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Sample records for rat type ii

  1. Monoclonal antibodies against type II rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, C.H.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (8/1, 10/10, and 25/3) against rat brain type II protein kinase C (PKC) were used to carry out the immunochemical characterization of this kinase. These antibodies immunoprecipitated the type II PKC in a dose-dependent manner but did neither to type I nor type III isozyme. Purified type II PKC has a molecular weight of 82,000 and consists of heterogeneous isoelectric point species, all of which are cross reactive with these antibodies. Immunoblot analysis of the tryptic fragments from PKC revealed that all three antibodies recognized the 33-38-KDa fragments, the phospholipid/phorbol ester-binding domain, but not the 45-48-KDa fragments, the kinase catalytic domain. The immune complexes of the kinase and the antibodies retained the kinase activity which was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine (PS) and further activated by diacylglycerol. With antibody 8/1, the apparent Km values of the kinase for Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS were not influenced. The initial rate and final extent of autophosphorylation were reduced. The concentration of PS required for half-maximal (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding was increased and the total PDBu binding was reduced. In the presence of optimum concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS, the Kd of PDBu was unaffected by the antibody but the total binding was reduced. These results demonstrate that the PS/PDBu-binding domain contains the major epitope for the antibodies and the antibody mainly influences the PS/PDBu binding to the kinase.

  2. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture.

  3. Paracrine Signaling in Glial-Like Type II Cells of the Rat Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Murali, Sindhubarathi; Zhang, Min; Nurse, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) chemosensory complex uses ATP as a key excitatory neurotransmitter that is the main contributor to the sensory discharge during acute hypoxia. The complex includes receptor type I cells, which depolarize and release various neurochemicals including ATP during hypoxia, and contiguous glial-like type II cells which express purinergic P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2R). We previously showed that activation of P2Y2R on rat type II cells led to the opening of pannexin-1 (Panx-1) channels, which acted as conduits for the further release of ATP. More recently, we considered the possibility that other CB neuromodulators may have a similar paracrine role, leading to the activation of type II cells. Here, we examine the evidence that angiotensin II (ANG II), endothelin- (ET-1), and muscarinic agonists (e.g. acetylcholine, ACh) may activate intracellular Ca(2+) signals in type II cells and, in the case of ANG II and ACh, Panx-1 currents as well. Using ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging, we found that a substantial population of type II cells responded to 100 nM ANG II with a robust rise in intracellular Ca(2+) and activation of Panx-1 current. Both effects of ANG II were mediated via AT(1) receptors (AT(1)Rs) and current activation could be inhibited by the Panx-1 channel blocker, carbenoxolone (CBX; 5 μM). Additionally, low concentrations of ET-1 (1 nM) evoked robust intracellular Ca(2+) responses in subpopulations of type II cells. The mAChR agonist muscarine (10 μM) also induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) in some type II cells, and preliminary perforated-patch, whole-cell recordings revealed that ACh (10 μM) may activate Panx-1-like currents. These data suggest that paracrine activation of type II cells by endogenous neuromodulators may be a common feature of signal processing in the rat CB.

  4. Isolation and properties of type II alveolar cells from rat lung.

    PubMed

    Mason, R J; Williams, M C; Greenleaf, R D; Clements, J A

    1977-06-01

    Type II alveolar cells can be isolated and partially purified from adult rat lung by a series of steps that includes enzymatic digestion of the lung with trypsin and separation of cells on a discontinuous albumin density gradient. The yield of the isolated type II cells depends on the supplier and the housing of the rats used to prepare the cells. With specific pathogen-free rats housed in a laminar flow hood, the yield was 20.3 x 10(6) cells per rat, of which 50 per cent were type II cells. With rats from 2 other suppliers and no special housing, the yields were 8.8 and 8.3 x 10(6) cells per rat, of which 67 and 65 per cent were type II cells. The ultrastructural appearance of the isolated cells was similar to that of cells from intact lung, except for some dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum and the perinuclear space. Most cells (92 +/- 5 per cent) excluded the vital dye, trypan blue. The cells consumed O2 at the rate of 76 +/- 12 nmole per 10(6) cells per hour and released only 5.7 +/- 2.0 per cent of their lactate dehydrogenase, a cytoplasmic enzyme, into the medium after 1 hour of incubation. The isolated type II cells contained disaturated phosphatidylcholine, a major component of purified surface-active material. The cells, however, had a low glucose utilization compared to their O2 consumption, which may indicate an abnormality in the metabolism of glucose. This population of cells could be further purified to 89 per cent type II cells by unit gravity velocity sedimentation.

  5. Localization of pro-collagen type II mRNA and collagen type II in the healing tooth socket of the rat.

    PubMed

    Devlin, H; Hoyland, J; Freemont, A J; Sloan, P

    1995-03-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats (50 days old) were anaesthetized and the maxillary right molars extracted. The rats were killed at 2, 3, 6, 8 and 10 days after extraction. The maxillae were dissected and prepared for either routine histology, in situ hybridization for pro-collagen type II mRNA, or immunohistochemical detection of collagen type II. Pro-collagen type II mRNA was expressed maximally in the healing tooth socket at 8 days after the extractions, but the protein was not expressed at any time. This suggests that the translation of pro-collagen type II mRNA does not occur in osteoblasts following tooth extraction. Ossification was present in the socket at 6 days after the extractions, which is consistent with the suggestion that an early feature of osteoblastic differentiation may be the expression of type II pro-collagen mRNA.

  6. Expression of collagen types I and II on articular cartilage in a rat knee contracture model.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Ando, Akira; Chimoto, Eiichi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ichiro; Sasano, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Yoshito; Suda, Hideaki; Itoi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify the expression patterns of collagen types I and II on articular cartilage after immobilization in a rat knee contracture model in 3 specific areas (noncontact area, transitional area, contact area). The unilateral knee joints of adult male rats were rigidly immobilized at 150 degrees of flexion using screws and a rigid plastic plate. Sham-operated animals had holes drilled in the femur and the tibia and screws inserted but were not plated. The expression patterns of collagen types I and II in each area were evaluated by in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The expression of collagen type II in the noncontact area was decreased by ISH but appeared unchanged when examined by IHC. In the transitional and contact areas, the expression of collagen type II was initially shown to have decreased and then increased at the hypertrophic chondrocytes by ISH but appeared decreased by IHC. Quantitative PCR revealed the decreased expression of type II collagen in the contact area. Immunostaining of collagen type I was increased at the noncontact area and transitional areas. Alterations of collagen types I and II expression may also affect the degeneration of articular cartilage after immobilization and the changes were different in the three areas.

  7. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  8. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    PubMed

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  9. Pulmonary surfactant and its components inhibit secretion of phosphatidylcholine from cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, L.G.; Wright, J.R.; Hawgood, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Venstrom, K.; Nellenbogen, J.

    1987-02-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells. Radioactive phosphatidylcholine has been used as a marker for surfactant secretion. The authors report findings that suggest that surfactant inhibits secretion of /sup 3/H-labeled phosphatidylcholine by cultured rat type II cells. The lipid components and the surfactant protein group of M/sub r/ 26,000-36,000 (SP 26-36) inhibit secretion to different extents. Surfactant lipids do not completely inhibit release; in concentrations of 100 ..mu..g/ml, lipids inhibit stimulated secretion by 40%. SP 26-36 inhibits release with an EC/sub 50/ of 0.1 ..mu..g/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 ..mu..g/ml, SP 26-36 inhibits basal secretion and reduces to basal levels secretion stimulated by terbutaline, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and the ionophore A23187. The inhibitory effect of SP 26-36 can be blocked by washing type II cells after adding SP 26-36, by heating the proteins to 100/sup 0/C for 10 min, by adding antiserum specific to SP 26-36, or by incubating cells in the presence of 0.2 mM EGTA. SP 26-36 isolated from canine and human sources also inhibits phosphatidylcholine release from rat type II cells. Neither type I collagen nor serum apolipoprotein A-1 inhibits secretion. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that surfactant secretion is under feedback regulatory control.

  10. Paradoxical role of angiotensin II type 2 receptors in resistance arteries of old rats

    PubMed Central

    Pinaud, Frédéric; Bocquet, Arnaud; Dumont, Odile; Retailleau, Kevin; Baufreton, Christophe; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2R) remains a matter of controversy. Its vasodilatory and antitrophic properties are well accepted. Nevertheless, in hypertensive rats AT2R stimulation induces a vasoconstriction counteracting flow-mediated dilation (FMD). This contraction is reversed by hydralazine. As FMD is also decreased in aging, another risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, we hypothesized that AT2R function might be altered in old rats resistance arteries. Mesenteric resistance arteries (250 μm diameter) were isolated from old (24 months) and control (4 months) rats receiving hydralazine (16 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks) or water. FMD, NO-mediated dilation and eNOS expression were lower in old than in control rats. AT2R blockade improved FMD in old rats, suggesting that AT2R stimulation produced vasoconstriction. AT2R expression was higher in old rats and mainly located in the smooth muscle layer. In old rats AT2R stimulation induced endothelium-independent contraction, which was suppressed by the antioxydant Tempol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was higher in old rats arteries than in controls. Hydralazine improved FMD and NO-dependent dilation in old rats without change in AT2R expression and location. In old rats treated with hydralazine ROS level was reduced in endothelial and smooth muscle cells and AT2R-dependent contraction was abolished. Thus, AT2R stimulation induced vasoconstriction through activation of ROS production, contributing to decrease FMD in old rats resistance arteries. Hydralazine suppressed AT2R-dependent ROS production and AT2R-dependent contraction, improving FMD. Importantly, endothelial alterations in aging were reversible. These findings are important to consider in the choice of vasoactive drugs in aging. PMID:17485601

  11. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Hou-Pan; Li, Xin; Yu, Rong; Zeng, Guang; Yuan, Zhen-Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Hui-Yong; Cai, Xiong

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans.

  12. Microdosimetry of rat alveolar type II cells irradiated with alpha particles from 239PuO2

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.Y.; Ye, C.Q.; Wu, D.C. )

    1989-11-01

    The alveolar type II cell is one of the critical cells for radiation damage in the lungs after inhalation of radioactive aerosols. With the aid of a Quantimet-970 image analyzer and a VAX-11/780 computer, we calculated the radiation dose to rat alveolar type II cells from alpha particles emitted by {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. A series of dosimetric parameters for type II cells, including track length distribution, linear energy transfer (LET), values of the specific energy for a single hit of a spherical target (z1), cellular dose, hit number, and their spatial distributions were calculated. By comparing the volume density of type II cells and lung tissue with energy deposited in alveolar type II cells, we found that the energy deposited per unit volume of type II cells was larger than that of lung tissue excluding type II cells. The z1 for spherical targets and the LET across type II cells were less than those in lung tissue excluding type II cells. The age of the rat and damage to lung by inhalation may significantly influence some of the parameters. The neoplastic transformation probability for type II cells is also discussed. The results suggest that the type II cell is an important target cell in the rat lung for exposure to inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}.

  13. Microdosimetry of rat alveolar type II cells irradiated with alpha particles from 239PuO2.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z Y; Ye, C Q; Wu, D C

    1989-11-01

    The alveolar type II cell is one of the critical cells for radiation damage in the lungs after inhalation of radioactive aerosols. With the aid of a Quantimet-970 image analyzer and a VAX-11/780 computer, we calculated the radiation dose to rat alveolar type II cells from alpha particles emitted by 239PuO2. A series of dosimetric parameters for type II cells, including track length distribution, linear energy transfer (LET), values of the specific energy for a single hit of a spherical target (z1), cellular dose, hit number, and their spatial distributions were calculated. By comparing the volume density of type II cells and lung tissue with energy deposited in alveolar type II cells, we found that the energy deposited per unit volume of type II cells was larger than that of lung tissue excluding type II cells. The z1 for spherical targets and the LET across type II cells were less than those in lung tissue excluding type II cells. The age of the rat and damage to lung by inhalation may significantly influence some of the parameters. The neoplastic transformation probability for type II cells is also discussed. The results suggest that the type II cell is an important target cell in the rat lung for exposure to inhaled 239PuO2.

  14. [Effect of melatonin on antioxidant state under type ii diabetes at rat].

    PubMed

    Agarkov, A A; Popova, T N; Matasova, L V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of melatonin on the intensity of free radical processes and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) has been investigated in liver and blood serum of rats with diabetes mellitus type II. The development of diabetes was accompanied by the increase in biochemiluminescence parameters and the enzyme activities studied. Melatonin administration changed the parameters studied towards control values.

  15. Centrally mediated erectile dysfunction in rats with type 1 diabetes: role of angiotensin II and superoxide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2013-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Apart from the peripheral actions, central mechanisms are also responsible for penile erection. This study aims to determine the contribution of angiotensin (ANG) II in the dysfunction of central N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)- and nitric oxide (NO)-induced erectile responses in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats. Three weeks after streptozotocin injections, rats were randomly treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-enalapril, or the ANG II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, or the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, or vehicle via chronic intracerebroventricular infusion by osmotic mini-pump for 2 weeks. Central NMDA receptor stimulation or the administration of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced penile erectile responses and concurrent behavioral responses were monitored in conscious rats. Two weeks of enalapril, losartan, or tempol treatment significantly improved the erectile responses to central microinjection of both NMDA and SNP in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of conscious T1D rats (NMDA responses-T1D+enalapril: 1.7 ± 0.6, T1D+losartan: 2.0 ± 0.3, T1D+tempol: 2.0 ± 0.6 vs. T1D+vehicle: 0.6 ± 0.3 penile erections/rat in the first 20 minutes, P < 0.05; SNP responses-T1D+enalapril: 0.9 ± 0.3, T1D+losartan: 1.3 ± 0.3, T1D+tempol: 1.4 ± 0.4 vs. T1D+vehicle: 0.4 ± 0.2 penile erections/rat in the first 20 minutes, P < 0.05). Concurrent behavioral responses including yawning and stretching, induced by central NMDA and SNP microinjections, were also significantly increased in T1D rats after enalapril, losartan, or tempol treatments. Neuronal NO synthase expression within the PVN was also significantly increased, and superoxide production was reduced in T1D rats after these treatments. These data strongly support the contention that enhanced ANG II mechanism/s within the PVN of T1D rats contributes

  16. Centrally Mediated Erectile Dysfunction in Rats with Type 1 Diabetes: Role of Angiotensin II and Superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Apart from the peripheral actions, central mechanisms are also responsible for penile erection. Aim To determine the contribution of angiotensin (ANG) II in the dysfunction of central N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-nitric oxide (NO)-induced erectile responses in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats. Methods Three weeks after streptozotocin injections, rats were randomly treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-enalapril, or the ANG II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, or the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol or vehicle via chronic intracerebroventricular infusion by osmotic mini-pump for 2 weeks. Main Outcome Measure Central NMDA receptor stimulation or the administration of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced penile erectile responses and concurrent behavioral responses were monitored in conscious rats. Results Two weeks of enalapril, losartan or tempol treatment significantly improved the erectile responses to central microinjection of both NMDA and SNP in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of conscious T1D rats (NMDA responses – T1D+enalapril: 1.7 ± 0.6, T1D+losartan: 2.0 ± 0.3, T1D+tempol: 2.0 ± 0.6 vs. T1D+vehicle: 0.6 ± 0.3 penile erections/rat in the first 20 min, P < 0.05; SNP responses – T1D+enalapril: 0.9 ± 0.3, T1D+losartan: 1.3 ± 0.3, T1D+tempol: 1.4 ± 0.4 vs. T1D+vehicle: 0.4 ± 0.2 penile erections/rat in the first 20 min, P < 0.05). Concurrent behavioral responses including yawning and stretching, induced by central NMDA and SNP microinjections were also significantly increased in T1D rats after enalapril, losartan or tempol treatments. Neuronal NO synthase expression within the PVN was also significantly increased and superoxide production was reduced in T1D rats after these treatments. Conclusions These data strongly support the contention that enhanced ANG II mechanism/s within the PVN of T1D rats contributes

  17. Oestrogen exhibits type II collagen protective effects and attenuates collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, R H; Christiansen, C; Stolina, M; Karsdal, M A

    2008-04-01

    As anti-inflammatory treatments used in rheumatoid arthritis, such as glucocorticoids, often result in secondary detrimental effects on bone health, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oestrogen therapy (ET) on the development and activity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats, with a focus on assessment of chondroprotective effects using biomarkers of type II collagen degradation. Forty female Lewis rats were allocated into four intervention groups: (i) control + vehicle; (ii) CIA + vehicle; (iii) CIA + ET; and (iv) CIA + prednisolone. During the 28-day intervention period we monitored body weight, time-point of disease onset, incidence of manifest disease and paw volume. Levels of the type II collagen degradation marker (CTX-II) were measured in serum. At euthanasia, hind paws were isolated, extracted for proteins and measured for the concentration of CTX-II. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was evaluated using gelatinase zymography. Oestrogen treatment delayed the time-point of disease onset and reduced the incidence and degree of manifest immunoarthritis significantly, assessed by macroscopic evaluation of hind paw inflammation and paw volume. Measures of serum or tissue levels of CTX-II showed significantly reduced type II collagen degradation elicited by oestrogen treatment. In alignment, a decreased activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was found in the paw protein extracts. We have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of ET is linked to chondroprotective effects in an animal model of systemic immunoarthritis. As ET has positive rather than negative effects on bone health in contrast to prednisolone, these observations may be important for potential combination therapy.

  18. Bacopa monniera (L.) wettst inhibits type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Viji, V; Kavitha, S K; Helen, A

    2010-09-01

    Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst is an Ayurvedic herb with antirheumatic potential. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of Bacopa monniera in treating rheumatoid arthritis using a type II collagen-induced arthritis rat model. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by immunization with bovine type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant. Bacopa monniera extract (BME) was administered after the development of arthritis from day 14 onwards. The total duration of experiment was 60 days. Paw swelling, arthritic index, inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, myeloperoxidase and serum anti-collagen IgG and IgM levels were analysed in control and experimental rats. Arthritic induction significantly increased paw edema and other classical signs of arthritis coupled to upregulation of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, neutrophil infiltration and increased anti-collagen IgM and IgG levels in serum. BME significantly inhibited the footpad swelling and arthritic symptoms. BME was effective in inhibiting cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities in arthritic rats. Decreased neutrophil infiltration was evident from decreased myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological data where an improvement in joint architecture was also observed. Serum anti-collagen IgM and IgG levels were consistently decreased. Thus the study demonstrates the potential antiarthritic effect of Bacopa monniera for treating arthritis which might confer its antirheumatic activity.

  19. Cardiac angiotensin II type I and type II receptors are increased in rats submitted to experimental hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro-Ramos, M S; Diniz, G P; Almeida, J; Vieira, R L P; Pinheiro, S V B; Santos, R A; Barreto-Chaves, M L M

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the behaviour of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in an experimental hypothyroidism model in male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to thyroidectomy and resting for 14 days. The alteration of cardiac mass was evaluated by total heart weight (HW), right ventricle weight (RVW), left ventricle weight (LVW), ratio of HW, RVW and LVW to body weight (BW) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) expression. Cardiac and plasma Ang II levels and serum T3 and T4 were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of Ang II receptors were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Functional analyses were performed using binding assays. T3 and T4 levels and the haemodynamic parameters confirmed the hypothyroid state. HW/BW, RVW/BW and LVW/BW ratios and the ANF expression were lower than those of control animals. No change was observed in cardiac or plasma Ang II levels. Both AT1/AT2 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the heart of hypothyroid animals due to a significant increase of these receptors in the RV. Experiments performed in cardiomyocytes showed a direct effect promoted by low thyroid hormone levels upon AT1 and AT2 receptors, discarding possible influence of haemodynamic parameters. Functional assays showed that both receptors are able to bind Ang II. Herein, we have identified, for the first time, a close and direct relation of elevated Ang II receptor levels in hypothyroidism. Whether the increase in these receptors in hypothyroidism is an alternative mechanism to compensate the atrophic state of heart or whether it may represent a potential means to the progression of heart failure remains unknown. PMID:17540701

  20. Cyclic deformation-induced injury and differentiation of rat alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huan; Zhan, Qingyuan; Ren, Yanhong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Chen

    2012-03-15

    The injury and differentiation of alveolar epithelial type II cells induced by alveolar epithelial deformation play important roles in the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury and repair of the lung injury, respectively. We developed an in vitro rat model to investigate the effects of deformation amplitude, peak deformation, and minimum deformation on the viability and differentiation of type II cells. Rat primary alveolar epithelial type II cells were exposed to a variety of equibiaxial cyclic stretch protocols, and deformation-induced cell survival and differentiation were analyzed. Cell death increased when deformation consisted of change in cell surface area (ΔSA) of 0-37%, 0-50%, 12-50%, 37-50% (P=0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.003, respectively). When ΔSA was at 12-37% and 12-50%, mRNA transcription (P=0.034 and P=0.036) and protein expressions (P=0.008 and P=0.001) of caveolin-1 (a marker for the type I phenotype) increased, in contrast to the decrease of their mRNA transcription of surfactant protein C (a marker for the type II phenotype) (P=0.011, 0.002). These results suggest that amplitude or minimum deformation ≥ 37% ΔSA is an important cause of cell death, and amplitude ≥ 25% ΔSA promotes cell differentiation. Appropriate amplitude (25% ΔSA) can not only avoid cell death but also promote cell differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased hepatic expression of nitric oxide synthase type II in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Qiu, Fa-Zu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role and effect of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS II) in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Expression of NOS II mRNA was detected by real time RT-PCR. The activity of nitric oxide synthase and serum levels of NO, systemic and portal hemodynamics and degrees of cirrhosis were measured with high sensitive methods. Chinese traditional medicine tetrandrine was used to treat cirrhotic rats and to evaluate the function of NO. Double-blind method was applied during the experiment. RESULTS: The concentration of NO and the activity of NOS were increased markedly at all stages of cirrhosis, and iNOSmRNA was greatly expressed. Meanwhile the portal-venous-pressure (PVP), and portal-venous-flow (PVF) were significantly increased. NO, NOS and iNOSmRNA were positively correlated to the quantity of hepatic fibrosis. Tetrandrine significantly inhibited NO production and the expression of iNOSmRNA. CONCLUSION: Increased hepatic expression of NOS II is one of the important causes of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. PMID:15222038

  2. Cold-induced increment in rat adrenal gland type II deiodinase is corticosterone dependent.

    PubMed

    Anguiano, B; Valverde, C

    2001-06-01

    In this study we analyzed whether corticosterone synthesis is involved in the regulation of adrenal gland type II deiodinase (AG-D2) activity during acute cold exposure. Two well-known inhibitors of steroidogenesis, aminoglutethimide (AGT) and metyrapone (MTP), were administered to male Wistar rats maintained either at room temperature or acutely exposed to cold (1 h at 4 degrees C). AG-D2 activity was measured by the radioiodide release method, and corticosterone circulating levels were measured by competitive protein binding assay. Results show that resting corticosterone levels and AG-D2 activity were lower in both AGT- and MTP-treated rats. Furthermore, the phasic increase normally exhibited by AG-D2 activity in response to acute cold stress was blunted in AGT- and MTP-treated animals. Therefore, we conclude that corticosterone synthesis is necessary in preserving the physiologic response of AG-D2 activity to cold exposure.

  3. Tolerogenic activity of polymerized type II collagen in preventing collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, H S; Henderson, B; Spencer, J M; Hobbs, S M; Peppard, J V; Staines, N A

    1988-01-01

    Rats were exposed parenterally or pergastrically to polymerized type II collagen (POLCII) and became resistant to the subsequent induction of disease with arthritogenic type II collagen (CII) administered intradermally in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). POLCII was prepared by cross-linking native soluble arthritogenic CII, from bovine nasal septal cartilage, with glutaraldehyde. POLCII injected intradermally in FIA did not induce arthritis. Animals treated in this manner were resistant for a period of at least 100 days to induced disease. The change in the properties of the CII from an arthritogen to a tolerogen was related to the amount of glutaraldehyde (used to polymerize the CII) which was assumed to control the extent of cross-linking of the CII. Highly cross-linked POLCII administered pergastrically, like soluble CII, was not arthritogenic but was tolerogenic, inducing a state of unresponsiveness to a challenge with arthritogenic CII. In general serum anti-CII antibody levels were higher in arthritic than in tolerized non-arthritic rats. It is concluded that the breaking of self-tolerance to CII depends upon its physical state. When polymerized and insoluble, a form analogous to that in which it exists naturally, it is tolerogenic. PMID:3396219

  4. Glutamate-dependent ectodomain shedding of neuregulin-1 type II precursors in rat forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Yuriko; Wang, Ran; Inamura, Naoko; Araki, Kazuaki; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) regulates neuronal development, glial differentiation, and excitatory synapse maturation. NRG1 is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor and is then liberated by proteolytic processing or exocytosis. Mature NRG1 then binds to its receptors expressed by neighboring neurons or glial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern this process in the nervous system are not defined in detail. Here we prepared neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cultures from embryonic rat neocortex to investigate the role of neurotransmitters that regulate the liberation/release of NRG1 from the membrane of neurons or glial cells. Using a two-site enzyme immunoassay to detect soluble NRG1, we show that, of various neurotransmitters, glutamate was the most potent inducer of NRG1 release in neuron-enriched cultures. NRG1 release in glia-enriched cultures was relatively limited. Furthermore, among glutamate receptor agonists, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) and kainate (KA), but not AMPA or tACPD, mimicked the effects of glutamate. Similar findings were acquired from analysis of the hippocampus of rats with KA-induced seizures. To evaluate the contribution of members of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) families to NRG1 release, we transfected primary cultures of neurons with cDNA vectors encoding NRG1 types I, II, or III precursors, each tagged with the alkaline phosphatase reporter. Analysis of alkaline phosphatase activity revealed that the NRG1 type II precursor was subjected to tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE) / a Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) -dependent ectodomain shedding in a protein kinase C-dependent manner. These results suggest that glutamatergic neurotransmission positively regulates the ectodomain shedding of NRG1 type II precursors and liberates the active NRG1 domain in an activity-dependent manner. PMID:28350885

  5. Evidence for effects on thermoregulation after acute oral exposure to type I and type II pyrethroids in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Bardullas, Ulises; Sosa-Holt, Carla Solange; Pato, Alejandro Martín; Nemirovsky, Sergio Iván; Wolansky, Marcelo Javier

    2015-01-01

    Most pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides may be classified either as type-I compounds, which produce whole body tremors and hyperthermia, or type-II compounds, which produce salivation, choreoathetosis, and hypothermia (i.e., producing T and CS neurobehavioral syndromes, respectively). This classification is based on clinical observations in adult rats and mice after intracerebroventricular or intravascular administration of highly effective acute (bolus) doses. PYR neurotoxicity in infant animals is not characterized as much as in adult animals. Endpoints informing on vital determinants of mammal's maturation, such as body temperature may help recognizing age-related differences in susceptibility to PYRs. In this work, body temperature (Tb) was monitored at 30-min intervals after acute oral exposure to T-syndrome PYR bifenthrin (BIF), CS-syndrome PYR cypermethrin (CYPM), and a BIF–CYPM mixture in weanling rats by using a subcutaneous temperature monitoring system. In both single-compound assays, a time- and dose-related decline of Tb was the most evident impact on thermoregulation observed starting at ~2–3 h after dosing.Moreover, 15–18 mg/kg BIF induced a mild increase in Tb before the hypothermic action was apparent. The lowest effective dose for temperature perturbation was 15mg/kg for BIF and 10mg/kg for CYPM, and moderate neurobehavioral alterations were evident at 12 and 10mg/kg, respectively. When low effective doses of BIF and CYPM were co-administered mild behavioral effects and a transient increase in Tb (p=0.02) were observed at 1–2 h, and no Tb decline was apparent afterwards compared to control animals. Noteworthy, the hypothermic action of BIF in infant rats was quite different from the hyperthermia consistently reported in studies using mature animals. Our results suggest that body temperature monitoring may be useful as a complementary assessment to reveal qualitative age-specific pesticide effects in rats.

  6. MCP-1 expression by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Paine, R; Rolfe, M W; Standiford, T J; Burdick, M D; Rollins, B J; Strieter, R M

    1993-05-15

    Recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes are potentially critical regulatory events for control of pulmonary inflammation. Located at the boundary between the alveolar airspace and the interstitium, alveolar epithelial cells are ideally situated to regulate the recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes through the production of cytokines in response to inflammatory stimulation from the alveolar space. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the production of monocyte chemotactic polypeptide-1 (MCP-1), a protein that is chemotactic for and that activates monocytes, by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. Immunocytochemical staining using anti-murine JE, an antibody recognizing rat MCP-1, demonstrated cell-associated MCP-1 Ag throughout the monolayer. The intensity of staining was increased in response to IL-1 beta. When type II epithelial cells formed a tight monolayer on a filter support, there was polar secretion of MCP-1 Ag into the apical compartment by both control and IL-1-stimulated cells as measured by specific MCP-1 ELISA. Northern blot analysis revealed that IL-1 and TNF-alpha stimulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas dexamethasone blocked MCP-1 expression by cells stimulated with IL-1. In contrast to previous results using transformed epithelial cell lines, MCP-1 mRNA was induced in these primary cultures directly by stimulation with LPS. These data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells may have an important and previously unrecognized role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory processes in the lung by recruiting and activating circulating monocytes through the production of MCP-1.

  7. Strict angiotensin blockade prevents the augmentation of intrarenal angiotensin II and podocyte abnormalities in type 2 diabetic rats with microalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akira; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Yukiko; Okada, Noriyuki; Konishi, Yoshio; Morikawa, Takashi; Okumura, Michiaki; Meda, Isseiki; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Hosomi, Naohisa; Mori, Takefumi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Imanishi, Masahito

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Beneficial effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers have been indicated for patients with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the effects of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, on intrarenal angiotensin II levels and the progression of albuminuria or glomerular injury in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with microalbuminuria. Methods and Results Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly treated with telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, orally), hydralazine (25 mg/kg/day in drinking water) or vehicle from the initiation of albuminuria (13 weeks old). At this age, Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats showed low but detectable albuminuria (1.0±0.1 mg/day) and higher systolic blood pressure, postprandial blood glucose and kidney angiotensin II levels than age-matched nondiabetic Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. At 35 weeks of age, vehicle-treated Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats did not show apparent glomerular injury or tubulointerstitial fibrosis but did exhibit severe albuminuria (72.6±5.9 mg/day) and accumulation of cytoplasmic granules containing albumin in podocytes. Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats also showed higher systolic blood pressure, postprandial blood glucose, collagen gene expression, desmin staining (a marker of podocyte injury) and angiotensin II levels than Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. Treatment with telmisartan did not affect postprandial blood glucose but decreased systolic blood pressure, collagen gene expression, desmin staining and angiotensin II levels. Telmisartan also prevented the development of albuminuria (0.6±0.1 mg/day at 35 weeks old) and accumulation of cytoplasmic granules. Hydralazine treatment resulted in a similar reduction in systolic blood pressure and partially attenuated the albuminuria (35.4±1.8 mg/day at 35 weeks old) but did not affect the other parameters. Conclusion The present results suggest the contribution of

  8. Stoichiometry and Na+ binding cooperativity of rat and flounder renal type II Na+-Pi cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Forster, I C; Loo, D D; Eskandari, S

    1999-04-01

    The stoichiometry of the rat and flounder isoforms of the renal type II sodium-phosphate (Na+-Pi) cotransporter was determined directly by simultaneous measurements of phosphate (Pi)-induced inward current and uptake of radiolabeled Pi and Na+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cotransporters. There was a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Pi uptake into the oocytes; the slope indicated that one net inward charge was transported per Pi. There was also a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Na+ influx; the slope indicated that the influx of three Na+ ions resulted in one net inward charge. This behavior was similar for both isoforms. We conclude that for both Na+-Pi cotransporter isoforms the Na+:Pi stoichiometry is 3:1 and that divalent Pi is the transported substrate. Steady-state activation of the currents showed that the Hill coefficients for Pi were unity for both isoforms, whereas for Na+, they were 1.8 (flounder) and 2.5 (rat). Therefore, despite significant differences in the apparent Na+ binding cooperativity, the estimated Na+:Pi stoichiometry was the same for both isoforms.

  9. Oral administration of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) diminished deterioration of articular cartilage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA).

    PubMed

    Bagi, C M; Berryman, E R; Teo, S; Lane, N E

    2017-09-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) to prevent excessive articular cartilage deterioration in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty male rats were subjected to partial medial meniscectomy tear (PMMT) surgery to induce OA. Immediately after the surgery 10 rats received vehicle and another 10 rats oral daily dose of UC-II at 0.66 mg/kg for a period of 8 weeks. In addition 10 naïve rats were used as an intact control and another 10 rats received sham surgery. Study endpoints included a weight-bearing capacity of front and hind legs, serum biomarkers of bone and cartilage metabolism, analyses of subchondral and cancellous bone at the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis, and cartilage pathology at the medial tibial plateau using histological methods. PMMT surgery produced moderate OA at the medial tibial plateau. Specifically, the deterioration of articular cartilage negatively impacted the weight bearing capacity of the operated limb. Immediate treatment with the UC-II preserved the weight-bearing capacity of the injured leg, preserved integrity of the cancellous bone at tibial metaphysis and limited the excessive osteophyte formation and deterioration of articular cartilage. Study results demonstrate that a clinically relevant daily dose of UC-II when applied immediately after injury can improve the mechanical function of the injured knee and prevent excessive deterioration of articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Rat lung type II cell and lamellar body: elemental composition in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenhoff, R.G.; Somlyo, A.P.

    1988-05-01

    We determined the in situ elemental composition of alveolar type II cells (ATII) and lamellar bodies (LB) with electronprobe microanalysis (EPMA) of freeze-dried unstained cryosections (100-200 nm) obtained from lungs frozen in anesthetized rats. Twenty-nine ATII from seven rats were subjected to EPMA. Cytoplasmic (Cyto) composition was the following (in mmol/kg dry wt, mean +/- SE, n = 30): 136 +/- 14.1 Na, 60 +/- 2.8 Mg, 549 +/- 34.8 P, 278 +/- 10.5 S, 158 +/- 7.3 Cl, 525 +/- 26.4 K, and 6.6 +/- 0.9 Ca. LB composition was the following (n = 66): 44 +/- 4.0 Na, 7.9 +/- 0.8 Mg, 1,060 +/- 25.0 P, 79 +/- 4.8 S, 64 +/- 3.6 Cl, 114 +/- 4.1 K, and 30 +/- 0.9 Ca. P and S concentrations were consistent with previous biochemical determinations of phospholipid and protein content of isolated LBs. LBs contain significantly more Ca and less Mg than Cyto. Ca correlated significantly with LB P but not S concentration, and the reported low Ca binding affinity of similar phospholipid mixtures implies a high LB free Ca concentration. Ca was significantly higher in apical and exocytotic LBs compared with those in the perinuclear region. Differences between LB and Cyto monovalent ion concentrations are not entirely due to the difference in hydration revealed by significantly lower K-Cl ratios in LBs. The relative excess of Cl and Ca in LB suggests that these ions may be distributed by active transport systems known to be present in the Golgi apparatus and in Golgi-derived organelles of other cell types.

  11. Biochemical mechanisms involved in the endotoxin-induced type II cell hyperplasia in F344 rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Johnson, N.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Proliferative lesions and pulmonary epithelial neoplasms induced in the rat by plutonium inhalation have been shown to be of type II cell origin. Defining the gene changes responsible for the development of the type II proliferative lesions would help to elucidate the genetic events involved in the expansion of initiated type II cells into fully transformed tumor cells. One problem in identifying these gene alterations is dissociating changes in gene expression linked to cell replication or repair from those involved in tumor initiation and progression. The long-term goals of these investigations are to first develop and characterize a model of transient type II cell hyperplasia. Second, changes in gene expression associated with remodeling epithelium will be compared to gene changes exhibited by the {sup 239}Pu-induced hyperplastic lesions.

  12. In vivo creatine kinase reaction kinetics at rest and stress in type II diabetic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Adil; Coggan, Andrew R.; Gropler, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effects of type II diabetes on cardiac creatine kinase (CK) enzyme activity and/or flux are unknown. We therefore measured steady‐state phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and forward CK reaction kinetic parameters in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat hearts, a type II diabetes research model. At baseline the PCr to ATP ratio (PCr/ATP) was significantly lower in diabetic heart when compared with matched controls (1.71 ± 0.21 vs. 2.26 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the forward CK reaction rate constant (kf) was higher in diabetic animals (0.52 ± 0.09 s−1 vs. 0.35 ± 0.06 s−1, P < 0.01) and CK flux calculated as a product of PCr concentration ([PCr]) and kf was similar between two groups (4.32 ± 1.05 μmol/g/s vs. 4.94 ± 1.23 μmol/g/s, P = 0.20). Dobutamine administration resulted in similar increases in heart rate (~38%) and kf (~0.12 s−1) in both groups. No significant change in PCr and ATP content was observed with dobutamine. In summary, our data showed reduced PCr/ATP in diabetic myocardium as an indicator of cardiac energy deficit. The forward CK reaction rate constant is elevated at baseline which might reflect a compensatory mechanics to support energy flux through the CK shuttle and maintain constant ATP supply. When hearts were stimulated similar increase in kf was observed in both groups thus it seems that CK shuttle does not limit ATP supply for the range of workload studied. PMID:25626865

  13. Intrarenal aminopeptidase N inhibition restores defective angiontesin II type 2-mediated natriuresis in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Padia, Shetal H; Howell, Nancy L; Kemp, Brandon A; Fournie-Zaluski, Marie-Claude; Roques, Bernard P; Carey, Robert M

    2010-02-01

    The preferred ligand of angiotensin (Ang) II type 2 (AT(2)R)-mediated natriuresis is Ang III. The major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of Ang III is aminopeptidase N, which is selectively inhibited by compound PC-18. In this study, urine sodium excretion rates (U(Na)V), fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, glomerular filtration rate, and mean arterial pressures were studied in prehypertensive and hypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Although renal interstitial infusion of Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan increased U(Na)V in WKYs from a baseline of 0.05+/-0.01 to 0.17+/-0.04 micromol/min (P<0.01), identical infusions failed to increase U(Na)V in hypertensive SHRs. Coinfusion of AT(2)R antagonist PD-123319 abolished the natriuretic responses to candesartan in WKYs, indicating an AT(2)R-mediated effect. AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis was enabled in hypertensive SHRs by inhibiting the metabolism of Ang III with PC-18 (0.05+/-0.01 to 0.11+/-0.03 micromol/min; P<0.05). The defects in sodium excretion were present before the onset of hypertension in SHRs, because young WKYs demonstrated double the U(Na)V of SHRs (0.04+/-0.006 versus 0.02+/-0.003 micromol/min; P<0.01) at baseline. The increased U(Na)V of young WKYs was attributed to reduced renal proximal tubule sodium reabsorption, because increases in fractional excretion of sodium were paralleled by increases in fractional excretion of lithium. Renal interstitial PC-18 infusion ameliorated defective AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis in young SHRs by increasing fractional excretion of sodium and fractional excretion of lithium without changing the glomerular filtration rate. Thus, increased renal proximal tubule sodium retention is observed before the onset of hypertension in SHRs, and inhibition of the metabolism of Ang III ameliorates this pathophysiologic defect in sodium excretion.

  14. Pancreas transplantation using type I and type II spontaneously diabetic rats--our experimental experience.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshinori; Shimada, Kazunori; Gang, Miao; Uchikoshi, Fumihiro; Tori, Masayuki; Komoda, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Yuichi; Ohmori, Ken; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tanemura, Masahiro; Nozawa, Masumi

    2007-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation (PTx) is the only therapy that can cure type 1 diabetes mellitus. With the recent advance of surgical procedures and immunosuppression, the outcome of PTx has become better than it used to be before, but some problems still remain. It is rather difficult to induce tolerance and to reverse rejection once it occurred because pancreas graft itself has a strong immunogenicity. Another important issue is regarding the recurrence of autoimmune disease in the pancreatic graft, therefore, some animal models are necessary to delineate and regulate those immune responses specific for PTx. Recently, PTx is also clinically applicable for type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. It has been shown that insulin resistance was improved by PTx in type 2 diabetic recipients. In the current study, we have introduced some useful type 1 and type 2 diabetic models mainly based on our experimental experiences.

  15. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of. beta. -adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Sidhu, M.K.

    1984-02-06

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe /sup 3/H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the ..beta..-adrenergic probe /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 ..mu..m sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of ..beta..-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of ..beta..-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells.

  16. Compromised Neurotrophic and Angiogenic Regenerative Capability during Tendon Healing in a Rat Model of Type-II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aisha S; Li, Jian; Abdul, Alim M D; Ahmed, Mahmood; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Salo, Paul T; Hewitt, Carolyn; Hart, David A; Ackermann, Paul W

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type-II (DM-II) may increase the risk of suffering painful connective tissue disorders and tendon ruptures. The pathomechanisms, however, by which diabetes adversely affects connective tissue matrix metabolism and regeneration, still need better definition. Our aim was to study the effect of DM-II on expressional changes of neuro- and angiotrophic mediators and receptors in intact and healing Achilles tendon. The right Achilles tendon was transected in 5 male DM-II Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and 4 age-matched Wistar control rats. The left Achilles tendons were left intact. At week 2 post-injury, NGF, BDNF, TSP, and receptors TrkA, TrkB and Nk1 gene expression was studied by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and their protein distribution by immunohistochemistry in intact and injured tendons. The expression of tendon-related markers, Scleraxis (SCX) and Tenomodulin (TNMD), was evaluated by qRT-PCR in intact and injured tendons. Injured tendons of diabetic GK rats exhibited significantly down-regulated Ngf and Tsp1 mRNA and corresponding protein levels, and down-regulated Trka gene expression compared to injured Wistar controls. Intact tendons of DM-II GK rats displayed reduced mRNA levels for Ngf, Tsp1 and Trkb compared to corresponding intact non-diabetic tendons. Up-regulated Scx and Tnmd gene expression was observed in injured tendons of normal and diabetic GK rats compared to intact Wistar controls. However, these molecules were not up-regulated in injured DM-II GK rats compared to their corresponding controls. Our results suggest that DM-II has detrimental effects on neuro- and angiotrophic pathways, and such effects may reflect the compromised repair seen in diabetic Achilles tendon. Thus, novel approaches for regeneration of injured, including tendinopathic, and surgically repaired diabetic tendons may include therapeutic molecular modulation of neurotrophic pathways such as NGF and its receptors.

  17. Compromised Neurotrophic and Angiogenic Regenerative Capability during Tendon Healing in a Rat Model of Type-II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Aisha S.; Li, Jian; Abdul, Alim M. D.; Ahmed, Mahmood; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Salo, Paul T.; Hewitt, Carolyn; Hart, David A.; Ackermann, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type-II (DM-II) may increase the risk of suffering painful connective tissue disorders and tendon ruptures. The pathomechanisms, however, by which diabetes adversely affects connective tissue matrix metabolism and regeneration, still need better definition. Our aim was to study the effect of DM-II on expressional changes of neuro- and angiotrophic mediators and receptors in intact and healing Achilles tendon. The right Achilles tendon was transected in 5 male DM-II Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and 4 age-matched Wistar control rats. The left Achilles tendons were left intact. At week 2 post-injury, NGF, BDNF, TSP, and receptors TrkA, TrkB and Nk1 gene expression was studied by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and their protein distribution by immunohistochemistry in intact and injured tendons. The expression of tendon-related markers, Scleraxis (SCX) and Tenomodulin (TNMD), was evaluated by qRT-PCR in intact and injured tendons. Injured tendons of diabetic GK rats exhibited significantly down-regulated Ngf and Tsp1 mRNA and corresponding protein levels, and down-regulated Trka gene expression compared to injured Wistar controls. Intact tendons of DM-II GK rats displayed reduced mRNA levels for Ngf, Tsp1 and Trkb compared to corresponding intact non-diabetic tendons. Up-regulated Scx and Tnmd gene expression was observed in injured tendons of normal and diabetic GK rats compared to intact Wistar controls. However, these molecules were not up-regulated in injured DM-II GK rats compared to their corresponding controls. Our results suggest that DM-II has detrimental effects on neuro- and angiotrophic pathways, and such effects may reflect the compromised repair seen in diabetic Achilles tendon. Thus, novel approaches for regeneration of injured, including tendinopathic, and surgically repaired diabetic tendons may include therapeutic molecular modulation of neurotrophic pathways such as NGF and its receptors. PMID:28122008

  18. [Experimental study on effects of acupoint application with Leima type II plaster on collagen-induced arthritis in rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Zhou, Ya-Feng

    2011-09-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of acupoint application with Leima type II plaster on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and probe its mechanism. Bovine type II collagen was injected intradermally into the middle line of the back to induce CIA model with 48 Wistar rats. Then the rats were randomly divided into a model control group (group A), a matrix control group (group B), acupoint application group with plaster of low concentration (group C) and high concentration plaster group (group D), 12 rats in each group. Group C and group D were treated with low and high concentration of Leima type II plaster, and "Shenzhu" (GV 12), "Zhiyang" (GV 9) and "Mingmen" (GV 4) were selected, each application for about 15 hours, once each day for 30 days. Group B was used the same method of acupoint application except using non-drug matrix plaster, and group A was not given any treatment. The morphous and the histopathological changes of affection joint were observed. The paw edema volume after 30 days treatment in group C was significantly lower than that in group B (P < 0.01), and the anti-type II collagen antibody level after 15 days treatment in group C was significantly lower than that in group A (P < 0.05), and the synoviocytes proliferation of the knee joint in group C was significantly lower than that in group A and group B (both P < 0.01). The paw edema volume after 25 days treatment, arthritic index after 20 days treatment, pathological change of the paw and the synoviocytes proliferation of the knee joint in group D were significantly lower than those in group A and group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), and the anti-type II collagen antibody level after 15 days treatment in group D was significantly lower than that in group A (P < 0.05), and the paw edema volume and the arthritic index after 25 days treatment in group D were significantly lower than those in group C (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Acupoint application with Leima type II plaster has a good therapeutic effect on

  19. Effect of exogenous surfactants on viability and DNA synthesis in A549, immortalized mouse type II and isolated rat alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In mechanically ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), exogenous surfactant application has been demonstrated both to decrease DNA-synthesis but also and paradoxically to increase epithelial cell proliferation. However, the effect of exogenous surfactant has not been studied directly on alveolar type II cells (ATII cells), a key cell type responsible for alveolar function and repair. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two commercially available surfactant preparations on ATII cell viability and DNA synthesis. Methods Curosurf® and Alveofact® were applied to two ATII cell lines (human A549 and mouse iMATII cells) and to primary rat ATII cells for periods of up to 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the redox indicator resazurin and DNA synthesis was measured using BrdU incorporation. Results Curosurf® resulted in slightly decreased cell viability in all cell culture models. However, DNA synthesis was increased in A549 and rat ATII cells but decreased in iMATII cells. Alveofact® exhibited the opposite effects on A549 cells and had very mild effects on the other two cell models. Conclusion This study showed that commercially available exogenous surfactants used to treat preterm infants with RDS can have profound effects on cell viability and DNA synthesis. PMID:21324208

  20. The rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung.

    PubMed

    Post, M; Batenburg, J J; Van Golde, L M; Smith, B T

    1984-10-04

    The rate-limiting reaction in the formation of phosphatidylcholine by type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung was examined. Studies on the uptake of [Me-3H]choline and its incorporation into its metabolites indicated that in these cells the choline phosphate pool was much larger than both the choline and CDPcholine pools. Chemical measurements of the pool sizes showed that the choline phosphate pool was indeed much larger than the intracellular choline and CDPcholine pools. Pulse-chase studies with [Me-3H]choline revealed that labelled choline taken up by the cells was rapidly phosphorylated to choline phosphate and that the radioactivity lost from choline phosphate during the chase period appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Little change was observed in the labelling of CDPcholine during the chase period. These results indicate that cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes a rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine formation by fetal rat lung type II cells.

  1. CREB phosphorylation and melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland: involvement of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase type II.

    PubMed

    Maronde, E; Wicht, H; Taskén, K; Genieser, H G; Dehghani, F; Olcese, J; Korf, H W

    1999-10-01

    Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) at amino acid serine 133 appears as an important link between the norepinephrine (NE)-induced activation of second messenger systems and the stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis. Here we investigated in the rat pineal gland: 1) the type of protein kinase that mediates CREB phosphorylation: and 2) its impact on melatonin biosynthesis. Immunochemical or immunocytochemical demonstration of serine133-phosphorylated cyclic AMP regulated element binding protein (pCREB) and radioimmunological detection of melatonin revealed that only cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors suppressed NE-induced CREB phosphorylation and stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis, whereas inhibitors of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, protein kinase C, or calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) were ineffective. Investigations with cyclic AMP-agonist pairs that selectively activate either PKA type I or II link NE-induced CREB phosphorylation and stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis to the activation of PKA type II. Our data suggest that PKA type II plays an important role in the transcriptional control of melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal organ.

  2. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, prevents the development of diabetes in male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Goji; Fukui, Michiaki; Hosoda, Hiroko; Asano, Mai; Harusato, Ichiko; Tanaka, Muhei; Shiraishi, Emi; Senmaru, Takashi; Sakabe, Kazumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Kitawaki, Jo; Fujinami, Aya; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto

    2009-03-01

    To assess the beneficial effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan on a non-obese animal model of reduced function and mass of islet beta-cells prior to the development of diabetes, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were treated with telmisartan at 8 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, the treatment with telmisartan dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and high-dose (5 mg/kg/day) treated SDT rats did not developed diabetes. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that treatment with high-dose telmisartan reduced mRNA expression of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, components of NAD(P)H oxidase, transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the pancreas of male SDT rats. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses revealed that treatment with telmisartan also reduced expression of p47(phox). These results suggest that treatment with telmisartan reduces oxidative stress by local RAS activation and protects against islet beta-cell damage and dysfunction. These findings provide at least a partial explanation for the reduced incidence of new-onset diabetes that has been observed in several clinical trials involving angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors.

  3. Renoprotective effects of benidipine in combination with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker in hypertensive Dahl rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kozo; Sato, Hitoshi; Ina, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Ohno, Tetsuji; Shirakura, Shiro

    2003-08-01

    We examined the effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan, the calcium channel blockers benidipine and amlodipine, hydralazine, and the combination of candesartan and benidipine or amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) hypertensive rats. Male DS rats (5 weeks of age) were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet, resulting in hypertension accompanied by glomerular sclerosis and an increased urinary albumin excretion. Drugs were orally administered from 2 to 6 weeks after the start of the feeding. Although candesartan (1 or 10 mg/kg) had little effect on the blood pressure, benidipine (4 mg/kg), amlodipine (4 mg/kg) and hydralazine (5 mg/kg) had similar hypotensive effects. Benidipine, but not amlodipine, hydralazine, or candesartan, significantly inhibited the increase in the albuminuria and glomerular sclerosis. The combination of candesartan (1 mg/kg) and benidipine (4 mg/kg) lowered the levels of blood pressure and albuminuria more effectively than the combination of candesartan (1 mg/kg) and amlodipine (4 mg/kg). These results indicate that benidipine is effective in preventing the impairment of renal function in DS hypertensive rats, and suggest that additional benefits can be expected by combination therapy with benidipine and an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker.

  4. Angiotensin II type 2 receptors and nitric oxide sustain oxygenation in the clipped kidney of early Goldblatt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Palm, Fredrik; Connors, Stephanie G; Mendonca, Margarida; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2008-02-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) decrease the glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow in the clipped kidneys of early 2-kidney, 1-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats, but the consequences for oxygenation are unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that angiotensin II type 1 or angiotensin II type 2 receptors or NO synthase mediate renal oxygenation responses to ACEI. Three weeks after left renal artery clipping, kidney function, oxygen (O(2)) use, renal blood flow, renal cortical blood flow, and renal cortical oxygen tension (Po(2)) were measured after acute administration of an ACEI (enalaprilat) and after acute administration of ACEI following acute administration of an angiotensin II type 1 or angiotensin II type 2 receptor blocker (candesartan or PD-123,319) or an NO synthase blocker (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester with control of renal perfusion pressure) and compared with mechanical reduction in renal perfusion pressure to the levels after ACEI. The basal renal cortical Po(2) of clipped kidneys was significantly lower than contralateral kidneys (35+/-1 versus 51+/-1 mm Hg; n=40 each). ACEI lowered renal venous Po(2), cortical Po(2), renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and cortical blood flow and increased the renal vascular resistance in the clipped kidney, whereas mechanical reduction in renal perfusion pressure was ineffective. PD-123,319 and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but not candesartan, reduced the Po(2) of clipped kidneys and blocked the fall in Po(2) with acute ACEI administration. In conclusion, oxygen availability in the clipped kidney is maintained by angiotensin II generation, angiotensin II type 2 receptors, and NO synthase. This discloses a novel mechanism whereby angiotensin can prevent hypoxia in a kidney challenged with a reduced perfusion pressure.

  5. Knockdown of mineralocorticoid or angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus prevents angiotensin II hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aidong; Huang, Bing S; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ahmad, Monir; Leenen, Frans H H

    2014-01-01

    Circulating Ang II activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) – angiotensin II (Ang II) – angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway in the hypothalamus. To obtain insights into the actual neuronal projections involved, adeno-associated virus carrying small interfering RNA against either AT1aR (AAV-AT1aR-siRNA) or MR (AAV-MR-siRNA) were infused into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in Wistar rats. Intra-PVN infusion of AAV-AT1aR-siRNA or AAV-MR-siRNA decreased AT1R or MR expression in the PVN but not in the subfornical organ (SFO) or supraoptic nucleus (SON). Subcutaneous infusion of Ang II at 500 ng kg−1 min−1 for 2 weeks increased mean arterial pressure by 60–70 mmHg, and increased AT1R and MR expression in the SFO, SON and PVN. Intra-PVN AT1aR-siRNA prevented the Ang II-induced increase in AT1R but not MR expression in the PVN, and MR-siRNA prevented MR but not AT1R expression in the PVN. The increases in AT1R and MR expression in both the SFO and the SON were not changed by the two AAV-siRNAs. Specific knockdown of AT1R or MR in the PVN by AAV-siRNA each prevented most of the Ang II-induced hypertension. Prevention of the subcutaneous Ang II-induced increase in MR but not the increase in AT1R by knockdown of MR and vice versa suggests an independent regulation of MR and AT1R expression in the PVN. Both AT1R and MR activation in the PVN play a critical role in Ang II-induced hypertension in rats. PMID:24973408

  6. 3-D Reconstruction of Macular Type II Cell Innervation Patterns in Space-Flight and Control Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel Dorothy; Montgomery, K.; Linton, S.; Cheng, R.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A semiautomated method for reconstructing objects from serial thin sections has been developed in the Biocomputation Center. The method is being used to completely, for the first time, type II hair cells and their innervations. The purposes are to learn more about the fundamental circuitry of the macula on Earth and to determine whether changes in connectivities occur under space flight conditions. Data captured directly from a transmission electron microscope via a video camera are sent to a graphics workstation. There, the digitized micrographs are mosaicked into sections and contours are traced, registered and displayed by semiautomated methods. Current reconstructions are of type II cells from the medial part of rat maculas collected in-flight on the Space Life Sciences-2 mission, 4.5 hrs post-flight, and from a ground control. Results show that typical type II cells receive processes from tip to six nearby calyces or afferents. Nearly all processes are elongated and have bouton-like enlargements; some have numerous vesicles. Multiple (2 to 4) processes from a single calyx to a type II cell are common, and approximately 1/3 of the processes innervale 2 or 3 type II cells or a neighboring cluster. From 2% to 6% of the cells resemble type I cells morphologically but have demi-calyces. Thus far, increments in synaptic number in type II cells of flight rats are prominent along processes that supply two hair cells. It is clear that reconstruction methods provide insights into details of macular circuitry not obtainable by other techniques. The results demonstrate a morphological basis for interactions between adjacent receptive fields through feed back-feed forward connections, and for dynamic alterations in receptive field range and activity during preprocessing of linear acceleratory information by the maculas. The reconstruction method we have developed will find further applications in the study of the details of neuronal architecture of more complex systems, to

  7. 3-D Reconstruction of Macular Type II Cell Innervation Patterns in Space-Flight and Control Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel Dorothy; Montgomery, K.; Linton, S.; Cheng, R.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A semiautomated method for reconstructing objects from serial thin sections has been developed in the Biocomputation Center. The method is being used to completely, for the first time, type II hair cells and their innervations. The purposes are to learn more about the fundamental circuitry of the macula on Earth and to determine whether changes in connectivities occur under space flight conditions. Data captured directly from a transmission electron microscope via a video camera are sent to a graphics workstation. There, the digitized micrographs are mosaicked into sections and contours are traced, registered and displayed by semiautomated methods. Current reconstructions are of type II cells from the medial part of rat maculas collected in-flight on the Space Life Sciences-2 mission, 4.5 hrs post-flight, and from a ground control. Results show that typical type II cells receive processes from tip to six nearby calyces or afferents. Nearly all processes are elongated and have bouton-like enlargements; some have numerous vesicles. Multiple (2 to 4) processes from a single calyx to a type II cell are common, and approximately 1/3 of the processes innervale 2 or 3 type II cells or a neighboring cluster. From 2% to 6% of the cells resemble type I cells morphologically but have demi-calyces. Thus far, increments in synaptic number in type II cells of flight rats are prominent along processes that supply two hair cells. It is clear that reconstruction methods provide insights into details of macular circuitry not obtainable by other techniques. The results demonstrate a morphological basis for interactions between adjacent receptive fields through feed back-feed forward connections, and for dynamic alterations in receptive field range and activity during preprocessing of linear acceleratory information by the maculas. The reconstruction method we have developed will find further applications in the study of the details of neuronal architecture of more complex systems, to

  8. Oral Administration of Shark Type II Collagen Suppresses Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijuan; Bao, Bin; Wang, Nanping; Xie, Jing; Wu, Wenhui

    2012-03-28

    Shark type II collagen (SCII) is extracted as a glycoprotein from the cartilage of blue shark (Prionace glauca). We aim to confirm the effects of oral tolerance of SCII on inflammatory and immune responses to the ankle joint of rheumatoid-arthritis rats induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was observed 14 ± x days after injection of CFA. Rats in the control group were treated with acetic acid by oral administration (0.05 mmol kg-1d-1, days 14-28), while rats in experimental groups were treated by oral administration with SCII (1 or 3 mg kg-1d-1, days 14-28), Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (TWP) (10 mg kg-1d-1, days 14-28), and bovine type II collagen from US (US-CII) (1 mg kg-1d-1, days 14-28), respectively. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by the articular swelling. The immunological indexes observed included delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, the level of interleukins 10 (IL-10) in rat blood serum and morphological characterization. Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was performed to investigate the relationship between T cell apoptosis and specific immune tolerance induced by SCII. Treatment with SCII for 2 weeks significantly attenuated the acute inflammation. The rats orally administrated with SCII at the level of 3 mg kg-1d-1 (SCII 3) and US-CII had decreased DTH reaction compared with rats in control group. Rats treated with SCII 3 had the highest level of IL-10 with 102 pg/mL. SCII with concentration of 10 μg/L could help to significantly enhance level of Fas/Apo-1 in T cell in vitro. The result of histological staining indicated that the recovery of the articular membranes of ankle joint in SCII 3 group was greatly enhanced. Our results suggest that appropriate dose of SCII can not only ameliorate symptoms but also modify the disease process of Complete-Freunds-Adjuvant-induced arthritis. Oral administration of SCII might be a potential candidate as a novel drug for further

  9. Oral Administration of Shark Type II Collagen Suppresses Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lijuan; Bao, Bin; Wang, Nanping; Xie, Jing; Wu, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Shark type II collagen (SCII) is extracted as a glycoprotein from the cartilage of blue shark (Prionace glauca). We aim to confirm the effects of oral tolerance of SCII on inflammatory and immune responses to the ankle joint of rheumatoid-arthritis rats induced by Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA). Materials and Methods: The onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was observed 14 ± x days after injection of CFA. Rats in the control group were treated with acetic acid by oral administration (0.05 mmol kg−1d−1, days 14–28), while rats in experimental groups were treated by oral administration with SCII (1 or 3 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28), Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (TWP) (10 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28), and bovine type II collagen from US (US-CII) (1 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28), respectively. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by the articular swelling. The immunological indexes observed included delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, the level of interleukins 10 (IL-10) in rat blood serum and morphological characterization. Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was performed to investigate the relationship between T cell apoptosis and specific immune tolerance induced by SCII. Results: Treatment with SCII for 2 weeks significantly attenuated the acute inflammation. The rats orally administrated with SCII at the level of 3 mg kg−1d−1 (SCII 3) and US-CII had decreased DTH reaction compared with rats in control group. Rats treated with SCII 3 had the highest level of IL-10 with 102 pg/mL. SCII with concentration of 10 μg/L could help to significantly enhance level of Fas/Apo-1 in T cell in vitro. The result of histological staining indicated that the recovery of the articular membranes of ankle joint in SCII 3 group was greatly enhanced. Conclusions: Our results suggest that appropriate dose of SCII can not only ameliorate symptoms but also modify the disease process of Complete-Freunds-Adjuvant-induced arthritis. Oral

  10. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor correlates with therapeutic effects of losartan in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Hu, Shanshan; Zhu, Jie; Yuan, Jun; Wu, Jingjing; Zhou, Aiwu; Wu, Yujing; Zhao, Wendi; Huang, Qiong; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qingtong; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei

    2013-12-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an experimental model. In RA, AT2R mainly opposes AT1R, but the mechanism by which this occurs still remains obscure. In the present study, we investigated the role of AT2R in the treatment of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) by losartan. Adjuvant-induced arthritis rats were treated with losartan (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) and methotrexate (MTX; 0.5 mg/kg) in vivo from day 14 to day 28. Arthritis was evaluated by the arthritis index and histological examination. Angiotensin II, tumour necrosis factor-α, and VEGF levels were examined by ELISA. The expression of AT1R and AT2R was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. After stimulation with interleukin-1β in vitro, the effects of the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (10(-8) -10(-5)  M) on the chemotaxis of monocytes induced by 10% foetal calf serum (FCS) were analysed by using Transwell assay. Subsequently, the therapeutic effects of CGP42112 (5, 10 and 20 μg/kg) were evaluated in vivo by intra-articular injection in AIA rats. After treatment with losartan, the down-regulation of AT1R expression and up-regulation of AT2R expression in the spleen and synovium of AIA rats correlated positively with reduction in the polyarthritis index. Treatment with CGP42112 inhibited the chemotaxis of AIA monocytes in vitro, possibly because of the up-regulation of AT2R expression. Intra-articular injection with CGP42112 (10 and 20 μg/kg) ameliorated the arthritis index and histological signs of arthritis. In summary, the present study strongly suggests that the up-regulation of AT2R might be an additional mechanism by which losartan exerts its therapeutic effects in AIA rats.

  11. Immobilization induces carbonic anhydrase III in type II fibers of rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Laurila, A L; Jeffery, S; Savolainen, J; Takala, T E; Carter, N D; Väänänen, H K

    1991-05-01

    The amount and fiber distribution of carbonic anhydrase III (CA III), a major soluble protein in Type I muscle fibers, were studied during cast immobilization of rat hindlimb with the ankle in plantar or dorsiflexion. The concentration of CA III increased two- (p less than 0.05) and three- (p less than 0.01) fold in the shortened and lengthened tibialis anterior muscle during a 3-weeks immobilization period, respectively. After 6 weeks of immobilization the increase was even greater (p less than 0.001). Concomitantly, the number of CA III positive fibers in the lengthened muscle increased so that almost all fibers were positive. In the soleus muscle no significant change in the CA III concentration was seen. On the basis of actomyosin ATPase staining, the transition of Type IIb fibers towards Type IIa occurred in the tibialis anterior muscle, whereas in the soleus muscle a transformation of Type I fibers towards Type IIa fibers occurred. Therefore, the increase in the muscle CA III concentration seems to be associated with a cell transformation of the muscle towards a more oxidative type.

  12. Vacuolar ATPase Regulates Surfactant Secretion in Rat Alveolar Type II Cells by Modulating Lamellar Body Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D.; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  13. Cardiac and renal function are progressively impaired with aging in Zucker diabetic fatty type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Baynes, John; Murray, David B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the temporal relationship between cardiomyopathy and renal pathology in the type II diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. We hypothesized that changes in renal function will precede the development of cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat. Animals (10 weeks old) were divided into four experimental groups: Lean Control (fa/?) LC(n = 7), untreated ZDF rats (n = 7) sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and LC (n = 7) untreated ZDF rats (n = 9) sacrificed at 36 weeks of age. LV structural/functional parameters were assessed via Millar conductance catheter. Renal function was evaluated via markers of proteinuria and evidence of hydronephrosis. LV mass was significantly less in the ZDF groups at both time points compared to age-matched LC. End diastolic volume was increased by 16% at 16 weeks and by 37% at 36 weeks of age (p < 0.05 vs. LC). End diastolic pressure and end systolic volume were significantly increased (42% and 27%respectively) at 36 weeks of age in the ZDF compared to LC. Kidney weights were significantly increased at both 16 and 36 week in ZDF animals (p < 0.05 vs. LC). Increased urinary albumin and decreased urinary creatinine were paralleled by a marked progression in the severity of hydronephrosis from 16 to 36 weeks of age in the ZDF group. In summary, there is evidence of progressive structural and functional changes in both the heart and kidney, starting as early as 16 weeks,without evidence that one pathology precedes or causes the other in the ZDF model of type II diabetes.

  14. Purinergic signalling mediates bidirectional crosstalk between chemoreceptor type I and glial-like type II cells of the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Murali, Sindhubarathi; Nurse, Colin A

    2016-01-15

    Carotid body chemoreceptors are organized in clusters containing receptor type I and contiguous glial-like type II cells. While type I cells depolarize and release ATP during chemostimulation, the role of type II cells which express purinergic P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) and ATP-permeable pannexin-1 (Panx-1) channels, is unclear. Here, we show that in isolated rat chemoreceptor clusters, type I cell depolarization induced by hypoxia, hypercapnia, or high K(+) caused delayed intracellular Ca(2+) elevations (Δ[Ca(2+)]i) in nearby type II cells that were inhibited by the P2Y2R blocker suramin, or by the nucleoside hydrolase apyrase. Likewise, stimulation of P2Y2Rs on type II cells caused a delayed, secondary Δ[Ca(2+)]i in nearby type I cells that was inhibited by blockers of Panx-1 channels, adenosine A2A receptors and 5'-ectonucleotidase. We propose that reciprocal crosstalk between type I and type II cells contributes to sensory processing in the carotid body via purinergic signalling pathways. The mammalian carotid body (CB) is excited by blood-borne stimuli including hypoxia and acid hypercapnia, leading to respiratory and cardiovascular reflex responses. This chemosensory organ consists of innervated clusters of receptor type I cells, ensheathed by processes of adjacent glial-like type II cells. ATP is a major excitatory neurotransmitter released from type I cells and type II cells express purinergic P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs), the activation of which leads to the opening of ATP-permeable, pannexin-1 (Panx-1) channels. While these properties support crosstalk between type I and type II cells during chemotransduction, direct evidence is lacking. To address this, we first exposed isolated rat chemoreceptor clusters to acute hypoxia, isohydric hypercapnia, or the depolarizing stimulus high K(+), and monitored intracellular [Ca(2+)] using Fura-2. As expected, these stimuli induced intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevations (Δ[Ca(2+)]i) in type I cells. Interestingly, however

  15. Expression of synaptogyrin-1 in T1R2-expressing type II taste cells and type III taste cells of rat circumvallate taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Takeshi; Toyono, Takashi; Seta, Yuji; Kitou, Ayae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyoshima, Kuniaki

    2013-09-01

    Synaptogyrins are conserved components of the exocytic apparatus and function as regulators of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. The synaptogyrin family comprises three isoforms: two neuronal (synaptogyrin-1 and -3) and one ubiquitous (synaptogyrin-2) form. Although the expression patterns of the exocytic proteins synaptotagmin-1, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin-2 and synaptophysin have been elucidated in taste buds, the function and expression pattern of synaptogyrin-1 in rat gustatory tissues have not been determined. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of synaptogyrin-1 and several cell-specific markers of type II and III cells in rat gustatory tissues. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assays and immunoblot analysis revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 mRNA and its protein in circumvallate papillae. In fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae, the antibody against synaptogyrin-1 immunolabeled a subset of taste bud cells and intra- and subgemmal nerve processes. Double-labeling experiments revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 in most taste cells immunoreactive for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule. A subset of synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells also expressed phospholipase Cβ2, gustducin, or sweet taste receptor (T1R2). In addition, most synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells expressed synaptobrevin-2. These results suggest that synaptogyrin-1 plays a regulatory role in transmission at the synapses of type III cells and is involved in exocytic function with synaptobrevin-2 in a subset of type II cells in rat taste buds.

  16. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction in a Type II Diabetic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyang; Qiu, Xuefeng; Shindel, Alan W.; Ning, Hongxiu; Ferretti, Ludovic; Jin, Xunbo; Lin, Guiting; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad constellation of voiding complaints that are often multifactorial and resistant to currently available therapies. The leading causes of diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) include alterations in the bladder smooth muscle, neuronal degeneration, and urothelial dysfunction. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), a type of mesenchymal stromal cells, have shown promise as a novel tissue regenerative technique that may have utility in DBD. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and mechanism by which ADSCs may ameliorate DBD in rats fed a high-fat diet and treated with low-dose streptozotocin to induce type II diabetes. Improved voiding function was noted in ADSCs-treated rats as compared with phosphate-buffered saline-treated rats. Though some ADSCs differentiated into smooth muscle cells, paracrine pathway seems to play a main role in this process, thus resulting in reduction of apoptosis and preservation of “suburothelial capillaries network.” PMID:22008016

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Juan, Long; Xiao, Zhao; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Current clinically available treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fail to cure the disease or unsatisfactorily halt disease progression. To overcome these limitations, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters may offer new promising strategies. Because type II collagen (CII) as a critical autoantigen in RA and native chicken type II collagen (nCCII) has been used to effectively treat RA, we previously developed a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding CCII (pcDNA-CCOL2A1) with efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard", methotrexate(MTX). Here, we systemically evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal Wistar rats. Group 1 received only a single intramuscular injection into the hind leg with pcDNA-CCOL2A1 at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg on day 0; Group 2 was injected with normal saline (NS) as a negative control. All rats were monitored daily for any systemic adverse events, reactions at the injection site, and changes in body weights. Plasma and tissues from all experimental rats were collected on day 14 for routine examinations of hematology and biochemistry parameters, anti-CII IgG antibody reactivity, and histopathology. Our results indicated clearly that at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths occurred in the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 group compared with the NS group. Furthermore, no major alterations were observed in hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology, even at the maximum dose. In particularly, no anti-CII IgG antibodies were detected in vaccinated normal rats at 14 d after vaccination; this was relevant because we previously demonstrated that the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine, when administered at the therapeutic dosage of 300 μg/kg alone, did not induce anti-CII IgG antibody production and significantly reduced levels of anti-CII IgG antibodies in the plasma of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Long; Xiao, Zhao; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Current clinically available treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fail to cure the disease or unsatisfactorily halt disease progression. To overcome these limitations, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters may offer new promising strategies. Because type II collagen (CII) as a critical autoantigen in RA and native chicken type II collagen (nCCII) has been used to effectively treat RA, we previously developed a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding CCII (pcDNA-CCOL2A1) with efficacy comparable to that of the current “gold standard”, methotrexate(MTX). Here, we systemically evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal Wistar rats. Group 1 received only a single intramuscular injection into the hind leg with pcDNA-CCOL2A1 at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg on day 0; Group 2 was injected with normal saline (NS) as a negative control. All rats were monitored daily for any systemic adverse events, reactions at the injection site, and changes in body weights. Plasma and tissues from all experimental rats were collected on day 14 for routine examinations of hematology and biochemistry parameters, anti-CII IgG antibody reactivity, and histopathology. Our results indicated clearly that at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths occurred in the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 group compared with the NS group. Furthermore, no major alterations were observed in hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology, even at the maximum dose. In particularly, no anti-CII IgG antibodies were detected in vaccinated normal rats at 14 d after vaccination; this was relevant because we previously demonstrated that the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine, when administered at the therapeutic dosage of 300μg/kg alone, did not induce anti-CII IgG antibody production and significantly reduced levels of anti-CII IgG antibodies in the plasma of rats with established collagen

  19. Epidermal growth factor regulation in adult rat alveolar type II cells of amiloride-sensitive cation channels.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P J; Borok, Z; Kim, K J; Lubman, R L; Danto, S I; Crandall, E D

    1999-12-01

    Using the patch-clamp technique, we studied the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on whole cell and single channel currents in adult rat alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture in the presence or absence of EGF for 48 h. In symmetrical sodium isethionate solutions, EGF exposure caused a significant increase in the type II cell whole cell conductance. Amiloride (10 microM) produced approximately 20-30% inhibition of the whole cell conductance in both the presence and absence of EGF, such that EGF caused the magnitude of the amiloride-sensitive component to more than double. Northern analysis showed that alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunits of rat epithelial Na(+) channel (rENaC) steady-state mRNA levels were all significantly decreased by EGF. At the single channel level, all active inside-out patches demonstrated only 25-pS channels that were amiloride sensitive and relatively nonselective for cations (P(Na(+))/P(K(+)) approximately 1.0:0.48). Although the biophysical characteristics (conductance, open-state probability, and selectivity) of the channels from EGF-treated and untreated cells were essentially identical, channel density was increased by EGF; the modal channel per patch was increased from 1 to 2. These findings indicate that EGF increases expression of nonselective, amiloride-sensitive cation channels in adult alveolar epithelial type II cells. The contribution of rENaC to the total EGF-dependent cation current under these conditions is quantitatively less important than that of the nonselective cation channels in these cells.

  20. Antioxidant icariside II combined with insulin restores erectile function in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Xu, Yongde; Li, Huixi; Lei, Hongen; Guan, Ruili; Gao, Zhezhu; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2015-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) worsens in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) despite good control of blood glucose level with insulin. Recent studies imply that diabetic vascular stresses (e.g. oxidative stress) persist in spite of glucose normalization, which is defined as metabolic memory. Studies suggest that the interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) mediates the development of metabolic memory. To investigate the effects of the antioxidant icariside II plus insulin on erectile function in streptozotocin (STZ)- induced type 1 diabetic rats. Fifty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups: normal control, diabetic, insulin-treated diabetic, icariside II-treated diabetic, and insulin plus icariside II-treated diabetic. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Eight weeks after induction of diabetes, icariside II was administered by gastric lavage once a day (5 mg/kg) for 6 weeks; and 2-6 units of intermediate-acting insulin were given to maintain normal glycemia for 6 weeks. The main outcome measures were the ratio of intracavernous pressure (ICP) to mean arterial pressure (MAP); histology of penile endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells; neural nitric oxide synthase, AGEs and RAGE expression; malondialdehyde concentration; superoxide dismutase activity; and apoptosis index. Diabetic rats demonstrated a significantly lower ICP/MAP ratio, reduced penile endothelial cells, reduced smooth muscle cells, increased AGEs and RAGE, and increased apoptosis. Insulin and icariside II monotherapy partially restored erectile function and histological changes. However, the combination therapy group showed significantly better erectile parameters, cytological components and biochemistry, similar to those in the normal control group. These results suggest that, although insulin can effectively control glycemic levels, it does not completely alter the pathological changes in

  1. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456–C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (IAL) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca2+-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an IAL in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between IAL and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca2+ was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca2+ entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the IAL, but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  2. Effect of sodium on vasoconstriction and angiotensin II type 1 receptor mRNA expression in cold-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiming; Zhu, Shanjun; Zhu, Jijun; van der Giet, Markus; Tepel, Martin

    2004-08-01

    Angiotensin II and sodium play an important pathogenetic role in several models of hypertension. Now, we investigated the effects of sodium on vasoconstriction and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptor mRNA expression in aortic vessels from cold-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats on low sodium and high sodium diet were exposed to cold-stress for 8 weeks. The effects of angiotensin II infusion on mean arterial blood pressure were investigated in these rats. In addition, angiotensin II induced contraction was measured using aortic rings. Expression of AT1 receptor mRNA and AT2 receptor mRNA was assessed in aortic vessels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After infusion of angiotensin II mean arterial blood pressure in cold-induced hypertensive rats on high sodium diet was significantly higher compared to cold-induced hypertensive rats on low sodium diet (p < 0.05). Angiotensin II-induced contraction of aortic rings was significantly higher in cold-induced hypertensive rats on high sodium diet compared to cold-induced hypertensive rats on low sodium diet (2.39 +/- 0.03 g vs. 2.21 +/- 0.04 g, n = 12, p < 0.01). Angiotensin AT1 receptor mRNA was significantly higher in cold-induced hypertensive rats on high sodium diet compared to cold-induced hypertensive rats on low sodium diet (p < 0.05). It is concluded that in this nongenetic, nonsurgical animal model of cold-induced hypertension increased vasoconstriction and increased AT1 receptor mRNA expression in aortic vessels are dependent on sodium intake.

  3. [Immunomodulatory effect of UC-MSC on function of immunocytes of rats with collagen type II induced arthritis].

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian; Lin, Chuan-Ming; Gu, Wei; Cai, Xin-Zhen; Li, Zou; Ren, Min-Min; Sun, Xing; Ni, Jun; Shen, Lian-Jun; Wu, Wei; He, Bin; Sun, Mei; Zhang, Yu

    2014-02-01

    This study was purposed to observe the influence of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) on the peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(+)regulatory T cells (Treg), Th17 cells and neutrophils in rats with collagen type II-induced arthritis(CIA), and to explore the regulating effect of UC-MSC transplantation on immunocyte subgroup. The rats wee divided into 3 groups: CIA group (model group), UC-MSC treated group and blank control group. The CIA rats were injected with UC-MSC via tail vein. The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in peripheral blood and the expression of NCD11b on neutrophil surface in CIA rates was detected by flow cytometry (FCM), and the serum interleukin-17 (IL-17) was observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the mean fluorescence intensity(MFI) of NCD11b and the level of IL-17 in the model group were significantly higher than those in the blank control group, and the ratio of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells were significantly lower (P < 0.05). The MIF of NCD11b and the level of IL-17 in the UC-MSC treated group were significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05), while the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg increased (P < 0.05). Since the fifth week, the above indicators in the UC-MSC group have almostly approached the control group. It is concluded that the UC-MSC can increase peripheral blood Treg proportion in CIA rat, inhibit the secretion of Th17 and the activity of neutrophils, reduce the immune inflammation reaction, decrease the release of proinflammatory factor, and induce immune reconstruction.

  4. Antidiabetic activity of alkaloids of Aerva lanata roots on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritesh; Sethiya, Neeraj K; Mishra, S H

    2013-05-01

    The roots of Aerva lanata Linn. (Amaranthaceae) (AL) are employed traditionally as an antihyperglycaemic in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present investigation is focus for identification and isolation of the bioactive compound from methanol roots extract of AL against streptozocin-nicotinamide induced elevated serum glucose level in rats. The methanol extract of the roots was fractionated using different solvents. The partially purified alkaloid basified toluene fraction (PPABTF) showed the presence of alkaloids. The fraction (10 and 20 mg/kg) was tested for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-induced elevated serum glucose level in rats. The fraction was also subjected to high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) for the determination of content of individual alkaloids. Single oral administration of PPABTF (10 and 20 mg/kg) after 20 h caused a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the serum glucose level (mg/dl). On other hand, PPABTF normalised plasma glucose levels after 2 weeks of repeated oral administration in diabetic rats (p < 0.01). HPTLC analysis on PPABTF showed the presence of three known alkaloids. The fraction was further subjected to column chromatography and the compounds identified by ultraviolet, infrared, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, as canthin-6-one derivatives. The PPABTF in the dose of 20 mg/kg showed significant effects on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II NIDDM in rats. The activity may be due to the presence of alkaloids like canthin-6-one derivatives.

  5. Regional distribution and subcellular associations of Type II calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Erondu, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies generated against the Type II CaM kinase have been characterized. Two of these antibodies were used to confirm that both alpha and beta subunits were part of the holoenzyme complex. I also developed liquid phase and solid phase radioimmunoassays for the kinase. With the solid phase radioimmunoassay, the distribution of the kinase in rat brain was examined. This study revealed that the concentration of the kinase varies markedly in different brain regions. It is most highly concentrated in the telencephalon where it comprises approximately 2% of total hippocampal protein, 1.3% of cortical protein and 0.7% of striatal protein. It is less concentrated in lower brain regions ranging from 0.3% of hypothalamic protein to 0.1% of protein in the pons/medulla.

  6. Mimicking disruption of brain-immune system-joint communication results in collagen type II-induced arthritis in non-susceptible PVG rats.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christine; Straub, Rainer H; Hahnel, Anja; Randolf, Anke; Wildmann, Johannes; Besedovsky, Hugo O; del Rey, Adriana

    2015-11-05

    The brain-immune system-joint communication is disrupted during collagen type II (CII) arthritis in DA rats. Since PVG rats are not susceptible to arthritis induction, comparison of hypothalamic and peripheral neuro-endocrine and immune responses between immunized DA and PVG rats might help to explain their different susceptibility to develop the disease. PVG and DA rats were immunized with CII. Corticosterone, neurotransmitters, anti-CII antibodies, and cytokine concentrations in plasma, and hypothalamic neurotransmitters and cytokines were determined by ELISA, Luminex, HPLC and RT-qPCR. Adrenalectomy or sham-operation was performed in PVG and DA rats 14 days before immunization. Basal plasma corticosterone and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher, and plasma cytokines and hypothalamic noradrenaline were lower in PVG rats than in DA rats. While DA rats developed severe arthritis upon immunization (maximum score 16), only 12 out of 28 PVG rats showed minimal symptoms (score 1-2). The density of sympathetic nerve fibers in arthritic joints of DA rats markedly decreased, but it remained stable in immunized PVG rats. The ratio corticosterone to IL-1β levels in plasma was markedly higher in immunized PVG rats than in arthritic DA rats. Adrenalectomy resulted in severe arthritis in PVG rats upon immunization with CII. While DA rats show an altered immune-brain communication that favors the development of arthritis, PVG rats express a protective neuro-endocrine milieu, particularly linked to the basal tone of the HPA axis. Mimicking disruption of this axis elicits arthritis in non-susceptible PVG rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carnitine supplementation to obese Zucker rats prevents obesity-induced type II to type I muscle fiber transition and favors an oxidative phenotype of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation counteracts obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. Methods 24 obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into two groups of 12 rats each (obese control, obese carnitine) and 12 lean Zucker rats were selected for lean control group. A control diet was given to both control groups and a carnitine supplemented diet (3 g/kg diet) was given to obese carnitine group for 4 wk. Components of the muscle fiber transformation in skeletal muscle were examined. Results The plasma level of carnitine were lower in the obese control group compared to the lean control group and higher in the obese carnitine group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were increased in obese animals compared to lean animals and the obese carnitine group had lower level compared to the obese control group (P < 0.05). The obese carnitine group had an increased number of type I muscle fibers and higher mRNA levels of type I fiber-specific myosin heavy chain, regulators of muscle fiber transition and of genes involved in carnitine uptake, fatty acid transport, β-oxidation, angiogenesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and thermo genesis in M. rectus femoris compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrate that carnitine supplementation to obese Zucker a rat counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition and restores the muscle oxidative metabolic phenotype. Carnitine supplementation is supposed to be beneficial for the treatment of elevated levels of plasma lipids during obesity or diabetes. PMID:23842456

  8. Role of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the subfornical organ in the pressor responses to central sodium in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiruneh, Missale A; Huang, Bing S; Leenen, Frans H H

    2013-08-21

    Central infusion of Na(+)-rich artificial cerebro-spinal fluid (aCSF) activates the brain renin-angiotensin system and causes sympatho-excitatory and pressor responses. We evaluated the role of the subfornical organ (SFO) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors in the SFO in mediating the central Na(+)-induced pressor response. In conscious Wistar rats, intra SFO infusions of Na(+)-rich aCSF containing 0.45 and 0.6M Na(+) at 10 nl/min or injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) at 80 ng increased blood pressure (BP) by 15-22 mmHg, whereas mannitol with the same osmolarity as the Na(+)-rich aCSF had no effects. Intra SFO infusion of the AT1 receptor blocker candesartan abolished the pressor response induced by intra SFO administration of Na(+)-rich aCSF or Ang II. Intra cerebro-ventricular (icv) infusion of Na(+)-rich aCSF (0.3M Na(+)) at 3.8 μl/min for 10 min increased BP by 15-20 mmHg. Electrolytic lesion of the SFO attenuated these BP increases by 50-70%. Intra SFO infusion of candesartan also prevented 50% of these pressor responses. These data suggest that SFO neurons are indeed sensitive to Na(+), the SFO is a major - but not only - site in the brain to sense an increase in CSF [Na(+)], and activation of AT1 receptors in the SFO mediates the SFO component of the Na(+)-induced pressor response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [In vitro differentiation of rat amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells into type II alveolar epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Yan, Jianping; Xu, Wulin; Li, Yaqing; Xia, Yingjie; Chen, Chun

    2014-07-08

    To explore the in vitro differentiation of rat amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII). Flow cytometry was used to analyze the phenotypes of AF-MSCs from 10 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. And the Oct-4 mRNA expression level was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Rat embryonic stem cell was used as a positive control. According to different culturing methods, AF-MSCs were randomly divided into 5 groups of A (control group), B, C, D and E. After in vitro differentiation, SPA, SPB, SPC, SPD and TTF1 mRNA expressions were detected by qRT-PCR, SPA and SPC protein expressions measured by immunofluorescence and lamellar bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy. AF-MSCs could grow spirally in L-DMEM medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum and 4 µg/L basic fibroblast growth factor. The expressions of such surface antigens of AF-MSCs (third passage) as CD29 (99.1 ± 7.9)%, CD44 (99.2 ± 7.4)%, CD73 (75.6 ± 5.2)%, CD90 (98.9 ± 8.1)%, CD105 (92.9 ± 7.3)% and CD166 (89.3 ± 6.7)% were positive while CD34 and CD45 were negative. And the expression of Oct-4 mRNA (relative quantity: 0.690 ± 0.059) was significantly lower than rat embryonic stem cells (relative quantity: 1.000 ± 0.002) positive control group (P < 0.01). After in vitro differentiation, the expressions of SPA, SPB, SPC, SPD and TTF1 mRNA and SPA and SPC protein were negative in group A and positive in group B. The expressions of SPA, SPB, SPC, SPD and TTF1 mRNA (relative quantity: 0.426 ± 0.043, 0.368 ± 0.028, 0.492 ± 0.058, 0.327 ± 0.024 and 0.183 ± 0.018) and SPA and SPC protein in group B were significantly higher than other groups (all P < 0.01). Lamellar bodies could be found in the differentiated cells of group B. Rat AF-MSCs from amniotic fluid may differentiated into AECII like cells in vitro.

  10. Chronic ethanol ingestion impairs alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function and predisposes to endotoxin-mediated acute edematous lung injury in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Holguin, F; Moss, I; Brown, L A; Guidot, D M

    1998-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse increases the incidence and mortality of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in septic patients. To examine a potential mechanism, we hypothesized that ethanol ingestion predisposes to sepsis-mediated acute lung injury by decreasing alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function. Lungs isolated from rats fed ethanol (20% in water for >/= 3 wk), compared with lungs from control-fed rats, had greater (P < 0. 05) edematous injury (reflected by nonhydrostatic weight gain) after endotoxin (2 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and subsequent perfusion ex vivo with n-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP, 10(-7) M). Ethanol ingestion decreased (P < 0.05) glutathione levels in the plasma, lung tissue, and lung lavage fluid, and increased (P < 0.05) oxidized glutathione levels in the lung lavage fluid. Furthermore, ethanol ingestion decreased type II cell glutathione content by 95% (P < 0.05), decreased (P < 0.05) type II cell surfactant synthesis and secretion, and decreased (P < 0.05) type II cell viability, in vitro. Finally, treatment with the glutathione precursors S-adenosyl-L-methionine and N-acetylcysteine in the final week of ethanol ingestion significantly reduced lung edema during perfusion ex vivo. We conclude that ethanol ingestion in rats alters alveolar type II cell glutathione levels and function, thereby predisposing the lung to acute edematous injury after endotoxemia. We speculate that chronic alcohol abuse in humans predisposes to ARDS through similar mechanisms. PMID:9466970

  11. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Receptor Mas Are Colocalized and Functionally Interdependent in Obese Zucker Rat Kidney.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanket N; Ali, Quaisar; Samuel, Preethi; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha; Hussain, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    The actions of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas (MasR) are complex but show similar pronatriuretic function; particularly, AT2R expression and natriuretic function are enhanced in obese/diabetic rat kidney. In light of some reports suggesting a potential positive interaction between these receptors, we tested hypothesis that renal AT2R and MasR physically interact and are interdependent to stimulate cell signaling and promote natriuresis in obese rats. We found that infusion of AT2R agonist C21 in obese Zucker rats (OZR) increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of the AT2R antagonist PD123319 or the MasR antagonist A-779. Similarly, infusion of MasR agonist Ang-(1-7) in OZR increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion, which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of A-779 or PD123319. Experiment in isolated renal proximal tubules of OZR revealed that both the agonists C21 and Ang-(1-7) stimulated NO which was blocked by either of the receptor antagonists. Dual labeling of AT2R and MasR in OZR kidney sections and human proximal tubule epithelial cells showed that AT2R and MasR are colocalized. The AT2R also coimmunoprecipitated with MasR in cortical homogenate of OZR. Immunoblotting of cortical homogenate cross-linked with zero-length oxidative (sulfhydryl groups) cross-linker cupric-phenanthroline revealed a shift of AT2R and MasR bands upward with overlapping migration for their complexes which were sensitive to the reducing β-mercaptoethanol, suggesting involvement of -SH groups in cross-linking. Collectively, the study reveals that AT2R and MasR are colocalized and functionally interdependent in terms of stimulating NO and promoting diuretic/natriuretic response. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Acute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II Diabetes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for Society of Toxicology, March 22-25, 2015, San Diego, CAAcute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II DiabetesS.J. Snow1,3, D. Miller2, V. Bass2, M. Schladweiler3, A. Ledbetter3, J. Richards3, C...

  13. Acute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II Diabetes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for Society of Toxicology, March 22-25, 2015, San Diego, CAAcute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II DiabetesS.J. Snow1,3, D. Miller2, V. Bass2, M. Schladweiler3, A. Ledbetter3, J. Richards3, C...

  14. Angiotensin II stimulates expression of the chemokine RANTES in rat glomerular endothelial cells. Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, G; Ziyadeh, F N; Thaiss, F; Tomaszewski, J; Caron, R J; Wenzel, U; Zahner, G; Helmchen, U; Stahl, R A

    1997-01-01

    Glomerular influx of monocytes/macrophages (M/M) occurs in many immune- and non-immune-mediated renal diseases. The mechanisms targeting M/M into the glomerulus are incompletely understood, but may involve stimulated expression of chemokines. We investigated whether angiotensin II (ANG II) induces the chemokine RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells of the rat and in vivo. ANG II stimulated mRNA and protein expression of RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells. The ANG II-induced RANTES protein was chemotactic for human monocytes. Surprisingly, the ANG II-stimulated RANTES expression was transduced by AT2 receptors because the AT2 receptor antagonists PD 123177 and CGP-42112A, but not an AT1 receptor blocker, abolished the induced RANTES synthesis. Intraperitoneal infusion of ANG II (500 ng/h) into naive rats for 4 d significantly stimulated glomerular RANTES mRNA and protein expression compared with solvent-infused controls. Immunohistochemistry revealed induction of RANTES protein mainly in glomerular endothelial cells and small capillaries. Moreover, ANG II- infused animals exhibited an increase in glomerular ED-1- positive cells compared with controls. Oral treatment with PD 123177 (50 mg/liter drinking water) attenuated the glomerular M/M influx without normalizing the slightly elevated systolic blood pressure caused by ANG II infusion, suggesting that the effects on blood pressure and RANTES induction can be separated. We conclude that the vasoactive peptide ANG II may play an important role in glomerular chemotaxis of M/M through local induction of the chemokine RANTES. The observation that the ANG II- mediated induction of RANTES is transduced by AT2 receptors may influence the decision as to which substances might be used for the therapeutic interference with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:9276721

  15. Fetal rat lung type II cell differentiation in serum-free isolated cell culture: modulation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fraslon, C; Lacaze-Masmonteil, T; Zupan, V; Chailley-Heu, B; Bourbon, J R

    1993-05-01

    Undifferentiated fetal rat lung epithelial cells were isolated on gestational days 15 or 17 (term 22 days) and cultured in a defined medium. On plastic, most of the cells developed structurally abnormal lamellar bodies. On a basement membrane matrix (BMM), they sequentially accumulated glycogen and formed typical lamellar bodies. Biochemical analysis of the latter indicated that they had a phospholipid composition typical of surfactant for cells on BMM but not on plastic and that surfactant protein A appeared on BMM only. Progressing maturation from day 1 to day 6 in culture was demonstrated for 17-day cells on BMM by a sevenfold increase of labeled precursor incorporation into surfactant phospholipids. Exposure to medium conditioned by 21-day fetal fibroblasts enhanced incorporation already after a 1-day culture. The antisteroid RU 486 had no effect on differentiation, whereas transforming growth factor-beta, a factor produced by lung mesenchyme at early fetal stages, inhibited it markedly. Alveolar epithelial type II cells appear to be committed early, but their maturational process would be prevented until a definite gestational stage.

  16. Targeted gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor to alveolar type II epithelial cells reduces lung fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gazdhar, Amiq; Temuri, Almas; Knudsen, Lars; Gugger, Mathias; Schmid, Ralph A; Ochs, Matthias; Geiser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Inefficient alveolar wound repair contributes to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent growth factor for alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) and may improve repair and reduce fibrosis. We studied whether targeted gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII improves lung fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. A plasmid encoding human HGF expressed from the human surfactant protein C promoter (pSpC-hHGF) was designed, and extracorporeal electroporation-mediated gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII was performed 7 days after bleomycin-induced lung injury in the rat. Animals were killed 7 days after hHGF gene transfer. Electroporation-mediated HGF gene transfer resulted in HGF expression specifically in AECII at biologically relevant levels. HGF gene transfer reduced pulmonary fibrosis as assessed by histology, hydroxyproline determination, and design-based stereology compared with controls. Our results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of HGF is due in part to a reduction of transforming growth factor-β(1), modulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and reduction of extravascular fibrin deposition. We conclude that targeted HGF gene transfer specifically to AECII decreases bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and may therefore represent a novel cell-specific gene transfer technology to treat pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. The calcium channel antagonist benidipine reduces plasma and cardiac endothelin-1 levels in type II diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Subrina; Sakuma, Ichiro; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitabatake, Akira; Miyauchi, Takashi

    2004-11-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the central feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance is an early clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Calcium channel blockers are widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients; however, it remains unknown how endothelin-1 (ET-1) is altered and associated with cardiac lesions at the insulin-resistant early stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and, if so, whether calcium channel blockers can reverse such alterations. We examined plasma and cardiac expression of ET-1 in male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a spontaneous model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus. At 8 weeks of age, OLETF rats were treated for 12 weeks with a long acting calcium channel blocker, benidipine (3 mg/kg per day p.o.) (BEN, n = 15), or with vehicle (OLETF, n = 15), and age-matched genetic control, male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were also used (n = 15). Blood pressure was significantly higher in OLETF than LETO rats, and benidipine treatment of OLETF rats for 12 weeks did not reduce their blood pressure significantly. Plasma and cardiac levels of ET-1 were significantly higher in OLETF compared with LETO rats (both P < 0.01), and were reversed after benidipine treatment. Our results suggest that ET-1 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiac complications at the insulin-resistant stage of diabetes mellitus, and that benidipine treatment may have a beneficial effect on these complications.

  18. P2Y2 receptor activation opens pannexin-1 channels in rat carotid body type II cells: potential role in amplifying the neurotransmitter ATP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Piskuric, Nikol A; Vollmer, Cathy; Nurse, Colin A

    2012-09-01

    Signal processing in the carotid body (CB) is initiated at receptor glomus (or type I) cells which depolarize and release the excitatory neurotransmitter ATP during chemoexcitation by hypoxia and acid hypercapnia. Glomus cell clusters (GCs) occur in intimate association with glia-like type II cells which express purinergic P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) but their function is unclear. Here we immunolocalize the gap junction-like protein channel pannexin-1 (Panx-1) in type II cells and show Panx-1 mRNA expression in the rat CB. As expected, type II cell activation within or near isolated GCs by P2Y2R agonists, ATP and UTP (100 μm), induced a rise in intracellular [Ca(2+)]. Moreover in perforated-patch whole cell recordings from type II cells, these agonists caused a prolonged depolarization and a concentration-dependent, delayed opening of non-selective ion channels that was prevented by Panx-1 blockers, carbenoxolone (5 μm) and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS; 10 μm). Because Panx-1 channels serve as conduits for ATP release, we hypothesized that paracrine, type II cell P2Y2R activation leads to ATP-induced ATP release. In proof-of-principle experiments we used co-cultured chemoafferent petrosal neurones (PNs), which express P2X2/3 purinoceptors, as sensitive biosensors of ATP released from type II cells. In several cases, UTP activation of type II cells within or near GCs led to depolarization or increased firing in nearby PNs, and the effect was reversibly abolished by the selective P2X2/3 receptor blocker, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS; 10 μm). We propose that CB type II cells may function as ATP amplifiers during chemotransduction via paracrine activation of P2Y2Rs and Panx-1 channels.

  19. Renal angiotensin II type-2 receptors are upregulated and mediate the candesartan-induced natriuresis/diuresis in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Hakam, Amer C; Hussain, Tahir

    2005-02-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in studying the role of angiotensin II type-2 (AT(2)) receptor in renal/cardiovascular function in pathological conditions. The present study was designed to determine the functional role of the AT(2) receptors on natriuresis/diuresis and compare the level of the tubular AT(2) receptor expression in obese and lean Zucker rats (12 weeks old). Under anesthesia, candesartan (angiotensin II type 1 [AT(1)]-specific antagonist; 100 microg/kg bolus) produced natriuresis/diuresis to a greater degree in obese than in lean rats. The specific AT(2) antagonist PD123319 (50 microg/kg per minute) after candesartan administration abolished the natriuretic/diuretic effects of candesartan in obese rats but not in lean rats. Infusion of AT(2) receptor agonist, CGP-42112A (1 microg/kg per minute), produced greater increase in sodium and urine excretion over basal in obese than in lean rats. The presence of the AT(2) receptor expression in the brush-border and basolateral membranes was confirmed by Western blotting using specific antibody and antigen-blocking peptide. Densitometric analysis of the bands revealed approximately 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the AT(2) receptor proteins in both membranes of obese compared with lean rats. Our results suggest upregulation of the AT(2) receptors, which play a role in mediating the natriuretic/diuretic effects of AT(1) receptor blockers in obese Zucker rats. We speculate that AT(2) receptors, by promoting sodium excretion, may protect obese Zucker rats against blood pressure increase associated with sodium and water retention.

  20. Type I and Type II Pyrethroid alterations in Spontaneous Bursting Parameters in Rat Cortical Networks measured Using Multielectrode Array Recordings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids are widely used in agricultural, industrial and residential settings to control insect pests. Pyrethroids prolong sodium channel inactivation, although their complete mode of action is not fully understood. We previously reported that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) ...

  1. Type I and Type II Pyrethroid alterations in Spontaneous Bursting Parameters in Rat Cortical Networks measured Using Multielectrode Array Recordings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids are widely used in agricultural, industrial and residential settings to control insect pests. Pyrethroids prolong sodium channel inactivation, although their complete mode of action is not fully understood. We previously reported that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) ...

  2. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on rats with Type II diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin: a urine metabonomic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huihui; Li, Zhigeng; Tian, Guihua; Gao, Kuo; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Baosheng; Wang, Juan; Luo, Liangtao; Pan, Qiu; Zhang, Wenting; Wu, Zhiqian; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Type II diabetes has become a serious threat to human health in recent years. Among adults above 20 years old in China, the prevalence rate of diabetes is 9.7%. Thus, it is imperative to study the mechanisms underlying type II diabetes to develop effective therapeutic treatments. To examine metabolic changes in a rat model of type II diabetes and explore mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in this model. 120 rats were divided into four groups, including a control group, a high-fat diet group (high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection), a TCM group (high-fat diet, streptozotocin injection, followed by TCM administration), and a rosiglitazone maleate group (high-fat diet, streptozotocin injection, followed by rosiglitazone maleate administration). Metabolites in urine samples from 1-3 weeks (time point 1) and 4-6 weeks (time point 2) of drug administration were compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that in the high-fat diet group, at time point 2, the levels of dihydroxybenzoic acid, L-ascorbic acid, D-gluconic acid, octadecanoic acid, and glutaric acid in urine were significantly higher than at time point 1. In the TCM group, at time point 2, the urine levels of L-ascorbic acid were markedly lower than at time point 1. Our studies demonstrated that examining urine metabolic changes provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying type II diabetes as well as the therapeutic effects of TCM.

  3. Antihypertensive, insulin-sensitising and renoprotective effects of a novel, potent and long-acting angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, azilsartan medoxomil, in rat and dog models.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Keiji; Igata, Hideki; Ojima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ayako; Imanishi, Mitsuaki; Yamaguchi, Fuminari; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kuroita, Takanobu; Kawaguchi, Naohiro; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; Nagaya, Hideaki

    2011-11-01

    The pharmacological profile of a novel angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, azilsartan medoxomil, was compared with that of the potent angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan medoxomil. Azilsartan, the active metabolite of azilsartan medoxomil, inhibited the binding of [(125)I]-Sar(1)-I1e(8)-angiotensin II to angiotensin II type 1 receptors. Azilsartan medoxomil inhibited angiotensin II-induced pressor responses in rats, and its inhibitory effects lasted 24h after oral administration. The inhibitory effects of olmesartan medoxomil disappeared within 24h. ID(50) values were 0.12 and 0.55 mg/kg for azilsartan medoxomil and olmesartan medoxomil, respectively. In conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), oral administration of 0.1-1mg/kg azilsartan medoxomil significantly reduced blood pressure at all doses even 24h after dosing. Oral administration of 0.1-3mg/kg olmesartan medoxomil also reduced blood pressure; however, only the two highest doses significantly reduced blood pressure 24h after dosing. ED(25) values were 0.41 and 1.3mg/kg for azilsartan medoxomil and olmesartan medoxomil, respectively. In renal hypertensive dogs, oral administration of 0.1-1mg/kg azilsartan medoxomil reduced blood pressure more potently and persistently than that of 0.3-3mg/kg olmesartan medoxomil. In a 2-week study in SHRs, azilsartan medoxomil showed more stable antihypertensive effects than olmesartan medoxomil and improved the glucose infusion rate, an indicator of insulin sensitivity, more potently (≥ 10 times) than olmesartan medoxomil. Azilsartan medoxomil also exerted more potent antiproteinuric effects than olmesartan medoxomil in Wistar fatty rats. These results suggest that azilsartan medoxomil is a potent angiotensin II receptor blocker that has an attractive pharmacological profile as an antihypertensive agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective C1 Lesioning Slightly Decreases Angiotensin II type I Receptor Expression in the Rat Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM)

    PubMed Central

    Bourassa, Erick A.; Stedenfeld, Kristen A.; Sved, Alan F.; Speth, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular homeostasis is regulated in large part by the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in mammals. Projections from the RVLM to the intermediolateral column of the thoracolumbar spinal cord innervate preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system causing elevation of blood pressure and heart rate. A large proportion, but not all, of the neurons in the RVLM contain the enzymes necessary for the production of epinephrine and are identified as the C1 cell group. Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates the RVLM acting upon AT1 receptors. To assess the proportion of AT1 receptors that are located on C1 neurons in the rat RVLM this study employed an antibody to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase conjugated to saporin, to selectively destroy C1 neurons in the RVLM. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the RVLM was reduced by 57 % in the toxin injected RVLM compared to the contralateral RVLM. In contrast, densitometric analysis of autoradiographic images of 125I-sarcosine1, isoleucine8 Ang II binding to AT1 receptors of the injected side RVLM revealed a small (10%) reduction in AT1 receptor expression compared to the contralateral RVLM. These results suggest that the majority of AT1 receptors in the rat RVLM are located on non-C1 neurons or glia. PMID:26138553

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of angiotensin II receptor types 1 and 2 in the mesenteric artery from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Carmen; Leal, Sandra; Logan, Karen; Rocha-Pereira, Carolina; Soares, Ana Sofia; Rocha, Eduardo; Gonçalves, Jorge; Fresco, Paula

    2007-08-01

    Angiotensin II plays a crucial role in the control of blood pressure, acting at AT1 or AT2 receptors, and can act as a potent vasoconstrictor of the peripheral vasculature inducing hypertrophy, hyperplasia, or both, in resistance arteries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the pattern of distribution of angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors on mesenteric artery sections differs in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) versus their respective controls (Wistar-Kyoto [WKY] rats). Immunohistochemistry using anti-AT1 or anti-AT2 antibodies was performed on perfused-fixed/paraffin-embedded mesenteric arteries from SHR and WKY rats. 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB; activated by hydrogen peroxide) staining revealed distinct AT1 and AT2 labeling of all artery layers (adventitia, media and intima) from WKY rats, whereas in SHR an abundant AT1 labeling was found in both intima and adventitia and a sparser labeling in the media. There was a vast reduction of AT2 labeling throughout all layers. These results suggest a crucial role for AT2 receptors in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  6. Effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of hyperoxia-exposed type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from premature rat.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaping; Chang, Liwen; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Hanchu

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in A-EC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 micromol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 micromol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 micromol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  7. Differences in type II, IV, V and VI adenylyl cyclase isoform expression between rat preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Serazin-Leroy, V; Morot, M; de Mazancourt, P; Giudicelli, Y

    2001-11-26

    Adenylyl cyclase catalytic activity is low in preadipocyte membranes when compared to adipocytes. Under conditions promoting inhibition of adipocyte adenylyl cyclase activity by Gpp(NH)p, a stable GTP analog, a paradoxical increase in preadipocyte adenylyl cyclase activity was obtained. In order to explain this contradiction, expression of types II, IV, V and VI adenylyl cyclase isoforms was compared in adipocytes and undifferentiated preadipocytes both by western blots and by a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Type II, IV, V and VI mRNAs and proteins were present in both adipocytes and preadipocytes. However, in undifferentiated preadipocytes, expression of type II mRNA and protein were significantly higher whereas expression of type IV, V and VI adenylyl cyclase mRNAs and proteins were significantly weaker than in adipocytes. In late differentiated preadipocytes, the adenylyl cyclase subtype mRNA expression pattern was intermediary between the undifferentiated and the full differentiation states except for type IV which remained weakly expressed. Moreover, one of the representative regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS protein), RGS4, was less expressed in undifferentiated preadipocyte membranes and cytosol extracts, which contrasts with adipocytes where RGS4 is clearly expressed. Thus, the preferential expression of type II adenylyl cyclase (G(betagamma) subunit-stimulated) in preadipocytes might explain why Gpp(NH)p elicits stimulation of adenylyl cyclase under conditions designed to promote inhibition. Conversely, the preferential expression of type V and VI adenylyl cyclases and the slightly higher expression of type IV adenylyl cyclase in adipocytes could contribute to explain the elevated total catalytic activity observed in mature fat cells compared to their precursor cells.

  8. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  9. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  10. Intracerebroventricular losartan infusion modulates angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in the subfornical organ and drinking behaviour in bile-duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Walch, Joseph D; Carreño, Flávia Regina; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates haemodynamic changes, including peripheral vasodilatation and generalized oedema. Peripheral vasodilatation is hypothesized to activate compensatory mechanisms, including increased drinking behaviour and neurohumoral activation. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA and protein in the lamina terminalis are associated with BDL-induced hyposmolality in the rat. All rats received either BDL or sham-ligation surgery. The rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. Expression of AT(1)R in the lamina terminalis was assessed by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Average baseline water intake increased significantly in BDL rats compared with sham-operated rats, and upregulation of AT(1)R protein and AT(1a)R mRNA were observed in the subfornical organ of BDL rats. Separate groups of BDL and sham-ligated rats were instrumented with minipumps filled with either losartan (2.0 μg μl(-1)) or 0.9% saline for chronic intracerebroventricular or chronic subcutaneous infusion. Chronic intracerebroventricular losartan infusion attenuated the increased drinking behaviour and prevented the increased abundance of AT(1)R protein in the subfornical organ in BDL rats. Chronic subcutaneous infusion did not affect water intake or AT(1)R abundance in the subfornical organ. The data presented here indicate a possible role of increased central AT(1)R expression in the regulation of drinking behaviour during congestive cirrhosis.

  11. P2Y2 receptor activation opens pannexin-1 channels in rat carotid body type II cells: potential role in amplifying the neurotransmitter ATP

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Piskuric, Nikol A; Vollmer, Cathy; Nurse, Colin A

    2012-01-01

    Signal processing in the carotid body (CB) is initiated at receptor glomus (or type I) cells which depolarize and release the excitatory neurotransmitter ATP during chemoexcitation by hypoxia and acid hypercapnia. Glomus cell clusters (GCs) occur in intimate association with glia-like type II cells which express purinergic P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) but their function is unclear. Here we immunolocalize the gap junction-like protein channel pannexin-1 (Panx-1) in type II cells and show Panx-1 mRNA expression in the rat CB. As expected, type II cell activation within or near isolated GCs by P2Y2R agonists, ATP and UTP (100 μm), induced a rise in intracellular [Ca2+]. Moreover in perforated-patch whole cell recordings from type II cells, these agonists caused a prolonged depolarization and a concentration-dependent, delayed opening of non-selective ion channels that was prevented by Panx-1 blockers, carbenoxolone (5 μm) and 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS; 10 μm). Because Panx-1 channels serve as conduits for ATP release, we hypothesized that paracrine, type II cell P2Y2R activation leads to ATP-induced ATP release. In proof-of-principle experiments we used co-cultured chemoafferent petrosal neurones (PNs), which express P2X2/3 purinoceptors, as sensitive biosensors of ATP released from type II cells. In several cases, UTP activation of type II cells within or near GCs led to depolarization or increased firing in nearby PNs, and the effect was reversibly abolished by the selective P2X2/3 receptor blocker, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid (PPADS; 10 μm). We propose that CB type II cells may function as ATP amplifiers during chemotransduction via paracrine activation of P2Y2Rs and Panx-1 channels. PMID:22733659

  12. Heterogeneity of nuclear estrogen-binding sites in the rat uterus: a simple method for the quantitation of type I and type II sites by (3H)estradiol exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Markaverich, B.M.; Williams, M.; Upchurch, S.; Clark, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Estrogen administration to mature-ovariectomized rats causes the activation or stimulation of secondary nuclear estrogen-binding sites (type II) in the uterus which can interfere with estrogen receptor (type I) measurement. Earlier reports from our laboratory have shown that quantitation of type I sites in the presence of the type II site is very difficult and can only be achieved by graphic analysis of saturation curves which employ a wide range (0.4-40 NM) of (/sup 3/H)estradiol concentrations in nuclear exchange assay. The studies presented in this manuscript describe simple methods which can be used to separately quantitate both nuclear estrogen-binding sites using a single concentration of (/sup 3/H)estradiol. Since the nuclear type II site does not bind (/sup 3/H)estradiol in the presence of reducing agent, type I sites can be easily quantitated by incubating nuclei (37 C for 30 min) in Tris-EDTA buffer containing 0.1-1.00 mM dithiothreitol using a single saturating concentration of (/sup 3/H)estradiol. Conversely, a single concentration of (/sup 3/H)estradiol (40-80 nM) can be used to quantitate the nuclear type II site by incubating nuclei in Tris-EDTA buffer under conditions (4 C for 60 min) which do not measure occupied nuclear estrogen receptor. Therefore, by using the appropriate buffer system, type I and type II sites can be easily separated in mixed binding systems. In addition, we also demonstrate that Nafoxidine does not bind to the nuclear type II site. Therefore, it can be used as a competitive inhibitor of (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to type I sites and permit the measurement of type II sites without interference from type I sites. These techniques should be applicable to autoradiographic or fluorescence studies which cannot discriminate between steroid binding to these two classes of nuclear estrogen-binding sites.

  13. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 allosteric potentiators prevent sodium lactate-induced panic-like response in panic-vulnerable rats

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip L; Fitz, Stephanie D; Engleman, Eric A; Svensson, Kjell A; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-01-01

    Rats with chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis by infusion of l-allyglycine, a glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor, into their dorsomedial/perifornical hypothalamus are anxious and exhibit panic-like cardio-respiratory responses to treatment with intravenous (i.v.) sodium lactate (NaLac) infusions, in a manner similar to what occurs in patients with panic disorder. We previously showed that either NMDA receptor antagonists or metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2/3 receptor agonists can block such a NaLac response, suggesting that a glutamate mechanism is contributing to this panic-like state. Using this animal model of panic, we tested the efficacy of CBiPES and THIIC, which are selective group II metabotropic glutamate type 2 receptor allosteric potentiators (at 10–30mg/kg i.p.), in preventing NaLac-induced panic-like behavioral and cardiovascular responses. The positive control was alprazolam (3mg/kg i.p.), a clinically effective anti-panic benzodiazepine. As predicted, panic-prone rats given a NaLac challenge displayed NaLac-induced panic-like cardiovascular (i.e. tachycardia and hypertensive) responses and “anxiety” (i.e. decreased social interaction time) and “flight” (i.e. increased locomotion) -associated behaviors; however, systemic injection of the panic-prone rats with CBiPES, THIIC or alprazolam prior to the NaLac dose blocked all NaLac-induced panic-like behaviors and cardiovascular responses. These data suggested that in a rat animal model, selective group II metabotropic glutamate type 2 receptor allosteric potentiators show an anti-panic efficacy similar to alprazolam. PMID:22914798

  14. Age determines the magnitudes of angiotensin II-induced contractions, mRNA, and protein expression of angiotensin type 1 receptors in rat carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Zoltan; Cseplo, Peter; Ivic, Ivan; Matics, Robert; Hamar, Janos; Koller, Akos

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that aging alters angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasomotor responses and expression of vascular mRNA and protein angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). Thus, carotid arteries were isolated from the following age groups of rats: 8 days, 2-9 months, 12-20 months, and 20-30 months, and their vasomotor responses were measured in a myograph after repeated administrations of Ang II. Vascular relative AT1R mRNA level was determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the AT1R protein density was measured by Western blot. Contractions to the first administration of Ang II increased from 8 days to 6 months and then they decreased to 30 months. In general, second administration of Ang II elicited reduced contractions, but they also increased from 8 days until 2 months and then they decreased to 30 months. Similarly the AT1R mRNA level increased from 8 days to 12 months and then decreased to 30 months. Similarly the AT1R protein density increased from 8 days until 16 months and then they decreased to 30 months. The pattern of these changes correlated with functional vasomotor data. We conclude that aging (newborn to senescence) has substantial effects on Ang II-induced vasomotor responses and AT1R signaling suggesting the importance of genetic programs.

  15. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation improves fatty acid ovarian uptake and hyperandrogenemia in an obese rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Samuel; Battista, Marie-Claude; Noll, Christophe; Hallberg, Anders; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Carpentier, André C; Vine, Donna F; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2014-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is mainly defined by hyperandrogenism but is also characterized by insulin resistance (IR). Studies showed that overexposure of nonadipose tissues to nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) may explain both IR and hyperandrogenism. Recent studies indicate that treatment with an angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R)-selective agonist improves diet-induced IR. We thus hypothesized that PCOS hyperandrogenism is triggered by ovarian NEFA overexposure and is improved after treatment with an AT2R agonist. Experiments were conducted in 12-week-old female JCR:LA-cp/cp rats, which are characterized by visceral obesity, IR, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Control JCR:LA +/? rats have a normal phenotype. Rats were treated for 8 days with saline or the selective AT2R agonist C21/M24 and then assessed for: 1) fasting testosterone, NEFA, and insulin levels; and 2) an iv 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid test to determine NEFA ovarian tissue uptake (Km). Compared with controls, saline-treated PCOS/cp rats displayed higher insulin (100 vs 5.6 μU/mL), testosterone (0.12 vs 0.04 nmol/L), NEFA (0.98 vs 0.48 mmol/L), and Km (20.7 vs 12.9 nmol/g·min) (all P < .0001). In PCOS/cp rats, C21/M24 did not significantly improve insulin or NEFA but normalized testosterone (P = .004) and Km (P = .009), which were strongly correlated together in all PCOS/cp rats (ρ = 0.74, P = .009). In conclusion, in an obese PCOS rat model, ovarian NEFA uptake and testosterone levels are strongly associated and are both significantly reduced after short-term C21/M24 therapy. These findings provide new information on the role of NEFA in PCOS hyperandrogenemia and suggest a potential role for AT2R agonists in the treatment of PCOS.

  16. Inhibitory effects of deer antler aqua-acupuncture, the pilose antler of Cervus Korean TEMMINCK var mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Kye; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Young-Choon; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2003-07-01

    Water extract of deer antler aqua-acupunture (DAA) prepared from the growing antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, was used to investigate the efficacy of a traditional immunosuppressive and immuno-activating Korean aqua-acupuncture, on the development of type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. The onset of arthritis was observed at the 24th day after the CII-immunization in rats, and the severity of CIA was gradually developed. As compared with rats treated with saline, DAA i.p. injected at doses of more than 50 microg/kg once a day for 14 days inhibited the ability of inguinal lymph node cells to produce T cell cytokines interleukin 2 and interferon-gamma when the cells were obtained from rats 24 days after immunization and cultured in vitro with CII. Treatment with DAA also inhibited the production of macrophage cytokines interleukin-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to in vitro stimulation of lymph node and macrophage cells with CII. In addition, in order to evaluate the influence of DAA on the incidence and development of arthritis in rat CIA, rats were immunized twice at a 3-week interval with bovine CII, with DAA being given i.p. once a day for 14 days with four different regimens. A 14-day course of DAA treatment at a daily dose of 100 microg/kg, which began on the day of the first CII immunization, suppressed the development of arthritis, as well as antibody formation and delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII. Treatment with DAA, which started on the same day as the booster immunization, also resulted in inhibition of development of arthritis and of immune responses to CII. However, treatment with DAA, which was prophylactically started prior to a primary immunization, did not inhibit the development of arthritis and immune response to CII. Furthermore, DAA extract did not affect the established diseases.

  17. Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Markert, T; Vaandrager, A B; Gambaryan, S; Pöhler, D; Häusler, C; Walter, U; De Jonge, H R; Jarchau, T; Lohmann, S M

    1995-01-01

    Certain pathogenic bacteria produce a family of heat stable enterotoxins (STa) which activate intestinal guanylyl cyclases, increase cGMP, and elicit life-threatening secretory diarrhea. The intracellular effector of cGMP actions has not been clarified. Recently we cloned the cDNA for a rat intestinal type II cGMP dependent protein kinase (cGK II) which is highly enriched in intestinal mucosa. Here we show that cGK II mRNA and protein are restricted to the intestinal segments from the duodenum to the proximal colon, with the highest amounts of cGK II protein in duodenum and jejunum. cGK II mRNA and protein decreased along the villus to crypt axis in the small intestine, whereas substantial amounts of both were found in the crypts of cecum. In intestinal epithelia, cGK II was specifically localized in the apical membrane, a major site of ion transport regulation. In contrast to cGK II, cGK I was localized in smooth muscle cells of the villus lamina propria. Short circuit current (ISC), a measure of Cl- secretion, was increased to a similar extent by STa and by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGK, except in distal colon and in monolayers of T84 human colon carcinoma cells in which cGK II was not detected. In human and mouse intestine, the cyclic nucleotide-regulated Cl- conductance can be exclusively accounted for by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Viewed collectively, the data suggest that cGK II is the mediator of STa and cGMP effects on Cl- transport in intestinal-epithelia. Images PMID:7543493

  18. The effect of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1 receptor antagonists, losartan and telmisartan, on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Czechowska, G; Celinski, K; Korolczuk, A; Wojcicka, G; Dudka, J; Bojarska, A; Madro, A; Brzozowski, T

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported previously that the density of angiotensin II receptors is increased in the rat liver in experimentally-induced fibrosis. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade of angiotensin receptors may produce beneficial effects in models of liver fibrosis. In this study, we used the widely used thioacetamide (TAA)-induced model of liver fibrosis (300 mg/L TAA ad libitum for 12 weeks). Rats received daily injections (i.p), lasting 4 weeks of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists, losartan 30 mg/kg (TAA + L) or telmisartan 10 mg/kg (TAA + T) and were compared to rat that received TAA alone. Chronic treatment with losartan and telmisartan was associated with a significant reduction in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and decreased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor beta-1 compared to controls. We also found a significant reduction interleukin-6 in rats receiving telmisartan (P < 0.05) but not losartan. Both treatments increased the concentration of liver glutathione along with a concomitant decrease of GSSG compared to controls. In addition, increased paraoxonase 1 activity was observed in the serum of rats receiving telmisartan group compared to the TAA alone controls. Finally, histological evaluation of liver sections revealed losartan and telmisartan treatment was associated with reduced inflammation and liver fibrosis. Taken together, these results indicate that both telmisartan and losartan have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in the TAA model of liver fibrosis. These finding add support to a growing body of literature indicating a potentially important role for the angiotensin system in liver fibrosis and indicate angiotensin antagonists may be useful agents for fibrosis treatment.

  19. Untargeted serum metabolomics reveals Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet and its optimal combination improve an impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Chen, Xi; Cai, Hao; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Chai, Chuan; Di, Liuqing; Shi, Liyun; Hu, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet, a six-herb preparation, was proved to show beneficial effects on type II diabetes patients in clinical. This study aims to optimize the component proportion of the six-herb preparation and explore the serum metabolic signatures of type II diabetes rats after treatment with Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet and its optimal combination. The component proportion of the preparation was optimized using uniform experimental design and machine learning techniques. Untargeted GC-MS metabolomic experiments were carried out with serum samples from model group and treatment groups. Data were normalized, multivariate and univariate statistical analysis performed and metabolites of interest putatively identified. 23 metabolites were significantly changed by Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet treatment and the majority of these were decreased, including various carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose, allose and gluconic acid), unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid), alanine, valine, propanoic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrate, along with pyrimidine and cholesterol. Increased concentrations of oxalic acid, leucine, glycine, serine, threonine, proline, lysine and citrate were observed. In the optimal combination-fed group, 21 metabolites were significantly affected and strikingly, the magnitudes of changes here were generally much greater than that of Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet treated rats. 18 metabolites affected in both groups included various carbohydrates (mannose, glucose, allose, fructose and gluconic acid), unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid), short-chain fatty acids (oxalic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrate), and amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine, glycine, proline and lysine), as well as pyrimidine. Metabolites exclusively affected in optimal combination treated rat included succinic acid, cysteine and phenylalanine, whilst four metabolites (propanoic acid, citrate

  20. An improved method for the isolation of rat alveolar type II lung cells: Use in the Comet assay to determine DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a cause of serious diseases, including lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and heart disease. DNA damage is thought to be one of the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) initiates disease in the lung. Indeed, CS induced DNA damage can be measured in vitro and in vivo. The potential of the Comet assay to measure DNA damage in isolated rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II) was explored as a means to include a genotoxicity end-point in rodent sub-chronic inhalation studies. In this study, published AEC II isolation methods were improved to yield viable cells suitable for use in the Comet assay. The improved method reduced the level of basal DNA damage and DNA repair in isolated AEC II. CS induced DNA damage could also be quantified in isolated cells following a single or 5 days CS exposure. In conclusion, the Comet assay has the potential to determine CS or other aerosol induced DNA damage in AEC II isolated from rodents used in sub-chronic inhalation studies.

  1. Brain endogenous angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2-R) protects against DOCA/salt-induced hypertension in female rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shu-Yan; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Li, Jian-Dong; Shen, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei

    2015-03-08

    Recent studies demonstrate that there are sex differences in the expression of angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2-R) in the kidney and that AT2-R plays an enhanced role in regulating blood pressure (BP) in females. Also, brain AT2-R activation has been reported to negatively modulate BP and sympathetic outflow. The present study investigated whether the central blockade of endogenous AT2-R augments deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced hypertension in both male and female rats. All rats were subcutaneously infused with DOCA combined with 1% NaCl solution as the sole drinking fluid. BP and heart rate (HR) were recorded by telemetric transmitters. To determine the effect of central AT2-R on DOCA/salt-induced hypertension, male and female rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with AT2-R antagonist, PD123,319, during DOCA/salt treatment. Subsequently, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, a key cardiovascular regulatory region of the brain, was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. DOCA/salt treatment elicited a greater increase in BP in male rats than that in females. Icv infusions of the AT2-R antagonist significantly augmented DOCA/salt pressor effects in females. However, this same treatment had no enhanced effect on DOCA/salt-induced increase in the BP in males. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis of the female brain revealed that DOCA/salt treatment enhanced the mRNA and protein expression for both antihypertensive components including AT2-R, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2, and interleukin (IL)-10 and hypertensive components including angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1-R), ACE-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, but decreased mRNA expression of renin in the PVN. The central blockade of AT2-R reversed the changes in mRNA and protein expressions of ACE-2, IL-10, and renin, further increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and kept higher the expressions of AT1-R, ACE-1, and AT2-R

  2. Leptin and Its Relation to Obesity and Insulin in the SHR/N-corpulent Rat, A Model of Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bhathena, Sam J.; Hansen, Carl T.

    2001-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive/NIH-corpulent (SHR/N-cp) rat is a genetic animal model that exhibits obesity, metabolic features of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia, which are characteristic of type II diabetes and mild hypertension. To determine the role of leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, in the development of obesity and diabetes in this model, we measured steady-state circulating levels of leptin in obese and lean SHR/N-cp rats and examined the relation between plasma leptin levels and metabolic variables at the stage of established obesity in these animals. Mean fasting plasma leptin concentration was 8-fold higher in obese than in lean rats (p<0.01). This was associated with a 6-fold elevation in plasma insulin in the obese group. Fasting levels of plasma glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride were all significantly higher in obese rats than in lean controls. Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between plasma leptin concentration and body weight among the animals (r=0.73, p<0.01). Similarly, plasma insulin concentration was significantly correlated with BW in all animals (r=0.54, p<0.05). There was also a significant positive.correlation between plasma leptin and plasma insulin in the entire group (r=0.70, p<0.01). However, this relationship was significant only for lean rats but not for obese rats (r=0.59, p<0.05 for lean rats, and r=0.23, p=NS, for obese rats). Plasma leptin also correlated positively with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.75, p<0.05), total cholesterol (r=0.63, p<0.05), and triglyceride (r=0.67, p <0.05). The marked elevation of plasma leptin in obese SHR/N-cp rats suggests that obesity in this animal model is related to up-regulation of the ob gene. Circulating leptin appears to be one of the best biological markers of obesity and that hyperleptinemia is closely associated with several metabolic risk factors related to insulin resistance in the diabesity syndrome. PMID:12369710

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases DNA damage in brain of rats subjected to a chemically induced chronic model of Tyrosinemia type II.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Scaini, Giselli; Rebelo, Joyce; Damiani, Adriani P; Pereira, Maiara; Andrade, Vanessa M; Gava, Fernanda F; Valvassori, Samira S; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a mutation in a gene encoding the enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase leading to an accumulation of tyrosine in the body, and is associated with neurologic and development difficulties in numerous patients. Because the accumulation of tyrosine promotes oxidative stress and DNA damage, the main aim of this study was to investigate the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of omega-3 treatment in a chemically-induced model of Tyrosinemia type II in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex of rats. Our results showed chronic administration of L-tyrosine increased the frequency and the index of DNA damage, as well as the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acid treatment totally prevented increased DNA damage in the striatum and hippocampus, and partially prevented in the cerebral cortex, whereas the increase in 8-OHdG levels was totally prevented by omega-3 fatty acid treatment in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the main accumulating metabolite in Tyrosinemia type II induce DNA damage in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, possibly mediated by free radical production, and the supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids was able to prevent this damage, suggesting that could be involved in the prevention of oxidative damage to DNA in this disease. Thus, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to Tyrosinemia type II patients may represent a new therapeutic approach and a possible adjuvant to the curren t treatment of this disease.

  4. Effects of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists and antagonists on slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors in the rat sinus hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Cahusac, Peter M B

    2009-12-01

    The possible functional role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels was investigated by testing various TRP agonists and antagonists in an isolated rat sinus hair follicle preparation. Extracellular recordings from slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptor units were made. The antagonist capsazepine depressed spontaneous and mechanically evoked activity, with an IC(50) of 82 microM. In one-third of units, capsazepine caused a selective depression of mechanically evoked firing, such that the existing spontaneous firing was interrupted by an absence of activity during the mechanical stimulus. The broad spectrum TRP blocker ruthenium red (30 microM) had inconsistent effects, although in some units a delayed onset (following wash) bursting and paroxysmal firing ensued. The agonist icilin (50-100 microM) had an excitatory effect on spontaneous firing, and (-)-menthol (200 microM) had inconsistent effects. Cinnamaldehyde (1-2 mM) depressed all types of activity equally, mechanically evoked and spontaneous. Camphor (0.5-2 mM) also depressed all types of activity, although it had a preferential effect on spontaneous activity. Capsaicin (1-10 microM) and allyl isothiocyanate (50-100 microM) had no clear effects. These results rule out any role for TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in mechanotransduction processes of slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors.

  5. Evidence that 5-HT stimulates intracellular Ca(2+) signalling and activates pannexin-1 currents in type II cells of the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Murali, Sindhubarathi; Zhang, Min; Nurse, Colin A

    2017-07-01

    5-HT is a neuromodulator released from carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor (type I) cells and facilitates the sensory discharge following chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). In the present study, we show that, in addition to type I cells, adjacent glial-like type II cells express functional, ketanserin-sensitive 5-HT2 receptors, and their stimulation increases cytoplasmic Ca(2+) derived from intracellular stores. In type II cells, 5-HT activated a ketanserin-sensitive inward current (I5-HT ) that was similar to that (IUTP ) activated by the P2Y2R agonist, UTP. As previously shown for IUTP , I5-HT was inhibited by BAPTA-AM and carbenoxolone (5 μm), a putative blocker of ATP-permeable pannexin (Panx)-1 channels; IUTP was reversibly inhibited by the specific Panx-1 mimetic peptide channel blocker, (10) Panx peptide. Paracrine stimulation of type II cells by 5-HT, leading to ATP release via Panx-1 channels, may contribute to CB excitability, especially in pathophysiological conditions associated with CIH (e.g. obstructive sleep apnoea). Carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor (type I) cells can synthesize and release 5-HT and increased autocrine-paracrine 5-HT2 receptor signalling contributes to sensory long-term facilitation during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). However, recent studies suggest that adjacent glial-like type II cells can respond to CB paracrine signals by elevating intracellular calcium (Δ[Ca(2+) ]i ) and activating carbenoxolone-sensitive, ATP-permeable, pannexin (Panx)-1-like channels. In the present study, using dissociated rat CB cultures, we found that 5-HT induced Δ[Ca(2+) ]i responses in a subpopulation of type I cells, as well as in most (∼67%) type II cells identified by their sensitivity to the P2Y2 receptor agonist, UTP. The 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) response in type II cells was dose-dependent (EC50 ∼183 nm) and largely inhibited by the 5-HT2A receptor blocker, ketanserin (1 μm), and also arose mainly from intracellular stores. 5-HT also

  6. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  7. Differential effect of severe and moderate social stress on blood immune and endocrine measures and susceptibility to collagen type II arthritis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Stefanski, Volker; Hemschemeier, Susanne K; Schunke, Kerstin; Hahnel, Anja; Wolff, Christine; Straub, Rainer H

    2013-03-01

    The effects of social stress on several blood immune measures and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated in Wistar rats using the resident-intruder confrontation paradigm to induce stress of different intensity. Male intruders were exposed for one week to a dominant opponent either repeatedly for 4h daily (moderate stress) or continuously (severe stress). Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of collagen type II (CII) into the tail skin at the end of day 3 of confrontation. Only severe stress was associated with decreased CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in granulocyte numbers and body mass loss was more pronounced under these conditions. Only severe stress reduced the susceptibility to arthritis by about 50%. Severity scores did not differ in the first five days after disease onset between all groups. Subsequent experiments focused on severely stressed rats indicated that disease progressed until day 10 only in control animals, but not in severely stressed males. Stressor exposure resulted in increased blood monocyte numbers, but these males failed to accumulate macrophages into the skin at the site of CII injection. High numbers of attacks experienced by intruders correlated with delayed disease onset in severely stressed rats. We hypothesize that severe stress persisting after disease induction exhibits beneficial effects on the susceptibility of CIA and propose that the specific endocrine and immunological profile associated with severe stress is an important factor for disease outcome--a factor which probably explains many of the conflicting data of previous stress studies on CIA.

  8. Small molecule angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT₂R) antagonists as novel analgesics for neuropathic pain: comparative pharmacokinetics, radioligand binding, and efficacy in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maree T; Wyse, Bruce D; Edwards, Stephen R

    2013-05-01

    Neuropathic pain is an area of unmet clinical need. The objective of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and efficacy in rats of small molecule antagonists of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT₂R) for the relief of neuropathic pain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received single intravenous (1-10 mg/kg) or oral (5-10 mg/kg) bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, EMA400 or EMA401 (S-enantiomer of EMA400). Blood samples were collected immediately pre-dose and at specified times over a 12- to 24-hour post-dosing period. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure plasma drug concentrations. Efficacy was assessed in adult male SD rats with a unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. After intravenous administration in rats, mean (±standard error of the mean) plasma clearance for EMA200, EMA300, EMA400, and EMA401 was 9.3, 6.1, 0.7, and 1.1 L/hour/kg, respectively. After oral dosing, the dose-normalized systemic exposures of EMA400 and EMA401 were 20- to 30-fold and 50- to 60-fold higher than that for EMA300 and EMA200, respectively. The oral bioavailability of EMA400 and EMA401 was similar at ∼30%, whereas it was only 5.9% and 7.1% for EMA200 and EMA300, respectively. In CCI rats, single intraperitoneal bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, and EMA400 evoked dose-dependent pain relief. The pain relief potency rank order in CCI rats was EMA400 > EMA300 > EMA200 in agreement with the dose-normalized systemic exposure rank order in SD rats. The small molecule AT₂R antagonist, EMA401, is in clinical development as a novel analgesic for the relief of neuropathic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rats with experimental silicosis, alveolar type II hyperplasia, and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. O.; Flanders, K. C.; Saffiotti, U.

    1993-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) was studied in the lungs of rats given crystalline silica or ferric oxide by single intratracheal instillation. Ferric oxide elicited no progressive granulomatous reaction, no epithelial hyperplasia, and no lung tumors; no demonstrable reactivity to TGF-beta 1 was observed. Silica induced a granulomatous reaction with progressive fibrosis, adjacent alveolar type II hyperplasia, and alveolar carcinomas. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies to synthetic peptides corresponding to the first 30 amino acids of mature TGF-beta 1, anti-LC (1-30), and anti-CC (1-30) were used for the localization of intracellular and extracellular TGF-beta 1. An antibody to a peptide corresponding to amino acids 266-278 of the TGF-beta 1 precursor sequence, anti-Pre (266-278), was used to detect the TGF-beta precursor and the latency-associated peptide. Intracellular mature TGF-beta (anti-LC) was demonstrated in fibroblasts and macrophages located at the periphery of silicotic granulomas and in fibroblasts adjacent to hyperplastic type II cells. Extracellular mature TGF-beta 1 was localized in the connective tissue matrix of the granulomas and in the stroma of both hyperplastic type II cells and well-differentiated adenocarcinomas. Immunoreactivity to anti-Pre was localized, intracellularly, in hyperplastic alveolar type II cells and their proliferative lesions adjacent to granulomas, in adenomas, but not in adenocarcinomas. The hyperplastic type II cells appear to be the sites of production and secretion of TGF-beta 1, which may regulate their own growth and differentiation and mediate the production of extracellular TGF-beta 1-associated matrix. The lack of reactivity to TGF-beta 1 precursor in the adenocarcinomas is consistent with the loss of normal cellular differentiation and function. TGF-beta 1 appears to have a pathogenetic role in silica-induced mesenchymal and epithelial lesions. The role of TGF-beta 1 and

  10. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type II) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A two-phase Dose Range findng study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type II, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75micron GBII/Kg/day), and a vehicle control . Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11 -1 2 weeks of age into four treatment groups (1 2 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rat/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  11. Morphologic Damage of Rat Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells Induced by Bile Acids Could Be Ameliorated by Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibitor Z-Guggulsterone In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaowei; Hou, Xusheng; Wu, Wenyu; Nie, Lei; Tian, Yinghong; Lu, Yanmeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether bile acids (BAs) affect respiratory functions through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expressed in the lungs and to explore the possible mechanisms of BAs-induced respiratory disorder. Methods. Primary cultured alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECIIs) of rat were treated with different concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in the presence or absence of FXR inhibitor Z-guggulsterone (GS). Then, expression of FXR in nuclei of AECIIs was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. And ultrastructural changes of the cells were observed under transmission electron microscope and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus software. Results. Morphologic damage of AECIIs was exhibited in high BAs group in vitro, with high-level expression of FXR, while FXR inhibitor GS could attenuate the cytotoxicity of BAs to AECIIs. Conclusions. FXR expression was related to the morphologic damage of AECIIs induced by BAs, thus influencing respiratory functions. PMID:27340672

  12. Stachybotrys chartarum alters surfactant-related phospholipid synthesis and CTP:cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase activity in isolated fetal rat type II cells.

    PubMed

    Hastings, C; Rand, T; Bergen, H T; Thliveris, J A; Shaw, A R; Lombaert, G A; Mantsch, H H; Giles, B L; Dakshinamurti, S; Scott, J E

    2005-03-01

    Stachybotry chartarum, a fungal contaminant of water-damaged buildings commonly grows on damp cellulose-containing materials. It produces a complex array of mycotoxins. Their mechanisms of action on the pulmonary system are not entirely clear. Previous studies suggest spore products may depress formation of disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), the major surface-active component of pulmonary surfactant (PS). If S. chartarum can indeed affect formation of this phospholipid, then mold exposure may be a significant issue for pulmonary function in both mature lung and developing fetal lung. To address this possibility, fetal rat type II cells, the principal source of DSPC, were used to assess effects of S. chartarum extract on formation of DSPC. Isolated fetal rat lung type II cells prelabeled with 3H-choline and incubated with spore extract showed decreased incorporation of 3H-choline into DSPC. The activity of CTP:cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase (CPCT), the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis was reduced by approximately 50% by a 1:10 dilution of spore extract. Two different S. chartarum extracts (isolates from S. chartarum (Cleveland) and S. chartarum (Hawaiian)) were used to compare activity of CPCT in the presence of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), a known activator. PG produced an approximate two-fold increase in CPCT activity. The spore isolate from Hawaii did not alter enzyme activity. S. chartarum (Cleveland) eliminated the PG-induced activation of CPCT. These results support previous observations that mold products alter PS metabolism and may pose a risk in developing lung, inhibiting surfactant synthesis. Different isolates of the same species of fungus are not equivalent in terms of potential exposure risks.

  13. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-Ning; Chen, Ni-Wei; Shen, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Xiang-Yun; Zhang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the expression levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced hepatic fibrosis. A total of 56 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group, model group, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, and DL‑propargylglycine (PAG) group. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4. The rats in the PAG group were intraperitoneally injected with PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine‑γ‑lyase (CSE). The rats in the NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with NaHS. An equal volume of saline solution was intraperitoneally injected into both the control and model groups. All rats were sacrificed at week three or four following treatment. The serum levels of hyaluronidase (HA), laminin protein (LN), procollagen III (PcIII), and collagen IV (cIV) were detected using ELISA. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The liver mRNA expression levels of CSE were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The liver expression levels of AGTR1 and the plasma expression levels of H2S were detected using western blot analyses. The results indicated that the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly higher in the PAG group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression levels of ALB were significantly lower in the PAG group, as compared with the model group. In addition, the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly lower in the NaHS group, as

  14. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    FAN, HUI-NING; CHEN, NI-WEI; SHEN, WEI-LIN; ZHAO, XIANG-YUN; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the expression levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. A total of 56 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group, model group, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG) group. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4. The rats in the PAG group were intraperitoneally injected with PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). The rats in the NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with NaHS. An equal volume of saline solution was intraperitoneally injected into both the control and model groups. All rats were sacrificed at week three or four following treatment. The serum levels of hyaluronidase (HA), laminin protein (LN), procollagen III (PcIII), and collagen IV (cIV) were detected using ELISA. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The liver mRNA expression levels of CSE were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The liver expression levels of AGTR1 and the plasma expression levels of H2S were detected using western blot analyses. The results indicated that the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly higher in the PAG group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression levels of ALB were significantly lower in the PAG group, as compared with the model group. In addition, the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H2S were significantly lower in the NaHS group, as compared with

  15. Silencing of Wnt5a prevents interleukin-1β-induced collagen type II degradation in rat chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shiping; Man, Zhentao; Li, Wei; Sun, Shui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease, and few treatments to date have been able to delay OA progression. The degradation of collagen type II (COL2) in the cartilage matrix is an important initiating factor for OA progression; the upregulation of Wnt5a protein activates COL2 degradation. In the present study, small interfering RNA of Wnt-5a was delivered by a lentiviral vector (LV-Wnt5a-RNAi) to silence Wnt-5a mRNA and prevent COL2 degradation. To determine the function of LV-Wnt5a-RNAi, the OA chondrocyte model (OA-like chondrocytes) were constructed using interleukin (IL)-1β. Detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Wnt-5a mRNA in the OA-like chondrocytes were upregulated in a time-dependent manner, indicating that OA-like chondrocytes were successfully constructed. The bioactivity of OA-like chondrocytes was determined using Live-Dead staining, and the result illustrated that the OA-like chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1β for 6 h remained viable, and these were used in Wnt5a silencing. The OA-like chondrocytes were divided into three groups: Group I, cultivated with common medium; group II, cultivated with common medium supplemented with empty lentiviral vector; group III, cultivated with common medium supplemented with LV-Wnt5a-RNAi. The efficiency of LV-Wnt5a-RNAi transfection was determined using fluorescence microscopy, the result of which indicated that LV-Wnt5a-RNAi could efficiently be transfected into the OA-like chondrocytes. The LV-Wnt5a-RNAi efficiency for the Wnt5a mRNA silencing was determined using RT-qPCR. The result illustrated that the mRNA of Wnt5a in group III was significantly lower in group I compared with that in group II (P<0.05), indicating that the LV-Wnt5a-RNAi could successfully silence Wnt5a mRNA. To further verify whether the silencing of Wnt5a mRNA could prevent COL2 degradation, western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The results demonstrated that COL2 in

  16. Caffeine enhances the expression of the angiotensin II Type 2 receptor mRNA in BeWo cell culture and in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Tanuma, A; Saito, S; Ide, I; Sasahara, H; Yazdani, M; Gottschalk, S; Nakamoto, T; Abiko, Y

    2003-07-01

    Although chronic caffeine exposure during pregnancy has been shown to affect fetal growth, adverse effects of caffeine on embryogenesis are not only well understood, but also controversial. We have used gene chip technology in an attempt to identify to what extent, if any, caffeine could possibly alter gene expressions in the cytotrophoblast-like cell line BeWo. Few down-regulated genes were found; most of the genes were up-regulated, suggesting that chronic caffeine exposure during the gestational period could exert certain influences on embryogenesis. The highest up-regulated gene expression of BeWo cells by caffeine was angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor gene. We focused the genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) and AT(2)receptors and angiotensin I converting enzyme, for study on caffeine's responsive gene expression in BeWo cells and in the placentae of pregnant rats that were fed a diet supplemented with caffeine (2 mg/100 g body weight) during gestation, and analysed the gene expressions using RT-PCR and LightCycler system. A significantly increased AT(2)receptor gene expression and a slight decreased AT(1)receptor gene expression demonstrated the caffeine's effect to the placental RAS.

  17. Curcumin modulates the effect of histone modification on the expression of chemokines by type II alveolar epithelial cells in a rat COPD model

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lixing; Li, Chengye; Wang, Jian; Guo, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that histone modification has a positive impact on various aspects associated with the progression of COPD. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) suppresses proinflammatory gene expression through deacetylation of core histones. Objective To investigate the effect of histone modification on the expression of chemokines in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II) in a rat COPD model and regulation of HDAC2 expression by curcumin in comparison with corticosteroid. Materials and methods The rat COPD model was established by cigarette smoke exposure and confirmed by histology and pathophysioloy. AEC II were isolated and cultured in vitro from the COPD models and control animals. The cells were treated with curcumin, corticosteroid, or trichostatin A, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2α (MIP-2α) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of HDAC2 was measured by Western blot. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to detect H3/H4 acetylation and H3K9 methylation in the promoter region of three kinds of chemokine genes (IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-2α). Results Compared to the control group, the mRNAs of MCP-1, IL-8, and MIP-2α were upregulated 4.48-fold, 3.14-fold, and 2.83-fold, respectively, in the AEC II from COPD model. The protein expression of HDAC2 in the AEC II from COPD model was significantly lower than from the control group (P<0.05). The decreased expression of HDAC2 was negatively correlated with the increased expression of IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-2α mRNAs (all P<0.05). The level of H3/H4 acetylation was higher but H3K9 methylation in the promoter region of chemokine genes was lower in the cells from COPD model than from the control group (all P<0.05). Curcumin downregulated the expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and MIP-2α, and the expression was further enhanced in the presence of

  18. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

  19. Catalytic unit-independent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of type II regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Z; Luo, Y; Vereb, G

    1986-01-01

    Rat liver plasma membranes contain a 55 kDa protein which proved to be identical with type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (kinase A) by several criteria (gel electrophoretic behaviour, peptide map, position of the autophosphorylated site). Analysis of phosphopeptide maps revealed that the membrane-bound RII was phosphorylated by a kinase which is unrelated to the catalytic unit (C) of kinase A. Dephosphorylation of the membrane-bound RII by an endogenous phosphatase was stimulated by both cyclic AMP and fluoride. Addition of C did not stimulate dephosphorylation even in the presence of ADP; moreover, protein inhibitor of C did not modify the effects of cyclic AMP or fluoride. The effects of both cyclic AMP and fluoride were, however, inhibited by C. Results indicate that rat liver plasma membranes contain a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation system for which RII is a relatively specific substrate. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3010951

  20. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligand PD123319 attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung and heart injury at a low dose in newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Laghmani, El Houari; Chen, Xueyu; Lindeboom, Melissa P. H. A.; Roks, Anton J. M.; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Intervening in angiotensin (Ang)-II type 2 receptor (AT2) signaling may have therapeutic potential for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by attenuating lung inflammation and preventing arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). We first investigated the role of AT2 inhibition with PD123319 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on the beneficial effect of AT2 agonist LP2–3 (5 μg/kg twice a day) on RVH in newborn rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Next we determined the cardiopulmonary effects of PD123319 (0.1 mg·kg−1·day−1) in two models: early treatment during continuous exposure to hyperoxia for 10 days and late treatment starting on day 6 in rat pups exposed postnatally to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by a 9-day recovery period in room air. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression. Ten days of coadministration of LP2–3 and PD123319 abolished the beneficial effects of LP2–3 on RVH in experimental BPD. In the early treatment model PD123319 attenuated cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septal thickness, pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, medial wall thickness of small arterioles, and extravascular collagen III deposition, and by preventing RVH. In the late treatment model PD123319 diminished PAH and RVH, demonstrating that PAH is reversible in the neonatal period. At high concentrations PD123319 blocks the beneficial effects of the AT2-agonist LP2–3 on RVH. At low concentrations PD123319 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in newborn rats with experimental BPD. PMID:24951776

  1. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligand PD123319 attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung and heart injury at a low dose in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Gerry T M; Sengers, Rozemarijn M A; Laghmani, El Houari; Chen, Xueyu; Lindeboom, Melissa P H A; Roks, Anton J M; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J

    2014-08-01

    Intervening in angiotensin (Ang)-II type 2 receptor (AT2) signaling may have therapeutic potential for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by attenuating lung inflammation and preventing arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). We first investigated the role of AT2 inhibition with PD123319 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) on the beneficial effect of AT2 agonist LP2-3 (5 μg/kg twice a day) on RVH in newborn rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Next we determined the cardiopulmonary effects of PD123319 (0.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in two models: early treatment during continuous exposure to hyperoxia for 10 days and late treatment starting on day 6 in rat pups exposed postnatally to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by a 9-day recovery period in room air. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression. Ten days of coadministration of LP2-3 and PD123319 abolished the beneficial effects of LP2-3 on RVH in experimental BPD. In the early treatment model PD123319 attenuated cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septal thickness, pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, medial wall thickness of small arterioles, and extravascular collagen III deposition, and by preventing RVH. In the late treatment model PD123319 diminished PAH and RVH, demonstrating that PAH is reversible in the neonatal period. At high concentrations PD123319 blocks the beneficial effects of the AT2-agonist LP2-3 on RVH. At low concentrations PD123319 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in newborn rats with experimental BPD.

  2. Quercetin-Rich Guava (Psidium guajava) Juice in Combination with Trehalose Reduces Autophagy, Apoptosis and Pyroptosis Formation in the Kidney and Pancreas of Type II Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Fa; Kuo, Yen-Ting; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-03-10

    We explored whether the combination of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory guava (Psidium guajava) and trehalose treatment protects the kidney and pancreas against Type II diabetes (T2DM)-induced injury in rats. We measured the active component of guava juice by HPLC analysis. T2DM was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide and streptozotocin and combination with high fructose diets for 8 weeks. The rats fed with different dosages of guava juice in combination with or without trehalose for 4 weeks were evaluated the parameters including OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR (insulin resistance) and HOMA-β (β cell function and insulin secretion). We measured oxidative and inflammatory degrees by immunohistochemistry stain, fluorescent stain, and western blot and serum and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a chemiluminescence analyzer. High content of quercetin in the guava juice scavenged H2O2 and HOCl, whereas trehalose selectively reduced H2O2, not HOCl. T2DM affected the levels in OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, whereas these T2DM-altered parameters, except HbA1c, were significantly improved by guava and trehalose treatment. The levels of T2DM-enhanced renal ROS, 4-hydroxynonenal, caspase-3/apoptosis, LC3-B/autophagy and IL-1β/pyroptosis were significantly decreased by guava juice and trehalose. The combination with trehalose and guava juice protects the pancreas and kidney against T2DM-induced injury.

  3. Expression of cyclin D{sub 1} during endotoxin-induced aleveolar type II cell hyperplasia in rat lung and the detection of apoptotic cells during the remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Wood, M.B.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Our studies have shown that endotoxin intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cell hyperplasia occurred 2 d after instillation of endotoxin and persisted for a further 2 d. After hyperplasia, the lung remodeled and returned to a normal state within 24-48 h. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the remodeling process of this transient hyperplasia may be useful to identify molecular changes that are altered in neoplasia. The purpose of the present study was to corroborate induction of epithelial cell hyperplasia by endotoxin and to delineate mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling after endotoxin-induced alveolar type II cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, immonostaining with cyclin D1 and cytokeratin shows that endotoxin induced epithelial cell proliferation and resulted in hyperplasia in the lung which persisted through 4 d post-instillation.

  4. Role of antioxidant treatment on DNA and lipid damage in the brain of rats subjected to a chemically induced chronic model of tyrosinemia type II.

    PubMed

    Streck, Emilio L; De Prá, Samira D T; Ferro, Paula Ronsani; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Agostini, Jotele F; Damiani, Adriani; Andrade, Vanessa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Scaini, Giselli

    2017-05-25

    Tyrosine levels are abnormally elevated in tissues and body fluids of patients with inborn errors of tyrosine metabolism. Tyrosinemia type II, which is caused by tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency, provokes eyes, skin, and central nervous system disturbances in affected patients. However, the mechanisms of brain damage are still poorly known. Considering that studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress may contribute, along with other mechanisms, to the neurological dysfunction characteristic of hypertyrosinemia, in the present study we investigated the effects of antioxidant treatment (NAC and DFX) on DNA damage and oxidative stress markers induced by chronic administration of L-tyrosine in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The results showed elevated levels of DNA migration, and thus DNA damage, after chronic administration of L-tyrosine in all the analyzed brain areas, and that the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, the co-administration of NAC plus DFX did not prevent the DNA damage in the striatum. Moreover, we found a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) and DCFH oxidation in cerebral cortex, as well as an increase in nitrate/nitrite levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Additionally, the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the increase in TBA-RS levels and in nitrate/nitrite levels, but not the DCFH oxidation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and oxidative stress can play a role in DNA damage in this disorder. Moreover, NAC/DFX supplementation to tyrosinemia type II patients may represent a new therapeutic approach and a possible adjuvant to the current treatment of this disease.

  5. In vitro cytokine release from rat type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages following exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjun; Young, R Scotte; Sun, Nina N; Witten, Mark L

    2002-05-01

    Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AIIE) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) are involved in pulmonary toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel exposure. To further elucidate their inflammatory mechanisms, the effect(s) of JP-8 jet fuel on cytokine secretion were examined in a transformed rat AIIE cell line (RLE-6TN) culture alone, primary PAM (from Fischer 344 rats) culture alone, and the co-culture of AIIE and primary PAM. A series of JP-8 jet fuel concentrations (0-0.8 microg/ml), which may actually be encountered in alveolar space of lungs exposed in vivo, were placed in cell culture for 24 h. Cultured AIIE alone secreted spontaneously interleukin (IL)-1beta and -6 [below detectable limits for IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], whereas cultured PAM alone secreted IL-1beta, -10, and TNF-alpha, in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that the release of cytokines, not only from PAM but also from AIIE cells, may contribute to JP-8 jet fuel-induced inflammatory response in the alveolar space. However, the co-cultures of AIIE and PAM showed no significant changes in IL-1beta, -6, and TNF-alpha at any JP-8 jet fuel concentration compared to control values. These cytokine levels in co-cultures of AIIE and PAM were inversely related to these of cultured AIIE or PAM alone. Interestingly, IL-10 levels in the co-culture system were concentration-dependently increased up to 1058% at JP-8 concentrations of 0.8 microg/ml, although under detectable limits in cultured AIIE alone and no significant concentration change in cultured PAM alone. It appears that PAM may possibly act via paracrine and/or autocrine pathways to signal AIIE cells to regulate cytokine release.

  6. Agonists of MAS oncogene and angiotensin II type 2 receptors attenuate cardiopulmonary disease in rats with neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Gerry T M; Laghmani, El Houari; Fidder, Melissa; Sengers, Rozemarijn M A; de Visser, Yvonne P; de Vries, Louwe; Rink, Rick; Roks, Anton J M; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J

    2013-09-01

    Stimulation of MAS oncogene receptor (MAS) or angiotensin (Ang) receptor type 2 (AT2) may be novel therapeutic options for neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) by counterbalancing the adverse effects of the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, consisting of arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and pulmonary inflammation. We determined the cardiopulmonary effects in neonatal rats with CLD of daily treatment during continuous exposure to 100% oxygen for 10 days with specific ligands for MAS [cyclic Ang-(1-7); 10-50 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)] and AT2 [dKcAng-(1-7); 5-20 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)]. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression in the lungs of key genes involved in the renin-angiotensin system, inflammation, coagulation, and alveolar development. We investigated the role of nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) during AT2 agonist treatment. Prophylactic treatment with agonists for MAS or AT2 for 10 days diminished cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septum thickness and medial wall thickness of small arterioles and preventing RVH. Both agonists attenuated the pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages (via AT2) and neutrophils (via MAS) but did not reduce alveolar enlargement and vascular alveolar leakage. The AT2 agonist attenuated hyperoxia-induced fibrin deposition. In conclusion, stimulation of MAS or AT2 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in neonatal rats with experimental CLD. The beneficial effects of AT2 activation on experimental CLD were mediated via a NOS-independent mechanism.

  7. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  8. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated augmentation of renal interstitial fluid angiotensin II in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akira; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension is associated with augmented intrarenal concentrations of Ang II; however, the distribution of the increased intrarenal Ang II has not been fully established. To determine the changes in renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations in Ang II-induced hypertension and the consequences of treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. Rats were selected to receive vehicle (5% acetic acid subcutaneously; n = 6), Ang II (80 ng/min subcutaneously, via osmotic minipump; n = 7) or Ang II plus an AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg per day, in drinking water; n = 6) for 13-14 days, at which time, experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the renal cortex and were perfused at 2 microl/min. The effluent dialysate concentrations of Ang I and Ang II were measured by radioimmunoassay and reported values were corrected for the equilibrium rates at this perfusion rate. Ang II-infused rats developed greater mean arterial pressures (155 +/- 7 mmHg) than vehicle-infused rats (108 +/- 3 mmHg). Ang II-infused rats showed greater plasma (181 +/- 30 fmol/ml) and kidney (330 +/- 38 fmol/g) Ang II concentrations than vehicle-infused rats (98 +/- 14 fmol/ml and 157 +/- 22 fmol/g, respectively). Renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations were much greater than plasma concentrations, averaging 5.74 +/- 0.26 pmol/ml in Ang II-infused rats - significantly greater than those in vehicle-infused rats (2.86 +/- 0.23 pmol/ml). Candesartan treatment prevented the hypertension (87 +/- 3 mmHg) and led to increased plasma Ang II concentrations (441 +/- 27 fmol/ml), but prevented increases in kidney (120 +/- 15 fmol/g) and renal interstitial fluid (2.15 +/- 0.12 pmol/ml) Ang II concentrations. These data indicate that Ang II-infused rats develop increased renal interstitial fluid concentrations of Ang II, which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance and

  9. Testosterone downregulates angiotensin II type-2 receptor via androgen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway in rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jay S.; Hankins, Gary D.; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Blood pressure is lower in females than males. Angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) induces vasodilation. This study determined whether sex differences in vascular AT2R expression occur and if androgens exert control on AT2R expression in the vasculature. Methods AT2Rs in the aorta of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined following alteration in androgen levels by gonadectomy or hormone supplementation. Results AT2R mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in aorta of males than females. In males, testosterone withdrawal by castration significantly elevated AT2R mRNA and protein levels and testosterone replacement restored them. In females, increasing androgen levels decreased AT2R mRNA and protein expression and this was attenuated by androgen receptor blocker flutamide. Ex vivo, dihydrotestosterone downregulated AT2R in endothelium-intact but not -denuded aorta. Dihydrotestosterone-induced AT2R downregulation in isolated aorta was blocked by androgen receptor antagonist. Furthermore, blockade of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAP kinase or TGFβ signaling with specific inhibitors abolished dihydrotestosterone-induced AT2R downregulation. Conclusion Androgens downregulates AT2R expression levels in aorta, in vivo and ex vivo. The androgen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 MAP kinase-signaling pathway may be a key mechanism by which testosterone downregulates AT2R expression, implicating androgens’ contributing role to gender differences in vascular AT2R expression. PMID:27765882

  10. Testosterone downregulates angiotensin II type-2 receptor via androgen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-10-01

    Blood pressure is lower in females than males. Angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) induces vasodilation. This study determined whether sex differences in vascular AT2R expression occur and if androgens exert control on AT2R expression in the vasculature. AT2Rs in the aorta of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined following alteration in androgen levels by gonadectomy or hormone supplementation. AT2R mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in the aortas of males than females. In males, testosterone withdrawal by castration significantly elevated AT2R mRNA and protein levels and testosterone replacement restored them. In females, increasing androgen levels decreased AT2R mRNA and protein expression and this was attenuated by androgen receptor blocker flutamide. Ex vivo, dihydrotestosterone downregulated AT2R in endothelium-intact but not endothelium-denuded aorta. Dihydrotestosterone-induced AT2R downregulation in isolated aorta was blocked by an androgen receptor antagonist. Furthermore, blockade of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAP kinase or TGFβ signaling with specific inhibitors abolished dihydrotestosterone-induced AT2R downregulation. Androgens downregulate AT2R expression levels in aorta, in vivo and ex vivo. The androgen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 MAP kinase-signaling pathway may be a key mechanism by which testosterone downregulates AT2R expression, implicating androgens' contributing role to gender differences in vascular AT2R expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Central Infusion of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist Compound 21 Attenuates DOCA/NaCl-Induced Hypertension in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Wei; Shen, Ying; He, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether central activation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2-R) attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/NaCl-induced hypertension in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats and whether female sex hormone status has influence on the effects of AT2-R activation. DOCA/NaCl elicited a greater increase in blood pressure in OVX females than that in intact females. Central infusion of compound 21, a specific AT2-R agonist, abolished DOCA/NaCl pressor effect in intact females, whereas same treatment in OVX females produced an inhibitory effect. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that DOCA/NaCl enhanced the mRNA expression of hypertensive components including AT1-R, ACE-1, and TNF-α in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus in both intact and OVX females. However, the mRNA expressions of antihypertensive components such as AT2-R, ACE-2, and IL-10 were increased only in intact females. Central AT2-R agonist reversed the changes in the hypertensive components in all females, while this agonist further upregulated the expression of ACE2 and IL-10 in intact females, but only IL-10 in OVX females. These results indicate that brain AT2-R activation plays an inhibitory role in the development of DOCA/NaCl-induced hypertension in females. This beneficial effect of AT2-R activation involves regulation of renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:26783414

  12. Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  13. Fusion-Activated Ca2+ Entry: An “Active Zone” of Elevated Ca2+ during the Postfusion Stage of Lamellar Body Exocytosis in Rat Type II Pneumocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wittekindt, Oliver H.; Haller, Thomas; Dietl, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Ca2+ is essential for vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in virtually all types of regulated exocytoses. However, in contrast to the well-known effects of a high cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in the prefusion phase, the occurrence and significance of Ca2+ signals in the postfusion phase have not been described before. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied isolated rat alveolar type II cells using previously developed imaging techniques. These cells release pulmonary surfactant, a complex of lipids and proteins, from secretory vesicles (lamellar bodies) in an exceptionally slow, Ca2+- and actin-dependent process. Measurements of fusion pore formation by darkfield scattered light intensity decrease or FM 1-43 fluorescence intensity increase were combined with analysis of [Ca2+]c by ratiometric Fura-2 or Fluo-4 fluorescence measurements. We found that the majority of single lamellar body fusion events were followed by a transient (t1/2 of decay = 3.2 s) rise of localized [Ca2+]c originating at the site of lamellar body fusion. [Ca2+]c increase followed with a delay of ∼0.2–0.5 s (method-dependent) and in the majority of cases this signal propagated throughout the cell (at ∼10 µm/s). Removal of Ca2+ from, or addition of Ni2+ to the extracellular solution, strongly inhibited these [Ca2+]c transients, whereas Ca2+ store depletion with thapsigargin had no effect. Actin-GFP fluorescence around fused LBs increased several seconds after the rise of [Ca2+]c. Both effects were reduced by the non-specific Ca2+ channel blocker SKF96365. Conclusions/Significance Fusion-activated Ca2+ entry (FACE) is a new mechanism that leads to [Ca2+]c transients at the site of vesicle fusion. Substantial evidence from this and previous studies indicates that fusion-activated Ca2+ entry enhances localized surfactant release from type II cells, but it may also play a role for compensatory endocytosis and other cellular functions. PMID:20544027

  14. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  15. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard" treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4(+)CD29(+)T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P < 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences in the

  16. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current “gold standard” treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4+CD29+T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P < 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences in the

  17. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation. An electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung

    PubMed Central

    Rüdiger, Mario; Wendt, Sebastian; Köthe, Lars; Burkhardt, Wolfram; Wauer, Roland R; Ochs, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Background Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC) can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods Male wistar rats were surfactant depleted by BAL and treated for 1 hour by conventional mechanical ventilation (Lavaged-Gas, n = 5) or partial liquid ventilation with PF 5080 (Lavaged-PF5080, n = 5). For control, 10 healthy animals with gas (Healthy-Gas, n = 5) or PF5080 filled lungs (Healthy-PF5080, n = 5) were studied. A design-based stereological approach was used for quantification of lung parenchyma and the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool at the light and electron microscopic level. Results Compared to Healthy-lungs, Lavaged-animals had more type II cells with lamellar bodies in the process of secretion and freshly secreted lamellar body-like surfactant forms in the alveoli. The fraction of alveolar epithelial surface area covered with surfactant and total intraalveolar surfactant content were significantly smaller in Lavaged-animals. Compared with Gas-filled lungs, both PF5080-groups had a significantly higher total lung volume, but no other differences. Conclusion After BAL-induced alveolar surfactant depletion the amount of intracellularly stored surfactant is about half as high as in healthy animals. In lavaged animals short time liquid ventilation with PF5080 did not alter intra- or extracellular surfactant content or subtype composition. PMID:17550584

  18. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) localization and antagonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses and neurite outgrowth in human and rat sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Anand, U; Facer, P; Yiangou, Y; Sinisi, M; Fox, M; McCarthy, T; Bountra, C; Korchev, Y E; Anand, P

    2013-08-01

    The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2 R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2 R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects of AngII and AT2 R antagonist EMA401 on capsaicin responses in cultured human and rat (DRG) neurons were measured with calcium imaging, on neurite length and density with Gap43 immunostaining, and on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression using immunofluorescence. AT2 R expression was localized in small-/medium-sized cultured neurons of human and rat DRG. Treatment with the AT2 R antagonist EMA401 resulted in dose-related functional inhibition of capsaicin responses (IC50  = 10 nmol/L), which was reversed by 8-bromo-cAMP, and reduced neurite length and density; AngII treatment significantly enhanced capsaicin responses, cAMP levels and neurite outgrowth. The AT1 R antagonist losartan had no effect on capsaicin responses. AT2 R was localized in sensory neurons of human DRG, and nerve fibres in peripheral nerves, skin, urinary bladder and bowel. A majority sub-population (60%) of small-/medium-diameter neuronal cells were immunopositive in both control post-mortem and avulsion-injured human DRG; some very small neurons appeared to be intensely immunoreactive, with TRPV1 co-localization. While AT2 R levels were reduced in human limb peripheral nerve segments proximal to injury, they were preserved in painful neuromas. AT2 R antagonists could be particularly useful in the treatment of chronic pain and hypersensitivity associated with abnormal nerve sprouting. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  19. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) localization and antagonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses and neurite outgrowth in human and rat sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Anand, U; Facer, P; Yiangou, Y; Sinisi, M; Fox, M; McCarthy, T; Bountra, C; Korchev, YE; Anand, P

    2013-01-01

    Background The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. Methods We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects of AngII and AT2R antagonist EMA401 on capsaicin responses in cultured human and rat (DRG) neurons were measured with calcium imaging, on neurite length and density with Gap43 immunostaining, and on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression using immunofluorescence. Results AT2R expression was localized in small-/medium-sized cultured neurons of human and rat DRG. Treatment with the AT2R antagonist EMA401 resulted in dose-related functional inhibition of capsaicin responses (IC50 = 10 nmol/L), which was reversed by 8-bromo-cAMP, and reduced neurite length and density; AngII treatment significantly enhanced capsaicin responses, cAMP levels and neurite outgrowth. The AT1R antagonist losartan had no effect on capsaicin responses. AT2R was localized in sensory neurons of human DRG, and nerve fibres in peripheral nerves, skin, urinary bladder and bowel. A majority sub-population (60%) of small-/medium-diameter neuronal cells were immunopositive in both control post-mortem and avulsion-injured human DRG; some very small neurons appeared to be intensely immunoreactive, with TRPV1 co-localization. While AT2R levels were reduced in human limb peripheral nerve segments proximal to injury, they were preserved in painful neuromas. Conclusions AT2R antagonists could be particularly useful in the treatment of chronic pain and hypersensitivity associated with abnormal nerve sprouting. PMID:23255326

  20. [Mucolipidoses type II. Case report].

    PubMed

    Aracena, Mariana; Mabe, Paulina; Mena, María; Andreani, Silvia; Daza, Claudio

    2003-03-01

    We report a female newborn with type II mucolipidoses. This condition is characterized clinically by Hurler like features, progressive psychomotor retardation and death during the first or second year of life. Most cases present during the first year of life, with poor weight gain and coarse facies features. The cause of this rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease is the deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, required for the synthesis of mannose-6-phosphate, the ligand that allows the transport of acid hydrolases into lysosomes. The patient had clinical features commonly found in mucolipidosis II, including disproportionate dwarfism, retarded psychomotor development, coarse facies features, gibbous and restricted joint mobility. The diagnosis was proved by an extremely elevated activity of lysosomal enzymes in the serum, secondary to non-regulated secretion and subsequent intracellular depletion of these proteins. The child suffered recurrent pneumonia and died at 22 months of age.

  1. Phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from lung, isolated alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived adenomas.

    PubMed Central

    Pool, G L; Bubacz, D G; Lumb, R H; Mason, R J

    1983-01-01

    We have examined phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from rat and mouse whole lung, isolated rat alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived mouse pulmonary adenomas. We report an enrichment in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (but not phosphatidylinositol) protein-catalysed transfer in the type II cell and adenoma cytosols compared with the whole-lung cytosols. The activities from these cytosols were resolved using column chromatofocusing, which clearly demonstrated the presence of a phosphatidylcholine-specific transfer protein in each of the four tissues. In addition, two proteins (rat) or three proteins (mouse) catalysing both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol transfer were resolved from whole lung, whereas in both the rat isolated alveolar type II cells and the mouse type II cell-derived adenomas one of these less specific proteins is not present. PMID:6661189

  2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Type II Endoleaks

    PubMed Central

    Kuziez, Mohamed S; Sanchez, Luis A; Zayed, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks occur commonly following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Although they remain enigmatic, multiples studies have evaluated preoperative risk factors and strategies for prevention of type II endoleaks. Prophylactic treatment of type II endoleaks can include embolization of accessory arteries, as well as complete aneurysmal sac occlusion. Regular post-operative surveillance and screening for type II endoleaks with triple-phase CTA is the standard of care. Aneurysm size and growth rate are factors that predict whether a persistence type II endoleak is hemodynamically significant, and whether it requires treatment with percutaneous trans-lumbar or trans-arterial embolization techniques. Less commonly, type II endoleaks can be repaired using laparoscopic or open surgical ligation of feeder arterial branches. Emerging methods using endovascular aneurysm sac sealing technology may continue to alter the incidence and long-term management strategies of type II endoleaks. Here we review the latest strategies in the treatment of Type II endoleaks following EVAR. PMID:27857945

  3. Moving beyond Type I and Type II neuron types.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    In 1948, Hodgkin delineated different classes of axonal firing.  This has been mathematically translated allowing insight and understanding to emerge.  As such, the terminology of 'Type I' and 'Type II' neurons is commonplace in the Neuroscience literature today.  Theoretical insights have helped us realize that, for example, network synchronization depends on whether neurons are Type I or Type II.  Mathematical models are precise with analyses (considering Type I/II aspects), but experimentally, the distinction can be less clear.  On the other hand, experiments are becoming more sophisticated in terms of distinguishing and manipulating particular cell types but are limited in terms of being able to consider network aspects simultaneously.   Although there is much work going on mathematically and experimentally, in my opinion it is becoming common that models are either superficially linked with experiment or not described in enough detail to appreciate the biological context.  Overall, we all suffer in terms of impeding our understanding of brain networks and applying our understanding to neurological disease.  I suggest that more modelers become familiar with experimental details and that more experimentalists appreciate modeling assumptions. In other words, we need to move beyond our comfort zones.

  4. Decreased mRNA expression of the PTH/PTHrP receptor and type II sodium-dependent phosphate transporter in the kidney of rats fed a high phosphorus diet accompanied with a decrease in serum calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-12-01

    This study investigates the phosphorus (P) homeostasis in the process of an altered parathyroid hormone (PTH) action in the kidney of rats fed a high P diet. Four-week-old male Wistar strain rats were fed diets containing five different P levels (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%) for 21 days. The serum PTH concentration and urinary excretion of P were elevated with increasing dietary P level. Compared to rats fed the 0.3% P diet, the serum calcium (Ca) concentration remained unchanged, while the serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentration and urinary excretion of cAMP were elevated with increasing dietary P level in rats fed the high P diets containing 0.6-0.9% P. On the other hand, a lower serum Ca concentration was observed in rats fed the high P diets containing 1.2% or greater P. The serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentration remained unchanged in rats fed the high P diets containing 1.2% or greater P, comparison with rats fed the 0.3% P diet. The urinary excretion of cAMP and PTH/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor and type II sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-2) mRNA in the kidney were both decreased in rats fed the high P diets containing 1.2% or greater P. In conclusion, a high P diet with subsequent decrease in serum Ca concentration suppressed the PTH action in the kidney due to PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA down-regulation. Furthermore, an increase in the urinary excretion of P might have been caused by decreased NaPi-2 mRNA expression without the effects of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3).

  5. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  6. Neurofibromatosis type II: a rare neurocutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu; Khan, Ashfa Ameer; Malik, Muhammad Akbar; Nadeem, Malik Muhammad; Rahman, Mahfooz-Ur-; Khan, Malik Muhammad Nazir

    2007-06-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are heterogeneous group of disorders with abnormalities of central as well as peripheral nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type II (NF-II) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome rarely diagnosed in pediatric population. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and radioimaging. We present a 14 years old boy with headache and decreased hearing, who turned to be a case of neurofibromatosis type II.

  7. Transforming growth factors type beta 1 and beta 2 suppress rat astrocyte autoantigen presentation and antagonize hyperinduction of class II major histocompatibility complex antigen expression by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Schluesener, H J

    1990-04-01

    The transforming growth factors (TGF) type beta 1 and beta 2 are regulatory cytokines strongly affecting rat astrocyte immune functions. Both cytokines suppressed presentation of autoantigen by astrocytes: highly encephalitogenic T cells cocultured with TGF-beta-treated astrocytes in the presence of myelin basic protein did not become activated to transfer experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease. Furthermore, TGF-beta 1 and -beta 2 antagonized hyperinduction of astrocyte major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Thus, TGF-beta might be a potential regulator of CNS inflammation.

  8. Down-Regulation of Renal Gluconeogenesis in Type II Diabetic Rats Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Potential Mechanism in Hypoglycemic Effect.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi; Lin, Ning; Yan, Hong-Tao; Luo, Hao; Chen, Guang-Yu; Cui, Jian-Feng; Shi, Li; Chen, Tao; Wang, Tao; Tang, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on renal gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetic rats and its relationship with hormonal parameters. Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 35 mg/kg) combined with a high-fat diet. They were then randomly divided into three groups: diabetes model group (DM group, n = 8), sham Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group (SRYGB group, n = 8), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group (RYGB group, n = 14). Another 8 normal rats comprised the normal control group (NC group, n = 8). Body weight, glucose, serum lipid, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, and adiponectin were measured pre- and postoperatively. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), insulin receptor-α (IR-α), insulin receptor-β (IR-β), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (Gsk3b) were measured in renal cortex by using RT-PCR and Western immune-blot analyses on the 4th week after operation. Following RYGB surgery, surgery-treated rats showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance as well as increased post-gavage insulin levels and serum circulating levels of GLP-1 and adiponectin. RT-PCR and Western immune-blot analyses showed PEPCK and G6Pase protein and mRNA to be significantly decreased in the renal cortex in the RYGB group (p < 0.05 vs. DM or SRYGB group); in addition, IR-α and Gsk3b phosphorylation levels increased in the RYGB group (p < 0.05 vs. DM or SRYGB group). Down-regulation of renal gluconeogenic enzymes might be a potential mechanism in hypoglycemia. An improved insulin signal pathway in the renal cortex and increased circulating adiponectin concentrations may contribute to the decline of renal gluconeogenesis following RYGB surgery.

  9. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  10. Combination of MTX and LEF attenuates inflammatory bone erosion by down-regulation of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand and interleukin-17 in type II collagen-induced arthritis rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Ding, Cong-zhu; Fang, Yun

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of combination of methotrexate (MTX) and leflunomide (LEF) on type II collagen-induced arthritis rats and its mechanism. Curative effect was confirmed on CIA rats, which were randomized and divided into model, MTX, LEF and MTX + LEF group. Weights and joint swelling scores of rats were recorded. Interleukin (IL)-17, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentration in serum were determined by ELISA. H&E dyeing of joint was used to estimate the inflammation and osteoclasia extent. The mechanism was investigated through fibroblast-like synoviocytes isolated from RA patients. The effect of MTX and LEF on cell viability, and RANKL and OPG expression were indicated through MTT and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Combination therapy would be effective in treating CIA rats. Joint swelling scores and IL-17 and RANKL level in serum were decreased obviously (P < 0.05), while OPG level was elevated (P < 0.05). Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclasia effect would be indicated by H&E dyeing results. Moreover, FLS cell viability was inhibited by combination treatment in vitro (P < 0.05), and expression of osteoclasia-related genes (RANKL and OPG) was modified (P < 0.05). Combination therapy would relive the synovium hypertrophy through depressing cell viability and osteoclasia through decreasing RANKL and increasing OPG expression. Otherwise, combination was superior to monotherapy.

  11. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  12. Alveolar type II cell-fibroblast interactions, synthesis and secretion of surfactant and type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M; Bhandari, R; Hamilton, G; Chan, Y C; Powell, J T

    1993-06-01

    During alveolar development and alveolar repair close contacts are established between fibroblasts and lung epithelial cells through gaps in the basement membrane. Using co-culture systems we have investigated whether these close contacts influence synthesis and secretion of the principal surfactant apoprotein (SP-A) by cultured rat lung alveolar type II cells and the synthesis and secretion of type I collagen by fibroblasts. The alveolar type II cells remained cuboidal and grew in colonies on fibroblast feeder layers and on Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts but were progressively more flattened on fixed fibroblast monolayers and plastic. Alveolar type II cells cultured on plastic released almost all their SP-A into the medium by 4 days. Alveolar type II cells cultured on viable fibroblasts or Matrigel-coated inserts above fibroblasts accumulated SP-A in the medium at a constant rate for the first 4 days, and probably recycle SP-A by endocytosis. The amount of mRNA for SP-A was very low after 4 days of culture of alveolar type II cells on plastic, Matrigel-coated inserts or fixed fibroblast monolayers: relatively, the amount of mRNA for SP-A was increased 4-fold after culture of alveolar type II cells on viable fibroblasts. Co-culture of alveolar type II cells with confluent human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 2- to 3-fold the secretion of collagen type I into the culture medium, even after the fibroblasts' growth had been arrested with mitomycin C. Collagen secretion, by fibroblasts, also was stimulated 2-fold by conditioned medium from alveolar type II cells cultured on Matrigel. The amount of mRNA for type I collagen increased only modestly when fibroblasts were cultured in this conditioned medium. This stimulation of type I collagen secretion diminished as the conditioned medium was diluted out, but at high dilutions further stimulation occurred, indicating that a factor that inhibited collagen secretion also was being diluted out. The conditioned medium

  13. Online immunoaffinity liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry determination of a type II collagen peptide biomarker in rat urine: Investigation of the impact of collision-induced dissociation fluctuation on peptide quantitation.

    PubMed

    Berna, Michael; Schmalz, Chris; Duffin, Kevin; Mitchell, Peter; Chambers, Mark; Ackermann, Brad

    2006-09-15

    Proteolytic fragments of type II collagen, a major component of joint tissue, have recently been identified as biomarkers for osteoarthritis, a progressive disease associated with cartilage degeneration. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay that utilizes online immunoaffinity chromatography and column switching was developed in our laboratory for the neoepitope of type II collagen (NET2C). During method development, peptide collision-induced dissociation (CID) was found to be a significant source of assay variation, which exceeded 10% CV, despite the fact that a stable-isotope-labeled (SIL) internal standard was used to minimize imprecision. This phenomenon was studied in detail using peptides and associated SIL internal standards of varying lengths and amino acid compositions. Variability in peptide CID necessitated the monitoring of multiple MS/MS transitions to obtain acceptable assay precision. The assay was subsequently validated to measure NET2C concentrations in rat urine over the range of 0.1 to 10 ng/mL. The interday accuracy and precision ranged from 3.9 to 13.1 (%CV) and 10.7 to 5.3 (%RE), respectively, across the range of validated concentrations. A specific application of the assay is presented in which the role of estrogen deficiency in the development and progression of osteoarthritis was investigated. In this study, the effect of estrogen on lowering NET2C concentrations in urine in ovariectomized rats was demonstrated.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... experience the most severe symptoms of glutaric acidemia type II . Mutations that allow the enzyme to retain some activity may result in milder forms of the disorder. Learn more about the genes associated with glutaric acidemia type II ETFA ETFB ETFDH Related Information What is ...

  15. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  16. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Walker, V; Mills, G A; Peters, S A; Merton, W L

    2000-03-01

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.

  17. A Type-II Positive Allosteric Modulator of α7 nAChRs Reduces Brain Injury and Improves Neurological Function after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fen; Jin, Kunlin; Uteshev, Victor V.

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of clinically-efficacious therapies for ischemic stroke there is a critical need for development of new therapeutic concepts and approaches for prevention of brain injury secondary to cerebral ischemia. This study tests the hypothesis that administration of PNU-120596, a type-II positive allosteric modulator (PAM-II) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as long as 6 hours after the onset of focal cerebral ischemia significantly reduces brain injury and neurological deficits in an animal model of ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by a transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Animals were then subdivided into two groups and injected intravenously (i.v.) 6 hours post-MCAO with either 1 mg/kg PNU-120596 (treated group) or vehicle only (untreated group). Measurements of cerebral infarct volumes and neurological behavioral tests were performed 24 hrs post-MCAO. PNU-120596 significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume and improved neurological function as evidenced by the results of Bederson, rolling cylinder and ladder rung walking tests. These results forecast a high therapeutic potential for PAMs-II as effective recruiters and activators of endogenous α7 nAChR-dependent cholinergic pathways to reduce brain injury and improve neurological function after cerebral ischemic stroke. PMID:23951360

  18. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  19. Cigarette smoke extract induces apoptosis of rat alveolar Type II cells via the PLTP/TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liao, Ke; Cui-Zhao, Lv; Qiang-Wen, Fu; Feng-Zeng, Xue; Ping-Wu, Feng; Liang-Guo, Shu; Juan-Chen, Ya

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may play a role in apoptosis. In the present study, the effect of the novel function of PLTP in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and the possible mechanism were examined. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air and cigarette smoke (n=10/exposure) for 6h/day on 3 consecutive days, then the lungs were sectioned and examined. To investigate effects on alveolar epithelial cells, rat alveolar epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) were treated with different concentrations of CSE for various times. siRNA for PLTP was transfected into cells and an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) type I receptor was administered prior to CSE exposure. Apoptosis was measured, and mRNA expression of PLTP and TGF-β1 and protein levels of PLTP, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 were analyzed. The results showed that apoptosis, as well as expression of PLTP, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 were all significantly increased after CSE stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 induced by CSE could be partly abrogated by knockdown of PLTP. The expression of PLTP showed no significant change as a result of TGF-β1 receptor inhibition, while cleaved caspase-3 showed a remarkable reduction. PLTP may act as an upstream signal molecule of the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway and is likely to be involved in CSE-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

  20. Regulation of L-type inward calcium channel activity by captopril and angiotensin II via the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase pathway in cardiomyocytes from volume-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Alvin, Zikiar; Laurence, Graham G.; Coleman, Bernell R; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E.

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure can be caused by pro-hypertrophic humoral factors such as angiotensin II (Ang II), which regulates protein kinase activities. The intermingled responses of these kinases lead to the early compensated cardiac hypertrophy, but later to the uncompensated phase of heart failure. We have shown that although beneficial, cardiac hypertrophy is associated with modifications in ion channels that are mainly mediated through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. This study evaluates the control of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) by the Ang II/PI3K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes from volume-overload rats using the perforated patch-clamp technique. To assess activation of the ICa,L in cardiomyocytes, voltages of 350 ms in 10 mV increments from a holding potential of −85 mV were applied to cardiocytes, with a pre-pulse to −45 mV for 300 ms. Volume overload-induced hypertrophy reduces ICa,L, whereas addition of Ang II alleviates the hypertrophic-induced decrease in a PI3K-dependent manner. Acute administration of Ang II (10−6 mol/L) to normal adult cardiomyocytes had no effect; however, captopril reduced their basal ICa,L. In parallel, captopril regressed the hypertrophy and inverted the Ang II effect on ICa,L seemingly through a PI3K upstream effector. Thus, it seems that regression of cardiac hypertrophy by captopril improved ICa,L partly through PI3K. PMID:21423294

  1. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  2. Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11060 TITLE: Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II...The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 2-1 Headache and Decompression Sickness...while Type II necessitates recompression with 100% oxygen (7). Headache associated with DCS is not new. Ryles and Pilmanis reported an eleven-year

  3. Role of Mas receptor antagonist (A779) on pressure diuresis and natriuresis and renal blood flow in the absence of angiotensin II receptors type 1 and 2 in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, A; Oryan, S; Nematbakhsh, M

    2014-10-01

    Sexual differences in blood pressure are associated with angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) and its receptor and enzyme function targeting. Blockade of angiotensin II (AngII) receptors type 1 and 2 (AT1R and AT2R) inhibits some actions of Ang1-7. We described the role of Ang1-7 receptor (MasR) antagonist (A779) on kidney hemodynamics when AT1R and AT2R are blocked with losartan and PD123319. In anaesthetized male and female rats after blockade of both AT1R and AT2R, the renal perfusion pressure (RPP) was controlled in two levels of 80 and 100 mmHg via an adjustable clamp placed around the aorta above the level of the renal arteries. Then, the effects of saline vehicle and MasR blocker (A779) were tested on pressure natriuresis and diuresis, renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR). In the absence of AT1R and AT2R; RVR, RBF/wet kidney tissue weight, and serum level of renin did not alter in both genders either MasR was blocked or not. However, urine flow rate (UF) and sodium excretion (UNaV) increased significantly at the pressure level of 100 mmHg in the presence of MasR in male (P<0.05) but not in female rats. When AT1R and AT2R were blocked, the impact of MasR is gender-related in pressure natriuresis and diuresis, and pressure natriuresis and diuresis in male rats (not female) increases in the presence of MasR.

  4. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  5. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  6. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation.

  7. Noether symmetries of Bianchi type II spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Mark; Yazdan, Shair-a.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate Noether symmetries of Bianchi type II spacetimes. We use the reduced involutive form of the determining equations to classify their possible algebras. We show that Noether symmetries contain both Killing vectors and homothetic motions.

  8. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible.

  9. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 activation is required for cutaneous sensory hyperinnervation and hypersensitivity in a rat hind paw model of inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Many pain syndromes are associated with abnormal proliferation of peripheral sensory fibers. We showed previously that angiotensin II, acting through its type 2 receptor (AT2), stimulates axon outgrowth by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. In this study, we assessed whether AT2 mediates nociceptor hyperinnervation in the rodent hind paw model of inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), but not saline, produced marked thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity through 7 days. This was accompanied by proliferation of dermal and epidermal PGP9.5- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) axons, and dermal axons immunoreactive for GFRα2 but not tyrosine hydroxylase or neurofilament H. Continuous infusion of the AT2 antagonist PD123319 beginning with CFA injection completely prevented hyperinnervation as well as hypersensitivity over a 7 day period. A single PD123319 injection 7 days after CFA also reversed thermal hypersensitivity and partially reversed mechanical hypersensitivity 3 hours later, without affecting cutaneous innervation. Angiotensin II synthesizing proteins renin and angiotensinogen were largely absent after saline but abundant in T-cells and macrophages in CFA-injected paws with or without PD123319. Thus, emigrant cells at the site of inflammation apparently establish a renin-angiotensin system, and AT2 activation elicits nociceptor sprouting and heightened thermal and mechanical sensitivity. Perspective Short-term AT2 activation is a potent contributor to thermal hypersensitivity, while long-term effects (such as hyperinnervation) also contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity. Pharmacological blockade of AT2 signaling represents a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at biological mechanisms underlying chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:23726047

  10. Type II endometrial cancers: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora D.; Thomas, Eliz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial carcinoma ranks 3rd in India among gynecological malignancies. Endometrial cancer (EC) can be classified into two distinct groups – type I and type II, based on histology, which differs in molecular, clinical and histopathological profiles. Type II is nonestrogen dependent, nonendometrioid, more aggressive and carries poor prognosis. Although type II cancers contribute only about 10% of EC incidence, they present at advanced age and cause approximately 50% recurrence and deaths with a low 5-year, overall survival rate. Type II EC are also characterized by genetic alterations in p53, human epidermal growth factor-2/neu, p16 and E-cadherin. Materials and Methods: Endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from endometrial biopsies and hysterectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, from January 2007 to June 2012 were included in the study. Clinicopathological analysis of the 84 cases of EC was done with emphasis on morphology. p53 immunostaining was performed in two cases of serous carcinoma. Results: Out of a total of 84 cases of EC, ten cases were of type II (11.9%). Out of which, eight were serous carcinoma (9.5%) and two clear cell (2.4%). p53 immunostain was strongly positive in the serous papillary carcinomas. The age of the patients ranged from 45 to 75 years. Myometrial invasion was more than half. Treatment was hysterectomy followed by aggressive chemotherapy. Conclusion: Of the type II EC, serous carcinoma is the most common type. Clinical presentation and prognosis differs in comparison to type I EC, thus the recognition of this type of EC is pivotal. PMID:27499593

  11. An Extended Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model: Evaluation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy on Human IgG Pharmacokinetics in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Gurkishan S; Morris, Marilyn E

    2015-11-01

    Although many studies have evaluated the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of low molecular weight molecules, there is limited information regarding effects on monoclonal antibodies. Our previous studies have reported significant increases in total (2-4 fold) and renal (100-300 fold) clearance of human IgG, an antibody isotype, in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Pioglitazone treatment incompletely reversed the disease-related PK changes. The objective of this study was to construct a mechanistic model for simultaneous fitting plasma and urine data, to yield physiologically relevant PK parameters. We propose an extended minimal physiologically based PK (mPBPK) model specifically for IgG by classifying organs as either leaky or tight vascular tissues, and adding a kidney compartment. The model incorporates convection as the primary mechanism of IgG movement from plasma into tissues, interstitial fluid (ISF) in extravascular distribution space, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sieving coefficient and fraction reabsorbed in the kidney. The model captured the plasma and urine PK profiles well, and simulated concentrations in ISF. The model estimated a 2-4 fold increase in nonrenal clearance from plasma and 30-120 fold increase in renal clearance with T2DM, consistent with the experimental findings, and these differences in renal clearance were related to changes in GFR, sieving coefficient, and proximal tubular reabsorption. In conclusion, the mPBPK model offers a more relevant approach for analyzing plasma and urine IgG concentration-time data than conventional models and provides insight regarding alterations in distributional and elimination parameters occurring with T2DM.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Printable PDF Open All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder ...

  13. Characterization of type II alveolar epithelial cells by flow cytometry and fluorescent markers.

    PubMed

    Rochat, T R; Casale, J M; Hunninghake, G W

    1988-10-01

    Type II alveolar epithelial cells play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and functions of pulmonary alveoli. A number of techniques have been described to isolate type II cells for in vitro studies; however, type II cell suspensions isolated by each technique are still contaminated by macrophages or monocytes. The present studies describe the use of flow cytometry to accurately characterize the composition of these cell suspensions. With freshly isolated type II cell suspensions, type II cells could be distinguished from macrophages and monocytes by two methods: (1) the combination of natural fluorescence and orthogonal light scatter, or (2) the use of monoclonal antibodies OX-1 (directed against a common leukocyte antigen present on rat macrophages and monocytes) and PKK-1 (directed against cytokeratin intermediate filaments present in type II cells). With cultured type II cells, the combination of natural fluorescence and orthogonal light scatter did not distinguish between type II cells and macrophages or monocytes; however, the monoclonal antibodies OX-I and PKK-1 continued to distinguish between these cell types. As an example of the use of these techniques, the methods were used to define the sequential expression of class I and II major histocompatibility antigens on both type II cells and on macrophages or monocytes in the same cell preparations. These methods are of potential value in isolating pure populations either of type II cells or of macrophages or monocytes by cell sorting and in accurately identifying the cells present in type II cell suspensions or cultures.

  14. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome.

  15. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  16. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  17. Organotypic culture of fetal lung type II alveolar epithelial cells: applications to pulmonary toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Shami, S G; Aghajanian, J D; Sanders, R L

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for isolation and culture of fetal Type II alveolar epithelial cells, as well as the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of these histotypic cultures, are described. Type II alveolar epithelial cells can be isolated from fetal rat lungs and grown in an organotypic culture system as described in this review. The fetal Type II cells resemble differentiated rat Type II cells in morphology, biochemistry, and karyotype as they grow in culture for up to 5 weeks. The cells of the mature organotypic cultures form alveolarlike structures while growing on a gelatin sponge matrix. The Type II cells also synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant similar in biochemical composition to that produced in vivo. This system has been used to study the effects of hormones on surfactant production and composition. The organotypic model has many potential applications to the study of pulmonary toxicology. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:6548184

  18. Naturalness in testable type II seesaw scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Vila, Clara Miralles; Rodejohann, Werner

    2017-08-01

    New physics coupling to the Higgs sector of the Standard Model can lead to dangerously large corrections to the Higgs mass. We investigate this problem in the type II seesaw model for neutrino mass, where a weak scalar triplet is introduced. The interplay of direct and indirect constraints on the type II seesaw model with its contribution to the Higgs mass is analyzed. The focus lies on testable triplet masses and (sub) eV-scale triplet vacuum expectation values. We identify scenarios that are testable in collider and/or lepton flavor violation experiments, while satisfying the Higgs naturalness criterion.

  19. Type II Technology Applications in Teacher Education:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen Wang, Lih-Ching; Beasley, William

    2005-01-01

    The use of the Instant Messenger (IM) environment to carry out structured online class discussions in graduate teacher education courses is described. Properties of IM are delineated, and specific procedures in using IM as a vehicle for class discussions are discussed. Attributes of Type II technology applications are addressed directly, and the…

  20. Are coronal type II shocks piston driven?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kundu, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Flare blast waves and shocks piston driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been proposed to be responsible for generating type II radio bursts in the solar corona. The idea for piston-driven shocks came primarily from temporal association of shocks and CMEs. Our compilation of CME events with simultaneous radio observations with positional information supports idea of flare blast waves.

  1. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears.

  2. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges.

  3. Safety and toxicological evaluation of undenatured type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Marone, Palma Ann; Lau, Francis C; Gupta, Ramesh C; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that undenatured type II collagen is effective in the treatment of arthritis. The present study evaluated the broad-spectrum safety of UC-II by a variety of toxicological assays including acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, and primary eye irritation toxicity. In addition, genotoxicity studies such as Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay and mouse lymphoma tests, as well as a dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study were conducted. Safety studies indicated that acute oral LD(50) of UC-II was greater than 5000 mg/kg in female Sprague-Dawley rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD(50) of UC-II was determined to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. Primary skin irritation tests conducted on New Zealand Albino rabbits classified UC-II as slightly irritating. Primary eye irritation tests conducted on rabbits indicated that UC-II was moderately irritating to the eye. UC-II did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation test in five Salmonella typhimurium strains either with or without metabolic activation. Similarly, UC-II did not induce a mutagenic effect in the gene mutation test in mouse lymphoma cells either with or without metabolic activation. A dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study revealed no pathologically significant changes in selected organ weights individually or as percentages of body or brain weights. No significant changes were observed in hematology and clinical chemistry. Therefore, the results from the current study show a broad-spectrum safety profile of UC-II.

  4. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  6. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  7. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  8. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  9. Type II restriction endonucleases: structure and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pingoud, A; Fuxreiter, M; Pingoud, V; Wende, W

    2005-03-01

    Type II restriction endonucleases are components of restriction modification systems that protect bacteria and archaea against invading foreign DNA. Most are homodimeric or tetrameric enzymes that cleave DNA at defined sites of 4-8 bp in length and require Mg2+ ions for catalysis. They differ in the details of the recognition process and the mode of cleavage, indicators that these enzymes are more diverse than originally thought. Still, most of them have a similar structural core and seem to share a common mechanism of DNA cleavage, suggesting that they evolved from a common ancestor. Only a few restriction endonucleases discovered thus far do not belong to the PD...D/ExK family of enzymes, but rather have active sites typical of other endonuclease families. The present review deals with new developments in the field of Type II restriction endonucleases. One of the more interesting aspects is the increasing awareness of the diversity of Type II restriction enzymes. Nevertheless, structural studies summarized herein deal with the more common subtypes. A major emphasis of this review will be on target site location and the mechanism of catalysis, two problems currently being addressed in the literature.

  10. Zn(II) transport and distribution in rat spermatids.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J G; Arrate, M P; Santander, M; Guzman, L; Benos, D J

    1993-10-01

    Zn(II) is an essential trace element. In spermatozoa, Zn(II) modulates metabolism and chromatin condensation. The mechanisms of uptake and distribution of this ion in sperm cells have not been explored. In rat spermatids, our results indicate that 1) 65Zn(II) binds with fast kinetics to a labile, presumably extracellular, compartment. This binding is temperature insensitive and not modified by metabolic inhibitors. 2) Entry of 65Zn(II) in the absence of externally added proteins occurs through a mediated transport system that allows exchange to reach steady state in approximately 15 min at 34 degrees C. 3) Upon entering the cells, 65Zn(II) binds tightly to cellular organelles. 4) Exchangeable Zn(II) bound to cytoplasmic proteins plus free intracellular Zn(II) appears to be < 20% of total exchangeable Zn(II). 5) The intracellular exchangeable Zn(II) compartment is decreased by metabolic inhibitors, showing a direct or indirect link between energy metabolism and cellular Zn(II) levels. 6) 65Zn(II) efflux from rat spermatids is a process with a rate constant of 0.16 +/- 0.13 min-1 at 34 degrees C. This exit rate of Zn(II) is likely to be affected by Zn(II) release from cytoplasmic binding sites or organelles.

  11. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  12. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes.

  13. Spectral modeling of Type II SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The red supergiant phase represents the final stage of evolution in the life of moderate mass (8-25Msun) massive stars. Hidden from view, the core changes considerably its structure, progressing through the advanced stages of nuclear burning, and eventually becomes degenerate. Upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, this Fe or ONeMg core collapses, leading to the formation of a proto neutron star. A type II supernova results if the shock that forms at core bounce, eventually wins over the envelope accretion and reaches the progenitor surface.The electromagnetic display of such core-collapse SNe starts with this shock breakout, and persists for months as the ejecta releases the energy deposited initially by the shock or continuously through radioactive decay. Over a timescale of weeks to months, the originally optically-thick ejecta thins out and turns nebular. SN radiation contains a wealth of information about the explosion physics (energy, explosive nucleosynthesis), the progenitor properties (structure and composition). Polarised radiation also offers signatures that can help constrain the morphology of the ejecta.In this talk, I will review the current status of type II SN spectral modelling, and emphasise that a proper solution requires a time dependent treatment of the radiative transfer problem. I will discuss the wealth of information that can be gleaned from spectra as well as light curves, from both the early times (photospheric phase) and late times (nebular phase). I will discuss the diversity of Type SNe properties and how they are related to the diversity of red supergiant stars from which they originate.SN radiation offers an alternate means of constraining the properties of red-supergiant stars. To wrap up, I will illustrate how SNe II-P can also be used as probes, for example to constrain the metallicity of their environment.

  14. Vitiligo following type II lepra reaction.

    PubMed

    Pavithran, K

    1989-01-01

    A middle-aged male with lepromatous leprosy developed bouts of skin lesions of depigmented macules and patches of vitiligo, just following attacks of type II lepra reaction each time. In view of the present concept of autoimmunity playing a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo as well as lepra reaction, their association in our patient appears to be more than fortuious. The depigmented macules persisted even after regression of skin lesions of leprosy following chemotherapy. The vitiligo macules responded partially to topical and systemic psoralen therapy.

  15. [Prenatal diagnosis of type II osteogenesis imperfecta].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, R; Salomé-Salomé, J; Mercado-García, A; Simg-Alor, C

    1998-02-01

    We present one case of a 23 week old fetus that was diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta type II via ultrasound, The principal ultrasonographic findings were; lack of mineralization in the calvaria, short, wide, and angulated femurs, with the presence of fractures, the length corresponds to a 17.5 week old gestation, more than two standard deviations below the mean for gestational age. The rest of the long bones show fractures and poor mineralization that was suggested by reduced acoustic shadowing. An elective cesarean was programmed at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The osseous lesions were confirmed postnatally by means of a conventional radiographs.

  16. Minkowski Flux Vacua of Type II Supergravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriot, David; Blâbäck, Johan; Van Riet, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We study flux compactifications of 10D type II supergravities to 4D Minkowski space-time, supported by parallel orientifold Op planes with 3 ≤p ≤8 . With some geometric restrictions, the 4D Ricci scalar can be written as a negative sum of squares involving Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield-like conditions. Setting all squares to zero provides automatically a solution to 10D equations of motion. This way we characterize a broad class, if not the complete set, of Minkowski flux vacua with parallel orientifolds. We conjecture an extension with nongeometric fluxes. None of our results rely on supersymmetry.

  17. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  18. An angiotensin II receptor antagonist suppresses running-enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in rat.

    PubMed

    Mukuda, Takao; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki

    2007-06-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is enhanced by voluntary running exercise in adult mammals. To elucidate the factors involved in this enhancement, we examined the effects of losartan, an antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, on the running-enhanced neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus. When losartan was administered orally via the drinking water, the running-enhanced cell proliferation in the subgranular zone was almost completely suppressed, indicating that this enhancement may be mediated by angiotensin II and its receptors.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions HSAN2 hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... All Close All Description Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II ( HSAN2 ) is a condition that primarily ...

  20. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Rat Hepatic Fibrosis via Downregulating Angiotensin II Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Wang, Lina; Yan, Xiuchuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Li, Junxia; Peng, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Liu, Chenghai

    2012-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), one of the water-soluble components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been used to treat hepatic fibrosis, but it is still not clear whether the effect of Sal B is related to angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling pathway. In the present study, we studied Sal B effect on rat liver fibrosis and Ang-II related signaling mediators in dimethylnitrosamine-(DMN-) induced rat fibrotic model in vivo and Ang-II stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro, with perindopril or losartan as control drug, respectively. The results showed that Sal B and perindopril inhibited rat hepatic fibrosis and reduced expression of Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and ERK activation in fibrotic liver. Sal B and losartan also inhibited Ang II-stimulated HSC activation including cell proliferation and expression of type I collagen I (Col-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production in vitro, reduced the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and downregulated AT1R expression and ERK and c-Jun phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results indicate that Sal B may exert an antihepatic fibrosis effect via downregulating Ang II signaling in HSC activation. PMID:23243430

  1. Type-II superlattices: the Fraunhofer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-04-01

    In the past years, the development of the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice technology at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) has been focused on achieving series-production readiness for third generation dualcolor superlattice detector arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range. The technology is ideally suited for airborne missile threat warning systems, due to its ability of low false alarm remote imaging of hot carbon dioxide signatures on a millisecond time scale. In a multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy based process eleven 288×384 dualcolor detector arrays are fabricated on 3" GaSb substrates. Very homogeneous detector arrays with an excellent noise equivalent temperature difference have been realized. The current article presents the type-II superlattice dual-color technology developed at IAF and delivers insights into a range of test methodologies employed at various stages during the fabrication process, which ensure that the basic requirements for achieving high detector performance are met.

  2. Proteolysis of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, U J; Malek, S K; Liu, L; Li, H L

    1999-10-01

    Synaptobrevin-2, syntaxin-1, and SNAP-25 were identified in rat alveolar epithelial type II cells by Western blot analysis. Synaptobrevin-2 was localized in the lamellar bodies, and syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 were found in 0.4% Nonidet P40-soluble and -insoluble fractions, respectively, of the type II cells. When the isolated type II cells were stimulated for secretion with calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, these proteins were found to have been proteolyzed. Preincubation of cells with calpain inhibitor II (N-acetylleucylleucylmethionine), however, prevented the proteolysis. Treatment of the cell lysate with exogenous calpain resulted in a time-dependent decrease of these proteins. The data suggest that synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 are subject to proteolytic modification by activated calpain in intact type II cells stimulated for secretion.

  3. Edaravone suppresses degradation of type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Liao, Guangjun; Han, Jian; Zhang, Guofeng; Zou, Benguo

    2016-05-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease affecting millions of people. The degradation and loss of type II collagen induced by proinflammatory cytokines secreted by chondrocytes, such as factor-α (TNF-α) is an important pathological mechanism to the progression of OA. Edaravone is a potent free radical scavenger, which has been clinically used to treat the neuronal damage following acute ischemic stroke. However, whether Edaravone has a protective effect in articular cartilage hasn't been reported before. In this study, we investigated the chondrocyte protective effects of Edaravone on TNF-α induced degradation of type Ⅱ collagen. And our results indicated that TNF-α treatment resulted in degradation of type Ⅱ collagen, which can be ameliorated by treatment with Edaravone in a dose dependent manner. Notably, it was found that the inhibitory effects of Edaravone on TNF-α-induced reduction of type Ⅱ collagen were mediated by MMP-3 and MMP-13. Mechanistically, we found that Edaravone alleviated TNF-α induced activation of STAT1 and expression of IRF-1. These findings suggest a potential protective effect of Edaravone in OA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Ordering dynamics in type-II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2006-12-01

    We use analytic and numerical methods to analyze the dynamics of vortices following the quench of a type-II superconductor under the application of an external magnetic field. In three dimensions, in the absence of a field, the spacing between vortices scales with time t with an exponent phi=0.414+/-0.01, in a thin sheet of a superconductor, the scaling exponent is phi=0.294+/-0.01. When an external magnetic field h is applied, the vortices are confined with respect to the length scale of the Abrikosov lattice, leading to a crossover between the power-law scaling length scale and the lattice length scale. From this we suggest a one-parameter scaling of r with h and r that is consistent with numerical data.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Blaumeiser, Bettina; Loquet, Philip; Wuyts, Wim; Nöthen, Markus M

    2004-08-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by coronal craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great toes. On the basis of clinical findings, three subtypes have been delineated. The clinical variability of Pfeiffer syndrome as well as other causes of craniosynostosis can make a prenatal diagnosis based on sonography alone difficult. We describe a fetus in whom sonographic findings (including 3D ultrasound) suggested a Pfeiffer syndrome type II and in which subsequent molecular analysis verified the diagnosis by identifying a de novo mutation in the FGFR2 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prenatal molecular diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome in a patient without family history.

  6. Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X Long; Kitamoto, Yasunori; Sadler, J Evan

    2009-06-01

    Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease, is localized to the brush border of the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. It is synthesized as a zymogen (proenteropeptidase) that requires activation by another protease, either trypsin or possibly duodenase. Active enteropeptidase then converts the pancreatic precursor, trypsinogen, to trypsin by cleavage of the specific trypsinogen activation peptide, Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys- Ile that is highly conserved in vertebrates. Trypsin, in turn, activates other digestive zymogens such as chymotrypsinogen, proelastase, procarboxypeptidase and prolipase in the lumen of the gut. The important biological function of enteropeptidase is highlighted by the manifestation of severe diarrhea, failure to thrive, hypoproteinemia and edema as a result of congenital deficiency of enteropeptidase activity in the gut. Conversely, duodenopancreatic reflux of proteolytically active enteropeptidase may cause acute and chronic pancreatitis.

  7. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco; Haaning, Line Lindegaard; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2014-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae, the 5′-3′ exonuclease Rat1p partakes in transcription termination. Although Rat1p-mediated RNA degradation has been suggested to play a role for this activity, the exact mechanisms by which Rat1p helps release RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from the DNA template are poorly understood. Here we describe a function of Rat1p in regulating phosphorylation levels of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNAPII subunit, Rpb1p, during transcription elongation. The rat1-1 mutant exhibits highly elevated levels of CTD phosphorylation as well as RNAPII distribution and transcription termination defects. These phenotypes are all rescued by overexpression of the CTD phosphatase Fcp1p, suggesting a functional relationship between the absence of Rat1p activity, elevated CTD phosphorylation, and transcription defects. We also demonstrate that rat1-1 cells display increased RNAPII transcription kinetics, a feature that may contribute to the cellular phenotypes of the mutant. Consistently, the rat1-1 allele is synthetic lethal with the rpb1-E1103G mutation, causing increased RNAPII speed, and is suppressed by the rpb2-10 mutation, causing slowed transcription. Thus, Rat1p plays more complex roles in controlling transcription than previously thought. PMID:24501251

  8. Intracellular angiotensin II activates rat myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deliu, Elena; Tica, Andrei A.; Motoc, Dana; Brailoiu, G. Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II is a modulator of myometrial activity; both AT1 and AT2 receptors are expressed in myometrium. Since in other tissues angiotensin II has been reported to activate intracellular receptors, we assessed the effects of intracellular administration of angiotensin II via microinjection on myometrium, using calcium imaging. Intracellular injection of angiotensin II increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was abolished by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan but not by the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123319. Disruption of the endo-lysosomal system, but not that of Golgi apparatus, prevented the angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. Blockade of AT1 receptor internalization had no effect, whereas blockade of microautophagy abolished the increase in [Ca2+]i produced by intracellular injection of angiotensin II; this indicates that microautophagy is a critical step in transporting the peptide into the endo-lysosomes lumenum. The response to angiotensin II was slightly reduced in Ca2+-free saline, indicating a major involvement of Ca2+ release from internal stores. Blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors with heparin and xestospongin C or inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U-73122 abolished the response to angiotensin II, supporting the involvement of PLC-IP3 pathway. Angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was slightly reduced by antagonism of ryanodine receptors. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that in myometrial cells, intracellular angiotensin II activates AT1-like receptors on lysosomes and activates PLC-IP3-dependent Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum; the response is further augmented by a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism via ryanodine receptors activation. PMID:21613610

  9. Type II supergravity origin of dyonic gaugings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inverso, Gianluca; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Dyonic gaugings of four-dimensional supergravity typically exhibit a richer vacuum structure compared to their purely electric counterparts, but their higher-dimensional origin often remains more mysterious. We consider a class of dyonic gaugings with gauge groups of the type (SO (p ,q )×SO (p',q'))⋉N with N nilpotent. Using generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions of exceptional field theory, we show how these four-dimensional gaugings may be consistently embedded in type II supergravity upon compactification around products of spheres and hyperboloids. As an application, we give the explicit uplift of the N =4 AdS4 vacuum of the theory with gauge group (SO (6 )×SO (1 ,1 ))⋉T12 into a supersymmetric AdS4×M5×S1 S-fold solution of IIB supergravity. The internal space M5 is a squashed S5 preserving an SO (4 )⊂SO (6 ) subset of its isometries.

  10. Waardenburg syndrome type II: phenotypic findings and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Z; Newton, V E; Read, A P

    1995-01-02

    The Waardenburg syndrome (WS) consists of at least two distinct autosomal dominant hereditary disorders. WS Type I has been mapped to the distal part of chromosome 2q and the gene identified as PAX3. Other gene(s) are responsible for WS Type II. Mapping WS Type II requires accurate diagnosis within affected families. To establish diagnostic criteria for WS Type II, 81 individuals from 21 families with Type II WS were personally studied, and compared with 60 personally studied patients from 8 families with Type I and 253 cases of WS (Type I or II) from the literature. Sensorineural hearing loss (77%) and heterochromia iridum (47%) were the two most important diagnostic indicators for WS Type II. Both were more common in Type II than in Type I. Other clinical manifestations, such as white forelock and skin patches, were more frequent in Type I. We estimate the frequency of phenotypic traits and propose diagnostic criteria for WS Type II. In practice, a diagnosis of WS Type II can be made with confidence given a family history of congenital hearing loss and pigmentary disorders, where individuals have been accurately measured for ocular distances to exclude dystopia canthorum.

  11. Angiotensin II, sodium, and cardiovascular hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Harrap, S B; Mitchell, G A; Casley, D J; Mirakian, C; Doyle, A E

    1993-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) may cause cardiovascular hypertrophy as a consequence of increased blood pressure or possibly by direct trophic actions. To dissociate Ang II and blood pressure in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we used sodium loading during angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor treatment. Animals were treated between 6 and 10 weeks of age with perindopril to lower Ang II and blood pressure, or with perindopril and 1% saline drinking fluid or perindopril and aldosterone infusion to lower Ang II but maintain high blood pressure. Blood pressure, heart weight, and media/lumen ratio of mesenteric resistance arteries were studied while rats were on treatment at 10 weeks of age and 15 weeks after treatment at 25 weeks of age. Perindopril lowered blood pressure and inhibited the development of cardiovascular hypertrophy. Saline or aldosterone restored high blood pressure during perindopril treatment and resulted in increased heart weight/body weight and resistance artery media/lumen ratios in direct proportion to the elevation of blood pressure. Because increased structure occurred despite perindopril treatment, we conclude that direct trophic actions of Ang II are not essential for the development of cardiovascular hypertrophy in young SHR and that the antitrophic actions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors depend more on changes in blood pressure than on Ang II. However, restoration of blood pressure and structure by sodium during perindopril treatment raises the possibility that the design of the cardiovascular system and blood pressure may depend indirectly on Ang II through effects on sodium metabolism.

  12. Global phase diagram of disordered type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yijia; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; Xie, X. C.

    2017-07-01

    With electron and hole pockets touching at the Weyl node, type-II Weyl semimetal is a newly proposed topological state distinct from its type-I cousin. We numerically study the localization effect for tilted type-I as well as type-II Weyl semimetals and give the global phase diagram. For disordered type-I Weyl semimetal, an intermediate three-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall phase is confirmed between Weyl semimetal phase and diffusive metal phase. However, this intermediate phase is absent for disordered type-II Weyl semimetal. Besides, along the direction of tilt, comparing to its type-I cousin, type-II Weyl semimetal typically possesses longer normalized localization length and therefore it is more robust against disorder. Near the phase boundary between the type-I and the type-II Weyl semimetals, infinitesimal disorder will induce an insulating phase so that, in this region, the concept of Weyl semimetal is meaningless for real materials.

  13. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tanya A.; Wang, Jieru; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker’s RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced by the IL-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that IL-1 produced by infected cells induces uninfected cells to express chemokines. Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation. PMID:17804032

  14. Angiotensin II-noradrenergic interactions in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, J B; Robertson, D; Jackson, E K

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that interactions of endogenous angiotensin II (AII) with the noradrenergic neuroeffector junction are important in renin-dependent hypertension. In the in situ blood-perfused rat mesentery, in normal rats exogenous AII potentiated mesenteric vascular responses to periarterial (sympathetic) nerve stimulation (PNS) more than vascular responses to exogenous norepinephrine (NE). In 2-kidney-1-clip (2K-1C) rats with renovascular hypertension mesenteric vascular responses to PNS and NE were greater than in sham-operated rats, and renovascular hypertension mimicked the effects of exogenous AII with respect to enhancing responses to PNS more than responses to NE. In 2K-1C rats, but not in sham-operated rats, 1-Sar-8-Ile-AII markedly suppressed vascular responses to PNS, without influencing responses to NE. Finally, 1-Sar-8-Ile-AII attenuated sympathetic nerve stimulation-induced neuronal spillover of NE in 2K-1C rats, but not in sham-operated rats. These data indicate that renovascular hypertension enhances noradrenergic neurotransmission, and that this enhancement is mediated in part by AII-induced facilitation of NE release. PMID:3301900

  15. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  16. Photoelectrolysis Using Type-II Semiconductor Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S; Hayne, M

    2017-09-14

    The solar-powered production of hydrogen for use as a renewable fuel is highly desirable for the world's future energy infrastructure. However, difficulties in achieving reasonable efficiencies, and thus cost-effectiveness, have hampered significant research progress. Here we propose the use of semiconductor nanostructures to create a type-II heterojunction at the semiconductor-water interface in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) and theoretically investigate it as a method of increasing the maximum photovoltage such a cell can generate under illumination, with the aim of increasing the overall cell efficiency. A model for the semiconductor electrode in a PEC is created, which solves the Schrödinger, Poisson and drift-diffusion equations self-consistently. From this, it is determined that ZnO quantum dots on bulk n-InGaN with low In content x is the most desirable system, having electron-accepting and -donating states straddling the oxygen- and hydrogen-production potentials for x < 0.26, though large variance in literature values for certain material parameters means large uncertainties in the model output. Accordingly, results presented here should form the basis for further experimental work, which will in turn provide input to refine and develop the model.

  17. Type-II superlattice hole effective masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2017-08-01

    A long wavelength infrared (LWIR) type-II superlattice (T2SL) is typically characterized by a very large valence-band-edge curvature effective mass, which is often assumed to lead to poor hole mobility. A detailed examination of the LWIR T2SL heavy-hole 1 (hh1) band structure reveals that a hole with non-zero in-plane momentum (k‖ ≠ 0) can move with a much larger group velocity component along the growth direction than one at the band edge (k‖ = 0), and that the hh1 miniband width can exhibit a very strong dependence on the in-plane wavevector k‖ . To distill the band structure effects relevant to hole transport into a simple quantity, we describe a formulation for computing the thermally averaged conductivity effective mass. We show that the LWIR T2SL hole conductivity effective masses along the growth direction can be orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding band-edge curvature effective masses. We compare the conductivities effective masses of InAs/GaSb T2SL and InAs/InAsSb T2SL grown pseudomorphically on GaSb substrate, as well as the metamorphic bulk InAsSb and InAs/InAsSb T2SL.

  18. Current Understanding of Usher Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Le; Song, Hongman; Sokolov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome is the most common deafness-blindness caused by genetic mutations. To date, three genes have been identified underlying the most prevalent form of Usher syndrome, the type II form (USH2). The proteins encoded by these genes are demonstrated to form a complex in vivo. This complex is localized mainly at the periciliary membrane complex in photoreceptors and the ankle-link of the stereocilia in hair cells. Many proteins have been found to interact with USH2 proteins in vitro, suggesting that they are potential additional components of this USH2 complex and that the genes encoding these proteins may be the candidate USH2 genes. However, further investigations are critical to establish their existence in the USH2 complex in vivo. Based on the predicted functional domains in USH2 proteins, their cellular localizations in photoreceptors and hair cells, the observed phenotypes in USH2 mutant mice, and the known knowledge about diseases similar to USH2, putative biological functions of the USH2 complex have been proposed. Finally, therapeutic approaches for this group of diseases are now being actively explored. PMID:22201796

  19. Purification and partial characterization of myosin II from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Decivaldo dos Santos; Coelho, Milton Vieira

    2007-10-01

    The intent, in this work, was to isolate rat testis myosin II. Testis 40,000 x g x 40' supernatant was frozen at -20 degrees C for 48 h and, after it was thawed and centrifuged. The precipitate, after washed twice, was enriched in three polypeptides bands: p205, p43 and one that migrated together with the front of the gel. These polypeptides were solubilized in pH 10.8 at 27 degrees C and separated in Sephacryl S-400 column. Three low weight polypeptides co-eluted together with p205. The p205 was marked with anti-myosin II, possess actin-stimulated Mg-ATPase activity and co-sedimented with F-actin in the absence, but not in the presence, of ATP. In the present study, we have been developing a method for purification of myosin II from rat testis.

  20. Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2017-07-14

    The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, MA_{3} (M=V, Nb, Ta; A=Al, Ga, In). We show that the VAl_{3} family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl_{3} is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

  1. Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2017-07-01

    The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, M A3 (M =V , Nb, Ta; A =Al , Ga, In). We show that the VAl3 family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl3 is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

  2. Learning Objects, Type II Applications, and Embedded Pedagogical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Schindler, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the extent to which learning objects that focus on higher level thinking might be seen as Type II applications, as defined by Maddux, Johnson, and Willis (2001). We conclude that learning objects are at best hybrid applications, with some Type I and some Type II characteristics. We also consider whether the educational…

  3. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPARδ (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1α (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1β (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, and PPARD and the relative mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake (CPT1B, SLC25A20), tricarboxylic acid cycle (SDHA), mitochondrial respiratory chain (COX5A, COX6A1), and angiogenesis (VEGFA) in LD, SM and ST muscles were greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.15) in the niacin group than in the control group. Conclusions The study shows that niacin supplementation induces muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are

  4. Rescue of Isolated GH Deficiency Type II (IGHD II) via Pharmacologic Modulation of GH-1 Splicing.

    PubMed

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2016-10-01

    Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) type II, the autosomal dominant form of GHD, is mainly caused by mutations that affect splicing of GH-1. When misspliced RNA is translated, it produces a toxic 17.5-kDa GH isoform that reduces the accumulation and secretion of wild-type-human GH (wt-hGH). Usually, isolated GHD type II patients are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH in order to maintain normal growth. However, this type of replacement therapy does not prevent toxic effects of the 17.5-kDa GH isoform on the pituitary gland, which can eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. Here, we tested the possibility to restore the constitutive splicing pattern of GH-1 by using butyrate, a drug that mainly acts as histone deacetylase inhibitor. To this aim, wt-hGH and/or different hGH-splice site mutants (GH-IVS3+2, GH-IVS3+6, and GH-ISE+28) were transfected in rat pituitary cells expressing human GHRH receptor (GHRHR) (GC-GHRHR). Upon butyrate treatment, GC-GHRHR cells coexpressing wt-hGH and each of the mutants displayed increased GH transcript level, intracellular GH content, and GH secretion when compared with the corresponding untreated condition. The effect of butyrate was most likely mediated by the alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2. Overexpression of alternative ASF/SF2 in the same experimental setting, indeed, promoted the amount of full-length transcripts thus increasing synthesis and secretion of the 22-kDa GH isoform. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that modulation of GH-1 splicing pattern to increase the 22-kDa GH isoform levels can be clinically beneficial and hence a crucial challenge in GHD research.

  5. Angiotensin II enhances endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction through upregulating endothelin type A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Juan, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2014-08-22

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most potent vasoconstrictor by binding to endothelin receptors (ETAR) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The complex of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type one receptor (AT1R) acts as a transient constrictor of VSMCs. The synergistic effect of ET-1 and Ang II on blood pressure has been observed in rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that Ang II leads to enhancing ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction through the activation of endothelin receptor in VSMCs. The ET-1-induced vasoconstriction, ET-1 binding, and endothelin receptor expression were explored in the isolated endothelium-denuded aortae and A-10 VSMCs. Ang II pretreatment enhanced ET-1-induced vasoconstriction and ET-1 binding to the aorta. Ang II enhanced ETAR expression, but not ETBR, in aorta and increased ET-1 binding, mainly to ETAR in A-10 VSMCs. Moreover, Ang II-enhanced ETAR expression was blunted and ET-1 binding was reduced by AT1R antagonism or by inhibitors of PKC or ERK individually. In conclusion, Ang II enhances ET-1-induced vasoconstriction by upregulating ETAR expression and ET-1/ETAR binding, which may be because of the AngII/Ang II receptor pathways and the activation of PKC or ERK. These findings suggest the synergistic effect of Ang II and ET-1 on the pathogenic development of hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Achondrogenesis type I and II and hypochondrogenesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Toledo, F; Toledo, J; Villegas, T; López, S; Remírez, J; García-Julián, G

    1980-10-01

    A study is made of achondrogenesis in relation to four observations of early fatal development. One case corresponds to type I (Parenti-Fraccaro); another to type II (Langer-Saldino); the final two, brothers, seem to come under the variation of hypochondrogenesis. In this study, authors stress the heterogenous nature of lethal, neonatal (short-limb) nanisms of which currently include: Type I and II achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, homozygote achondroplasia, classical Torrance-type and San Diego-type thanatophoric dysplasia.

  7. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  8. Norepinephrine uptake by rat jejunum: Modulation by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Suvannapura, A.; Levens, N.R. )

    1988-02-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is believed to stimulate sodium and water absorption from the small intestine by enhancing sympathetic nerve transmission. This study is designed to determine whether ANG II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission within the small intestine by inhibition norepinephrine (NE) uptake. Intracellular NE accumulation by rat jejunum was concentration dependent and resolved into high- and low-affinity components. The high-affinity component (uptake 1) exhibited a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 1.72 {mu}M and a maximum velocity (V{sub max}) of 1.19 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. The low-affinity component (uptake 2) exhibited a K{sub m} of 111.1 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 37.1 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. Cocaine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, inhibited the intracellular accumulation of label by 80%. Treatment of animals with 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals, also attenuated NE uptake by 60%. Thus accumulation within sympathetic nerves constitutes the major form of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake into rat jejunum. ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. At a dose of 1 mM, ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation by 60%. Cocaine failed to potentiate the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake produced by ANG II. Thus ANG II appears to prevent ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation within rat jejunum by inhibiting neuronal uptake.

  9. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  10. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  11. Surgical Treatment of Tubular Breast Type II

    PubMed Central

    Dabizha, Oleksii Y.; Kostenko, Alona A.; Gomolyako, Irina V.; Samko, Kristina A.; Borovyk, Denys V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubular breasts are caused by connective tissue malformation and occur in puberty. The main clinical characteristics of the tubular breast are breast asymmetry, dense fibrous ring around the areola, hernia bulging of the areola, megaareola, and hypoplasia of quadrants of the breast. Pathology causes great psychological discomfort to patients. Methods: This study included 17 patients, aged 18 to 34 years, with tubular breast type II who had bilateral pathology and were treated from 2013 to 2016. They had surgical treatment by method of the clinic. Correction technique consisted of mobilization of the central part of the gland and formation of a glandular flap with vertical and horizontal scorings, which looks like a “chessboard,” that was sufficient to cover the lower pole of the implant. The flap was fixed to the submammary folds with stitches that prevented its reduction and accented a new submammary fold. To underscore the importance of the method and to study the structural features of the vascular bed of tubular breast tissue, a morphological study was conducted. Results: Mean follow-up time was 25 months (range between 13 and 37 mo). The proposed technique achieved good results. Complications (hematoma, circumareolar scarring, and “double-bubble” deformity) were identified in 4 patients. Conclusions: Our morphological study confirmed that tubular breast tissue has increased vascularity due to the vessels with characteristic minor malformation and due to the high restorative potential of the vascular bed. Therefore, an extended glandular flap could be freely mobilized without damaging its blood supply; thus, the flap in most cases covered the implant completely and good aesthetic results were achieved. PMID:27826461

  12. Type-II Dirac surface states in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Chan, Y.-H.; Li, Xiao; Nohara, Y.; Schnyder, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been realized that topological Weyl semimetals come in two different varieties: (i) with standard Weyl cones with pointlike Fermi surfaces (type I) and (ii) with tilted Weyl cones that appear at the contact of electron and hole pockets (type II). These two types of Weyl semimetals have very different physical properties, in particular, in their thermodynamics and magnetotransport. Here, we show that Dirac cone surface states of topological crystalline insulators can be distinguished in a similar way. We demonstrate this in terms of a general surface theory and then apply this knowledge to a family of antiperovskites of the form A3E O , where A denotes an alkaline earth metal, while E stands for Pb or Sn. Using ab initio DFT calculations, we investigate the bulk and surface topology of these antiperovskites and show that they exhibit type-I as well as type-II Dirac surface states protected by reflection symmetry. We find that the type-II Dirac states, as opposed to the type-I Dirac states, exhibit characteristic van Hove singularities in their dispersion, which lead to different thermodynamic properties, and which can serve as an experimental fingerprint of type-II surface states. The different magnetotransport characteristics between type-I and type-II surface states are discussed. In addition, we show that both type-I and type-II surface states exhibit an unusual helical spin polarization, which could lead to topological surface superconductivity.

  13. Irreversible inhibition of type I dehydroquinase by substrates for type II dehydroquinase.

    PubMed

    Bello, C G; Harris, J M; Manthey, M K; Coggins, J R; Abell, C

    2000-03-06

    Mechanistic differences between type I and type II dehydroquinases have been exploited in the design of type specific inhibitors. (2R)-2-Bromo-3-dehydroquinic acid (3), (2R)-2-fluoro-3-dehydroquinic acid (5) and 2-bromo-3-dehydroshikimic acid (4), all excellent substrates for type II dehydroquinase, are shown to be irreversible inhibitors of type I dehydroquinase.

  14. Type II collagenopathies: Are there additional family members?

    SciTech Connect

    Freisinger, P.; Pontz, B.F.; Emmrich, P.; Stoess, H.; Bonaventure, J.

    1996-05-03

    The type II collagenopathies represent a group of chondrodysplasia sharing clinical and radiological manifestations which are expressed as a continuous spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from perinatally lethal to very mild conditions. Their common molecular bases are mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). We describe one case of lethal platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type, and a variant of lethal Kniest dysplasia, neither of which has been reported as a type II collagenopathy. Biochemical studies of cartilage collagens and morphological analysis of cartilage sections suggest that abnormalities of type II collagen structure and biosynthesis are the main pathogenetic factors in both cases. Thus, the phenotypic spectrum of type II collagenopathies might be greater than hitherto suspected. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Human peptidylarginine deiminase type II: molecular cloning, gene organization, and expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Akihito; Ohsawa, Takako; Asaga, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Kyoichi; Kuramoto, Masashi; Maruyama, Naoki

    2002-11-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are posttranslational modification enzymes that convert protein arginine to citrulline residues in a calcium ion-dependent manner. Rodents have four isoforms of PAD (types I, II, III, and IV), each of which is distinct in substrate and tissue specificity. In fact, the only tissue in which all four PAD mRNAs have been detected is the epidermis. In this study, we found PAD activity in HSC-1 human cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells in vitro, and this activity increased during cultivation. Using a homology-based strategy, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding human PAD type II. The cDNA was 2348 bp long and encoded a 665-amino-acid sequence with a predicted molecular mass of 75 kDa. The predicted protein shared 93% identity with the rat and mouse PAD type II sequence. Alignment of the amino acid sequences from both species revealed notable conservation in the C-terminal region, suggesting the presence of a functional region such as an enzyme catalytic site and/or a calcium-binding domain. Gene organization analysis established that human PAD type II on chromosome 1p35.2-p35.21 spanned more than 50 kb and contained 16 exons and 15 introns. A recombinant PAD protein subsequently produced in Escherichia coli proved to be enzymatically active, with substrate specificities similar to those of the rat PAD type II. In an immunohistochemical study of human skin, the type II enzyme was expressed by all the living epidermal layers, suggesting that PAD type II is functionally important during terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.

  16. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mato, J M; Gallego, S V; Elcoro, L; Tasci, E; Aroyo, M I

    2016-07-20

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out.

  17. Aberrant Activation of the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System in the Developing Kidneys of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y.-Y.; Kobori, H.; Nakano, D.; Hitomi, H.; Mori, H.; Masaki, T.; Sun, Y.-X.; Zhi, N.; Zhang, L.; Huang, W.; Zhu, B.; Li, P.; Nishiyama, A.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are increased long before diabetes becomes apparent in obese Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the changes in intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the developing kidneys of OLETF rats. Ang II contents and mRNA levels of RAS components were measured in male OLETF and control Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats at postnatal days (PND) 1, 5, and 15, and at 4–30 weeks of age. In both LETO and OLETF rats, kidney Ang II levels peaked at PND 1, then decreased during the pre- and post-weaning periods. However, Ang II levels and gene expression of RAS components, including angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), were not significantly different between LETO and OLETF rats. Intrarenal Ang II contents further decreased during puberty (from 7 to 11 weeks of age) in LETO rats, bur not in OLETF rats. At 11 weeks of age, kidney Ang II levels, urinary AGT excretion, and mRNA levels of AGT and renin were higher in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, while blood glucose levels were not significantly different between these groups of rats. These data indicate that continued intrarenal expression of Ang II during pubescence contributes to the increases in intrarenal Ang II levels in prediabetic OLETF rats, and is associated with increased intrarenal AGT and renin expression. Inappropriate activation of the intrarenal RAS in the prediabetic stage may facilitate the onset and development of diabetic nephropathy in later life. PMID:23322513

  18. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction.

  19. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform test: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices...

  20. Vortex Dynamics Studies in Type II Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang

    1993-03-01

    Vibrating reed, ac susceptibility and resistance measurements have been used to study the dynamics of vortices in type II superconductors. In Nb measurements, in spite of the low T _{c}'s and long coherence lengths compared to the high T_{c} superconductors, we find an extended region of temperature and field over which reversible flux line motion occurs when the Nb reed is oriented with its long dimension perpendicular to the applied field. We observe a strong, frequency-independent depression of the "irreversibility temperature" T _{Q}(H) below the resistively determined critical temperature T_{R}. The results of the ac susceptibility measurements also support these results. We concluded that observation of an extended region of magnetic reversibility is not restricted to high T_{c} or extremely anisotropic materials, and depends upon the geometry of samples with respect to the applied field direction. In NbSe_2 measurements, vibrating reed measurements were performed with the hexagonal c-axis approximately parallel or perpendicular to an applied magnetic field. Field-cooling data revealed an unusual peak in the frequency shift of the reed, accompanied by two peaks in reed dissipation. The upper peak occurs near the temperature where R~ 0, and the lower peak is very sample and amplitude dependent and hysteretic. The ac susceptibility results also show that corresponding features. The interplay of superconductivity and density waves were investigated by comparing data for NbSe _2 with the results for NbS_2 , which has a comparable superconducting T _{c } and crystal structure. In NbS_2 measurements, we did not see such a peak in the frequency shift nor the double peak feature in the dissipation in either vibrating reed measurements or ac susceptibility measurements. We have also studied the (Ba,K)BiO_3 system. It is cubic at its superconducting composition, but exhibits a moderately high T_{c }=30 K that is intermediate between conventional and high T_{rm c

  1. Generating controllable type-II Weyl points via periodic driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-12-01

    Type-II Weyl semimetals are a novel gapless topological phase of matter discovered recently in 2015. Similar to normal (type-I) Weyl semimetals, type-II Weyl semimetals consist of isolated band touching points. However, unlike type-I Weyl semimetals which have a linear energy dispersion around the band touching points forming a three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cone, type-II Weyl semimetals have a tilted conelike structure around the band touching points. This leads to various novel physical properties that are different from type-I Weyl semimetals. In order to study further the properties of type-II Weyl semimetals and perhaps realize them for future applications, generating controllable type-II Weyl semimetals is desirable. In this paper, we propose a way to generate a type-II Weyl semimetal via a generalized Harper model interacting with a harmonic driving field. When the field is treated classically, we find that only type-I Weyl points emerge. However, by treating the field quantum mechanically, some of these type-I Weyl points may turn into type-II Weyl points. Moreover, by tuning the coupling strength, it is possible to control the tilt of the Weyl points and the energy difference between two Weyl points, which makes it possible to generate a pair of mixed Weyl points of type-I and type-II. We also discuss how to physically distinguish these two types of Weyl points in the framework of our model via the Landau level structures in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. The results are of general interest to quantum optics as well as ongoing studies of Floquet topological phases.

  2. Deceleration by angiotensin II of the differentiation and bone formation of rat calvarial osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, H; Hiruma, Y; Inoue, A; Yamaguchi, A; Hirose, S

    1998-03-01

    We examined the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the differentiation of rat calvarial osteoblastic cells and on the formation of bone by these cells. Northern blotting analysis revealed that Ang II inhibited the expression of mRNA for osteocalcin, which is a protein that is specifically expressed during maturation of osteoblastic cells. Ang II decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, a marker of osteoblastic differentiation, in the cells, acting via the type 1 (AT1) receptor. We used von Kossa staining to examine the formation of mineralized nodules by osteoblastic cells. Both the number and the total area of mineralized nodules were quantified and shown to be decreased by 10(-7) M Ang II. The accumulation of calcium in cells and the matrix layer was also decreased by Ang II. Binding analysis with subtype-specific antagonists revealed the presence of AT1 receptors for Ang II in this culture system. Ang II caused a marked increase in the rate of production of intracellular cAMP in this system. Our data suggest that Ang II might be intimately involved in osteoblastic metabolism through its interaction with the AT1 receptor.

  3. Type II vitamin D-dependent rickets with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Mondal, Rakesh; Banerjee, Indira; Sabui, Tapas

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in relation to diabetes mellitus is well reported in the literature. However, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in association with resistant rickets is extremely rare and reported in only one previous case. The authors describe here a case of type II vitamin D-dependent rickets (VDDR type II) in a 10-year-old Indian girl who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA as a presenting manifestation of T1DM in a patient with VDDR type II has never been reported before in worldwide literature.

  4. High incidence of type II autoantibodies in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, H M; Dawson, D W; Howarth, J E; Geary, C G

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the incidence of type II autoantibodies to intrinsic factor in pernicious anaemia. METHODS: Three hundred and forty four serum samples submitted for intrinsic factor antibody (IFAB) analysis on clinical or laboratory grounds were tested by an established radioassay and a new enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for type I and total IFAB, respectively. Sixty of these were found to be positive by ELISA; this method was used to test further, 40 samples of adequate volume for types I and II antibodies. RESULTS: Type II antibodies were detected in 39 of the 40 sera tested. A comparative analysis indicated that seven samples contained pure type II antibody, being positive for total and type II by ELISA, but negative for type I by both the ELISA and radioassay technique. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of type II antibody, both alone and in combination with type I, seems to be more common than has previously been recognised, and emphasises the advantage of using a technique which will detect both types of antibody. PMID:8432887

  5. Degree of polarization of type-II unpolarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-05-15

    We address a quantitative determination of the degree of polarization of type-II unpolarized light via the computation of the distance between the polarization distribution and the uniform distribution associated with fully unpolarized light (i.e., type-I unpolarized light or natural light). We determine the maximum degree of polarization for type-II unpolarized light and the states reaching it. We show that the degree of polarization can be arbitrarily large, approaching complete polarization for increasing mean photon numbers.

  6. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  7. Identification of antibody epitopes within the CB-11 peptide of type II collagen. II. Computer modelling studies of peptides and the interpretation of epitope scanning results.

    PubMed

    Brass, A; Worthington, J; Chen, Y; Morgan, K

    1991-01-01

    Computer modelling techniques were used to investigate the structure of 8-mers from the CB-11 peptide of bovine type II collagen which were recognised by sera from rats which had previously been injected with bovine type II collage. It was discovered that all the hydrophobic peptides recognised by the rat sera were predicted to have collagenous-like secondary structures. The primary structure of the 8-mers which were recognised was also compared against the sequences in the OWL protein sequence database. The combined results of the computer modelling and sequence analysis suggested that the sequence Gly-Pro-Gly-Phe-Pro is a minimal B cell epitope of the CB-11 fragment of bovine type II collagen.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF II) receptor from rat brain is of lower apparent molecular weight than the IGF II receptor from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Poronnik, P.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    The binding subunits of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF I) receptors from rat brain are of lower molecular weight than the corresponding receptor in rat liver, possibly due to variations in sialic acid content. We have compared the IGF II receptor from rat brain and rat liver. The brain receptor is of smaller apparent mol wt (about 10 K) on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This size difference is independent of ligand binding as it persists in iodinated and specifically immunoprecipitated receptors. From studies of wheat germ agglutinin binding and the effect of neuraminidase on receptor mobility, we conclude that this difference is not simply due to variations in sialic acid content. Treatment with endoglycosidase F results in reduction in the molecular size of both liver and brain receptors and after this treatment the aglycoreceptors are of similar size. We conclude that in rat brain tissue the IGF II receptor like the binding subunits of the insulin and IGF I receptors is of lower molecular size than the corresponding receptors in rat liver. This difference is due to differences in N-linked glycosylation.

  9. Herringbone bursts associated with type II solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed observations of the herringbone (HB) fine structure on type II solar radio bursts are presented. Data from the Culgoora radiospectrograph, radiometer and radioheliograph are analyzed. The characteristic spectral profiles, frequency drift rates and exciter velocities, fluxes, source sizes, brightness temperatures, and polarizations of individual HB bursts are determined. Correlations between individual bursts within the characteristic groups of bursts and the properties of the associated type II bursts are examined. These data are compatible with HB bursts being radiation at multiples of the plasma frequency generated by electron streams accelerated by the type II shock. HB bursts are physically distinct phenomena from type II and type III bursts, differing significantly in emission processes and/or source conditions; this conclusion indicates that many of the presently available theoretical ideas for HB bursts are incorrect.

  10. [In vitro effect of total flavones of Fructus Chorspondiatis on expression of collagen type I and type III mRNA and protein of cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Bao, Jun-Ping; Jin, Ming; Yang, Yu-Min; Gao, Xiao-Hui; Shu, Liang; Xing, Hui-Hui; Jia, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of total flavones of Fructus Chorspondiatis (TFFC) on the mRNA and protein expression of collagen type I and III of rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II), and explore its anti-myocardial fibrosis molecular mechanism. Neonatal rat CFs were prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats (1-3 d after birth). The expression of collagen type I and III mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The study showed that stimulation of neonatal rat CFs with 100 nmol.L-1 of Ang II for 72 h resulted in a significant increase of the expression of collagen type I and III mRNA and protein. The changes on the expression level were blocked by TFFC. The results demonstrated that TFFC can inhibit myocardial fibrosis induced by Ang II in rats, which is probably associated with the collagen type I and III mRNA and protein levels up-regulated by Ang II, and TFFC was shown to decrease the expression levels of collagen type I and III mRNA and protein.

  11. Type II oestrogen binding sites in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Piantelli, M; Ricci, R; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Capelli, A; Rizzo, S; Scambia, G; Ranelletti, F O

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated for the presence of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The tumours specifically bound oestradiol. This binding almost exclusively resulted from the presence of high numbers of type II oestrogen binding sites. Oestrogen receptors were absent or present at very low concentrations. Immunohistochemical investigation of nuclear oestrogen receptors gave negative results. This indicates that antioestrogen receptor antibodies recognise oestrogen receptors but not type II oestrogen binding sites. The presence of specific type II oestrogen binding sites and progesterone binding offers further evidence for a potential role for these steroids and their receptors in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:2266171

  12. Angiotensin II stimulates water and NaCl intake through separate cell signalling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Nowak, Erica L; Fluharty, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation of water and NaCl intake is a classic model of the behavioural effects of hormones. In vitro studies indicate that the AngII type 1 (AT(1)) receptor stimulates intracellular pathways that include protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. Previous studies support the hypotheses that PKC is involved in AngII-induced water, but not NaCl intake and that MAP kinase plays a role in NaCl consumption, but not water intake, after injection of AngII. The present experiments test these hypotheses in rats using central injections of AngII in the presence or absence of a PKC inhibitor or a MAP kinase inhibitor. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine attenuated AngII-induced water intake, but NaCl intake was unaffected. In contrast, pretreatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, had no effect on AngII-induced water intake, but attenuated NaCl intake. These data support the working hypotheses and significantly extend our earlier findings and those of others. Perhaps more importantly, these experiments demonstrate the remarkable diversity of peptide receptor systems and add support for the surprising finding that intracellular signalling pathways can have divergent behavioural relevance.

  13. Type-II Fuzzy Decision Support System for Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go for a triangle membership function or a trapezoidal membership function. In this paper we use a type-II fuzzy set to overcome this uncertainty, and develop a fuzzy decision support system of fertilizers based on a type-II fuzzy set. This type-II fuzzy system takes cropping time and soil nutrients in the form of spatial surfaces as input, fuzzifies it using a type-II fuzzy membership function, and implies fuzzy rules on it in the fuzzy inference engine. The output of the fuzzy inference engine, which is in the form of interval value type-II fuzzy sets, reduced to an interval type-I fuzzy set, defuzzifies it to a crisp value and generates a spatial surface of fertilizers. This spatial surface shows the spatial trend of the required amount of fertilizer needed to cultivate a specific crop. The complexity of our algorithm is O(mnr), where m is the height of the raster, n is the width of the raster, and r is the number of expert rules. PMID:24892071

  14. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen.

  15. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  16. Angiotensin II Triggered p44/42 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Mediates Sympathetic Excitation in Heart Failure Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Weiss, Robert M.; Felder, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II), acting via angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1-R) in the brain, activates the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure (HF). We recently reported that ANG II stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) to upregulate brain AT1-R in HF rats. In this study we tested the hypothesis that ANG II-activated MAPK signaling pathways contribute to sympathetic excitation in HF. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of PD98059 and UO126, two selective p44/42 MAPK inhibitors, induced significant decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in HF rats, but had no effect on these variables in SHAM rats. Pretreatment with losartan attenuated the effects of PD98059. ICV administration of the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125 had no effect on MAP, HR or RSNA in HF. The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 induced a small decrease in MAP and HR, but no change in RSNA. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated increased p44/42 MAPK activity in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of HF rats, co-localized with Fra-like activity (indicating chronic neuronal excitation). ICV PD98059 and UO126 reduced Fra-like activity in PVN neurons in HF rats. In confirmatory acute studies, ICV ANG II increased MAP, HR and RSNA in baroreceptor-denervated rats and Fra-LI immunoreactivity in the PVN of neurally intact rats. Central administration of PD98059 markedly reduced these responses. These data demonstrate that intracellular p44/42 MAPK activity contributes to ANG II-induced PVN neuronal excitation and augmented sympathetic nerve activity in rats with HF. PMID:18574076

  17. Oxygen exchange profile in rat muscles of contrasting fibre types

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Brad J; McDonough, Paul; Padilla, Danielle J; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether fibre type affects the O2 exchange characteristics of skeletal muscle at the microcirculatory level we tested the hypothesis that, following the onset of contractions, muscle comprising predominately type I fibres (soleus, Sol, 86 % type I) would, based on demonstrated blood flow responses, exhibit a blunted microvascular PO2 (PO2,m, which is determined by the O2 delivery () to O2 uptake () ratio) profile (assessed via phosphorescence quenching) compared to muscle of primarily type II fibres (peroneal, Per, 84 % type II). PO2,m was measured at rest, and following the rest-contractions (twitch, 1 Hz, 2–4 V for 120 s) transition in Sol (n = 6) and Per (n = 6) muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats. Both muscles exhibited a delay followed by a mono-exponential decrease in PO2,m to the steady state. However, compared with Sol, Per demonstrated (1) a larger change in baseline minus steady state contracting PO2,m (ΔPO2,m) (Per, 13.4 ± 1.7 mmHg; Sol, 8.6 ± 0.9 mmHg, P < 0.05); (2) a faster mean response time (i.e. time delay (TD) plus time constant (τ); Per, 23.8 ± 1.5 s; Sol, 39.6 ± 4.3 s, P < 0.05); and therefore (3) a greater rate of PO2,m decline (ΔPO2,m/τ; Per, 0.92 ± 0.08 mmHg s−1; Sol, 0.42 ± 0.05 mmHg s−1, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate an increased microvascular pressure head of O2 at any given point after the initial time delay for Sol versus Per following the onset of contractions that is probably due to faster dynamics relative to those of . PMID:12692174

  18. Type II lepra reaction: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, S; Mohan, H; Singh, R; Ram, J; Sachdev, A

    2006-01-27

    Ulcers with maculo-papular rash are an unusual presenting feature of leprosy. They occur as result of neuropathy, type-2 lepra reaction or Lucio's phenomenon. The hall mark of type-2 reaction is erythema nodosum. Very rarely it manifests as ulcerative skin lesions. We describe one such unusual case of a young male who presented with multiple ulcers and maculo-papular rash over the legs, chest and abdomen. In addition to this, he had fever, heart murmur, pulmonary infiltrates, neuropathy, and deranged liver function. A clinical differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis and systemic nectrozing vasculitis was made. Skin biopsy showed dense inflammation with lepra bacilli consistent with type-2 lepra reaction.

  19. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage.

  20. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, T; Shirasaki, T; Munakata, M; Hirata, A; Akaike, N

    1993-07-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA. 6. The results are important in clarifying the mechanism of anxiety and might explain the anxioselectivity of BZR partial agonists.

  1. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  2. Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Type II Cochlear Afferents in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pankhuri; Wu, Jingjing Sherry; Zimmerman, Amanda; Fuchs, Paul; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic information propagates from the ear to the brain via spiral ganglion neurons that innervate hair cells in the cochlea. These afferents include unmyelinated type II fibers that constitute 5 % of the total, the majority being myelinated type I neurons. Lack of specific genetic markers of type II afferents in the cochlea has been a roadblock in studying their functional role. Unexpectedly, type II afferents were visualized by reporter proteins induced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven Cre recombinase. The present study was designed to determine whether TH-driven Cre recombinase (TH-2A-CreER) provides a selective and reliable tool for identification and genetic manipulation of type II rather than type I cochlear afferents. The "TH-2A-CreER neurons" radiated from the spiral lamina, crossed the tunnel of Corti, turned towards the base of the cochlea, and traveled beneath the rows of outer hair cells. Neither the processes nor the somata of TH-2A-CreER neurons were labeled by antibodies that specifically labeled type I afferents and medial efferents. TH-2A-CreER-positive processes partially co-labeled with antibodies to peripherin, a known marker of type II afferents. Individual TH-2A-CreER neurons gave off short branches contacting 7-25 outer hair cells (OHCs). Only a fraction of TH-2A-CreER boutons were associated with CtBP2-immunopositive ribbons. These results show that TH-2A-CreER provides a selective marker for type II versus type I afferents and can be used to describe the morphology and arborization pattern of type II cochlear afferents in the mouse cochlea.

  3. The decline and fall of Type II error rates

    Treesearch

    Steve Verrill; Mark Durst

    2005-01-01

    For general linear models with normally distributed random errors, the probability of a Type II error decreases exponentially as a function of sample size. This potentially rapid decline reemphasizes the importance of performing power calculations.

  4. Rational design of new bifunctional inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Miguel D; Stewart, Kirsty A; Coggins, John R; Lapthorn, Adrian J; Abell, Chris

    2005-09-07

    Selective inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase were rationally designed to explore a second binding-pocket in the active-site. The molecular modelling, synthesis, inhibition studies and crystal structure determination are described.

  5. PKMiner: a database for exploring type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a pharmacologically important group of natural products synthesized by type II polyketide synthases (type II PKSs) in actinobacteria. Isolation of novel aromatic polyketides from microbial sources is currently impeded because of the lack of knowledge about prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis and the difficulties in finding and optimizing target microorganisms. Comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and the prediction of possible polyketide chemotypes in various actinobacterial genomes will thus enable the discovery or synthesis of novel polyketides in the most plausible microorganisms. Description We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of type II PKSs and their gene clusters in actinobacterial genomes. By identifying type II PKS subclasses from the sequence analysis of 280 known type II PKSs, we developed highly accurate domain classifiers for these subclasses and derived prediction rules for aromatic polyketide chemotypes generated by different combinations of type II PKS domains. Using 319 available actinobacterial genomes, we predicted 231 type II PKSs from 40 PKS gene clusters in 25 actinobacterial genomes, and polyketide chemotypes corresponding to 22 novel PKS gene clusters in 16 genomes. These results showed that the microorganisms capable of producing aromatic polyketides are specifically distributed within a certain suborder of Actinomycetales such as Catenulisporineae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, Micromonosporineae, Pseudonocardineae, Streptomycineae, and Streptosporangineae. Conclusions We could identify the novel candidates of type II PKS gene clusters and their polyketide chemotypes in actinobacterial genomes by comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and prediction of aromatic polyketides. The genome analysis results indicated that the specific suborders in actinomycetes could be used as prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis. The chemotype-prediction rules with the suggested type II PKS

  6. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Swar, M O; Srikrishna, B V

    1995-09-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystophy characterised by extreme micromelia. Definitive clinical and radiographic criteria have been established to differentiate Type II Achondrogenesis (Langer-Saldino) from type I Achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for both types. We are presenting a case of Type II Achondrogenesis, a still born male to consanguinous parents. The clinical features included an enlarged head, protuberant abdomen and short stubby limbs. The mother had earlier delivered two still born males presumably with similar features. Radiographic characteristics of absence of rib fractures and well ossified iliac bones with concave medial margins and absent or deficient ossification of the sacrum, ischiae, and pubic bones differentiated Type II Achondrogenesis from Type I Achondrogenesis.

  7. Copper(II) complexes of rat amylin fragments.

    PubMed

    Kállay, Csilla; Dávid, Agnes; Timári, Sarolta; Nagy, Eszter Márta; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; De Bona, Paolo; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Sóvágó, Imre

    2011-10-14

    The fragments of rat amylin rIAPP(17-29) (Ac-VRSSNNLGPVLPP-NH(2)), rIAPP(17-22) (Ac-VRSSNN-NH(2)), rIAPP(19-22) (Ac-SSNN-NH(2)) and rIAPP(17-20) (Ac-VRSS-NH(2)) together with the related mutant peptides (Ac-VASS-NH(2) and Ac-VRAA-NH(2)) have been synthesized and their copper(II) complexes studied by potentiometric, UV-Vis, CD and EPR spectroscopic methods. Despite the lack of any common strongly coordinating donor functions some of these fragments are able to bind copper(II) ions in the physiological pH range. The longest fragment rat amylin(17-29) keeps one equivalent copper(II) ion in solution in the whole pH range, while two other peptides Ac-VRSSNN-NH(2) and Ac-SSNN-NH(2) are also able to interact with copper(II) ions in the slightly alkaline pH range. According to the spectral parameters of the complexes, the peptides can be classified into two different categories: (i) the tetrapeptides Ac-VRSS-NH(2), Ac-VASS-NH(2) and Ac-VRAA-NH(2) can interact with copper(II) only under strongly alkaline conditions (pH > 10.0) and the formation of only one species with four amide nitrogen coordination can be detected; (ii) the peptides Ac-VRSSNNLGPVLPP-NH(2), Ac-VRSSNN-NH(2) and Ac-SSNN-NH(2) can form complexes above pH 6.0 with the major stoichiometries [CuH(-2)L], [CuH(-3)L](-) and [CuH(-4)L](2-). These data support that rIAPP(17-29) can interact with copper(II) ions under physiological conditions and the SSNN tetrapeptide fragment can be considered as the shortest sequence responsible for metal binding. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide some information on the possible coordination modes of Ac-SSNN-NH(2) towards the copper(II) ion and suggest that for [CuH(-2)L], [CuH(-3)L](-) and [CuH(-4)L](2-), the binding of two, three and four deprotonated amide nitrogens, with NH(-) of the side chain of asparagine as anchoring group, is probable. Moreover, these data reveal that peptides can be effective metal binding ligands even in the absence of anchoring

  8. Revealing the cost of Type II diabetes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, B

    2002-07-01

    'The Cost of Diabetes in Europe - Type II study' is the first coordinated attempt to measure total healthcare costs of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Europe. The study evaluated more than 7000 patients with Type II diabetes in eight countries -- Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. A bottom-up, prevalence-based design was used, which optimised the collection of data at the national level while maintaining maximum international comparability. Effort was made to ensure consistency in terms of data specification, data collection tools and methods, sampling design, and the analysis and reporting of results. Results are reported for individual countries and in aggregate for the total study population. The total direct medical costs of Type II diabetes in the eight European countries was estimated at EUR 29 billion a year (1999 values). The estimated average yearly cost per patient was EUR 2834 a year. Of these costs, hospitalisations accounted for the greatest proportion (55%, range 30-65%) totalling EUR 15.9 billion for the eight countries. During the 6-month evaluation period, 13% of the Type II diabetic patients were hospitalised, with an average of 23 days in hospital projected annually. In contrast, drug costs for managing Type II diabetes were relatively low, with antidiabetic drugs and insulin accounting for only 7% of the total healthcare costs for Type II diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is a common disease and the prevalence is expected to increase considerably in the future, especially in developing countries. Current comprehensive economic data on the costs of diabetes are required for policy decisions to optimise resource allocation and to evaluate different approaches for disease management.

  9. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology.

  10. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  11. Unsupervised Clustering of Type II Supernova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Adam; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities come online, the astronomical community will be provided with extremely large data sets of well-sampled light curves (LCs) of transients. This motivates systematic studies of the LCs of supernovae (SNe) of all types, including the early rising phase. We performed unsupervised k-means clustering on a sample of 59 R-band SN II LCs and find that the rise to peak plays an important role in classifying LCs. Our sample can be divided into three classes: slowly rising (II-S), fast rise/slow decline (II-FS), and fast rise/fast decline (II-FF). We also identify three outliers based on the algorithm. The II-FF and II-FS classes are disjoint in their decline rates, while the II-S class is intermediate and “bridges the gap.” This may explain recent conflicting results regarding II-P/II-L populations. The II-FS class is also significantly less luminous than the other two classes. Performing clustering on the first two principal component analysis components gives equivalent results to using the full LC morphologies. This indicates that Type II LCs could possibly be reduced to two parameters. We present several important caveats to the technique, and find that the division into these classes is not fully robust. Moreover, these classes have some overlap, and are defined in the R band only. It is currently unclear if they represent distinct physical classes, and more data is needed to study these issues. However, we show that the outliers are actually composed of slowly evolving SN IIb, demonstrating the potential of such methods. The slowly evolving SNe IIb may arise from single massive progenitors.

  12. Mg II 2800 A emission in late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The largest body of data on ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars now available is the series of scans made with the long wavelength spectrometer onboard OAO-2. Some features of selected scans from this series and estimates of Mg II emission fluxes were reported earlier. Since that time, the effects of sky background, scattered light and variable instrumental sensitivity have become better understood. Additional stars are used to define more clearly the transition from Mg II 2800 A absorption to emission with advancing spectral type, and additional scans of alpha Sco provide a better estimate of Mg II emission strength for this supergiant in OAO observations.

  13. Theoretical Exploration of Type I/Type II Dual Photoreactivity of Promising Ru(II) Dyads for PDT Approach.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Marta Erminia; Pirillo, Jenny; Russo, Nino; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-11-07

    Ru(II) dyads are a class of bioactive molecules of interest as anticancer agents obtained incorporating an organic chromophore in the light-absorbing metallic scaffold. A careful DFT and TDDFT investigation of the photophysical properties of a series of Ru(II)-polypiridyl dyads containing polythiophene chains of different lengths bound to a coordinating imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligand is herein reported. The modulation of the crucial chemical and physical properties of the photosensitizer with increasing number of thiophene units has been accurately described by investigating the UV-vis spectra and type I and type II photoreactions, also including spin-orbit coupling values (SOC). Results show that the low-lying (3)IL states afforded as the number of thiophene ligands increases (n = 3, 4) are energetically high enough to ensure singlet oxygen production and can be also involved in electron transfer reaction, showing a dual type I/type II photeoreactivity.

  14. Acoustic Type-II Weyl Nodes from Stacking Dimerized Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2016-11-01

    Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl fermions, which were missed in Weyl's prediction of nowadays classified type-I Weyl fermions in quantum field theory, have recently been proposed in condensed matter systems. The semimetals hosting type-II Weyl fermions offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena that are different from type-I Weyl systems. Here we construct the acoustic version of a type-II Weyl Hamiltonian by stacking one-dimensional dimerized chains of acoustic resonators. This acoustic type-II Weyl system exhibits distinct features in a finite density of states and unique transport properties of Fermi-arc-like surface states. In a certain momentum space direction, the velocity of these surface states is determined by the tilting direction of the type-II Weyl nodes rather than the chirality dictated by the Chern number. Our study also provides an approach of constructing acoustic topological phases at different dimensions with the same building blocks.

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of lattice corneal dystrophies types I and II.

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, T; Tarkkanen, A; McLean, I; Ghiso, J; Frangione, B; Haltia, M

    1993-01-01

    Corneal buttons from four patients with lattice corneal dystrophy (LD) type I, thought to be an isolated corneal amyloidosis, and from six patients with LD type II, part of systemic familial amyloidosis, Finnish type (FAF; Meretoja's syndrome), were studied by immunohistochemistry to determine the differential distribution in the amyloid deposits of amyloid P component (AP), mutated gelsolin specific for FAF, and native gelsolin. In both types of LD, antibodies to AP labelled lattice lines and a discontinuous layer of amyloid deposits under Bowman's layer. In LD type II, particularly, they also reacted with streak-like amyloid deposits between corneal almellae, especially in the limbal region. While the anti-FAF antiserum strongly labelled all amyloid deposits in LD type II, it failed to react unequivocally with them in LD type I. Both in LD type I and in two control specimens representing granular dystrophy, the monoclonal antibody (MAb) GS-2C4 to gelsolin faintly labelled some deposits, while in LD type II it reacted non-homogeneously with most amyloid deposits. In all specimens, MAb GS-2C4 labelled corneal epithelial cells and occasional stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells. The results suggest that Meretoja's syndrome, a systemic disease, can be diagnosed even retrospectively from corneal buttons subjected to histopathological study. Images PMID:8110676

  16. Effect of collagen type I or type II on chondrogenesis by cultured human articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, Marijn; Saris, Daniel B; Vonk, Lucienne A; van Rijen, Mattie H; Akrum, Vanessa; Langeveld, Danielle; van Boxtel, Antonette; Dhert, Wouter J; Creemers, Laura B

    2013-01-01

    Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently, however, fibrillar collagens were shown to promote cartilage degradation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of collagen type I and type II coating on chondrogenic properties of in vitro cultured human chondrocytes, and to investigate if collagen-mediated cartilage degradation occurs. Human chondrocytes of eight healthy cartilage donors were isolated, expanded, and cultured on culture well inserts coated with either collagen type I, type II, or no coating (control). After 28 days of redifferentiation culture, safranin O and immunohistochemical staining for collagen types I, II, X, and Runx2/Cbfa1 were performed and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content and release were examined. Further, expression of collagen type I, type II, type X, MMP13, Runx2/Cbfa1, DDR2, α2 and β1 integrin were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The matrix, created by chondrocytes grown on collagen type I- and II-coated membranes, resembled cartilage more than when grown on noncoated membranes as reflected by histological scoring. Immunohistochemical staining did not differ between the conditions. GAG content as well as GAG/DNA were higher for collagen type II-coated cartilage constructs than control. GAG release was also higher on collagen type I- and II-coated constructs. Expression of collagen type X was higher of chondrocytes grown on collagen type II compared to controls, but no collagen X protein could be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. No effects of collagen coating on DDR2 nor MMP-13 gene expression were found. No differences were observed between collagen types I and II. Chondrocyte culture on collagen type I or II promotes more active matrix production

  17. Origin of wide-band IP type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjolainen, S.; Allawi, H.; Valtonen, E.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Different types of interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been observed, where the more usual ones show narrow-band and patchy emissions, sometimes with harmonics, and which at intervals may disappear completely from the dynamic spectrum. The more unusual bursts are wide-band and diffuse, show no patches or breaks or harmonic emission, and often have long durations. Type II bursts are thought to be plasma emission, caused by propagating shock waves, but a synchrotron-emitting source has also been proposed as the origin for the wide-band type IIs. Aims: Our aim is to find out where the wide-band IP type II bursts originate and what is their connection to particle acceleration. Methods: We analyzed in detail 25 solar events that produced well-separated, wide-band IP type II bursts in 2001-2011. Their associations to flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic particle events (SEPs) were investigated. Results: Of the 25 bursts, 18 were estimated to have heights corresponding to the CME leading fronts, suggesting that they were created by bow shocks ahead of the CMEs. However, seven events were found in which the burst heights were significantly lower and which showed a different type of height-time evolution. Almost all the analyzed wide-band type II bursts were associated with very high-speed CMEs, originating from different parts of the solar hemisphere. In terms of SEP associations, many of the SEP events were weak, had poor connectivity due to the eastern limb source location, or were masked by previous events. Some of the events had precursors in specific energy ranges. These properties and conditions affected the intensity-time profiles and made the injection-time-based associations with the type II bursts difficult to interpret. In several cases where the SEP injection times could be determined, the radio dynamic spectra showed other features (in addition to the wide-band type II bursts) that could be signatures of shock fronts

  18. Evidence for metabolic origin of absorptive hypercalciuria Type II.

    PubMed

    Pak, Charles Y C; Pearle, Margaret S; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective data analysis was to test the hypothesis that absorptive hypercalciuria Type II (AH-II) is a less severe variant of absorptive hypercalciuria Type I (AH-I), a common cause of calcareous stones. 24-h urinary calcium obtained on constant metabolic diets was retrieved from several data sources, including those of the authors and another group. On a low calcium diet (10 mmol calcium), 35 patients with AH-II were compared with 70 non-stone formers (NSF) and 76 patients with AH-I. On a high calcium diet (25 mmol calcium/day), 10 patients with AH-II were compared with 35 NSF and 32 with AH-I. On a low calcium diet for all participants, 24-h urinary calcium in AH-II (4.13 ± 0.63 mmol/day) was significantly higher than in NSF (3.06 ± 1.17 mmol/day), but significantly lower than in AH-I (6.11 ± 1.14 mmol/day) (p < 0.001). In a smaller subset, fractional intestinal calcium absorption in AH-II (65.0 ± 11.1%) was intermediate between NSF (50.0 ± 6.4%) and AH-I (71.0 ± 6.7%) (p < 0.001 between AH-II and other groups). On a high calcium diet, the rise in urinary calcium in AH-II was significantly higher than in NSF, but not as marked as in AH-I. Estimated calcium balance in AH-II was similar to NSF, but significantly more positive than AH-I. In conclusion, AH-II shares with AH-I the same metabolic disturbance(s) stimulating intestinal absorption and renal excretion of calcium but to a lesser degree. Bone might be spared in AH-II.

  19. Multiplicity among F-type stars. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  20. Photobiomodulation improves cutaneous wound healing in an animal model of type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Kimberly R; Barna, Lauren; Chenault, V Michelle; Waynant, Ronald W; Ilev, Ilko K; Longo, Leonardo; Miracco, Clelia; Johnson, Bryan; Anders, Juanita J

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) on cutaneous wound healing in an animal model of type II diabetes, Psammomys obesus (Sand Rats). 632-nm light has been established as the most effective wavelength for treatment of cutaneous wounds; however, the inconsistent efficacy of PBM may be due to inadequate treatment parameter selection. Using 632-nm light, an initial series of experiments were done to establish optimal treatment parameters for this model. Following creation of bilateral full-thickness skin wounds, non-diabetic Sand Rats were treated with PBM of differing dosages. Wound healing was assessed according to wound closure and histological characteristics of healing. Optimal treatment parameters were then used to treat type II diabetic Sand Rats while a diabetic control group received no irradiation. In order to elucidate the mechanism behind an improvement in wound healing, expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was assessed. Significant improvement in wound healing histology and wound closure were found following treatment with 4 J/cm(2) (16 mW, 250-sec treatments for 4 consecutive days; p < 0.05). The 4 J/cm(2) dosage significantly improved histology and closure of wounds in the diabetic group in comparison to the non-irradiated diabetic group. Quantitative analysis of bFGF expression at 36 h post-injury revealed a threefold increase in the diabetic and non-diabetic Sand Rats after PBM. The results demonstrate that PBM at an energy density of 4 J/cm(2) is effective in improving the healing of cutaneous wounds in an animal model of type II diabetes, suggesting that PBM (632 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) would be effective in treating chronic cutaneous wounds in diabetic patients.

  1. Purification and characterization of a second type thioredoxin peroxidase (type II TPx) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J S; Kwon, S J; Kang, S W; Rhee, S G; Kim, K

    1999-01-12

    A yeast peroxidase that reduces H2O2 and alkyl hydroperoxides with the use of reducing equivalents provided by thioredoxin was identified previously and named thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) [Chae, H. Z., Chung, S. J., and Rhee, S. G. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 27670-27678]. A second type thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase, named type II TPx, has now been purified from yeast, and several peptide sequences have been obtained. Using those sequences, the corresponding cDNA has been identified from the GenBank database. Comparison of the predicted sequence of 176 amino acids of type II TPx with that of the 195 residues of TPx, now renamed type I TPx, revealed no substantial homology except for a short segment preceding Cys62 of type II TPx. Kinetic characterization of the reactions catalyzed by type I and II TPxs revealed that type I preferentially reduces H2O2 rather than alkyl hydroperoxides, whereas type II shows the reverse specificity. Type II TPx contains three cysteine residues at positions 31, 62, and 120. Experiments with mutant proteins in which these three cysteine residues were replaced individually with serine suggest that Cys62-SH constitutes the site of oxidation by peroxides and that the oxidized Cys62 reacts with the Cys120-SH group of another type II TPx molecule to form an intermolecular disulfide linkage. The formed disulfide can then be reduced by thioredoxin, but not by glutathione. Thus, type II TPx mutants lacking Cys62 or Cys120 showed no detectable TPx activity, whereas mutation of Cys31 had no effect on TPx activity. An antioxidant function of type II TPx in intact cells was demonstrated by the observation that Escherichia coli cells overexpressing wild-type protein were less sensitive to inhibition of growth by alkyl hydroperoxides than were control cells or cells overexpressing the mutant protein lacking Cys62.

  2. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  3. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance.

  4. Autopsy case of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial "dwarfism" type II.

    PubMed

    Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Sato, Seiji; Sullivan, Michael J; Nishimura, Gen; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Matsuo, Nobutake

    2002-11-15

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial "dwarfism" (MOPD) is a group of disorders similar to Seckel syndrome. Three subtypes (types I-III) have been reported. We report here the first autopsy case of MOPD type II. The patient was a Japanese girl with typical clinical and radiological manifestations of MOPD type II. The manifestations included severe intrauterine and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, a distinctive facial appearance, micromelia, brachytelephalangy, coxa vara, and V-shaped metaphyses of the distal femora. Other than small cerebral hemispheres, no neuropathological abnormalities were found. Chondro-osseous histology showed thinning of the growth plate, ballooned chondrocytes, reduced cellularity, lack of zonal and columnar formations, and poor formation of primary trabeculae. These findings suggest that impairment of chondrocytic formation and differentiation is the major pathogenesis of MOPD type II. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. A sample of Type II-L supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Leonard, D. C.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention - both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ˜15-25 M⊙ range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterized by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyse the multiband light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Hα absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong O I λ7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose to define them based on their decline in the V band: SNe II-L decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in four photometric bands.

  6. Double impact of cigarette smoke and mechanical ventilation on the alveolar epithelial type II cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) impacts clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is characterized by neutrophil-mediated inflammation and loss of alveolar barrier function. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that smoking may be a risk factor for the development of ARDS. Because alveolar type II cells are central to maintaining the alveolar epithelial barrier during oxidative stress, mediated in part by neutrophilic inflammation and mechanical ventilation, we hypothesized that exposure to cigarette smoke and mechanical strain have interactive effects leading to the activation of and damage to alveolar type II cells. Methods To determine if cigarette smoke increases susceptibility to VILI in vivo, a clinically relevant rat model was established. Rats were exposed to three research cigarettes per day for two weeks. After this period, some rats were mechanically ventilated for 4 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and differential cell count was done and alveolar type II cells were isolated. Proteomic analysis was performed on the isolated alveolar type II cells to discover alterations in cellular pathways at the protein level that might contribute to injury. Effects on levels of proteins in pathways associated with innate immunity, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in alveolar type II cell lysates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical comparisons were performed by t-tests, and the results were corrected for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate. Results Tobacco smoke exposure increased airspace neutrophil influx in response to mechanical ventilation. The combined exposure to cigarette smoke and mechanical ventilation significantly increased BAL neutrophil count and protein content. Neutrophils were significantly higher after smoke exposure and ventilation than after ventilation alone. DNA fragments were significantly elevated in alveolar type II cells. Smoke exposure did not

  7. Trace element geochemistry of ordinary chondrite chondrules: The type I/type II chondrule dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Alard, Olivier; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    We report trace element concentrations of silicate phases in chondrules from LL3 ordinary chondrites Bishunpur and Semarkona. Results are similar to previously reported data for carbonaceous chondrites, with rare earth element (REE) concentrations increasing in the sequence olivine < pyroxene < mesostasis, and heavy REE (HREE) being enriched by 1-2 orders of magnitude (CI-normalized) relative to light REE (LREE) in ferromagnesian silicates, although no single olivine with very large LREE/HREE fractionation has been found. On average, olivine in type II chondrules is poorer in refractory lithophile incompatible elements (such as REE) than its type I counterpart by a factor of ∼2. This suggests that olivine in type I and II chondrules formed by batch and fractional crystallization, respectively, implying that type II chondrules formed under faster cooling rates (>∼10 K/h) than type I chondrules. Appreciable Na concentrations (3-221 ppm) are measured in olivine from both chondrule types; type II chondrules seem to have behaved as closed systems, which may require chondrule formation in the vicinity of protoplanets or planetesimals. At any rate, higher solid concentrations in type II chondrule forming regions may explain the higher oxygen fugacities they record compared to type I chondrules. Type I and type II chondrules formed in different environments and the correlation between high solid concentrations and/or oxygen fugacities with rapid cooling rates is a key constraint that chondrule formation models must account for.

  8. Depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Sultan, Sayed Mohammad; Nazli, Rubina; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mudasar Ahmad; Sher, Nabila; Aslam, Hina

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus in Peshawar at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from March to September 2010. Depression was assessed by using Beck Depressive Inventory-II (BDI-II). Out of 140 patients with type-II diabetes, 85 (61%) were women and 55 (39%) were men. Mean age was 45±7.45 years. Eighty four (60%) patients presented with severe depression. Depression was higher in females than males and widows. Depression was high in diabetic patients, especially in females and widows. It is of essence that psychiatric attention may be necessary to be incorporated in diabetes care both for prevention and treatment.

  9. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Angiotensin II induces differential insulin action in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Surapongchai, Juthamard; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon

    2017-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia. At the cellular level, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the soleus muscle of the ANGII-100 group was 33% lower (P < 0.05) than that in the SHAM group and was associated with increased insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Ser(307) and decreased Akt Ser(473) and AS160 Thr(642) phosphorylation and GLUT-4 expression. However, ANGII-500 infusion did not induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance or impair insulin signaling elements as initially anticipated. Moreover, we found that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the ANGII-500 group was accompanied by the enhanced expression of ACE2 and MasR proteins, which are the key elements in the non-classical pathway of the renin-angiotensin system. Collectively, this study demonstrates for the first time that chronic infusion with these two pressor doses of ANGII induced differential metabolic responses at both the systemic and skeletal muscle levels. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Inhibitory effects of losartan and azelnidipine on augmentation of blood pressure variability induced by angiotensin II in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danfeng; Kawagoe, Yukiko; Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2017-07-05

    Increased blood pressure variability has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently we reported that continuous infusion of angiotensin II not only elevated blood pressure level, but also increased blood pressure variability in a manner assumed to be independent of blood pressure elevation in rats. In the present study, the effects of the angiotensin type I receptor blocker losartan and the calcium channel blocker azelnidipine on angiotensin II-induced blood pressure variability were examined and compared with that of the vasodilator hydralazine in rats. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously infused with 240 pmol/kg/min angiotensin II for two weeks without or with oral administration of losartan, azelnidipine, or hydralazine. Blood pressure variability was evaluated using a coefficient of variation of blood pressure recorded every 15min under an unrestrained condition via an abdominal aortic catheter by a radiotelemetry system. Treatment with losartan suppressed both blood pressure elevation and augmentation of systolic blood pressure variability in rats infused with angiotensin II at 7 and 14 days. Azelnidipine also inhibited angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation and augmentation of blood pressure variability; meanwhile, hydralazine attenuated the pressor effect of angiotensin II, but had no effect on blood pressure variability. In conclusion, angiotensin II augmented blood pressure variability in an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent manner, and azelnidipine suppressed angiotensin II-induced augmentation of blood pressure variability, an effect mediated by the mechanism independent of the blood pressure-lowering action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  13. Central mineralocorticoid receptors and the role of angiotensin II and glutamate in the paraventricular nucleus of rats with angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Alexander; Leenen, Frans H H

    2013-05-01

    A chronic increase in circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor-ouabain neuromodulatory pathway in the brain that increases neuronal activation in hypothalamic nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and causes progressive hypertension. Several models of chronic sympathetic hyperactivity are associated with an increase in AT1 and glutamate receptor activation in the PVN. The current study evaluated whether increased angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and glutamate receptor-dependent signaling in the PVN contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure (BP) in Ang II-hypertensive Wistar rats, and the role of aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway in this enhanced signaling. After subcutaneous infusion of Ang II for 2 weeks, in conscious rats BP and heart rate were recorded after (1) 10-minute bilateral infusions of candesartan and kynurenate in the PVN; (2) 1 hour intracerebroventricular infusion of eplerenone, and (3) candesartan and kynurenate after eplerenone. Candesartan or kynurenate in the PVN fully reversed the increase in BP from circulating Ang II. Kynurenate after candesartan or candesartan after kynurenate did not further lower BP. Intracerebroventricular infusion of eplerenone at 16 hours after its infusion fully reversed the increase in BP from circulating Ang II. After eplerenone, candesartan and kynurenate in the PVN did not further decrease BP. These findings suggest that increased mineralocorticoid receptor activation in the brain activates a slow neuromodulatory pathway that maintains enhanced AT1 and glutamate receptor-dependent signaling in the PVN, and thereby the hypertension from a chronic increase in circulating Ang II.

  14. Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine.

    PubMed Central

    Walz, P H; Baker, J C; Mullaney, T P; Kaneene, J B; Maes, R K

    1999-01-01

    Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A noncytopathic type I and a noncytopathic type II BVDV isolate were chosen for evaluation in feeder age swine based upon preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. A dose titration study was performed using 4 groups of 4 pigs for each viral isolate. The groups were inoculated intranasally with either sham (control), 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) TCID50 of virus. The pigs were examined daily and clinical findings were recorded. Antemortem and postmortem samples were collected for virus isolation. Neither the type I nor type II BVDV isolates resulted in clinical signs of disease in pigs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from antemortem and postmortem samples from groups of pigs receiving the 10(5) and the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type I BVDV isolate. In contrast, BVDV was only isolated from postmortem samples in the group of pigs receiving the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type II BVDV isolate. Type I BVDV was able to establish infection in pigs at lower doses by intranasal instillation than type II BVDV. Infection of pigs with a type II isolate of BVDV known to cause severe disease in calves did not result in clinically apparent disease in pigs. PMID:10369569

  15. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end.

  16. Realizing type-II Weyl points in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Kunal; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Lorentz symmetry-violating "type-II" Weyl semimetal phase has renewed interest in the study of Weyl physics in condensed-matter systems. However, tuning the exceptional properties of this novel state has remained a challenge. Optical lattices, created using standing laser beams, provide a convenient platform to tune tunneling parameters continuously in time. In this paper, we propose a generalized two level system exhibiting type-II Weyl points that can be realized using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The system is engineered using a three-dimensional lattice with complex π phase tunneling amplitudes. Various unique properties of the type-II Weyl semimetal such as open Fermi surface, anomalous chirality, and topological Fermi arcs can be probed using the proposed optical lattice scheme.

  17. Asymptomatic type II hyperprolinaemia associated with hyperglycinaemia in three sibs.

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, L; Mollica, F; Levy, H L

    1975-01-01

    Three clinically normal sibs were discovered to have type II hyperprolinaemia in a routine serum amino acid screening programme in Sicily. In addition to the basic biochemical features of type II hyperprolinaemia, all 3 children had marked hyperglycinaemia, whereas their parents had both normal blood proline and glycine concentrations. Clinical normality in individuals with hyperprolinaemia may suggest that these two metabolic disorders (types I and II) are benign entities. Furthermore, the absence of clinical abnormality in these sibs, despite the presence of marked hyperprolinaemia and hyperglycinaemia, may suggest that neither of these findings alone causes brain damage. The hyperglycinaemia in these sibs is unexplained and is an unusual if not unique finding in association with hyperprolinaemia. PMID:1200680

  18. Micronucleus assay for mouse alveolar Type II and Clara cells.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Catalán, Julia; Santonen, Tiina; Norppa, Hannu

    2010-03-01

    The objective of our study was to develop a micronucleus (MN) assay for detecting genotoxic damage after inhalation exposure in mouse alveolar Type II and Clara cells, potential target cells for lung carcinogens. Ten male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to ethylene oxide (630 mg/m(3)) for 4 hr via inhalation; 10 unexposed mice serving as controls. 72 hr after the exposure, Clara cells and alveolar Type II cells were isolated using two different methods. Method 1 included a 15-min trypsin lavage and a 2-hr incubation of cell suspension. Method 2 involved a 30-min trypsin lavage, Percoll gradient centrifugation, and a 48-hr incubation for cell attachment. Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) -staining was applied to distinguish Clara cells. The frequency of micronuclei (MNi) was scored in NBT-negative cells (defined as Type II cells in Method 2) and NBT-positive cells (Clara cells). To detect possible differences between the techniques, MNi in Clara cells were analyzed from samples prepared by both methods. With Method 2, a clear increase in the mean frequency of micronucleated cells was seen in the exposed mice as compared with the controls, for both alveolar Type II and Clara cells. However, no significant increase in MN frequency was seen in Clara cells analyzed from samples prepared by Method 1. Based on our findings, mouse alveolar Type II and Clara cells seem to be suitable for MN analysis in studies aimed at identifying genotoxic lung carcinogens. Both alveolar Type II and Clara cells can be isolated using Method 2. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITHOUT A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q. E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn

    2015-05-10

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s{sup −1} during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  20. Evodiamine inhibits angiotensin II-induced rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Na; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Lin, Shu-Xian; Hou, Hua-Hua; Wu, Qin; Sun, An-Sheng

    2017-09-05

    To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), calcineurin (CaN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of cardiomyocytes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of calcineurin catalytic subunit (CnA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were detected by Western blot analysis. Compared with the control group, Ang II induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as evidenced by increased cardiomyocyte surface area, protein content, and ANF mRNA expression; increased intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but decreased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with Ang II, Evo (0.3, 3 μmol/L) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased the [Ca(2+)]i concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but increased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Most interestingly, Evo increased the NOS activity and NO production, and upregulated the eNOS mRNA expression (P<0.05). Evo signifificantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and this effect was partly due to promotion of NO production, reduction of [Ca(2+)]i concentration, and inhibition of CaN and

  1. Biodistribution of a novel antiestrogen (Analog II) in the mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M T; Pento, J T; Magarian, R A; Mousissian, G K; Basmadjian, G P

    1990-01-01

    The biodistribution of a novel antiestrogen Analog II was determined in the mouse and rat. The tritiated product, [3H]-Analog II was prepared by New England Nuclear and was purified by preparative chromatography using silica gel and petroleum ether/methylene chloride (80:20). The fat tissue had the highest uptake due to the hydrophobic nature of Analog II. The second highest uptake was in the mouse uterine tissue which was greater than that observed in the rat. The differences in biodistribution between the mouse and rat may partially explain the differences in biological activity of Analog II previously observed in these two animal species.

  2. Role of laminin in maintenance of type II pneumocyte morphology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Rannels, S.R.; Yarnell, J.A.; Fisher, C.S.; Fabisiak, J.P.; Rannels, D.E. )

    1987-12-01

    Loss of differentiated function by type II pneumocytes plated on plastic surfaces was demonstrated by decreased lamellar body content, increased cellular protein, and rapid cellular flattening, changes that were retarded modestly by plating cells on laminin-coated surfaces. Laminin surfaces also inhibited ({sup 3}H)thymidine (THM) incorporation into cellular DNA by 40% compared with plastic at 40 h, but did not alter an additional mitogenic effect of rat serum over fetal calf serum. In contrast, cells plated on the laminin-rich basement membrane-like gel formed from an extract of EHS mouse sarcoma, matrix gel (MG), maintained a high content of intracellular lipids in lamellar inclusions and retained a rounded morphology for at least 3 days. MG markedly inhibited THM incorporation and morphological changes when cells were cultured on this surface of when MG was formed over cells initially plated on plastic for various intervals. The importance of the laminin component of MG was demonstrated when these surfaces were pretreated with a highly specific antilaminin serum. Type II cells commenced flattening on the treated MG surface, and THM incorporation increased with the same time course as did control cells on plastic. The data suggest that short-term culture and study of differentiated type II pneumocytes may require a laminin-rich substratum. THM incorporation into type II cell DNA provides an important early and sensitive index of cell-basement membrane interaction and subsequent maintenance of function.

  3. Clinical and morphological features of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, P B; Parsons, M A; Weatherhead, R G; Karcioglu, Z A

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of 4-month-old girl who presented with congenital cataracts revealed heterochromia iridis, fundus hypopigmentation, residual white forelock and sensory neural hearing loss--findings consistent with Waardenburg syndrome type II. Bilateral peripheral iridectomies performed at lensectomy provided tissue for evaluation. Light microscopy revealed fewer melanocytes in the blue iris than in the brown. Electron microscopic examination showed a significant (p = 0.0001) reduction in melanosome size in the blue iris, and the nerve endings contained fewer vesicles. A defect in neural crest cell migration and melanin synthesis may be responsible for the heterochromia iridis seen in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

  4. Efficient stop-and-wait type II hybrid ARQ scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, S.

    1992-06-01

    The stop-and-wait (SW) Sastry's (1975) ARQ scheme is modified to include a parity retransmission type II hybrid ARQ scheme described by Lin and Yu (1982) and Kallel (1990). In the new scheme, the data packet to be transmitted is encoded with a rate of 1/2 code, and repetitions alternate between the two sequences obtained at the output of the encoder (unlike in the Sastry scheme in which simple repeats of a data packet are transmitted). It is shown that the use of the SW type II hybrid ARQ scheme results in a substantial increase of the throughput.

  5. Vortex liquid crystals in anisotropic type II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, E W; Castro Neto, A H; Campbell, D K

    2003-02-28

    In an isotropic type II superconductor in a moderate magnetic field, the transition to the normal state occurs by vortex lattice melting. In certain anisotropic cases, the vortices acquire elongated cross sections and interactions. Systems of anisotropic, interacting constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II superconductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first a vortex smectic and then a vortex nematic at high temperature and magnetic field. We find that fluctuations of the ordered phase favor an instability to an intermediate smectic-A in the absence of intrinsic pinning.

  6. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Doh, J W; Kim, C J; Chi, J G

    2000-10-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis) detected by prenatal ultrasonography at 20-week gestation. A dwarfed fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs was terminated transvaginally. Radiologic and histopathologic examination revealed features of mild form of achondrogenesis type II. Although the case had no known risk factor and the phenotypic abnormality was mild, modern development in prenatal screening made the early detection possible.

  7. Hepatitis C: a possible etiology for cryoglobulinaemia type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pechère-Bertschi, A; Perrin, L; de Saussure, P; Widmann, J J; Giostra, E; Schifferli, J A

    1992-01-01

    Out of 15 successive patients with mixed essential cryoglobulinaemia type II (monoclonal IgM kappa/IgG), 13 had serological evidence for hepatitis C infection as shown by specific enzyme immunoassays and immunoblot. RNA was purified from the serum of seven patients and hepatitis C sequences were identified in five following reverse transcription and DNA amplification. The liver histology showed chronic active hepatitis with or without cirrhosis in the 12 patients with hepatitis C who had a liver biopsy. The two patients without serological evidence of hepatitis C suffered from haematological malignancies. Hepatitis C may be a major etiological agent of cryoglobulinaemia type II. PMID:1381302

  8. Interface recombination current in type II heterostructure bipolar diodes.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Marius; Karsthof, Robert; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2014-09-10

    Wide-gap semiconductors are often unipolar and can form type II bipolar heterostructures with large band discontinuities. We present such diodes with very high rectification larger than 1 × 10(10). The current is assumed to be entirely due to interface recombination. We derive the ideality factor for both symmetric and asymmetric diodes and find it close to 2 in agreement with experimental data from NiO/ZnO and CuI/ZnO type II diodes. The comparison with experimental results shows that the actual interface recombination rate is orders of magnitude smaller than its possible maximum value.

  9. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-01-15

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.

  10. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subchronic toxicity study of Caramel Colour II in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, K M; Carter, J L; Petsel, S R; Chappel, C I; Emerson, J L; Stanley, J

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour II is a distinct type of colourant with a pronounced reddish hue. It is made with sulphite reactants but without ammonia. The red colour and a high alcohol solubility provide functional characteristics that are important in foods or beverages containing natural flavour extractives. Caramel Colour II is widely used in ice creams and liqueurs; however, it represents less than 1% of total caramel colour manufacture. The toxicity of Caramel Colour II was evaluated in a 13-wk study in Fischer-344 (F344) rats. The test material was mixed with demineralized water and the solutions were given to the animals ad lib. in the drinking fluid. The concentrations of caramel colour in the drinking fluid were adjusted periodically to achieve the desired caramel colour intake/kg body weight/day. Groups of 20 rats/sex were given Caramel Colour II at levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 or 16 g/kg for at least 13 wk. There were no deaths in any of the groups fed Caramel Colour II. All rats fed caramel colour had soft faeces. All treated groups also had lower fluid consumption that was attributed to poor palatability of the high concentrations of caramel colour that were fed. A number of changes observed (reduced food consumption in all treatment groups except males given 4 g/kg; significantly lower body weights for males given 12 g/kg or more and for females given 8 g/kg or more; lower urine volume and higher specific gravity) were attributed to the reduced water intake and not considered to be toxicologically significant. There were no consistent treatment-related alterations in haematology or blood chemistry variables, and random changes noted were not associated with macroscopic or microscopic pathological alterations. There were no toxicologically important pathological findings. Based on this study, Caramel Colour II was not toxic in F344 rats treated for 13 wk. The highest dose level tested in this study (16 g/kg) was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level.

  12. Adenosine-A1 Receptor Agonist Induced Hyperalgesic Priming Type II

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of the transition to chronic pain that we have termed Type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to Type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, Type II hyperalgesic priming differs from Type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced Type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced Type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the Type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. PMID:26588695

  13. Adenosine-A1 receptor agonist induced hyperalgesic priming type II.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2016-03-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala, N-Me-Phe, Gly-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of transition to chronic pain that we have termed type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, type II hyperalgesic priming differs from type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that, as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study, we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms, as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor.

  14. The Novel Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Azilsartan Medoxomil Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by Chronic Angiotensin II Treatment in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lastra, Guido; Santos, Fernando R.; Hooshmand, Payam; Hooshmand, Paria; Mugerfeld, Irina; Aroor, Annayya R.; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Sowers, James R.; Henriksen, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor (type 1) blockers (ARBs) can reduce both hypertension and insulin resistance induced by local and systemic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The effectiveness of azilsartan medoxomil (AZIL-M), a novel imidazole-based ARB, to facilitate metabolic improvements in conditions of angiotensin II (Ang II)-associated insulin resistance is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic AZIL-M treatment on glucose transport activity and key insulin signaling elements in red skeletal muscle of Ang II-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 8 weeks with or without Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) combined with either vehicle or AZIL-M (1 mg/kg/day). Ang II induced significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood pressure, which were completely prevented by AZIL-M. Furthermore, Ang II reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport activity in incubated soleus muscle, and AZIL-M co-treatment increased this parameter. Moreover, AZIL-M treatment of Ang II-infused animals increased the absolute phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules, including Akt [both Ser473 (81%) and Thr308 (23%)] and AS160 Thr642 (42%), in red gastrocnemius muscle frozen in situ. Absolute AMPKα (Thr172) phosphorylation increased (98%) by AZIL-M treatment, and relative Thr389 phosphorylation of p70 S6K1, a negative regulator of insulin signaling, decreased (51%) with AZIL-M treatment. These results indicate that ARB AZIL-M improves the in vitro insulin action on glucose transport in red soleus muscle and the functionality of the Akt/AS160 axis in red gastrocnemius muscle in situ in Ang II-induced insulin-resistant rats, with the latter modification possibly associated with enhanced AMPKα and suppressed p70 S6K1 activation. PMID:23922555

  15. Segmental fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Vlahovic, Hrvoje; Bazdaric, Ksenija; Marijancic, Verner; Soic-Vranic, Tamara; Malnar, Daniela; Arbanas, Juraj

    2017-01-18

    The iliopsoas of the rat is composed of two muscles - the psoas major muscle and the iliacus muscle. The psoas major muscle arises from all the lumbar vertebrae and the iliacus muscle from the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae and ilium. Their common insertion point is the lesser trochanter of the femur, and their common action is the lateral rotation of the femur and flexion of the hip joint. Unlike humans, the rat is a quadruped and only occasionally rises up on its hind legs. Therefore, it is expected that the fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle will be different than that of humans. The iliopsoas muscle of the rat is generally considered to be a fast muscle. However, previous studies of the fibre type composition of the rat psoas muscle showed different results. Moreover, very little is known about the composition of the rat iliacus muscle. The aim of our study was to examine the fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle in order to better understand the complex function of the listed muscle. The psoas major muscle was examined segmentally at four different levels of its origin. Type I, IIA, IIB and IIX muscle fibres were typed using monoclonal antibodies for myosin heavy chain identification. The percentage of muscle fibre types and muscle fibre cross-sectional areas were calculated. In our study we showed that in the rat iliopsoas muscle both the iliacus and the psoas major muscles had a predominance of fast muscle fibre types, with the highest percentage of the fastest IIB muscle fibres. Also, the IIB muscle fibres showed the largest cross-sectional area (CSA) in both muscles. As well, the psoas major muscle showed segmental differences of fibre type composition. Our results showed changes in percentages, as well as the CSAs of muscle fibre types in cranio-caudal direction. The most significant changes were visible in type IIB muscle fibres, where there was a decrease of percentages and the CSAs from the cranial towards the caudal part

  16. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  17. Increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities in denervated type I and type II muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, G; Tågerud, S; Libelius, R

    1992-01-01

    Previous work has shown that increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities occur in the endplate region of denervated skeletal muscle fibres. This, however, does not engage all fibres of a muscle at a given time after denervation. The present study was carried out in order to determine if both type I (slow) and type II (fast) muscle fibres can react to denervation by increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities. Uptake of horseradish peroxidase as a marker for endocytosis was studied in conjunction with acid phosphatase staining for lysosomal activity in type I and type II fibres of the denervated mouse hemidiaphragm. Fibre typing was performed using a monoclonal antibody against fast skeletal myosin and by adenosine triphosphatase staining. The results show that increased endocytosis and lysosomal activation occur in both type I and type II fibres after denervation.

  18. SHAPING OF ACTION POTENTIALS BY TYPE I AND TYPE II BK CHANNELS

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, David B.; Wang, Bin; Brenner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The BK channel is a Ca2+ and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca2+ was high (>20 µM) and the other where BK-activating Ca2+ was low (~0.4–1.2 µM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca2+ dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron. PMID:21723921

  19. Caveolae regulate vasoconstriction of conduit arteries to angiotensin II in hindlimb unweighted rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Bai, Yungang; Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Yaoping; Liu, Yonghong; Xie, Xiaoping; Ma, Jin; Bao, Junxiang

    2015-10-15

    Weightlessness induces the functional remodelling of arteries, but the changes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-elicited vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanism have never been reported. Caveolae are invaginations of the cell membrane crucial for the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, so we investigated the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to simulated weightlessness and the role of caveolae in it. The 4 week hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was measured by isometric force recording. The morphology of caveolae was examined by transmission electron microscope. The binding of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 ) and caveolin-1 (cav-1) was examined by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot. We found that the maximal developing force (E(max)) of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was decreased in abdominal aorta by 30.6%, unchanged in thoracic aorta and increased in carotid artery by 17.9% after HU, while EC50 of the response was increased in all three arteries (P < 0.05). AT1 desensitization upon activation was significantly reduced by HU in all three arteries, as was the number of caveolae (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Ang II promoted the binding of AT1 and cav-1 significantly in control but not HU arteries. Both the number of caveolae and the binding of AT1 and cav-1 in HU arteries were restored by cholesterol pretreatment which also reinstated the change in EC50 as well as the level of AT1 desensitization. These results indicate that modified caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells could interfere with the binding of AT1 and cav-1 mediating the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to HU. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  20. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, F.A.O.; Quirion, R.; Saavedra, J.M.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The /sup 125/I-labeled agonist analog (1-sarcosine)-angiotensin II ((Sar/sup 1/)AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (K/sub a/ = 2 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. 75 references, 2 figures.

  1. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, F A; Quirion, R; Saavedra, J M; Aguilera, G; Catt, K J

    1984-01-01

    The 125I-labeled agonist analog [1-sarcosine]-angiotensin II ( [Sar1]AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (Ka = 2 X 10(9) M-1) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. Images PMID:6324205

  2. Cytidine monophosphate-dependent synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol in permeabilized type II pneumonocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, J E; Thakur, N R; Rader, G R; Tesan, M

    1985-01-01

    Results of previous investigations support the proposition that, in type II pneumonocytes, CMP is involved in integration of the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol for lung surfactant. In the present investigation, the amount of CMP in rat type II pneumonocytes was altered directly and resultant changes in the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol were examined. Type II pneumonocytes were made permeable to CMP by treatment with Ca2+-free medium, and phosphatidylglycerol synthesis was then assessed by measurement of the incorporation of a radiolabelled precursor, [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate, that was not effectively utilized by cells that resisted permeabilization. Incorporation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate into phosphatidylglycerol (but not into other lipids) was stimulated greatly by CMP (half-maximal stimulation at approx. 0.1 mM). CMP stimulated the incorporation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate into both the phosphatidyl moiety and the head group of phosphatidylglycerol. Incorporation of [14C]palmitate into phosphatidylglycerol was also stimulated by CMP. myo-Inositol, at concentrations found in foetal-rat serum (0.2-2.0 mM), inhibited CMP-dependent incorporation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate into phosphatidylglycerol and promoted, instead, CMP-dependent incorporation into phosphatidylinositol. These data, when extrapolated to foetal type II pneumonocytes, are consistent with the view that the developmental increase in the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol for surfactant by foetal lungs is promoted by the increase in intracellular CMP and the declining availability of myo-inositol that were found previously to be associated with this period of development. PMID:3004409

  3. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: Treatment updates

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, P. S.; Chen, Y. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  4. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Kishnani, P S; Chen, Y T

    2007-04-01

    Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future.

  5. Heterogenous Material Integration and Band Engineering With Type II Superlattice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0333 HETEROGENOUS MATERIAL INTEGRATION AND BAND ENGINEERING WITH TYPE II SUPERLATTICE Sanjay Krishna UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/15/2010-10/14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE "Heterogenous Material ...well as lowered size, weight, power and cost. However, despite extensive efforts on T2SL material growth, detector passivation, and fabrication, T2SL

  6. Endogenous ANG II supports lumbar sympathetic activity in conscious sodium-deprived rats: role of area postrema.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Collister, J P; Osborn, J W; Brooks, V L

    1998-07-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the area postrema (AP) is necessary for endogenous ANG II to chronically maintain lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) and heart rate (HR) in conscious sodium-deprived rats. The effect of the ANG II type 1-receptor antagonist, losartan, on LSNA and HR was determined in rats that were either AP lesioned (APX) or sham lesioned. The sham rats were divided into groups, with (SFR) or without (SAL) food restriction, to control for the decreased food intake of APX rats. Before losartan, basal mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR, and baroreflex control of LSNA and HR were similar between groups, with the exception of lower maximal reflex LSNA and higher maximal gain of the HR-MAP curve in APX rats. In all groups, losartan similarly shifted (P < 0.01) the LSNA-MAP curve to the left without altering maximal gain. Losartan also decreased (P < 0.05) minimal LSNA in all groups, and suppressed (P < 0.01) maximal LSNA (% of control) in SFR (240 +/- 13 to 205 +/- 15) and SAL (231 +/- 21 to 197 +/- 26) but not APX (193 +/- 10 to 185 +/- 8) rats. In general, losartan similarly shifted the HR-MAP curve to a lower MAP in all groups. The results suggest that the AP is not necessary for endogenous ANG II to chronically support LSNA and HR at basal and elevated MAP levels in sodium-deprived rats. However, the AP is required for endogenous ANG II to increase maximal reflex LSNA at low MAP levels.

  7. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain. PMID:27252946

  8. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  9. Type II restriction endonucleases--a historical perspective and more.

    PubMed

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss 'Type II' REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures.

  10. 46 CFR 153.231 - Type II system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type II system. 153.231 Section 153.231 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment...

  11. Subcellular localization of mammalian type II membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Aturaliya, Rajith N; Fink, J Lynn; Davis, Melissa J; Teasdale, Melvena S; Hanson, Kelly A; Miranda, Kevin C; Forrest, Alistair R R; Grimmond, Sean M; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kanamori, Mutsumi; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2006-05-01

    Application of a computational membrane organization prediction pipeline, MemO, identified putative type II membrane proteins as proteins predicted to encode a single alpha-helical transmembrane domain (TMD) and no signal peptides. MemO was applied to RIKEN's mouse isoform protein set to identify 1436 non-overlapping genomic regions or transcriptional units (TUs), which encode exclusively type II membrane proteins. Proteins with overlapping predicted InterPro and TMDs were reviewed to discard false positive predictions resulting in a dataset comprised of 1831 transcripts in 1408 TUs. This dataset was used to develop a systematic protocol to document subcellular localization of type II membrane proteins. This approach combines mining of published literature to identify subcellular localization data and a high-throughput, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to experimentally characterize subcellular localization. These approaches have provided localization data for 244 and 169 proteins. Type II membrane proteins are localized to all major organelle compartments; however, some biases were observed towards the early secretory pathway and punctate structures. Collectively, this study reports the subcellular localization of 26% of the defined dataset. All reported localization data are presented in the LOCATE database (http://www.locate.imb.uq.edu.au).

  12. Type II alveolar epithelial cell in vitro culture in aerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B

    1988-08-01

    A method of Type II alveolar epithelial cell culture in aerobiosis has been developed. Isolation of Type II cells was performed by digesting guinea-pig lung tissue with crude trypsin and elastase and using discontinuous Percoll density gradients. The Type II cells, as identified by light and electron microscopy, were cultured in aerobiosis for up to six days, in direct contact with the atmosphere in conditions mimicking those present in the lower respiratory tract. Significant activities of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found at the time of isolation. In contrast, cell glutathione content varied widely from one experiment to another. Changes of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated during cell culture in aerobiosis. SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase were significantly decreased after three days but were not significantly different between a three day and six day culture. Antioxidant changes did not influence the cell culture. In marked contrast, decrease in cell glutathione was associated with rapid cell death, whereas good cell survival was obtained at high levels of cell glutathione. Cell culture in aerobiosis will permit a precise evaluation of the effects of gases, particularly oxidant gases, on a primary culture of Type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  13. Generalized type II hybrid ARQ scheme using punctured convolutional coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, Samir; Haccoun, David

    1990-11-01

    A method is presented to construct rate-compatible convolutional (RCC) codes from known high-rate punctured convolutional codes, obtained from best-rate 1/2 codes. The construction method is rather simple and straightforward, and still yields good codes. Moreover, low-rate codes can be obtained without any limit on the lowest achievable code rate. Based on the RCC codes, a generalized type-II hybrid ARQ scheme, which combines the benefits of the modified type-II hybrid ARQ strategy of Hagenauer (1988) with the code-combining ARQ strategy of Chase (1985), is proposed and analyzed. With the proposed generalized type-II hybrid ARQ strategy, the throughput increases as the starting coding rate increases, and as the channel degrades, it tends to merge with the throughput of rate 1/2 type-II hybrid ARQ schemes with code combining, thus allowing the system to be flexible and adaptive to channel conditions, even under wide noise variations and severe degradations.

  14. Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II with otolaryngological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Havle, A; Shedge, S; Malashetti, S; Jain, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr's syndrome) which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.

  15. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  16. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  17. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  18. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  19. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  20. Type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes: new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, B J

    1997-01-01

    Type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) is a common primary and secondary diagnosis in home care patients. This article describes the pathophysiology of NIDDM, the new drugs that have been released for treatment, and the nursing implications inherent in using these new medications.

  1. Antidepressants in type II versus type I bipolar depression: A randomized discontinuation trial

    PubMed Central

    Vöhringer, Paul A.; Ostacher, Michael J.; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Holtzman, Niki S.; Thommi, Sairah B.; Whitham, Elizabeth A.; Sullivan, Matthew C.; Baldassano, Claudia F.; Goodwin, Fredrick K.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to test the hypothesis that antidepressants (ADs) may show preferential efficacy and safety among type-II over type-I bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Methods DSM-IV BD-I (n=21) and -II patients (n=49) in acute major depressive episodes were treated with ADs plus mood-stabilizers to euthymia sustained for two months, and then randomized openly to continue or discontinue ADs for up to three years. Outcomes were episode-recurrences and changes in standardized symptom-ratings. Results In follow-up averaging 1.64±0.98 years, both subgroups showed improvement in depressive episode frequency with AD continuation, but contrary to the hypothesis, more improvement was seen in type I than in type II bipolar depression (for type II, mean decrease in depressive episodes per year 0.21 ± 0.26 [CI:0.05, 0.37]; for type I: mean decrease 0.35 ± 0.15 [CI:0.30, 0.41]). Type II subjects continued on ADs had slightly more depressive, but fewer manic/hypomanic, episodes than BD-I subjects. No notable differences were seen in either group in time to a recurrence of mood episodes or total time-in-remission. Conclusions The findings do not confirm the hypothesis that long-term AD treatment in BP-II has better outcomes than in BD-I patients, except somewhat lower risk of manic/hypomanic episodes. PMID:26267418

  2. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE AS STANDARD CANDLES: THE SDSS-II SAMPLE REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Poznanski, Dovi; Nugent, Peter E.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2010-10-01

    We revisit the observed correlation between the H{beta} and Fe II velocities for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) using 28 optical spectra of 13 SNe II-P and demonstrate that it is well modeled by a linear relation with a dispersion of about 300 km s{sup -1}. Using this correlation, we re-analyze the publicly available sample of SNe II-P compiled by D'Andrea et al. and find a Hubble diagram with an intrinsic scatter of 11% in distance, which is nearly as tight as that measured before their sample is added to the existing set. The larger scatter reported in their work is found to be systematic, and most of it can be alleviated by measuring the H{beta} rather than Fe II velocities, due to the low signal-to-noise ratios and early epochs at which many of the optical spectra were obtained. Their sample, while supporting the mounting evidence that SNe II-P are good cosmic rulers, is biased toward intrinsically brighter objects and is not a suitable set to improve upon SN II-P correlation parameters. This will await a dedicated survey.

  3. A universal characteristic of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    We present a study on the spectral properties of interplanetary type II radio bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We investigated the relative bandwidth of the type II radio bursts observed by WAVES from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low-frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz, detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high-frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). Statistical results show that the average bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) was 0.28 ± 0.15, 0.26 ± 0.16, and 0.32 ± 0.15 for RAD1, RAD2, and RAD1 + RAD2, respectively. We compared our results with those obtained for ISEE-3 type II bursts and found a difference in the average BFR, which seems to be due to a selection effect. The BFR of the WAVES type II bursts is similar to that of metric type II bursts reported in published works. This suggests that the BFR is a universal characteristic, irrespective of the spectral domain. Finally, we also studied the BFR evolution with heliocentric distance using white-light observation of the associated coronal mass ejections. We found that the BFR remains roughly constant in the SOHO/LASCO field of view (i.e., from 2.1 to 32 solar radii), while the bandwidth itself decreases.

  4. Effects of type II thyroplasty on adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Minoda, Ryosei; Kodama, Narihiro

    2010-04-01

    Type II thyroplasty, or laryngeal framework surgery, is based on the hypothesis that the effect of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) on the voice is due to excessively tight closure of the glottis, hampering phonation. Most of the previous, partially effective treatments have aimed to relieve this tight closure, including recurrent laryngeal nerve section or avulsion, extirpation of the adductor muscle, and botulinum toxin injection, which is currently the most popular. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of type II thyroplasty on aerodynamic and acoustic findings in patients with AdSD. Case series. University hospital. Ten patients with AdSD underwent type II thyroplasty between August 2006 and December 2008. Aerodynamic and acoustic analyses were performed prior to and six months after surgery. Mean flow rates (MFRs) and voice efficiency were evaluated with a phonation analyzer. Jitter, shimmer, the harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), standard deviation of the fundamental frequency (SDF0), and degree of voice breaks (DVB) were measured from each subject's longest sustained phonation sample of the vowel /a/. Voice efficiency improved significantly after surgery. No significant difference was found in the MFRs between before and after surgery. Jitter, shimmer, HNR, SDF0, and DVB improved significantly after surgery. Treatment of AdSD with type II thyroplasty significantly improved aerodynamic and acoustic findings. The results of this study suggest that type II thyroplasty provides relief from voice strangulation in patients with AdSD. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  6. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; So, Byunghun; Kim, Hee-Jae; Seong, Je Kyung; Song, Wook

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats.

  7. Pavlovian Conditioning of Rat Mucosal Mast Cells to Secrete Rat Mast Cell Protease II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Glenda; Marshall, Jean; Perdue, Mary; Siegel, Shepard; Bienenstock, John

    1989-01-01

    Antigen (egg albumin) injections, which stimulate mucosal mast cells to secrete mediators, were paired with an audiovisual cue. After reexposure to the audiovisual cue, a mediator (rat mast cell protease II) was measured with a sensitive and specific assay. Animals reexposed to only the audiovisual cue released a quantity of protease not significantly different from animals reexposed to both the cue and the antigen; these groups released significantly more protease than animals that had received the cue and antigen in a noncontingent manner. The results support a role for the central nervous system as a functional effector of mast cell function in the allergic state.

  8. Energy decay rate of transmission problem between thermoelasticity of type I and type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Zhong-Jie; Xu, Gen-Qi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the energy decay rate of a 1-d mixed type I and type II thermoelastic system is considered. The system consists of two kinds of thermoelastic components. One is the classical thermoelasticity (so-called type I), another one is nonclassical thermoelasticity without dissipation (named type II). These two components are coupled at the interface satisfying certain transmission condition. We prove that the system is lack of uniform exponential decay rate and further obtain the sharp polynomial decay rate by resolvent estimates together with the diagonalization argument in linear algebra. Moreover, we present some numerical simulations to support these theoretical results.

  9. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  10. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  11. SPECTRA OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES AND RELATED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E. G.; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: drogall1@bigred.unl.edu

    2011-02-15

    We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as intrinsic variables. Variation among the main-sequence stars is likely to be mostly due to binarity or stellar activity.

  12. Gain spectroscopy of a type-II VECSEL chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, C.; Stein, M.; Berger, C.; Möller, C.; Fuchs, C.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Koch, M.

    2016-12-01

    Using optical pump-white light probe spectroscopy, the gain dynamics is investigated for a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser chip, which is based on a type-II heterostructure. The active region of the chip consists of a GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs multiple quantum well. For this structure, a fully microscopic theory predicts a modal room temperature gain at a wavelength of 1170 nm, which is confirmed by the experimental spectra. The results show a gain buildup on the type-II chip that is delayed relative to that of a type-I chip. This slower gain dynamics is attributed to a diminished cooling rate arising from the reduced electron-hole scattering.

  13. Hyperalgesic priming (type II) induced by repeated opioid exposure: maintenance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2017-07-01

    We previously developed a model of opioid-induced neuroplasticity in the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor that could contribute to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, type II hyperalgesic priming. Repeated administration of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, such as DAMGO, at the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor, induces long-lasting plasticity expressed, prototypically as opioid-induced hyperalgesia and prolongation of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of type II priming. Opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, induced hyperalgesia in DAMGO-primed paws. When repeatedly injected, naloxone-induced hyperalgesia, and hyperalgesic priming, supporting the suggestion that maintenance of priming involves changes in MOR signaling. However, the knockdown of MOR with oligodeoxynucleotide antisense did not reverse priming. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and focal adhesion kinase, which are involved in the Src signaling pathway, previously implicated in type II priming, also inhibited the expression, but not maintenance of priming. However, when Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors were coadministered, type II priming was reversed, in male rats. A second model of priming, latent sensitization, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant was also reversed, in males. In females, the inhibitor combination was only able to inhibit the expression and maintenance of DAMGO-induced priming when knockdown of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) in the nociceptor was performed. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of DAMGO-induced type II priming, and latent sensitization is mediated by an interaction between, Src and MAP kinases, which in females is GPR30 dependent.

  14. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-29

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  15. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl{sub 4} was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [{sup 3}H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin.

  16. Receptors for insulin-like growth factors I and II in rat gastrointestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Laburthe, M.; Rouyer-Ressard, C.; Gammeltoft, S. Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen )

    1988-03-01

    Distinct receptors for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have been characterized in rat intestinal epithelium using {sup 125}I-labeled IGF-I and {sup 125}I-labeled IGF-II. In jejunal epithelial plasma membranes, IGF-I receptors were observed with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 7.2 nM and a binding capacity of 0.56 pmol/mg protein. Distinct IGF-II receptors were also found with a K{sub d} of 9.5 nM and a binding capacity of 2.61 pmol/mg protein. For IGF-I receptors the following order of affinity was observed: IGF-I > IGF-II > insulin > proinsulin. IGF-II receptors recognize IGF-II with a 20-fold higher affinity than IGF-I and display no cross-reactivity with insulin and proinsulin. Affinity labeling of intestinal membranes also discriminates between the two types of receptors, revealing a radioligand-receptor complex of relative molecular weight (M{sub r}) 130,000 using {sup 125}I-IGF-I and 250,000 for {sup 125}I-IGF-II under reducing conditions. Separation of proliferative crypt cells from mature villus cells in the small intestine makes it possible to show that a gradient of IGF receptors is present along the crypt-villus axis. {sup 125}I-IGF-I and {sup 125}I-IGF-II binding is 4.0- and 1.8-fold higher in crypt cells than in villus cells, respectively. Specific {sup 125}I-IGF binding is detectable throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The level of IGF binding is similar in stomach, small intestine, and cecum, but higher values are observed in colon.

  17. A new method for correcting type I and type II constricted (cup and lop) ears.

    PubMed

    Xiaogeng, Hu; Hongxing, Zhuang; Qinghua, Yang; Haiyue, Jiang; Yanyong, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Tanzer suggested the term "constricted ear," denoting a spectrum of deformities limited to the superior third of the ear. Tanzer classified the constricted ear into three types. Type I ears have involvement of the helix, which usually is flattened. Type II ears show involvement of both the helix and the scapha. With type III ears, the auricle is rolled into a nearly tubular form that some authors regard as a form of microtia. The authors' new method for correcting the constricted ear varies in accordance with the diverse degree of deformity. The new method was used to correct constricted ears through a one-stage operation in eight type I cases. For the remaining six type 2 cases, the methods were combined with composite grafting. Most of the patients were satisfied with the final results. Therefore, the authors conclude that their approach is suitable for the treatment of type I and type II constricted ears.

  18. Early Treatment With Olmesartan Prevents Juxtamedullary Glomerular Podocyte Injury and the Onset of Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sofue, Tadashi; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Urushihara, Maki; Nishijima, Yoko; Kaifu, Kumiko; Hara, Taiga; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Hayden, Melvin R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R.; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kohno, Masakazu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies were performed to determine if early treatment with an angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, prevents the onset of microalbuminuria by attenuating glomerular podocyte injury in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods OLETF rats were treated with either a vehicle, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or a combination of nonspecific vasodilators (hydralazine 15 mg/kg/day, hydrochlorothiazide 6 mg/kg/day, and reserpine 0.3 mg/kg/day; HHR) from the age of 7–25 weeks. Results OLETF rats were hypertensive and had microalbuminuria from 9 weeks of age. At 15 weeks, OLETF rats had higher Ang II levels in the kidney, larger glomerular desmin-staining areas (an index of podocyte injury), and lower gene expression of nephrin in juxtamedullary glomeruli, than nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. At 25 weeks, OLETF rats showed overt albuminuria, and higher levels of Ang II in the kidney and larger glomerular desmin-staining areas in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli compared to LETO rats. Reductions in mRNA levels of nephrin were also observed in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli. Although olmesartan did not affect glucose metabolism, it decreased blood pressure and prevented the renal changes in OLETF rats. HHR treatment also reduced blood pressure, but did not affect the renal parameters. Conclusions This study demonstrated that podocyte injury occurs in juxtamedullary glomeruli prior to superficial glomeruli in type 2 diabetic rats with microalbuminuria. Early treatment with an ARB may prevent the onset of albuminuria through its protective effects on juxtamedullary glomerular podocytes. PMID:22318512

  19. HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome types II and III.

    PubMed

    Flesch, B K; Matheis, N; Alt, T; Weinstock, C; Bux, J; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Genetics of the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the genetics of the adult APS types. SITE: The study was conducted at a university referral center. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were determined in a large cohort of patients with APS, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and type 1 diabetes and in healthy controls by the consistent application of high-resolution typing at a four-digit level. Comparison of the allele and haplotype frequencies significantly discriminated patients with APS vs AITD and controls. The HLA class II alleles DRB1*03:01 *04:01, DQA1*03:01, *05:01, DQB1*02:01, and *03:02 were observed more frequently (P<.001) in APS than in AITD and controls, whereas the alleles DRB1*15:01, DQB1*03:01, and *06:02 were underrepresented in APS vs AITD (Pc<.001) and controls (Pc<.01), respectively. The DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (DR3-DQ2) and DRB1*04:01-DQA1*03:01:DQB1*03:02 (DRB1*04:01-DQ8) haplotypes were overrepresented in APS (Pc<.001). Combination of both haplotypes to a genotype was highly prevalent in APS vs AITD and controls (Pc<.001). Dividing the APS collective into those with Addison's disease (APS type II) and those without Addison's disease but including type 1 diabetes and AITD (APS type III) demonstrated DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:01-DQ8 as a susceptibility genotype in APS III (Pc<.001), whereas the DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:04-DQ8 genotype correlated with APS II (Pc<.001). The haplotypes DRB1*11:01-DQA1*05:05-DQB1*03:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 are protective in APS III but not in type II (Pc<.01). HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult APS types II and III. Susceptible haplotypes favor the development of polyglandular autoimmunity in patients with AITD.

  20. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  1. Refined genetic and physical mapping of BPES type II.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, L; Leroy, B P; De Bie, S; De Pauw, K; Van Roy, N; Speleman, F; Van Camp, G; De Paepe, A

    1996-01-01

    BPES is a genetic disorder including blepharophimosis, ptosis of the eyelids, epicanthus inversus and telecanthus. Type I is associated with female infertility, whereas type II presents without other symptoms. Both types I and II occur sporadically or are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. We present a molecular genetic and cytogenetic study in a large four-generation Belgian family with BPES type II. Karyotype analysis on high-resolution banded chromosomes yielded normal results. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes spanning 3q22-q24 revealed normal hybridization patterns. Sixteen polymorphic CA repeats encompassing region 3q13-q25 were analysed. Linkage analysis in this large four-generation family provides conclusive evidence for the presence of a BPES gene in this region. Two-point lod scores greater than 3.0 between the disease and the following markers were seen: D3S1589 (4.67), D3S1292 (3.52), D3S1290 (3.59) and D3S1549 (3.65). By FISH, D3S1290, D3S1292 and D3S1549 were assigned to chromosome 3q23 using YACs positive for these markers.

  2. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924

  3. Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2010-01-01

    We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much or more water in response to ANG II compared with young rats, depending on whether intakes were analyzed using absolute or body weight-adjusted values. When arterial blood pressure first was reduced with minoxidil, MAP in response to ANG II stabilized at significantly lower levels compared with control conditions for all groups. Young rats drank significantly more water under reduced pressure conditions compared with control conditions, while middle-aged and old rats did not. Urine volume in response to ANG II was lower, while water balance was higher, under conditions of reduced pressure compared with control conditions. Baroreflex control of heart rate was substantially reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged animals. In summary, young rats appear to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of increased arterial blood pressure on water drinking than are older animals. PMID:20739604

  4. Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2010-11-01

    We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much or more water in response to ANG II compared with young rats, depending on whether intakes were analyzed using absolute or body weight-adjusted values. When arterial blood pressure first was reduced with minoxidil, MAP in response to ANG II stabilized at significantly lower levels compared with control conditions for all groups. Young rats drank significantly more water under reduced pressure conditions compared with control conditions, while middle-aged and old rats did not. Urine volume in response to ANG II was lower, while water balance was higher, under conditions of reduced pressure compared with control conditions. Baroreflex control of heart rate was substantially reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged animals. In summary, young rats appear to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of increased arterial blood pressure on water drinking than are older animals.

  5. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Pruzhinskaya, Maria V.; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 M⊙. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1051 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 M⊙ can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (≳2 × 1051 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (≲0.01 M⊙), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius larger. Helium mixing in hydrogen-rich layers makes the light-curve decline rates large but does not help reducing the light-curve bump. Because the light-curve bump we found in our light-curve models has not been observed in rapidly fading Type II supernovae, they may be characterized by not only low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes but also higher explosion energy, larger degrees of 56Ni mixing, and/or larger progenitor radii than slowly fading Type II supernovae, so that the light-curve bump does not become significant.

  6. The Use of Transvaginal Ultrasound in Type II Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Caroline C; Kenne, Kimberly A; Cansino, Catherine D; Backes, Floor J; Cohn, David E; O'Malley, David M; Copeland, Larry J; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Salani, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    To determine the use of the transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) in postmenopausal women with type II endometrial cancer. A retrospective review was conducted for 173 women with pathology proven type II endometrial cancer at a single institution. Those who underwent preoperative TVUS were included, and the following data were obtained: endometrial stripe (EMS) measurement, uterine and/or adnexal findings, and uterine size/volume. Clinicopathologic factors were abstracted. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. Fifty-eight women comprised the cohort, and the median age was 66.5 years (50-85 years). The most commonly reported symptom was postmenopausal bleeding in 53 patients (91.4%). The EMS was reported as thin (≤ 5 mm) or indistinct in 16 patients (27.5%). Approximately 60% of patients had 1 or more ultrasound abnormalities: intracavitary mass (31%), intracavitary fluid (12.1%), myometrial lesion (31.03%), and adnexal mass (12.1%). Poorly differentiated endometrioid cancer (53.45%) represented the predominant histology. Of the 16 (27.5%) women with a thin/indistinct EMS, 5 women (8.6%) did not have any abnormal ultrasound findings whatsoever. Women with type II endometrial cancer had a thin/indistinct EMS on TVUS in approximately 25% of cases. Lack of any ultrasound abnormality, including a thickened EMS, was noted in approximately 10% of patients. The use of TVUS, which has been of value in type I cancer, is limited in type II endometrial cancer. Therefore, endometrial sampling should be included in the evaluation of all women with postmenopausal bleeding, regardless of EMS thickness.

  7. Post treatment surveillance of type II endometrial cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zakhour, Mae; Li, Andrew J; Walsh, Christine S; Cass, Ilana; Karlan, Beth Y; Rimel, B J

    2013-12-01

    There are few studies analyzing surveillance for Type II endometrial cancer recurrence. Our objective was to determine the types of post treatment surveillance tests performed in our institution and the efficacy of these tests in detecting recurrence in type II endometrial cancer patients. One hundred and thirty six cases of type II endometrial cancers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center from January of 2000 to August of 2011 were identified and 106 patients met inclusion criteria. Medical charts were reviewed for surveillance methods and number of follow up visits. For patients who underwent a recurrence of disease, the surveillance method utilized for detection was documented. Forty-seven of the 106 (44%) patients developed recurrence with a mean progression free interval of 11 months. All patients had a history and physical at each surveillance visit, 78% had Pap testing, 57% had CA-125 levels drawn, 59% had CT (computed tomography) scans done, 6% had PET (positron emission tomography) scans done for surveillance. In our cohort, recurrence was detected by symptoms in 16, by CA-125 in 11, by physical exam in 7, by CT scan in 12, and by PET scan in one patient. No patients had recurrence detected by vaginal cytology. Although performed in the majority of patients, Pap testing did not detect any recurrences within this cohort. History and physical exam detected the most recurrences. These findings suggest that educating patients about relevant symptoms and performing thorough follow-up exams may be the most important aspects of detecting type II endometrial cancer recurrence. © 2013.

  8. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  9. Contractile responses to rat urotensin II in resting and depolarized basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Porras-González, Cristina; Ureña, Juan; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Gordillo-Escobar, Elena; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco; González-Montelongo, María del Carmen; Muñoz-Sánchez, María Angeles

    2014-03-01

    The effects of human urotensin II (hUII) on the vascular tone of different animal species has been studied extensively. However, little has been reported on the vasoactive effects of rat urotensin (rUII) in murine models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rUII on vasoreactivity in rat basilar arteries. Basilar arteries from adult male Wistar rats (300-350 g) were isolated, cut in rings, and mounted on a small vessel myograph to measure isometric tension. rUII concentrations were studied in both resting and depolarized state. To remove endothelial nitric oxide effects from the rUII response, we treated selected arterial rings with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 10 μM rUII produced a potent vasoconstrictor response in rat basilar arteries with intact endothelium, while isometric forces remained unaffected in arterial rings treated with lower rUII concentrations. Although L-NAME did not have a significant effect on 10 μM rUII-evoked contraction, it slightly increased arterial ring contraction elicited by 1 μM rUII. In depolarized arteries, dose-dependent rUII increased depolarization-induced contractions. This effect was suppressed by L-NAME. Our results show that the rat basilar artery has a vasoconstrictor response to rUII. The most potent vasoconstrictor effect was produced by lower doses of rUII (0.1 and 1 μM) in depolarized arteries with intact endothelium. This effect could facilitate arterial vasospasm in vascular pathophysiological processes such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and hypertension, when sustained depolarization and L-type Ca(2+) channel activation are present.

  10. Long-term effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on heart rhythm in the Goto-Kakizaki rat.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Frank C; Jacobson, Michael; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Adeghate, Ernest

    2008-03-01

    In vivo biotelemetry studies have demonstrated a variety of heart rhythm disturbances in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat, these disturbances have included reductions in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and an electrocardiogram that displays prolonged QRS duration and Q-T interval. The aim of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on heart rhythm in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. Transmitter devices were surgically implanted in the peritoneal cavity of young male GK and age-matched Wistar control rats. Electrodes from the transmitter were arranged in Einthoven bipolar lead II configuration. Electrocardiogram, physical activity and body temperature data were recorded in rats from age 2 to 15 months. Data were acquired for 2 weeks each month. Non-fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and body weight were measured periodically. In GK rats, growth rate and maximal attained body weight were significantly reduced and non-fasting blood glucose was progressively increased compared with age-matched Wistar control animals. Heart rate was significantly lower in GK compared with control rats at 2, 7 and 15 months of age. At 2 months of age, HR was 316 +/- 6 beats min(-1) in GK rats compared with 370 +/- 7 beats min(-1) in Wistar control animals. There was a progressive age-dependent decline in HRV in Wistar control rats; however, HRV in GK rats did not alter significantly with age. Heart rate variability was significantly reduced in GK compared with Wistar control rats at 2 and 7 months. At 2 months of age, HRV was 28 +/- 2 beats min(-1) in GK rats compared with 38 +/- 3 beats min(-1) in Wistar control rats. Reduced HR in GK rats may be an inherited characteristic. The absence of age-dependent reductions in HRV in GK rats may be a consequence of an underlying impairment of autonomic control which manifests at early age.

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and fetal lung maturation: immunogold detection of VDR expression in pneumocytes type II cells and effect on fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M; Trubert, C L; Rizk-Rabin, M; Rehan, V K; Besançon, F; Cayre, Y E; Garabédian, M

    2004-05-01

    Lung maturation before birth includes type II pneumocyte differentiation with progressive disappearance of glycogen content and onset of surfactant synthesis. We have shown previously that 1,25-(OH)2D3 increases surfactant synthesis and secretion by type II cells and decreases their glycogen content in fetal rat lung explants. Recently, the gene coding fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase (F1,6BP), a regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis, has been identified in type II cells and its promoter bears a Vitamin D response element. Present results show:The coexistence of type II cells at different stages of maturation. in rat fetal lung on day 21 of gestation (electron microscopy), and the association between maturation of type II cells and disappearance of their glycogen content. The immunogold labeling of all type II cells when using the 9A7g VDR-antibody, with significantly more abundant gold particles in cells exhibiting an intermediate glycogen content. The expression of F1,6BP mRNA in a human type II cell line (NCI-H441) and the increase of this expression after 18h incubation with 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10(-8)M). These results bring further evidence for a physiological role of 1,25-(OH)2D3 during type II pneumocyte maturation. Activation of F1,6BP may participate to the 1,25-(OH)2D3 action on surfactant synthesis via the gluconeogenesis pathway.

  12. Characteristics of Type-II Radio Bursts Associated with Flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanth, V.; Umapathy, S.; Vršnak, Bojan; Anna Lakshmi, M.

    2011-10-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of type-II radio bursts observed in the metric (m) and deca-hectometer (DH) wavelength range during 1997-2008. The collected events are divided into two groups: Group I contains the events of m-type-II bursts with starting frequency ≥ 100 MHz, and group II contains the events with starting frequency of m-type-II radio bursts < 100 MHz. We have analyzed both samples considering three different aspects: i) statistical properties of type-II bursts, ii) statistical properties of flares and CMEs associated with type-II bursts, and iii) time delays between type-II bursts, flares, and CMEs. We find significant differences in the properties of m-type-II bursts in duration, bandwidth, drift rate, shock speed and delay between m- and DH-type-II bursts. From the timing analysis we found that the majority of m-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the flare impulsive phase. On the other hand, the DH-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the decaying phase of the associated flares. Almost all m-DH-type-II bursts are found to be associated with CMEs. Our results indicate that there are two kinds of shock in which group I (high frequency) m-type-II bursts seem to be ignited by flares whereas group II (low frequency) m-type-II bursts are CME-driven.

  13. Microarray analysis of thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-04-01

    It is well known that diabetes imparts high sensitivity to numerous hepatotoxicants. Previously, we have shown that a normally non-lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats due to inhibited tissue repair allowing progression of liver injury. On the other hand, DB rats exposed to 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed tissue repair and delayed recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of impaired tissue repair and progression of liver injury in TA-treated DB rats by using cDNA microarray. Gene expression pattern was examined at 0, 6, and 12 h after TA challenge, and selected mechanistic leads from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and further investigated at protein level over the time course of 0 to 36 h after TA treatment. Diabetic condition itself increased gene expression of proteases and decreased gene expression of protease inhibitors. Administration of 300 mg TA/kg to DB rats further elevated gene expression of proteases and suppressed gene expression of protease inhibitors, explaining progression of liver injury in DB rats after TA treatment. Inhibited expression of genes involved in cell division cycle (cyclin D1, IGFBP-1, ras, E2F) was observed after exposure of DB rats to 300 mg TA/kg, explaining inhibited tissue repair in these rats. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed expression of genes involved in cell division cycle, explaining delayed tissue repair in these rats. In conclusion, impaired cyclin D1 signaling along with increased proteases and decreased protease inhibitors may explain impaired tissue repair that leads to progression of liver injury initiated by TA in DB rats.

  14. Exploring Type I and Type II Errors Using Rhizopus Sporangia Diameter Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Burns, Gerard; Freud, Brian; Fenning, Stacy; Hoffman, Rosemary; Sabapathi, Durai

    2000-01-01

    Presents exercises in which students can explore Type I and Type II errors using sporangia diameter measurements as a means of differentiating between two species. Examines the influence of sample size and significance level on the outcome of the analysis. (SAH)

  15. Change in fiber type in partially-denervated soleus muscle of the rat.

    PubMed

    Narusawa, M

    1985-10-01

    In 30% or less partially denervated muscle, the reinnervation of denervated muscle fiber may give rise to a change in motor unit size or number of muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron. This study was designed to evaluate changes in fiber type and contractibility of partially denervated rat soleus muscle. Partial denervation (by 30% or less) of the soleus nerve does not cause a decrease in the number of muscle fibers. A histochemical study was performed on frozen sections of the muscle. The total number of muscle fibers, atrophied fibers and type II fibers were counted. In the muscle 4 weeks after partial denervation, the number of type II fibers was fewer with a decrease of about 40% which was not significant. The twitch time to peak and half-relaxation time were not changed. The number of type II fibers was significantly decreased (p less than 0.01) after 8 weeks. There was a prolongation of contraction time. The decrease of type II fibers was extensive involving not only the denervated area but also the rest of the muscle area. The transformation of fiber type observed in partially denervated muscle may be attributed to a possible diminution of neurotrophic substances in intact motor neurons.

  16. Horizontal Visibility graphs generated by type-II intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Ángel M.; Lacasa, Lucas; Patricio Gómez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we study the onset of chaos via type-II intermittency within the framework of Horizontal Visibility graph theory. We construct graphs associated to time series generated by an iterated map close to a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation and study, both numerically and analytically, their main topological properties. We find well defined equivalences between the main statistical properties of intermittent series (scaling of laminar trends and Lyapunov exponent) and those of the resulting graphs, and accordingly construct a graph-theoretical description of type-II intermittency. We finally recast this theory into a graph-theoretical renormalization group (RG) framework, and show that the fixed point structure of RG flow diagram separates regular, critical and chaotic dynamics.

  17. UBVRIz Light Curves of 51 Type II Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, Lluís; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; de Jaeger, Thomas; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Krzeminski, Wojtek; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón; Anguita, Claudio; Galaz, Gaspar; Green, Elisabeth M.; Impey, Chris; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Kirhakos, Sofia; Malkan, Mathew A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Pizzella, Alessandro; Prosser, Charles F.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Schommer, Robert A.; Sherry, William; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wells, Lisa A.; Williger, Gerard M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986-2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C&T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  18. New insights into bacterial type II polyketide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuan; Pan, Hai-Xue; Tang, Gong-Li

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides, exemplified by anthracyclines, angucyclines, tetracyclines, and pentangular polyphenols, are a large family of natural products with diverse structures and biological activities and are usually biosynthesized by type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). Since the starting point of biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis in 1984–1985, there has been a continuous effort to investigate the biosynthetic logic of aromatic polyketides owing to the urgent need of developing promising therapeutic candidates from these compounds. Recently, significant advances in the structural and mechanistic identification of enzymes involved in aromatic polyketide biosynthesis have been made on the basis of novel genetic, biochemical, and chemical technologies. This review highlights the progress in bacterial type II PKSs in the past three years (2013–2016). Moreover, novel compounds discovered or created by genome mining and biosynthetic engineering are also included. PMID:28299197

  19. Multicolor Oservations of the Type II Cepheid Prototype W Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Henden, A. A.; Crawford, T.; James, R.; Bonnardeau, M.; Wells, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the AAVSO's six-month photometric campaign on the bright, pulsating variable star W Virginis, class prototype of the Type II Cepheid variables. This campaign was organized in support of separate spectroscopic observations (Wallerstein et al., in preparation), but these photometric data also stand alone as a valuable, recent, multicolor light curve of this object. Observations were obtained by several amateur and professional observers using a variety of equipment; data are primarily in the V filter, but include two complete pulsation cycles in the BVRcIc filters. We present lightand color-curves of this star, and compare our results to previous observational and theoretical results on W Vir and the Type II Cepheids.

  20. On the Covariant Quantization of Type II Superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Sebastian; Knapp, Johanna; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2004-06-01

    In a series of papers Grassi, Policastro, Porrati and van Nieuwenhuizen have introduced a new method to covariantly quantize the GS-superstring by constructing a resolution of the pure spinor constraint of Berkovits' approach. Their latest version is based on a gauged WZNW model and a definition of physical states in terms of relative cohomology groups. We first put the off-shell formulation of the type-II version of their ideas into a chirally split form and directly construct the free action of the gauged WZNW model, thus circumventing some complications of the super group manifold approach to type-II. Then we discuss the BRST charges that define the relative cohomology and the N=2 superconformal algebra. A surprising result is that nilpotency of the BRST charge requires the introduction of another quartet of ghosts.

  1. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  2. Type II Quasars among Z>4 Strong Lyman Alpha Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2002-09-01

    Strong Lyman-alpha emission is expected both from primordial galaxies and from the type II quasars required to explain the hard x-ray background. We have identified ~300 Ly-alpha sources at redshifts 4.5 and 5.7. About 60% of these show rest equivalent widths >200 Angstrom, which requires active nuclei, or extreme populations of massive stars. Our Ly-alpha survey (LALA) is a unique resource for determining the space density of type II quasars at high z efficiently. The large fields of ACIS and LALA will allow us to observe 60 ly-alpha emitters, including the brightest narrow line Ly-alpha emitter with EW=660. This will have implications for composition of the X-ray background, background radiation at other wavelengths, and structure formation (stars vs black holes) in the early universe.

  3. Modeling tools for design of type-II superlattice photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Carl; Marcks von Würtemberg, Rickard; Höglund, Linda

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a range of modeling tools that are used in the design and performance evaluation of type-II superlattice detectors. Among these is an optical and photo carrier transport model for the spectral total external QE, which takes into account carrier diffusion length. Using this model, the diffusion length is extracted from external quantum efficiency measurements. It can also be used to fine-tune an optical cavity in relation to the wavelength range of interest for optimal quantum efficiency. Furthermore, an electrical device model for band bending, dark current and doping optimization is described. The modeling tools are discussed and examples of their use are given for MWIR type-II detectors based on InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices.

  4. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  5. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; Krisciunas, Kevin; Krzeminski, Wojtek; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón; and others

    2016-02-15

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  6. Type II skeletal myofibers possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial H(2)O(2) generation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a number of skeletal muscle pathologies, most notably aging-induced atrophy and loss of type II myofibers. Although oxygen-derived free radicals are thought to be a primary cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying factors governing mitochondrial superoxide production in different skeletal myofiber types is unknown. Using a novel in situ approach to measure H(2)O(2) production (indicator of superoxide formation) in permeabilized rat skeletal muscle fiber bundles, we found that mitochondrial free radical leak (H(2)O(2) produced/O(2) consumed) is two- to threefold higher (P < 0.05) in white (WG, primarily type IIB fibers) than in red (RG, type IIA) gastrocnemius or soleus (type I) myofibers during basal respiration supported by complex I (pyruvate + malate) or complex II (succinate) substrates. In the presence of respiratory inhibitors, maximal rates of superoxide produced at both complex I and complex III are markedly higher in RG and WG than in soleus muscle despite approximately 50% less mitochondrial content in WG myofibers. Duplicate experiments conducted with +/-exogenous superoxide dismutase revealed striking differences in the topology and/or dismutation of superoxide in WG vs. soleus and RG muscle. When normalized for mitochondrial content, overall H(2)O(2) scavenging capacity is lower in RG and WG fibers, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity, which is largely responsible for H(2)O(2) removal in mitochondria, is similar in all three muscle types. These findings suggest that type II myofibers, particularly type IIB, possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial superoxide production and/or release, providing a potential mechanism for the heterogeneous development of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

  7. Closed Timelike Curves in Type II Non-Vacuum Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Faizuddin

    2017-02-01

    Here we present a cyclicly symmetric non-vacuum spacetime, admitting closed timelike curves (CTCs) which appear after a certain instant of time, i.e., a time-machine spacetime. The spacetime is asymptotically flat, free-from curvature singularities and a four-dimensional extension of the Misner space in curved spacetime. The spacetime is of type II in the Petrov classification scheme and the matter field pure radiation satisfy the energy condition.

  8. Classification of SN2005dj, a Type II Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Sauge, L.; Smadja, G.; Antilogus, P.; Garavini, G.; Gilles, S.; Pain, R.; Aldering, G.; Bailey, S.; Lee, B. C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Scalzo, R.; Thomas, R. C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B. A.; Bonnaud, C.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2005-08-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory reports that a spectrum (range 320-1000 nm) of SN 2005dj (IAUC#8585), obtained August 19.6 UT with the Supernova Integral Field Spectrograph on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope, reveals P-Cygni H-alpha and H-beta, indicative of a Type II supernova. The observed redshift is consistent with that of the host UGC 3545 (z = 0.011508, Huchtmeier & Skillman 1998 via NED).

  9. Study of interacting CMEs and DH type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Subramanian, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.

    2013-04-01

    The subject of interaction between the Corona Mass Ejections (CMEs) is important in the concept of space-weather studies. In this paper, we analyzed a set of 15 interacting events taken from the list compiled by Manoharan et al. (in J. Geophys. Res. 109:A06109, 2004) and their associated DH type II radio bursts. The pre and primary CMEs, and their associated DH type II bursts are identified using the SOHO/LASCO catalog and Wind/WAVES catalog, respectively. All the primary CMEs are associated with shocks and interplanetary CMEs. These CMEs are found to be preceded by secondary slow CMEs. Most of primary CMEs are halo type CME and much faster (Mean speed = 1205 km s-1) than the pre CME (Mean speed = 450 km s-1). The average delay between the pre and primary CMEs, drift rate of DH type IIs and interaction height are found to be 211 min, 0.878 kHz/s and 17.87 Ro, respectively. The final observed distance (FOD) of all pre CMEs are found to be less than 15 Ro and it is seen that many of the pre CMEs got merged with the primary CMEs, and, they were not traced as separate CMEs in the LASCO field of view. Some radio signatures are identified for these events in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The interaction height obtained from the height-time plots of pre and primary CMEs is found to have correlations with (i) the time delay between the two CMEs and (ii) the central frequency of emission in the radio signatures in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The centre frequency of emission in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction seems to decrease when the interaction height increases. This result is compared with an interplanetary density model of Saito et al. (in Solar Phys. 55:121, 1977).

  10. Amplification of Type II Cadherins in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Teresa L. Johnson-Pais. The incidence of prostate cancer continues to rise. One in six men is diagnosed with prostate cancer , which accounts for 30,000...used for the early detection of prostate cancer , however, a prevalence of prostate cancer was recently reported in men with “normal” PSA levels...TITLE: Amplification of Type II Cadherins in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Teresa L. Johnson-Pais, Ph.D

  11. Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.

  12. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  13. Type III intermediate filament peripherin inhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Meagan; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Ryan, Allen F.; Housley, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Peripherin, a type III intermediate filament protein, forms part of the cytoskeleton in a subset of neurons, most of which have peripheral fibre projections. Studies suggest a role for peripherin in axon outgrowth and regeneration, but evidence for this in sensory and brain tissues is limited. The exclusive expression of peripherin in a sub-population of primary auditory neurons, the type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) prompted our investigation of the effect of peripherin gene deletion (pphKO) on these neurons. We used confocal immunofluorescence to examine the establishment of the innervation of the cochlear outer hair cells by the type II SGN neurites in vivo and in vitro, in wildtype (WT) and pphKO mice, in the first postnatal week. The distribution of the type II SGN nerve fibres was normal in pphKO cochleae. However, using P1 spiral ganglion explants under culture conditions where the majority of neurites were derived from type II SGN, pphKO resulted in increased numbers of neurites/explant compared WT controls. Type II SGN neurites from pphKO explants extended ~ double the distance of WT neurites, and had reduced complexity based on greater distance between turning points. Addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the culture media increased neurite number in WT and KO explants ~30-fold, but did not affect neurite length or distance between turning. These results indicate that peripherin may interact with other cytoskeletal elements to regulate outgrowth of the peripheral neurites of type II SGN, distinguishing these neurons from the type I SGN innervating the inner hair cells. PMID:20132868

  14. Neurologic injury because of trauma after type II odontoid nonunion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Dibra, Florian; Anderson, D Greg; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Harrop, James S; Albert, Todd J; Radcliff, Kristen E

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of Type II odontoid fractures remains controversial, whereas nonoperative treatment is well accepted for isolated Type III odontoid fractures. Little is known about long-term sequelae of nonoperative management or risk of recurrent injury after nonsurgical treatment. We hypothesize that a substantial proportion of odontoid fractures assumed to be acute are actually chronic injuries and have a high rate of late displacement resulting in neurologic injury. To identify patients presenting with previously unrecognized odontoid fracture nonunions and to document the incidence of new neurologic injury after secondary trauma in this population. Retrospective case series. One hundred thirty-three patients with Type II odontoid fractures presenting to a Level I trauma center. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, American Spinal Injury Association Motor Score (AMS), and neurologic examination. All patients presenting after traumatic injury to a Level I trauma center from May 2005 to May 2010 with a Type II odontoid fracture on CT scan were included. Patients aged less than 18 years and those with pathologic fractures were excluded. Fractures were classified as chronic or acute based on CT evidence of chronic injury/nonunion including fracture resorption, sclerosis, and cyst formation. Magnetic resonance imaging was then examined for evidence of fracture acuity (increased signal in C2 on T2 images). Patients without evidence of acute fracture on MRI were considered to have chronic injuries. Computed tomography and MRI scans were interpreted independently by two reviewers. Chart review was performed to document demographics, AMS, and new-onset neurologic deficit associated with secondary injury. One hundred thirty-three patients presented with Type II odontoid fractures and no known history of cervical fracture with an average age of 79 years. Based on CT criteria, 31/133 (23%) fractures were chronic injuries. Nine additional fractures

  15. Riboflavin-responsive glutaric aciduria type II with recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Tsai, Kun-Bon; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chen, Liang-Hui; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2004-09-01

    A 22-year-old woman had suffered from several episodes of acute pancreatitis since the age of 11. Other than exercise intolerance since early childhood, her psychomotor development was normal. At age 21, she experienced two episodes of generalized muscle weakness including acute respiratory failure and hepatomegaly. Liver biopsy indicated fatty metamorphosis, and muscle biopsy revealed vacuolar myopathy with lipid accumulation. Biochemical investigations demonstrated elevated serum creatine kinase and elevated 2-hydroxylglutaric, pyruvic, ethylmalonic, hippuric, adipic, and seburic acids in urinary organic acid analysis. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type II. Although acute pancreatitis in glutaric aciduria type II has been reported previously, this is the first reported case of recurrent pancreatitis occurring in glutaric aciduria type II. We treated the patient with l-carnitine and riboflavin. As of the latest follow-up 2.5 years later, the patient has had no further episodes of muscle weakness or pancreatitis. We suggested analyzing urine organic acid when lipid storage myopathy is suspected.

  16. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  17. Subcellular dynamics of type II PKA in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haining; Sia, Gek-Ming; Sato, Takashi R.; Gray, Noah W.; Mao, Tianyi; Khuchua, Zaza; Huganir, Richard L.; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein kinase A (PKA) plays multiple roles in neurons. The localization and specificity of PKA are largely controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA in neurons, and the roles of specific AKAPs, are poorly understood. We imaged the distribution of type II PKA in hippocampal and cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. PKA was concentrated in dendritic shafts compared to the soma, axons and dendritic spines. This spatial distribution was imposed by the microtubule-binding protein MAP2, indicating that MAP2 is the dominant AKAP in neurons. Following cAMP elevation, catalytic subunits dissociated from the MAP2-tethered regulatory subunits and rapidly moved to become enriched in nearby spines. The spatial gradient of type II PKA between dendritic shafts and spines was critical for the regulation of synaptic strength and long-term potentiation. The localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are therefore important determinants of PKA function. PMID:19447092

  18. Type-II superlattice infrared detector technology at Fraunhofer IAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Daumer, Volker; Hugger, Tsvetelina; Kohn, Norbert; Luppold, Wolfgang; Müller, Raphael; Niemasz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Stadelmann, Tim; Wauro, Matthias; Wörl, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    For more than two decades, Antimony-based type-II superlattice photodetectors for the infrared spectral range between 3-15 μm are under development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Today, Fraunhofer IAF is Germany's only national foundry for InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice detectors and we cover a wide range of aspects from basic materials research to small series production in this field. We develop single-element photodetectors for sensing systems as well as two-dimensional detector arrays for high-performance imaging and threat warning systems in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength region of the thermal infrared. We continuously enhance our production capabilities by extending our in-line process control facilities. As a recent example, we present a semiautomatic wafer probe station that has developed into an important tool for electrooptical characterization. A large amount of the basic materials research focuses on the reduction of the dark current by the development of bandgap engineered device designs on the basis of heterojunction concepts. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated Europe's first LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice imager with 640x512 pixels with 15 μm pitch. The demonstrator camera already delivers a good image quality and achieves a thermal resolution better than 30 mK.

  19. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure.

  20. Effects of sea-anemone toxin (ATX-II) on the frequency of miniature endplate potentials at rat neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. B.; Tesseraux, I.

    1984-01-01

    Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were isolated from rats. The muscles were exposed to ATX-II, a toxin isolated from extracts of the sea-anemone Anemonia sulcata . The toxin caused a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of miniature endplate potentials in both types of muscle. The increase in frequency could be reversed by the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX), and could be prevented by prior exposure of the muscles to TTX. It is concluded that ATX-II causes a sodium-dependent depolarization of the nerve-terminal membrane. PMID:6144341

  1. Muscle fiber types composition and type identified endplate morphology of forepaw intrinsic muscles in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Mi, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Yan; Pan, Xiao-Yun; Rui, Yong-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The failure to accept reinnervation is considered to be one of the reasons for the poor motor functional recovery of intrinsic hand muscles (IHMs) after nerve injury. Rat could be a suitable model to be used in simulating motor function recovery of the IHMs after nerve injury as to the similarities in function and anatomy of the muscles between human and rat. However, few studies have reported the muscle fiber types composition and endplate morphologic characteristics of intrinsic forepaw muscles (IFMs) in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain isoforms and acetylcholine receptors were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and endplates on type-identified fibers of the lumbrical muscles (LMs), interosseus muscles (IMs), abductor digiti minimi (AM) and flexor pollicis brevis (FM) in rat forepaw. The majority of IFMs fibers were labeled positively for fast-switch fiber. However, the IMs were composed of only slow-switch fiber. With the exception of the IMs, the other IFMs had a part of hybrid fibers. Two-dimensional morphological characteristics of endplates on I and IIa muscle fiber had no significant differences among the IFMs. The LMs is the most suitable IFMs of rat to stimulate reinnervation of the IHMs after nerve injury. Gaining greater insight into the muscle fiber types composition and endplate morphology in the IFMs of rat may help understand the pathological and functional changes of IFMs in rat model stimulating reinnervation of IHMs after peripheral nerve injury.

  2. Comparative modeling of the three-dimensional structure of type II antifreeze protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sönnichsen, F. D.; Sykes, B. D.; Davies, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Type II antifreeze proteins (AFP), which inhibit the growth of seed ice crystals in the blood of certain fishes (sea raven, herring, and smelt), are the largest known fish AFPs and the only class for which detailed structural information is not yet available. However, a sequence homology has been recognized between these proteins and the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectins. The structure of this domain from rat mannose-binding protein (MBP-A) has been solved by X-ray crystallography (Weis WI, Drickamer K, Hendrickson WA, 1992, Nature 360:127-134) and provided the coordinates for constructing the three-dimensional model of the 129-amino acid Type II AFP from sea raven, to which it shows 19% sequence identity. Multiple sequence alignments between Type II AFPs, pancreatic stone protein, MBP-A, and as many as 50 carbohydrate-recognition domain sequences from various lectins were performed to determine reliably aligned sequence regions. Successive molecular dynamics and energy minimization calculations were used to relax bond lengths and angles and to identify flexible regions. The derived structure contains two alpha-helices, two beta-sheets, and a high proportion of amino acids in loops and turns. The model is in good agreement with preliminary NMR spectroscopic analyses. It explains the observed differences in calcium binding between sea raven Type II AFP and MBP-A. Furthermore, the model proposes the formation of five disulfide bridges between Cys 7 and Cys 18, Cys 35 and Cys 125, Cys 69 and Cys 100, Cys 89 and Cys 111, and Cys 101 and Cys 117.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7540906

  3. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF TYPE II PNEUMOCOCCUS AND ITS SEPARATION INTO PARTIAL SPECIFICITIES. II

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael

    1960-01-01

    Quantitative data are given on the cross reactions in Type II antipneumococcal horse sera of plant gums and hemicelluloses containing multiple terminal groupings of glucuronic acid and/or 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. Great variability is shown both in the reactivities of the polysaccharides and in the antibodies in the sera of different animals immunized with the same antigen. The 4-O-methyl substituent on the glucuronic acid residues in a gum often appears to diminish cross-precipitation with antibodies to S II. PMID:13852209

  4. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Key points Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary.We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats.This method provides stable and continuous measurements of cortical tissue oxygen tension (PO2) for more than 2 weeks and can reproducibly detect acute changes in cortical oxygenation.Exogenous angiotensin‐II reduced renal cortical tissue PO2 more than equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine, probably because it reduced renal oxygen delivery more than did phenylephrine.Activation of the endogenous renin–angiotensin system in transgenic Cyp1a1Ren2 rats reduced cortical tissue PO2; in this model renal hypoxia precedes the development of structural pathology and can be reversed acutely by an angiotensin‐II receptor type 1 antagonist.Angiotensin‐II promotes renal hypoxia, which may in turn contribute to its pathological effects during development of chronic kidney disease. Abstract We hypothesised that both exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II (AngII) can decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the renal cortex of unrestrained rats, which might in turn contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rats were instrumented with telemeters equipped with a carbon paste electrode for continuous measurement of renal cortical tissue PO2. The method reproducibly detected acute changes in cortical oxygenation induced by systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. In conscious rats, renal cortical PO2 was dose‐dependently reduced by intravenous AngII. Reductions in PO2 were significantly greater than those induced by equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine. In anaesthetised rats, renal oxygen consumption was not affected, and filtration fraction was increased only in the AngII infused animals. Oxygen delivery decreased by 50% after infusion of AngII and renal blood flow (RBF) fell by 3.3 ml min−1

  5. A study of low-energy type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2015-08-01

    All stars with an initial mass greater than 8Msun, but not massive enough to encounter the pair-production instability, eventually form a degenerate core and collapse to form a compact object, either a neutron star or a black hole.At the lower mass end, these massive stars die as red-supergiant stars and give rise to Type II supernovae (SNe). The diversity of observed properties of SNe II suggests a range of progenitor mass, radii, but also explosion energy.We have performed a large grid simulations designed to cover this range of progenitor and explosion properties. Using MESA STAR, we compute a set of massive star models (12-30Msun) from the main sequence until core collapse. We then generate explosions with V1D to produce ejecta with a range of explosion energies and yields. Finally, all ejecta are evolved with CMFGEN to generate multi-band light curves and spectra.In this poster, we focus our attention on the properties of low-energy explosions that give rise to low-luminosity Type II Plateau (II-P) SNe. In particular, we present a detailed study of SN 2008bk, but also include other notorious low-energy SNe II-P like 2005cs, emphasising their non-standard properties by comparing to models that match well events like SN 1999em. Such low-energy explosions, characterised by low ejecta expansion rates, are more suitable for reliable spectral line identifications.Based on our models, we discuss the distinct signatures of low-energy explosions in lower and higher mass models. One important goal is to identify whether there is a progenitor-mass bias leading to such events.

  6. Increase of cardiac M2-muscarinic receptor gene expression in type-1 but not in type-2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang-Ming; Chang, Cheng Kuei; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Kou, Dai-Huang; Liu, I-Min; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2008-08-22

    Changes of cardiac M2-muscarinic receptor (M2-mAChR) gene expression was investigated in type-1 like diabetic rats induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and type-2 like diabetic rats induced by fed with fructose-rich chow. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in STZ-diabetic rats was significantly lower than that in age-matched non-diabetic rats, while the SBP in type-2 like diabetic rats was higher than in non-diabetic rats. Also, the mRNA or protein level of cardiac M2-mAChR in STZ-diabetic rats was markedly higher than non-diabetic rats, but it was not observed in type-2 like diabetic rats as compared to age-matched non-diabetic rats. Arecaidine propargyl ester (APE), the agonist of M2-mAChR, produced a marked reduction of heart rate in STZ-diabetic rats but made less influence on heart rate in fructose-fed rats or non-diabetic rats. The results suggest that cardiac M2-mAChR gene expression is raised in type-1 like diabetic rats but not in type-2 like diabetic rats, this difference mainly due to hyperglycemia, for the production of hypotension in diabetic disorders.

  7. Effect of a misspecification of response rates on type I and type II errors, in a phase II Simon design.

    PubMed

    Baey, Charlotte; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Phase-II trials are a key stage in the clinical development of a new treatment. Their main objective is to provide the required information for a go/no-go decision regarding a subsequent phase-III trial. In single arm phase-II trials, widely used in oncology, this decision relies on the comparison of efficacy outcomes observed in the trial to historical controls. The false positive rate generally accepted in phase-II trials, around 10%, contrasts with the very high attrition rate of new compounds tested in phase-III trials, estimated at about 60%. We assumed that this gap could partly be explained by the misspecification of the response rate expected with standard treatment, leading to erroneous hypotheses tested in the phase-II trial. We computed the false positive probability of a defined design under various hypotheses of expected efficacy probability. Similarly we calculated the power of the trial to detect the efficacy of a new compound for different expected efficacy rates. Calculations were done considering a binary outcome, such as the response rate, with a decision rule based on a Simon two-stage design. When analysing a single-arm phase-II trial, based on a design with a pre-specified null hypothesis, a 5% absolute error in the expected response rate leads to a false positive rate of about 30% when it is supposed to be 10%. This inflation of type-I error varies only slightly according to the hypotheses of the initial design. Single-arm phase-II trials poorly control for the false positive rate. Randomised phase-II trials should, therefore, be more often considered.

  8. EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE II AND Ib SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Hyewon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Yoon, Sung-chul

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies find that some early-type galaxies host Type II or Ibc supernovae (SNe II, Ibc). This may imply recent star formation activities in these SNe host galaxies, but a massive star origin of the SNe Ib so far observed in early-type galaxies has been questioned because of their intrinsic faintness and unusually strong Ca lines shown in the nebular phase. To address the issue, we investigate the properties of early-type SNe host galaxies using the data with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet photometry and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical data. Our sample includes eight SNe II and one peculiar SN Ib (SN 2000ds) host galaxies as well as 32 SN Ia host galaxies. The host galaxy of SN 2005cz, another peculiar SN Ib, is also analyzed using the GALEX data and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database optical data. We find that the NUV-optical colors of SN II/Ib host galaxies are systematically bluer than those of SN Ia host galaxies, and some SN II/Ib host galaxies with NUV - r colors markedly bluer than the others exhibit strong radio emission. We perform a stellar population synthesis analysis and find a clear signature of recent star formation activities in most of the SN II/Ib host galaxies. Our results generally support the association of the SNe II/Ib hosted in early-type galaxies with core collapse of massive stars. We briefly discuss implications for the progenitors of the peculiar SNe Ib 2000ds and 2005cz.

  9. Deciphering the role of the type II glyoxalase isoenzyme YcbL (GlxII-2) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reiger, Matthias; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) requires glyoxalases I and II. Glyoxalase I (gloA/GlxI) isomerizes the hemithioacetal, formed spontaneously from MG and glutathione (GSH) to S-lactoylglutathione (SLG), which is hydrolyzed by glyoxalase II (gloB/GlxII) to lactate and GSH. YcbL from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an unusual type II glyoxalase whose role in MG detoxification has remained enigmatic. Here we show that YcbL (gloC/GlxII-2) acts as an accessory type II glyoxylase in E. coli. The two isoenzymes have additive effects and ensure maximal MG degradation.

  10. Pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II in female mice is enhanced with age: role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pressor response to angiotensin II (AngII) is attenuated in adult females as compared to males via an angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R)-dependent pathway. We hypothesized that adult female mice are protected against AngII-induced hypertension via an enhanced AT2R-mediated pathway and that in reproductively senescent females this pathway is no longer operative. Methods Mean arterial pressure was measured via telemetry in 4-month-old (adult) and 16-month-old (aged) and aged ovariectomized (aged-OVX) wild-type and AT2R knockout (AT2R-KO) female mice during baseline and 14-day infusion of vehicle (saline) or AngII (600 ng/kg/min s.c.). Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine renal gene expression of angiotensin receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in response to 14-day treatment with vehicle or AngII. Results Basal mean arterial pressure was similar between the groups. The pressor response to AngII was augmented in adult AT2R-KO compared to adult wild-type mice (29 ± 3 mmHg versus 10 ± 4 mmHg, respectively, on day 14 as compared to basal mean arterial pressure, P = 0.002). In wild-type mice, pressor responsiveness to AngII was augmented with age, such that the pressor response to AngII was similar between aged AT2R-KO and wild-type female mice (31 ± 4 mmHg versus 34 ± 3 mmHg, respectively, on day 14, P = 0.9). There were no significant differences in pressor responsiveness to AngII between aged and aged-OVX mice. Vehicle-treated aged wild-type mice had a lower renal AT2R/AT1R balance as compared to adult counterparts. In response to AngII, the renal AT2R/AT1R balance in aged wild-type females was greater than that observed in vehicle-treated aged wild-type females and adult wild-type females, yet the protective effects of AT2R activation were not restored. Conclusions The protective role of the AT2R depressor pathway is lost with age in female mice. Therefore

  11. The rise-time of Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Tominaga, N.; Molina, J.; Galbany, L.; Bufano, F.; Anderson, J. P.; Gutierrez, C.; Förster, F.; Pignata, G.; Bersten, M.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Carlberg, R.; de Jaeger, T.; Hamuy, M.; Baklanov, P. V.; Blinnikov, S. I.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the early-time light curves of a large sample of 223 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Having a cadence of a few days and sufficient non-detections prior to explosion, we constrain rise-times, i.e. the durations from estimated first to maximum light, as a function of effective wavelength. At rest-frame g' band (λeff = 4722 Å), we find a distribution of fast rise-times with median of (7.5 ± 0.3) d. Comparing these durations with analytical shock models of Rabinak & Waxman and Nakar & Sari, and hydrodynamical models of Tominaga et al., which are mostly sensitive to progenitor radius at these epochs, we find a median characteristic radius of less than 400 solar radii. The inferred radii are on average much smaller than the radii obtained for observed red supergiants (RSG). Investigating the post-maximum slopes as a function of effective wavelength in the light of theoretical models, we find that massive hydrogen envelopes are still needed to explain the plateaus of SNe II. We therefore argue that the SN II rise-times we observe are either (a) the shock cooling resulting from the core collapse of RSG with small and dense envelopes, or (b) the delayed and prolonged shock breakout of the collapse of an RSG with an extended atmosphere or embedded within pre-SN circumstellar material.

  12. Type-II nodal loops: Theory and material realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Ying; Guan, Shan; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2017-08-01

    A nodal loop appears when two bands, typically one electronlike and one holelike, are crossing each other linearly along a one-dimensional manifold in reciprocal space. Here, we propose a type of nodal loop which emerges from the crossing between two bands which are both electronlike (or holelike) along a certain direction. Close to any point on such a loop (dubbed as a type-II nodal loop), the linear spectrum is strongly tilted and tipped over along one transverse direction, leading to marked differences in magnetic, optical, and transport responses compared with conventional (type-I) nodal loops. We show that the compound K4P3 is an example that hosts a pair of type-II nodal loops close to the Fermi level. Each loop traverses the whole Brillouin zone, and hence can only be annihilated in a pair when symmetry is preserved. The symmetry and topological protections of the loops as well as the associated surface states are discussed.

  13. Preferential Type II Muscle Fiber Damage From Plyometric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Filippo; Isaacs, Ashwin W.; Myburgh, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    Context Plyometric training has been successfully used in different sporting contexts. Studies that investigated the effect of plyometric training on muscle morphology are limited, and results are controversial with regard to which muscle fiber type is mainly affected. Objective To analyze the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural change induced by an acute bout of plyometric exercise to determine which type of muscle fibers is predominantly damaged. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight healthy, untrained individuals (age = 22 ± 1 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 5.9 kg). Intervention(s) Participants completed an acute bout of plyometric exercise (10 sets of 10 squat-jumps with a 1-minute rest between sets). Main Outcome Measure(s) Blood samples were collected 9 days and immediately before and 6 hours and 1, 2, and 3 days after the acute intervention. Muscle samples were collected 9 days before and 3 days after the exercise intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for creatine kinase activity. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for damage using fluorescent and electron transmission microscopy. Results Creatine kinase activity peaked 1 day after the exercise bout (529.0 ± 317.8 U/L). Immunofluorescence revealed sarcolemmal damage in 155 of 1616 fibers analyzed. Mainly fast-twitch fibers were damaged. Within subgroups, 7.6% of type I fibers, 10.3% of type IIa fibers, and 14.3% of type IIx fibers were damaged as assessed by losses in dystrophin staining. Similar damage was prevalent in IIx and IIa fibers. Electron microscopy revealed clearly distinguishable moderate and severe sarcomere damage, with damage quantifiably predominant in type II muscle fibers of both the glycolytic and oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, respectively, versus only 27% of slow-twitch fibers). Conclusions We provide direct evidence that a single bout of plyometric exercise affected mainly type II muscle

  14. Preferential type II muscle fiber damage from plyometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Filippo; Isaacs, Ashwin W; Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    Plyometric training has been successfully used in different sporting contexts. Studies that investigated the effect of plyometric training on muscle morphology are limited, and results are controversial with regard to which muscle fiber type is mainly affected. To analyze the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural change induced by an acute bout of plyometric exercise to determine which type of muscle fibers is predominantly damaged. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Eight healthy, untrained individuals (age = 22 ± 1 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 5.9 kg). Participants completed an acute bout of plyometric exercise (10 sets of 10 squat-jumps with a 1-minute rest between sets). Blood samples were collected 9 days and immediately before and 6 hours and 1, 2, and 3 days after the acute intervention. Muscle samples were collected 9 days before and 3 days after the exercise intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for creatine kinase activity. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for damage using fluorescent and electron transmission microscopy. Creatine kinase activity peaked 1 day after the exercise bout (529.0 ± 317.8 U/L). Immunofluorescence revealed sarcolemmal damage in 155 of 1616 fibers analyzed. Mainly fast-twitch fibers were damaged. Within subgroups, 7.6% of type I fibers, 10.3% of type IIa fibers, and 14.3% of type IIx fibers were damaged as assessed by losses in dystrophin staining. Similar damage was prevalent in IIx and IIa fibers. Electron microscopy revealed clearly distinguishable moderate and severe sarcomere damage, with damage quantifiably predominant in type II muscle fibers of both the glycolytic and oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, respectively, versus only 27% of slow-twitch fibers). We provide direct evidence that a single bout of plyometric exercise affected mainly type II muscle fibers.

  15. Functional properties of type I and type II cytochromes c3 from Desulfovibrio africanus.

    PubMed

    Paquete, Catarina M; Pereira, Patrícia M; Catarino, Teresa; Turner, David L; Louro, Ricardo O; Xavier, António V

    2007-02-01

    Type I cytochrome c(3) is a key protein in the bioenergetic metabolism of Desulfovibrio spp., mediating electron transfer between periplasmic hydrogenase and multihaem cytochromes associated with membrane bound complexes, such as type II cytochrome c(3). This work presents the NMR assignment of the haem substituents in type I cytochrome c(3) isolated from Desulfovibrio africanus and the thermodynamic and kinetic characterisation of type I and type II cytochromes c(3) belonging to the same organism. It is shown that the redox properties of the two proteins allow electrons to be transferred between them in the physiologically relevant direction with the release of energised protons close to the membrane where they can be used by the ATP synthase.

  16. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) with multiple vascular complications misdiagnosed as Dubowitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dieks, Jana-Katharina; Baumer, Alessandra; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Rauch, Anita; Sigler, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    To date, the genetic basis of Dubowitz syndrome (short stature, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, eczema) is unknown and vascular complications are not known to be associated with this syndrome. In microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II; disproportionate short statue, microcephaly, facial abnormalities), however, cerebral aneurysms and other vascular abnormalities are frequent complications. MOPD II is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene (21q22). We report on a patient who came to our attention as a 22-year-old with subarachnoid bleeding due to a ruptured cranial aneurysm. Until then, the patient was thought and published to have Dubowitz syndrome; previously, he was treated with coronary bypass surgery for extensive coronary angiopathy. Consecutive genetic testing revealed MOPD II. After clinical stabilization, the patient was discharged to a specialized rehabilitation center where he died due to re-rupture of a cranial aneurysm. In patients with short stature-especially when clinical features are accompanied by vascular complications-MOPD II should be considered as a differential diagnosis leading to consecutive genetic testing. After detection of mutations in the PCNT gene, a full vascular status including cerebral imaging and cardiac evaluation needs to be determined in order to analyze vascular abnormalities and initiate prophylactic treatment.

  17. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) procedure for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) by intraventricular administration (IVA) in murine MPS II.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiromi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Shiho; Matsumoto, Juri; Shimada, Yohta; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Morimoto, Hideto; Hirato, Tohru; Nishino, Katsuya; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2012-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) and is characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS II has been treated by hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT)/enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but its effectiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) is limited because of poor enzyme uptake across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To increase the efficacy of ERT in the brain, we tested an intraventricular ERT procedure consisting of repeated administrations of IDS (20 μg/mouse/3 weeks) in IDS-knockout, MPS II model mice. The IDS enzyme activity and the accumulation of total GAGs were measured in mouse brains. The IDS activity was significantly increased, and the accumulation of total GAGs was decreased in the MPS II mouse brains treated with multiple administrations of IDS via intraventricular ERT. Additionally, a high level of IDS enzyme activity was appreciated in other MPS II mouse tissues, such as the liver, spleen, testis and others. A Y-maze was used to test learning and memory after repeated intraventricular ERT with IDS. The IDS-treated mouse groups recovered the capacity for short-term memory and activity. Although large and small vacuoles were found at the margin of the cerebellar Purkinje cells in the disease-control mice, these vacuoles disappeared upon treated with IDS. Loss of vacuoles was also observed in other tissues (liver, kidney and testis). These results demonstrate the possible efficacy of an ERT procedure with intraventricular administration of IDS for the treatment of MPS II. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Caffeine thresholds for contraction in electrophoretically typed, mechanically skinned muscle fibres from SHR and WKY rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, S K; Stephenson, D G; Stephenson, G M

    2001-02-01

    Caffeine was used as a tool to investigate whether the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) properties in single. mechanically skinned fibres dissected from soleus muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) differ from those in fibres of the same type from age-matched, normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The fibres were typed electrophoretically based on myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition. Here we show evidence that the ratio between the caffeine thresholds for contraction at maximal and endogenous resting SR-Ca2+ (Rcaff-th) can be used as an indicator for distinguishing between slow-type SR (Rcaff-th>or =0.73) and fast-type SR (Rcaff-th<0.73). Based on this indicator, 47.5% of the SHR-soleus fibres identified as type I displayed fast-type SR characteristics and 40% of the SHR-soleus fibres identified as type II displayed slow-type SR characteristics. This result explains the shorter contraction and faster relaxation of soleus muscles in SHRs and also suggests that SR with fast-type characteristics can co-exist with slow-twitch MHC isoforms and vice versa.

  19. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  20. Dynamics of keratin assembly: exogenous type I keratin rapidly associates with type II keratin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IF) are obligate heteropolymers containing equal amounts of type I and type II keratin. We have previously shown that microinjected biotinylated type I keratin is rapidly incorporated into endogenous bundles of keratin IF (tonofilaments) of PtK2 cells. In this study we show that the earliest steps in the assembly of keratin subunits into tonofilaments involve the extremely rapid formation of discrete aggregates of microinjected keratin. These are seen as fluorescent spots containing both type I and type II keratins within 1 min post-injection as determined by double label immunofluorescence. These observations suggest that endogenous type II keratin subunits can be rapidly mobilized from their endogenous state to form complexes with the injected type I protein. Furthermore, confocal microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy suggest that the type I-type II keratin spots from in close association with the endogenous keratin IF network. When the biotinylated protein is injected at concentrations of 0.3-0.5 mg/ml, the organization of the endogenous network of tonofilaments remains undisturbed during incorporation into tonofilaments. However, microinjection of 1.5-2.0 mg/ml of biotinylated type I results in significant alterations in the organization and assembly state of the endogenous keratin IF network soon after microinjection. The results of this study are consistent with the existence of a state of equilibrium between keratin subunits and polymerized keratin IF in epithelial cells, and provide further proof that IF are dynamic elements of the cytoskeleton of mammalian cells. PMID:7686161

  1. Early photocoagulation in patients with either type I or type II diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the benefits of early photocoagulation in patients with type I versus type II diabetes. DESIGN: One eye of each of 3,711 patients was randomly assigned to early photocoagulation; the other was assigned to deferral of photocoagulation, with follow-up visits scheduled every 4 months and photocoagulation to be carried out promptly if high-risk proliferative retinopathy developed. Patients were categorized by age and type of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best corrected visual acuity was measured at each study visit scheduled at 4-month intervals. Stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken and evaluated at baseline, 4 months, and yearly thereafter. Retinopathy severity was assessed from fundus photographs. Severe visual loss was defined as visual acuity of worse than 5/200 for at least two consecutive study visits. RESULTS: Previously published results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) demonstrated a statistically significant benefit of early photocoagulation in preventing severe vision loss. Further analyses demonstrate that this benefit of early photocoagulation is greater in patients with type II diabetes than in those with type I. The relative benefit of early photocoagulation in patients with type II diabetes is also seen for other outcomes (development of high-risk proliferative retinopathy, development of the combined end point [severe visual loss or vitrectomy], development of moderate visual loss, or development of legal blindness). The patients most likely to benefit from early photocoagulation had severe nonproliferative retinopathy or early proliferative retinopathy. Analyses from the Diabetic Retinopathy Study confirm the relative benefit of scatter photocoagulation for type II patients. Because of the high correlation between age and type of diabetes, analyses sub-grouped by age show similar results. CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest that patients with type II diabetes, or older patients with diabetes

  2. Direct demonstration of rapid insulin-like growth factor II receptor internalization and recycling in rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulates SVI-insulin-like growth factor II degradation by modulating the IGF-II receptor recycling process

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Y.; Rozek, L.M.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-08-05

    The photoactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II analogue 4-azidobenzoyl- SVI-IGF-II was synthesized and used to label specifically and covalently the Mr = 250,000 Type II IGF receptor. When rat adipocytes are irradiated after a 10-min incubation with 4-azidobenzoyl- SVI-IGF-II at 10 degrees C and immediately homogenized, most of the labeled IGF-II receptors are associated with the plasma membrane fraction, indicating that receptors accessible to the labeling reagent at low temperature are on the cell surface. However, when the photolabeled cells are incubated at 37 degrees C for various times before homogenization, labeled IGF-II receptors are rapidly internalized with a half-time of 3.5 min as evidenced by a loss from the plasma membrane fraction and a concomitant appearance in the low density microsome fraction. The steady state level of cell surface IGF-II receptors in the presence or absence of IGF-II remains constant under these conditions, demonstrating that IGF-II receptors rapidly recycle back to the cell surface at the same rate as receptor internalization. Using the above methodology, it is shown that acute insulin action: 1) increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors; 2) increases the number of ligand-bound IGF-II receptors that are internalized per unit of time; and 3) increases the rate of cellular SVI-IGF-II degradation by a process that is blocked by anti-IGF-II receptor antibody.

  3. THE SPECIFIC POLYSACCHARIDES OF TYPES I, II, AND III PNEUMOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael; Kendall, Forrest E.; Scherp, Henry W.

    1936-01-01

    1. The thermolability of the specific polysaccharides of Types I, II, and III pneumococcus has been shown by three independent methods: (a) diminution of the viscosity of solutions on heating; (b) decrease in the amount of antibody precipitated from homologous rabbit antisera; and (c) increased tendency (S III) to pass through a collodion membrane. 2. These effects may be explained most simply as a partial depolymerization under the influence of heat. In air, particularly in the presence of broth, oxidation also appears to be involved. 3. Improved and simpler methods of preparation based on these findings, are given for S I, S II, and S III. The resulting products precipitate more anti-S from homologous rabbit antisera than do the earlier preparations. 4. The methyl glycoside of methyl galacturonate has been isolated from the hydrolytic products of S I, and evidence of the ultimate structural unit obtained. PMID:19870553

  4. Vacuum stability and naturalness in type-II seesaw

    DOE PAGES

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; ...

    2016-06-16

    Here, we study the vacuum stability and perturbativity conditions in the minimal type-II seesaw model. These conditions give characteristic constraints to the model parameters. In the model, there is a SU(2)L triplet scalar field, which could cause a large Higgs mass correction. From the naturalness point of view, heavy Higgs masses should be lower than 350GeV, which may be testable by the LHC Run-II results. Due to the effects of the triplet scalar field, the branching ratios of the Higgs decay (h → γγ,Zγ) deviate from the standard model, and a large parameter region is excluded by the recent ATLASmore » and CMS combined analysis of h → γγ. Our result of the signal strength for h → γγ is Rγγ ≲ 1.1, but its deviation is too small to observe at the LHC experiment.« less

  5. Contribution of renal purinergic receptors to renal vasoconstriction in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Franco, Martha; Bautista, Rocio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Santamaría, José; Osorio, Horacio; Pacheco, Ursino; Sánchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the participation of purinergic P2 receptors in the regulation of renal function in ANG II-dependent hypertension, renal and glomerular hemodynamics were evaluated in chronic ANG II-infused (14 days) and Sham rats during acute blockade of P2 receptors with PPADS. In addition, P2X1 and P2Y1 protein and mRNA expression were compared in ANG II-infused and Sham rats. Chronic ANG II-infused rats exhibited increased afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances and reductions in glomerular blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), single-nephron GFR (SNGFR), and glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient. PPADS restored afferent and efferent resistances as well as glomerular blood flow and SNGFR, but did not ameliorate the elevated arterial blood pressure. In Sham rats, PPADS increased afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances and reduced GFR and SNGFR. Since purinergic blockade may influence nitric oxide (NO) release, we evaluated the role of NO in the response to PPADS. Acute blockade with N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) reversed the vasodilatory effects of PPADS and reduced urinary nitrate excretion (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)) in ANG II-infused rats, indicating a NO-mediated vasodilation during PPADS treatment. In Sham rats, PPADS induced renal vasoconstriction which was not modified by l-NAME, suggesting blockade of a P2X receptor subtype linked to the NO pathway; the response was similar to that obtained with l-NAME alone. P2X1 receptor expression in the renal cortex was increased by chronic ANG II infusion, but there were no changes in P2Y1 receptor abundance. These findings indicate that there is an enhanced P2 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction of afferent and efferent arterioles in chronic ANG II-infused rats, which contributes to the increased renal vascular resistance observed in ANG II-dependent hypertension.

  6. Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan attenuates aortic stiffening and remodelling in STZ-diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevention or attenuation of diabetic vascular complications includes anti-hypertensive treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on account of their protective effects beyond blood pressure reduction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), on blood pressure, aortic stiffening, and aortic remodelling in experimental type 1 diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. One diabetic group was treated for 10 weeks with telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day p/o). Pressure-independent aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured under anaesthesia after intravenous infusion of phenylephrine and nitroglycerine. Aortic wall samples were collected for histomorphometrical analysis. Results Untreated diabetes imposed differential effects on aortic stiffening, as demonstrated by increased isobaric PWV over a range of high blood pressures, but not at lower blood pressures. This was associated with loss and disruption of elastin fibres and an increase in collagen fibres in the aortic media. Treatment with telmisartan decreased resting blood pressure, reduced aortic stiffness, and partially prevented the degradation of elastin network within the aortic wall. Conclusions Telmisartan improved the structural and functional indices of aortic stiffening induced by untreated STZ-diabetes, demonstrating the importance of ARBs in the therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications. PMID:24920962

  7. PPAR alpha activator fenofibrate inhibits myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in angiotensin II-infused rats.

    PubMed

    Diep, Quy N; Benkirane, Karim; Amiri, Farhad; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Endemann, Dierk; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2004-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha is highly expressed in the heart. PPAR alpha may play a role in cardiac hypertrophy, but effects on cardiac function, inflammation, and fibrosis are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the PPAR alpha activator fenofibrate prevents myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in angiotensin (Ang) II-infused rats. Sprague Dawley rats received Ang II (120 ng/kg/min subcutaneously), fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/d p.o.), or Ang II + fenofibrate. After 7 d, systolic blood pressure (mmHg) was elevated (P < 0.01) in Ang II-infused rats (173 +/- 4) vs. controls (115 +/- 2) and reduced by fenofibrate (137 +/- 5). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Ang II upregulated cardiac nuclear factor kappa B activity by 50%. Ang II significantly increased cardiac expression of vascular-cell adhesion molecule-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Increases in expression of these inflammatory mediators were normalized by fenofibrate. Ang II-induced expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, collagen deposition, and macrophage infiltration were partially prevented by fenofibrate. The PPAR alpha activator fenofibrate prevented development of hypertension, and improved myocardial inflammation and collagen deposition in Ang II-infused rats. The hypolipidemic drug fenofibrate may be useful in prevention and treatment of myocardial disease associated with hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  8. Distinct type I and type II toxin-antitoxin modules control Salmonella lifestyle inside eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Moreno-Córdoba, Inmaculada; Figueroa, Virginia; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2015-03-20

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules contribute to the generation of non-growing cells in response to stress. These modules abound in bacterial pathogens although the bases for this profusion remain largely unknown. Using the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model, here we show that a selected group of TA modules impact bacterial fitness inside eukaryotic cells. We characterized in this pathogen twenty-seven TA modules, including type I and type II TA modules encoding antisense RNA and proteinaceous antitoxins, respectively. Proteomic and gene expression analyses revealed that the pathogen produces numerous toxins of TA modules inside eukaryotic cells. Among these, the toxins HokST, LdrAST, and TisBST, encoded by type I TA modules and T4ST and VapC2ST, encoded by type II TA modules, promote bacterial survival inside fibroblasts. In contrast, only VapC2ST shows that positive effect in bacterial fitness when the pathogen infects epithelial cells. These results illustrate how S. Typhimurium uses distinct type I and type II TA modules to regulate its intracellular lifestyle in varied host cell types. This function specialization might explain why the number of TA modules increased in intracellular bacterial pathogens.

  9. Modeling fluid dynamics on type II quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, James; Weeks, David; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-03-01

    A quantum algorithm is presented for modeling the time evolution of density and flow fields governed by classical equations, such as the diffusion equation, the nonlinear Burgers equation, and the damped wave equation. The algorithm is intended to run on a type-II quantum computer, a parallel quantum computer consisting of a lattice of small type I quantum computers undergoing unitary evolution and interacting via information interchanges represented by an orthogonal matrices. Information is effectively transferred between adjacent quantum computers over classical communications channels because of controlled state demolition following local quantum mechanical qubit-qubit interactions within each quantum computer. The type-II quantum algorithm presented in this paper describes a methodology for generating quantum logic operations as a generalization of classical operations associated with finite-point group symmetries. The quantum mechanical evolution of multiple qubits within each node is described. Presented is a proof that the parallel quantum system obeys a finite-difference quantum Boltzman equation at the mesoscopic scale, leading in turn to various classical linear and nonlinear effective field theories at the macroscopic scale depending on the details of the local qubit-qubit interactions.

  10. Glomerular filtration rate determinations in conscious type II diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Benjamin J.; Park, Sungmi

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The current studies were performed to determine the later stages of the progression of renal disease in type II diabetic mice (BKS; db/db). Methodology was developed for determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conscious, chronically instrumented mice using continuous intravenous infusion of FITC-labeled inulin to achieve a steady-state plasma inulin concentration. Obese diabetic mice exhibited increased GFR compared with control mice. GFR averaged 0.313 ± 0.018 and 0.278 ± 0.007 ml/min in 18-wk-old obese diabetic (n = 11) and control (n = 13) mice, respectively (P < 0.05). In 28-wk-old obese diabetic (n = 10) and control (n = 15) mice, GFR averaged 0.348 ± 0.030 and 0.279 ± 0.009 ml/min, respectively (P < 0.05). GFR expressed per gram BW was significantly reduced in 18- and 28-wk-old obese diabetic compared with control mice (5.9 ± 0.3 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3; 6.6 ± 0.6 vs. 7.8 ± 0.3 μl·min−1·g body wt−1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, older nonobese type II diabetic mice had significantly reduced GFR (0.179 ± 0.023 ml/min; n = 6) and elevated urinary albumin excretion (811 ± 127 μg/day) compared with obese diabetic and control mice (514 ± 54, 171 ± 18 μg/day), which are consistent with the advanced stages of renal disease. These studies suggest that hyperfiltration contributes to the progression of renal disease in type II diabetic mice. PMID:21147841

  11. On the Intrinsic Diversity of Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Prieto, Jose L.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen-rich Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe) exhibit correlations between the plateau luminosity {L}{pl}, the nickel mass {M}{Ni}, the explosion energy {E}{exp}, and the ejecta mass {M}{ej}. Using our global, self-consistent, multi-band model of nearby well-observed SNe, we find that the covariances of these quantities are strong and that the confidence ellipsoids are oriented in the direction of the correlations, which reduces their significance. By proper treatment of the covariance matrix of the model, we discover a significant intrinsic width to the correlations between {L}{pl}, {E}{exp} and {M}{Ni}, where the uncertainties due to the distance and the extinction dominate. For fixed {E}{exp}, the spread in {M}{Ni} is about 0.25 dex, which we attribute to the differences in the progenitor internal structure. We argue that the effects of incomplete γ-ray trapping are not important in our sample. Similarly, the physics of the Type II-Plateau SN light curves leads to inherently degenerate estimates of {E}{exp} and {M}{ej}, which makes their observed correlation weak. Ignoring the covariances of SN parameters or the intrinsic width of the correlations causes significant biases in the slopes of the fitted relations. Our results imply that Type II-Plateau SN explosions are not described by a single physical parameter or a simple one-dimensional trajectory through the parameter space, but instead reflect the diversity of the core and surface properties of their progenitors. We discuss the implications for the physics of the explosion mechanism and possible future observational constraints.

  12. Combination of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Rowaida; Sakr, Ahmed; Salama, Mona; El Sarha, Ashgan

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination. Diabetic rats showed elevated fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, serum transaminases together with a deleterious lipid profile and elevated serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Serum levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite/nitrate were also elevated compared to normal rats. Oxidative stress was manifested by lowered hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pancreatic sections from diabetic rats showed degenerated islets with poorly maintained architecture that was prevented by drug treatment. Pioglitazone was generally more effective than vildagliptin in the studied parameters except for the lipid profile where the effect of both drugs was comparable and for the liver enzymes and renal parameters where vildagliptin was more effective. The combination of vildagliptin and pioglitazone produced superior effects than either drug alone. Drug Dev Res 77 : 251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New enzyme immunoassay for detecting total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Waters, H M; Smith, C; Howarth, J E; Dawson, D W; Delamore, I W

    1989-03-01

    A method for the detection of total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies was devised. The technique comprises a two-site solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with human intrinsic factor conjugated with horseradish peroxidase as label and attached to polystyrene tubes as solid phase. One conjugation provides sufficient material to assay more than 10,000 patient samples. The label proved stable during the course of this evaluation and was still in use more than 12 months after preparation. When applied to 45 serum samples from cases of pernicious anaemia, intrinsic factor antibodies were shown in 30 (67%). Simplicity, high capacity, low cost and label stability, combined with relatively high clinical sensitivity make the method suitable for cost effective screening of large numbers of samples. Simple modifications to the basic assay reagents permitted type I and type II intrinsic factor antibodies to be differentiated.

  14. Effect of the type-I to type-II Weyl semimetal topological transition on superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dingping; Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Shapiro, I.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of recently discovered topological transition between type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals on superconductivity is considered. A set of Gorkov equations for weak superconductivity in Weyl semimetal under topological phase transition is derived and solved. The critical temperature and superconducting gap both have spikes in the transition point as functions of the tilt parameter of the Dirac cone determined, in turn, by the material parameters like pressure. The spectrum of superconducting excitations is different in two phases: The sharp cone pinnacle is characteristic for type I, while two parallel almost flat bands, are formed in type II. Spectral density is calculated on both sides of transition to demonstrate the different weights of the bands. The superconductivity thus can be used as a clear indicator for the topological transformation. Results are discussed in the light of recent experiments.

  15. Plasmons in finite type-II semiconductor multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, H. K.; Song, L. M.

    1988-10-01

    We study finite type-II semiconductor multilayers consisting of alternate layers of two-dimensional electron and hole carriers. The collective excitation is investigated with use of the coupled Boltzmann equations. We obtain the equation determining the plasma modes for N (even) layers. For N=6, we have shown the numerical results for two cases of different electron and hole masses. The total number of plasmons, and the existence of Giuliani-Quinn surface plasmons which are not Landau damped, depend on the parameters used.

  16. Predictive data modeling of human type II diabetes related statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Kristina L.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Albritton, Nathaniel G.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of routine Type II treatment of one of the authors, it was decided to derive predictive analytical Data Models of the daily sampled vital statistics: namely weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar, to determine if the covariance among the observed variables could yield a descriptive equation based model, or better still, a predictive analytical model that could forecast the expected future trend of the variables and possibly eliminate the number of finger stickings required to montior blood sugar levels. The personal history and analysis with resulting models are presented.

  17. Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

  18. The type II secretion system: biogenesis, molecular architecture and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin V; Sandkvist, Maria; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-04-02

    Many gram-negative bacteria use the sophisticated type II secretion system (T2SS) to translocate a wide range of proteins from the periplasm across the outer membrane. The inner-membrane platform of the T2SS is the nexus of the system and orchestrates the secretion process through its interactions with the periplasmic filamentous pseudopilus, the dodecameric outer-membrane complex and a cytoplasmic secretion ATPase. Here, recent structural and biochemical information is reviewed to describe our current knowledge of the biogenesis and architecture of the T2SS and its mechanism of action.

  19. Predicted continuum spectra of type II supernovae - LTE results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaviv, G.; Wehrse, R.; Wagoner, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The continuum spectral energy distribution of the flux emerging from type II supernovae is calculated from quasi-static radiative transfer through a power-law density gradient, assuming radiative equilibrium and LTE. It is found that the Balmer jump disappears at high effective temperatures and low densities, while the spectrum resembles that of a dilute blackbody but is flatter with a sharper cutoff at the short-wavelength end. A significant UV excess is found in all models calculated. The calculation should be considered exploratory because of significant effects which are anticipated to arise from departure from LTE.

  20. Antimonide type-II superlattice barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Höglund, Linda; Keo, Sam A.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Hill, Cory J.; Fisher, Anita M.; Luong, Edward M.; Nguyen, Jean; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Pepper, Brian J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2017-02-01

    We provide a brief overview of recent progress in III-V semiconductor infrared photodetectors resulting from advances in infrared detector materials, including type-II superlattices (T2SL) and InAsSb alloy, and the unipolar detector architecture. We summarize T2SL unipolar barrier infrared detector and focal plane array development at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of the Vital Infrared Sensor Technology Acceleration (VISTA) Program. We also comment on the connection of T2SL barrier infrared detector to MCT infrared detectors.

  1. Interaction of ultrasound with vortices in type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1996-04-01

    The theory of ultrasound in the mixed state of type-II superconductors is suggested which takes into account the Magnus force on vortices, the anti-Magnus force on ions, and diamagnetism of the mixed state. The acoustic Faraday effect (rotation of polarization of the transverse ultrasonic wave propagating along vortices) is linear in the Magnus force in any regime of the flux flow for wavelengths now used in the ultrasound experiments. Therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, the Faraday effect should be looked for only in clean superconductors with a strong Magnus force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. d-Brane Instantons in Type II Orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetič, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-11-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of d-brane instantons in [Formula: see text] supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract d-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function, and higher fermionic F-terms, and we briefly discuss the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy d-brane instantons for the construction of semirealistic models of particle physics or supersymmetry breaking in compact and noncompact geometries.

  3. Nonresonant Recirculating Type II Second-Harmonic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, T. Sean; Moore, Gerald T.

    2004-04-01

    We show an experimental proof of concept for a nonresonant recirculation method to increase the conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) with type II phase matching. As much as a factor-of-4 efficiency increase compared with that of single-pass SHG is possible, provided that the recirculation length is within the coherence length of the pump laser. Nonresonant recirculating SHG may be valuable in systems in which intracavity doubling is not practicable, such as high-power cw bulk solid-state or fiber lasers.

  4. Type II strained layer superlattice: A potential future IR solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidrow, Meimei Z.

    2009-11-01

    Type II strained layer superlattice (SLS) has been making tremendous progress in the past few years funded by the Missile Defense Agency Advanced Technology Directorate (MDA/DV) under the Passive EO/IR Program. SLS has shown great potential as a future solution for infrared military systems. In this presentation, the most recent progress in SLS development will be presented. The presentation will also discuss the comparison of SLS with mercury-cadmium-telluride (HgCdTe) using Rule 07, SLS minority carrier lifetime issues, and future directions.

  5. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  6. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  7. [Achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis: radiological features.Case report].

    PubMed

    Delgado Carrasco, J; Casanova Morcillo, A; Zabalza Alvillos, M; Ayala Garcés, A

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of lethal dysplasia in the neonatal period. The abnormality was suspected after ultrasonography of a pregnant woman presenting weak fetal movements revealed shortening of the extremities, voluminous cranium and polyhydramnios. Clinical and radiological findings showed platyspondylic dwarfism with short extremities, narrow thorax and hydropic appearance. The infant died on the third day of life from progressive respiratory distress. In the absence of histological, chondro-osseus and molecular studies, detailed clinical and radiological studies, as well as the lethal evolution during the neonatal period, guided the diagnosis of hypochondrogenesis. This entity, together with achondrogenesis II (and other dysplasias), forms part of the same spectrum of collagen type II abnormalities produced by a defect in the gene (COL2A1) that codifies collagen II, located in chromosome 12 I(12q13.1-13.2). When a heterozygote is produced, transmission is dominant autosomal. The phenotype shows wide variation and severity depends on the mechanism and location of the mutation. The definitive diagnosis is given by cytomolecular studies, while individualization of the different entities is based on histological data from the cartilage; clinical findings and skeletal radiology serve as a guide.

  8. Effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on kidney ischemia/reperfusion; a gender-related difference

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Fatemeh; Taheri, Pegah; Azimipoor, Mahdis; Ramtin, Sina; Hashemianfar, Mostafa; Momeni- Ashjerdi, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may be related to activity of reninangiotensin system (RAS), which is gender-related. In this study, it was attempted to compare the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade; losartan in I/R injury in male and female rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were assigned as sham surgery, control I/R groups treated with vehicle, and case I/R groups treated with losartan (30 mg/kg). Vehicle and losartan were given 2 hours before bilateral kidney ischemia induced by clamping renal arteries for 45 minutes followed by 24 hours of renal reperfusion. Results: The