonstrated no signs of progression during the 5-year follow-up. rAd-p53 combined with radiotherapy was useful for treating myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland. PMID:27446369

  17. Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary gland: a 15-year review.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, I G; Malata, C M; McLean, N R; Kelly, C G

    1998-04-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary gland are rare, difficult to distinguish clinically from benign disease and often only diagnosed after initial excision of the enlarged gland. In this study of 70 patients (46 male, 24 female) with a mean age of 64 years (range 17-94), and an average duration of symptoms of 3 months, a painless submandibular swelling was the most common presentation. Of the 69 primary tumours, the most frequent histological types were adenoid cystic carcinomas (26 patients, 37%) and carcinoma ex-PSA (18 patients, 26%). One tumour was metastatic in origin, arising from a parotid primary. A total of 65 patients were treated by primary excision of the gland while five patients who presented with advanced disease were treated by radiotherapy alone. Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy was utilised in 53 (75%) of patients. After a mean follow-up of 5 years, 32 (46%) of patients are still alive. Metastatic disease accounted for 21 deaths (30%). The clinical stage at presentation was the most significant factor predicting survival.

  18. Effect of Phenylephrine Pretreatment on the Expressions of Aquaporin 5 and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase in Irradiated Submandibular Gland.

    PubMed

    Han, Lichi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fuyin; Liu, Ke Jian; Xiang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Radiotherapy for malignant tumors of the head and neck commonly leads to radiation-induced sialadenitis as a result of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We demonstrated previously that phenylephrine could protect the irradiated submandibular gland against apoptosis, although the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of phenylephrine pretreatment on the expressions of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) that were presumed to have a role in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Rats pretreated with phenylephrine (5 mg/kg) were locally irradiated (20 Gy) in the head and neck region. The submandibular glands were removed on day 7 after irradiation. The expression of AQP5 and activation of JNK were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The localization of AQP5 at the apical and lateral plasma membrane of acinar cells was significantly reduced by irradiation, but markedly enhanced with phenylephrine pretreatment. The protein expression of AQP5 was decreased by 84.91% in irradiated glands, whereas it was fully recovered to the control level in phenylephrine-pretreated glands. Moreover, many acinar, ductal and granular convoluted tubular cells in the irradiated glands exhibited intense immunoreactivity for p-JNK, while in the phenylephrine-pretreated irradiated glands, only a few acinar cells exhibited very faint immunoreactivity for p-JNK. The protein expression level of p-JNK was increased by 41.65% in the irradiated alone glands, but was significantly decreased in the phenylephrine-pretreated irradiated glands. These results suggest that the protective mechanism of phenylephrine might be related to the improved expression of AQP5 and decreased activation of JNK. Pretreatment with phenylephrine in patients undergoing radiotherapy may provide a helpful strategy for suppression of radiation-induced sialadenitis.

  19. Pheohyphomycosis in Renal Transplant Recipient Presenting as a Rare Case of Submandibular Salivary Gland Swelling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmi D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2016-08-01

    Renal transplant patients are at high risk of developing various infections causing morbidity and mortality. Invasive fungal infection has been recognized as a significant complication of organ transplantation. The major fungal infections in these patients are due to candida, aspergillus and mucormycosis. However, infection because of infrequently encountered fungi like hyaline molds, dematiaceous filamentous fungi and zygomycetes are increasing in immunocompromised hosts. Dematiaceous fungi are recognized pathogens in organ transplant recipients with skin and soft tissue infection. We report the case of a 37-year-old man, a renal transplant recipient who developed an asymptomatic dematiaceous fungal infection in submandibular salivary gland. He recovered after excision and antifungal therapy. PMID:27656452

  20. Temporary accumulation of glycogen in the epithelial cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Sachiko; Koyama, Noriko; Kashimata, Masanori; Hayashi, Haruki; Kikuta, Akio

    2007-09-01

    Temporary accumulation of glycogen in the epithelial cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland was examined under light microscopic histochemistry and electron microscopy. To avoid loss of water-soluble glycogen during histological tissue preparation, fixation with ethanol and embedding in hydrophilic glycol methacrylate resin was used for light microscopy, and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution for electron microscopy. Glycogen was detected on periodic acid-Schiff stain, periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate reaction, and the digestion test with alpha-amylase. On embryonic day 14, glycogen began to accumulate in the proximal portions of the developing epithelial cords. On embryonic day 17, marked glycogen particles were seen at the basal portion of the ductal epithelial cells and an abrupt increase of glycogen accumulation occurred in the secretory cells in the terminal bulbs. Ultrastructural observation indicated large clumps of glycogen particles localized in the basal portion of the terminal bulb cells. The initiation of glycogen accumulation preceded the formation of lumens in the ducts and terminal bulbs. Furthermore, proliferation analysis by bromodeoxyuridine labeling showed that this glycogen accumulation followed the cessation of the epithelial cell proliferation. Postnatally, glycogen accumulation in the terminal bulbs became gradually inconspicuous and completely disappeared by postnatal day 3, but that in the ducts was retained until around postnatal day 12. Temporary glycogen accumulation after the cell proliferation and before/during the lumen formation and secretory granule formation suggests significant involvement of the carbohydrate metabolism in the organogenesis of the submandibular gland. PMID:17867343

  1. Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma Arising in the Submandibular Gland: A Rare Benign Entity that Mimics More Common Salivary Gland Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ryan P; Melamed, Jonathan; Yee-Chang, Melissa; Marcus, Sonya; Givi, Babak; Zamuco, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    Microcystic/reticular schwannoma is a recently described variant of schwannoma with a predilection for the gastrointestinal tract, rarely involving the head/neck region. This is the first reported case involving the submandibular gland. We present a case in a 34 year old man with 4.5 cm submandibular mass. Fine needle aspiration suggested a spindle cell lesion. Frozen section evaluation raised the possibility of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Resection showed a well circumscribed mass with a mucoid appearance. Histologic findings include a lobular architecture with fibrous septa, a lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate, and scattered lymphoid aggregates at the periphery. There are two distinct histologic patterns with solid areas of spindle cells and areas of spindle/ovoid cells with a microcystic pattern in a myxoid background. The tumor has a pushing border, with extension into adipose and adjacent parenchyma, without cytologic atypia or necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains are positive for S-100 and CD34, and negative for calponin, mammoglobin, ALK1, p63, ER, GFAP, SMA, desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and C-Kit. Mucicarmine stain is negative. Recognition of this benign unusual variant of schwannoma is paramount for appropriate conservative treatment due to the morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with primary salivary gland carcinomas.

  2. Expression and cellular localizaion of melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in rat and human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Shimozuma, Masashi; Tokuyama, Reiko; Tatehara, Seiko; Umeki, Hirochika; Ide, Shinji; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2011-04-01

    Melatonin, discovered in 1958, is secreted by the pineal gland primarily during the night. Its secretion is controlled by the light/dark cycle of the environment. Melatonin is also produced in and secreted by various extrapineal organs, tissues and cells and its synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is expressed in various extrapineal organs, tissues and cells. Recently, it was reported that melatonin is present in saliva, but it is not certain where melatonin was synthesized and whether it was secreted into saliva and what function it may have in saliva. The present study was performed to investigate where melatonin was synthesized and whether it was secreted by salivary glands into saliva. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of AANAT in rat parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands and the expression of both AANAT and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in human submandibular glands. We evaluated the expression of AANAT and HIOMT mRNA in rat submandibular glands by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. As a result, we observed expression of AANAT in epithelial cells of striated ducts in rat salivary glands and expression of AANAT, HIOMT and melatonin in epithelial cells of striated ducts in human submandibular glands. In addition, we also confirmed the expression of the most potent melatonin receptor, melatonin 1a receptor, in rat buccal mucosa. Our findings suggest that melatonin might be produced and secreted by salivary glands directly into saliva and that it might play some physiological role in the oral cavity.

  3. Partial sialoadenectomy for the treatment of benign tumours in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Ge, N; Peng, X; Zhang, L; Cai, Z-G; Guo, C-B; Yu, G-Y

    2016-06-01

    The conventional treatment for benign tumours arising in the submandibular gland (SMG) has always involved whole gland excision with the tumour. In light of developments in parotid gland functional surgery, this prospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of partial sialoadenectomy (PS) for benign tumours in comparison with conventional total sialoadenectomy (TS). Thirty-one consecutive patients with a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumour in the SMG were included in the study from December 2008 to December 2010. Eleven patients were treated with PS and 20 patients underwent conventional TS. Salivary gland function and surgery-related complications were assessed. No difference in resting saliva flow was found between the two groups before the operation, while this was significantly higher in the PS group than in the TS group at 1 year after surgery (P=0.009). With regard to complications, there was less deformity in facial appearance in the PS group. There was no recurrence in any of the 31 patients during the follow-up period (range 41-82 months). It is believed that this modification to SMG surgery is consistent with the idea of functional and minimal invasive salivary gland surgery. This technique represents a good choice for the management of benign tumours of the SMG for appropriately selected cases.

  4. Tmem16A encodes the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Victor G; Catalán, Marcelo A; Brown, David A; Putzier, Ilva; Hartzell, H Criss; Marmorstein, Alan D; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Rock, Jason R; Harfe, Brian D; Melvin, James E

    2010-04-23

    Activation of an apical Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channel (CaCC) is the rate-limiting step for fluid secretion in many exocrine tissues. Here, we compared the properties of native CaCC in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells to the Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents generated by Tmem16A and Best2, members from two distinct families of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels found in salivary glands. Heterologous expression of Tmem16A and Best2 transcripts in HEK293 cells produced Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents with time and voltage dependence and inhibitor sensitivity that resembled the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current found in native salivary acinar cells. Best2(-/-) and Tmem16A(-/-) mice were used to further characterize the role of these channels in the exocrine salivary gland. The amplitude and the biophysical footprint of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in submandibular gland acinar cells from Best2-deficient mice were the same as in wild type cells. Consistent with this observation, the fluid secretion rate in Best2 null mice was comparable with that in wild type mice. In contrast, submandibular gland acinar cells from Tmem16A(-/-) mice lacked a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current and a Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonist failed to stimulate Cl(-) efflux, requirements for fluid secretion. Furthermore, saliva secretion was abolished by the CaCC inhibitor niflumic acid in wild type and Best2(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate that both Tmem16A and Best2 generate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in vitro with similar properties to those expressed in native cells, yet only Tmem16A appears to be a critical component of the acinar Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel complex that is essential for saliva production by the submandibular gland.

  5. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [corrected] expression and enhances lymphocyte adherence to a human submandibular gland cell line.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Rome, Danny E; Seye, Cheikh I; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes salivary and lacrimal gland tissue destruction resulting in impaired secretory function. Although lymphocytic infiltration of salivary epithelium is associated with SS, the mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. Our previous studies have shown that the G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is up-regulated in response to damage or stress of salivary gland epithelium, and in salivary glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of SS-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. Additionally, we have shown that P2Y2R activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in endothelial cells leading to the binding of monocytes. The present study demonstrates that activation of the P2Y2R in dispersed cell aggregates from rat submandibular gland (SMG) and in human submandibular gland ductal cells (HSG) up-regulates the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation mediated the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in HSG cells leading to increased adherence of lymphocytic cells. Inhibitors of EGFR phosphorylation and metalloprotease activity abolished P2Y2R-mediated VCAM-1 expression and decreased lymphocyte binding to HSG cells. Moreover, silencing of EGFR expression abolished UTP-induced VCAM-1 up-regulation in HSG cells. These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS.

  6. P2Y2 Nucleotide Receptor Activation Up-regulates Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecular-1 Expression and Enhances Lymphocyte Adherence to a Human Submandibular Gland Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.; Camden, Jean M.; Rome, Danny E.; Seye, Cheikh I.; Weisman, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes salivary and lacrimal gland tissue destruction resulting in impaired secretory function. Although lymphocytic infiltration of salivary epithelium is associated with SS, the mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. Our previous studies have shown that the G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is up-regulated in response to damage or stress of salivary gland epithelium, and in salivary glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of SS-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. Additionally, we have shown that P2Y2R activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in endothelial cells leading to the binding of monocytes. The present study demonstrates that activation of the P2Y2R in dispersed cell aggregates from rat submandibular gland (SMG) and in human submandibular gland ductal cells (HSG) up-regulates the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation mediated the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in HSG cells leading to increased adherence of lymphocytic cells. Inhibitors of EGFR phosphorylation and metalloprotease activity abolished P2Y2R-mediated VCAM-1 expression and decreased lymphocyte binding to HSG cells. Moreover, silencing of EGFR expression abolished UTP-induced VCAM-1 up-regulation in HSG cells. These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS. PMID:17599409

  7. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD.

  8. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD. PMID:26956365

  9. ALX/FPR2 Modulates Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Shuen; Wee, Yinshen; Yang, Chieh-Hsiang; Melvin, James E.; Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the G-protein coupled formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2) by the lipid mediators lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1 (RvD1) promotes resolution of inflammation. Our previous in vitro studies indicate that RvD1 activation of ALX/FPR2 resolves cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in mammalian cells. However, the impact of ALX/FPR2 activation on salivary gland function in vivo is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether submandibular glands (SMG) from ALX/FPR2−/− mice display enhanced inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. For these studies, C57BL/6 and ALX/FPR2−/− mice at age 8-12-week-old were treated with LPS by i.p for 24 h. Salivary gland structure and function were analyzed by histopathological assessment, saliva flow rate, quantitative PCR, Western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. Our results showed the following events in the ALX/FPR2−/− mice treated with LPS: a) upregulated inflammatory cytokines and decreased M3R (Muscarinic Acetylcholine receptor M3) and AQP5 (Aquaporin 5) protein expression, b) decreased saliva secretion, c) increased apoptosis, d) alteration of tight junction and neuronal damage. Overall, our data suggest that the loss of ALX/FPR2 results in unresolved acute inflammation and SMG dysfunction (xerostomia) in response to LPS that is similar to human salivary gland dysfunction induced by bacterial infection. PMID:27064029

  10. Transcervical submandibular sialoadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Torroni, Andrea A; Mustazza, Maria Cristina; Bartoli, Davina D; Iannetti, Giorgio G

    2007-05-01

    The submandibular glands are subject to several pathologies that require excision. The most common problem that affects these salivary glands is sialadenitis combined with sialolithiasis. This problem occurs in the submandibular gland 10 times more frequently than it does in the parotid gland. Other illnesses frequently involving the submandibular glands are represented by sialadenosis and benign, malign, and intermediate neoplasms. Diagnosis of any disturbance in the submandibular gland involves both a clinical and instrumental (echography, traditional radiography [ortopantomography] and eventually computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging) assessment. Surgery is the usual method of treatment of both chronic sialadenitis and neoplasms in the submandibular gland. A submandibular gland surgical approach can be cervical, intraoral, or endoscopic. The authors present their clinical experience with a total of 40 patients with illnesses involving the submandibular gland treated with submandibular gland excision by a transcervical approach. Their experience suggests that this approach entails a relatively simple procedure, involves low risks for the nerve structure around the gland, permits wide resection margins for neoplasms, and incurs little aesthetic damage.

  11. A case report of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Bumjung; Cho, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyung Sik; Park, Hye-Rim; Min, Soo Kee; Seo, Jinwon; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Nam, Eun Sook

    2016-09-01

    Spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles has not yet been described, and there are no published reports on its cytological appearance in fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 49-year-old man presented with a painless mass in the right submandibular area that had been gradually enlarging for a period of 5 years. The cytologic smears showed fascicles of cohesive spindle cells as well as individual bland cells with bipolar naked nuclei in a fibrillary background. Brightly eosinophilic bundles were intermingled with spindle cells and fat-like vacuoles. The FNA results were suggestive of neurogenic tumor. Patient underwent submandibular gland resection. Grossly, the cut surface showed a well-encapsulated, yellowish-white, soft, elastic mass, measuring 2.8 × 1.9 × 1.5 cm. The tumor consisted of uniform bland spindle cells arranged in short fascicles admixed with adipocyte-like cells and transversing thick collagen bundles, which demonstrated immunoreactivity for myoepithelial markers and ultrastructural features characteristic of myoepithelial cells, suggesting the presence of lipomatous metaplasia. The FNA cytology of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipometaplasia mimicked that of neurogenic tumor or lipomatous mesenchymal tumor. This case represents the first description of submandibular gland myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia, which is characterized by the coexistence of spindle cells, collagen bundles, and fat-like vacuoles in a fibrillary background. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:764-769. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27307392

  12. A case report of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Bumjung; Cho, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyung Sik; Park, Hye-Rim; Min, Soo Kee; Seo, Jinwon; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Nam, Eun Sook

    2016-09-01

    Spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles has not yet been described, and there are no published reports on its cytological appearance in fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 49-year-old man presented with a painless mass in the right submandibular area that had been gradually enlarging for a period of 5 years. The cytologic smears showed fascicles of cohesive spindle cells as well as individual bland cells with bipolar naked nuclei in a fibrillary background. Brightly eosinophilic bundles were intermingled with spindle cells and fat-like vacuoles. The FNA results were suggestive of neurogenic tumor. Patient underwent submandibular gland resection. Grossly, the cut surface showed a well-encapsulated, yellowish-white, soft, elastic mass, measuring 2.8 × 1.9 × 1.5 cm. The tumor consisted of uniform bland spindle cells arranged in short fascicles admixed with adipocyte-like cells and transversing thick collagen bundles, which demonstrated immunoreactivity for myoepithelial markers and ultrastructural features characteristic of myoepithelial cells, suggesting the presence of lipomatous metaplasia. The FNA cytology of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipometaplasia mimicked that of neurogenic tumor or lipomatous mesenchymal tumor. This case represents the first description of submandibular gland myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia, which is characterized by the coexistence of spindle cells, collagen bundles, and fat-like vacuoles in a fibrillary background. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:764-769. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Glycosylations in demilunar and central acinar cells of the submandibular salivary gland of ferret investigated by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Asterios; Fletcher, David; Scott, John

    2004-09-01

    'Resting' submandibular salivary glands obtained post-mortem from mature ferrets of both sexes were examined here. The binding patterns of labelled lectins applied to paraffin sections of tissue slivers fixed in an aldehyde-HgCl2 mixture and the effects of pretreatment procedures on the results were assessed lightmicroscopically. Lectins with affinity for terminal GalNAc residues (DBA, SBA) bound preferentially to demilunar acinar cells which were also strongly reactive with Fuc-directed UEA I. In contrast, lectins with affinity for neuraminic acid (SNA, WGA) bound to central acinar cells where consistent binding of DBA and SNA occurred only after neuraminidase digestion, and variation in the binding of UEA I was seen. The reactivities corresponded with the distribution of secretory granules, but staining in Golgi-like areas occurred in central acinar cells with PNA lectin. The results suggest that glycosylations are more advanced in central than demilunar acinar cells of the ferret submandibular gland. Possibly demilunar and central acinar cells reflect phenotypic changes of a single secretory cell, the 'central' acinar phenotype being influenced by incorporation of neuraminic acid in glycoprotein side chains and by increased Golgi activity.

  14. Post-Irradiated Human Submandibular Glands Display High Collagen Deposition, Disorganized Cell Junctions, and an Increased Number of Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kihoon; Maruyama, Christina L; Trump, Bryan G; Buchmann, Luke; Hunt, Jason P; Monroe, Marcus M; Baker, Olga J

    2016-06-01

    Salivary glands are vital for maintaining oral health. Head and neck radiation therapy is one of the most common causes of salivary gland hypofunction. Little is known about the structural changes that occur in salivary glands after radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to understand the structural changes that occur in post-irradiated human (submandibular gland [SMG]) as compared with untreated ones. We determined changes in epithelial polarity, presence of collagen deposition, and alteration in adipose tissue. We used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human SMG from two female subjects exposed to head and neck irradiation. We utilized hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's Trichrome staining. The immunostained tissue sections were examined using confocal microscopy. The number and size of adipocytes per tissue section were calculated using ImageJ, Prism, and SPSS software. Post-irradiated human SMG displayed high collagen deposition, disorganized cell junctions, and an increased number of adipocytes as compared with non-irradiated controls. These findings are important to improve our understanding of the individual risk and variation in radiation-related salivary gland dysfunction.

  15. Dopamine, vesicular transporters, and dopamine receptor expression in rat major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Mancini, Manuele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Amenta, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The localization of dopamine stores and the expression and localization of dopamine (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) type-1 and -2 and of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes were investigated in rat submandibular, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Male Wistar rats of 2 mo of age were used. The highest dopamine levels were measured in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and sublingual glands. Western blot analysis revealed DAT, VMAT-1, VMAT-2, and dopamine receptors immunoreactivity in membrane preparations obtained from the three glands investigated. Immunostaining for dopamine and transporters was developed within striated ducts. Salivary glands processed for dopamine receptors immunohistochemistry developed an immunoreaction primarily in striated and excretory ducts. In the submandibular gland, acinar cells displayed strong immunoreactivity for the D2 receptor, while cells of the convoluted granular tubules were negative for both D1-like and D2-like receptors. Parotid glands acinar cells displayed the highest immunoreactivity for both D1 and D2 receptors compared with other salivary glands. The above localization of dopamine and dopaminergic markers investigated did not correspond closely with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) localization. This indicates that at least in part, catecholamine stores and dopaminergic markers are independent from glandular innervation. These findings suggest that rat major salivary glands express a dopaminergic system probably involved in salivary secretion. The stronger immunoreactivity for dopamine transporters and receptors in striated duct cells suggests that the dopaminergic system could regulate not only quality, but also volume and ionic concentration of saliva.

  16. Küttner's tumor of the submandibular glands: report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kaba, Sadayuki; Kojima, Masaru; Matsuda, Hazuki; Sugihara, Shiro; Masawa, Nobuhide; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Fukuda, Toshio

    2006-09-01

    Küttner's tumor (KT) is a benign tumor-like lesion of the salivary gland that mimics neoplasm clinically because of presentation as a hard mass. Recently, the histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings of this lesion have been analyzed, and differential diagnostic problems relating to salivary gland lymphoma have been discussed. However, currently there is little information on the cytological findings of those lesions. We present cytological findings from five such cases using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). FNAC of this lesion may present a diagnostic challenge to the cytologist as lesions share some cytologic features with inflammatory process containing numerous lymphoid cells. Smears obtained from two cases contained moderate to large numbers of lymphoid cells without definite cytological atypia, scattered ductal structures, and acinar cell clusters. The remaining three cases showed low cellularity probably attributable to fibrosis that made it difficult to aspirate the cellular element. FNAC findings of scattered ductal structures surrounded by collagens and infiltrated by a mixed population of lymphoid cells, not specific for KT, are highly suggestive of the diagnosis with the appropriate clinical findings. However, a portion of cytological specimens of KT containing relatively large numbers of lymphoid cells should be differentiated from malignant lymphoma arising from the submandibular gland.

  17. Human postmortem lacrimal and submandibular glands stored in RNAlater are suitable for molecular, biochemical, and cell biological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Dillon; Aluri, Hema; Armaos, Helene; Kim, Gina; Kublin, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gene expression and protein analysis studies require high-quality human tissue which is a challenge and difficult to obtain through live human biopsies. Human postmortem lacrimal gland (LG) and submandibular gland (SMG) tissues have the potential to provide an invaluable source for studying the mechanisms involved in LG and SMG dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to test the suitability of post-mortem LG and SMG for molecular, biochemical, and cell biological studies. Methods LG and SMG tissue from healthy donors was collected and immediately placed in RNAlater solution and then shipped overnight at 4 °C. After receipt, each gland was divided into three pieces for RNA, protein, and histological analysis, respectively. Total RNA isolated from each LG and SMG was analyzed for RNA integrity using an Agilent Bioanalyzer and reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR). For histology, tissues were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For protein analysis, lysates were prepared and processed for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and western blotting. Results When the LG and SMG samples were preserved in RNAlater, the RNA integrity number (RIN) values from the LG and SMG were >7.0 from all three donors, while the RNAs from tissue not preserved in RNAlater were of poorer quality. The gene and/or protein expression of E-cadherin, aquaporin 5, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), β-actin, and GAPDH was preserved in all samples. In addition, histological analyses showed normal tubuloacinar structures of all glands with serous and mucous producing acini within lobules interspersed with adipose fat. Conclusions In this study, we determined that RNA, protein, and histological sections obtained from postmortem human LG and SMG tissue preserved in RNAlater were of high quality. This would provide a viable source of human LG and SMG tissue suitable for studies of diseases that affect these glands, such as Sj

  18. X-Ray-Induced Damage to the Submandibular Salivary Glands in Mice: An Analysis of Strain-Specific Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Mana; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Hayama, Kazuhide; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers often causes xerostomia (dry mouth) by acutely damaging the salivary glands through the induction of severe acute inflammation. By contrast, the mechanism underlying the X-ray-induced delayed salivary dysfunction is unknown and has attracted increasing attention. To identify and develop a mouse model that distinguishes the delayed from the acute effects, we examined three different mouse strains (C57BL/6, ICR, and ICR-nu/nu) that showed distinct T-cell activities to comparatively analyze their responses to X-ray irradiation. Three strains were irradiated with X-rays (25 Gy), and functional changes of the submandibular glands were examined by determining pilocarpine-induced saliva secretion. Structural changes were evaluated using histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of CD3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and Bcl-xL. In C57BL/6 mice, the X-ray irradiation induced acute inflammation accompanied by severe inflammatory cell infiltration at 4 days postirradiation, causing substantial destruction and significant dysfunction at 2 weeks. Fibrotic repair was observed at 16 weeks. In ICR-nu/nu mice, the inflammation and organ destruction were much milder than in the other mice strains, but increased apoptotic cells and a significant reduction in salivary secretion were observed at 4 and 8 weeks and beyond, respectively. These results suggest that in C57BL/6 mice, X-ray-induced functional and structural damage to the salivary glands is caused mainly by acute inflammation. By contrast, although neither acute inflammation nor organ destruction was observed in ICR-nu/nu mice, apoptotic cell death preceded the dysfunction in salivary secretion in the later phase. These data suggest that the X-ray-irradiated ICR-nu/nu mouse may be a useful animal model for developing more specific therapeutic methods for the delayed dysfunction of salivary glands. PMID:26309806

  19. Epiregulin is critical for the acinar cell regeneration of the submandibular gland in a mouse duct ligation model.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Koichi; Arai, Hideo; Okudera, Michisato; Yamamura, Takashi; Oki, Hidero; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Acinar cell regeneration from tubular structures has been reported to occur in duct-deligated salivary glands. However, the detailed process of acinar cell regeneration has not been clarified. We have developed a mouse duct ligation model to clarify the mechanisms underlying acinar cell regeneration, and we analyzed the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligands using the model. We studied these ligands expressions in the course of acinar cell regeneration using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods. In the duct-ligated portion of the submandibular gland (SMG) that underwent atrophy, newly formed acinar cells were observed arising from the tubular structures after the release of the duct obstruction. The constitutive expression of EGFR was observed by immunohistochemistry in both the duct-ligated and duct-deligated animals as well as in normal controls. The EGFR phosphorylation detected on the tubular structures after duct ligation paralleled the acinar cell regeneration. RT-PCR showed an increase in the epiregulin and heparin-binding EGF levels from day 0 to day 3 after the release of the duct obstruction. The EGF level was increased only after day 7. In vitro, cultured cells isolated from ligated SMGs proliferated and produced EGF ligands following the addition of epiregulin to the culture medium. These findings suggest that the tubular structures localized in an atrophic gland are the source of acinar cell regeneration of the salivary gland. The induction of EGF ligands, in particular epiregulin, may play an important role in acinar cell regeneration in this model.

  20. X-Ray-Induced Damage to the Submandibular Salivary Glands in Mice: An Analysis of Strain-Specific Responses.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Mana; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Hayama, Kazuhide; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers often causes xerostomia (dry mouth) by acutely damaging the salivary glands through the induction of severe acute inflammation. By contrast, the mechanism underlying the X-ray-induced delayed salivary dysfunction is unknown and has attracted increasing attention. To identify and develop a mouse model that distinguishes the delayed from the acute effects, we examined three different mouse strains (C57BL/6, ICR, and ICR-nu/nu) that showed distinct T-cell activities to comparatively analyze their responses to X-ray irradiation. Three strains were irradiated with X-rays (25 Gy), and functional changes of the submandibular glands were examined by determining pilocarpine-induced saliva secretion. Structural changes were evaluated using histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of CD3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and Bcl-xL. In C57BL/6 mice, the X-ray irradiation induced acute inflammation accompanied by severe inflammatory cell infiltration at 4 days postirradiation, causing substantial destruction and significant dysfunction at 2 weeks. Fibrotic repair was observed at 16 weeks. In ICR-nu/nu mice, the inflammation and organ destruction were much milder than in the other mice strains, but increased apoptotic cells and a significant reduction in salivary secretion were observed at 4 and 8 weeks and beyond, respectively. These results suggest that in C57BL/6 mice, X-ray-induced functional and structural damage to the salivary glands is caused mainly by acute inflammation. By contrast, although neither acute inflammation nor organ destruction was observed in ICR-nu/nu mice, apoptotic cell death preceded the dysfunction in salivary secretion in the later phase. These data suggest that the X-ray-irradiated ICR-nu/nu mouse may be a useful animal model for developing more specific therapeutic methods for the delayed dysfunction of salivary glands. PMID:26309806

  1. Immunohistochemical study of the lymphatic vessels in major salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Aiyama, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Kenichiro; Takada, Kiyomi; Ikeda, Rie; Sato, Sumie; Kuroki, Jyunya

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to examine whether lymphatic vessels are present in the lobules of major salivary glands in the rat. Immunostaining with an antibody against podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, was performed on sections of the submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands. Light microscopy demonstrated podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels around the interlobular ducts and the interlobular arteries and veins in the interlobular connective tissue in all of the major salivary glands. No podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were found in the lobules. Electron microscopy also demonstrated lymphatic endothelial cells showing podoplanin expression only in the interlobular connective tissue. These findings suggest that the lymphatic system of the rat major salivary glands originates in the interlobular connective tissue, and not in the lobules.

  2. Dose-Effect Relationships for the Submandibular Salivary Glands and Implications for Their Sparing by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Vineberg, Karen A.; Ship, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: Submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) dysfunction contributes to xerostomia after radiotherapy (RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. We assessed SMG dose-response relationships and their implications for sparing these glands by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 148 HN cancer patients underwent unstimulated and stimulated SMG salivary flow rate measurements selectively from Wharton's duct orifices, before RT and periodically through 24 months after RT. Correlations of flow rates and mean SMG doses were modeled throughout all time points. IMRT replanning in 8 patients whose contralateral level I was not a target incorporated the results in a new cost function aiming to spare contralateral SMGs. Results: Stimulated SMG flow rates decreased exponentially by (1.2%){sup Gy} as mean doses increased up to 39 Gy threshold, and then plateaued near zero. At mean doses {<=}39 Gy, but not higher, flow rates recovered over time at 2.2%/month. Similarly, the unstimulated salivary flow rates decreased exponentially by (3%){sup Gy} as mean dose increased and recovered over time if mean dose was <39 Gy. IMRT replanning reduced mean contralateral SMG dose by average 12 Gy, achieving {<=}39 Gy in 5 of 8 patients, without target underdosing, increasing the mean doses to the parotid glands and swallowing structures by average 2-3 Gy. Conclusions: SMG salivary flow rates depended on mean dose with recovery over time up to a threshold of 39 Gy. Substantial SMG dose reduction to below this threshold and without target underdosing is feasible in some patients, at the expense of modestly higher doses to some other organs.

  3. Dose-Effect Relationships for the Submandibular Salivary Glands and Implications for Their Sparing by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Kim, Hyugnjin M.; Vineberg, Karen A; Ship, Jonathan A.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) dysfunction contributes to xerostomia after radiotherapy (RT) of head and neck (HN) cancer. We assessed SMG dose-response relationships and their implications for sparing these glands by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods 148 HN cancer patients underwent unstimulated and stimulated SMG salivary flow rate measurements selectively from Wharton’s duct orifices, before RT and periodically through 24 months after RT. Correlations of flow rates and mean SMG doses were modeled throughout all time points. IMRT re-planning in eight patients whose contralateral level I was not a target incorporated the results in a new cost function aiming to spare contralateral SMGs. Results Stimulated SMG flow rates decreased exponentially by (1.2%)Gy as mean doses increased up to 39 Gy threshold, and then plateaued near zero. At mean doses ≤39 Gy, but not higher, flow rates recovered over time at 2.2%/month. Similarly, the unstimulated salivary flow rates decreased exponentially by (3%)Gy as mean dose increased and recovered over time if mean dose was <39 Gy. IMRT re-planning reduced mean contralateral SMG dose by average 12 Gy, achieving ≤39 Gy in 5/8 patients, without target under-dosing, increasing the mean doses to the parotid glands and swallowing structures by average 2–3 Gy. Conclusions SMG salivary flow rates depended on mean dose with recovery over time up to a threshold of 39 Gy. Substantial SMG dose reduction to below this threshold and without target under-dosing is feasible in some patients, at the expense of modestly higher doses to some other organs. PMID:18337023

  4. Functional selectivity of muscarinic receptor antagonists for inhibition of M3-mediated phosphoinositide responses in guinea pig urinary bladder and submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Carl P; Gupta, Paul; Napier, Carolyn M; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2004-09-01

    Binding and functional affinities of the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists darifenacin, tolterodine, oxybutynin, and atropine were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human recombinant M2 (CHO-m2) or M3 (CHO-m3) receptors, and in guinea pig bladder and submandibular gland. In [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride binding studies in CHO cells, darifenacin displayed selectivity (14.8-fold) for the M3 versus M2 mACh receptor subtype. Oxybutynin was nonselective, whereas atropine and tolterodine were weakly M2-selective (5.1- and 6.6-fold, respectively). Antagonist functional affinity estimates were determined by the inhibition of agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation in CHO-m3 cells and antagonism of the agonist-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in CHO-m2 cells. Darifenacin was the most M3-selective antagonist (32.4-fold), whereas oxybutynin, atropine, and tolterodine exhibited lesser selectivity. Functional affinity estimates in guinea pig urinary bladder and submandibular salivary gland using indices of phosphoinositide turnover revealed that oxybutynin, darifenacin, and tolterodine each displayed selectivity for the response in the bladder, relative to that seen in the submandibular gland (9.3-, 7.9-, and 7.4-fold, respectively). In contrast, atropine displayed a similar affinity in both tissues. These data demonstrate that in bladder, compared with submandibular gland from a single species, the mACh receptor antagonists darifenacin, tolterodine, and oxybutynin display selectivity to inhibit agonist-mediated phosphoinositide responses. It is proposed that both responses are mediated via M3 mACh receptor activation and that differential functional affinities displayed by some, but not all, antagonists are indicative of the influence of cell background upon the pharmacology of the M3 mACh receptor. PMID:15140916

  5. Evaluation of diagnostic parameters from parotid and submandibular dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy and unstimulated sialometry in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dugonjić, Sanja; Stefanović, Dušan; Ethurović, Branka; Spasić-Jokić, Vesna; Ajdinović, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to validate eight scintigraphic salivary gland (SG) parameters, as diagnostic parameters in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We used the standardized stimulated dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy (DSGS) protocol and correlated this with the unstimulated whole sialometry (UWS) functions. The DSGS and UWS tests meeting the European and the USA diagnostic classification criteria for SS were applied in twenty patients and in ten normal controls. The DSGS tests were performed 60min after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of 370MBq of technetium-99m-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(-)4) and after per os stimulation with a 0.5g tablet of ascorbic acid administered 40min after the injection. Using time-activity curves, eight different parameters were calculated for each parotid gland (PG) and each submandibular salivary gland (SMG): a) time at maximum counts (Tmax), b) time at minimum counts (Tmin), c) maximum accumulation (MA), d) accumulation velocity (AV), e) maximum secretion (MS), f) maximum stimulated secretion (MSS), g) stimulated secretion velocity (SSV), and h) uptake ratio (UR). Values of UWS below 2.5mL/15min, were considered abnormal. All these parameters, as for the PG, showed significant abnormality in SS patients (P<0.001), especially of the secretion function. All SMG parameters also showed a significant abnormality (P<0.001), but especially of the accumulation function. There was a greater impairment of the above parameters in SMG than in PG in the SS patients. Sensitivity of the standardized DSGS was 100%, specificity 80%, negative prognostic value 100%, and positive prognostic value 91%. Sensitivity of UWS was 75%. In conclusion, this paper suggested that the best diagnostic parameters for the SS patients were those of: a) the maximum secretion, b) the maximum stimulated secretion for both the parotid and the submandibular glands, c) maximum accumulation and d) accumulation velocity of submandibular glands. The times at maximum and at minimum

  6. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  7. The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions.

    PubMed

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P; Witkowska, H Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T; Yates, John R; Fisher, Susan J

    2008-05-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.

  8. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T.; Vissink, A. |; `s-Gravenmade, E.J.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-11-15

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  10. miR-200c regulates FGFR-dependent epithelial proliferation via Vldlr during submandibular gland branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rebustini, Ivan T.; Hayashi, Toru; Reynolds, Andrew D.; Dillard, Melvin L.; Carpenter, Ellen M.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of epithelial proliferation during organ morphogenesis is crucial for normal development, as dysregulation is associated with tumor formation. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-200c, are post-transcriptional regulators of genes involved in cancer. However, the role of miR-200c during normal development is unknown. We screened miRNAs expressed in the mouse developing submandibular gland (SMG) and found that miR-200c accumulates in the epithelial end buds. Using both loss- and gain-of-function, we demonstrated that miR-200c reduces epithelial proliferation during SMG morphogenesis. To identify the mechanism, we predicted miR-200c target genes and confirmed their expression during SMG development. We discovered that miR-200c targets the very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) and its ligand reelin, which unexpectedly regulate FGFR-dependent epithelial proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that miR-200c influences FGFR-mediated epithelial proliferation during branching morphogenesis via a Vldlr-dependent mechanism. miR-200c and Vldlr may be novel targets for controlling epithelial morphogenesis during glandular repair or regeneration. PMID:22115756

  11. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  12. Chronic stress affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Saruta, Juri; Lee, Taeki; Shirasu, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Takeshi; Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are associated with several neural disorders. Previously, we reported that BDNF is produced from salivary glands under acute immobilization stress. Additionally, salivary glands are the origin of plasma BDNF during stress; however, the association between the expression of BDNF by the salivary glands under chronic stress conditions is not known. In the present study, we investigated whether plasma BDNF levels in chronic stress depend on the salivary glands. Expression of BDNF mRNA and protein were identified in the submandibular glands when male rats were exposed to chronic restraint stress (12 h daily for 22 days). Chronic stress significantly increased plasma BDNF concentration, as well as adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels, but was not altered under chronic stress in bilaterally sialoadenectomized rats. Since chronic stress increases plasma BDNF levels in the sialoadenectomized rat model, the plasma BDNF level was not dependent on BDNF from the salivary glands. Although the salivary glands were the source of plasma BDNF in acute stress conditions in our previous study, it seems that that the increased BDNF expression in the salivary glands in chronic stress does not contribute importantly to the increased circulating BDNF level. The increased plasma BDNF levels may play important roles in homeostasis under stress conditions.

  13. Selective localization of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK)ζ in the terminal tubule cells in the submandibular glands of early postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Chomphoo, Surang; Pakkarato, Sawetree; Sakaew, Waraporn; Sawatpanich, Tarinee; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Polsan, Yada; Hipkaeo, Damrong; Goto, Kaoru; Kondo, Hisatake

    2015-08-01

    The present immunohistochemical study was attempted to localize in the submandibular glands of mice at various postnatal stages a diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isoform termed DGKζ which is characterized by a nuclear localization signal and a nuclear export signal. This attempt was based on following facts: the continuous postnatal differentiation of glandular cells in the rodent submandibular gland, the regulatory role of DGK in the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) through attenuation of diacylglycerol (DAG), and the possible involvement of PKC in various cellular activities including the saliva secretion as well as the cell differentiation. As a result, a selective localization of immunoreactivity for DGKζ was detected in terminal tubule (TT) cells which comprise a majority of the newborn acinar structure and differentiate into the intercalated duct cells and/or the acinar cells. The immunoreactivity was deposited in portions of the cytoplasm lateral and basal to the nucleus, but not in the nuclei themselves. Although the immunoreactive TT cells remained until later stages in female specimen than in male, they eventually disappeared in both sexes by young adult stages. The present finding suggests that the regulatory involvement of DGKζ in PKC functions via control of DAG is exerted in the differentiation of the TT cells. In addition, another possible involvement of DGKζ in the regulation of secretion of the TT cells as well as its functional significance of its nuclear localization in the submandibular ganglion cells was also discussed.

  14. A Novel Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-3 Activator (Alda-89) Protects Submandibular Gland Function from Irradiation without Accelerating Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nan; Cao, Hongbin; Chen, Che-Hong; Kong, Christina S.; Ali, Rehan; Chan, Cato; Sirjani, Davud; Graves, Edward; Koong, Albert; Giaccia, Amato; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of Alda-89 (an ALDH3 activitor) on (1) the function of irradiated (RT) submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, (2) its toxicity profile and (3) its effect on the growth of head and neck cancer (HNC) in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design Adult mice were infused with Alda-89 or vehicle before, during and after RT. Saliva secretion was monitored weekly. Hematology, metabolic profile and post-mortem evaluation for toxicity were examined at the time of sacrifice. Alda-89 or vehicle was applied to HNC cell lines in vitro, and SCID mice transplanted with HNC in vivo with or without radiation; HNC growth was monitored. The ALDH3A1 and ALDH3A2 protein expression was evaluated in 89 HNC patients and correlated to freedom from relapse (FFR) and overall survival (OS). Results Alda-89 infusion significantly resulted in more whole saliva production and a higher percentage of preserved acini after RT compared to vehicle control. There was no difference in the complete blood count, metabolic profile, and major organ morphology between the Alda-89 and vehicle groups. Compared to vehicle control, Alda-89 treatment did not accelerate HNC cell proliferation in vitro, nor did it affect tumor growth in vivo with or without RT. Higher expression of ALDH3A1 or ALDH3A2 was not significantly associated with worse FFR or OS in either HPV-positive or HPV-negative group. Conclusion Alda-89 preserves salivary function after RT without affecting HNC growth or causing measurable toxicity in mice. It is a promising candidate to mitigate RT-related xerostomia. PMID:23812668

  15. Rare Head and Neck Benign Mesenchymoma in Close Proximity to Submandibular Gland in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Priyanka; Mukerji, Shraddha

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric head and neck masses are commonly congenital in origin or of infectious etiology. We present a rare case of benign mesenchymoma in close proximity to the submandibular gland in an otherwise asymptomatic child. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of the head and neck area revealed a benign lesion, which was later determined to be a benign mesenchymoma on histopathology. The child did well after surgery without any reported recurrence. We discuss the salient features of a benign mesenchymoma in a child and also discuss relevant imaging and management.

  16. Anatomical recovery of the duct of the submandibular gland after transoral removal of a hilar stone without sialodochoplasty: evaluation of a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Kim, Jong Sei; Jeong, Han-Sin

    2014-12-01

    Transoral removal of stones for the treatment of submandibular sialolithiasis has been popularised, even for stones in the hilum. Without sialodochoplasty after surgical retrieval, the affected glands seem to recover well functionally, even without sialodochoplasty. However, the anatomical changes of structural recovery have not been fully studied. We investigated the outcomes and the changes to the salivary duct system after transoral removal of hilar stones using postoperative sialography. We enrolled 28 patients (29 sides) who had transoral removal of stones for submandibular hilar sialolithiasis without sialodochoplasty, and prospectively analysed the structural outcomes 3 months and 12 months postoperatively using sialography. We found 23 ducts (79%) recovered with a normal size, while 4 ducts (14%) developed saccular dilatation and one duct (3%) partially stenosed. Saccular dilatation developed after removal of stones larger than 10mm in diameter, but patients had no recurrent symptoms. By the 12 months' follow up, one stone had formed severe adhesions to the salivary duct that caused stenosis, and this patient had recurrent symptoms. Transoral removal of submandibular hilar stones without sialodochoplasty is an effective treatment with good anatomical restoration of the salivary duct and flow. PMID:25239734

  17. Ae4 (Slc4a9) Anion Exchanger Drives Cl- Uptake-dependent Fluid Secretion by Mouse Submandibular Gland Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; Catalán, Marcelo A; Kondo, Yusuke; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E

    2015-04-24

    Transcellular Cl(-) movement across acinar cells is the rate-limiting step for salivary gland fluid secretion. Basolateral Nkcc1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters play a critical role in fluid secretion by promoting the intracellular accumulation of Cl(-) above its equilibrium potential. However, salivation is only partially abolished in the absence of Nkcc1 cotransporter activity, suggesting that another Cl(-) uptake pathway concentrates Cl(-) ions in acinar cells. To identify alternative molecular mechanisms, we studied mice lacking Ae2 and Ae4 Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers. We found that salivation stimulated by muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists was normal in the submandibular glands of Ae2(-/-) mice. In contrast, saliva secretion was reduced by 35% in Ae4(-/-) mice. The decrease in salivation was not related to loss of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter or Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in Ae4(-/-) mice but correlated with reduced Cl(-) uptake during β-adrenergic receptor activation of cAMP signaling. Direct measurements of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity revealed that HCO3 (-)-dependent Cl(-) uptake was reduced in the acinar cells of Ae2(-/-) and Ae4(-/-) mice. Moreover, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity was nearly abolished in double Ae4/Ae2 knock-out mice, suggesting that most of the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity in submandibular acinar cells depends on Ae2 and Ae4 expression. In conclusion, both Ae2 and Ae4 anion exchangers are functionally expressed in submandibular acinar cells; however, only Ae4 expression appears to be important for cAMP-dependent regulation of fluid secretion.

  18. Differential involvement of two cortical masticatory areas in submandibular salivary secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naoto; Kobashi, Motoi; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Masako; Minagi, Shogo; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2014-01-16

    To evaluate the role of the masticatory area in the cerebral cortex in the masticatory-salivary reflex, we investigated submandibular salivary secretion, jaw-movement trajectory and electromyographic activity of the jaw-opener (digastric) and jaw-closer (masseter) muscles evoked by repetitive electrical stimulation of the cortical masticatory area in anesthetized rats. Rats have two cortical masticatory areas: the anterior area (A-area) in the orofacial motor cortex, and the posterior area (P-area) in the insular cortex. Our defined P-area extended more caudally than the previous reported one. P-area stimulation induced vigorous salivary secretion (about 20 µl/min) and rhythmical jaw movements (3-4 Hz) resembling masticatory movements. Salivary flow persisted even after minimizing jaw movements by curarization. A-area stimulation induced small and fast rhythmical jaw movements (6-8 Hz) resembling licking of solutions, but not salivary secretion. These findings suggest that P-area controls salivary secretion as well as mastication, and may be involved in the masticatory-salivary reflex. PMID:24309141

  19. Effect of sialodacryoadenitis virus exposure on acinar epithelial cells from the rat lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Wickham, L A; Huang, Z; Lambert, R W; Sullivan, D A

    1997-09-01

    Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), a RNA coronavirus, induces degenerative, necrotic and atrophic alterations in acinar epithelial cells of the rat lacrimal gland. To begin to explore the underlying mechanism(s) of this viral effect, we sought in the present study to: (1) determine whether SDAV invades and replicates in lacrimal gland acinar cells in vitro and (2) assess whether short-term SDAV challenge interferes with the viability or function of acinar cells in vitro. For comparison we also evaluated the relative infectivity of SDAV in acinar epithelial cells from lacrimal, submandibular and parotid glands, given that salivary tissues are known to be highly susceptible to SDAV infection in vivo. Acinar epithelial cells from lacrimal, submandibular or parotid glands were isolated from male rats, exposed briefly to SDAV or control cell antigen and then cultured for four, eight or twelve days. At experimental termination, SDAV titers in both media and sonicated cell extracts were evaluated by plaque assay titration on mouse L2 cell monolayers. To evaluate functional aspects of lacrimal gland acinar cells, SDAV-infected cells were incubated in the presence or absence of dihydrotestosterone and culture media were analyzed by RIA to measure the extent of the androgen-induced increase in secretory component (SC) production. Our results showed that: (1) SDAV invades and replicates in lacrimal gland acinar cells, Viral challenge resulted in a significant, time-dependent increase in SDAV titers, that were primarily cell-associated and greatly exceeded amounts contained in the original inoculum; (2) SDAV infection did not compromise lacrimal acinar cell viability or prevent the cellular SC response to androgens. Viral presence, though, did often attenuate the magnitude of this hormone action; and (3) SDAV infects salivary acinar cells, but the kinetics and magnitude or viral replication in lacrimal, submandibular and parotid cells showed considerable variations. These

  20. Interference by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with cultured mouse submandibular gland branching morphogenesis involves reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukkonen, Anu . E-mail: anummela@mappi.helsinki.fi; Sahlberg, Carin; Partanen, Anna-Maija; Alaluusua, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Tuomisto, Jouko; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa

    2006-05-01

    Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to mouse embryonic teeth, sharing features of early development with salivary glands in common, involves enhanced apoptosis and depends on the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF receptor signaling, on the other hand, is essential for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. To see if TCDD impairs salivary gland morphogenesis and if the impairment is associated with EGF receptor signaling, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E13 submandibular glands with TCDD or TCDD in combination with EGF or fibronectin (FN), both previously found to enhance branching morphogenesis. Explants were examined stereomicroscopically and processed to paraffin sections. TCDD exposure impaired epithelial branching and cleft formation, resulting in enlarged buds. The glands were smaller than normal. EGF and FN alone concentration-dependently stimulated or inhibited branching morphogenesis but when co-administered with TCDD, failed to compensate for its effect. TCDD induced cytochrome P4501A1 expression in the glandular epithelium, indicating activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. TCDD somewhat increased epithelial apoptosis as observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method but the increase could not be correlated with morphological changes. The frequency of proliferating cells was not altered. Corresponding to the reduced cleft sites in TCDD-exposed explants, FN immunoreactivity in the epithelium was reduced. The results show that TCDD, comparably with EGF and FN at morphogenesis-inhibiting concentrations, impaired salivary gland branching morphogenesis in vitro. Together with the failure of EGF and FN at morphogenesis-stimulating concentrations to compensate for the effect of TCDD this implies that TCDD toxicity to developing salivary gland involves reduced EGF receptor signaling.

  1. Immunohistochemical changes and atrophy after chronic ethanol intoxication in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism in humans is a chronic and progressive disease, characterized by loss of ethanol consumption control. Previous studies have reported that prolonged exposure to ethanol was responsible for alterations in glandular tissues of human and rodents. However, the interrelationship between ethanol and the glandular system is still the subject of numerous investigations, including the possible resistance of the submandibular gland (SG). In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence may affect the parotid gland (PG) and SG in female rats. Female rats (n=16) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (dose of 6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) through gavage for 55 days. Glands were collected, weighed and submitted to histological processing. Morphometric analysis was assessed by parenchymal and stromal area measurements. Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and apoptotic caspase-3 (CAS) were measured using ImageJ® software. Chronic ethanol administration did not alter the body weight of rats after treatment, although it increased glandular weight (p<0.001), reduced the parenchyma area (p<0.001) and decreased CK19 and α-SMA immunostainning in the PG. Besides, ethanol induced CK19 and CAS overexpression, and the occurrence of duct-like structures in SG. These results suggest that ethanol induces histological and morphometric changes in salivary glands of female rats intoxicated with ethanol during adolescence. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these alterations needs to be investigated but may be not related to the inflammatory process.

  2. Relationship between cAMP production and protein secretion in rat submandibular acini: evidence for loss of reserve capacity with age.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Scarpace, P J

    1994-01-01

    We assessed isoproterenol and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and protein secretion in submandibular salivary glands from young (4-7 mo) and old (25 mo) male F-344 rats. In senescent acini, the maximum amount of cAMP produced was three-fold less and the protein secreted was one-third less in response to the highest dose of isoproterenol (100 microM). Following isoproterenol stimulation, the young acini were more sensitive than the old for protein secretion than for cAMP production. Post-receptor stimulation (by forskolin) of cAMP production and protein secretion were less in the senescent rats. This report demonstrates the validity of an in vitro model for simultaneous assessment of biochemical and functional correlates. Furthermore, the observations suggest that both receptor and post-receptor stimulation of cAMP production and protein secretion diminish with age. Moreover, there is a reserve capacity for cAMP production with respect to protein secretion in the young that is diminished or even absent in the old rats. PMID:8072373

  3. Freeze-fracture surface of salivary glands of rat observed by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Espinal, E G; Ubios, A M; Cabrini, R L

    1983-01-01

    The structure of parenchymal components of rat submandibular glands observed with scanning electron microscopy is presented. The glands were fixed, submerged in liquid nitrogen, cryofractured, dehydrated and critical-point-dried. The fracture surface displayed the acini, granular ducts and striated ducts. Acini exhibit a typical sponge-like pattern of irregular and empty cavities. Granular ducts are lined by bulging cells laden with numerous secretory granules. Their diameter ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 microns, with a mean value of 1.240.4 microns. Measurement of the actual granules was rendered possible by direct observation. Striated ducts exhibited a cribiform pattern near the basal cell region which corresponds to infoldings of the basal cell membrane. PMID:6637370

  4. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-induced Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer (RTOG 0244)

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R.; McEwan, A.J.B.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were 'not per protocol,' then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of {<=}51% was acceptable. Results: Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was 'per protocol' or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia.

  5. The Regulatory Role of Rolipram on Inflammatory Mediators and Cholinergic/Adrenergic Stimulation-Induced Signals in Isolated Primary Mouse Submandibular Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Un; Shin, Dong Min; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces inflammatory signals in salivary glands. We investigated the regulatory role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram on inflammatory mediators and cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation-induced intracellular Ca2+ signaling in salivary acinar and ductal cells. Submandibular gland (SMG) expressed PDE4A through 4D mRNA and PDE4 was localized in the luminal membrane of SMG. LPS induced Ca2+ signaling and ROS production in SMG. Treatment with rolipram blocked LPS-induced Ca2+ increase and ROS production. The application of histamine evoked Ca2+ signals and ROS production, which were attenuated by rolipram in SMG cells. Moreover, LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and cleaved caspase-1 were inhibited by rolipram. The inhibitory role of rolipram in ROS-induced Ca2+ signaling was mainly observed in acinar cells and not in ductal cells. Rolipram also protected SMG acinar but not ductal cells from LPS-induced cell membrane damage. In the case of cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation, carbachol/isoproterenol-induced Ca2+ signals were upregulated by the treatment of rolipram in SMG. In the case of cAMP-dependent ductal bicarbonate secretion by rolipram, no effect was observed on the modulation of ductal chloride/bicarbonate exchange activity. Rolipram could suppress the inflammatory signals and could be a potential therapeutic strategy against LPS-induced inflammation to protect the salivary gland cells. PMID:27143817

  6. Structure, function, and cortical representation of the rat submandibular whisker trident.

    PubMed

    Thé, Lydia; Wallace, Michael L; Chen, Christopher H; Chorev, Edith; Brecht, Michael

    2013-03-13

    Although the neurobiology of rodent facial whiskers has been studied intensively, little is known about sensing in other vibrissae. Here we describe the under-investigated submandibular "whisker trident" on the rat's chin. In this three-whisker array, a unique unpaired midline whisker is laterally flanked by two slightly shorter whiskers. All three whiskers point to the ground and are curved backwards. Unlike other whiskers, the trident is not located on an exposed body part. Trident vibrissae are not whisked and do not touch anything over long stretches of time. However, trident whiskers engage in sustained ground contact during head-down running while the animal is exploring or foraging. In biomechanical experiments, trident whiskers follow caudal ground movement more smoothly than facial whiskers. Remarkably, deflection angles decrease with increasing ground velocity. We identified one putative trident barrel in the left somatosensory cortex and two barrels in the right somatosensory cortex. The elongated putative trident-midline barrel is the longest and largest whisker barrel, suggesting that the midline trident whisker is of great functional significance. Cortical postsynaptic air-puff responses in the trident representation show much less temporal precision than facial whisker responses. Trident whiskers do not provide as much high-resolution information about object contacts as facial whiskers. Instead, our observations suggest an idiothetic function: their biomechanics allow trident whiskers to derive continuous measurements about ego motion from ground contacts. The midline position offers unique advantages in sensing heading direction in a laterally symmetric manner. The changes in trident deflection angle with velocity suggest that trident whiskers might function as a tactile speedometer.

  7. Dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink⁴a) pathway provokes an aging-associated decline of submandibular gland function.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Kimi; Katano, Satoshi; Iida, Mayu; Kimura, Hiromi; Okuma, Atsushi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Ohtani, Naoko; Hara, Eiji; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    Bmi-1 prevents stem cell aging, at least partly, by blocking expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(Ink4a) . Therefore, dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink4a) pathway is considered key to the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of associated degenerative diseases during aging. However, because Bmi-1 knockout (KO) mice die within 20 weeks after birth, it is difficult to determine exactly where and when dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink4a) pathway occurs during aging in vivo. Using real-time in vivo imaging of p16(Ink4a) expression in Bmi-1-KO mice, we uncovered a novel function of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink4a) pathway in controlling homeostasis of the submandibular glands (SMGs), which secrete saliva into the oral cavity. This pathway is dysregulated during aging in vivo, leading to induction of p16(Ink4a) expression and subsequent declined SMG function. These findings will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the aging-related decline of SMG function and associated salivary gland hypofunction, which is particularly problematic among the elderly.

  8. Induction of Sca-1 via activation of STAT3 system in the duct cells of the mouse submandibular gland by ligation of the main excretory duct.

    PubMed

    Purwanti, Nunuk; Karabasil, Mileva Ratko; Matsuo, Shinsuke; Chen, Gang; Javkhlan, Purevjav; Azlina, Ahmad; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Yao, Chenjuan; Akamatsu, Tetsuya; Hosoi, Kazuo

    2011-11-01

    To examine the very initial step that takes place immediately after tissue injury and is linked to tissue regeneration, we employed the submandibular gland (SMG), which was injured by ligation of its main excretory duct (MED). Ligation of the MED of the SMG in mice induced the expression of Sca-1, a protein marker of hematopoietic stem cells. In the normal gland, a low level of Sca-1 was expressed, which was localized predominantly in the excretory duct cells. At 1 day after ligation, Sca-1 expression increased prominently in almost all of cells in the duct system, but not in the acinar cells. The level of Sca-1 mRNA had begun to increase at 6 h after ligation and continuously rose thereafter until it reached a plateau, which occurred ∼12 h after ligation. STAT3 phosphorylated at its tyrosine-705 (p-STAT3) in the ligated gland increased immediately after ligation, and it was localized in the nuclei of all duct cells. The results of an EMSA revealed the specific binding of a nuclear extract to the sequence of the γ-interferon activation site (GAS) present in the Sca-1 promoter and confirmed that such binding increased after ligation. Thus the present study suggests that STAT3, having been phosphorylated following MED ligation, was transferred to the nucleus, where it bound to the GAS element in the promoter of Sca-1 gene, resulting in promotion of Sca-1 gene expression. Actual prevention of STAT3 phosphorylation reduced the ligation-induced Sca-1 elevation.

  9. Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Natacha M. M.; Correa, Russell S.; Júnior, Ismael S. M.; Figueiredo, Adilson J. R.; Vilhena, Kelly F. B.; Farias-Junior, Paulo M. A.; Teixeira, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Nayana M. M.; Pereira-Júnior, João B.; Dantas, Kelly das Graças F.; da Silva, Marcia C. F.; Silva-Junior, Ademir F.; Alves-Junior, Sergio de M.; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V.; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter. PMID:25464135

  10. Physical, chemical, and immunohistochemical investigation of the damage to salivary glands in a model of intoxication with aluminium citrate.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Natacha M M; Correa, Russell S; Júnior, Ismael S M; Figueiredo, Adilson J R; Vilhena, Kelly F B; Farias-Junior, Paulo M A; Teixeira, Francisco B; Ferreira, Nayana M M; Pereira-Júnior, João B; Dantas, Kelly das Graças F; da Silva, Marcia C F; Silva-Junior, Ademir F; Alves-Junior, Sergio de M; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter.

  11. Slowly enlarging, nontender mass in the right submandibular region.

    PubMed

    Correll, R W; DeBoom, G W; Jensen, J L

    1986-10-01

    Slow-growing, soft tissue masses in the submandibular region of the neck frequently are caused by tumors of the submandibular salivary gland. These neoplasms are most commonly benign and characteristically develop during a prolonged period--often, during 15 or more years. The recommended treatment is excision of the gland, and, if adequately performed, the probability of the tumor's recurring is insignificant.

  12. Impaired vascular responses to parasympathetic nerve stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation in the submandibular gland in nonobese diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Berggreen, Ellen; Nyløkken, Krister; Delaleu, Nicolas; Hajdaragic-Ibricevic, Hamijeta; Jonsson, Malin V

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Decreased vascular responses to salivary gland stimulation are observed in Sjögren's syndrome patients. We investigate whether impaired vascular responses to parasympathetic stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation in salivary glands parallels hyposalivation in an experimental model for Sjögren's syndrome. Methods Blood flow responses in the salivary glands were measured by laser Doppler flowmeter. Muscarinic receptor activation was followed by saliva secretion measurements. Nitric oxide synthesis-mediated blood flow responses were studied after administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Glandular autonomic nerves and muscarinic 3 receptor distributions were also investigated. Results Maximal blood flow responses to parasympathetic stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation were significantly lower in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice compared with BALB/c mice, coinciding with impaired saliva secretion in nonobese diabetic mice (P < 0.005). Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor had less effect on blood flow responses after parasympathetic nerve stimulation in nonobese diabetic mice compared with BALB/c mice (P < 0.02). In nonobese diabetic mice, salivary gland parasympathetic nerve fibres were absent in areas of focal infiltrates. Muscarinic 3 receptor might be localized in the blood vessel walls of salivary glands. Conclusions Impaired vasodilatation in response to parasympathetic nerve stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation may contribute to hyposalivation observed in nonobese diabetic mice. Reduced nitric oxide signalling after parasympathetic nerve stimulation may contribute in part to the impaired blood flow responses. The possibility of muscarinic 3 receptor in the vasculature supports the notion that muscarinic 3 receptor autoantibodies present in nonobese diabetic mice might impair the fluid transport required for salivation. Parasympathetic nerves were absent in areas of focal infiltrates, whereas a normal distribution was

  13. Innervation of the rat thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Kendall, M D; al-Shawaf, A A

    1991-03-01

    Current views from different laboratories on the innervation of the thymus gland are reviewed with particular reference to the rat. Noradrenergic nerve profiles of the sympathetic nervous system have been demonstrated in the subcapsular cortex, at the corticomedullary junction and in the cortex itself, and extremely sparsely in the medulla. By following beta-adrenergic receptor development in postnatal rats, it has been shown that there is a marked increase in density and morphological organization of the receptor in the medulla with the maturation of thymocyte function (monitored by measuring the proliferation response to concanavalin A) and a sexual dimorphism during the ontogeny of the receptor. Chemical sympathectomy of adult rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or guanethidine resulted in a loss of thymus weight, decreased cellularity, and increased apoptosis but a rise in the numbers of proliferating cells in the cortex. By contrast, proliferation of peripheral T cells was reduced after the use of 6-OHDA. Chemical sympathectomy also demonstrated that there were at least three nerve nets in the gland: noradrenergic neural profiles that were destroyed with both 6-OHDA and guanethidine, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-positive profiles that persisted, and AChE- and CGRP-positive profiles and cells that also persisted but had a different distribution to VIP-positive fibers. Some functional correlates of thymic innervation are discussed although the subject now needs to be further researched.

  14. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  15. Muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity in the superior salivatory nucleus neurons innervating the salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hirotaka; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Masako; Kobashi, Motoi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2011-07-15

    The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) contains preganglionic parasympathetic neurons to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, stimulates the salivary glands and is presently used as sialogogue in the treatment of dry mouth. Since cevimeline passes through the blood-brain barrier, it is also able to act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system. Our preliminary experiment using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique has shown that cevimeline excites SSN neurons in rat brain slices, suggesting that SSN neurons have muscarinic acetylcholine receptors; however, it is unclear which subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in SSN neurons. In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemically muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, M1 receptor (M1R), M2R, M3R, M4R, and M5R in SSN neurons. SSN neurons innervating the salivary glands, retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer from the chorda-lingual nerve, mostly expressed M3R immunoreactivity (-ir) (92.3%) but not M1R-ir. About half of such SSN neurons also showed M2R- (40.1%), M4R- (54.0%) and M5R-ir (46.0%); therefore, it is probable that SSN neurons co-express M3R-ir with at least two of the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. This is the first report to show that SSN neurons contain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

  16. Shh/Ptch and EGF/ErbB cooperatively regulate branching morphogenesis of fetal mouse submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Kenji; Koyama, Noriko; Hayashi, Toru; Zheng, Liguang; Matsuura, Sachiko; Kashimata, Masanori

    2016-04-15

    The hedgehog family includes Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Desert hedgehog, and Indian hedgehog, which are well known as a morphogens that play many important roles during development of numerous organs such as the tongue, pancreas, kidney, cartilage, teeth and salivary glands (SMG). In Shh null mice, abnormal development of the salivary gland is seen after embryonic day 14 (E14). Shh also induced lobule formation and lumen formation in acini-like structures in cultured E14 SMG. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Shh and epidermal growth factor (EGF)/ErbB signaling in developing fetal mouse SMG. Administration of Shh to cultured E13 SMG stimulated branching morphogenesis (BrM) and induced synthesis of mRNAs for EGF ligands and receptors of the ErbB family. Shh also stimulated activation of ErbB signaling system such as ERK1/2. AG1478, a specific inhibitor of ErbB receptors, completely suppressed BrM and activation of EGF/ErbB/ERK1/2 cascade in E13 SMGs cultured with Shh. The expressions of mRNA for Egf in mesenchyme and mRNA for Erbb1, Erbb2 and Erbb3 in epithelium of E13 SMG were specifically induced by administration of Shh. These results show that Shh stimulates BrM of fetal mouse SMG, at least in part, through activation of the EGF/ErbB/ERK1/2 signaling system. PMID:26930157

  17. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules. Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10). Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163. MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO. PMID:26886650

  18. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules. Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10). Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163. MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO.

  19. Sorting of growth hormone-erythropoietin fusion proteins in rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Samuni, Yuval Zheng Changyu; Cawley, Niamh X.; Cotrim, Ana P.; Loh, Y. Peng; Baum, Bruce J.

    2008-08-15

    Neuroendocrine and exocrine cells secrete proteins in either a constitutive manner or via the regulated secretory pathway (RSP), but the specific sorting mechanisms involved are not fully understood. After gene transfer to rat salivary glands, the transgenic model proteins human growth hormone (hGH) and erythropoietin (hEpo) are secreted primarily into saliva (RSP; exocrine) and serum (constitutive; endocrine), respectively. We hypothesized that fusion of hGH at either the C-terminus or the N-terminus of hEpo would re-direct hEpo from the bloodstream into saliva. We constructed and expressed two fusion proteins, hEpo-hGH and hGH-hEpo, using serotype 5-adenoviral vectors, and delivered them to rat submandibular glands in vivo via retroductal cannulation. Both the hEpo-hGH and hGH-hEpo fusion proteins, but not hEpo alone, were secreted primarily into saliva (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0083, respectively). These in vivo studies demonstrate for the first time that hGH, in an N- as well as C-terminal position, influences the secretion of a constitutive pathway protein.

  20. Impact of Salivary Gland Dosimetry on Post-IMRT Recovery of Saliva Output and Xerostomia Grade for Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With or Without Contralateral Submandibular Gland Sparing: A Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhonghe; Yan Chao; Zhang Zhiyuan; Zhang Chenping; Hu Haisheng; Tu Wenyong; Kirwan, Jessica; Mendenhall, William M.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To observe the recovery of saliva output and effect on xerostomia grade after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing and to assess the impact of salivary gland dosimetry on this recovery among patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and May 2008, 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer received definitive (n = 5 patients) and postoperative (n = 47 patients) IMRT at our institution, with at least one parotid gland spared. Of these patients, 26 patients with a low risk of recurrence in the cSMG region underwent IMRT and had their cSMGs spared (cSMG-sparing group). The remaining 26 high-risk patients had no cSMGs spared (cSMG-unspared group). Xerostomia grades and salivary flow rates were monitored at five time points (before IMRT and at 2, 6, 12, and 18 months after IMRT). Results: Average mean doses and mean volumes receiving 30 Gy (V30) of the cSMGs were lower in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group (mean dose, 20.4 Gy vs. 57.4 Gy; mean V30, 14.7% vs. 99.8%, respectively). Xerostomia grades at 2 and 6 months post-IMRT were also significantly lower among patients in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group, but differences were not significant at 12 and 18 months after IMRT. Patients in the cSMG-sparing group had significantly better mean unstimulated salivary flow rates at each time point post- IMRT as well as better mean stimulated salivary flow rates at 2 months post-IMRT. Conclusions: Recovery of saliva output and grade of xerostomia post-IMRT in patients whose cSMGs were spared were much better than in patients whose cSMGs were not spared. The influence of the mean doses to the cSMG and parotid gland on the recovery of saliva output was equivalent to that of the mean V30 to the glands.

  1. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  2. Increase in muscarinic stimulation-induced Ca(2+) response by adenovirus-mediated Stim1-mKO1 gene transfer to rat submandibular acinar cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takao; Nezu, Akihiro; Tojyo, Yosuke; Tanimura, Akihiko

    2013-10-01

    Adenoviruses have been used for gene transfer to salivary gland cells in vivo. Their use to study the function of salivary acinar cells was limited by a severe inflammatory response and by the destruction of fluid-secreting acinar cells. In the present study, low doses of adenovirus were administered to express Stim1-mKO1 by retrograde ductal injection to submandibular glands. The approach succeeded in increasing muscarinic stimulation-induced Ca(2+) responses in acinar cells without inflammation or decreased salivary secretions. This increased Ca(2+) response was notable upon weak muscarinic stimulation and was attributed to increased Ca(2+) release from internal stores and increased Ca(2+) entry. The basal Ca(2+) level was higher in Stim1-mKO1-expressing cells than in mKO1-expressing and non-expressing cells. Exposure of permeabilized submandibular acinar cells, where Ca(2+) concentration was fixed at 50 nM, to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) produced similar effects on the release of Ca(2+) from stores in Stim1-mKO1-expressing and non-expressing cells. The low toxicity and relative specificity to acinar cells of the mild gene transfer method described herein are particularly useful for studying the molecular functions of salivary acinar cells in vivo, and may be applied to increase salivary secretions in experimental animals and human in future.

  3. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  4. Magnetic Resonance Sialography Findings of Submandibular Ducts Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Karaca Erdoğan, Nezahat; Altay, Canan; Özenler, Nesibe; Bozkurt, Tuğba; Uluç, Engin; Dirim Mete, Berna; Özdemir, İsmail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to assess the problem solving capability of magnetic resonance sialography (MR sialography), a noninvasive method for imaging submandibular gland ducts and determining duct-related pathologies, by comparing diseased and healthy cases. Materials and Methods. We conducted radiological assessment on a total of 60 submandibular glands (mean age 44.7) in 20 cases and 10 volunteers. MR sialography examinations were conducted with single-shot fast spin-echo sequence by using a surface coil placed on the submandibular gland. Each gland was evaluated in terms of the length, width and stricture of the main duct, as well as the difference between the intraparenchymal duct width, and the main duct width. Statistical analysis was performed. Results. In the MR sialography the primary duct mean length was determined as 51 mm (40–57 mm) in all submandibular glands. On the MR sialography imaging, the visualization ratio of the ductal system of submandibular gland was evaluated in the cases and volunteers. Conclusion. MR sialography is an effective and a noninvasive method in imaging submandibular gland ducts, demonstrating the presence, location and degree of stricture/dilatation, and elucidating the disease etiology. PMID:23984362

  5. Cannabinoid receptors in submandibular acinar cells: functional coupling between saliva fluid and electrolytes secretion and Ca2+ signalling.

    PubMed

    Kopach, Olga; Vats, Juliana; Netsyk, Olga; Voitenko, Nana; Irving, Andrew; Fedirko, Nataliya

    2012-04-15

    Cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, and activation of CBRs in salivary cells inhibits agonist-stimulated salivation and modifies saliva content. However, the role of different CBR subtypes in acinar cell physiology and in intracellular signalling remains unclear. Here, we uncover functional CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs in acinar cells of rat submandibular gland and their essential role in saliva secretion. Pharmacological activation of CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs in the submandibular gland suppressed saliva outflow and modified saliva content produced by the submandibular gland in vivo. Using Na(+)-selective microelectrodes to record secretory Na(+) responses in the lumen of acini, we observed a reduction in Na(+) transport following the activation of CBRs, which was counteracted by the selective CB(1)R antagonist AM251. In addition, activation of CB(1)Rs or CB Rs caused inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) 2 -ATPase activity in microsomes derived from the gland tissue as well as in isolated acinar cells. Using a Ca(2+) imaging technique, we showed that activation of CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs alters [Ca(2+)](cyt) signalling in acinar cells by distinct pathways, involving Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), respectively. Our data demonstrate the expression of CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs in acinar cells, and their involvement in the regulation of salivary gland functioning.

  6. Effects of split-dose X irradiation on rat salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, A.; s-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, A.W. )

    1991-07-01

    The effect of a single local dose of 15 Gy on salivary gland function in male Albino Wistar rats was compared with the effect of two doses of 7.5 Gy. The intervals chosen were 0-24 h and 1 week. Before and 1-30 days after the last radiation dose, samples of parotid and submandibular saliva were collected simultaneously after stimulation of the glands with pilocarpine. Irradiation with the single dose resulted in an increased lag phase and potassium concentration, and a decreased flow rate and sodium concentration. The rate of secretion of amylase was decreased during Days 1-6, increased at Day 10, and was decreased again at Day 30. With two dose fractions, substantial dose-sparing effects on lag phase, flow rate, and secretion of amylase were observed for both the very early (0-6 days postirradiation) and later (6-30 days postirradiation) effects. These effects were maximal when the interval between the fractions was 6 h. A significant dose-sparing effect on electrolytes was observed for the later effects only, again with a maximum for the 6-h interval. The dose-sparing observed for the very early effects cannot be explained satisfactorily by repair of sublethal damage (SLD), redistribution of cells over the cell cycle, or repopulation of salivary gland tissue between the doses. In contrast to the earlier dose-sparing effects, the split-dose recovery seen for later damage may be attributed, in part, to SLD repair in providing for greater reproductive survival of intercalated ductal cells and enhanced tissue regeneration.

  7. Biosynthesis of putrescine in the prostate gland of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, A. E.; Williams-Ashman, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    In the rat ventral prostate gland the biosynthesis of putrescine, a precursor of spermidine and spermine, is shown to occur by the direct decarboxylation of l-ornithine. Some properties of a soluble pyridoxal phosphate-dependent l-ornithine decarboxylase are described. The findings are discussed in relation to other enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines by the prostate gland. PMID:5667265

  8. SGLT1 protein expression in plasma membrane of acinar cells correlates with the sympathetic outflow to salivary glands in diabetic and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Alves-Wagner, Ana B T; Burgi, Katia; Okamoto, Maristela M; Alves, Adilson S; Lima, Guilherme A; Freitas, Helayne S; Antunes, Vagner R; Machado, Ubiratan F

    2010-12-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is a feature in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) participates in salivary dysfunctions through a sympathetic- and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated pathway. In Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), diabetic WKY (WKY-D), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and diabetic SHR (SHR-D) rats, PKA/SGLT1 proteins were analyzed in parotid and submandibular glands, and the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the glands was monitored. Basal SNA was threefold higher in SHR (P < 0.001 vs. WKY), and diabetes decreased this activity (∼50%, P < 0.05) in both WKY and SHR. The catalytic subunit of PKA and the plasma membrane SGLT1 content in acinar cells were regulated in parallel to the SNA. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic branch to salivary glands increased (∼30%, P < 0.05) PKA and SGLT1 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the observed regulations of SGLT1, revealing its location in basolateral membrane of acinar cells. Taken together, our results show highly coordinated regulation of sympathetic activity upon PKA activity and plasma membrane SGLT1 content in salivary glands. Furthermore, the present findings show that diabetic- and/or hypertensive-induced changes in the sympathetic activity correlate with changes in SGLT1 expression in basolateral membrane of acinar cells, which can participate in the salivary glands dysfunctions reported by patients with these pathologies.

  9. Changes in the Submandibular Salivary Gland Epithelial Cell Subpopulations During Progression of Sjögren's Syndrome-Like Disease in the NOD/ShiLtJ Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Elise M; Desantis, Kara A; Pagendarm, Nicholas; Nelson, Deirdre A; Enger, Tone; Skarstein, Kathrine; Liaaen Jensen, Janicke; Larsen, Melinda

    2015-09-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune exocrinopathy, is associated with dysfunction of the secretory salivary gland epithelium, leading to xerostomia. The etiology of SS disease progression is poorly understood as it is typically not diagnosed until late stage. Since mouse models allow the study of disease progression, we investigated the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse to explore temporal changes to the salivary epithelium. In the NOD/ShiLtJ model, SS presents secondary to autoimmune diabetes, and SS disease is reportedly fully established by 20 weeks. We compared epithelial morphology in the submandibular salivary glands (SMG) of NOD/ShiLtJ mice with SMGs from the parental strain at 12, 18, and 22 weeks of age and used immunofluorescence to detect epithelial proteins, including the acinar marker, aquaporin 5, ductal cell marker, cytokeratin 7, myoepithelial cell marker, smooth muscle α-actin, and the basal cell marker, cytokeratin 5, while confirming immune infiltrates with CD45R. We also compared these proteins in the labial salivary glands of human SS patients with control tissues. In the NOD/ShiLtJ SMG, regions of lymphocytic infiltrates were not associated with widespread epithelial tissue degradation; however, there was a decrease in the area of the gland occupied by secretory epithelial cells in favor of ductal epithelial cells. We observed an expansion of cells expressing cytokeratin 5 within the ducts and within the smooth muscle α-actin(+) basal myoepithelial population. The altered acinar/ductal ratio within the NOD/ShiLtJ SMG likely contributes to salivary hypofunction, while the expansion of cytokeratin 5 positive-basal cells may reflect loss of function or indicate a regenerative response.

  10. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  11. Anatomical study of the submandibular gland duct after removal of a distal stone without sialodochoplasty: a sialographic evaluation of a clinical phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Min Su; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong

    2016-06-01

    Transoral removal of a distal salivary stone is common. We have used postoperative sialography to evaluate the results and changes in the salivary ducts after removal of a salivary distal stone without sialodochoplasty. Of 20 patients who had had transoral operations for submandibular stones, 19 recovered normally with no recurrence. One developed partial stenosis and one a spontaneous neo-opening as a result of severe adhesions and inflammation between the salivary stone and the duct. None of the patients had any symptoms of recurrence during the 12-month follow-up. Sialodochoplasty may not be necessary in patients who have had a distal salivary stone removed. Removal without sialodochoplasty resulted in full anatomical recovery of the salivary ducts. PMID:26975573

  12. Submandibular venous hemangioma: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Adam N; Vyhmeister, Ross; Kamran, Mudassar; Teefey, Sharlene A

    2015-10-01

    Hemangiomas of the submandibular space are very rare. Only 11 cases have been reported in the English literature, all of which were cavernous hemangiomas. In this report, we describe the case of a venous hemangioma in a 70-year-old woman. Ultrasound examination revealed a lobulated, homogeneous, hypoechoic mass, and minimal flow was detected on power Doppler evaluation. The mass and the submandibular gland were surgically excised, and the endothelium was found to be positive for CD31 and D2-40 markers, consistent with venous hemangioma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a venous hemangioma in the submandibular space.

  13. Imaging of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J L

    1995-12-01

    CT and MRI have greatly facilitated evaluation of pathology of the three pairs of major salivary glands and the hundreds of minor salivary glands. Imaging can frequently offer a specific histological diagnosis for benign and malignant neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Obstruction, infection, autoimmune processes, and congenital anomalies also are readily diagnosed. CT and MRI studies assess the anatomic extent of minor salivary gland neoplasms. Sialography continues to provide useful information about intrinsic abnormalities of the parotid and submandibular ducts.

  14. Distribution and properties of arginase in the salivary glands of four species of laboratory mammals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, N; Moriwaki, K; Furuyama, S

    2004-04-01

    Important progress in arginine metabolism includes the discovery of widespread expression of two isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, not only in hepatic cells but also in non-hepatic cells, and the formation of nitric oxide, a widely distributed signal-transducing molecule, from arginine by nitric oxide synthase. Possible physiological roles of arginase may therefore include regulation of nitric oxide synthesis through arginine availability for nitric oxide synthase. In this paper, arginase was investigated in the submandibular, sublingual, and parotid glands of rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit. From their arginase contents, the salivary glands of these species were divided into two groups. Variable levels of arginase activity were detected in the salivary glands of mouse and rat. However, salivary glands of rabbit and guinea pig had almost no arginase activity. The presence of nitric oxide synthase has been reported in all the salivary glands used in this study. Therefore, one of the important findings was the presence of species specificity in the co-localization of arginase and nitric oxide synthase in the salivary glands of the four species. The highest specific activity of arginase was found in mouse parotid gland. In rat, considerable arginase activity was detected in all three glands, at 3.6-7.3% of that in rat liver. In rat submandibular gland, arginase was detected in both cytosolic and particulate fractions. In addition, arginase was detected in isolated acinar cells, but not in duct cells. Experiments on the intracellular distribution and the effects of the arginase inhibitors ornithine and N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), suggested the presence of both arginase I and arginase II in rat submandibular gland. PMID:14712329

  15. Quantitative histomorphology of the blind mole rat harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Shanas, U; Arensburg, B; Hammel, I; Hod, I; Terkel, J

    1996-01-01

    Anatomical, histological and morphometric studies have been performed on the harderian gland and its surroundings in the blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). The gland is tubuloalveolar with no true duct system. All ducts within the gland are formed by a single epithelial cell type and drain into a wide secretory duct. This opens into the conjunctival sac which serves as a reservoir for harderian secretions. Drainage from the conjunctival sac follows 2 possible routes: one through the nasolacrimal duct to the external nasal cavity, the other through a unique excretory duct that emerges from the anteromedial part of the conjunctival sac and runs through the dermis to the skin, opening at the base of a hair follicle. The function of this newly described duct is discussed. Morphometric studies revealed that the lumen volume fraction in the female, slightly smaller than that of the male during the summer, becomes significantly greater during the winter breeding season. The dimorphism and seasonal variations found in the gland acini suggests that the gland may be implicated in pheromone production. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8621332

  16. Rat parotid gland cell differentiation in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J; Schulz, David J; Camden, Jean M; Liao, Zhongji; Peterson, Troy S; Seye, Cheikh I; Petris, Michael J; Weisman, Gary A

    2010-10-01

    The use of polarized salivary gland cell monolayers has contributed to our understanding of salivary gland physiology. However, these cell models are not representative of glandular epithelium in vivo, and, therefore, are not ideal for investigating salivary epithelial functions. The current study has developed a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model for rat Par-C10 parotid gland cells that forms differentiated acinar-like spheres on Matrigel. These 3D Par-C10 acinar-like spheres display characteristics similar to differentiated acini in salivary glands, including cell polarization, tight junction (TJ) formation required to maintain transepithelial potential difference, basolateral expression of aquaporin-3 and Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter-1, and responsiveness to the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol that is decreased by the anion channel blocker diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid or chloride replacement with gluconate. Incubation of the spheres in the hypertonic medium increased the expression level of the water channel aquaporin-5. Further, the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma induced alterations in TJ integrity in the acinar-like spheres without affecting individual cell viability, suggesting that cytokines may affect salivary gland function by altering TJ integrity. Thus, 3D Par-C10 acinar-like spheres represent a novel in vitro model to study physiological and pathophysiological functions of differentiated acini.

  17. Melatonin-induced protein synthesis in the rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Cevik-Aras, H; Godoy, T; Ekstrom, J

    2011-02-01

    Melatonin occurs in large amounts in the intestinal mucosa and is released during a meal. Recent studies of ours reveal that exogenous melatonin evokes the in vivo secretion of protein and amylase from the rat parotid gland. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the protein synthesis of the parotid gland of pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats as estimated by the rate of incorporation of [³H]leucine into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material of the gland. Compared with the parotid protein synthesis (set at 100%) of those rats exposed to an intravenous infusion of melatonin (25 mg/kg during 1 hour), under muscarinic and α- and β-adrenoceptor blockade, the synthesis in the corresponding glands of saline-treated control rats was less (by 25%). The synthesis was also less when the melatonin administration was combined with the melatonin 2-preferring receptor antagonist luzindole (24%), the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (18%) and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-PLA (21%). Almost all the melatonin receptor-mediated effect was due to nitric oxide generation via the activity of neuronal type nitric oxide synthase. The present findings lend further weight to the idea that salivary glandular activity associated with food intake is hormonally influenced and they also suggest clinical implications for melatonin in the treatment of xerostomia. Since melatonin is known to exert anti-inflammatory actions in the oral cavity, the stimulatory effect of melatonin may include the synthesis of proteins of importance for the oral defence.

  18. X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

  19. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; de Farias-Junior, Paulo Mecenas Alves; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  20. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  1. Ascorbate deficiency impairs the muscarinic-cholinergic and ss-adrenergic receptor signaling systems in the guinea pig submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Sawiris, P G; Enwonwu, C O

    2000-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is preferentially concentrated in the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands. Its level in the acini of salivary glands is relatively high. We therefore hypothesized that ascorbate may have a role in salivary gland function. Ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs had lower stimulated whole salivary flow rates than well-fed, age-matched controls (P: < 0.005). Total salivary protein concentration was also markedly (P: < 0.005) reduced in the deficient guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE and densitometric quantification of protein bands confirmed significant reduction in specific salivary proteins (e.g., amylase, proline-rich proteins) in the saliva samples of malnourished guinea pigs. Some protein bands not seen in control saliva were detected in the saliva of malnourished guinea pigs. Ascorbate deficiency also produced a significant (P: < 0.005) reduction in the ss-adrenergic receptor density (subtype 1; 95 +/- 19 fmol/mg protein compared with 179 +/- 27 fmol/mg protein for the controls). No significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the ss-adrenergic receptor subtype 2. Additionally, ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs had significantly lower muscarinic-cholinergic receptor densities (50 +/- 5 vs. 74 +/- 8 fmol/mg protein for controls). Our data support the conclusion that diminished membrane receptors might impair the capacity of the transmembrane signaling system, resulting in salivary gland hypofunction in ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs. Without implying extrapolation of our findings in experimental animals to humans, it is perhaps relevant that many conditions often associated with salivary gland hypofunction in humans (e.g., smoking or drug ingestion) deplete cellular ascorbate. PMID:11110840

  2. Characterization of Rat Meibomian Gland Ion and Fluid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Davis, Richard M.; Aita, Megumi; Burns, Kimberlie A.; Clapp, Phillip W.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Chua, Michael; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Schlegel, Richard; Randell, Scott H.; C. Boucher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We establish novel primary rat meibomian gland (MG) cell culture systems and explore the ion transport activities of the rat MG. Methods Freshly excised rat MG tissues were characterized as follows: (1) mRNA expression of selected epithelial ion channels/transporters were measured by RT-PCR, (2) localization of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNAs was performed by in situ hybridization, and (3) protein expression and localization of βENaC, the Na+/K+/Cl− cotransporter (NKCC), and the Na+/K+ ATPase were evaluated by immunofluorescence. Primary isolated rat MG cells were cocultured with 3T3 feeder cells and a Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) for expansion. Passaged rat MG cells were cultured as planar sheets under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions for gene expression and electrophysiologic studies. Passaged rat MG cells also were cultured in matrigel matrices to form spheroids, which were examined ultrastructurally by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and functionally using swelling assays. Results Expression of multiple ion channel/transporter genes was detected in rat MG tissues. β-ENaC mRNA and protein were localized more to MG peripheral acinar cells than central acinar cells or ductular epithelial cells. Electrophysiologic studies of rat MG cell planar cultures demonstrated functional sodium, chloride, and potassium channels, and cotransporters activities. Transmission electron microscopic analyses of rat MG spheroids revealed highly differentiated MG cells with abundant lysosomal lamellar bodies. Rat MG spheroids culture-based measurements demonstrated active volume regulation by ion channels. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence and function of ion channels and volume transport by rat MG. Two novel primary MG cell culture models that may be useful for MG research were established. PMID:27127933

  3. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream.

  4. Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Strum, J M

    1979-10-01

    Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells since they often occurred in groups and occasionally exhibited remnants of desmosomes. Often the cells within the colloid appeared vacuolated, and by light microscopy were thought to contain lipid. However, electron microscopy revealed that these cells contained many digestive vacuoles rather than lipid droplets. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. The keratinization of ultimorbranchial follicles in vitamin-A deficiency has been suggested as preliminary in the histogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. However, an effect of vitamin A deficiency on thyroid follicular cells has not heretofore been reported. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign.

  5. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy.

  6. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage.

  7. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Data concerned with analyzing the cellular organization of the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The preparation of the cell suspensions and the methods used to separate pituitary cell types are described. Particular emphasis is given to velocity sedimentation at unit gravity, density gradient centrifugation, affinity methods, fluorescence activated cell sorting, and density gradient and continuous-flow electrophoresis. The difficulties encountered when attempting to compare data from different pituitary cell separation studies are discussed, and results from various experiments are presented. The functional capabilities of the separated cell populations can be tested in various culture systems.

  8. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Various techniques for separating the hormone-producing cell types from the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The purity, viability, and responsiveness of the separated cells depend on the physiological state of the donor, the tissue dissociation procedures, the staining technique used for identification of cell type, and the cell separation technique. The chamber-gradient setup and operation, the characteristics of the gradient materials, and the separated cell analysis of velocity sedimentation techniques (in particular Staput and Celsep) are described. Consideration is given to the various types of materials used in density gradient centrifugation and the operation of a gradient generating device. The use of electrophoresis to separate rat pituitary cells is discussed.

  9. Zinc deficiency affects the composition of the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.J.; Leure-DuPree, A.E.; Fosmire, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    The response of the adrenal gland to zinc deficiency was examined in male weanling rats. In comparison with decapsulated adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, glands from zinc deficient rats had greater relative weight (mg/g body wt), DNA concentration, and total lipid and cholesterol concentrations as well as a smaller protein/DNA ratio. Several of these differences (protein/DNA and cholesterol concentration) could be attributed to the inanition accompanying zinc deficient values were similar to those of pair fed controls. Values for total DNA and protein concentration were similar for all groups. Electron micrographs of the zona fasciculata showed a small number of lipid droplets in the adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, an increase in lipid droplets from pair fed controls, and an even more striking increase in lipid droplets from the zinc deficient adrenals. The increased adrenal lipid composition in the zinc deficient group may be secondary to enhanced steroidogenesis or a zinc deficiency-induced defect of lipid metabolism.

  10. Autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptors in rat nasal glands.

    PubMed

    Van Megen, Y J; Teunissen, M J; Klaassen, A B; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro method was developed for the biochemical and autoradiographic demonstration of low muscarinic receptor densities in peripheral tissue. Histological criteria point clearly to the necessity for fixation to preserve tissue quality. [3H]l-Quinuclidinylbenzilate bound specifically to a homogeneous class of binding sites in 0.5% glutardialdehyde-fixed cryostat sections (10 microns) of rat nasal glands with high affinity (Kd = 0.47 +/- 0.06 nM) and with a receptor density (Bmax) of 41 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein. This binding was linearly dependent on the thickness of the sections. Kinetic experiments resulted in a Kd value of 0.19 nM. Binding was stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide enantiomers. Autoradiograms, generated after incubation with 0.6 nM [3H]l-quinuclidinylbenzilate and dipping in nuclear K2 emulsion, showed specific labelling of the glandular acini and excretory ducts. These in vitro observations provide conclusive evidence for the presence of acetylcholine receptors in the nasal glands of the rat. PMID:2450760

  11. Androgen dependent mammary gland virilism in rats given the selective estrogen receptor modulator LY2066948 hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rudmann, Daniel G; Cohen, Ilene R; Robbins, Michelle R; Coutant, David E; Henck, Judith W

    2005-01-01

    A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) is a nonsteroidal compound with tissue specific estrogen receptor (ER) agonist or antagonist activities. In animals, SERMs may produce morphologic changes in hormonally-sensitive tissues like the mammary gland. Mammary glands from female rats given the SERM LY2066948 hydrochloride (LY2066948) for 1 month at >or= 175 mg/kg had intralobular ducts and alveoli lined by multiple layers of vacuolated, hypertrophied epithelial cells, resembling in part the morphology of the normal male rat mammary gland. We hypothesized that these SERM-mediated changes represented an androgen-dependent virilism of the female rat mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide was co-administered with LY2066948 (175 mg/kg) to female rats for 1 month. Female rats given SERM alone had hyperandrogenemia and the duct and alveolar changes described here. Flutamide cotreatment did not affect serum androgen levels but completely blocked the SERM-mediated mammary gland change. In the mouse, a species that does not have the sex-specific differences in the mammary gland observed in the rat, SERM treatment resulted in hyperandrogenemia but did not alter mammary gland morphology. These studies demonstrate that LY2066948 produces species-specific, androgen-dependent mammary gland virilism in the female rat.

  12. Transglutaminase expression in rat parotid gland after isoproterenol stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cocuzzi, E; Kim, H C; Beninati, S; Hand, A R; Chung, S I

    1989-11-01

    Transglutaminases (E.C. 2.3.2.13) are calcium-dependent enzymes that catalyze the covalent cross-linking of proteins, and occur in multiple molecular forms in a variety of tissues. Distribution of each form of transglutaminase varies with different tissues. Studies were undertaken to characterize the form of transglutaminase expressed in rat parotid gland, and to examine a possible physiological role for the enzyme. It was found that chronic treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (IPR) resulted in the induction of parotid transglutaminase activity. The properties of this transglutaminase appeared to be distinct from those of the well-characterized guinea pig liver cytosol transglutaminase (TGase C). The findings that protein polymerization (observed on SDS-PAGE) and incorporation of radioactive putrescine, a polyamine, into protein occur in the presence of exogenous transglutaminase and calcium indicated that certain rat parotid salivary proteins are or could be substrates for this enzyme. Analysis of proteolytic digests of rat parotid salivary proteins on an amino acid analyzer and by high-performance liquid chromatography also indicated that these salivary proteins contain gamma-glutamyl derivatives of primary amines (e.g., polyamines or lysine), post-translational products of transglutaminase catalysis. The possible physiological function of this enzyme in the oral cavity might be stabilization of proteinaceous structures during normal oral homeostasis and/or woundhealing. PMID:2573623

  13. Massive myoepithelial carcinoma originating from the submandibular gland that was successfully treated with surgical excision, using a part of the lengthened skin as a local flap.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayato; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Sato, Rumiko; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Tanaka, Rica; Natori, Yuhei; Ohba, Shinichi; Fukumura, Yuki; Arakawa, Atsushi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is rare and mostly originates from the major salivary glands. Sometimes, it is difficult to differentiate the benign from the malignant histologically, and its clinical behavior and histological features may vary. Here, we describe the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with a massive myoepithelial carcinoma, which hung like a temple bell from her right side of the jaw, and she refused to go to the hospital for 3 years. Based on its size and location, we initially thought that, before surgical resection, neoadjuvant therapy would be necessary to reduce the tumor volume. However, after careful evaluation of the tumor characteristics (low-grade histology with outward expansion and little invasion of the adjacent tissues) and imaging findings, we decided that excision was possible. The tumor was encapsulated and had a clear border; it weighed 10.5 kg. By setting the incision line posterior to the equatorial plane and using the lengthened skin posterior to the tumor as a large local flap for the skin defect, we successfully reconstructed the skin defect without harvesting additional flap from other areas. No additional treatment was administered because a sufficient surgical margin was maintained, pathologically. She regained her daily life without recurrence or distant metastasis for 2 years. When treating a massive tumor, careful consideration of its characteristics and location is important, and in this case, we were able to use a simpler and less invasive treatment than we initially envisioned.

  14. [Sphingomonas paucimobilis infection with underlying submandibular sialolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Karabıçak, Ciğdem; Karabıçak, Hasan; Ağalar, Canan; Kazkayası, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S. paucimobilis), is a gram-negative, aerobic, non-fermentative, oxidase (+) and catalase (+) bacterium. Although S. paucimobilis is isolated very rarely, it can cause both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. A patient admitted to our clinic had a complaint of swelling in the right mandibular region and pain increasing while eating for the previous week. Bimanual palpation revealed a painful swelling of 1x1x1 cm in size inside the right Wharton's duct. Via massage over the right submandibular gland, a purulent drainage came up from the opening of the Wharton's duct and it was cultivated and S. paucimobilis was isolated. There was no ultrasonographic evidence of calculi in the duct or in the gland, but during the right submandibular gland massage, two stones came out through the Wharton's duct. The infection was observed to be eradicated with a 14-day ampicillin-sulbactam treatment. In the control examination after six months, there were no pathological signs or symptoms and the ultrasonogram was normal. As far as we know, this is the first sialadenitis case with underlying sialolithiasis where S. paucimobilis was isolated.

  15. Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L

    2010-01-01

    The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the duration of night period. This is achieved through the tight coupling between environmental lighting and the expression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, the rhythm-controlling enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The initiation of Aanat transcription at night is controlled largely by the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein by protein kinase A. However, to accurately reflect the duration of darkness, additional signaling mechanisms also participate to fine-tune the temporal profile of adrenergic-induced Aanat transcription. Here, we reviewed some of these signaling mechanisms, with emphasis on the more recent findings. These signaling mechanisms can be divided into two groups: those involving modification of constitutively expressed proteins and those requiring synthesis of new proteins. This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression.

  16. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration

    SciTech Connect

    Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

  17. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  18. Quantitative autoradiography of parathyroid glands in rats with carbon-14-labeled amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, J.A.; Alavi, A.; Attie, M.; Yudd, A.P.; Johnston, S.A.; Greenberg, J.

    1987-09-01

    We have utilized a quantitative autoradiographic method as a means of evaluating amino acid uptake of the rat parathyroid gland for the ultimate purpose of finding agents potentially suitable for position emission tomographic scanning of parathyroid glands. L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine and L-(guanido-/sup 14/C)arginine were evaluated because of their relatively high content in the synthetic products of the parathyroid glands compared with other neck tissues, thyroid gland, and muscle. Carbon-14 leucine disappeared rapidly from plasma following intravenous injection and there was relatively selective uptake of the (/sup 14/C)leucine and (/sup 14/C)arginine by the parathyroid glands when compared with uptake by the thyroid gland and neck muscle. These data suggest that both agents warrant further investigation for their potential utility in positron emission tomographic scanning of the parathyroid gland.

  19. Cadmium toxicity in the thyroid gland of pregnant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizuka, M.; Mori, N.; Hamasaki, K.; Tanaka, I.; Yokoyama, M.; Hara, K.; Doi, Y.; Umezu, Y.; Araki, H.; Sakamoto, Y. )

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium on the thyroid gland of pregnant rats were studied with an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. Serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were also analyzed. Deterioration of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum occurred in the thyroid follicular epithelium on the fifth day of cadmium treatment. Large intracellular vacuoles, which arose from dilated cisternae of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, were fused together, and marked swelling of the mitochondria was also noted. Thyroglobulin-secreting granules at the apical cytoplasm were decreased in number. By energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, cadmium peaks were preferentially obtained from swollen mitochondria in the follicular epithelial cells. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were significantly decreased in cadmium-treated rats dams when compared to those of controls. In the present experiment, cycloheximide also caused degenerative changes in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and the disappearance of thyroglobulin-secreting granules. Cycloheximide is a known inhibitor of protein synthesis on cytosolic ribosomes. These results indicated that accumulated cadmium in the mitochondria of thyroid follicular epithelial cells might disturb the oxidative phosphorylation of this organelle and the loss of energy supply possibly caused the inhibition of the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.

  20. [Age-related changes in the rat lacrimal gland: specific morphology and unknown nature].

    PubMed

    Gancharova, O S; Manskikh, V N

    2014-01-01

    The rat lacrimal apparatus includes several glands; among them, the exorbital gland plays the central role. Its parenchyma and stroma undergo prominent morphologic changes with age. The parenchymal transformation includes metaplasia of some of its acini and their turning into Harderian gland-like structures (harderization), accumulation of gland ducts ("ductularization"), and morphologic dysplasia-cytomegaly, karyomegaly, and'cell and nuclearpolymorphism in the other part of acini. All these transformations are hormone-dependent andsex-specific: theyoften appear in males. On the final stages of age-related transformations, the lacrimal gland tissue is morphologically similar to the neoplasm and has neoplastic morphology but no other features of a tumor. Therefore, the rat lacrimal gland is an interesting object to study tissue and cell atypia. In the rat glandular stroma, lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis appear with age; these changes are similar to processes taking place in human lacrimal apparatus involved in the pathogenesis of senile dry eye syndrome. The spontaneous changes in the rat lacrimal gland, predominantly in male rats, can be used as a model of the human lacrimal apparatus disorders.

  1. Similarity of GATA-3 Expression between Rat and Human Mammary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-07-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. In particular, GATA-3 is necessary for mammary gland maturation and is a useful marker in the characterization of mammary carcinoma in humans. The expression of GATA-3 protein in normal mammary glands, fibroadenomas and carcinomas was immunohistochemically compared in female rats and humans. In normal mammary glands of rats and humans, scattered luminal cells in the acini and whole ductal epithelial cells were positive for GATA-3 in the nuclei. No positive cells were detected in rat or human fibroadenomas. In rat and human mammary carcinomas, the nuclei of proliferating luminal-derived cancer cells expressed GATA-3. Therefore, GATA-3 protein is a candidate marker for mammary carcinoma in rats as well as humans.

  2. Involvement of the adrenal glands and testis in gap junction formation via testosterone within the male rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Ito, Kinya; Soji, Tsuyoshi; Herbert, Damon C

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the influence of testicular and adrenal androgens on the presence of gap junctions between folliculo-stellate cells in the anterior pituitary glands of 60-day-old Wistar-Imamichi strain male rats. The animals were separated into six groups: Group A served as the controls and had free access to a normal diet and water, Group B was given a normal diet and 0.9% NaCl for their drinking water as the controls of adrenalectomized groups, Group C was castrated, Group D was adrenalectomized, Group E was both castrated and adrenalectomized, and Group F was also both castrated and adrenalectomized. In addition, the animals of Group F were administered a dose of testosterone that is known to produce high physiological levels of the hormones in plasma. Five rats from each group were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days after their respective operation, and the anterior pituitary glands were removed and prepared for observation by transmission electron microscopy. We quantified the number of follicles and gap junctions and calculated the rate of occurrence as the ratio of the number of gap junctions existing between folliculo-stellate cells per intersected follicle profile. Simultaneous removal of adrenal glands with castration resulted in a significantly decrease in the number of gap junctions, whereas the administration of testosterone to these rats compensated for this change. These observations indicate that the preservation of gap junctions between folliculo-stellate cells is mainly dependent on androgens from both the testes and adrenal glands in adult male rats.

  3. Molecular, enzymatic and functional properties of rhodopsin kinase from rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Palczewski, K; Carruth, M E; Adamus, G; McDowell, J H; Hargrave, P A

    1990-01-01

    Rhodopsin kinase activity from rat pineal gland and from rat retina are indistinguishable, based upon determination of a variety of enzymatic and molecular properties. Both activities are independent of calcium, cyclic nucleotides, and calmodulin. Both are activated by spermine and inhibited by adenosine and some rhodopsin kinase specific adenosine derivatives such as sangivamycin. The Km's for rhodopsin, ATP, and GTP are indistinguishable for the protein kinase in extracts from the retina and from the pineal gland. The apparent molecular weight of the kinase from both sources, as determined by gel filtration and autoradiography of the 32P-labeled autophosphorylated kinase, is about 70 kDa. Rhodopsin kinase activity from pineal binds in a light-dependent manner to rhodopsin in rod outer segments as does the enzyme from retina. Monoclonal antibodies against bovine rhodopsin were used in an immunochemical study that identified a rhodopsin-immunoreactive protein in rat pineal gland and retina. Using an ELISA we demonstrated the presence of a rhodopsin-immunoreactive protein in rat pineal gland equivalent to 0.075 pmol rhodopsin per gland. Frog pineal organ (Rana catesbiana) contains 33 times more of this rhodopsin-like protein than does rat pineal gland. PMID:2402884

  4. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  5. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  6. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF TCDD ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG EVANS RATS: A TWO GENERATIONAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated variable effects on mammary gland development in rat offspring exposed to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1 ug/kg, gavage) on day 15 of gestation. We have characterized these effects in Long Evans rats, in both one and two-generational...

  7. Prehepatic portal hypertension induces alterations in cytochrome oxidase activity in the rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    López, Laudino; Aller, Maria-Angeles; Miranda, Ruben; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Nava, Maria-Paz; Arias, Jaime; Arias, Jorge-Luis

    2006-01-01

    One approach to assess neuroendocrine response to portal hypertension in short-term portal vein-stenosed rats consists in studying metabolic and functional activity patterns in adrenal glands using mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (COX) as a histochemical marker. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a control group (Group I; n = 8), in which the animals did not undergo any operative intervention, and a triple calibrated portal vein stenosis group (TPVS) (Group II; n = 7). The sections of suprarenal glands were histochemically stained for COX and the optical densitometry was measured by a computer image analyzer attached to a microscope. In TPVS rats, COX activity in the adrenal gland cortex is lower than in control rats and affects the fascicular (52.30, 47.16-60.98, vs. 67.12, 60.31-73.89, p = .002), glomerular (49.68, 46.19-53.56 vs. 70.47, 64.64-73.51, p < .001), and reticular (47.35, 35.63-54.39, vs. 55.37, 49.76-58.97; p < .05) layers. In contrast, COX activity in the adrenal gland medulla is similar in TPVS rats and in control rats (29.91, 29.54-31.18, vs. 29.67, 28.95-30.23). The changes in adrenocortical COX activity in short-term-TPVS rats could constitute a pathogenic factor for both splanchnic and systemic hyperdynamic circulations, described in this experimental model of prehepatic portal hypertension.

  8. [The "stimulatory proteodyschylia" in the amitriptylin (Laroxyl) treated rat parotid gland. Experiments on the effect of antidepressive pharmacotherapy on the parotid glands of the rat (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Hoffmann, G; Arglebe, C

    1977-06-30

    The activity of total amylase and isoamylases in the rat parotid gland is reduced by treatment with Amitriptylin (Laroxyl) for 3 and 7 days while the protein content of the glands remains constant. These changes are no longer visible after treatment for 21 days and following a period without drug application. To differentiate the disturbances of protein secretion (proteodyschylia) prominent in the clinical picture of sialadenosis, the following classification is proposed. We suggest the term "stimulatory proteodyschylia" for a decrease of acinar amylolytic activity, here caused by Amitriptylin application, as opposed to the "inhibitory proteodyschylia" characterized by an acinar amylase congestion.

  9. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma “de novo.” We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported. PMID:26600963

  10. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region.

    PubMed

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma "de novo." We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported.

  11. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H

    1980-10-15

    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  12. Brunner's gland lesions in rats induced by a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Akira; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Jiro; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Etsuko; Taketa, Yoshikazu; Van Gessel, Yvonne; Akare, Sandeep; Hutto, David; Hosokawa, Satoru; Tsukidate, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors are reported to cause reversible mucosal hyperplasia (adenosis) in the duodenum of rats; however, the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Using lenvatinib, a VEGF RTK inhibitor, we characterized the histologic time course of this duodenal change in rats. At 4 weeks, there was degeneration and necrosis of Brunner's gland epithelium accompanied by neutrophil infiltration around the affected glands. At 13 weeks, the inflammation was more extensive, and Brunner's gland epithelium was attenuated and flattened and was accompanied by reactive hyperplasia of duodenal epithelium. At 26 weeks, the changes became more severe and chronic and characterized by marked cystic dilation, which extended to the external muscular layer. These dilated glands exhibited morphological characteristics of duodenal crypt epithelium, suggestive of replacement of disappeared Brunner's glands by regenerative duodenal crypt epithelial cells. Similar changes were not present in similar time course studies in dog and monkey studies, suggesting that this is a rodent- or species-specific change. Based on the temporal progression of Brunner's gland lesion, we identify degeneration and necrosis of the Brunner's glands as the primary change leading to inflammation, cystic dilatation, and regeneration with cells that are morphologically suggestive of duodenal crypt epithelium.

  13. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Knaś, M; Maciejczyk, M; Daniszewska, I; Klimiuk, A; Matczuk, J; Kołodziej, U; Waszkiel, D; Ładny, J R; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M; Zalewska, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions. PMID:27478848

  14. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Knaś, M.; Daniszewska, I.; Klimiuk, A.; Kołodziej, U.; Waszkiel, D.; Ładny, J. R.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions. PMID:27478848

  15. TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia Emanuele; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Pinato, Luciana; Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; de Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Ferreira, Zulma Silva; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to inhibition of Aa-nat transcription and the production of N-acetylserotonin in cultured glands. The reduction in nocturnal melatonin surge favors the mounting of the inflammatory response. Despite these data, there is no clear evidence of the ability of the pineal gland to recognize molecules that signal infection. This study investigated whether the rat pineal gland expresses receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin from the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and to establish the mechanism of action of LPS. Here, we show that pineal glands possess both CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), membrane proteins that bind LPS and trigger the NFKB pathway. LPS induced the nuclear translocation of p50/p50 and p50/RELA dimers and the synthesis of TNF. The maximal expression of TNF in cultured glands coincides with an increase in the expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in isolated pinealocytes. In addition, LPS inhibited the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin. Therefore, the pineal gland transduces Gram-negative endotoxin stimulation by producing TNF and inhibiting melatonin synthesis. Here, we provide evidence to reinforce the idea of an immune-pineal axis, showing that the pineal gland is a constitutive player in the innate immune response.

  16. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces prolactin expression in rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Satoya; Kurotani, Reiko; Miyano, Yuki; Sakahara, Satoshi; Koike, Kanako; Maruyama, Minoru; Ishikawa, Fumio; Sakatai, Ichiro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takafumi

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the pituitary gland to understand the effect of M-CSF on pituitary hormones and the relationship between the endocrine and immune systems. When we attempted to establish pituitary cell lines from a thyrotropic pituitary tumor (TtT), a macrophage cell line, TtT/M-87, was established. We evaluated M-CSF-like activity in conditioned media (CM) from seven pituitary cell lines using TtT/M-87 cells. TtT/M-87 proliferation significantly increased in the presence of CM from TtT/GF cells, a pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cell line. M-CSF mRNA was detected in TtT/GF and MtT/E cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and its expression in TtT/GF cells was increased in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependent manner. M-CSF mRNA expression was also increased in rat anterior pituitary glands by LPS. M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR) mRNA was only detected in TtT/ M-87 cells and increased in the LPS-stimulated rat pituitary glands. In rat pituitary glands, M-CSF and M-CSFR were found to be localized in FS cells and prolactin (PRL)-secreting cells, respectively, by immunohistochemistry. The PRL concentration in rat sera was significantly increased at 24 h after M-CSF administration, and mRNA levels significantly increased in primary culture cells of rat anterior pituitary glands. In addition, TNF-α mRNA was increased in the primary culture cells by M-CSF. These results revealed that M-CSF was secreted from FS cells and M-CSF regulated PRL expression in rat pituitary glands.

  17. A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, John M.; Osimitz, Thomas G. . E-mail: perseus1@worldnet.att.net; Gabriel, Karl L.; Martin, Tom; Henderson, Wendy J.; Capen, Charles C.; Butler, William H.; Lake, Brian G.

    2006-08-01

    Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and/or triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism.

  18. A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat.

    PubMed

    Finch, John M; Osimitz, Thomas G; Gabriel, Karl L; Martin, Tom; Henderson, Wendy J; Capen, Charles C; Butler, William H; Lake, Brian G

    2006-08-01

    Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism.

  19. Ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and the testis in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Kuş, I; Sarsilmaz, M; Ogetürk, M; Yilmaz, B; Keleştimur, H; Oner, H

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and testis was evaluated in the rat. Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups I and II were sham-orchidectomized and orchidectomized rats, respectively. Rats in group III were orchidectomized and daily injected with testosterone propionate (TP) for 1 month. Groups IV and V were sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized, respectively. Group VI was pinealectomized and daily injected with melatonin for 2 months. All animals were anesthetized with ketamine for fixation by vascular perfusion. Pineal glands of groups I, II, and III and the testes of groups IV, V, and VI were removed and weighed. All specimens were examined by electron microscopy. Orchidectomy caused an increase of lipid droplets, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and lysosomes. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria were extensive in the cytoplasm. TP administration to orchidectomized rats resulted in formation of less extensive lipid droplets and mitochondria. In pinealectomized rats, golgi complex, mitochondria, and enlarged smooth endoplasmic reticulum were extensive in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. Formation of cytoplasmic secretory granules and osmiophilic bodies was observed. Testicular weight increased compared to group IV. Melatonin decreased testicular weight in comparison to group V and prevented ultrastructural changes. Pinealectomy and orchidectomy caused hyperactivity in Leydig cells and pinealocytes, respectively, which suggests a mutual relationship between the pineal gland and testis in the rat.

  20. Bath and Shower Effects in the Rat Parotid Gland Explain Increased Relative Risk of Parotid Gland Dysfunction After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Luijk, Peter van Faber, Hette; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid glands of Wistar rats was performed using 150-MeV protons. To determine suitable (i.e., subtolerance) dose levels for a bath-dose, both whole parotid glands were irradiated with 5 to 25 Gy. Subsequently groups of Wistar rats received 30 Gy to the caudal 50% (shower) and 0 to 10 Gy to the cranial 50% (bath) of both parotid glands. Stimulated saliva flow rate (function) was measured before and up to 240 days after irradiation. Results: Irradiation of both glands up to a dose of 10 Gy did not result in late loss of function and is thus regarded subtolerance. Addition of a dose bath of 1 to 10 Gy to a high-dose in the caudal 50% of the glands resulted in enhanced function loss. Conclusion: Similar to the spinal cord, the parotid gland demonstrates a bath and shower effect, which may explain the less-than-expected sparing of function after IMRT.

  1. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  2. Estrogen-induced decrease of glucocorticoid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid concentration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, A; Barden, N

    1987-06-01

    Using Northern blots and hybridization techniques, we have identified an approximately 6.5 kilobase glucocorticoid receptor mRNA species in rat anterior pituitary gland. Ovariectomy resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA concentrations. This effect was maximal 8 days after surgery and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels remained elevated for at least up to 4 weeks. Administration of 17-beta-estradiol completely reversed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content of pituitary gland. Treatment of rats with corticosterone did not influence the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content, indicating that this increase is not mediated via effects on circulating glucocorticoid levels or availability. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content and indicated that this action is widely distributed throughout the anterior pituitary gland.

  3. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro A; Pinato, Luciana; Ferreira, Zulma S; Markus, Regina P

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic

  4. Diurnal variations in food intake and in lipogenesis in mammary gland and liver of lactating rats.

    PubMed Central

    Munday, M R; Williamson, D H

    1983-01-01

    Despite the hyperphagia, the food intake of the lactating rat showed marked diurnal changes which paralleled those of virgin rats. The major difference was that lactating rats consumed a higher proportion (35%) of their diet during the light period than did virgin rats (14%). The peak rate of lipogenesis in the lactating mammary gland occurred around midnight, and this decreased by 67% to reach a nadir around mid-afternoon; this corresponded with the period of lowest food intake. The diurnal variations in hepatic lipogenesis in lactating rats were much less marked. The changes in hepatic glycogen over 24 h suggest that it acts to supply carbon for lipogenesis during the period of decreased food intake. The activation state of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in mammary gland altered during 24 h, but the changes did not always correlate with alterations in the rate of lipogenesis. The changes in plasma insulin concentration tended to parallel the food intake in the lactating rats, but they did not appear to be sufficient to explain the large alterations in lipogenic rate in the mammary gland. PMID:6137213

  5. Control of rat mammary-gland pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin and prolactin.

    PubMed Central

    Field, B; Coore, H G

    1976-01-01

    Withdrawal of prolactin or of insulin from the circulation of lactating rats leads, within 3h, to increased inactivation by phosphorylation of mammary-gland pyruvate dehydrogenase. Prolactin may act by priming the tissue to respond directly to normal concentrations of circulating insulin and by this means be responsible for the increased activation of the enzyme during the course of normal lactation. PMID:133680

  6. NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero.
    HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2
    1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  7. DETECTION OF A CRITICAL PERIOD NECESSARY FOR ATRAZINE-INDUCED MAMMARY GLAND DELAYS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of a Critical Period Necessary for Atrazine-Induced Mammary Gland Delays in Rats.

    Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, R...

  8. Desmoid Fibromatosis of Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rohana; Parthiban, Nirmalatiban; O’Dwyer, Tadgh

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid fibromatosis is a benign yet locally aggressive tumor with a tendency to recur. It causes considerable morbidity particularly when it arises in a small area in the head and neck region. This tumor is extremely rare in the submandibular region. We report a case of desmoid tumor in the submandibular region in a 32-year-old male who presented with right submandibular swelling postextraction of right lower wisdom tooth. Excision biopsy was carried out initially following inconclusive fine needle aspiration and discussion at multidisciplinary meeting. The tumor recurred 4 months following initial excisional biopsy necessitating a more radical secondary approach involving segmental mandibulectomy. Intraoperatively we also noted that the tumor was originating from the site of previous wisdom tooth extraction, raising the question of surgical trauma as precursor of desmoid tumor. We achieved a negative resection margin and a complete remission for 24 months. PMID:25013548

  9. Androgen control of secretory component mRNA levels in the rat lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Lambert, R W; Wickham, L A; Banting, G; Sullivan, D A

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the known gender-related differences in, and the endocrine control of, the production of secretory component (SC) by the rat lacrimal gland are associated with alterations in SC mRNA content. Levels of SC mRNA were measured in lacrimal tissues of intact, sham-operated, castrated, hypophysectomized, and testosterone-treated male and female adult rats by Northern blot procedures, which utilized a specific, [alpha-32P]-labelled rat SC cDNA probe. For control purposes, SC mRNA amounts were standardized to the beta-actin content in experimental blots. The location of SC mRNA in lacrimal glands was evaluated by in situ hybridization techniques, which involved exposure of tissue sections to sense or anti-sense [35S]-labelled SC RNA probes. Our results demonstrate that: (1) lacrimal glands of male rats contain a significantly greater amount of SC mRNA than those of female rats, and that this difference co-exists with distinct, gender-associated variations in the distribution of SC mRNA in lacrimal tissue; (2) orchiectomy or hypophysectomy, but not ovariectomy or sham surgery, leads to a marked decline in the lacrimal SC mRNA content; and (3) testosterone, but not placebo, administration to castrated male and female rats induces a significant increase in the SC mRNA levels in lacrimal tissue. Overall, these findings show that gender, androgens and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis exert a considerable influence on the SC mRNA content in the rat lacrimal gland.

  10. Leptin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio; Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Carvalho, Carla Roberta de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE ( 1 µM) reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT) activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  11. [Reducing late toxicity with amifostine in fractionated irradiation of the rat salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Sagowski, C; Wenzel, S; Jenicke, L; Bohuslavizki, K H; Kehrl, W; Zywietz, F; Roeser, K

    2002-09-01

    Clinical studies show that amifostine can reduce xerostomia and mucositis during radiotherapy of head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective potency of amifostine with respect to late toxicity of salivary glands of rats. The head-neck-area of 8 male WAG/RijH rats (295 +/- 7 g) were irradiated with 60Co-gamma-rays (60 Gy/30 f/6 weeks). Amifostine (250 mg/m2 body surface) was applied via a venous port 15 min before each irradiation. Rats of a control group were irradiated with the same schedule with equal volumes of physiological saline. The morphological and sialoscintigraphical findings clearly demonstrate that amifostine has a remarkable cytoprotective effect on the late toxicity of irradiated salivary glands. PMID:12425136

  12. Gross, histological and ultrastructural features of the bulbourethral gland in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olukole, S G; Oyeyemi, M O; Taiwo, V O; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

    2015-02-01

    The present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the bulbourethral glands in 10 sexually matured male greater cane rats raised in captivity. Following anaesthesia, the rats were perfusion-fixed transcardially and the bulbourethral glands dissected out. Upon morphologic and morphometric analysis, the Cowper's glands were observed to have an average volume of 0.24±0.08 ml, a diameter of 6.3±0.6 mm and weighs 0.199±0.06 g. The paired, gourd-shaped tubuloalveolar glands were surrounded by dense connective tissues and separated into lobules by capsular septae. Each lobule consists of endpiece/secretory units and excretory ducts lined by simple glandular epithelium and pseudo-stratified epithelium, respectively. The round end pieces consisted of 8-10 pyramidal to columnar epithelial cells with flattened, basally located nuclei and granule-filled cytoplasm that bounded a narrow glandular lumen. The striking ultrastructural features of these secretory cells were the presence of some granules with uniform electron density and those with regions of lesser density as well as the absence of secretory vacuoles. Another unique characteristic of these secretory granules is the presence of electron dense strands radiating from their surfaces. The apical surfaces of the cells were also studded with abundant microvilli. From the findings, the structure of bulbourethral glands in the greater cane rat shows more resemblances to that of humans than to its rodent phylogeny. These findings serve as additional knowledge in the structural interpretation of the bulbourethral gland and its secretory products. PMID:24660943

  13. Rax : developmental and daily expression patterns in the rat pineal gland and retina.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2011-09-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until embryonic day 20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome.

  14. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body.

  15. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  16. Cytochemical investigation on lipids in human major salivary glands. A light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, P; Diaz, G; Lantini, M S; Del Fiacco, M

    1976-01-01

    The localization of lipids in the secretion of human parotid and submandibular glands has been here investigated. Ultrastructural observations following lipid extraction and histochemical data showed that lipid components are not present in the secretory granules. In fact, while histochemical reactions are completely negative, secretory granules from lipid-depleted glands retain all their morphological characters. These results led us to emphasize that, at least in human seromucous cells, lipids are not directly involved in the salivary secretion. This conclusion, which is supported by the biochemical data concerning the lipid content in human saliva, disagrees with the findings obtained in rat and guinea pig salivary glands. However, this discrepancy may be ascribed to the specific biochemical and ultrastructural differences found in the salivary glands of the various mammalian species. PMID:1023331

  17. BrdU-label-retaining cells in rat eccrine sweat glands over time.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Li, Xuexue; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Bingna; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    Cell proliferation and turnover are fueled by stem cells. In a previous study, we demonstrated that rat eccrine sweat glands contained abundant bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-label-retaining cells (LRCs). However, morphological observations showed that eccrine sweat glands usually show little or no signs of homeostatic change. In this study, we account for why the homeostatic change is rare in eccrine sweat glands based on cytokinetic changes in BrdU-LRC turnover, and also determine the BrdU-labeled cell type. Thirty-six newborn SD rats, were injected intraperitoneally with 50mg/kg BrdU twice daily at a 2h interval for 4 consecutive days. After a chase period of 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 32 weeks, rats were euthanized, and the hind footpads were removed and processed for BrdU immunostaining, and BrdU/α-SMA and BrdU/K14 double-immunostaining. BrdU-LRCs were observed in the ducts, secretory coils and mesenchymal cells at all survival time points. The percentage of BrdU(+) cells in rat eccrine sweat glands averaged 4.2±1.2% after 4 weeks of chase, increased slightly by the 6th week, averaging 4.4±0.9%, and peaked at 8 weeks, averaging 5.3±1.0%. Subsequently, the average percentage of BrdU(+) cells declined to 3.2±0.8% by the 32nd week. There was no difference in the percentage of BrdU-LRCs among the different survival time points except that a significant difference in the percentage of BrdU-LRCs detected at 24 weeks versus 8 weeks, and 32 weeks versus 8 weeks, was observed. We concluded that the BrdU-LRCs turnover is slow in eccrine sweat glands. PMID:26657518

  18. Effect of ovariectomy at birth on the regulation of sebaceous glands in rats.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y C

    1980-07-01

    Inbred Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized within 24 h of birth. Sham-operated and untreated male and female rats were also included for comparison. At the age of 80 days, the secretion rate of sebum was assessed from the amount of skin-surface lipids that could be extracted by acetone and which had been produced during 2 days. There were no differences in sebum secretion, when expressed both in relationship to body weight and to surface area of the body, when rats ovariectomized at birth, sham-operated and intact female rats were compared. The removal of the ovaries within 24 h of birth increased the body weight, however. Although the weights of the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands, when corrected for body weight, were significantly smaller in rats ovariectomized at birth than in the sham-operated or intact female rats, there were no statistically significant differences in the absolute weights of these endocrine organs between neonatally spayed rats and sham-operated animals. The uterus became atrophic in the absence of ovaries. It has been concluded that the presence or absence of ovaries in the early stage of life had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous glands.

  19. [Effect of space flight aboard "Kosmos-1129" on thyroid hormone content of the blood and thyroid gland of rats].

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Kalita, N F; Makho, L; Langer, P; Knopp, Ia

    1985-01-01

    Thyrotrophin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine were measured in plasma and thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the thyroid gland of the rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. Postflight the plasma content of thyrotrophin and triiodothyronine increased and that of thyroxine decreased and the gland content of thyroxine and triiodothyronine diminished. It is postulated that in the flight animals the functional activity of the thyroid gland declined.

  20. Sensory innervation of the suprarenal gland in the albino rat: a fluorescent tract tracer study.

    PubMed

    Sangari, S K; Khatri, K; Sengupta, P

    1998-01-01

    The afferent innervation of the suprarenal gland was studied by using a fluorescent tract tracer in the adult albino rat. The left suprarenal gland was injected slowly with 5 microl of 2% aqueous suspension of Fast blue. After a survival period of 4-5 days, the dorsal root ganglia were dissected out and 15-microm-thick plastic (JB 4) sections were examined under the fluorescent microscope. The labelled neurons were seen from the third thoracic to second lumbar dorsal root ganglia, ipsilateral to the site of injection with maximum concentration from T6 to T11. These primary sensory neurons were round to oval in shape, varied from 7 microm to 40 microm in size, and were distributed randomly in the dorsal root ganglia. The labelling of the primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia confirms the presence of sensory nerve endings in the suprarenal gland that may be responsible for the vascular distension and hormonal release.

  1. Clonal proliferation of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in the neonatal and adult salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Teruki; Takao, Tukasa; Fujita, Kiyohide; Taniguchi, Hideki . E-mail: rtanigu@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp

    2006-02-10

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells are thought to be present in intercalated ductal cells, but the fact is unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if stem/progenitor cells are present in submandibular glands using colony assay, which is one of the stem cell assay methods. Using a low-density culture of submandibular gland cells of neonatal rats, we developed a novel culture system that promotes single cell colony formation. Average doubling time for the colony-forming cells was 24.7 (SD = {+-}7.02) h, indicating high proliferative potency. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were added to the medium, the number of clonal colonies increased greater than those cultured without growth factors (13.2 {+-} 4.18 vs. 4.5 {+-} 1.73). The RT-PCR and immunostaining demonstrated expressing acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell lineage markers. This study demonstrated the presence of the salivary gland stem/progenitor cells that are highly proliferative and multipotent in salivary glands.

  2. Characterization of methylaminoisobutyric acid transport by system A in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Tovar, A R; Avila, E; DeSantiago, S; Torres, N

    2000-07-01

    During lactation, the mammary gland has a large demand for amino acids for the synthesis of milk proteins and fatty acids. Arteriovenous differences in amino acids across the mammary gland show an elevated uptake of small neutral amino acids that are mainly transported via system A. The purpose of this study was to characterize the transport of methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), an amino acid analog used to model transport by system A in lactating rat mammary gland explants. MeAIB accumulation in mammary gland cells increased steadily, and after 3 hours of incubation, the intracellular concentration of the analog was 8-fold higher than the concentration in the medium. MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants showed a Km of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/L and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 555 +/- 23 pmol/microL intracellular fluid (ICF) x min, indicating a system with high capacity but low affinity for its substrate. MeAIB transport into mammary tissue depended highly on Na+, and the uptake was inhibited by addition of natural and analog small neutral amino acids. Cationic, anionic, and large neutral amino acids did not reduce MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants. Preincubation of mammary gland explants in an amino acid-free medium stimulated MeAIB transport, suggesting an adaptive regulation. The addition of an equimolar mixture of alanine, glycine, and serine to the preincubation medium inhibited stimulation of MeAIB transport. Furthermore, stimulation of MeAIB uptake by amino acid starvation was also prevented by the addition of actinomycin D, cycloheximide, tunicamycin, and colchicine. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increased MeAIB uptake, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) did not stimulate MeAIB transport. During the first postweaning days, kinetic analyses showed a decrease of 27% in the Vmax. Injection of rat lactating mammary gland mRNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes induced expression of the MeAIB transport system; however, the

  3. Survey of spontaneous dystrophic mineralisation of pineal gland in ageing rats.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S K

    1997-11-01

    The survey included 151 rats from several carcinogenicity studies up to 104 weeks and 260 rats from short-term studies up to 52 weeks. All studies were performed during the period 1990-1996. Young rats up to 52 weeks of age showed normal structural appearance, in 134 male rats the incidence of mineralisation was 6.3% and in 126 females the incidence was only slightly less at 5.6%. In ageing rats, 70-104 weeks, 88 males and 63 females showed far higher incidence of mineralisation, 83% and 57% respectively, showing that the incidence of mineralisation in ageing rats was higher in males than females. The focal mineralisation occurred mainly at the margin of the gland in the subcapsular region mostly adjacent to small blood vessels. On occasions these involved the parenchymal cells in the middle part of the gland. The focal mineralisation stained positive with von Kossa indicating presence of calcium and also with PAS (Pariodic Acid-Schiff method), indicating presence of neutral mucopolysaccharide. There was no evidence of positivity with Perl's stain (for ferric salts), Toluidine blue (for protein) or Alcian blue (for acid mucopolysaccharides). With Oil Red O there was evidence of presence of fat or lipid in pinealocytes. PMID:9428987

  4. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells migrate to healthy and damaged salivary glands following stem cell infusion.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Silke; Huss, Ralf; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Vogel, Breda; Brandau, Sven; Lang, Stephan; Rotter, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Xerostomia is a severe side effect of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. To date, no satisfactory treatment option has been established. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as a potential treatment modality, we aimed to evaluate stem cell distribution following intravenous and intraglandular injections using a surgical model of salivary gland damage and to analyse the effects of MSC injections on the recruitment of immune cells. The submandibular gland ducts of rats were surgically ligated. Syngeneic adult MSCs were isolated, immortalised by simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and characterized by flow cytometry. MSCs were injected intravenously and intraglandularly. After 1, 3 and 7 days, the organs of interest were analysed for stem cell recruitment. Inflammation was analysed by immunohistochemical staining. We were able to demonstrate that, after intravenous injection, MSCs were recruited to normal and damaged submandibular glands on days 1, 3 and 7. Unexpectedly, stem cells were recruited to ligated and non-ligated glands in a comparable manner. After intraglandular injection of MSCs into ligated glands, the presence of MSCs, leucocytes and macrophages was enhanced, compared to intravenous injection of stem cells. Our data suggest that injected MSCs were retained within the inflamed glands, could become activated and subsequently recruited leucocytes to the sites of tissue damage. PMID:24810808

  5. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period.

  6. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary gland: X. Immunohistocytochemistry of S-100 and connexin 43 of folliculo-stellate cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Mabuchi, Yoshio; Sakuma, Eisuke; Horiuchi, Osamu; Yashiro, Takashi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuo; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    Since Rinehart and Farquhar reported the presence of agranulated cells in the anterior pituitary gland in 1953, the functions of the folliculo-stellate cell remain to be clarified. Intercellular junctions have been described in the monkey, rat, and teleost anterior pituitary glands, indicating the existence of cell-to-cell communication within the organ. We pointed to their possible role in the rapid dissemination of information through a complex interconnecting system of follicles involving gap junctions. The gap junctional/folliculo-stellate cellular network was essential in the maturation and regulation of the pituitary gland system such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It has been was shown that a network participated in the conduction of electrophysiological information over a long distance using the ion Ca(++), which propagates to other folliculo-stellate cells by signaling through gap junctions. Sixty-day-old male rats were used in this study for light microscopic immunohistochemistry of S-100 protein, type I collagen, and connexin 43, and for electron microscopy to observe the morphological relationships between the cellular networks of folliculo-stellate cells and granulated pituitary cells. Clusters of anti-S-100 protein-positive cells were clearly observed in a region of the hypophysis tentatively named the transition zone. Anti-S-100 protein-positive cells and their cytoplasmic processes were also present in the anterior lobe and assembled together to form follicular lumina. Type I collagen was clearly shown outlining the incomplete lobular or ductule-like structure making cell cords in the anterior pituitary gland. Numerous microvilli were present within the follicular lumen while around the lumina, junctional specializations including gap junctions were positive for the connexin 43 protein. A nonuniform distribution of the connexin 43-positive sites were observed. Small or dot-shaped positive sites were noted where two clusters of cells

  7. Effect of foeniculum vulgare seed extract on mammary glands and oviducts of ovariectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Devi, K; Vanithakumari, G; Anusya, S; Mekala, N; Malini, T; Elango, V

    1985-10-01

    The effect of acetone extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., seeds at different dose levels (50/ug, 150/ug and 250/ug/100gm body wt.) on mammary glands and oviducts of castrated rats was investigated. The extract was found to increase nucleic acids and protein concentration as well as the organ weights in both the tissues. The medium and high doses were very effective. The results confirm the estrogenic nature of the seed extract.

  8. The influence of the parathyroid glands on the hypercalcemia of experimental magnesium depletion in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gitelman, H. J.; Kukolj, S.; Welt, L. G.

    1968-01-01

    Magnesium-deficient rats develop significant hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperphosphaturia. These changes suggest a state of hyperparathyroidism. This study examines the regulation of parathyroid gland activity in magnesium-deficient rats. Magnesium deficiency was induced in intact and chronically parathyroidectomized animals by feeding them a diet free of this cation. Control animals were pair fed and treated identically except for the inclusion of magnesium in their gavage solution. Magnesium-deficient rats with intact parathyroid glands developed significant hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. In addition, the concentration of ionic calcium in plasma was significantly elevated. In contrast, magnesium-deficient parathyroidectomized animals did not have a higher level of calcium in plasma than their nondeficient controls; they developed a decreased concentration of ionic calcium in the absence of a difference in the concentration of phosphate in plasma when compared with appropriate controls. The increased urinary excretion of phosphate was independent of the parathyriod status of the animals. It can be concluded that the hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia of magnesium deficiency demands parathyroid gland activity and that the regulation of this activity is modified in the magnesium-deficient state to permit the maintenance of an elevated concentration of ionic calcium in plasma. Additional explanations must be found for the hyperphosphaturia. Images PMID:16695934

  9. Expression of the beacon gene in endocrine glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-01-01

    Beacon gene has been recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and reported to be overexpressed in obese animals. This pattern of expression suggests that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Hence, we have investigated the expression of beacon in the endocrine system of the rat. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the expression of beacon mRNA in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, testis, ovary and pancreatic islets. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of the beacon immunoreactivity in all tissues studied, the staining being very intense in the neurons of paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, the basophils of adenohypophysis, the parathyroid gland, adrenocortical cells, testis Leydig cells, ovary thecal, granulosa and lutein cells, and pancreatic islets. Due the fact that beacon has been included in the ubiquitin-like protein family, its widespread expression in rat endocrine tissues is not astonishing. The in vivo administration of beacon[47-73] (3.5 nmol/100 body weight) elicited within 60 min a marked decrease in the plasma concentration of ACTH, aldosterone and corticosterone, and a moderate lowering of the blood levels of testosterone and estradiol. This finding suggests that beacon exerts a negative modulatory action on the pituitary-adrenal axis and gonad secretory activity, whose physiological relevance remains, however, to be established.

  10. Microwave-induced increase of water and conductivity in submaxillary salivary gland of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajczyk, H.

    1981-01-01

    Hypersalivation is an important mechanism for heat dissipation by animals without sweat glands. The water content and conductivity (at 20 kHz) in submaxillary salivary glands (SSG) and in other tissues were investigated in adult male rats exposed to microwaves (2880 MHz, 1.5 microsecond pulses at 1000 Hz) or to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. Eighty rats in one series were exposed, one at a time, for 30 min to microwaves producing a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.2, 6.3, 6.8, 8.4, 10.8 or 12.6 W/kg. Fifty rats were sham-exposed under similar environmental conditions. In the second series, ten rats were sham-exposed, 33 rats were exposed one at time, for 15, 30 or 60 min to microwaves at a SAR of 9.5 W/kg, and 32 rats were exposed for similar periods to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. In rats of the first series colonic temperatures were elevated significantly at a SAR of 4.2 W/kg, while SSG water content and conductivity increased significantly at SAR values of 6.3 W/kg and higher. In the second series of experiments increases in colonic temperature and SSG water content were greater after 15 and 30 min of microwave exposure than after exposure to heat. Also, SSG conductivity was significantly depressed by heat and significantly increased by microwaves after exposure for 15 or 30 min. The results support the hypothesis that water content and conductivity of SSG of rats can be used as a sensitive specific test of a microwave induced thermal response.

  11. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    de Vicente, Juan Carlos; López-Arranz, Elena; García, Juan; López-Arranz, Juan Sebastián

    2003-07-01

    Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner's tumor) is a benign and chronic inflammatory condition of the submandibular gland that clinically cannot be easily distinguished from salivary malignant neoplasia. This is a report of a case of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis located as a solitary mass in an accessory parotid gland.

  12. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, K; Boberg, J; Isling, L K; Christiansen, S; Hass, U

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food contact materials, toys, and other products. Several studies have indicated that effects observed at doses near human exposure levels may not be observed at higher doses. Many studies have shown effects on mammary glands at low doses of BPA, however, because of small number of animals or few doses investigated these data have not been used by EFSA as point of departure for the newly assessed tolerable daily intake (TDI). We performed a study with perinatal exposure to BPA (0, 0.025, 0.25, 5, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) in rats (n = 22 mated/group). One of the aims was to perform a study robust enough to contribute to the risk assessment of BPA and to elucidate possible biphasic dose-response relationships. We investigated mammary gland effects in the offspring at 22, 100, and 400 days of age. Male offspring showed increased mammary outgrowth on pup day (PD) 22 at 0.025 mg/kg BPA, indicating an increased mammary development at this low dose only. Increased prevalence of intraductal hyperplasia was observed in BPA females exposed to 0.25 mg/kg at PD 400, but not at PD 100, and not at higher or lower doses. The present findings support data from the published literature showing that perinatal exposure to BPA can induce increased mammary growth and proliferative lesions in rodents. Our results indicate that low-dose exposure to BPA can affect mammary gland development in male and female rats, although higher doses show a different pattern of effects. The observed intraductal hyperplasia in female rats could be associated with an increased risk for developing hyperplastic lesions, which are parallels to early signs of breast neoplasia in women. Collectively, current knowledge on effects of BPA on mammary gland at low doses indicates that highly exposed humans may not be sufficiently protected. PMID:27088260

  13. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, K; Boberg, J; Isling, L K; Christiansen, S; Hass, U

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food contact materials, toys, and other products. Several studies have indicated that effects observed at doses near human exposure levels may not be observed at higher doses. Many studies have shown effects on mammary glands at low doses of BPA, however, because of small number of animals or few doses investigated these data have not been used by EFSA as point of departure for the newly assessed tolerable daily intake (TDI). We performed a study with perinatal exposure to BPA (0, 0.025, 0.25, 5, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) in rats (n = 22 mated/group). One of the aims was to perform a study robust enough to contribute to the risk assessment of BPA and to elucidate possible biphasic dose-response relationships. We investigated mammary gland effects in the offspring at 22, 100, and 400 days of age. Male offspring showed increased mammary outgrowth on pup day (PD) 22 at 0.025 mg/kg BPA, indicating an increased mammary development at this low dose only. Increased prevalence of intraductal hyperplasia was observed in BPA females exposed to 0.25 mg/kg at PD 400, but not at PD 100, and not at higher or lower doses. The present findings support data from the published literature showing that perinatal exposure to BPA can induce increased mammary growth and proliferative lesions in rodents. Our results indicate that low-dose exposure to BPA can affect mammary gland development in male and female rats, although higher doses show a different pattern of effects. The observed intraductal hyperplasia in female rats could be associated with an increased risk for developing hyperplastic lesions, which are parallels to early signs of breast neoplasia in women. Collectively, current knowledge on effects of BPA on mammary gland at low doses indicates that highly exposed humans may not be sufficiently protected.

  14. Mammary gland development and response to prenatal atrazine exposure in the Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary gland (MG) tumor development in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats is increased by longterm dietary exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR). ATR is proposed to cause these changes in the adult SD rat by altering hormonally-regulated estrous cyclicity. In Long-Evans...

  15. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal Low- And High-Dose Exposure To Estradiol Benzoate In The Male Rat: 1. Effects On The Prostate Gland. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Steve Kim, Gerald A. LeBlanc Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Brief exposure of rats to high doses of natural estro...

  16. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  17. Melatonin and pineal gland peptides are able to correct the impairment of reproductive cycles in rats.

    PubMed

    Arutjunyan, Alexander; Kozina, Ljudmila; Milyutina, Yulia; Korenevsky, Andrew; Stepanov, Michael; Arutyunov, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Catecholamines play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin- releasing hormone, or gonadoliberin. We have shown that melatonin and the pineal gland peptides (epithalamine and epitalon) exert a correcting influence on the diurnal dynamics of norepinephrine (NE) in the medial preoptic area (MPA) and of dopamine (DA) in the median eminence with arcuate nuclei (ME-Arc) disturbed by single administration of the neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female rats. It has been found that experiments with DMH administration can be used as an animal model of female reproductive system premature aging. The investigation of epithalamine (a polypeptide preparation from the bovine pineal gland) effect on circadian rhythms disturbed by the neurotoxic compound DMH has shown a recovery of the diurnal dynamics of NE in MPA. In addition, NE was found to decrease from 9:30 till 11 o'clock, Circadian Time (CT), which was typical of control animals. Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) proved to be more effective in ME-Arc. This peptide prevents the xenobiotic caused disturbance of DA diurnal rhythm, keeping this metabolite low at 5 o'clock (CT) with it having increased by 11 o'clock (CT). The data obtained suggest that the pineal gland is important for the circadian signal normalization needed for gonadoliberin surge on the day of proestrus. Melatonin and peptides of the pineal gland can be considered as effective protectors of female reproductive system from xenobiotics and premature aging.

  18. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari; Afeche, Solange Castro; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; do Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar; dos Santos, Sabrina Heloísa José; Lima, Fabio Bessa; Young, Martin Elliot; Cipolla-Neto, José

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various physiological processes, including modulation of insulin secretion and action. In contrast, a role for insulin as a modulator of melatonin synthesis has not been investigated previously. The aim of the current study was to determine whether insulin modulates norepinephrine (NE)-mediated melatonin synthesis. The results demonstrate that insulin (10(- 8)M) potentiated norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH) activity in ex vivo incubated pineal glands. When ex vivo incubated pineal glands were synchronized (12h NE-stimulation, followed by 12h incubation in the absence of NE), insulin potentiated NE-mediated melatonin synthesis and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity. Insulin did not affect the activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltranferase (HIOMT), nor the gene expression of tpoh, aanat, or hiomt, under any of the conditions investigated. We conclude that insulin potentiates NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland, potentially through post-transcriptional events.

  19. Mammary Gland Evaluation in Juvenile Toxicity Studies: Temporal Developmental Patterns in the Male and Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Filgo, Adam J; Foley, Julie F; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Borde, Aditi R; Midkiff, Bentley R; Reed, Casey E; Chappell, Vesna A; Alexander, Lydia B; Borde, Pretish R; Troester, Melissa A; Bouknight, Schantel A Hayes; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no reports describing mammary gland development in the Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rat, the current strain of choice for National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing. Our goals were to empower the NTP, contract labs, and other researchers in understanding and interpreting chemical effects in this rat strain. To delineate similarities/differences between the female and male mammary gland, data were compiled starting on embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal day 70. Mammary gland whole mounts, histology sections, and immunohistochemically stained tissues for estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors were evaluated in both sexes; qualitative and quantitative differences are highlighted using a comprehensive visual timeline. Research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in animal models has highlighted chemically induced mammary gland anomalies that may potentially impact human health. In order to investigate these effects within the HSD strain, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, diethylstilbestrol, or vehicle control was gavage dosed on gestation day 15 and 18 to demonstrate delayed, accelerated, and control mammary gland growth in offspring, respectively. We provide illustrations of normal and chemically altered mammary gland development in HSD male and female rats to help inform researchers unfamiliar with the tissue and may facilitate enhanced evaluation of both male and female mammary glands in juvenile toxicity studies. PMID:27613106

  20. Mammary Gland Evaluation in Juvenile Toxicity Studies: Temporal Developmental Patterns in the Male and Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Filgo, Adam J; Foley, Julie F; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Borde, Aditi R; Midkiff, Bentley R; Reed, Casey E; Chappell, Vesna A; Alexander, Lydia B; Borde, Pretish R; Troester, Melissa A; Bouknight, Schantel A Hayes; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no reports describing mammary gland development in the Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rat, the current strain of choice for National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing. Our goals were to empower the NTP, contract labs, and other researchers in understanding and interpreting chemical effects in this rat strain. To delineate similarities/differences between the female and male mammary gland, data were compiled starting on embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal day 70. Mammary gland whole mounts, histology sections, and immunohistochemically stained tissues for estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors were evaluated in both sexes; qualitative and quantitative differences are highlighted using a comprehensive visual timeline. Research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in animal models has highlighted chemically induced mammary gland anomalies that may potentially impact human health. In order to investigate these effects within the HSD strain, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, diethylstilbestrol, or vehicle control was gavage dosed on gestation day 15 and 18 to demonstrate delayed, accelerated, and control mammary gland growth in offspring, respectively. We provide illustrations of normal and chemically altered mammary gland development in HSD male and female rats to help inform researchers unfamiliar with the tissue and may facilitate enhanced evaluation of both male and female mammary glands in juvenile toxicity studies.

  1. α1-Adrenoceptors relate Ca(2+) modulation and protein secretions in rat lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Kurosawa, Chika; Higashio, Hironori; Nakano, Masato; Okubo, Masatoshi; Satoh, Yoh-Ichi; Kurosaka, Daijiro; Saino, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is a catecholamine with multiple roles including as a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Cellular secretory activities are enhanced by adrenergic stimuli as well as by cholinergic stimuli. The present study aimed to determine which adrenoceptors play a role in controlling intracellular calcium ion ([Ca(2+)]i) level in acinar cells of rat lacrimal glands. Expression of mRNA for adrenoceptor subtypes in the acinar cells was assessed using RT-PCR. All types except α2c, β1, and β3 were detected. NA induced a [Ca(2+)]i increase with a biphasic pattern in the acinar cells. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) and use of Ca(2+)-channel blockers did not inhibit the NA-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. In contrast, U73122 and suramin almost blocked these increases. The α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine induced a strong increase in [Ca(2+)]i. However, clonidine and isoproterenol failed to induce a [Ca(2+)]i increase. The peroxidase activity was quantified as a measure of mucin secretion. Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic secretion of peroxidase was detected in rat lacrimal glands. The RT-PCR results showed that MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC16 were expressed in acinar cells. These findings indicated that NA activates α1-adrenoceptors, which were found to be the main receptors in Ca(2+)-related cell homeostasis and protein (including mucin) secretion in lacrimal glands. PMID:26700590

  2. Discrimination of rat Brunner's gland carbohydrate antigens by site-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Goso, Yukinobu; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kurihara, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Mucus produced and secreted by gastrointestinal mucosa contains various types of mucins equipped with unique sugar chains considered to play critical roles in protecting mucous membranes; therefore, the identification and verification of mucin sugar chains is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms. In our previous work, we generated three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42, which recognize sugar chains in rat gastric mucin. Here, we immunohistochemically analyzed the rat gastrointestinal mucosa and found that the antigens recognized by RGM22 and RGM42 were expressed in the rat antrum and Brunner's glands, whereas that recognized by RGM26 was detected in the antrum, but rarely in Brunner's glands. We found that these antibodies reacted with porcine gastric mucin-derived oligosaccharides bearing a common structure: GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6GalNAc-ol. Moreover, epitope analysis revealed that RGM42 and RGM22 recognized α-linked GalNAc and GalNAcα1-3Gal, respectively, on the GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal structure, whereas RGM26 was specific for GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal. These results indicate that rat Brunner's glands express specific antigens bearing GalNAcα1-3Gal that are recognized by RGM22 and RGM42. Thus, RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42 with their unique antigen specificities could be useful tools for investigation of oligosaccharide diversity among mucins. PMID:27454489

  3. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis. PMID:26786986

  4. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  5. Morpho-functional characteristics of rat fetal thyroid gland are affected by prenatal dexamethasone exposure.

    PubMed

    Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica N; Filipović, Branko R; Nestorović, Nataša M; Šošić-Jurjević, Branka T; Ristić, Nataša M; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) and glucocorticoids strongly contribute to the maturation of fetal tissues in the preparation for extrauterine life. Influence of maternal dexamethasone (Dx) administration on thyroid glands morpho-functional characteristics of near term rat fetuses was investigated applying unbiased stereology. On the 16th day of pregnancy dams received 1.0mg/Dx/kg/b.w., followed by 0.5mg/Dx/kg/b.w. on the 17th and 18th days of gestation. The control females received the same volume of saline. The volume of fetal thyroid was estimated using Cavalieri's principle; the physical/fractionator design was applied for the determination of absolute number of follicular cells in mitosis and immunohistochemically labeled C cells; C cell volume was measured using the planar rotator. The functional activity of thyroid tissue was provided from thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) immunohistochemical staining. Applying these design-based modern stereological methods it was shown that Dx treatment of gravid females led to a significant decrease of fetal thyroid gland volume in 19- and 21-day-old fetuses, due to decreased proliferation of follicular cells. The Tg and TPO immunohistochemistry demonstrated that intensive TH production starts and continues during the examined period in control and Dx-exposed fetuses. Under the influence of Dx the absolute number of C cells was lower in both groups of near term fetuses, although unchanged relation between the two populations of endocrine cells, follicular and C cells suggesting that structural relationships within the gland are preserved. In conclusion maternal glucocorticoid administration at the thyroid gland level exerts growth-inhibitory and maturational promoting effects in near term rat fetuses.

  6. Modulation of mammary gland development in prepubertal male rats exposed to genistein and methoxychlor.

    PubMed

    You, Li; Sar, Madhabananda; Bartolucci, Erika J; McIntyre, Barry S; Sriperumbudur, Rajagopal

    2002-04-01

    The estrogenic isoflavone genistein is a common dietary component that has been shown to affect reproductive development in experimental animals at high doses. The objective of the present study was to examine interactions of genistein and the hormonally active pesticide methoxychlor on mammary gland development in juvenile rats. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a soy- and alfalfa-free diet containing different combinations of genistein (300 and 800 ppm) and methoxychlor (800 ppm). Rats were fed these diets starting on gestation day (GD)1 and continuing through pregnancy and lactation until postnatal day (PND) 22, when the pups were killed. Inguinal mammary glands from both female and male pups were processed as whole-mount preparations for morphometric analysis. The total glandular area and the numbers of branch points, lateral buds, and terminal end buds in the male rats were found to be significantly greater in the groups exposed to methoxychlor than those exposed to genistein only. These effects were not observed in the female rats. In the male rats, methoxychlor had the most prominent effect on elongating the glandular ducts, while genistein enhanced the ductile branching. The 2 compounds in combination promoted the development of alveolar-lobular structure, an effect not observed with either compound alone. Immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed a high percentage of immunopositive cells in the mammary epithelia of the males exposed to methoxychlor and genistein (800 ppm) compared to the controls. While no significant changes in serum levels of mammotrophic hormones were detected, increased immunostaining for insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and progesterone receptor in the genistein + methoxychlor group suggested that local factors involved in regulating mammary growth may have played a role in propagating the endocrine effects of these two compounds. These results indicated that the mammary

  7. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-01-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2), 2.1 mW cm(-2) 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2)) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT.

  8. The adrenal gland and progesterone stimulates testicular steroidogenesis in the rat in vivo.

    PubMed

    Feek, C M; Tuzi, N L; Edwards, C R

    1989-04-01

    Administration of pharmacological doses of glucocorticoid to male rats in vivo suppresses adrenal steroidogenesis and inhibits testicular steroidogenesis by inhibiting the anterior pituitary secretion of LH. In contrast, administration of ACTH to these pharmacologically-suppressed rats stimulates the adrenal secretion of progesterone and testicular steroidogenesis. The mechanism by which ACTH increases testicular steroidogenesis is dependent on the presence of the adrenal gland and is reproduced by the administration of progesterone. The conclusion from these data is that the adrenal gland has an important role in generating external signals that modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. The adrenal secretion of glucocorticoid acts as a negative signal to testicular steroidogenesis whereas progesterone acts as a positive signal. The adrenal secretion of progesterone and its conversion to testosterone by steroidogenic enzymes in the cytoplasm of the Leydig cell may provide an alternative pathway for testosterone biosynthesis and may account for the increased plasma testosterone levels during the acute phase of stress and mating.

  9. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1982-06-01

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  10. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-01-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2), 2.1 mW cm(-2) 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2)) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT. PMID:25975382

  11. Radioprotection by WR-2721 of gamma-irradiated rat parotid gland: effect on gland weight and secretion at 8-10 days post irradiation.

    PubMed

    Menard, T W; Izutsu, K T; Ensign, W Y; Keller, P J; Morton, T H; Truelove, E L

    1984-09-01

    Changes in rat parotid salivary gland weight and functional parameters were evaluated at 8 to 10 days post irradiation in WR-2721 protected and non-protected animals following exposure to a single 15.3 Gy dose of Cs-137 radiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretory capacity was assessed by maximum flow rate, total volume of saliva and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation. Protection against radiomucositis was also evaluated indirectly by daily monitoring of food and water intake, body weight and paraoral symptomatology. WR-2721 provided a significant degree of protection for all glandular functional parameters as well as gland weight. Relative protective factors (RPF) were computed for irradiated protected and non-protected animals compared to their sham-irradiated, pair-fed controls. The calculated RPFs were: Gland weight 1.9, maximum flow rate 2.9, volume of saliva 2.1 and duration of secretion 2.1 for a mean "relative protection" of 2.25. Substantial protection against radiomucositis in protected animals was evident by a progressive gain in body weight and lack of oral signs and symptoms as compared to non-protected animals. Protection against radiomucositis and preservation of residual parotid gland secretory capacity as determined by functional parameters suggests that WR-2721 may be of significant benefit in alleviating oral symptoms and maintaining salivary gland function for patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck tumors. PMID:6090361

  12. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Tatiana Maria Folador; da Silva, Silvana; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30) or 60 days (group C60) or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo). The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30) or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30); fluoxetine (group FS60) or venlafaxine (group VS60) with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60) or venlafaxine (group VP60) with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05). RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60) induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days. PMID:22179167

  13. Triiodothyronine induces lipid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Burrone, L; Falvo, S; Senese, R; Lanni, A; Chieffi Baccari, G

    2013-10-01

    The rat Harderian gland (HG) is an orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Recent studies indicate that its secretory activity is regulated by thyroid hormones. In this study, we found that both isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor (Trα (Thra) and Trβ (Thrb)) are expressed in rat HGs. Although Thra is expressed at a higher level, only Thrb is regulated by triiodothyronine (T3). Because T3 induces an increase in lipid metabolism in rat HGs, we investigated the effects of an animal's thyroid state on the expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (Cpt1a) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1B (Cpt1b) and acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox1) (rate-limiting enzymes in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation respectively), as well as on the mitochondrial compartment, thereby correlating mitochondrial activity and biogenesis with morphological analysis. We found that hypothyroidism decreased the expression of Cpt1b and Acox1 mRNA, whereas the administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats increased transcript levels. Respiratory parameters and catalase protein levels provided further evidence that T3 modulates mitochondrial and peroxisomal activities. Furthermore, in hypothyroid rat HGs, the mitochondrial number and their total area decreased with respect to the controls, whereas the average area of the individual mitochondrion did not change. However, the average area of the individual mitochondrion was reduced by ∼50% in hypothyroid T3-treated HGs, and the mitochondrial number and the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased. The mitochondrial morphometric data correlated well with the molecular results. Indeed, hypothyroid status did not modify the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1 and Tfam, whereas T3 treatment increased the expression level of these genes.

  14. Developmental and diurnal expression of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Toft, Trine; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

  15. Detection of Expressional Changes Induced by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Developing Rat Mammary Gland via Exploratory Pathways Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beinder, Lea; Faehrmann, Nina; Wachtveitl, Rainer; Winterfeld, Ilona; Hartner, Andrea; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Rauh, Manfred; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Noegel, Stephanie C.; Doerr, Helmuth G.; Rascher, Wolfgang; Fahlbusch, Fabian B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is thought to lead to fetal programming that in turn contributes to developmental changes of many organs postnatally. There is evidence that IUGR is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. A higher incidence of breast cancer was also observed after IUGR. This could be due to changes in mammary gland developmental pathways. We sought to characterise IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of mammary development at the level of the transcriptome in a rat model of IUGR, using pathways analysis bioinformatics. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the mammary glands of Wistar rats with IUGR induced by maternal low protein (LP) diet at the beginning (d21) and the end (d28) of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. Mammary glands of the LP group were smaller in size at d28, however did not show morphologic changes. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the mammary gland using Agilent SurePrint arrays at d21 and d28. In silico analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. In mammary gland tissue of LP rats at d21 of life a prominent upregulation of WT1 and CDKN1A (p21) expression was observed. Differentially regulated genes were associated with the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-1/-2 pathway. Western Blot analysis showed reduced levels of phosphorylated ERK-1/-2 in the mammary glands of the LP group at d21. To identify possible changes in circulating steroid levels, serum LC-Tandem mass-spectrometry was performed. LP rats showed higher serum progesterone levels and an increased corticosterone/dehydrocorticosterone-ratio at d28. Conclusions/Significance Our data obtained from gene array analysis support the hypothesis that IUGR influences pubertal development of the rat mammary gland. We identified prominent differential regulation of genes and pathways for factors regulating cell cycle and growth. Moreover, we detected new

  16. The Effects of Diabetes on Salivary Gland Protein Expression of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Cassandra R.; Obi, Nneka; Epane, Elodie C.; Akba, Alexander A.; Halpern, Leslie; Southerland, Janet H.; Gangula, Pandu R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Xerostomia is defined as dry mouth resulting from a change in the amount and/or composition of saliva and often a major oral health complication associated with diabetes. Studies have shown that xerostomia is more common in females in the onset of diabetes. Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in healthy salivary gland function. However, the specific mechanisms by which NO regulates salivary gland function at the onset of diabetes have yet to be determined. This study had two aims: 1. To determine whether protein expression and/or dimerization of NO synthase enzymes (nNOS, eNOS) are altered in the onset of diabetic xerostomia and 2. To determine whether the changes in nNOS/eNOS protein expression/dimerization are correlated with changes in NO cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthetic enzymes (GTP Cyclohydrolase-1, Dihydrofolate reductase). Methods Functional and western blot studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (type 1 diabetes) and control Sprague Dawley female rats using standardized protocols. Confirmation of xerostomia was determined by increased water intake and decreased salivary flow rate. Results In diabetic female rats, salivary hypofunction is correlated with decreased submandibular and parotid gland sizes. Furthermore, our results show a decrease in NOS and BH4 biosynthetic enzyme in submandibular glands. Conclusion Our results indicate that a decrease in submandibular NO-BH4 protein expression may provide insight pertaining to mechanisms for the development of hyposalivation in diabetes-induced xerostomia. Furthermore, understanding the role of NO-BH4 pathway may give insight to possible treatment options for the diabetic patient experiencing xerostomia. PMID:26777763

  17. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.

  18. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  19. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  20. Aspirin prevents diabetic oxidative changes in rat lacrimal gland structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Angélica Gobbi; Módulo, Carolina Maria; Dias, Ana Carolina; Braz, Alexandre Martins; Filho, Rubens Bertazolli; Jordão, Alceu A; de Paula, Jayter Silva; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether aspirin reduces Diabetis Mellitus (DM) oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland (LG), and ocular surface (OS). Ten weeks after streptozotocin induced DM and aspirin treatment, LG and OS of rats were compared for tear secretion, hidtology, peroxidase activity, and expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). DM reduction of tear secretion was prevented by aspirin (P < 0.01). Alterations of LG morphology and increased numbers of lipofucsin-like inclusions were observed in diabetic but not in aspirin-treated diabetic rats. Peroxidase activity levels were higher and UCP-2 was reduced in DM LG but not in aspirin treated (P = 0.0025 and P < 0.05, respectively). The findings prevented by aspirin indicate a direct inhibitory effect on oxidative pathways in LG and their inflammatory consequences, preserving the LG structure and function against hyperglycemia and/or insulin deficiency damage.

  1. Effect of sharply lowered muscular activity on the thyroid gland of the white rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekishev, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypokinesia on the thyroid gland of 200 white rats was studied. The rats were kept in 16x6x6 cm cages for 90 days. The functional activity of the thyroids increased after 24 hrs of partial immobilization and peaked after 15 days. After 30 days of immobilization, the functional activity returned to normal in one third of the test animals and after 60 days in all animals. After 15 days of immobilization, the test animals began to lose weight (in comparison to the controls) and remained underweight for the rest of the test period (up to 90 days). When returned to normal conditions, they caught up with and even overtook in weight the control animals after about 1 month. All changes produced by hypokinesia were reversible after 1 month.

  2. Sex-specific prenatal stress effects on the rat reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure

    PubMed Central

    George, Susan O; Hogg, Charis O; Lai, Yu-Ting; Brunton, Paula J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Social stress during pregnancy has profound effects on offspring physiology. This study examined whether an ethologically relevant social stress during late pregnancy in rats alters the reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure in post-pubertal male and female offspring. Prenatally stressed (PNS) pregnant rats (n=9) were exposed to an unfamiliar lactating rat for 10 min/day from day 16 to 20 of pregnancy inclusive, whereas control pregnant rats (n=9) remained in their home cages. Gonads, adrenal glands and blood samples were obtained from one female and one male from each litter at 11 to 12-weeks of age. Anogenital distance was measured. There was no treatment effect on body, adrenal or gonad weight at 11–12 weeks. PNS did not affect the number of primordial, secondary or tertiary ovarian follicles, numbers of corpora lutea or ovarian FSH receptor expression. There was an indication that PNS females had more primary follicles and greater ovarian aromatase expression compared with control females (both P=0.09). PNS males had longer anogenital distances (0.01±0.0 cm/g vs 0.008±0.00 cm/g; P=0.007) and higher plasma FSH concentrations (0.05 ng/mL vs 0.006 ng/mL; s.e.d.=0.023; P=0.043) compared with control males. There were no treatment effects on the number of Sertoli cells or seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubule area, plasma testosterone concentration or testis expression of aromatase, FSH receptor or androgen receptor. PNS did not affect adrenal size. These data suggest that the developing male reproductive axis is more sensitive to maternal stress and that PNS may enhance aspects of male reproductive development. PMID:27026714

  3. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-03-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles and parafollicular C-cells. A high degree of co-existence between PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) was observed in the intrathyroid nerve fibres and cell bodies of the thyroid ganglion indicating a common origin for the two peptides. A minor population of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid and thyroid blood flow and hormone secretion.

  4. Giant presentation of pleomorphic adenoma in major salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Chaudhary, Neena; Gupta, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumour, accounting for as many as 80% of all such tumours. Although PA most commonly occurs in the parotid gland (85% cases), it may involve submandibular (8%), lingual and minor salivary glands. It is a benign tumour with a slow and continuous growth and without treatment can assume enormous dimensions. This paper describes a giant PA's arising in the submandibular gland and treated by complete surgical excision without sequel. In our case, a male patient presented with a tumour history of more than 4 years and weight of the resected mass was 2.24 kg. Giant PA's of the submandibular gland are very rare in medical literature.

  5. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    SciTech Connect

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S.; Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands.

  7. Radioprotection by WR-2721 of gamma-irradiated rat parotid gland: effect on gland weight and secretion at 8-10 days post irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, T.W.; Izutsu, K.T.; Ensign, W.Y.; Keller, P.J.; Morton, T.H.; Truelove, E.L.

    1984-09-01

    Changes in rat parotid salivary gland weight and functional parameters were evaluated at 8 to 10 days post irradiation in WR-2721 protected and non-protected animals following exposure to a single 15.3 Gy dose of Cs-137 radiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretory capacity was assessed by maximum flow rate, total volume of saliva and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation. Protection against radiomucositis was also evaluated indirectly by daily monitoring of food and water intake, body weight and paraoral symptomatology. WR-2721 provided a significant degree of protection for all glandular functional parameters as well as gland weight. Relative protective factors (RPF) were computed for irradiated protected and non-protected animals compared to their sham-irradiated, pair-fed controls. Protection against radiomucositis and preservation of residual parotid gland secretory capacity as determined by functional parameters suggests that WR-2721 may be of significant benefit in alleviating oral symptoms and maintaining salivary gland function for patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck tumors.

  8. Studies on the radioprotective potency of amifostine on salivary glands of rats during fractionated irradiation: acute and late effects.

    PubMed

    Sagowski, Christoph; Wenzel, Soeren; Metternich, Frank Uwe; Kehrl, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective potential of amifostine on the salivary glands of rats with respect to the acute and late effects. The head and neck area of WAG/RijH rats was irradiated with (60)Co-gamma rays (60 Gy/30f for 6 weeks). Amifostine (250 mg/m(2) body surface) or an equal volume of physiologic saline was applied intravenously 15 min before each irradiation. In the course of treatment the salivary glands were examined histopathologically. Body weight was measured sequentially during irradiation. A cytoprotective effect of amifostine on the acute toxicity of salivary glands could not be detected under fractionated irradiation. However, late effects such as fibrosis and necrosis of the glands 6 months after irradiation were less developed in the amifostine group. The weight loss of the amifostine-treated animals during fractioned irradiation was higher than in the irradiated group. Amifostine has a significant cytoprotective effect on the late toxicity of irradiated salivary glands. However, the acute toxicity of the glands during radiotherapy cannot be reduced. PMID:12520356

  9. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways.

  10. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P < 0.001) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels, whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were markedly (P < 0.001) decreased. We also observed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in ACPtotal and ACPprostatic activities in prostate glands and a concomitant significant (P < 0.001) increase in the plasma. However, treatment of Cd-intoxicated rats with onion and/or garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands.

  11. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    SciTech Connect

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo; Schrott, Lisa; Caldito, Gloria

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  12. Analysis of the human, bovine and rat 33-kDa proteins and cDNA in retina and pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Nakabayashi, H; Tamada, H; Takagi, T; Sakuragi, S; Yamaki, K; Shinohara, T

    1990-07-16

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced against a bovine retinal 33-kDa protein. Several clones of 33-kDa protein were isolated from each library of cDNA from human, bovine and rat retinas and rat pineal gland by mAb screening and by hybridization with cDNA probes. Each of the four cDNA sequences was determined and amino acid (aa) sequences were deduced from the nucleotide sequences. The latter were nearly identical in rat retina and rat pineal gland (99.6%) and were similar in human, bovine and rat retina (more than 87%). Each of these cDNAs had one long ORF and encoded 245 or 246 aa. The deduced aa sequences in rat retina and rat pineal gland were virtually identical and the sequences in human, bovine and rat retina were highly homologous (more than 88%). The predicted Mr for each of these proteins was 28,246 in the human, 28,176 in bovine, 28,143 in rat retina, and 28,129 in rat pineal gland. Each of the sequences has a putative site for phosphorylation by A kinase; we have confirmed that the putative site is Ser73. These results show that the 33-kDa proteins in the retina and pineal gland have the same sequences and the same phosphorylation site and suggest that the functional role of this protein is the same in the retina and pineal gland.

  13. [The effect of androgens upon the differentiation of Cowper and Bartholin glands in rat fetuses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Vilanova Trias, J; San Molina, J

    1976-01-01

    In the present paper, a study is made of the normal structure shown in Bartholin and Cowper glands of 100 female fetuses and 100 male fetuses of Wistar rats at the end of gestation, with the structure of bulbouretral glands that formed in 70 female fetuses of the same species and period of gestation masculinized by androgens. In relation to the Bartholin glands, whose bilateral sketch is constant in the fetuses, we can affirm that it shows significant differences of structure with regards to the sketch of the Cowper gland. On the opposite, the histologycal details of the latter, are entirely identical to those shown by the bulbouretral glands of the masculinized female fetuses, a fact which permits us to affirm that these are authentic Cowper glands, not only because of their position, but also because of their structure. This morphological data corresponds to a masculinization phenomenon and demonstrates that the Bartholin and Cowper glands are very sensitive to the effect of androgens during gestation.

  14. Expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 in developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells and five types of hormone-producing cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) essential for these cells to perform their respective roles. Syndecans-type I transmembrane cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as major ECM coreceptors via their respective heparan sulfate chains and efficiently transduce intracellular signals through the convergent action of their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The syndecans comprise four family members in vertebrates: syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4. However, whether syndecans are produced in the pituitary gland or whether they have a role as a coreceptor is not known. We therefore used (1) reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of syndecan genes and (2) immunohistochemical techniques to identify the cells that produce the syndecans in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rat. Syndecan-2 mRNA expression was clearly detected in the corticotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, the expression of syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland had a distinct temporospatial pattern. To identify the cells expressing syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland, we used double-immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and the cell markers E-cadherin (immature cells) and Ki-67 (proliferating cells). Some E-cadherin- and Ki-67-immunopositive cells expressed syndecan-2. Therefore, syndecan-2 expression occurs in developmentally regulated patterns and syndecan-2 probably has different roles in adult and developing anterior pituitary glands.

  15. Effects of axotomy or target atrophy on membrane properties of rat sympathetic ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vives, M V; Gallego, R

    1993-01-01

    1. The electrical properties of rat superior cervical ganglion cells were examined in vitro with intracellular microelectrodes after axotomy or atrophy of the submandibular salivary gland. 2. Membrane time constant, input resistance and excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were decreased to about 50% of their control values 7-10 days after axotomy. 3. Axotomized ganglion cells also showed reduced action potentials and after-hyperpolarizations (AHPs). The AHP duration was reduced to 40% of the control value. 4. In 25% of the axotomized cells, the action potential was followed by an after-depolarization (ADP) instead of the AHP that was always present in control cells. In eleven out of seventeen axotomized cells with ADP, preganglionic stimulation failed to evoke an EPSP, whereas the failure of the synaptic response was never observed in control cells and occurred only in two of fifty-three axotomized cells with AHP. 5. In some axotomized cells with AHP, a depolarizing potential developed after a train of action potentials. This was never observed in control cells. 6. Sympathetic neurones innervating the submandibular gland in control animals had membrane properties similar to those observed in other ganglion cells. 7. The properties of neurones innervating the submandibular gland remained unaltered after the experimentally induced atrophy of the gland. 8. It is concluded that the marked effects of short-term axotomy on membrane properties of sympathetic ganglion cells are not reproduced by long-term atrophy of the target tissue. PMID:8120834

  16. Effect of 24 hours light on circadian rhythms of secretory enzymes and morphology of rat von Ebner's glands.

    PubMed

    Field, R B; Redman, R S; Calloway, A M; Goldberg, W J

    1999-11-01

    Von Ebner's glands of the rat are minor salivary serous glands in the posterior portion of the tongue. They secrete two digestive enzymes, lingual lipase and amylase. In this investigation, circadian rhythm in feeding was established under a normal 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, with the rats eating primarily during the dark period. At lights on, the size of the acinar cells and the area of the inclusive secretory granules, and the amount of digestive enzyme activity (lingual lipase and amylase) remaining in the gland was significantly less than in the mid-afternoon, after very little daylight food consumption. However, after 7 days of continuous light the circadian rhythm was altered: the food consumption during the normal night-time hours (5 p.m. to 8 a.m.) went from 88% of total 24 h food consumption to 45%, and during normal daylight hours (8 a.m. to 5 p.m.) from 12% to 55%. These changes were correlated with histometric findings of a near reversal of the areas of acinar cells and secretory granules of a.m. and p.m. samples under continuous light. Lingual lipase activity in the glands went from 35% under 12 h light to 61% under continuous light in the a.m. and from 65% to 39% in the p.m. Amylase activity also showed nearly a reversal in activity remaining in the gland, from 36% at 12 h light to 58% at 24 h light in the a.m. and 64% to 41% for the p.m. samples. These results indicate that the von Ebner's glands of the rat have a circadian rhythm of secretion and storage of secretory proteins that is subject to light entrainment similar to that seen in other exocrine glands such as the parotid and pancreas.

  17. This pineal gland does not mediate phase shifts in the disc shedding rhythm of the rat retina

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Albino rats were subjected to pinealectomy, superior cervical ganglionectomy, or the appropriate sham preparation and were placed in lighting conditions so that light onset was advanced by 10 hr. After 6 days of this regimen, all animals exhibited a complete shift in their outer segment disc shedding rhythm, indicating that the pineal gland is not a factor in mediating such a shift.

  18. Soy protein isolate and estradiol differ in their effects on the mammary gland of weanling male and female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones are phytochemical components of soy diets that bind weakly to estrogen receptors (ERs). To study potential estrogen-like actions of soy in the mammary gland, we fed weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a casein diet from PND21 to PND33, the same diet substituting soy protein isol...

  19. EXPOSURE PARAMETERS FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure Parameters For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine

    Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 UNC-Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 RTD, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, RTP,NC

    Prenatal exposure ...

  20. EXPOSURE PARAMETERS NECESSARY FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure Parameters Necessary For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine

    Jennifer L. Rayner1, 2, Carmen Wood2, and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Heal...

  1. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report.

    PubMed

    Ismı, Onur; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature.

  2. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report

    PubMed Central

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  3. Prenatal Bisphenol A exposure delays the development of the male rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Kass, Laura; Durando, Milena; Altamirano, Gabriela A; Manfroni-Ghibaudo, Gisela E; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2015-07-01

    Our aims were to evaluate whether exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) modifies the development of the male rat mammary gland (MG) and to evaluate whether this modification is gender specific. From gestational day 9, pregnant rats were exposed either subcutaneously to 0, 25 or 250μg BPA/kgbw/day until parturition or orally to 0 and 64μg BPA/kgbw/day until weaning. MG development was analyzed on postnatal days (PND) 5, 15 and 30. On PND30, steroid hormone receptor expression and mammary growth were also evaluated. On PND30, the exposure to 64BPA and 250BPA induced a delay in male MG development, evidenced by reduced ductal growth, decreased number of terminal structures and lower expression of androgen receptor (AR). In contrast, female mammary ductal growth was altered only by 250BPA. Regardless of the administration route and length of the exposure period, BPA induced a delay in MG development and modified AR expression in prepubertal male rats.

  4. Anti-hyperplasia effects of Rosa rugosa polyphenols in rats with hyperplasia of mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jingjing; Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping; Yang, Chuhao

    2015-03-01

    Rosa rugosa (Thunb.) is used in Chinese traditional medicine with the functions of promoting blood circulation, relieving the depressed liver and attenuating breast disorders. This study was to investigate the anti-hyperplasia effects of the polyphenols-rich fraction from R. rugosa (FRR) in rat. Rat model of hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG) was induced by intramuscularly injected with estrogen (0.5mg/kg/d) for 25 days, and followed with progestogen (5mg/kg/d) for another 5 days. Meanwhile, FRR was orally given for 30 days. Then, the levels of estradiol and oxidative stress were assessed. The mammary expressions of AKT and JNK were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The expressions of NFκB-p65, COX-2 and VEGF were measured by immunohistochemical analysis. The whole results indicated that FRR could exert anti-hyperplasia effects in rat via modulating the mammary expression of JNK and AKT, as well as alleviating the NFκB related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  5. Protective effects of alpha lipoic acid on radiation-induced salivary gland injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mi; Jung, Myeong Hee; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiation therapy is a treatment for patients with head and neck (HN) cancer. However, radiation exposure to the HN often induces salivary gland (SG) dysfunction. We investigated the effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on radiation-induced SG injury in rats. Results ALA preserved acinoductal integrity and acinar cell secretary function following irradiation. These results are related to the mechanisms by which ALA inhibits oxidative stress by inhibiting gp91 mRNA and 8-OHdG expression and apoptosis of acinar cells and ductal cells by inactivating MAPKs in the early period and expression of inflammation-related factors including NF-κB, IκB-α, and TGF-β1 and fibrosis in late irradiated SG. ALA effects began in the acute phase and persisted for at least 56 days after irradiation. Materials and Methods Rats were assigned to followings: control, ALA only (100 mg/kg, i.p.), irradiated, and ALA administered 24 h and 30 min prior to irradiation. The neck area including the SG was evenly irradiated with 2 Gy per minute (total dose, 18 Gy) using a photon 6-MV linear accelerator. Rats were killed at 4, 7, 28, and 56 days after radiation. Conclusions Our results show that ALA could be used to ameliorate radiation-induced SG injury in patients with HN cancer. PMID:27072584

  6. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.; Goberna, R.; Guerrero, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8 fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.

  7. [Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats during various phases of the estral cycle].

    PubMed

    Pliner, L I; Ledovskaia, S M

    1975-08-01

    The functional state of the thyroid gland and the concentration of thyroid hormones in the peripheral blood were studied in 20 mature female albino rats during their estral cycle. Evaluation of the thyroid functional state was made according to data of histological, morphological (the diameter of folliculi, the height of the thyroid epithelium) and histochemical analysis (determination of NAD and NADP-dehydrogenase, succinatedehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, peroxydase, acid and alkaline phosphatase) as well as biochemical determination of iodine bound with protein (IBP) in the blood plasma and investigation of the ratio of the parameters in question under conditions of the sex cycle. The cyclic changes of the morphological state of the thyroid gland attended by the phases of the estral cycle were revealed. The activation of the organ was observed in proestrus and estrus which was evidenced by high levels of activity of the enzymes under study, high concentration of IBP in the blood and increased height of thyreocytes. A decreased function of the thyroid parenchyma was observed at the period of metaestrus-diestrus.

  8. Characterization of a myoepithelial cell line derived from a neonatal rat mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    A clonal, myoepithelial-like cell line has been obtained from a primary culture established from the mammary gland of a 7-d-old rat. In a number of respects, this cell line, termed Rama 401, resembles the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland, especially when grown on floating collagen gels. The cells grow as multilayers on the gel surface and form branching structures that do not appear to contain a lumen. They are rather elongated, with irregular-shaped, flattened nuclei that contain large amounts of peripheral chromatin. Elongated processes project from the cell surface and numerous membrane pinocytotic vesicles can be seen. The cytoplasm is filled with linear arrays of 5- to 7-nm filaments with occasional dense foci. Cell junctions with associated 8- to 11-nm tonofilaments are also observed. Immunofluorescence techniques reveal actin and myosin filaments and also intermediate filaments of both prekeratin and vimentin types. Rama 401 cells secrete an amorphous material that, when an immunoperoxidase technique is used, stains with antibodies to basement membrane-specific type IV collagen. Localized densities of the cell membrane, which resemble hemidesmosomes, are located adjacent to these extracellular deposits. Immunofluorescence staining and immunoprecipitation techniques reveal that the cells also synthesize two other basement membrane proteins, laminin and fibronectin. The type IV collagen consists of two chains with molecular weights of 195,000 and 185,000. PMID:7199047

  9. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  10. An Herbal Galactagogue Mixture Increases Milk Production and Aquaporin Protein Expression in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Hua, Ying; Luo, Hui; Shen, Zhaojun; Tao, Xuejiao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Herbal galactagogues have been increasingly used to treat postpartum hypogalactia. The mechanism of action of herbal galactagogues remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an herbal galactagogue mixture on milk production and aquaporin (AQP) expression in lactating rats. Methods. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into virgin, lactating + H2O, and lactating + galactagogue groups (n = 10 per group). Lactating rats were administered the decoction of an herbal galactagogue mixture by oral gavage or the same amount of distilled water. Results. The herbal decoction significantly increased milk production in lactating rats (P < 0.05). Both immunohistochemical staining and western blot showed that protein levels of AQP-3 and AQP-5 were significantly increased during lactation compared with virgin stage and the herbal decoction further elevated their expression (P < 0.05). AQP-1 was predominantly expressed in the capillaries whereas AQP-3 and AQP-5 were mainly detected in the epithelial cells and ducts of the mammary glands. Conclusion. The expression of AQPs in the mammary glands of rats was developmentally regulated. Herbal galactagogues might have increased milk secretion by regulating the expression and function of AQPs in the mammary glands. PMID:26075000

  11. The effects of sustained delivery of corticosterone on the adrenal gland of male and female rats - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Adel; Wilson, Gerri; Johnson, Willaim; Tucci, Michelle; Cameron, Joseph A; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have long been recognized to have beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Numerous clinical trials show the efficacy of short term low dose treatment to resolve inflammation. Despite the success of short term use, there is concern regarding chronic use of glucocorticoids because of the development of exogenous Cushing’s syndrome. Chronic variable stress models have detailed the effects of chronic stress exposure on body weight, plasma corticosteroid levels, ACTH levels, and adrenal weights, but limited studies detail the effects of the body systems induced by continuous exposure to glucocorticoids similar to that seen in exogenous Cushing’s syndrome. The present study uses a TCPL drug delivery system to administer corticosterone (CS) continuously in male and female animals for 24 days and evaluates long term chronic use effects on body weight, adrenal weight, and adrenal ultrastructure. Continuous release of CS resulted in slight decreases in body weight in both male and female rats and decreases in adrenal wet weight in the female rats. Ultrastructural changes were seen in the adrenal histology in both female and male rats. Male rat adrenal glands showed atrophy of the zona glomerulosa and hypertrophy of the adrenal medulla. Female rats showed disorganization of all zones within the adrenal gland and an increase in fat around the gland. The information is important for understanding physiological differences in males and females during stress. The continuous release of CS may provide insight into the pathology of exogenous Cushing’s syndrome.

  12. Altered mammary gland development in male rats exposed to genistein and methoxychlor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Bartolucci-Page, Erika; Fenton, Suzanne E; You, Li

    2006-05-01

    Genistein (GE) is a prevalent phytoestrogen whose presence in human and animal foods may affect biological actions of synthetic endocrine active compounds. We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure to high doses of GE or the endocrine active pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) caused mammary epithelial proliferation in 21-day-old male rats. Combined exposure to GE and MXC resulted in significant feminization of the male mammary glands. The goals of the current study were to evaluate mammary responses to GE and MXC at the adult stage and investigate relevant mechanisms. Following in utero, lactational exposure (through maternal diet), and direct dietary exposure, the inguinal mammary gland of male rats (90 days of age) was found to exhibit significant morphological alterations in the groups treated with GE and/or MXC compared to the control. GE exposure (at 300 and 800 ppm concentrations) caused lobular enlargement and epithelial proliferation, whereas MXC exposure (800 ppm) led to ductal elongation and lobular enlargement. Combining the two treatments caused prominent proliferation of both ducts and alveoli; secretory material was seen in readily recognizable alveolar lumens, which are absent in untreated male mammary. We also surveyed gene expression in the mammary tissue using a cDNA microarray and evaluated relevant protein factors. The results indicated that the treatment effects are likely due to interactions between steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals and growth factor-driven cellular pathways. The distinctive responses associated with the GE+MXC combination were likely linked to enhanced actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 and related downstream pathways.

  13. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  14. Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure Induces Preneoplastic Lesions in the Mammary Gland in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durando, Milena; Kass, Laura; Piva, Julio; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.; Luque, Enrique H.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2007-01-01

    Background Humans are routinely exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic compound that leaches from dental materials, food and beverage containers, and other consumer products. Prenatal exposure to BPA has produced long-lasting and profound effects on rodent hormone-dependent tissues that are manifested 1–6 months after the end of exposure. Objective The aim of the present work was to examine whether in utero exposure to BPA alters mammary gland development and increases its susceptibility to the carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to BPA (25 μg/kg body weight per day) or to vehicle. Female offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day (PND) 30, 50, 110, or 180. On PND50 a group of rats received a single subcarcinogenic dose of NMU (25 mg/kg) and they were sacrificed on either PND110 or PND180. Results At puberty, animals exposed prenatally to BPA showed an increased proliferation/apoptosis ratio in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. During adulthood (PND110 and PND180), BPA-exposed animals showed an increased number of hyperplastic ducts and augmented stromal nuclear density. Moreover, the stroma associated with hyperplastic ducts showed signs of desmoplasia and contained an increased number of mast cells, suggesting a heightened risk of neoplastic transformation. Administration of a subcarcinogenic dose of NMU to animals exposed prenatally to BPA increased the percentage of hyperplastic ducts and induced the development of neoplastic lesions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the prenatal exposure to low doses of BPA perturbs mammary gland histoarchitecture and increases the carcinogenic susceptibility to a chemical challenge administered 50 days after the end of BPA exposure. PMID:17366824

  15. Resistance exercise induces region-specific adaptations in anterior pituitary gland structure and function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Nindl, Bradley C; Vingren, Jakob L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Looney, David P; Maresh, Carl M; Hymer, Wesley C

    2013-12-01

    The anterior pituitary gland (AP) increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in response to resistance exercise (RE), but the nature of AP adaptations to RE is unknown. To that end, we examined the effects of RE on regional AP somatotroph GH release, structure, and relative quantity. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) no training or acute exercise (NT-NEX); 2) no training with acute exercise (NT-EX); 3) resistance training without acute exercise (RT-NEX); 4) resistance training with acute exercise (RT-EX). RE incorporated 10, 1 m-weighted ladder climbs at an 85° angle. RT groups trained 3 days/wk for 7 wk, progressively. After death, trunk blood was collected, and each AP was divided into quadrants (ventral-dorsal and left-right). We measured: 1) trunk plasma GH; 2) somatotroph GH release; 3) somatotroph size; 4) somatotroph secretory content; and 5) percent of AP cells identified as somatotrophs. Trunk GH differed by group (NT-NEX, 8.9 ± 2.4 μg/l; RT-NEX, 9.2 ± 3.5 μg/l; NT-EX, 15.6 ± 3.4 μg/l; RT-EX, 23.4 ± 4.6 μg/l). RT-EX demonstrated greater somatotroph GH release than all other groups, predominantly in ventral regions (P < 0.05-0.10). Ventral somatotrophs were larger in NT-EX and RT-NEX compared with RT-EX (P < 0.05-0.10). RT-NEX exhibited significantly greater secretory granule content than all other groups but in the ventral-right region only (P < 0.05-0.10). Our findings indicate reproducible patterns of spatially distinct, functionally different somatotroph subpopulations in the rat pituitary gland. RE training appears to induce dynamic adaptations in somatotroph structure and function.

  16. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2008-11-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night.

  17. Morphological and microvascular changes of the adrenal glands in streptozotocin-induced long-term diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Boonprasop, Surasak; Lanlua, Passara; Piyawinijwong, Sitha; Niyomchan, Apichaya

    2009-01-01

    It has been known that diabetes mellitus is associated with hyperfunction of the adrenal gland. However, the structural changes of adrenal gland in diabetes have rarely been studied. The aims of this study were to investigate the morphological and microvascular alterations in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced long-term diabetic rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into diabetic (n=8) and control (n=4) groups. Each diabetic rat was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Control rats were intraperitoneally injected with the same amounts of the buffer. These animals were sacrificed at 20 weeks after the injections. The adrenal glands were processed for the morphological and microvascular studies by using conventional light microscopy (LM) and vascular corrosion cast technique combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In the diabetic group, the cells in zona glomeruloza (ZG) became atrophied and the thickness of this zone was found to be less than that of the controls. In the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR), the hypertrophic cells were investigated in both layers. The degenerated chromaffin and hypertrophic sympathetic ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla were observed. Also some degenerated ganglion cells were found. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration, macrophages and amyloidosis were found in the adrenal medulla of long-term diabetic rats with renal failure. Under the SEM observation, the luminal diameters of capillaries in the diabetic group were dilated in all zones. In addition, these capillaries in the ZF and ZR were arranged in tortuous courses. This study demonstrates morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal gland of diabetic rats which are in accordance with the hormonal changes reported by previous investigators.

  18. Enriched cages for groups of laboratory male rats and their effects on behaviour, weight gain and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Lidfors, L; Wichman, A; Ewaldsson, B; Lindh, A-S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if there were any negative effects on the behaviour and physiology of rats housed in groups of five in two types of enriched cages and compared them with paired-housed rats housed in traditional cages. Eighty-four male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in an enriched rat cage (ERC), a rebuilt rabbit cage (RRC) or a Makrolon III cage (MC) system from 5-16 weeks of age with access to different enrichments. Recordings of behaviour and cage use (3 × 24 h video recording), weekly weighing, measuring food consumption four days/week and water consumption two days/week, were carried out. The rats' muscle strength was assessed using the 'inclined plane' at the end of the study, and after euthanasia the adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Being in the shelter was the most common behaviour in the ERC and RRC groups. In the MC group, which lacked a shelter, rats performed the highest percentage of lying, grooming, rearing, play fighting and manipulating paper shreds. Rats in the RRC had the highest percentage of standing and manipulating gnawing sticks. Water consumption was higher in MC than in ERC and RRC rats. Rats from the RRC managed to remain at a steeper angle on the 'inclined plane' than rats from the MC. There were no significant effects of cage type on weight gain, food consumption or relative weights of adrenal glands. In conclusion, male rats kept in groups of five in larger enriched cages benefited from the enrichments, and no negative effects were found in the larger groups.

  19. Kuttner tumour: an unusual cause of enlargement of a minor salivary gland in the lip.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Shekar, K; Singh, M

    2010-03-01

    Kuttner tumour is benign, chronic, sclerosing sialadenitis that usually occurs in the submandibular gland and is regarded as a salivary gland neoplasm because of its clinical features. We describe a tumour arising from a minor salivary gland of the upper lip. To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases.

  20. Comparative immunohistochemical study of normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic C cells of the rat thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lacave, I; Rojas, F; Bernabé, R; Utrilla, J C; Fernández-Santos, J M; De Miguel, M; Conde, E

    2002-09-01

    In rats, the frequency of spontaneous C-cell tumours is very high and is both age and gender dependent. The three specific stages of neoplastic progression can be distinguished into diffuse C-cell hyperplasia, focal C-cell hyperplasia and bona fide C-cell tumours. Based on this hypothetical model of human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we carried out an immunohistochemical study using different markers (calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, somatostatin and chromogranin) to verify the existence of any relationship between their expression and the successive steps of tumour development. We found a characteristic immunohistochemical staining pattern, particularly for calcitonin and somatostatin, which distinguishes C-cell tumours from both normal and hyperplastic C cells, with no differences related to the gender of the animals under study. Specifically, a considerable heterogeneity in calcitonin expression was only displayed by C-cell carcinomas, being less pronounced in C-cell adenomas. As for somatostatin, this regulatory peptide was found only in a minority of calcitonin-positive cells in normal and hyperplastic glands. However, in some C-cell adenomas and most C-cell carcinomas nearly all calcitonin-positive cells also coexpressed somatostatin. We conclude that rat C-cell neoplasms constitute a very particular tumour entity which shares many but not all immunohistochemical features with human MTC.

  1. Association between microtubules and Golgi vesicles isolated from rat parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Raymond, M N

    1990-01-01

    We report an isolation procedure of trans-Golgi vesicles (GVs) from rat parotid glands. Various organelle markers were used, particularly galactosyl transferase as a trans-Golgi marker, to test the purity of the GV fraction. A quantitative in vitro binding assay between microtubules and GVs is described. The vesicles were incubated with taxol-induced microtubules, layered between 50% and 43% sucrose cushions and subjected to centrifugation. Unlike free microtubules which were sedimented, the GV-bound microtubules co-migrated upward with GVs. Quantification of these bound microtubules was carried out by densitometric scanning of Coomassie blue-stained gels. The association between microtubules and GVs followed a saturation curve, with a plateau value of 20 micrograms of microtubule protein bound to 500 micrograms of GV fraction. The half-saturation of the GV sites was obtained with a microtubule concentration of 20 micrograms/ml. Electron microscopy of negatively stained re-floated material showed numerous microtubule-vesicle complexes. Coating of microtubules with an excess of brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) abolished binding. In the absence of exogenous microtubules, we showed that the GV fraction was already interacting with a class of endogenous rat parotid microtubules. This class of colcemid and cold-stable microtubules represents 10-20% of the total tubulin content of the parotid cell. PMID:1983303

  2. Regulated phosphorylation of secretory granule membrane proteins of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, C.R.; Castle, J.D.; Gorelick, F.S. )

    1990-07-01

    An antiserum raised against purified rat parotid secretory granule membrane proteins has been used to identify organelle-specific protein phosphorylation events following stimulation of intact cells from the rat parotid gland. After lobules were prelabeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and exposed to secretagogues, phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated with the granule membrane protein antiserum, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography. Parallel studies of stimulated amylase release were performed. Isoproterenol treatment of parotid lobules resulted in an increase in the phosphate content of immunoprecipitable 60- and 72-kDa proteins that correlated with amylase release in a time-dependent manner. Forskolin addition mimicked these effects, but only the isoproterenol effects were reversed by propranolol treatment. To confirm the specificity of the antiserum to the secretory granule membrane fraction, subcellular isolation techniques were employed following in situ phosphorylation. The 60- and 72-kDa phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated from both a particulate fraction and a purified secretory granule fraction. Furthermore, the extraction properties of both species suggest that they are integral membrane proteins. These findings support the possibility that stimulus-regulated secretion may involve phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins of the exocrine secretory granule.

  3. Ferutinin dose-dependent effects on uterus and mammary gland in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Marzia; Cavani, Francesco; Manni, Paola; Carnevale, Gianluca; Bertoni, Laura; Zavatti, Manuela; Palumbo, Carla

    2014-08-01

    The present paper completes our recent study on the effects of phytoestrogen ferutinin in preventing osteoporosis and demonstrating the superior osteoprotective effect of a 2 mg/kg/day dose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, compared to both estrogens and lower (0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) ferutinin doses. Morphological and morphometrical analyses were performed on the effects of different doses of ferutinin administrated for one month on uterus and on mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley OVX rats, evaluated in comparison with the results for estradiol benzoate. To verify whether ferutinin provides protection against uterine and breast cancer, estimations were made of both the amount of cell proliferation (by Ki-67), and the occurrence of apoptosis (by TUNEL), two processes that in unbalanced ratio form the basis for cancer onset. The results suggest that the effects of ferutinin are dose dependent and that a 2 mg/kg/day dose might offer a better protective action against the onset of both breast and uterine carcinoma compared to ferutinin in lower doses or estradiol benzoate, increasing cellular apoptosis in glandular epithelia. PMID:24510547

  4. Dietary copper can regulate the level of mRNA for dopamine B-hydroxylase in rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sabban, E.L.; Failla, M.L.; McMahon, A.; Seidel, K.E. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Recent studies have shown that Cu deficiency markedly alters the levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in several peripheral tissues of rodents. Conversion of DA to NE is mediated by dopamine B-hydroxylase (DBM). Here the authors examined the effect of dietary Cu deficiency on the levels of DA, NE and DBM mRNA in rat adrenal gland. Severe Cu deficiency was induced by feeding low Cu diet to dams beginning at 17d gestation and weaning pups to the same diet. At 7 wks of age rats fed {minus}Cu diet were characterized by depressed growth, low tissue Cu, enlarged hearts and moderate anemia. Concentrations of DA were higher in adrenals and hearts of {minus}Cu rats compared to +Cu controls. While cardiac level of NE in {minus}Cu rats were reduced to 17% that of controls, adrenal NE was unchanged by Cu deficiency. To investigate possible mechanisms responsible for the response of adrenal gland to Cu deficiency, RNA was isolated and the levels of DBH mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA were analyzed by Northern blots. Steady state levels of adrenal DBH mRNA was increased 2-3 fold in {minus}Cu rats, whereas TH mRNA were unchanged by dietary Cu status. Upon feeding the {minus}Cu rats the Cu adequate diet overnight, there was a further increase in DBH mRNA and a slight elevation of TH mRNA levels. The results indicate that dietary copper can markedly affect the level of DBH mRNA in rat adrenal gland.

  5. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Kurashige, Tomomi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7 -week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3-72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids.

  6. MCT8 is Downregulated by Short Time Iodine Overload in the Thyroid Gland of Rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza, E C L; Dias, G R M; Cardoso, R C; Lima, L P; Fortunato, R S; Visser, T J; Vaisman, M; Ferreira, A C F; Carvalho, D P

    2015-11-01

    Wolff-Chaikoff effect is characterized by the blockade of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion due to iodine overload. However, the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 during Wolff-Chaikoff effect and its possible role in the rapid reduction of T4 secretion by the thyroid gland remains unclear. Patients with monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene loss-of-function mutations and monocarboxylate transporter 8 knockout mice were shown to have decreased serum T4 levels, indicating that monocarboxylate transporter 8 could be involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 during the Wolff-Chaikoff effect and the escape from iodine overload, besides the importance of iodine organification for this regulation. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 mRNA and protein levels significantly decreased after 1 day of NaI administration to rats, together with decreased serum T4; while no alteration was observed in LAT2 expression. Moreover, both monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression and serum T4 was restored after 6 days of NaI. The inhibition of thyroperoxidase activity by methimazole prevented the inhibitory effect of NaI on thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression, suggesting that an active thyroperoxidase is necessary for MCT8 downregulation by iodine overload, similarly to other thyroid markers, such as sodium iodide symporter. Therefore, we conclude that thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression is downregulated during iodine overload and that the normalization of its expression parallels the escape phenomenon. These data suggest a possible role for monocarboxylate transporter 8 in the changes of thyroid hormones secretion during the Wolff-Chaikoff effect and escape. PMID:26021458

  7. MCT8 is Downregulated by Short Time Iodine Overload in the Thyroid Gland of Rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza, E C L; Dias, G R M; Cardoso, R C; Lima, L P; Fortunato, R S; Visser, T J; Vaisman, M; Ferreira, A C F; Carvalho, D P

    2015-11-01

    Wolff-Chaikoff effect is characterized by the blockade of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion due to iodine overload. However, the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 during Wolff-Chaikoff effect and its possible role in the rapid reduction of T4 secretion by the thyroid gland remains unclear. Patients with monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene loss-of-function mutations and monocarboxylate transporter 8 knockout mice were shown to have decreased serum T4 levels, indicating that monocarboxylate transporter 8 could be involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 during the Wolff-Chaikoff effect and the escape from iodine overload, besides the importance of iodine organification for this regulation. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 mRNA and protein levels significantly decreased after 1 day of NaI administration to rats, together with decreased serum T4; while no alteration was observed in LAT2 expression. Moreover, both monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression and serum T4 was restored after 6 days of NaI. The inhibition of thyroperoxidase activity by methimazole prevented the inhibitory effect of NaI on thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression, suggesting that an active thyroperoxidase is necessary for MCT8 downregulation by iodine overload, similarly to other thyroid markers, such as sodium iodide symporter. Therefore, we conclude that thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression is downregulated during iodine overload and that the normalization of its expression parallels the escape phenomenon. These data suggest a possible role for monocarboxylate transporter 8 in the changes of thyroid hormones secretion during the Wolff-Chaikoff effect and escape.

  8. Silk fibroin scaffolds promote formation of the ex vivo niche for salivary gland epithelial cell growth, matrix formation, and retention of differentiated function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin-Xian; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Lin, Alan L; Wang, Hanzhou; Pilia, Marcello; Ong, Joo L; Dean, David D; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yeh, Chih-Ko

    2015-05-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction often results from a number of causes, including the use of various medications, radiation for head and neck tumors, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and aging. Since treatments for this condition are lacking and adult salivary glands have little regenerative capacity, there is a need for cell-based therapies to restore salivary gland function. Development of these treatment strategies requires the establishment of a system that is capable of replicating the salivary gland cell "niche" to support the proliferation and differentiation of salivary gland progenitor cells. In this study, a culture system using three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds (SFS) and primary salivary gland epithelial cells (pSGECs) from rat submandibular (SM) gland and parotid gland (PG) was established and characterized. pSGECs grown on SFS, but not tissue culture plastic (TCP), formed aggregates of cells with morphological features resembling secretory acini. High levels of amylase were released into the media by both cell types after extended periods in culture on SFS. Remarkably, cultures of PG-derived cells on SFS, but not SM cells, responded to isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, with increased enzyme release. This behavior mimics that of the salivary glands in vivo. Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) formed by pSGECs in culture on SFS contained type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. These results demonstrate that pSGECs grown on SFS, but not TCP, retain important functional and structural features of differentiated salivary glands and produce an ECM that mimics the native salivary gland cell niche. These results demonstrate that SFS has potential as a scaffold for creating the salivary gland cell niche in vitro and may provide an approach for inducing multipotent stem cells to provide therapeutically meaningful numbers of salivary gland progenitor cells for regenerating these tissues in patients.

  9. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Raquel; Wang, Richard; Russo, Irma H; Mailo, Daniel A; Lamartiniere, Coral A; Russo, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20) to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days). Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days), becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland. PMID:18062813

  10. Metabolic activation of phenacetin in rat nasal mucosa: dose-dependent binding to the glands of Bowman

    SciTech Connect

    Brittebo, E.B.

    1987-03-01

    The metabolism and binding of the analgetic drug (ring-/sup 3/H)phenacetin in the nasal mucosa were studied in vitro and in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats. As shown by whole-body and light microscopic autoradiography there was an irreversible binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa after high but not after low doses of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. In the other tissues, the distribution of radioactivity was not changed when the dose was increased. Autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)-acetaminophen showed no preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa. At incubation of nasal septa with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin in vitro, a binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman was observed indicating that the metabolism occurred in situ. In rats, glutathione (GSH) depleted by pretreatment with phorone, there was a binding to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa also after a trace dose of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. Addition of GSH decreased the irreversible binding of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin metabolites that occurred in 9000 X g nasal mucosa supernatants incubated with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. There was a moderate decrease in the level of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, mainly GSH, in the olfactory mucosa after administration of 100-300 mg/kg phenacetin. Collectively, these data suggest that phenacetin is metabolized and subsequent to GSH depletion, bound preferentially in the glands of Bowman. The data also suggest that in situ metabolic activation and binding of phenacetin in the rat nasal mucosa at high doses may play a role in the pathogenesis of the nasal tumors induced by high doses of phenacetin in the rat.

  11. Cell-specific expression of the glucocorticoid receptor within granular convoluted tubules of the rat submaxillary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Antakly, T.; Zhang, C.X.; Sarrieau, A.; Raquidan, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The submaxillary gland, a heterogeneous tissue composed essentially of two functionally distinct cell types (tubular epithelial and acinar), offers an interesting system in which to study the mechanisms of steroid-dependent growth and differentiation. One cell type, the granular convoluted tubular (GCT) cell, secretes a large number of physiologically important polypeptides, including epidermal and nerve growth factors. Two steroids, androgens and glucocorticoids, greatly influence the growth, differentiation, and secretory activity of GCT cells. Because glucocorticoids can partially mimic or potentiate androgen effects, it has been thought that glucocorticoids act via androgen receptors. Since the presence of glucocorticoid receptors is a prerequisite for glucocorticoid action, we have investigated the presence and cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptors within the rat submaxillary gland. Binding experiments using (3H)dexamethasone revealed the presence of high affinity binding sites in rat submaxillary tissue homogenates. Most of these sites were specifically competed by dexamethasone, corticosterone, and a pure glucocorticoid agonist RU 28362. Neither testosterone nor dihydrotestosterone competed for glucocorticoid binding. The cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptors within the submaxillary gland was investigated by immunocytochemistry, using two highly specific glucocorticoid receptor antibodies. The receptor was localized in the GCT cells, but not in the acinar cells of rat and mouse submaxillary tissue sections. In GCT cells, the glucocorticoid receptor colocalized with several secretory polypeptides, including epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, alpha 2u-globulin, and atrial natriuretic factor.

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of annexin a5 in the mammary gland of rats: up-regulation of expression by pup removal.

    PubMed

    Rieanrakwong, Duangjai; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kurusu, Shiro; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of annexin A5, a cytosolic protein related to gonadotropin releasing hormone action, was examined in the mammary gland of rats by immunohistochemistry with special reference to changes by lactation. Annexin A5 was observed in the interstitial tissues but not alveolar cells in virgin rats, while mammary epithelial cells became positive for annexin A5 in pregnant rats. The intensity of annexin A5 was decreased in lactating rats and dramatically increased after weaning, especially on the nucleus. When pups were removed from their dam at mid-lactation (day 10), annexin A5 was also increased on day 12. Apoptotic epithelial cells detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling were simultaneously increased. Annexin A5 mRNA expression of mammary tissues was increased after pup removal. These results are the first to demonstrate the distribution of annexin A5 in the mammary glands of lactating rats, and the enhanced expression in mammary epithelial cells after lactation suggests its involvement in mammary epithelial cell involution.

  13. [Effect of 22-day space flight factors on the state of the sex glands and reproductive capacity of rats].

    PubMed

    Plakhuta-Plakutina, G I; Serova, L V; Dreval', A A; Tarabrin, S B

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the morphological examination of tests of the Wistar rats flown for 22 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-605. Histological, histochemical, electron microscopic and biometric investigations of sex glands carried out 24-48 hours and 26-27 days postflight show that an exposure of the rats to weightlessness and other space flight factors induced no morphological changes in the spermatogenic tissue or disorders in the spermatogenic process of the rats. The offspring of male rats that were exposed to 22-day weightlessness did not differ from the controls with respect to the number of the newborns, their weight at birth, weight gain during the first postnatal month, resistance to hypoxia, etc.

  14. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  15. Potent carcinogenicity of 2,7-dinitrofluorene, an environmental pollutant, for the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Malejka-Giganti, D; Niehans, G A; Reichert, M A; Bennett, K K; Bliss, R L

    1999-10-01

    Nitrofluorene compounds are environmental pollutants chiefly from incomplete combustion. This study examined carcinogenicities after one intramammary injection of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 2, 7-dinitrofluorene (2,7-diNF) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (solvent control) to 30-day-old and of 2-NF, 9-OH-2-NF, 9-oxo-2-NF, 2,7-diNF, 9-oxo-2,7-diNF, 2,5-dinitrofluorene, 9-oxo-2,4,7-trinitrofluorene, N-OH-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-2-AAF) (carcinogen control) or DMSO to 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In 30- and 50-day-old rats 6 and 8 glands/rat, respectively, were injected with 2.04 micromol of compound in 50 microliter/gland of DMSO. Whereas all compounds including DMSO yielded combined malignant and benign mammary tumor incidences of 33-87% by week 82 after injection, 2,7-diNF produced 100 and 93% incidences significantly (P < 0.001) sooner than did DMSO, i.e. by weeks 23-49 and 18-48 after treatment of 30- and 50-day-old rats, respectively. Rats treated with 2,7-diNF and 9-oxo-2,7-diNF had significantly (P < 0.0001) and marginally (P = 0. 0536) more mammary tumors, respectively, than DMSO-treated rats. In 2,7-diNF-treated rats, the ratio of malignant to benign mammary tumors was 5.4, whereas in all other groups it was <0.5. N-OH-2-AAF, a potent tumorigen when applied to the mammary gland as a solid or in suspension, did not yield the expected tumorigenicity here. The contrasting tumorigenic potencies of 2,7-diNF and N-OH-2-AAF may have been prompted by differences in their solubilities in DMSO. Thus, the poorly soluble 2,7-diNF was slowly absorbed from the injection sites since residues (up to 0.9% of the dose injected) were recovered even after 45 weeks. The data indicate prolonged exposure of the mammary gland to 2,7-diNF and suggest that contamination of the environment with 2,7-diNF, even at low levels, poses substantial carcinogenic risk. PMID:10506119

  16. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  17. Expression of thyroglobulin and calcitonin in spontaneous thyroid gland tumors in the Han Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Andrew M; Jones, Stewart A; Endersby-Wood, Helen J; McCormack, Nicola A M; Turton, John A

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous follicular and C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland in the Han Wistar rat were examined using two morphologic procedures. Firstly, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize thyroglobulin (TG) and calcitonin (CT) mRNAs. Secondly, the proteins for these markers were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim was to study the morphology of the tumors and to examine the usefulness of TG and CT markers in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Follicular tumors with cystic, papillary and follicular patterns showed relatively consistent expression of TG mRNA by ISH, thereby confirming the diagnostic value of this technique. However, no staining for TG markers was observed in solid lesions. In general, C-cell tumors comprised well-differentiated cells that continued to express CT mRNA and peptides even after embolic spread and metastasis. Therefore, the performance of either ISH or IHC for CT markers can be used for diagnostic confirmation. Additional features noted in C-cell tumors included the appearance of tumor emboli or metastases in association with small primary lesions (less than 5 average follicular diameters in size) and the presence of eosinophilic (amyloid-like) material showing immunopositivity for CT peptides. Finally, evidence is provided for the sequestration of TG protein by proliferating C-cells.

  18. [Effect of immunization on functional state of thyroid gland and thyroxine binding in rat organs].

    PubMed

    Serebrov, V Iu; Vasil'ev, N V; Udintsev, N A

    1982-02-01

    A number of modern research methods were used in experiments on 220 white rats to examine thyroid function at varying times after single immunization with typhoid vaccine. It was found that on the 1st and 2nd days of the observation period, only cAMP level of the thyroid parenchyma decreases. Three, four and seven days following immunization, thyroid function is drastically reduced, which manifests by a decrease in 131I uptake by the thyroid gland. Also decreased were the conversion ratio, the levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in blood serum and incorporation of labeled thyroxin by the heart, liver and spleen. During the productive phase of the immunogenesis (days 10, 15, 20 and 25), all the test indicators considerably increase. The phases of the reaction obtained seem likely to be a consequence of reciprocal relationship between the thyroid and sympathoadrenal systems (the inductive period), as well as by the feedback effect (the productive period of antibody formation). The reaction of thyroid function to immunization is regarded as a component of non-specific adaptation response of the body to an extreme irritant, that provides for metabolic reconstruction necessary for the synthesis of antibodies and formation of immune lymphocyte populations.

  19. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  20. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  1. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  2. Activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the adrenal glands, liver, and kidneys of rats with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, O P; Selyatitskaya, V G; Pal'chikova, N A; Kuznetsova, N V

    2014-12-01

    We studied activity of the key enzyme of the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, in rat adrenal glands, renal cortex and liver in the course of development of alloxan diabetes (9, 20, and 28 day). The enzyme activity was increased 3-4 fold in the adrenal glands throughout the experiment. At the same time, according to the adrenal gland level of corticosterone, its precursor 11-deoxycorticosterone and reversible metabolite 11-dehydrocorticosterone, activity of the second isoform of the enzyme dominated at the early stages of diabetes, and that of the first isoform, at later stages. In long-term diabetes (28 days), along with reduced synthesis of corticosterone and production of 11-dehydrocorticosterone in the adrenal glands, the extra-adrenal formation of corticosterone was activated as indicated by enhanced activity of the first isoform in the liver and that of the second isoform in the kidneys. These changes in activity of the enzyme isoforms promote local formation of corticosterone from its reversible metabolite in the liver and persisting hyperglycemia in diabetes.

  3. Correlation between gender and spontaneous C-cell tumors in the thyroid gland of the Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lacave, I; Bernab, R; Sampedro, C; Conde, E; Fernández-Santos, J M; San Martín, M V; Beato, A; Galera-Davidson, H

    1999-09-01

    In many rat strains, C-cell hyperplasia occurs in an age-dependent manner and is often associated with multifocal C-cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spectrum of spontaneous, proliferative C-cell disorders by gender in Wistar rats throughout their lifespan. The incidence of C-cell hyperplasia shows a significant increase with age (P<0.001) and is much higher in female rats than in male rats (P<0.05). From 3 to 24 months of life, 27.5% of female rats showed a normal C-cell pattern, 55.0% showed C-cell hyperplasia, and 17.5% showed C-cell tumors; while 57.5% of male rats showed a normal C-cell pattern, 32.5% showed C-cell hyperplasia, and 10% showed C-cell tumors. Although the overall frequency of C-cell neoplasms in females was nearly double that in males, these data are not statistically significant. However, the number of C-cell tumors showed a significant increase with age (P<0.05). Therefore, we can conclude that there were significant differences in the incidence of the total spectrum of C-cell proliferative abnormalities in the thyroid gland of Wistar rats that were both age-dependent and gender-dependent.

  4. Selective accumulation of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in steroid-synthesizing cells of the rat adrenal gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Deubzer, Hedwig; Holloschi, Andreas; Haffner, Matthias; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1998-04-01

    Rat adrenal glands fluoresce intensely after systemic application of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). We investigated which parts of the adrenal gland accumulate mTHPC. Furthermore we examined the time course of adrenal mTHPC-accumulation. Ten male Wistar rats each were given 0.5 or 0.7 mg mTHPC kg-1 iv. Each two animals were perfused with normal saline and Zamboni fixative 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after photosensitization. Untreated animals served as controls. Fluorescence was quantified on 20 micrometer frozen sections with CCD-camera and appropriate software. Immunohistochemistry identified specific cell types with antibodies to steroid-synthesizing enzymes. The cortex exhibited an intense fluorescence, with weaker fluorescence of corticocytes in the zona glomerulosa compared to the other zones. Besides intensely fluorescing singly lying scattered cells, the medulla showed a faint mTHPC-induced fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intramedullary cells with intense fluorescence were corticocytes, showing a positive reaction to the 21-(beta) -hydroxylase antibody. Peak accumulation of mTHPC was always observed after 24 hours. Our results indicate for the first time that only steroid synthesizing cells of the adrenal gland exhibit an intense photosensitizer-induced fluorescence. Thus mTHPC-application is an uncomplicated method to identify steroid-synthesizing cells, possibly also in other organs.

  5. Quantitative changes in the frequency and distribution of the C-cell population in the rat thyroid gland with age.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lacave, I; Conde, E; Montero, C; Galera-Davidson, H

    1992-10-01

    The development of calcitonin cells (C-cells) was investigated in rat thyroid glands from birth to 120 days, using an immunoperoxidase technique and a point-counting method. The proportion of C-cells to follicular cells was 4.5% on the day of birth and increased progressively to 10.4% by 120 days. The highest density of C-cells was noted in the mid-region of the lobes along a longitudinal axis. The caudal and cephalic regions of the lobes contained smaller numbers of C-cells. The C-cells tended to be more numerous in the posterior aspects of the lobes. Although the numbers of C-cells in 120-day-old animal were markedly increased as compared to animals at the time of birth, the cell distributions within the glands were similar at all ages.

  6. Melatonin potentiates the anti-tumour effect of pravastatin in rat mammary gland carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Orendáš, Peter; Kubatka, Peter; Bojková, Bianka; Kassayová, Monika; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Kružliak, Peter; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kapinová, Andrea; Adamicová, Katarína; Sadloňová, Vladimíra; Chmelová, Martina; Stollárová, Nadežda

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies in the field of cancer research have suggested a possible role for statins in the reduction of risk in certain malignancies. The purpose of these studies was to examine the chemopreventive effects of pravastatin alone and in combination with pineal hormone melatonin in the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis model. Pravastatin was given orally (1 00 mg/kg) and melatonin was added to the water (20 μg/ml). Chemoprevention began seven days prior to carcinogen administration and subsequently continued for 15 weeks until autopsy. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Parameters of experimental carcinogenesis, mechanism of action (biomarkers of apoptosis, angiogenesis and proliferation) and side effects after long-term treatment in animals were assessed. Pravastatin alone suppressed tumour frequency by 20.5% and average tumour volume by 15% compared with controls. Combined administration of the drugs decreased tumour frequency by 69% and lengthened tumour latency by nine days compared with control animals. The ration between high and low grade carcinomas was apparently reduced in both treated groups. The analysis of carcinoma cells showed significant expression increase in caspase-3 and caspase-7 after pravastatin treatment; however, combined treatment even more pronounced increase in the expression of both caspases. Regarding VEGFR-2 expression, a small effect in carcinomas of both treated groups was found. In plasma metabolism evaluation, pravastatin alone significantly decreased levels of glucose and triacylglycerols. Our results suggest a mild anti-neoplastic effect of pravastatin in this rat mammary gland carcinoma model. Statins co-administered with other suitable drug (e.g. melatonin) should be further evaluated for tumour-preventive properties. PMID:25270735

  7. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer.

  8. Chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gokul Raj, Kathamuthu; Chidambaram, Ranganathan; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Pandi, Mohan

    2015-11-15

    Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and foremost global public health problem. The present study was designed to appraise the chemopreventive potential of fungal taxol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. After 90 days of tumor induction, fungal and authentic taxol were given intraperitoneally once in a week for four weeks. Infrared thermal imaging analysis, serum biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidase (LPO), creatinine, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants, liver markers tests such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins was analysed. In addition, histopathological observation (breast, kidney and liver), immunohistochemical analysis (p53 and Her2/neu) and western blotting experiments (bcl-2, bax and caspase-9) were performed both in control and experimental animals. In thermal imaging, decreased temperature was observed in rat treated with fungal and authentic taxol when compared to tumor induced rats. The significant decrease in LPO, creatinine, ALT, AST, TC, TG, lipoproteins and increase in enzymic, non-enzymic antioxidants were exemplified in serum of treated groups. Further histopathology, immunohistochemical and western blot analysis (bax, cas-9 and bcl-2) of apoptotic markers in breast tissues clearly showed the anti-carcinogenic property of fungal taxol. Our findings implement that fungal taxol is a potential chemo preventive agent against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinogenesis.

  9. Rates of cholesterol synthesis and low-density lipoprotein uptake in the adrenal glands of the rat, hamster and rabbit in vivo.

    PubMed

    Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1985-09-11

    The absolute rate of cholesterol acquisition from de novo synthesis and from receptor-dependent and receptor-independent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake was determined in the adrenal glands of the rat, hamster and rabbit under in vivo conditions. The rate of incorporation of [3H]water into cholesterol in the adrenal gland was much higher in the hamster (1727 nmol/h per g) and rabbit (853 nmol/h per g) than in the rat (71 nmol/h per g). Assuming that 23 atoms of 3H are incorporated into the cholesterol molecule during its biosynthesis, the absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis were then calculated to equal 59, 29 and 2.4 micrograms/h per g of adrenal gland in the hamster, rabbit and rat, respectively. Rates of LDL-cholesterol uptake were measured using a primed continuous infusion of [14C]sucrose-labeled homologous LDL (total LDL transport) and methylated human LDL (receptor-independent LDL transport). The rate of total LDL-cholesterol uptake in the adrenal gland was much higher in the rabbit (227 micrograms/h per g) than in the rat (18 micrograms/h per g) or hamster (6 micrograms/h per g). In all three species LDL uptake was mediated largely (greater than 93%) by receptor-dependent mechanisms. In terms of total cholesterol acquisition, the hamster adrenal gland derived 10-times more cholesterol from de novo synthesis than from LDL uptake, whereas the converse was true in the rabbit. Rates of de novo synthesis and LDL-cholesterol uptake were both low in the rat adrenal gland, which is known to derive cholesterol mainly from circulating high-density lipoproteins. Thus, the adrenal gland acquires cholesterol for hormone synthesis from at least three different sources and the quantitative importance of these sources varies markedly in different animal species, including man. PMID:2992599

  10. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is primarily composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the thymus, ...

  11. Morphology of the mammotrophs and gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of rats with protein-calorie malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Herbert, D C

    1980-08-01

    The structure of the anterior pituitary gland of rats with protein-calorie malnutrition was studied at the light and electron microscopic levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-protein diet from 20 to 50 days of age. The hypophyses from these animals, along with those from age-matched controls, were then removed and fixed for light microscopic immunocytochemical analyses, using anti-rat PRL or anti-ovine LH beta serum, or for routine ultrastructural study. The overall number of mammotrophs and gonadotrophs appeared to be unaffected by the deficiency in dietary protein. However, the nuclei, in both cell types, were significantly smaller in the malnourished rats. Cytoplasmic volume was also apparently less than in control rats, leading to the "crowding" of adjacent cell types. Additionally, in the malnourished rats, the mammotrophs assumed a less polygonal profile, while the gonadotrophs, which were more irregularly shaped in the central zone, rarely displayed the negative image of a Golgi complex. Ultrastructurally, the mammotrophs in the experimental rats had a less extensively developed granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. The number of secretary granules was not different; however, their size was markedly less and their shape was round to ovoid, rather than pleomorphic. Two types of gonadotrophs were distinguished, based on the classification of Kurosumi et al. ('76). The type-I cell (former "FSH" cell) had a smaller Golgi complex, less vesicular endoplasmic reticulum and smaller secretory granules. The major alteration in the type-II gonadotroph (former "LH" cell) was the smaller size of the secretory granules. The morphological changes found in this study support our previous physiological observations (Herbert, '80), which demonstrate that prolactin and gonadotrophin secretion are severely impaired in rats suffering from protein-calorie malnutrition.

  12. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Soo-Ik ); Hammes, G.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the {beta}-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution.

  13. A rat model of bone cancer pain induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mao-Ying, Q.-L.; Zhao Jun; Dong Zhiqiang; Wang Jun; Yu Jin; Yan Minfen; Zhang Yuqiu; Wu Gencheng; Wang Yanqing . E-mail: wangyanqing@shmu.edu.cn

    2006-07-14

    This study described a modified rat model of bone cancer pain. Syngeneic Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were injected into the tibia medullary cavity via intercondylar eminence. Series of tests were carried out including bone radiology, bone histology, ambulatory pain, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, weight bearing ability, and electrophysiological recording from primary afferent fibers. The rats inoculated with carcinoma cells showed significant ambulatory pain, mechanical allodynia, and reduction in weight bearing, as well as increased incidence of spontaneous activity in A{beta} fibers in affected limb, whereas PBS (vehicle) or heat-killed cells (sham) injected rats showed no significant difference in comparison to normal rats. The pain hypersensitive behaviors were aggravated with time and destruction of bone. Interestingly, mechanical allodynia was also observed in the contralateral limb, indicating the involvement of 'mirror image' pain in bone cancer pain. In summary, the present study provided a useful and easily established rat model of bone cancer pain which will contribute to further study of the mechanisms underlying cancer pain.

  14. Characterization of xenobiotic-induced hepatocellular enzyme induction in rats: anticipated thyroid effects and unique pituitary gland findings.

    PubMed

    Zabka, Tanja S; Fielden, Mark R; Garrido, Rosario; Tao, Jianhua; Fretland, Adrian J; Fretland, Jennifer L; Albassam, Mudher A; Singer, Thomas; Kolaja, Kyle L

    2011-06-01

    During routine safety evaluation of RO2910, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV infection, histopathology findings concurrent with robust hepatocellular induction occurred in multiple organs, including a unique, albeit related, finding in the pituitary gland. For fourteen days, male and female rats were administered, by oral gavage vehicle, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day of RO2910. Treated groups had elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and decreased total thyroxine, and hypertrophy in the liver, thyroid gland, and pituitary pars distalis. These were considered consequences of hepatocellular induction and often were dose dependent and more pronounced in males than in females. Hepatocellular centrilobular hypertrophy corresponded with increased expression of cytochrome P450s 2B1/2, 3A1, and 3A2 and UGT 2B1. Bilateral thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy occurred concurrent to increased mitotic activity and sometimes colloid depletion, which were attributed to changes in thyroid hormone levels. Males had hypertrophy of thyroid-stimulating hormone-producing cells (thyrotrophs) in the pituitary pars distalis. All findings were consistent with the well-established adaptive physiologic response of rodents to xenobiotic-induced hepatocellular microsomal enzyme induction. Although the effects on the pituitary gland following hepatic enzyme induction-mediated hypothyroidism have not been reported previously, other models of stress and thyroid depletion leading to pituitary stimulation support such a shared pathogenesis.

  15. Unusual ultrastructural features in the superficial pineal gland of the yellow-bellied country rat (Rattus losea Swinhoe).

    PubMed

    Huang, H T; Lin, H S; Sun, J H; Wang, P Y

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the superficial pineal gland of the yellow-bellied country rat (Rattus losea Swinhoe), living under natural climatic conditions at the margin of the tropical region, was studied with special reference to the seasonal changes. In the rainy season with average monthly rainfall of 400 mm (light phase of 13.5 h, and temperature of 28 degrees C) the gland was characterized by the presence of frequent large vacuoles containing flocculent material (LVFs), large condensed inclusions (LCIs) in the pinealocytes, and extensive accumulations of presumptive secretion in the extracellular compartment, suggesting an enhanced secretory activity. In the dry season with average monthly rainfall of 13 mm (light phase of 11 h, and temperature of 19 degrees C), however, the pinealocytes were characterized by the presence of numerous clear spindles, which exhibited acid phosphatase activity; at this time there were few LVFs and LCIs and rare extracellular accumulations, suggesting a declined glandular activity. We conclude that the cellular activity of the pineal gland in R. losea, living under tropical climatic conditions, is synchronized with the annual changes of rainfall, which is apparently more important than the annual changes of photoperiod and temperature.

  16. Differentially expressed protein markers in human submandibular and sublingual secretions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Denny, Patricia; Denny, Paul; Xie, Yongming; Loo, Joseph A; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Li, Yang; McBride, Jim; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Navazesh, Mavash; Wong, David T

    2004-11-01

    Proteome analysis of secretions from individual salivary glands is important for understanding the health of the oral cavity and pathogenesis of certain diseases. However, cross-contamination of submandibular (SM) and sublingual (SL) glandular secretions can occur. The close anatomic relationship of the SM and SL ductal orifices can lead to such contamination. Additionally, these glands may share common ducts. To insure the purity of SM/SL secretions for proteomic analysis, it is important to develop unique biomarkers which could be used to verify the integrity of the individual glandular saliva. In this study, a proteomics approach based on mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis techniques was utilized to identify and verify a set of proteins (cystatin C, calgranulin B and MUC5B mucin), which are differentially expressed in SM/SL secretions. SM/SL fluids were obtained from nine healthy subjects. Cystatin C was found to be an SM-selective protein as it was found in all SM fluids but not detected in two SL fluids. MUC5B mucin and calgranulin B, on the other hand, were found to be SL-selective proteins. All SL samples contained MUC5B mucin, whereas MUC5B mucin was not detected in four SM samples. Eight of the SL samples contained calgranulin B; however, calgranulin B was absent in eight SM samples. This set of protein markers, especially calgranulin B, can be used to determine the purity of SM/SL samples, and therefore identify potential individuals who do not exhibit cross-contaminated SM/SL secretions, an important requirement for subsequent proteome analysis of pure SM and SL secretions.

  17. [Tumors of different histological type in unilateral salivary glands: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Da-Min; He, Hua-Wei; Liu, Mei-Yan; He, Zhi-Xiu

    2010-12-01

    Tumors of synchronous benign and malignant in unilateral salivary glands have rarely been reported. A case of 21-year-old girl who was diagnosed as synchronously adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left parotid and pleomorphic adenoma of the left submandibular gland. The classification, clinic pathology, diagnosis, possible mechanism were discussed based on similar literatures.

  18. A possible role of collagen fibrils in the process of calcification observed in the capsule of the pineal gland in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Humbert, W; Cuisinier, F; Voegel, J C; Pévet, P

    1997-06-01

    The relationship between collagen fibrils and calcified concretions exclusively appearing in the pineal gland of adult/aging rats has been investigated. Deposits of lanthanum, which replace calcium ions are distributed along collagen fibrils with a repeating period of about 70 nm. Calcium has been detected histochemically between collagen bundles surrounding extracellular concretions by means of the pyroantimonate method and by X-ray microanalysis. It is associated with phosphorus. The data presented here suggest that collagen fibrils are involved in the genesis and growth of extracellular concretions located in the connective tissue surrounding the pineal gland of aging rats. PMID:9134857

  19. Identification and purification of parathyroid hypertensive factor from organ culture of parathyroid glands from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Benishin, C G; Labedz, T; Guo, D D; Lewanczuk, R Z; Pang, P K

    1993-02-01

    Parathyroid hypertensive factor (PHF) is a newly described hypertensive factor isolated from the plasma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Recent studies have suggested that the primary origin of PHF is the parathyroid gland (PG). In the present investigation, PG from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as from normotensive rats, were isolated and maintained in culture. The PG from SHR, but not normotensive rats, released PHF into the culture medium. Omission of calcium from the culture medium stimulated the release of PHF. For purification of PHF, parathyroid gland culture medium (PGCM) was first dialyzed at 1000 mwco, and then ultrafiltered at 5000 molecular weight cut-off (mwco). PHF activity was retained in the fraction that was greater than 1000 daltons and less than 5000 daltons. Dialyzed and filtered SHR PGCM was fractionated by molecular exclusion HPLC. Biologically active PHF was collected in a discrete region. The biologically active molecular exclusion fraction was subsequently fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC (C-8). PHF was collected in a single discrete peak, which did not occur in culture medium prepared from normotensive PG in a similar manner. This biologically active peak occurred in the same position on molecular exclusion and reverse-phase HPLC as PHF purified from SHR plasma using similar procedures. Incubation of PGCM with trypsin inactivates the biological activity of PHF. The UV spectrum of PGCM PHF is identical to that obtained from purified plasma PHF. These results are consistent with the presence of a peptide moiety in PHF, and support the parathyroid origin of plasma PHF.

  20. LC/MS/MS analysis of the endogenous dimethyltryptamine hallucinogens, their precursors, and major metabolites in rat pineal gland microdialysate.

    PubMed

    Barker, Steven A; Borjigin, Jimo; Lomnicka, Izabela; Strassman, Rick

    2013-12-01

    We report a qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of the three known N,N-dimethyltryptamine endogenous hallucinogens, their precursors and metabolites, as well as melatonin and its metabolic precursors. The method was characterized using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as the matrix and was subsequently applied to the analysis of rat brain pineal gland-aCSF microdialysate. The method describes the simultaneous analysis of 23 chemically diverse compounds plus a deuterated internal standard by direct injection, requiring no dilution or extraction of the samples. The results demonstrate that this is a simple, sensitive, specific and direct approach to the qualitative analysis of these compounds in this matrix. The protocol also employs stringent MS confirmatory criteria for the detection and confirmation of the compounds examined, including exact mass measurements. The excellent limits of detection and broad scope make it a valuable research tool for examining the endogenous hallucinogen pathways in the central nervous system. We report here, for the first time, the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in pineal gland microdialysate obtained from the rat.

  1. Pesticide chlorpyrifos acts as an endocrine disruptor in adult rats causing changes in mammary gland and hormonal balance.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Clara; Nieto, María Rosa Ramos; Bourguignon, Nadia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Rodriguez, Horacio; Cao, Gabriel; Randi, Andrea; Cocca, Claudia; Núñez, Mariel

    2016-02-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with hormone regulation and influence mammary carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) acts as an ED in vitro, since it induces human breast cancer cells proliferation through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) pathway. In this work, we studied the effects of CPF at environmental doses (0.01 and 1mg/kg/day) on mammary gland, steroid hormone receptors expression and serum steroid hormone levels. It was carried out using female Sprague-Dawley 40-days-old rats exposed to the pesticide during 100 days. We observed a proliferating ductal network with a higher number of ducts and alveolar structures. We also found an increased number of benign breast diseases, such as hyperplasia and adenosis. CPF enhanced progesterone receptor (PgR) along with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in epithelial ductal cells. On the other hand, the pesticide reduced the expression of co-repressors of estrogen receptor activity REA and SMRT and it decreased serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Finally, we found a persistent decrease in LH levels among ovariectomized rats exposed to CPF. Therefore, CPF alters the endocrine balance acting as an ED in vivo. These findings warn about the harmful effects that CPF exerts on mammary gland, suggesting that this compound may act as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:26518068

  2. [IP3-sensitive Ca(2+)-channels of endoplasmic reticulum in secretory cells of the rat exorbital lacrimal gland].

    PubMed

    Kotliarova, A B; Man'ko, V V

    2013-01-01

    The role of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate of (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ channels in Ca2+ homeostasis maintenance under activation of M-cholinergic receptors and P2Y receptors in the secretory cells of the rat lacrimal gland was investigated. The study was carried out on intact and permeabilized secretory cells of exorbital lacrimal glands of rats. The cells were isolated using the modified Herzog, Sides, Miller method (1976) and permeabilized with digitonin (50 mg per 0.5 million cells). The functioning of the Ca(2+)-transport systems was estimated by changes of Ca2+ content in the studied cells, which was determined by the spectrophotometric method using arsenazo III. It was shown that IP3-sensitive Ca2+ channels (IP3Rs) of investigated cells are directly inhibited by 2-APB (10 microM/l). On the other hand, the channels are activated by IP3, cholinomimetic (carbacholine) and purine receptor agonist (ATP). When both M-cholinergic receptors and P2Y receptors were activated Ca2+ was released from the same IP3-sensitive store because the effects of ATP and carbacholine at high concentrations (1mM/l and 10 microM/l, respectively) on the Ca2+ content were non-additive. The presence of the store-operated Ca(2+)-channels in secretory cells of the lacrimal gland is confirmed by the observed increase of cellular Ca2+ content as a result of Ca2+ mobilization from the store by carbacholine or thapsigargin and following restoration of Ca2+ concentration in the extracellular solution.

  3. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  4. Reductions of nitro and 9-Oxo groups of environmental nitrofluorenes by the rat mammary gland in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C L; Decker, R W; Malejka-Giganti, D

    2000-08-01

    Nitrofluorenes and C-9-oxidized nitrofluorenes are widespread environmental genotoxins which may be relevant for breast cancer on the basis of their carcinogenicities, particularly of 2, 7-dinitrofluorene (2,7-diNF), for the rat mammary gland. Since their metabolism to active carcinogens may involve nitroreduction, this study examined the reduction of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) and 2,7-diNF and their 9-oxo- and 9-hydroxy (OH) derivatives by the rat mammary gland. Cytosolic fractions catalyze NADH- and NADPH-dependent reductions of the 2-nitro and 9-oxo to the respective 2-amino and 9-OH compounds at rates 4- and >/=10-fold greater than those with microsomes. Rates of amine formation catalyzed by cytosol from 2, 7-diNF are greater than the rate from 2-NF and increase for C-9-oxidized derivatives: 9-oxo-2-NF > 9-OH-2-NF > 2-NF and 9-OH-2, 7-diNF > 9-oxo-2,7-diNF > 2,7-diNF. Nitroreduction is inhibited by O(2) or allopurinol (20 microM), dicoumarol (100 microM), and rutin (50 microM). 9-Oxoreduction is inhibited by rutin, dicoumarol, and indomethacin (100 microM), but not by O(2) or allopurinol. Pyrazole or menadione does not inhibit nitro or 9-oxoreduction. Xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2-hydroxypyrimidine, and N'-methylnicotinamide support cytosol-catalyzed nitro, but not 9-oxo, reduction. The data suggest that the nitroreduction is catalyzed largely by a xanthine oxidase and partially by a diaphorase and 9-oxoreduction by a carbonyl reductase. The extents of the nitro and carbonyl reductions of the nitrofluorenes may determine their reactivities with DNA, and thus genotoxicities for the mammary gland. PMID:10956068

  5. Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Benova, Miroslava; Herichova, Iveta; Stebelova, Katarina; Paulis, Ludovit; Krajcirovicova, Kristina; Simko, Fedor; Zeman, Michal

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin plays a role in blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin concentrations and melatonin receptor levels are altered in L-NAME-treated, NO-deficient hypertensive rats. Two groups of male adult Wistar rats were investigated: rats (n=36) treated with NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (40 mg kg(-1)) and age-matched controls (n=36). BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. After 4 weeks, L-NAME administration increased BP (178+/-1 vs. control 118+/-1 mm Hg). At the end of treatment, rats were killed in regular 4 h intervals over a 24-h period. Melatonin concentrations in the plasma, pineal gland, heart and kidney and melatonin receptor (MT(1)) density in the aorta were determined. A significant daily rhythm of melatonin concentrations was found in the blood, pineal gland, kidney and heart of both control and hypertensive rats. Peak nighttime pineal melatonin concentrations were higher in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (3.38+/-0.48 vs. 1.75+/-0.33 ng per pineal gland). No differences between both groups were found in melatonin concentrations in blood, kidney and heart or in the MT(1) receptor density in the aorta. Our results suggest that L-NAME treatment enhances melatonin production in the pineal gland, potentially by decreasing an inhibitory effect of NO on melatonin production in the pineal gland. However, the enhanced pineal melatonin formation was insufficient to increase melatonin concentrations in circulation, heart and kidney of L-NAME-treated rats, indicating an increased use of melatonin in hypertensive animals.

  6. Cloning of thyrotropin-releasing hormone precursor and receptor in rat thymus, adrenal gland, and testis.

    PubMed

    Montagne, J J; Ladram, A; Nicolas, P; Bulant, M

    1999-03-01

    TRH is a hypophysiotropic peptide that acts mainly via the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, but TRH immunoreactivity is also detected in several peripheral tissues. PCR with two pairs of primers enabling amplification of three fragments of TRH complementary DNA (cDNA) was used to demonstrate local production of TRH. Products of the expected size were detected in the testis, adrenal gland, lymphoid organs, thymus, and spleen. The amplified cDNA fragments were cloned and sequenced to show that the TRH gene is expressed in the thymus, spleen, and adrenal gland. Competitive RT-PCR showed that the TRH messenger RNA content of the testis was about one third that of the hypothalamus, whereas the adrenal gland contained 2% and the thymus 6%. HPLC analysis of thymus and spleen extracts showed small amounts of TRH, with a particular processing pattern of pro-TRH in lymphoid organs. The expression of the TRH receptor gene in peripheral organs was investigated to determine whether TRH had an autocrine or a paracrine action. cDNA fragments that encompassed the coding region of the receptor were identified in the testis, adrenal gland and thymus. No signal was detected in the spleen. These findings indicate that TRH may have a biological activity in extrapituitary organs and may act locally in the testis, adrenal gland, and thymus.

  7. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IN THE SECRETORY CELLS OF MAMMARY GLANDS IN LACTATING AND NON-LACTATING RATS].

    PubMed

    Tyutina, K V; Skopichev, V G; Bogolyubov, D S; Bogolyubova, I O

    2016-01-01

    The features of structural and functional organization of the main nuclear compartments and distribution of their key molecular components (chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX, RNA polymerase I and II, and the splicing factor SC35) has been studied in the nuclei of mammary gland cells at different functional states. No significant differences between the nuclei of the cells in the lactating and non-lactating mammary glands have been revealed at the ultrastructural level. At the same time, photometric analysis has revealed higher intensity of nucleoplasmic immunofluorescent staining of mammary glands in the lactating animals when antibodies against the proteins ATRX and SC35 were used. Apparently, this observation reflects the changes of the structural and functional status of chromatin as well as the redistribution of splicing factors between the sites of their deposition and transcription. PMID:27228661

  8. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  9. DNA adducts from nitroreduction of 2,7-dinitrofluorene, a mammary gland carcinogen, catalyzed by rat liver or mammary gland cytosol.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Clare L; Culp, Sandra J; Freeman, James P; Marques, M Matilde; Beland, Frederick A; Malejka-Giganti, Danuta

    2002-04-01

    Nitrofluorenes are mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants arising chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels. Nitro aromatic compounds undergo nitroreduction to N-hydroxy arylamines that bind to DNA directly or after O-esterification. This study analyzes the DNA binding and adducts from the in vitro nitroreduction of 2,7-dinitrofluorene (2,7-diNF), a potent mammary carcinogen in the rat. Potential adduct(s) of 2,7-diNF was (were) generated by reduction of 2-nitroso-7-NF with ascorbate/H(+) in the presence of calf thymus DNA. The major adduct was characterized by HPLC/ESI/MS and (1)H NMR spectrometry as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-7-NF, and a minor one was determined by HPLC/ESI/MS to be a deoxyadenosine adduct of 2-amino-7-NF. Products from enzymatic nitroreduction were monitored by HPLC and DNA adduct formation by (32)P-postlabeling. Xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine-catalyzed nitroreduction of 2,7-diNF, 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) yielded the respective amines to similar extents (30-50%). However, the level of the major adducts ( approximately 0.15/10(6) nucleotides) from 2-NF [N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene] and 2,7-diNF [N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-7-NF] was < or = 2% that from 1-NP. In the presence of acetyl CoA, nitroreduction of 2-NF catalyzed by rat liver cytosol/NADH yielded the same adduct at a level of 2.2/10(6) nucleotides. Liver or mammary gland cytosol with acetyl CoA yielded mainly N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-7-NF from 2,7-diNF at >30 adducts/10(6) nucleotides, levels comparable to those from 1,6-dinitropyrene and 4- or 49-fold greater than the respective levels without acetyl CoA. Recovery of 2-nitroso-7-NF and 2-amino-7-NF from cytosol-catalyzed reduction of 2,7-diNF indicated nitroreduction and an N-hydroxy arylamine intermediate. Likewise, the presence of 2-acetylamino-7-NF indicated that reactivity with acyltransferase(s) was not prevented by the nitro group at C7. These data are consistent with

  10. Feeding soy protein isolate and treatment with estradiol have different effects on mammary gland morphology and gene expression in weanling male and female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones are phytochemical components of soy diets that bind weakly to estrogen receptors (ERs). To study potential estrogen-like actions of soy in the mammary gland during early development, we fed weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a semi-purified diet with casein as the sole protein ...

  11. Sodium selenite is a potent radioprotector of the salivary glands of the rat: acute effects on the morphology and parenchymal function during fractioned irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sagowski, C; Wenzel, S; Jenicke, L; Metternich, F U; Jaehne, M

    2005-06-01

    In vitro studies show that sodium selenite is a potential radioprotector in normal cultural cells, but not in tumor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective potency of sodium selenite during a conventional fractioned irradiation of the salivary glands of rats. The head and neck area of male WAG/RijH rats was irradiated with (60)Co-gamma rays (60 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks). Sodium selenite (15 microg/kg body weight) was applied through a venous port 30 min before irradiation. Rats of a control group were treated in the same manner with an equal volume of physiologic sodium chloride. In the course of treatment, the salivary glands were resected at different stages and examined histopathologically. The evaluation of gland function was performed prior to and after radiotherapy by sialoscintigraphy. The irradiation caused dose-dependent damage in the salivary glands. Intra- and intercellular edema (16 Gy), vacuolization (30 Gy), degranulation (46 Gy) and necrosis of the acinar cells (60 Gy) occurred. Sodium selenite delayed the development of the described damage; additionally, the number of necrotic acinar cells after the application of 60 Gy was reduced (control, 75% vs. sodium selenite, 30%). The sialoscintigaphical results confirmed these results: the loss in gland function in the control group was 74 vs. 44% (P < 0.05) in the sodium selenite group. Based on the morphological and sialoscintigraphical findings, a cytoprotective effect on the acute toxicity of the salivary glands of rats could be detected during irradiation with synchronous application of sodium selenite. PMID:15942798

  12. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

  13. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  14. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association. PMID:26458630

  15. Isoflavones isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense) inhibit smooth muscle contraction of the isolated rat prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Brandli, A; Simpson, J S; Ventura, S

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated whether red clover contains any bioactive constituents which may affect contractility of rat prostatic smooth muscle in an attempt to determine whether its medicinal use in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia is supported by pharmacological effects. A commercially available red clover extract was chemically fractionated and various isoflavones (genistein, formononetin and biochanin A) were isolated from these fractions and their effects on contractility were examined on preparations of the isolated rat prostate gland. Contractile effects of the isolated fractions were compared with commercially available isoflavones (genistein, formononetin and biochanin A). Pharmacological tools were used to investigate the mechanism of action modifying smooth muscle contraction. Crude red clover extract (Trinovin) inhibited electrical field stimulation induced contractions of the rat prostate across a range of frequencies with an IC(50) of approximately 68 microg/ml. Contractions of the rat prostate elicited by exogenous administration of acetylcholine, noradrenaline or adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) were also inhibited. Chromatographic separation, and final purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) permitted the isolation of the isoflavones: daidzein, calycosin, formononetin, prunetin, pratensin, biochanin A and genistein. Genistein, formononetin and biochanin A (100 microM) from either commercial sources or isolated from red clover extract inhibited electrical field stimulation induced contractions of the isolated rat prostate. It is concluded that isoflavones contained in red clover are able to inhibit prostatic smooth muscle contractions in addition to their antiproliferative effects. However, the high concentrations required to observe these smooth muscle relaxant effects mean that a therapeutic benefit from this mechanism is unlikely at doses used clinically.

  16. Denervation of the Lacrimal Gland Leads to Corneal Hypoalgesia in a Novel Rat Model of Aqueous Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aicher, Sue A.; Hermes, Sam M.; Hegarty, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Some dry eye disease (DED) patients have sensitized responses to corneal stimulation, while others experience hypoalgesia. Many patients have normal tear production, suggesting that reduced tears are not always the cause of DED sensory dysfunction. In this study, we show that disruption of lacrimal innervation can produce hypoalgesia without changing basal tear production. Methods Injection of a saporin toxin conjugate into the extraorbital lacrimal gland of male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to disrupt cholinergic innervation to the gland. Tear production was assessed by phenol thread test. Corneal sensory responses to noxious stimuli were assessed using eye wipe behavior. Saporin DED animals were compared to animals treated with atropine to produce aqueous DED. Results Cholinergic innervation and acetylcholine content of the lacrimal gland were significantly reduced in saporin DED animals, yet basal tear production was normal. Saporin DED animals demonstrated normal eye wipe responses to corneal application of capsaicin, but showed hypoalgesia to corneal menthol. Corneal nerve fiber density was normal in saporin DED animals. Atropine-treated animals had reduced tear production but normal responses to ocular stimuli. Conclusions Because only menthol responses were impaired, cold-sensitive corneal afferents appear to be selectively altered in our saporin DED model. Hypoalgesia is not due to reduced tear production, since we did not observe hypoalgesia in an atropine DED model. Corneal fiber density is unaltered in saporin DED animals, suggesting that molecular mechanisms of nociceptive signaling may be impaired. The saporin DED model will be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying corneal hypoalgesia. PMID:26513503

  17. Effect of D-aspartate uptake on uncoupling protein-3 and α-tubulin expressions in rat Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Santillo, Alessandra; Burrone, Lavinia; Senese, Rosalba; Cioffi, Federica; Lanni, Antonia; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella

    2011-11-01

    Although D-aspartate (D-Asp) has been recognized as having an important physiological role within different organs, high concentrations could elicit detrimental effects on those same organs. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative stress response to D-Asp treatment in rat Harderian gland (HG) by measuring total cellular hydroperoxide levels. Further, we examined the effect of D-Asp uptake on the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), β-actin, and α-tubulin. In rat HG, elevated levels of D-Asp significantly increased hydroperoxide production. This phenomenon was probably due to D-Asp uptake as well as lipid and porphyrin increased levels. Higher UCP3 levels and lower α-tubulin expression were also observed after D-Asp treatment. On the contrary, β-actin expression was unchanged. Given the possible role of UCP3 in lipid handling, the higher expression of mitochondria UCP3 protein in D-Asp-treated HG may reflect a major need to export excessive amounts of hydroperoxides deriving from a greater fatty acid flux across these organelles and higher mitochondrial porphyrin levels. Moreover, abundance of hydroperoxides in D-Asp treated rat HG could determine the decrease of α-tubulin expression. Thus, our findings indicate that a high concentration of D-Asp is critical in initiating a cascade of events determined by oxidative stress.

  18. Application of Sholl Analysis to Quantify Changes in Growth and Development in Rat Mammary Gland Whole Mounts

    PubMed Central

    Stanko, Jason P.; Easterling, Michael R.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Studies that utilize the rodent mammary gland (MG) as an endpoint for assessing the developmental toxicity of chemical exposures typically employ either basic dimensional measurements or developmental scoring of morphological characteristics as a means to quantify MG development. There are numerous means by which to report these developmental changes, leading to inconsistent translation across laboratories. The Sholl analysis is a method historically used for quantifying neuronal dendritic patterns. The present study describes the use of the Sholl analysis to quantify MG branching characteristics. Using this method, we were able to detect significant differences in branching density in MG of peripubertal female Sprague Dawley rats that had been exposed to vehicle or a potent estrogen. These data suggest the Sholl analysis can be an effective tool for quantitatively measuring an important characteristic of MG development and for examining associations between MG growth and density and adverse effects in the breast. PMID:25463529

  19. Melatonin Synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase (ASMT) Is Strongly Expressed in a Subpopulation of Pinealocytes in the Male Rat Pineal Gland.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L; Amaral, Fernanda G; Weller, Joan L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2016-05-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell-to-cell differences were found in ASMT immunostaining intensity and in the abundance of Tph1, Aanat, and Asmt transcripts. ASMT immunoreactivity was localized to the cytoplasm in pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the superficial pineal gland, and immunopositive pinealocytes were also detected in the pineal stalk and in the deep pineal gland. ASMT was found to inconsistently colocalize with S-antigen, a widely used pinealocyte marker; this colocalization was seen in cells throughout the pineal complex and also in displaced pinealocyte-like cells of the medial habenular nucleus. Inconsistent colocalization between ASMT and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly among individual pinealocytes.

  20. HIV lymphadenitis of the salivary gland: A case with cytological and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Avani; Kini, Hema; Pai, Radha R; Rau, Aarathi R

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection associated lymphadenitis of the salivary glands (HIVLSG) and benign lymphoepithelial cysts are described as early events in HIV patients. The diagnosis is not usually made clinically as it mimics a salivary gland tumor. We present here a patient with two painless nodules in the right parotid and submandibular glands. The cytological diagnosis was florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Histopathology revealed features of HIVLSG with multiple, small, cystic, benign lymphoepithelial lesions.

  1. Two malignant salivary gland tumours of different type in one patient.

    PubMed

    Hosni, A; Fisher, C; Rhŷs-Evans, P

    1994-09-01

    The synchronous or metachronous occurrence of two tumours of the salivary glands in one patient is rare. These are mainly benign and of the same histological type. Here we report a 56-year-old man who developed a mucoepidermoid tumour of the left parotid gland four years after diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right submandibular gland. This combination of neoplasms has not to our knowledge been reported before.

  2. Osseous choristoma of the submandibular region: case report.

    PubMed

    Kamburoglu, K; Ozen, T; Sençimen, M; Ortakoglu, K; Günhan, O

    2009-10-01

    This report presents a case of osseous choristoma in the submandibular region of a 33-year-old female. Her chief complaint was painless swelling in the submandibular region. Panoramic radiography showed a well-defined, round, radiopaque lesion near the inferior border of the right mandibular angle. Coronal and sagittal tomographic images indicated a high-density area in the right submandibular region with no bony connection. The lesion was diagnosed as an osseous choristoma based on histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 1-year follow-up period was uneventful.

  3. Historical control background incidence of spontaneous thyroid and parathyroid glands lesions of rats and CD-1 mice used in 104-week carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Kaori; Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and range of spontaneous thyroid and parathyroid glands findings were determined in control Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, and CD-1 mice from 104-week carcinogenicity studies carried out between 1998 and 2010 at Charles River Edinburgh. In both strains of rats and in CD-1 mice, non-proliferative lesions of the thyroid or parathyroid glands were generally uncommon apart from some findings in CD-1 mice such as ultimobranchial duct/cyst (5.72%), follicular distension/dilatation (3.84%), and cystic follicles (3.53%). In Han-Wistar rats, thyroid proliferative lesions were slightly more frequent in males than in females, but in Sprague-Dawley rats, they were of similar incidence in both sexes. The most common findings overall in Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were C-cell hyperplasia (48.11% and 36.56%, respectively) and adenoma (10.87% and 9.52%, respectively), follicular cell hyperplasia (4.21% and 0.91%, respectively) and adenoma (4.32% and 1.36%, respectively). Secondary neoplastic lesions either in thyroid or parathyroid gland were poorly represented. PMID:27559247

  4. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.

  5. Alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary glands evoked by subacute chlorpyrifos administration in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Umosen, Angela J; Ambali, Suleiman F; Ayo, Joseph O; Mohammed, Bisala; Uchendu, Chidiebere

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary gland induced by subacute chlopyrifos (CPF) exposure in rats. Methods Forty adult male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 10 animals were used for the study. Group I received soya oil (2 mL/kg) while group II was administered with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg). Group III was administered CPF only (8.5 mg/kg ∼ 1/10th of the LD50) while group IV was pretreated with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg) and then exposed to CPF (8.5 mg/kg), 10 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 28 d. At the end of the exposure period, the rats were sacrificed and the testicular tissues and pituitary glands were evaluated for the malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Results CPF increased MDA concentrations and reduced the activities of SOD and CAT in the testes and pituitary gland. Melatonin pretreatment reduced the testicular and pituitary MDA concentrations and improves the SOD and CAT activities. Conclusions the study showed that subacute CPF-induced oxidative stress in the testes and pituitary glands were alleviated by melatonin due to its antioxidant property. PMID:23569987

  6. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  7. Salivary gland neoplasms: an analysis of 74 cases.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Deepika; Sharma, Rohit; Sinha, Ramen; Suresh Menon, P

    2009-06-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 74 cases of salivary gland neoplasms were analyzed retrospectively, of which 44 (60%) were benign and 30 (40%) malignant. 61 % percent of neoplasms were in the parotid gland, 22% in the minor salivary glands including sublingual salivary glands, and 17% in the submandibular glands. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (64%), and the most common malignant neoplasm were adenoid cystic carcinoma (17%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (23%). We analyze the incidence and distribution of all types of salivary gland neoplasms in our series, and provide data for comparison with other epidemiological studies from different geographical sites and races. Demographic data from these studies help us to a better understanding of the biological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Further epidemiological surveys should be encouraged for better understanding of the disease and to provide early and better treatment of salivary gland neoplasms.

  8. DDT (2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-trichloroethane) induced structural changes in adrenal glands of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.R.; Gautam, A.K.; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Oldest chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, DDT was used widely to control pest and vector borne diseases in developing countries. Malaria and vector borne diseases can be econometrically controlled by DDT. Chronic and acute exposures to DDT result in systemic disorders in human as well as this confirmed in animals. Experimental study revealed that DDT caused the structural and functional changes in thyroid and reproductive system. The effects of DDT on adrenal glands are not well documented. Therefore this experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the histomorphological changes of adrenal gland after the treatment with DDT in rats.

  9. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  10. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  11. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  12. Morphometric study on the uterine horn and thyroid gland in hypothyroid, and thyroxine treated hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed Central

    Inuwa, I; Williams, M A

    1996-01-01

    A wide range of reproductive disorders such as irregular menstruation and frank infertility is found in women with hypothyroidism. Most research done on these patients has focused on steroid and gonadotropin hormone profiles, whilst there has been little work on uterine morphology. Studies on hypothyroid animals have also demonstrated increases in fetal wastage, but there have been few studies of uterine structure in the hypothyroid rat. The present study has used hypothyroid Wistar rats as a model for investigating the effects of hypothyroidism on uterine structure. Three groups of Wistar rats were studied. One was made hypothyroid with methimazole (MMI), the 2nd was also made hypothyroid with methimazole but in addition the rats were simultaneously given daily thyroxine intraperitoneally (MMI + T4), and the 3rd was an untreated euthyroid group (control). Daily vaginal smears were obtained from rats in all 3 groups. All rats were aged 6 wk at the start of treatment and were killed after a further 6 wk. Uterine horns were removed and studied. Systematic random transverse sections were obtained from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the horn and subjected to morphometric analysis. Difference between regions was assessed using 2-way analysis of variance. Absolute volume of endometrium in the uteri of hypothyroid rats was reduced by 45.1% (P < 0.05), whilst that of the muscle layer was decreased by 33.6% (P < 0.05). The cross-sectional area and absolute volume of the uterine horns were also reduced in hypothyroid animals (P < 0.05). In hypothyroid rats given thyroxine (MMI + T4) all variables increased significantly above those of hypothyroid rats. These changes suggest that hypothyroidism has an effect on uterine structure, which demonstrably improves under exogenous thyroxine administration. The observed structural changes might well play a significant role in the reproductive difficulties observed during hypothyroidism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2

  13. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas and Salivary Glands of the Rat and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Thomas; Brander-Weber, Patricia; Dangler, Charles; Deschl, Ulrich; Elwell, Michael R.; Greaves, Peter; Hailey, Richard; Leach, Michael W.; Pandiri, Arun R.; Rogers, Arlin; Shackelford, Cynthia C.; Spencer, Andrew; Tanaka, Takuji; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for nonproliferative and proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for classifying lesions in the digestive system including the salivary glands and the exocrine pancreas of laboratory rats and mice. Most lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature, the diagnostic criteria, and the photomicrographs are also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and age related lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test items. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for the digestive system will decrease misunderstandings among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:26973378

  14. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas and Salivary Glands of the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Thomas; Brander-Weber, Patricia; Dangler, Charles; Deschl, Ulrich; Elwell, Michael R; Greaves, Peter; Hailey, Richard; Leach, Michael W; Pandiri, Arun R; Rogers, Arlin; Shackelford, Cynthia C; Spencer, Andrew; Tanaka, Takuji; Ward, Jerrold M

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for nonproliferative and proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for classifying lesions in the digestive system including the salivary glands and the exocrine pancreas of laboratory rats and mice. Most lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature, the diagnostic criteria, and the photomicrographs are also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and age related lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test items. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for the digestive system will decrease misunderstandings among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.

  15. Tumors of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, E M; Friedman, M; Becker, S; Sisson, G A; Keyes, G A

    1977-06-01

    Tumors of the major salivary glands are reviewed according to classification, location, surgical procedure and end results. Our data of the incidence of benign and malignant tumors show that the most commonly involved area is the parotid gland and the most frequent is of the mixed variety. In the parotid region 80 percent are benign and 20 percent are malignant; whereas, in the submandibular gland, the malignant and benign tumors are equally distributed. The need for an extensive surgical attack and inclusion of contiguous structure is dictated by the nature of the malignant disease. The role of postoperative irradiation is discussed as is the indication for neck dissection. Management of the facial nerve, relative to malignant tumors of the parotid gland, is considered in detail.

  16. Inhibition of liver trans-sulphuration pathway by propargylglycine mimics gene expression changes found in the mammary gland of weaned lactating rats: role of glutathione.

    PubMed Central

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García, Concha; Rus, A Diana; Pallardó, Federico V; Barber, Teresa; Torres, Luis; Miralles, Vicente J; Viña, Juan R

    2003-01-01

    In the lactating mammary gland, weaning produces mitochondrial cytochrome c release and nuclear DNA fragmentation, as determined by gel electrophoresis. This is followed by a significant decrease in lactation. Weaning for 2 h produces an early induction of the tumour suppressor/transcription factor p53, whereas the oncoprotein c-Jun and c-Jun N-terminal kinase are elevated after 24 h of weaning when compared with controls. The expression of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, was significantly higher in weaned rats when compared with control lactating rats. All the changes mentioned above also happen in the lactating mammary gland when propargylglycine, an inhibitor of the liver trans-sulphuration pathway, is administered. This effect is partially reversed by N -acetylcysteine administration. The administration of buthionine sulphoximine, an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, to lactating rats produces a decrease in GSH levels and changes in protein concentrations and gene transcripts similar to those in rats with impaired trans-sulphuration pathway. These data suggest that the inter-tissue flux of GSH is an important mechanism of L-cysteine delivery to the lactating mammary gland and emphasize the importance of this physiological event in maintaining the gene expression required to sustain lactation. PMID:12723969

  17. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Janiuk, Izabela; Zbucki, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Taking into consideration the homeostatic disorders resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the renovascular hypertension affects the morphology and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution, morphology, and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands of "two kidney, one clip" (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the adrenal glands of rats after 3, 14, 28, 42, and 91 days from the renal artery clipping procedure. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against CART. It was revealed that renovascular hypertension causes changes in the endocrine cells containing CART in the adrenal glands of rats. The changes observed in the endocrine cells depend on the time when the rats with experimentally induced hypertension were examined. In the first period of hypertension, the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells were decreased, while from the 28-day test, it significantly increased, as compared to the control rats. CART is relevant to the regulation of homeostasis in the cardiovascular system and seems to be involved in renovascular hypertension. The results of the present work open the possibility of new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of arterial hypertension, since CART function is involved in their pathophysiology.

  18. Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Salama, Afrah F; El Nimr, Tarek M; El Gamal, Doaa M

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) was fed with the basal diet, group II was intoxicated with Cd in drinking water, groups III, IV, and V were intoxicated with Cd in drinking water and fed with the diet containing 3.5, 7, and 10 g of PA/kg, respectively. The results indicated that the serum calcium, iron (Fe), and total Fe binding capacity levels and serum T3 and T4 in Cd-treated rats of group II were decreased when compared with the control group, while PA-administered groups with Cd showed a significant improvement when compared with the Cd-treated rats only. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased in Cd-treated rats compared with the control group, while the addition of PA in diet decreased the high levels of TSH. These results indicated a prophylactic effect of PA against Cd-induced toxicity in rats.

  19. Salivary gland neoplasms: a 21year review of cases seen at University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Kolude, B; Lawoyin, J O; Akang, E E

    2001-01-01

    The present study updates the experience of salivary gland tumours in Ibadan. All cases of benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms histologically diagnosed between 1975 and 1995 in the Oral Pathology Department and Cancer Registry of the University College Hospital, Ibadan were reviewed. Salivary gland neoplasms accounted for 3.5% of head and neck neoplasms, the majority (46.5%) occurring in the parotid, followed by the submandibular (18.1%) and palatal glands (10.7%). The ratio of benign to malignant neoplasms was 1.1 to 1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant neoplasms. There was a predilection of adenoid cystic carcinoma for the submandibular gland.

  20. Age-dependent changes in rat lacrimal gland anti-oxidant and vesicular related protein expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thiago Martins; Tomiyoshi, Lilian Midori; Dias, Ana Carolina; Roma, Letícia Prates; Módulo, Carolina Maria; Malki, Leonardo Tannus; Filho, Elísio Bueno Machado; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; Cunha, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anti-oxidation and exocytosis are important for maintaining exocrine tissue homeostasis. During aging, functional and structural alterations occur in the lacrimal gland (LG), including oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA. The aims of the present study were to determine in the aging LG: a) the effects of aging on LG structure and secretory activity and b) changes in the expression of oxidative stress markers. Methods To address these goals, tear secretion composition and corneal impression cytology were compared between male Wistar rats of 2 (control) and 24 (aged) months. LG morphology and the expression levels of vitamin E and malonaldehyde (MDA) were evaluated to determine the anti-oxidant activity and lipid peroxidation, respectively. RT–PCR and western blot analysis were used for the analysis of Ras related in brain GTPase protein (Rab) and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins of the secretory machinery (i.e.; Rab 3d, Rab 27, vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (Vamp-2), and syntaxin). Results Histological analysis of aged rats revealed a higher frequency of corneal epithelia metaplasia. In the acinar cells, organelles underwent degeneration, and lipofucsin-like material accumulated in the cytoplasm along with declines in the anti-oxidant marker vitamin E. Rab3d and Rab27b mRNA levels fell along with Rab3d protein expression, whereas syntaxin levels increased. Conclusions These findings indicate that exocytotic and anti-oxidant mechanisms become impaired with age in the rat LG. In parallel with these structural alterations, functional declines may contribute to the pathophysiology caused by tear film modification in dry eye disease. PMID:22312187

  1. Differential responses to salt supplementation in adult male and female rat adrenal glands following intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Otis, Mélissa; St-Louis, Jean; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Brochu, Michèle

    2011-04-01

    In low sodium-induced intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rat, foetal adrenal steroidogenesis as well as the adult renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is altered. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo) and of angiotensin II receptor subtypes 1 (AT(1)R) and 2 (AT(2)R) in adult adrenal glands and whether this expression could be influenced by IUGR and by high-salt intake in a sex-specific manner. After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT(2)R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR.

  2. Carcinogenic responses to chemicals applied directly to rat mammary glands in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, S.; Meade, M.; Stone, J.P.; Shellabarger, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    In four experiments, concentrated glycerin suspensions of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), or the water-soluble compounds, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) were delivered into pockets in the mammary fat pads in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In a 90-day experiment, each of three groups of 20-22 rats were treated with either 25, 50, or 100 ..mu..g DMBA delivered to each of four sites in each rat per group. Dose-related responses were detected for incidence of rats with mammary adenocarcinoma (MAC), and for number of MAC per treated site. In a 120-day study, each of three groups of 20 animals were treated with either 250, 500, or 1000 ..mu..g MNU at each of 80 sites per group. Dose-related MAC responses were detected for incidence of rats with MAC, number of MAC per treated site, and time to detection of MAC. In two experiments of 90 days duration, groups of 20 females were treated with either 1000 ..mu..g ENU or 1000 ..mu..g 4-NQO at each of 80 sites per group. ENU produced a total of 27 MAC sites in 65% of the rats, and 4-NQO produced a total of 26 MAC in 60% of the rats. A comparison of the time to detection of all MAC data for the three water-soluble compounds at the 1000 ..mu..g treatment level, or on the basis of moles per treatment, yielded a carcinogenic potency relationship of 4-NQO > ENU > MNU. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Expression and cellular localization of the transcription factor NeuroD1 in the developing and adult rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Castro, Analía E; Benitez, Sergio G; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Savastano, Luis E; Patterson, Sean I; Muñoz, Estela M

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of mammalian physiology. The daily pattern of melatonin synthesis and secretion is one of the classic examples of circadian oscillations. It is mediated by a class of neuroendocrine cells known as pinealocytes which are not yet fully defined. An established method to evaluate functional and cytological characters is through the expression of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators. NeuroD1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the specification and maintenance of both endocrine and neuronal phenotypes. We have previously described developmental and adult regulation of NeuroD1 mRNA in the rodent pineal gland. However, the transcript levels were not influenced by the elimination of sympathetic input, suggesting that any rhythmicity of NeuroD1 might be found downstream of transcription. Here, we describe NeuroD1 protein expression and cellular localization in the rat pineal gland during development and the daily cycle. In embryonic and perinatal stages, protein expression follows the mRNA pattern and is predominantly nuclear. Thereafter, NeuroD1 is mostly found in pinealocyte nuclei in the early part of the night and in cytoplasm during the day, a rhythm maintained into adulthood. Additionally, nocturnal nuclear NeuroD1 levels are reduced after sympathetic disruption, an effect mimicked by the in vivo administration of α- and β-adrenoceptor blockers. NeuroD1 phosphorylation at two sites, Ser(274) and Ser(336) , associates with nuclear localization in pinealocytes. These data suggest that NeuroD1 influences pineal phenotype both during development and adulthood, in an autonomic and phosphorylation-dependent manner.

  4. Plasma membrane of the rat parotid gland: preparation and partial characterization of a fraction containing the secretory surface

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    A plasma membrane fraction from the rat parotid gland has been prepared by a procedure which selectively enriches for large membrane sheets. This fraction appears to have preserved several ultrastructural features of the acinar cell surface observed in situ. Regions of membrane resembling the acinar luminal border appear as compartments containing microvillar invaginations, bounded by elements of the junctional complex, and from which basolateral membranes extend beyond the junctional complex either to contact other apical compartments or to terminate as free ends. Several additional morphological features of the apical compartments suggest that they are primarily derived from the surface of acinar cells, rather than from the minority of other salivary gland cell types. Enzymatic activities characteristically associated with other cellular organelles are found at only low levels in the plasma membrane fraction. The fraction is highly enriched in two enzyme activities--K+ -dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase (K+ -NPPase, shown to be Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase; 20-fold) and gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTPase; 26-fold)--both known to mark plasma membranes in other tissues. These activities exhibit different patterns of recovery during fractionation, suggesting their distinct distributions among parotid cellular membranes. Secretion granule membranes also exhibit GGTPase, but no detectable K+ -NPPase. Since Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase and GGTPase, respectively, mark the basolateral and apical cellular surfaces in other epithelia, we hypothesize that these two enzymes mark distinct domains in the parotid plasmalemma, and that GGTPase, as the putative apical marker, may signify a compositional overlap between the two types of membranes which fuse during exocytosis. PMID:6128347

  5. Microtubules and protein secretion in rat lacrimal glands: localization of short-term effects of colchicine on the secretory process

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The pathway and kinetics of the secretory protein transport in rat lacrimal exorbital gland have been established by an in vitro time- course radioautographic study of pulse-labeled protein secretion. The colchicine-sensitive steps have been localized by using the drug at various times with respect to the pulse labeling of proteins. Colchicine (10 microM) does not block any step of the secretory protein transport, but when introduced before the pulse it decreases the transfer of labeled proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi area, suppressing their temporary accumulation in the Golgi area before any alteration of this organelle is detectable. Moreover, colchicine inhibits protein release only from the secretory granules formed in its presence because the peroxidase discharge is diminished 1 h after colchicine addition, and the secretion of newly synthesized proteins is strongly inhibited only when colchicine is introduced before secretory granule formation. Morphometric studies show that there is a great increase of secondary lysosomes, related to crinophagy, as early as 40-50 min after colchicine is added. However, changes in lysosomal enzymatic activities remained biochemically undetectable. We conclude that: (a) the labile microtubular system does not seem indispensable for protein transport in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi area but may facilitate this step, perhaps by maintaining the spatial organization of this area; and (b) in the lacrimal gland, colchicine inhibits protein release not by acting on the steps of secretion following the secretory granule formation, but by acting chiefly on the steps preceding secretory granule formation, perhaps by making the secretory granules formed in its presence incapable of discharging their content. PMID:7142282

  6. Circadian dynamics of the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor in the rat pineal gland and its role in regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT).

    PubMed

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise; Ho, Anthony K; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2014-08-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene encodes a transcription factor in the retina and pineal gland. Crx deficiency influences the pineal transcriptome, including a reduced expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key enzyme in nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, previous functional studies on pineal Crx have been performed in melatonin-deficient mice. In this study, we have investigated the role of Crx in the melatonin-proficient rat pineal gland. The current study shows that pineal Crx transcript levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with a peak in the middle of the night, which is transferred into daily changes in CRX protein. The study further shows that the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland controls the Crx rhythm. By use of adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA gene knockdown targeting Crx mRNA in primary rat pinealocyte cell culture, we here show that intact levels of Crx mRNA are required to obtain high levels of Aanat expression, whereas overexpression of Crx induces Aanat transcription in vitro. This regulatory function of Crx is further supported by circadian analysis of Aanat in the pineal gland of the Crx-knockout mouse. Our data indicate that the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression.

  7. Photosensitizer-induced fluorescence of the rat adrenal gland and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) by meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1997-12-01

    Rat adrenal glands exhibit an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The objective of our study was the identification of adrenal cells exhibiting mTHPC-induced fluorescence under normal conditions and under stimulation of adrenal proliferation by reserpine. Furthermore mTHPC-uptake of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells was investigated. Four male Wistar rats received 0.5 mg mTHPC/kg iv 48 hours before perfusion. Furthermore four rats received reserpine (2 mg/kg im od), bromo-deoxy-uridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg ip od) each for one week and mTHPC (0.5 mg/kg) 48 hours before perfusion. BrdU was detected immunohistochemically. PC 12-cells were incubated with 0.5 mg mTHPC/l culture medium for 24 or 48 hours. Cells and tissues were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The adrenal cortex exhibited an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The adrenal medulla fluoresced faintly. Reserpine increased fluorescence of intramedullary cells, not coinciding with adrenal proliferation. Cortical fluorescence remained unchanged. PC 12-cells lying singly or in small groups and differentiating cells showed a more intense mTHPC- induced fluorescence than confluent cells. Differences of cortical and medullary uptake of mTHPC are independent of proliferation and may be explained by lipophilia of mTHPC, since adrenocytes have an uptake mechanism for cholesterol. The difference of mTHPC-uptake between PC 12-cells and chromaffin cells implicate the possibility of photodynamic applications for medullary neoplasia.

  8. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  9. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Located above the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by ... messages. In response to hormonal messages from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH ( ...

  10. Radiometric assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and catechol O-methyltransferase in a single tissue sample: application to rat hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Culman, J.; Torda, T.; Weise, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method for simultaneous assay of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is described. These enzymes are determined in a single tissue homogenate using S-(methyl-/sup 3/H) adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor and sequentially incubating with the substrates phenylethanolamine and epinephrine. The radioactive products of the enzymatic reactions, N-methylphenylethanolamine and metanephrine, are extracted and then separated by thin-layer chromatography. The identity of the reaction products has been established chromatographically and the conditions for both enzymatic reactions in the assay procedure have been defined. Measurement of PNMT activity in the rat pineal gland or in minute fragments of other tissues (e.g., brain nuclei) has not been possible using previously described methods. Activities of PNMT and COMT in the rat pineal gland, various hypothalamic nuclei, and the auricular and ventricular myocardia are herein reported.

  11. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  12. Stimulation of 3H-norepinephrine release by trifluoperazine from rat pineal glands.

    PubMed

    Yurko, K A; Quenzer, L F

    1986-04-14

    Trifluoperazine (5-200 microM) stimulated the release of 3H-NE from isolated whole pineal glands in a dose dependent manner. Trifluoperazine-induced release was not dependent on extracellular Ca++, whereas 60 mM K+-evoked release was attenuated in the presence of EGTA and zero Ca++ Krebs. 60 mM K+ and 50 microM trifluoperazine produced an additive effect on 3H-NE release. Clonidine (5 microM) significantly reduced trifluoperazine-induced release by approximately 50% in the presence of Ca++, and in its absence, clonidine significantly attenuated the trifluoperazine response by 42%. Thus trifluoperazine may be acting upon the alpha 2 receptor or intracellular stores of Ca++. These intracellular interactions remain for further study.

  13. Somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) inhibits the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated sup 3 H-thymidine uptake by rat adrenal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlikowski, M.; Lewinski, A.; Sewerynek, E.; Szkudlinski, M.; Kunert-Radek, J.; Wajs, E. )

    1990-02-14

    The effects of a long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 injections on the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake by the rat adrenal glands incubated in vitro were examined. It was shown that SMS 201-995 significantly inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake and, additionally, suppressed the stimulatory effect of a single angiotensin II injection.

  14. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include: Adrenal Hypothalamus Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Ovaries Parathyroid Pineal Pituitary Testes Thyroid

  15. Loss of parasympathetic innervation leads to sustained expression of pro-inflammatory genes in the rat lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Doan H.; Vadlamudi, Venu; Toshida, Hiroshi; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that removal of parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland (LG) leads to rapid reduction in tear flow. Additionally, removal of the neural input resulted in disorganization of LG structure and changes in the expression of genes associated with the secretory pathway and inflammation. The goal of this study was to investigate the change in pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic gene expression in the rat LG following parasympathetic denervation. Male Long- Evans rats underwent unilateral sectioning of the greater superficial petrosal nerve and were sacrificed 7 days or 2.5 months later. cDNA was synthesized from LG RNA from the contralateral control (Ctla) and parasympathectomized (Px) glands and comparative real-time PCR was performed. Mean threshold cycles (MCT) for the Ctla and Px LG genes were normalized to 18S rRNA MCT values, and the relative fold change was calculated for each gene using the 2T−ΔΔC method. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B1, caspase 1, eotaxin, leukocyte antigen MRC-OX44, allograft inflammatory factor-1, MHC class II molecules RT.1B and RT.1D, IgG receptor FcRn, and macrophage metalloelastase was increased and remained elevated in the Px LG, compared with the Ctla LG. Increased expression of the initiator of apoptosis gene, caspase 2, was confirmed, but expression of the executor gene, caspase 6, was not elevated in the Px LG. Reduced expression of genes associated with post-translational protein processing-furin convertase, protein disulfide isomerase, and UDP-gal transporter isozyme 1-was noted in the Px LG. No significant changes in the expression of genes associated with lysosomal and non-lysosomal-mediated protein degradation were found. Removal of parasympathetic input may lead to decreased capacity for protein synthesis and elevated immune responses in the Px LG. These changes occur without increases in expression of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 3, and may suggest the early changes in LG

  16. Salivary gland tumors: review of 643 cases.

    PubMed

    Main, J H; Orr, J A; McGurk, F M; McComb, R J; Mock, D

    1976-03-01

    643 cases of salivary gland tumors constitute two series of histological sections that were studied from hospitals and dental schools in Southeast Scotland and Southern Ontario. The Scottish series represented epithelial tumors of the parotid and intra-oral salivary glands, but the Canadian series also included tumors of the submandibular and sublingual glands. Classification was based on that recommended by the World Health Organisation (Thackray 1972). While direct statiscal comparisons between the two series are not appropriate, the differences between them suggest that malignant tumors are more common in Canada. The Scottish series contains the largest proportion of benign salivary tumors so far reported. In the Scottish series, 88.7% of parotid tumors were benign compared with 51.9% of Canadian series. In the Canadian series from the submandibular glands, 21.2% only were benign. Of the intra-oral salivary tumors, 62.2% from the Scottish series were benign compared with only 34.7% from the Canadian series.

  17. Salivary gland neoplasms in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arotiba, G T

    1996-01-01

    This 14 year retrospective clinico-statistical analysis of 237 salivary gland neoplasms in Lagos, Nigeria, was undertaken with a view to providing further insights into the presentation of this disease in Africans. These neoplasms constituted 10.0% of all head and neck neoplasms, and were most frequently situated at the parotid gland (32.1%), the palate (24.9%) and the submandibular gland (19.4%). While parotid squamous cell carcinoma affected more males (41.2%) than females (4.7%) (P = 0.03); parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma affected more females (53.3%) than males (11.8%) (P = 0.0149). Furthermore, labial salivary gland tumours affected more females (6.8%) than males (1.7%) (P = 0.05). At presentation, patients with palatal tumours were relatively more advanced in age (Peak = 6th decade) than those with parotid and submandibular tumours (Peak = 3rd decade). Males presenting with pleomorphic adenoma were relatively younger than their female counterparts. This is especially true of palatal pleomorphic adenoma. The recurrence rate for benign tumours was 4.8%. Majority of patients with malignant tumours (83.9%) had significant local extension, regional or distant metastasis at presentation. In twenty-nine percent of these patients with cancer, the disease was controlled for 1-5 years of follow-ups. However, a quarter of these patients with cancer defaulted the planned treatment regime because they could not afford the cost of treatment or they opted for traditional medical care.

  18. Incidence, diagnosis, and classification of salivary gland tumors. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Johns, M E; Goldsmith, M M

    1989-02-01

    The diagnosis of salivary gland tumors is complicated by their relative infrequency, the limited amount of pretreatment information usually available, and the wide range of biologic behaviors seen with different histopathologic types. Most salivary gland neoplasms originate in the parotid, 10-15% arise from the submandibular glands, and the rest occur in the sublingual and minor salivary glands. The probability of a salivary gland neoplasm being malignant is inversely proportional to the size of the gland. The authors discuss two major theories of histogenesis, itemize the various benign and malignant varieties of tumor, discuss the presentation and prognosis for each type, and present a list of factors that influence survival. They also discuss the newest staging system.

  19. Melanin-concentrating hormone: unique peptide neuronal systems in the rat brain and pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Zamir, N.; Skofitsch, G.; Bannon, M.J.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    A unique neuronal system was detected in the rat central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to salmon melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). MCH-like immunoreactive (MCH-LI) cell bodies were confined to the hypothalamus. MCH-LI fibers were found throughout the brain but were most prevalent in hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and pons-medulla regions. High concentrations of MCH-LI were measured in the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle (MFB), posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the diagonal band. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of MFB extracts from rat brain indicate that MCH-like peptide from the rat has a different retention time than that of the salmon MCH. An osmotic stimuls (2% NaCl as drinking water for 120 hr) caused a marked increase in MCH-LI concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe. The present studies establish the presence of MCH-like peptide in the rat brain. The MCH-LI neuronal system is well situated to coordinate complex functions such as regulation of water intake.

  20. Low-level (gallium-aluminum-arsenide) laser irradiation of Par-C10 cells and acinar cells of rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Onizawa, Katsuhiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Matsuki, Miwako; Ohta, Kazumasa; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Oda, Yutaka; Shimono, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    We investigated cell response, including cell proliferation and expression of heat stress protein and bcl-2, to clarify the influence of low-level [gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) diode] laser irradiation on Par-C10 cells derived from the acinar cells of rat parotid glands. Furthermore, we also investigated amylase release and cell death from irradiation in acinar cells from rat parotid glands. The number of Par-C10 cells in the laser-irradiated groups was higher than that in the non-irradiated group at days 5 and 7, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Greater expression of heat shock protein (HSP)25 and bcl-2 was seen on days 1 and 3 in the irradiated group. Assay of the released amylase showed no significant difference statistically between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group. Trypan blue exclusion assay revealed that there was no difference in the ratio of dead to live cells between the irradiated and the non-irradiated groups. These results suggest that low-level laser irradiation promotes cell proliferation and expression of anti-apoptosis proteins in Par-C10 cells, but it does not significantly affect amylase secretion and does not induce rapid cell death in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid glands.

  1. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Misa Agustiño, María José; Leiro, José Manuel; Jorge Mora, María Teresa; Rodríguez-González, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-Pena, Francisco José; López-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Summary Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR), which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10−3 W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:23213477

  2. Abnormal peripubertal development of the rat mammary gland following exposure in utero and during lactation to a mixture of genistein and the food contaminant vinclozolin.

    PubMed

    El Sheikh Saad, H; Meduri, G; Phrakonkham, P; Bergès, R; Vacher, S; Djallali, M; Auger, J; Canivenc-Lavier, M C; Perrot-Applanat, M

    2011-07-01

    The impact of early exposure to endocrine disruptor mixtures on mammary gland development is poorly known. Here, we identify the effects of a conception to weaning exposure of rats to the phytoestrogen genistein (G) and/or the antiandrogen vinclozolin (V) at 1mg/kg-d, alone or in association. Using several approaches, we found that G- and GV-exposed rats displayed significantly greater epithelial branching and proliferation, wider terminal end buds than controls at PND35, as well as ductal hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis. Focal branching defects were present in V-exposed rats. An increased ER and AR expression was observed in G- and GV- as compared to V-exposed rats at PND35. Surprisingly, a significant number of GV- and to a lesser extent, V-exposed animals displayed abnormal hyperplasic alveolar structures at PND50. Thus, gestational and lactational exposure to low doses of genistein plus vinclozolin may seriously affect peripubertal development of the rat mammary gland.

  3. Frequency and Histopathology by Site, Major Pathologies, Symptoms and Signs of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) is, in decreasing order, parotid neoplasms, submandibular gland neoplasms, minor SGNs, and sublingual gland neoplasms. The larger the salivary gland (e.g. parotid), the more likely a neoplasm is benign, and the smaller the gland (e.g. minor salivary gland), the more likely the neoplasm is malignant. The majority of SGNs, benign and/or malignant, irrespective of site, present as a painless swelling or mass. Definitive symptoms and signs of salivary gland malignancy are the presence of named nerve palsy in anatomical proximity to the gland and/or the presence of cervical lymphadenopathy. All discrete major salivary gland masses and non-ulcerated submucosal masses presenting in the head and neck region, irrespective of age, should be investigated, with the aim of excluding an SGN.

  4. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation.

    PubMed

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-03-27

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands.

  5. Prepubertal exposure to elevated manganese results in estradiol regulated mammary gland ductal differentiation and hyperplasia in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Dearth, Robert K; Hiney, Jill K; Srivastava, Vinod K; Hamilton, Alina M; Dees, William L

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that environmental substances regulating estrogenic pathways during puberty may be detrimental to the developing mammary gland (MG). Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral required for normal physiological processes. Prepubertal exposure to Mn induces precocious puberty in rats, an event associated with early elevations in puberty-related hormones, including estradiol (E2). However, until now the effect of Mn-induced precocious MG development has not been determined. Therefore, we assessed the ability of prepubertal Mn exposure to advance normal MG development and alter E2 driven pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Sprague Dawley female rats were gavaged daily with either 10 mg/kg manganese chloride (MnCl2) or saline (control) from postnatal day (PND) 12 through PND 30. Blood and MGs were collected on PNDs 30 and 120. Compared to controls, serum E2 levels on PND 30 were elevated (p<0.05) in the Mn-treated group. Mn exposure significantly increased differentiated MG terminal ductal structures and the percentage of MG epithelial cells that stained positive for the proliferative marker, Ki67, at PND 30 (p<0.001) and PND 120 (p < 0.001). Levels of Mn (ppm) were not elevated in these MGs. Mn-treated animals (40%) exhibited reactive stroma and intra-luminal focal hyperplasia in hemotoxylin and eosin stained MGs at PND 120. Furthermore, Mn exposure resulted in elevated protein expression levels of estrogen receptor α, activator protein 2α, phosphorylated (p)-Akt, and p53 in MGs on PND 120, but not on PND 30. Collectively, these data show that exposure to a supplemental dose of Mn causes accelerated pubertal MG growth which can progress to adult hyperplasia; thus, providing evidence that early life Mn exposure may increase susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:24845367

  6. Fatty acid profiles of mammary gland tissue in rats following exposure to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Karmali, R.

    1986-03-01

    Prostaglandins have been implicated in the mechanism of DMBA carcinogenesis and tumor-promoting effects of linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6). Since elevated levels of arachidonate (C20:4 omega 6) products have been reported in various mammary tumors it is important to evaluate changes in pools of this substrate fatty acid and its precursor, linoleic acid. To address this question, total lipid extracts were subjected to TLC separation to obtain phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), and neutral (N) fractions. Fatty acid profiles for each fraction were analyzed by GLC. Three groups of 50 day old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used: Control, DMBA 10mg and 20mg/rat. Mammary gland tissue specimens were excised at 2 week intervals from the time of challenge through appearance of tumors. Individual fatty acid percentages and specific ratios were examined. At 2 weeks post DMBA, the levels of C18:2 omega 6 were increased in all 3 lipid fractions in both DMBA-challenged compared with Control groups. On the other hand, similar trends in C20:4 omega 6 were apparent only in the PE fraction. Also, ratio of 20:4/18:2 showed a marked increase from the Control (0.09) to DMBA-challenged groups (0.47 and 0.42 respectively) in the PE fraction. These results suggest changes in fatty acid profiles during the early phase of DMBA carcinogenesis. Results of similar studies at subsequent stages will also be discussed in detail.

  7. Studies on kallikrein in the duct systems of the salivary glands of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Shnitka, †T. K.; Maranda, B.; Rodrigues, J. A. A.; Schachter, M.; Weinberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    By correlating immunofluorescence light microscopy with electron microscope studies and with kallikrein concentrations under various conditions, we have made the following observations and conclusions about kallikrein in the submandibular and other salivary glands. 1. In the submandibular gland, specific immunofluorescence to kallikrein was observed in the luminal region of the striated ducts particularly, but also in the outer epithelial cells of the stratified epithelial collecting ducts. Sympathetic nerve stimulation resulted in a reduction in intensity of specific fluorescence and in its increased localization towards the lumen. The nearly complete elimination of kallikrein from the gland by duct obstruction for four days resulted in complete disappearance of specific fluorescence in the gland. Prolonged parasympathetic nerve stimulation at frequencies which did not reduce the kallikrein concentration of the gland failed to alter the specific immunofluorescence despite copious secretion of saliva. Our results failed to reveal evidence of secretion of kallikrein either into or towards the interstitium of the gland. The luminal layer of stratified epithelial cells in the collecting ducts contained small secretory granules closely resembling those in the striated ducts. Our results are not conclusive, but do suggest that kallikrein is located in these granules whence it is secreted into the lumen of the duct. 2. The parotid gland was found to contain much lower concentrations of kallikrein than the submandibular gland. This finding was associated with the presence of far fewer striated ducts in the parotid gland. Otherwise, specific fluorescence and the response to sympathetic nerve stimulation was like that of the submandibular gland. Small secretory granules in the striated and collecting ducts resembled those of the submandibular gland. 3. The sublingual gland, like the parotid, had a low concentration of kallikrein and very few striated ducts. These ducts were

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression in rat pituitary gland intermediate lobe following ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, A; Barden, N

    1988-02-01

    Using hybridization techniques and Northern blots we have identified a approximately 6.5 kb glucocorticoid receptor mRNA species in rat pituitary intermediate lobe. Glucocorticoid receptor mRNA concentrations, which are barely detectable or undetectable in normal animals, were greatly increased following ovariectomy. This ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content of the intermediate lobe, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization experiments, could be reversed by 17 beta-estradiol administration.

  9. Biosynthesis of growth hormone in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Stimulation of biosynthesis in vitro by insulin

    PubMed Central

    Betteridge, A.; Wallis, M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of insulin on the incorporation of radioactive leucine into growth hormone was investigated by using rat anterior pituitary glands incubated in vitro. A 50% stimulation over control values was observed at insulin concentrations above 2μm (280munits/ml). The effect was specific for growth hormone biosynthesis, over the range 1–5μm-insulin (140–700munits/ml). Lower more physiological concentrations had no significant effect in this system. Above 10μm (1.4 units/ml) total protein synthesis was also increased. The stimulation of growth hormone synthesis could be partially blocked by the addition of actinomycin D, suggesting that RNA synthesis was involved. Insulin was found to stimulate the rate of glucose utilization in a similar way to growth hormone synthesis. 2-Deoxyglucose and phloridzin, which both prevented insulin from stimulating glucose utilization, also prevented the effect of insulin on growth hormone synthesis. If glucose was replaced by fructose in the medium, the effect of insulin on growth hormone synthesis was decreased. We conclude that the rate of utilization of glucose may be an important step in mediating the effect of insulin on growth hormone synthesis. PMID:4762755

  10. ( sup 3 H)protein secretion in rat parotid gland: Substance P-. beta. -adrenergic synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Dreux, C.; Imhoff, V.; Rossignol, B. )

    1987-12-01

    In parotid fragment ({sup 3}H)protein, secretion induced by substance P was moderate, but strongly Ca dependent. However, secretion induced by isoproterenol was large and Ca independent. Potentiation of protein secretion was observed when substance P (SP) and isoproterenol (ISO) acted together. Addition of 10{sup {minus}8} M SP caused a shift to the left in the secretion dose-response curve caused by ISO, but did not enhance ISO-induced maximal response. The potentiating effect seems to be a postreceptor event, since it can be mimicked by forskolin (FK), known to induce directly cAMP accumulation, thus bypassing the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. The synergism described above was, therefore, investigated at the second messenger production level. Stimulation of parotid gland fragments by simultaneous addition of SP plus ISO or FK did not modify cAMP nor inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) accumulation induced independently by each secretagogue alone. The ionophore A23187 was also able to potentiate secretion induced by a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, this effect being totally abolished by external calcium omission, thus suggesting a role for external calcium in this potentiation phenomenon. These results suggest that the potentiation phenomenon observed is a postreceptor event that occurs at a step distal from the second messenger production.

  11. Unilateral parotid gland involvement with synchronous multiple Basal cell adenomas.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Cengiz; Apa, Duygu Düsmez; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Görür, Kemal

    2007-11-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland. BCA is seen most frequently in the parotid gland and less commonly in the submandibular gland and minor glands of the upper lips, oral cavity, and hard palate. Salivary gland tumors are observed as single tumors in one salivary gland. Double or multiple tumors of the salivary gland tumors are unusual and metachronous or bilateral salivary gland tumors are more observed than synchronous or unilateral tumors. The most commonly seen multiple tumor unilaterally or bilaterally is the Warthin's tumor. A 65-year-old woman with a painful, slowly enlarging mass in front of the left ear, which was present for 6 months, was evaluated. Physical examination revealed two solid and well-delineated masses in the preauricular region, which were 1.5 x 1 cm in diameter and in the tail of the parotid gland, which is 2.5 x 2 cm in diameter. Excision of the superficial lobe of the parotid gland was performed. The macroscopic examination of the specimen showed the two discrete nodular masses. Histologic examination of the two nodular solid lesions was reported as BCA. Multiple synchronous nonmembranous-type BCAs of the unilateral parotid gland is a rare entity. More extensive excision of the parotid gland tumor, careful macroscopic perioperative examination of the surgical specimen, and histologic evaluation of all surgical specimens might be necessary for reducing revision operations and surgical complications.

  12. The effect of HeNe laser radiation on the thyroid gland of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, E.; Hevia, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Gonzalez-Campora, R.; Armas, J. R.; Galera, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although laser irradiation is becoming common practice in medicine, there is not always a clear understanding of the possible side-effects. The present report is a light and electron microscopic study of the effects of fixed low intensity doses of soft HeNe laser on the thyroid of Wistar rats. The immediate effects are mild multifocal degenerative changes; these lesions recover in less than 3 months. Long-term lesions are identified only by electron microscopy; they consist of an increased number of peroxisomes and free or intramitochondrial crystalline structures. We discuss the laser's hypothetical functions. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1883738

  13. Distribution of Intravenously Administered Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Adrenal Gland: 11C-Donepezil PET Study in the Normal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Tadashi; Naka, Sadahiro; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Kanai, Yasukazu; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered 11C-Donepezil (DNP) and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. Methods The distribution of 11C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220±8.9 g). A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of 11C-DNP (45.0±10.7 MBq). The whole-body distribution of the 11C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume) by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. Results The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of 11C-DNP in the body (following the liver) (13.33±1.08 and 19.43±1.29 ml/cm3, respectively), indicating that the distribution of 11C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach) (24.9±1.6, 83.1±3.0, and 38.5±8.1 mU/mg, respectively), indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. Conclusions We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of 11C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of 11C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors. PMID:25225806

  14. Effects of Melatonin on Morphological and Functional Parameters of the Pineal Gland and Organs of Immune System in Rats During Natural Light Cycle and Constant Illumination.

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Gritsyk, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Tenditnik, M V; Avrorov, P A; Trufakin, V A

    2015-10-01

    We studied the response of the pineal gland and organs of the immune system to melatonin treatment in Wistar rats kept under conditions of abnormal illumination regimen. The animals were kept under natural light regimen or continuous illumination for 14 days and then received daily injections of melatonin (once a day in the evening) for 7 days. Administration of melatonin to rats kept at natural light cycle was followed by a decrease in percent ratio of CD4+8+ splenocytes and CD4-8+ thymocytes. In 24-h light with the following melatonin injections were accompanied by an increase in percent rate and absolute amount of CD4+8+ cells in the spleen, and a decrease in percent rate of CD11b/c and CD4-8+ splenocytes. In the thymus amount of CD4-8+ cells increased, and absolute number of CD4+25+ cells reduced. Melatonin significantly decreased lipofuscin concentration in the pineal gland during continuous light. Direction and intensity of effects of melatonin on parameters of cell immunity and state of the pineal gland were different under normal and continuous light conditions. It should be taken into account during using of this hormone for correction of immune and endocrine impairments developing during change in light/dark rhythm.

  15. In utero exposure of rats to high-fat diets perturbs gene expression profiles and cancer susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Govindarajah, Vinothini; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ying, Jun; Gear, Robin; Bornschein, Robert L; Medvedovic, Mario; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Human studies suggest that high-fat diets (HFDs) increase the risk of breast cancer. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis rat model is commonly used to evaluate the effects of lifestyle factors such as HFD on mammary tumor risk. Past studies focused primarily on the effects of continuous maternal exposure on the risk of offspring at the end of puberty (PND50). We assessed the effects of prenatal HFD exposure on cancer susceptibility in prepubertal mammary glands and identified key gene networks associated with such disruption. During pregnancy, dams were fed AIN-93G-based diets with isocaloric high olive oil, butterfat or safflower oil. The control group received AIN-93G. Female offspring were treated with DMBA on PND21. However, a significant increase in tumor volume and a trend of shortened tumor latency were observed in rats with HFD exposure against the controls (P=.048 and P=.067, respectively). Large-volume tumors harbored carcinoma in situ. Transcriptome profiling identified 43 differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of the HFBUTTER group as compared with control. Rapid hormone signaling was the most dysregulated pathway. The diet also induced aberrant expression of Dnmt3a, Mbd1 and Mbd3, consistent with potential epigenetic disruption. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence supporting susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands to DMBA-induced tumorigenesis that can be modulated by dietary fat that involves aberrant gene expression and likely epigenetic dysregulation. PMID:26895667

  16. Characterization of the myoepithelial cells in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Julio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bats constitute one of the most numerous mammalian species. Bats have a wide range of dietary habits and include carnivorous, haematophagous, insectivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous species. The salivary glands of these species have been of particular research interest due to their structural variability among chiropterans with different types of diets. Myoepithelial cells (MECs), which support and facilitate the expulsion of saliva from the secretory portions of salivary glands, are very important for their function; however, this cell type has not been extensively studied in the salivary glands of bats. In this study, we characterized the MECs in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Herein, we describe the morphology of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of A. jamaicensis at the light- and electro-microscopic level and the distribution of MECs in these glands, as defined by their expression of smooth-muscle markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (SMAα) and desmin, and of epithelial cell markers, such as KRT14. We found that the anatomical locations of the major salivary glands in this bat species are similar to those of humans, except that the bat sublingual gland appears to be unique, extending to join the contralateral homologous gland. Morphologically, the parotid gland has the characteristics of a mixed-secretory gland, whereas the submandibular and sublingual glands were identified as mucous-secretory glands. MECs positive for SMAα, KRT14 and desmin were found in all of the structural components of the three glands, except in their excretory ducts. Desmin is expressed at a lower level in the parotid gland than in the other glands. Our results suggest that the major salivary glands of A. jamaicensis, although anatomically and structurally similar to those of humans, play different physiological roles that can be attributed to the dietary habits of this species. PMID:27168421

  17. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  18. Redox capacity of the pineal gland in rats. Effect of castration.

    PubMed

    Ianăs, O; Olinescu, R; Bădescu, I

    1993-01-01

    The day/night cycle-induced effects, and the effect of castration on pineal oxidative potential in rats, were studied herein. Experiments were made in adult and castrated Wistar rats kept under normal light conditions during winter (on December and January). Castration was performed 72 hrs before sacrification. Groups of 6 intact or castrated animals were sacrificed at 4 hr-intervals during 24 hrs (the day/night cycle). Blood and pineal were then taken. Peroxides and total pineal antioxidants in plasma and pineal homogenate were assessed by chemiluminescence. The results obtained prove that photoperiod is involved in the organism oxidative potential, and that pineal is involved in the diurnal rhythm of this potential. Pineal peroxide and antioxidative concentrations show circadian variations with minimum and maximal values during the day or the night, which are also reflected at the plasma level. In the first half of the morning are registered increased peroxide and decreased antioxidative levels while at night the diagrams are reversed. As compared to the intact group, in the castrated one antioxidants and peroxides maintain their biorhythms but their concentrations are significantly changed. The diagram of pineal peroxides in the castrated group is situated above that of the intact one, with statistically significant differences only at midday (12:00). Taking into account the antioxidative characteristics of melatonin, one can suppose that maximum pineal antioxidative levels during the night might be due to maximum concentrations of nocturnal melatonin. The significant increase in peroxide concentration and the decrease in antioxidants after castration would partly explain the physiologic status of the elderly with decreased melatonin production and increased oxidative processes. PMID:7697061

  19. Redox capacity of the pineal gland in rats. Effect of castration.

    PubMed

    Ianăs, O; Olinescu, R; Bădescu, I

    1993-01-01

    The day/night cycle-induced effects, and the effect of castration on pineal oxidative potential in rats, were studied herein. Experiments were made in adult and castrated Wistar rats kept under normal light conditions during winter (on December and January). Castration was performed 72 hrs before sacrification. Groups of 6 intact or castrated animals were sacrificed at 4 hr-intervals during 24 hrs (the day/night cycle). Blood and pineal were then taken. Peroxides and total pineal antioxidants in plasma and pineal homogenate were assessed by chemiluminescence. The results obtained prove that photoperiod is involved in the organism oxidative potential, and that pineal is involved in the diurnal rhythm of this potential. Pineal peroxide and antioxidative concentrations show circadian variations with minimum and maximal values during the day or the night, which are also reflected at the plasma level. In the first half of the morning are registered increased peroxide and decreased antioxidative levels while at night the diagrams are reversed. As compared to the intact group, in the castrated one antioxidants and peroxides maintain their biorhythms but their concentrations are significantly changed. The diagram of pineal peroxides in the castrated group is situated above that of the intact one, with statistically significant differences only at midday (12:00). Taking into account the antioxidative characteristics of melatonin, one can suppose that maximum pineal antioxidative levels during the night might be due to maximum concentrations of nocturnal melatonin. The significant increase in peroxide concentration and the decrease in antioxidants after castration would partly explain the physiologic status of the elderly with decreased melatonin production and increased oxidative processes.

  20. Tumour-like lesions of the salivary glands. The new WHO classification.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1992-10-01

    Tumour-like lesions must be distinguished from true tumours of the salivary glands. In the new WHO classification of salivary gland tumours seven entities were considered: sialadenosis, oncocytosis (diffuse oncocytosis and focal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia), necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction), benign lymphoepithelial lesion (chronic myoepithelial sialadenitis), salivary duct cysts (mucoceles of the minor salivary glands of extravasation or retention type, cysts of the major salivary glands, ranula and dysgenetic polycystic disease of the parotid gland), chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland (Küttner tumour), and cystic lymphoid hyperplasia in AIDS. The main topics of clinical data and pathohistology were described and documented by the results of the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg (1965-1989).

  1. Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of the major salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Elliott R; Saindane, Amit M

    2013-02-01

    The major salivary glands consist of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Most neoplasms in other subsites in the head and neck are squamous cell carcinoma, but tumors of the salivary glands may be benign or malignant. Surgical treatment differs if the lesion is benign, and therefore preoperative fine needle aspiration is important in salivary neoplasms. The role of imaging is to attempt to determine histology, predict likelihood of a lesion being malignant, and report an imaging stage. This article reviews the various histologies, imaging features, and staging of major salivary gland neoplasms.

  2. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  3. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H-Tyr8)physalaemin to rat submaxillary gland substance P receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahouth, S.W.; Lazaro, D.M.; Brundish, D.E.; Musacchio, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Physalaemin ((/sup 3/H)PHY) binds to a single class of noninteracting sites on rat submaxillary gland membranes suspended in high ionic strength media with a KD of 2.7 nM, a Bmax of 240 fmol/mg of protein, and low nonspecific binding. The relative potencies of substance P (SP) and its fragments in competing with (/sup 3/H)PHY correlate with their relative salivation potencies. This indicates that (/sup 3/H)PHY interacts with a physiologically relevant SP receptor. In low ionic strength media, the KD of (/sup 3/H)PHY does not change, but SP and some of its fragments are more potent than PHY in competing with (/sup 3/H) PHY. Computer-assisted analysis of (/sup 3/H)PHY and (/sup 3/H)SP binding in high and low ionic strength media demonstrated that both peptides are equipotent in high ionic strength but that the affinity of SP increases by 70-fold in low ionic strength. The SP fragments that contain a basic residue in positions 1 and/or 3 also display an increased affinity in low ionic strength. These findings document that (/sup 3/H)PHY binding in high ionic strength (mu . 0.6) accurately reflects the pharmacological potencies of agonists on the SP-P receptor. The binding of (/sup 3/H)PHY, like that of (/sup 3/H)SP, increases by the addition of divalent cations (Mg2+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Mn2+). Guanine nucleotides decrease (/sup 3/H)PHY binding by decreasing the Bmax to the same level (160 fmol/mg of protein), in the presence or absence of Mg2+.

  4. PLURIVESICULAR SECRETORY PROCESSES AND NERVE ENDINGS IN THE PINEAL GLAND OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Eduardo; de Iraldi, Amanda Pellegrino

    1961-01-01

    The pineal body of white normal rats, 1.5 to 3 months old, was studied under the electron microscope. A single type of parenchymal cell—the pinealocyte—is recognized as the main component of the tissue, and some of the structural characteristics of the nucleus and cytoplasm are described. The main morphological characteristic of the pinealocytes is represented by club-shaped perivascular expansions connected to the cell by thin pedicles. They are found lying in a large, clear space surrounding the blood capillaries. The name plurivesicular secretory processes is proposed, to emphasize the main structural feature and the probable function of these cellular expansions. A tubulofibrillar component is mainly found in the pedicle, and within the expansion there are numerous small mitochondria and densily packed vesicles of about 425 A. Two types of vesicles, one with a homogeneous content and another with a very dense osmium deposit, are described. Between the two types there are intermediary forms. In these processes, mitochondria show profound changes which may lead to complete vacuolization. The significance of this plurivesicular secretory component is discussed in the light of recent work on the biogenic amines of the pineal body and preliminary experiments showing the release of the vesicles containing dense granules after treatment with reserpine. These vesicles are interpreted as the site of storage of some of the biogenic amines. Bundles of unmyelinated nerve fibers and endings on large blood vessels which also contain a plurivesicular content are described and tentatively interpreted as adrenergic nerve terminals. PMID:13720811

  5. Salivary gland neoplasms in children: a 10-year survey at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Kessler, A; Handler, S D

    1994-06-01

    Fifteen salivary gland tumors were treated at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1982 and 1991. Eight of these lesions were malignant and 7 were benign. All of the benign tumors were pleomorphic adenomas. For these, superficial parotidectomy or excision of the submandibular gland was the treatment of choice. One child had recurrence 2 years after her initial surgery. Among the malignant lesions, mucoepidermoid carcinoma was diagnosed in 5 children, and acinic cell carcinoma in 3. Six malignant tumors involved the parotid gland, while 2 originated in the submandibular salivary gland. Superficial or total parotidectomy, or excision of the submandibular gland was performed, according to the nature and the location of the lesion. The facial nerve was sacrificed in one patient because of extensive involvement of the nerve. A 2-year survival rate of 100% was achieved, and all the patients were free of disease at the end of the follow-up period. Successful management of salivary gland lesions in children requires a high index of suspicion of possible malignancy and complete surgical removal as the initial treatment. Radiation therapy is recommended in the management of those patients with microscopic residual tumor and/or nodal involvement.

  6. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed

  7. Paternal selenium deficiency but not supplementation during preconception alters mammary gland development and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Guido, Luiza N; Fontelles, Camile C; Rosim, Mariana P; Pires, Vanessa C; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Castro, Inar A; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Barbisan, Luis F; Ong, Thomas P

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is a global public health problem and accumulating evidence indicates early-life exposures as relevant factors in the disease risk determination. Recent studies have shown that paternal nutrition can influence offspring health including breast cancer risk. Selenium is a micronutrient with essential role in central aspects of embryogenesis, male fertility and cancer and that has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent in several breast cancer experimental models. Thus, we designed an animal study to evaluate whether paternal selenium deficiency or supplementation during preconception could affect the female offspring mammary gland development and breast cancer susceptibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN93-G diet containing 0.15 ppm (control diet), 0.05 ppm (deficient diet) or 1 ppm (supplemented diet) of selenium for 9 weeks and mated with control female rats. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in their female offspring. Paternal selenium deficiency increased the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the female rat offspring and these effects were associated with higher susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors (increased incidence and higher grade tumors). On the other hand, paternal selenium supplementation did not influence any of these parameters. These results highlight the importance of father's nutrition including selenium status as a relevant factor affecting daughter's breast cancer risk and paternal preconception as a potential developmental stage to start disease preventive strategies. PMID:27270969

  8. Granulomatous giant cell submandibular sialadenitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Écija, Alejandro; Estepa, José Carlos; Mendoza, Francisco Javier

    2012-11-01

    A 4-month-old dog was presented with a progressive swelling of the submandibular area. The history, course, cytological, and sialographic findings were consistent with an aseptic pyogranulomatous sialadenitis with concurrent duct blockage. This rare entity, responsive to medical treatment, appears to be similar to the granulomatous giant cell sialadenitis of humans.

  9. Submandibular chronic sialadenitis presenting with alcohol-induced pain.

    PubMed Central

    Okany, C. C.; Akinsete, I.; Akinyanju, O. O.

    1990-01-01

    A 32 year old man with alcohol-induced pain over a right submandibular swelling is described. Excision biopsy of this swelling revealed chronic sialadenitis and the symptoms promptly ceased following this excision. We speculate on the possible pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:2267210

  10. Experimental rabies in skunks: immune response and salivary gland infection.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A; Campbell, J B

    1987-01-01

    Groups of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were inoculated intramuscularly with graded doses of street rabies virus. At various intervals after inoculation, saliva and sera were tested for rabies virus and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Skunks that developed rabies were killed in terminal stages of the disease and the following examinations were made: titers of virus and antibody in submandibular salivary glands and brain, extent of immunofluorescence in submandibular salivary glands, and histologic examination of various tissues. Skunks that received inocula containing 4 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(5) mouse intracerebral lethal dose50 (MICLD50) had detectable serum neutralizing antibodies by 7-12 days postinoculation; however, most of the skunks that received lower doses (40 to 4 x 10(3) MICLD50) did not have detectable serum neutralizing antibodies until clinical signs began. In the salivary glands, slight and extensive immunofluorescence corresponded to high and low titers of tissue neutralizing antibody. Also low viral titers were associated with high tissue neutralizing antibody titers. There was a close correlation between viral titers in right and left submandibular salivary glands. The results suggest that the immune response can impede the process of infection of the salivary glands resulting in lack of antigen or low amounts of antigen in this tissue. This could occur through interference with centrifugal neural transport of virus and/or neutralization of virus during transfer from neural elements to epithelial cells. Lack of infectious virus or low viral titers in salivary glands containing antigen and high levels of tissue neutralizing antibodies can be caused partly by postmortem virus neutralization (during viral titration).

  11. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  12. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  13. Effects of chloroquine on the adrenocortical function. II. Histological, histochemical and biochemical changes in the suprarenal gland of rats on long-term administration of chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, M; Bayer, A

    1976-01-01

    White female Wistar rats were used in order to study the influence of long-term oral application of 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methylbutylamino) quinoline (chloroquine) in doses of 30, 40 and 80 mg of base/kg upon the suprarenal gland. Histological, histochemical and biochemical findings give evidence of adrenocortical activation induced by chloroquine at all dose levels tested. The differences between the signs of adrenocortical activation as observed after the various doses were only those of quantity and time onset. The results indicate that the stimulation of the suprarenal cortex produced by repeated administration of chloroquine is not solely a manifestation of toxic action of chloroquine.

  14. Lipofuscin in salivary glands in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A; David, R

    1978-07-01

    Lipofuscin granules were observed in normal salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and minor salivary glands). The pigment was confined mainly to the epithelial cells of the intralobular ducts, but isolated granules were also found in acinar cells and myoepithelial cells. In chronic sialadenitis pigment granules were found in the intralobular epithelial cells and in macrophages in the surrounding ionnective tissue. In benign epithelial tumors pigment granules were observed within neoplastic epithelial cells and in macrophages in the stroma, while malignant tumors displayed pigmented granules only in macrophages in the stroma.

  15. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  16. Voltage-dependent currents and modulation of calcium channel expression in zona fasciculata cells from rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, J G; Takeda, K

    1995-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage-activated currents from single zona fasciculata (ZF) cells from rat adrenal glands were studied. T- and L-type Ca2+ currents and a slowly inactivating A-type K+ current were the three major currents observed. 2. In freshly isolated cells, the A-type K+ current and the T-type Ca2+ current were predominant. The A-type current was activated at -50 mV and inhibited by 4-amino-pyridine with a half-maximal block (IC50) at 130 microM while the T-type current was activated at -70 mV and blocked by Cd2+, Ni2+ and amiloride with IC50 values of 24.1, 132.4 and 518.9 microM, respectively. 3. Under current clamp, depolarizing current pulses produced a single Ca2+ action potential with Cs+ in the pipette internal solution. Upon replacement of Cs+ by K+, the half-amplitude width of the action potential was shortened and membrane potential oscillations were seen after the spike. 4. In freshly isolated cells and during the first 24 h after plating, the T-type current was observed in all cells, with L-type current being observed in < 2% of cells, even in the presence of (+)SDZ 202,791, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel agonist. With time in culture, the T-type current disappeared, and a high-voltage-activated L-type current became increasingly apparent. In cells tested after > 2 days in culture, (+)SDZ 202,791 potentiated L-type current by 407 +/- 12% and the antagonist (-)SDZ 202,791 blocked this increase. The L-type current was activated between -30 and -20 mV and was sensitive to nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA. 5. Pre-incubation of cultured ZF cells with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for 3 days resulted in a high, sustained level of expression of T-type current, with a mean amplitude of 34.2 +/- 5.5 pA pF-1 for ACTH-treated cells compared with 3.4 +/- 1.8 pA pF-1 for untreated cells. Cycloheximide strongly inhibited this effect. Neither treatment affected L-type current expression. 6. The expression of both Ca

  17. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum.

  18. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ajay Kumar; Bindal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Charu; Vaidya, Sharad; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2012-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine treatment and outcome. There are few absolutes in salivary gland tumor diagnosis given the marked spectrum and overlap of differentiated cell types that participate in the numerous benign and malignant tumors. Thus, there are enumerating antibodies that may be helpful in resolving difficult differential diagnoses when applied with astute morphologic correlation. In general, immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool should be used sparingly and wisely as a morphologic adjunct because of the lack of specificity of many markers for specific histologic tumor types. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular profiling of salivary gland neoplasms and correlate this with histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms. We have elected to discuss and illustrate some of the unusual salivary gland tumors that the practicing pathologist find difficult to diagnose. These have been selected because they readily simulate each other but have very different clinical therapies and, therefore, should be included routinely in differential diagnosis.

  19. The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland.

    PubMed

    Alicelebić, Selma; Mornjaković, Zakira; Susko, Irfan; Cosović, Esad; Beganović-Petrović, Amira

    2006-11-01

    Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group) or shampinealectomy (control group), adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatonin intraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th) post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  20. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine. PMID:27070740

  1. Immunoreactivity for Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 in the Adult Rat Oro-Gastro-Intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Nemolato, S; Ekstrom, J.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Fanni, D.; Di Felice, E.; Locci, A.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2013-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the β-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: Tβ4 was absent in salivary glands whereas Tβ10 was expressed in parotid and in submandibular glands. Tβ4 was mildly expressed in the tongue and in the esophagus, where Tβ10 was absent. A similar expression was found in the stomach, ileum and colon mucosa. In pancreas Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the Langerhans islet cells; Tβ4 was also detected in the exocrine cells. Both peptide were not expressed in liver cells. When the rat expression pattern in rat organs was compared to reactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 in humans, marked differences were found. Our data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of Tβ4 and Tβ10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. The common high expression of Tβ4 in mast cells, both in humans and in rats, represents one of the few similarities between these two species. PMID:23807296

  2. Salivary gland manifestations of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: fine-needle aspiration cytology findings. A case report.

    PubMed

    Panikar, Nirupma; Agarwal, Sarla

    2005-09-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML or Rosai-Dorfman disease) is a nonneoplastic, usually self-limiting disease. Alhough it affects all age groups, it is more commonly seen in young males in their first or second decades. The disease primarily manifests as painless lymphadenopathy of cervical region, but other nodal groups and extranodal sites may also be affected. Seldom SHML may involve the salivary glands. We present the cytologic features and differential diagnoses of one such case.A 45-yr-old woman presented with an enlarged submandibular gland on the left side with ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy that had been persisting for 1 mo. The gland and the two enlarged nodes measured 2.5 x 2.5 cm(2) each and were firm in consistency. Clinically, tumor of the salivary glands was suspected. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed moderate cellularity, with large histiocytes dispersed in the background of intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. These histiocytes showed lymphophagocytosis. Isolated stromal fragments consisting of fibrocytes were seen separate from salivary acinar clusters on repeat aspirations. The diagnosis of SHML involving left submandibular gland and ipsilateral lymph nodes was returned. When analyzed in the context of clinical findings (laboratory data), the cytologic features of SHML involving salivary gland could be differentiated from those of malignancies and other benign lesions, especially Kuttner's tumor of the submandibular gland, which mimics neoplasm clinically.

  3. A method for in vitro culture of rat Zymbal gland: use in mechanistic studies of benzene carcinogenesis in combination with 32P-postlabeling.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Irwin, S E; Kommineni, C; Mackerer, C R; Mehlman, M A

    1989-01-01

    Zymbal glands were excised bilaterally from the ear ducts of female Sprague-Dawley rats (three/group), minced into approximately four fragments per gland, and transferred into a microtiter plate containing 1.5 mL per well of Waymouth's tissue culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, hydrocortisone, insulin, and gentamicin. After addition of a test compound or solvent vehicle, plates were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 96 hr at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. Tissue in culture for 6 hr was histologically indistinguishable from the freshly excised tissue, while that in culture for 24, 48, and 96 hr showed a progressive deterioration often with necrosis and/or squamous metaplasia. More pronounced deterioration was noted in samples treated with 750 or 1500 micrograms/mL of benzene. Using a nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, aromatic DNA adducts were detected in cultured Zymbal glands exposed for 48 hr to benzene and its derivatives, as well as to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Benzene produced very low levels of adducts (0.5 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides), whereas its congeners produced relatively high levels of adducts (50-2000 lesions per 10(9) nucleotides), which decreased in the order benzoquinone greater than hydroquinone greater than phenol greater than benzenetriol greater than catechol. Each adduct profile overall was characteristic for the compound studied, suggesting the formation of compound-specific electrophiles. AAF and DMBA adducts were identical to those formed in vivo in animals. Our results show that the Zymbal glands are capable of metabolizing different carcinogens to DNA-reactive intermediates, a process that may be causally associated with tumor formation in vivo in this organ. Images FIGURE 3. A FIGURE 3. B FIGURE 3. C FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:2507309

  4. A method for in vitro culture of rat Zymbal gland: Use in mechanistic studies of benzene carcinogenesis in combination with sup 32 P-postlabeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.V.; Blackburn, G.R.; Irwin, S.E.; Kommineni, C.; Mackerer, C.R.; Mehlman, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Zymbal glands were excised bilaterally from the ear ducts of female Sprague-Dawley rats (three/group), minced into approximately four fragments per gland, and transferred into a microtiter plate containing 1.5 mL per well of Waymouth's tissue culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, hydrocortisone, insulin, and gentamicin. After addition of a test compound or solvent vehicle, plates were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 96 hr at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. Tissue in culture for 6 hr was histologically indistinguishable from the freshly excised tissue, while that in culture for 24, 48, and 96 hr showed a progressive deterioration often with necrosis and/or squamous metaplasia. More pronounced deterioration was noted in samples treated with 750 or 1500 micrograms/mL of benzene. Using a nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, aromatic DNA adducts were detected in cultured Zymbal glands exposed for 48 hr to benzene and its derivatives, as well as to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Benzene produced very low levels of adducts (0.5 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides), whereas its congeners produced relatively high levels of adducts (50-2000 lesions per 10(9) nucleotides), which decreased in the order benzoquinone greater than hydroquinone greater than phenol greater than benzenetriol greater than catechol. Each adduct profile overall was characteristic for the compound studied, suggesting the formation of compound-specific electrophiles. AAF and DMBA adducts were identical to those formed in vivo in animals. Our results show that the Zymbal glands are capable of metabolizing different carcinogens to DNA-reactive intermediates, a process that may be causally associated with tumor formation in vivo in this organ.

  5. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  6. Characterization of the human submandibular/sublingual saliva glycoproteome using lectin affinity chromatography coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Lu, Bingwen; Liao, Lujian; Xu, Tao; Bedi, Gurrinder; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In-depth analysis of the salivary proteome is fundamental to understanding the functions of salivary proteins in the oral cavity and to reveal disease biomarkers involved in different pathophysiological conditions, with the ultimate goal of improving patient diagnosis and prognosis. Submandibular and sublingual glands contribute saliva rich in glycoproteins to the total saliva output, making them valuable sources for glycoproteomic analysis. Lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics was used to explore the submandibular/sublingual (SM/SL) saliva glycoproteome. A total of 262 N- and O-linked glycoproteins were identified by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Only 38 were previously described in SM and SL salivas from the human salivary N-linked glycoproteome, while 224 were unique. Further comparison analysis with SM/SL saliva of the human saliva proteome, revealed 125 glycoproteins not formerly reported in this secretion. KEGG pathway analyses demonstrated that many of these glycoproteins are involved in processes such as complement and coagulation cascades, cell communication, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis neo-lactoseries, O-glycan biosynthesis, glycan structures-biosynthesis 2, starch and sucrose metabolism, peptidoglycan biosynthesis or others pathways. In summary, lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to MudPIT mass spectrometry identified many novel glycoproteins in SM/SL saliva. These new additions to the salivary proteome may prove to be a critical step for providing reliable biomarkers in the diagnosis of a myriad of oral and systemic diseases. PMID:21936497

  7. Increased salivary gland density on contrast-enhanced CT after head and neck radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein, A.D.; Nyberg, D.A.; Schwartz, A.N.; Shuman, W.P.; Griffin, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    In an attempt to determine whether radiation therapy leads to an increased density of salivary glands on subsequent contrast-enhanced CT, 109 CT scans from 78 patients with head and neck tumors were reviewed. The density of parotid and submandibular glands was subjectively evaluated (compared with adjacent muscle) and correlated with treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Density of the parotid and/or submandibular glands was found to be significantly associated with previous irradiation on contrast-enhanced scans (p less than .05). One or both glands were denser than normal in seven (44%) of 16 patients who received only radiation therapy and in eight (38%) of 21 who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, compared with only two (10%) of 20 patients who received chemotherapy alone and two (4%) of 52 patients who received neither. The type or amount of irradiation, type of chemotherapy, or timing of the CT scan after the initiation of treatment was not found to be significant. We conclude that the density of the parotid and/or submandibular glands on contrast-enhanced CT is frequently increased after radiation therapy for tumors of the head and neck.

  8. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  9. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eilsbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than ≈20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than ≈25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk. PMID:20171519

  10. The in vitro maintenance of clock genes expression within the rat pineal gland under standard and norepinephrine-synchronized stimulation.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    Although the norepinephrine (NE) synchronization protocol was proved to be an important procedure for further modulating in vitro pineal melatonin synthesis, the maintenance of clock genes under the same conditions remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the maintenance of the clock genes expression in pineal gland cultures under standard and NE-synchronized stimulation. The glands were separated into three experimental groups: Control, Standard (acute NE-stimulation), and NE-synchronized. The expression of Bmal1, Per2, Cry2, Rev-erbα, the clock controlled gene Dbp and Arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase were investigated, as well as melatonin content. No oscillations were observed in the expression of the investigated genes from the control group. Under Standard NE stimulation, the clock genes did not exhibit a rhythmic pattern of expression. However, in the NE-synchronized condition, a rhythmic expression pattern was observed in all cases. An enhancement in pineal gland responsiveness to NE stimulation, reflected in an advanced synthesis of melatonin was also observed. Our results reinforce our previous hypothesis that NE synchronization of pineal gland culture mimics the natural rhythmic release of NE in the gland, increasing melatonin synthesis and keeping the pineal circadian clock synchronized, ensuring the fine adjustments that are relied in the clockwork machinery.

  11. Tumours of minor salivary glands--a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Nag, Dipanwita; Biswas, Pranab Kumar; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Nirmal Kumar; Gautam, Dibyendu; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2012-08-01

    The salivary gland system comprises 3 pairs of major glands ie, parotid, submandibular and sublingual and also thousands of lobules of minor salivary glands dispersed in oral cavity, nasal cavity, maxillary sinuses and upper airways. Most of the studies on salivary gland tumours included both major and minor salivary glands. Objectives of this study were to see the age, sex and site distribution of minor salivary gland tumours as well as cytohistologic correlation during their diagnosis. The study is a retrospective one and done in the pathology department of Medical College, Kolkata taking the cases referred from ENT and Surgery departments in the period from April 2008 to March 2011. There were 123 cases of salivary gland tumours including both major and minor salivary glands in this study. Out of these, 21 cases of minor salivary gland tumours were selected and further analysed. There were 9 cases of benign and 12 cases of malignant tumours. Most benign cases were pleomorphic adenoma and most of malignant were adenoid cystic carcinoma affecting maximally males above 40 years of age. For malignant cases the cytohistologic correlation was 100% whereas in benign it was 70%. We had no need of using immunohistochemistry as histologic diagnosis were clear-cut. Pathologic staging were done in most of malignant cases thus helping the clinicians to adopt better treatment protocol.

  12. [Noncontrast computed tomography in the diagnosis of tumors of the major salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Koblikov, V V; Sapozhkova, L P; Kondrashin, S A; Bykova, A A

    2011-01-01

    Non-contrast computed tomography (CT) of the major salivary glands was made in 127 patients, which revealed 95 space-occupying lesions (88 intraglandular and 7 extraglandular ones). Pleomorphic tumors of the parotid glands are solitary, round, high-density (29.6 +/- 4.2 HU) masses with well-defined, smooth margins. Salivary cysts were characterized by the presence of a dense capsule; the density of cyst contents was 8.0 +/- 2.0 HU. Salivary lipomas had a characteristic tomographic pattern due to the presence of adipose tissue; the lipoma density was -108.3 +/- 7.8 HU. Malignant parotid tumors were characterized by the presence of higher-density masses with irregular shapes and ill-defined, indistinct margins. Benign submandibular gland tumors had no well-defined margins that separated the tumor from the gland; the density of a tumor matched that of the parenchyma; the mean tumor size was 3.6 +/- 1.3 cm; there was an increase in the sizes of the gland as compared to those of the contralateral gland, as well as a displacement of the adjacent soft tissues. Malignant submandibular gland neoplasms tumors were characterized by the presence of inhomogenous lower-density masses with irregular shapes. Enlarged paraglandular lymph nodes were observed. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of native CT in diagnosing space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands were 97.6, 96.4, and 97.6%, respectively.

  13. Effect of liposomal local therapy on salivary glands in acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Heiser, Clemens; Straßen, Ulrich; Bas, Murat; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging as a monitoring tool for the effect of a liposomal local therapy in patients with dry mouth symptoms due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Fifty patients with pSS, diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus Group (AECG) criteria, were included. Clinical data were collected, and sonographic examination including ARFI imaging of the parotid and submandibular glands was performed. Subjective symptoms were evaluated via visual analogue scales (VAS), and the unstimulated whole salivary flow was measured. After a two-month period of liposomal local therapy, sonographic examination was repeated and both subjective and objective symptoms were re-evaluated. Before local treatment, the mean ARFI value of parotid glands was 2.96 m/s (SD 0.97). Mean ARFI value of the submandibular glands was 2.09 m/s (SD 0.71). After the two-month treatment period, a significant decline of ARFI values in the parotid glands to a value of 2.34 m/s (SD 0.70, p < 0.001) could be observed. The submandibular glands did not show any significant change. Further, a significant reduction of the subjective sensation of dry mouth symptoms could be observed (p = 0.0001). With the application of ARFI imaging, a decline in parotid gland stiffness could be observed in patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome accompanied by a significant improvement of the subjective sensation of dry mouth symptoms. The seromucous submandibular glands did not show any changes compared to the serous parotid glands.

  14. Effect of liposomal local therapy on salivary glands in acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Heiser, Clemens; Straßen, Ulrich; Bas, Murat; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging as a monitoring tool for the effect of a liposomal local therapy in patients with dry mouth symptoms due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Fifty patients with pSS, diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus Group (AECG) criteria, were included. Clinical data were collected, and sonographic examination including ARFI imaging of the parotid and submandibular glands was performed. Subjective symptoms were evaluated via visual analogue scales (VAS), and the unstimulated whole salivary flow was measured. After a two-month period of liposomal local therapy, sonographic examination was repeated and both subjective and objective symptoms were re-evaluated. Before local treatment, the mean ARFI value of parotid glands was 2.96 m/s (SD 0.97). Mean ARFI value of the submandibular glands was 2.09 m/s (SD 0.71). After the two-month treatment period, a significant decline of ARFI values in the parotid glands to a value of 2.34 m/s (SD 0.70, p < 0.001) could be observed. The submandibular glands did not show any significant change. Further, a significant reduction of the subjective sensation of dry mouth symptoms could be observed (p = 0.0001). With the application of ARFI imaging, a decline in parotid gland stiffness could be observed in patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome accompanied by a significant improvement of the subjective sensation of dry mouth symptoms. The seromucous submandibular glands did not show any changes compared to the serous parotid glands. PMID:27572326

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor of the parotid gland extending to the parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Sato, J; Asakura, K; Yokoyama, Y; Satoh, M

    1998-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) arise in the pleura and less commonly in extrapleural sites. Head and neck regions have included the nose and paranasal sinuses, soft palate, epiglottis, thyroid, parotid and submandibular glands, as well as the infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal space. We report a case of SFT arising from the parotid gland and extending to the parapharyngeal space. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of SFT originating from the parotid gland and is the largest of its kind among the extrapleural lesions described. The characteristics revealed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are presented.

  16. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy study of the characteristics and morphology of pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells before and after castration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Jindatip, Depicha; Fujiwara, Ken; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with microcirculation. Typically, they are localized close to the capillary wall, underneath the basement membrane, and have sparse cytoplasm and poorly developed cell organelles. However, the specific properties of pericytes vary by organ and the conditions within organs. We recently demonstrated that pericytes in rat anterior pituitary gland produce type I and III collagens. The present study attempted to determine the morphological characteristics of these pituitary pericytes. Castrated rats were used as a model of hormonal and vascular changes in the gland. Pericytes, as determined by desmin immunohistochemistry, were more numerous and stained more intensely in castrated rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that pituitary pericytes displayed the typical characteristics of pericytes. In pituitary sections from castrated rats, the Golgi apparatus of pericytes was well developed and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was elongated. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed four pericyte shapes: oval, elongate, triangular, and multiangular. As compared with normal rats, the proportion of oval pericytes was lower, and the proportions of the other three shapes were higher, in castrated rats. These results suggest that pericytes change their fine structure and cell shape in response to hormonal and vascular changes in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, a novel type of perivascular cell was found by desmin immunoelectron microscopy. The morphological properties of these cells were dissimilar to those of pericytes. The cells were localized in the perivascular space, had no basement membrane, and contained dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. This new cell type will require further study of its origin and characteristics.

  17. Submandibular parasympathetic gangliogenesis requires Sprouty-dependent Wnt signals from epithelial progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Knosp, Wendy M.; Knox, Sarah M.; Lombaert, Isabelle M.A.; Haddox, Candace L.; Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Parasympathetic innervation is critical for submandibular gland (SMG) development and regeneration. Parasympathetic ganglia (PSG) are derived from Schwann cell precursors that migrate along nerves, differentiate into neurons, and coalesce within their target tissue to form ganglia. However, signals that initiate gangliogenesis after the precursors differentiate into neurons are unknown. We found deleting negative regulators of FGF signaling, Sprouty1 and Sprouty2 (Spry1/2DKO), resulted in a striking loss of gangliogenesis, innervation and keratin 5-positive (K5+) epithelial progenitors in the SMG. Here we identify Wnts produced by K5+ progenitors in the SMG as key mediators of gangliogenesis. Wnt signaling increases survival and proliferation of PSG neurons and inhibiting Wnt signaling disrupts gangliogenesis and organ innervation. Activating Wnt signaling and reducing FGF gene dosage rescues gangliogenesis and innervation in both the Spry1/2DKO SMG and pancreas. Thus K5+ progenitors produce Wnt signals to establish the PSG-epithelial communication required for organ innervation and progenitor cell maintenance. PMID:25805134

  18. Expression of the beacon gene in the rat adrenal gland: direct inhibitory effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from dispersed adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Neri, Giuliano; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-02-01

    Beacon gene was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and there is evidence that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry showed the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the rat adrenal gland, especially in the cortex. Beacon[47-73], at a concentration over 10(-7) M decreased basal aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells, without affecting the ACTH-stimulated one. Basal and agonist-stimulated corticosterone secretion from dispersed zona fasciculata-reticularis cells and catecholamine release from adrenomedullary slices were unaffected by beacon[47-73]. The suppressive effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells was abolished by either H-89 or calphostin-C, which are inhibitors of protein kinase A and C signaling cascades. Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that beacon can be included in the group of regulatory peptides involved in the fine tuning of ZG secretory activity.