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Sample records for rate blood pressure

  1. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Jan 18,2017 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  2. Blood pressure responder rates versus goal rates: which metric matters?

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Reducing blood pressure (BP) to guideline-recommended goals associated with reductions in cardiovascular risk is central to effective hypertension management. In addition to measuring BP reduction, clinical trials of antihypertensive agents should assess the percentage of patients responding to treatment. The Food and Drug Administration's defined rate of response required for drug approval is a reduction in diastolic BP (DBP) to <90 mmHg and/or a DBP reduction of > or = 10 mmHg. Consequently, some patients may be counted as responders even if they have not reached DBP <90 mmHg. An antihypertensive agent's effectiveness may be better assessed by the proportion of patients who achieve recommended BP goals. This article analyzes the frequency of response rates versus goal rates as endpoints in randomized trials since January 2001. Data showed that goal rates, especially combined systolic BP (SBP)/DBP goal rates, are consistently lower than response rates in studies evaluating both endpoints. Goal rates incorporating both SBP and DBP, or having a focus on SBP for individuals >50 years of age, provide the most clinically relevant information and are a more clinically relevant metric of an agent's ability to reduce BP than DBP alone.

  3. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate regulation in shock state.

    PubMed

    DellaVolpe, Jeffrey D; Moore, Jason E; Pinsky, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Circulatory shock is a complicated problem that carries a high risk of complications and mortality for critically ill patients. The heart rate and blood pressure targets to which a patient in shock should be resuscitated remain a challenge to intensivists. While the ideal blood pressure and heart rate in circulatory shock are still not definitive, recent studies have begun to refine these targets. A recent trial comparing a mean arterial pressure target of 80-85 mmHg with a target of 65-70 mmHg showed no difference in mortality, with a decreased need for renal replacement therapy in patients with pre-existing hypertension based on subgroup analysis. Regulation of heart rate was defined by a trial demonstrating that heart rate control in patients with severe sepsis on high-dose norepinephrine with esmolol titration did not result in additional adverse events. The ideal target blood pressure in the resuscitation of circulatory shock is variable and likely depends on prior blood pressure. Heart rate regulation with β-blockade appears to be safe in selected patients when accompanied by adequate resuscitation and monitoring.

  4. Exercise blood pressure and heart rate reference values.

    PubMed

    Gläser, Sven; Friedrich, Nele; Koch, Beate; Schäper, Christoph; Völzke, Henry; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus; Hannemann, Anke; Ewert, Ralf; Dörr, Marcus

    2013-08-01

    Besides their prognostic impact blood pressure and peak heart rate are widely used endpoint parameters for incremental exercise tests. Reference equations and ranges on both are sparse. This study aims to describe prediction equations and reference ranges for systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as for peak heart rate assessed during a symptom limited incremental exercise test based on a population based study--the Study of Health in Pomerania. For this purpose, 1708 individuals aged 25-85 years underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. After exclusion of subjects with cardiopulmonary diseases and antihypertensive medications regression analyses revealed age, sex and body mass index as statistically significant interfering factors. In accordance, prediction equations and reference ranges for blood pressure and peak heart rate with respect to sex, age and BMI have been established. This study provides a reliable set of prediction equations for blood pressure and heart rate values at peak exercise, assessed in a general population over a wide age range. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure.

  6. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  7. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Nilsson, Brian; Karamperis, Nikolaos; Kristensen, Bent; Ladefoged, Søren Daustrand; Hansen, Henrik Post

    2015-12-01

    If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect of reducing EBFR on BP exists and data are conflicting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and the potential mechanism(s) involved by investigating the impact of changes in EBFR on BP, pulse rate (PR) and cardiac output (CO) in HD patients with arteriovenous-fistulas (AV-fistulas). We performed a randomized, crossover trial in 22 haemodynamically stable HD patients with AV-fistula. After a conventional HD session each patient was examined during EBFR of 200, 300 and 400 mL/min in random order. After 15 min when steady state was achieved CO, BP and PR were measured at each EFBR, respectively. Mean (SD) age was 71 (11) years. Systolic BP was significantly higher at an EBFR of 200 mL/min as compared with 300 mL/min [133 (23) versus 128 (24) mmHg; P < 0.05], but not as compared with 400 mL/min [133 (23) versus 130 (19) mmHg; P = 0.20]. At EBFR of 200, 300 and 400 mL/min diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, PR and CO remained unchanged. Our study does not show any consistent trend in BP changes by a reduction in EBFR. Reduction in EBFR if BP falls during IDH is thus not supported. However, none of the patients experienced IDH. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of changes in EBFR on BP during IDH. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship of electronically monitored physical activity to blood pressure, heart rate, and the circadian blood pressure profile.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, G A; White, W B; McCabe, E J; Giacco, S

    2000-03-01

    We studied how closely changes in electronically monitored physical activity are reflected in changes in blood pressure and heart rate in a group of untreated hypertensive subjects. Thirty-nine hypertensive patients (office blood pressure > 140/ 90 mm Hg) of mean age 57 +/- 10 years (mean +/-SD) wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor and a wrist actigraph simultaneously. Both average and peak activity for 5 min before each valid blood pressure reading were determined, as was average activity for awake and sleep periods, determined by patient kept diaries. For the overall group, awake and 24-h activities were inversely correlated to age (n = 39, r = -0.42; P = 0.01 and n = 39, r = -0.38; P = 0.01, respectively). No correlation was found between group awake activity and group-average blood pressure or heart rate. For individual patients, there was marked variation in the degree of correlation between awake activity measures (both peak and average) and blood pressure and heart rate. The strongest positive correlation was between activity levels and the heart rate-pressure product. Nondipper profile hypertensives had higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives (44 +/- 28 units/min v 25 +/- 20 units/min, df = 37, t = 2.12; P = 0.04), but awake activity levels were similar. The higher sleep activity remained after adjustment for age. These findings indicate that the relationship between actigraphic activity and hemodynamic parameters is highly variable and that the rate-pressure product is the strongest correlate of short-term activity. Furthermore, hypertensives with the nondipper profile have higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives. These findings stress the need for further study into the role of day-to-day activity in determining ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability.

  9. Association of heart rate with blood pressure variability: implications for blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Amos; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Bursztyn, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Antihypertensive β-blocker use is associated with greater intervisit blood pressure variability (BPV) and with less favorable outcomes compared to other antihypertensive agents. A theoretical model demonstrated that accuracy and precision of BP measurement are affected by heart rate (HR) at a constant cuff deflation rate. We aimed to examine the empirical relationship between HR and BPV in a clinical setting. Intratracing variability in ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were analyzed in search of a link between BPV and HR. BPV was expressed as standard deviation (s.d.), coefficient of variation (CV), and variability independent of the mean (VIM). In a dataset of 4,693 subjects, HR was inversely associated with BPV and independently explained 1.3% of between-subject variation in s.d. of awake systolic BP (1.5% of CV and VIM). Linear regression suggested 0.5 mm Hg increase in s.d. of systolic BP per 10 beats per minute (bpm) decrease in HR. In a subset of 1,019 patients with available data on medications, HR was independently and inversely related with awake systolic BPV (P < 0.0001), more so in diuretic (P < 0.050) and renin-angiotensin system antagonists-treated (P < 0.050) patients. Associations of β-blockade with increased BPV were abolished by model-adjustment for HR. In another subset of patients who were monitored twice (n = 635), HR had a mild (0.6%) but significant (P < 0.05) inverse contribution to the change in awake systolic BPV between repeated monitoring. Ambulatory BPV is inversely related to HR and is not increased in referred patients treated with β-blockers after correction for HR. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

  10. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Changes During Clozapine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Norman, Sarah M; Sullivan, Kelli M; Liu, Fang; DiPaula, Bethany A; Jose, Pedro A; Kitchen, Christopher A; Feldman, Stephanie M; Kelly, Deanna L

    2017-09-01

    People with schizophrenia are 3-4 times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than the general population. Clozapine (CLZ) is the gold standard of treatment for refractory schizophrenia. It has been associated with tachycardia and recent evidence shows individuals prescribed CLZ may develop blood pressure (BP) elevation and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CLZ on BP and heart rate (HR). This was a retrospective chart review of patients 18-75 years old with a DSM IV diagnosis of Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective disorder. Primary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and HR measured 12 weeks before and 24 weeks during CLZ treatment. Eighteen patient records were included in this study. The mean stabilized CLZ dose was 441.7 ± 171.8 mg/day. DBP (t = 1.02, df = 79.5, = 2.00, 0.049) and HR (t = 1.32, df = 355  = -4.61, < 0.0001) were significantly higher after CLZ initiation. A trend was noted for increase in SBP (p = 0.071). 22 % of patients met criteria for hypertension before CLZ and 67 % during CLZ treatment (Chi Square = 6.25, df = 1, p = 0.0124). No significant changes in weight or renal function occured during CLZ treatment. No patients had evidence of cardiomyopathy. The data suggest CLZ may be associated with a rise in BP and HR. The results of this study support previous literature that found an increase in SBP/DBP regardless of CLZ dose, occurring early in treatment. Due to high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, more work is needed to determine risk factors and understand the mechanism of action that may cause this side effect.

  11. Black tea lowers the rate of blood pressure variation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Woodman, Richard J; Puddey, Ian B; Fuchs, Dagmar; Draijer, Richard; Lukoshkova, Elena; Head, Geoffrey A

    2013-05-01

    Measures of blood pressure variation have been associated with cardiovascular disease and related outcomes. The regular consumption of black tea can lower blood pressure, but its effects on blood pressure variation have yet to be investigated. We aimed to assess the effects of black tea consumption on the rate of ambulatory blood pressure variation. Men and women (n = 111) with systolic blood pressure between 115 and 150 mm Hg at screening were recruited in a randomized, controlled, double-blind, 6-mo parallel-designed trial designed primarily to assess effects on blood pressure. Participants consumed 3 cups/d of either powdered black tea solids (tea) or a flavonoid-free caffeine-matched beverage (control). The 24-h ambulatory blood pressure level and rate of measurement-to-measurement blood pressure variation were assessed at baseline, day 1, and 3 and 6 mo. Across the 3 time points, tea, compared with the control, resulted in lower rates of systolic (P = 0.0045) and diastolic (P = 0.016) blood pressure variation by ~10% during nighttime (2200-0600). These effects, which were immediate at day 1 and sustained over 6 mo, were independent of the level of blood pressure and heart rate. The rate of blood pressure variation was not significantly altered during daytime (0800-2000). These findings indicate that a component of black tea solids, other than caffeine, can influence the rate of blood pressure variation during nighttime. Thus, small dietary changes have the potential to significantly influence the rate of blood pressure variation. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTR12607000543482.

  12. Heart rate and blood pressure: any possible implications for management of hypertension?

    PubMed

    Reule, Scott; Drawz, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension is a common clinical problem and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Elevated heart rate is associated with elevated blood pressure, increased risk for hypertension, and, among hypertensives, increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Despite these important relationships, heart rate is generally not a major consideration in choosing antihypertensive medications. In part, this is due to a lack of evidence supporting heart rate lowering as a therapeutic strategy in hypertension. Additionally, while there is a positive correlation between heart rate and peripheral blood pressure, there is an inverse relationship between heart rate and central blood pressure. The use of antihypertensive medications, specifically medications that affect heart rate, may not reliably reduce central blood pressure to a similar extent as observed peripherally. We review the relationship between heart rate and peripheral and central blood pressure, with a focus on the implications for chronotropic therapy in hypertension.

  13. Heart rate variability and blood pressure during dynamic and static exercise at similar heart rate levels.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Stoll, Regina; Kreuzfeld, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Aim was to elucidate autonomic responses to dynamic and static (isometric) exercise of the lower limbs eliciting the same moderate heart rate (HR) response. 23 males performed two kinds of voluntary exercise in a supine position at similar heart rates: static exercise (SE) of the lower limbs (static leg press) and dynamic exercise (DE) of the lower limbs (cycling). Subjective effort, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rate pressure product (RPP) and the time between consecutive heart beats (RR-intervals) were measured. Time-domain (SDNN, RMSSD), frequency-domain (power in the low and high frequency band (LFP, HFP)) and geometric measures (SD1, SD2) as well as non-linear measures of regularity (approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension D2) were calculated. Although HR was similar during both exercise conditions (88±10 bpm), subjective effort, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly enhanced during SE. HRV indicators representing overall variability (SDNN, SD 2) and vagal modulated variability (RMSSD, HFP, SD 1) were increased. LFP, thought to be modulated by both autonomic branches, tended to be higher during SE. ApEn and SampEn were decreased whereas D2 was enhanced during SE. It can be concluded that autonomic control processes during SE and DE were qualitatively different despite similar heart rate levels. The differences were reflected by blood pressure and HRV indices. HRV-measures indicated a stronger vagal cardiac activity during SE, while blood pressure response indicated a stronger sympathetic efferent activity to the vessels. The elevated vagal cardiac activity during SE might be a response mechanism, compensating a possible co-activation of sympathetic cardiac efferents, as HR and LF/HF was similar and LFP tended to be higher. However, this conclusion must be drawn cautiously as there is no HRV-marker reflecting "pure" sympathetic cardiac activity.

  14. [Evaluation of the hypomagnetic environment effects on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure and heart rate].

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, Iu I; Vasin, A L; Matveeva, T A; Sasonko, M L

    2014-01-01

    Impact of attenuated magnetic field (MF) on human health is a hard-core issue of present-day cosmonautics. A series of experiments with animals exposed in attenuated MF revealed violent disorders in cardiovascular system development. Purpose of the work was to study effects of the hypomagnetic environment (HME) on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normal people. Participants (n = 34) were 24 men and 10 women free from cardiovascular symptoms. Mean age was 43.3 +/- 15.4 years. Thirteen participants, i.e. 8 men and 5 women, were randomly selected for a repeated investigation in the usual conditions (imaginary exposure); mean age in the group made up 47.9 +/- 18 years. Cardiac rhythm and heart rate were recorded using cardiac monitor Astrocard (Russia). BP was measured with the help of automatic blood pressure monitor Tonocard (Russia). Capillary circulation was determined using a digital capillaroscope (Russia) with high-speed CMOS-camera (100 frames/s). Time of HME exposure was 60 min. It was demonstrated that in healthy people free from cardiovascular symptoms HME increases capillary circulation rate by 22.4% as compared with records made under the usual conditions. There was a reliable HR reduction by the end of HME exposure with reference to the measurements taken at the onset. At the end of exposure, diastolic BP dropped considerably relative to mid-exposure values and systolic BP, on the contrary, made a significant rise.

  15. Relationship between Resting Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Casonatto, Juliano; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Dias, Raphael Mendes Ritti

    2017-05-01

    High resting heart rate is considered an important factor for increasing mortality chance in adults. However, it remains unclear whether the observed associations would remain after adjustment for confounders in adolescents. To analyze the relationship between resting heart rate, blood pressure and pulse pressure in adolescents of both sexes. A cross-sectional study with 1231 adolescents (716 girls and 515 boys) aged 14-17 years. Heart rate, blood pressure and pulse pressure were evaluated using an oscillometric blood pressure device, validated for this population. Weight and height were measured with an electronic scale and a stadiometer, respectively, and waist circumference with a non-elastic tape. Multivariate analysis using linear regression investigated the relationship between resting heart rate and blood pressure and pulse pressure in boys and girls, controlling for general and abdominal obesity. Higher resting heart rate values were observed in girls (80.1 ± 11.0 beats/min) compared to boys (75.9 ± 12.7 beats/min) (p ≤ 0.001). Resting heart rate was associated with systolic blood pressure in boys (Beta = 0.15 [0.04; 0.26]) and girls (Beta = 0.24 [0.16; 0.33]), with diastolic blood pressure in boys (Beta = 0.50 [0.37; 0.64]) and girls (Beta = 0.41 [0.30; 0.53]), and with pulse pressure in boys (Beta = -0.16 [-0.27; -0.04]). This study demonstrated a relationship between elevated resting heart rate and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sexes and pulse pressure in boys even after controlling for potential confounders, such as general and abdominal obesity. A frequência cardíaca de repouso é considerada um importante fator de aumento de mortalidade em adultos. Entretanto, ainda é incerto se as associações observadas permanecem após ajuste para fatores de confusão em adolescentes. Analisar a relação entre frequência cardíaca de repouso, pressão arterial e pressão de pulso em adolescentes dos dois sexos. Estudo transversal

  16. Effect of flow rate and temperature on transmembrane blood pressure drop in an extracorporeal artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Park, M; Costa, E L V; Maciel, A T; Barbosa, E V S; Hirota, A S; Schettino, G de P; Azevedo, L C P

    2014-11-01

    Transmembrane pressure drop reflects the resistance of an artificial lung system to blood transit. Decreased resistance (low transmembrane pressure drop) enhances blood flow through the oxygenator, thereby, enhancing gas exchange efficiency. This study is part of a previous one where we observed the behaviour and the modulation of blood pressure drop during the passage of blood through artificial lung membranes. Before and after the induction of multi-organ dysfunction, the animals were instrumented and analysed for venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, using a pre-defined sequence of blood flows. Blood flow and revolutions per minute (RPM) of the centrifugal pump varied in a linear fashion. At a blood flow of 5.5 L/min, pre- and post-pump blood pressures reached -120 and 450 mmHg, respectively. Transmembrane pressures showed a significant spread, particularly at blood flows above 2 L/min; over the entire range of blood flow rates, there was a positive association of pressure drop with blood flow (0.005 mmHg/mL/minute of blood flow) and a negative association of pressure drop with temperature (-4.828 mmHg/(°Celsius). These associations were similar when blood flows of below and above 2000 mL/minute were examined. During its passage through the extracorporeal system, blood is exposed to pressure variations from -120 to 450 mmHg. At high blood flows (above 2 L/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure becomes unpredictable and highly variable. Over the entire range of blood flows investigated (0-5500 mL/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure was positively associated with blood flow and negatively associated with body temperature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. [Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; He, Fei; Hu, Da-yi; Ding, Rong-jing; Yu, Xiao-jun; Wang, Long; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xue-bin; Guo, Ji-hong; Liu, Wen-ling; Li, Cui-lan; Li, Lei; Gao, Chuan-yu; Zhao, Luo-sha; Chu, Ying-jie; Huang, Zhen-wen; Wei, Jing-han; Hua, Shao-hua; Liu, Rui-yun; Zhuang, Xiao-feng

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population, and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure. Eighty-six passive smokers [mean age: (52.4 ± 7.6) years] were recruited from patients and their relatives who visited cardiovascular outpatient department and excluded structural heart disease between June 2010 and June 2012, 80 normal subjects who were not exposed to smoking served as controls. Questionnaire survey, 24 hours ambulatory electrocardiogram examination and blood pressure measurement were performed in all recruited subjects. (1) Non-marriage rate [18.60% (16/86) vs. 3.75% (3/80), P < 0.01] was significantly higher while education level were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in control group. Passive smokers were more likely service industry workers [29.07% (25/86) vs. 15.00% (12/80), P < 0.05] and had longer daily working time [(7.56 ± 1.24) h vs. (6.02 ± 0.96) h, P < 0.01], and were less likely to be professional technology industry employers [20.93% (18/86) vs. 36.25% (29/80), P < 0.05] and managers [13.95% (12/86) vs. 38.75% (31/80), P < 0.01] compared to controls. The main place of passive smoking was workplace (67.44%, 58/86), entertainment venues (63.95%,55/86), restaurants (48.84%, 42/86). (2) Standard of the normal sinus RR intervals (SDNN), the normal consecutive sinus RR interval difference between the root-mean-square (rMSSD) and adjacent the difference between the RR interval>50 ms the number of share the percentage (PNN50) were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in the control group (all P < 0.05). Every 5 min average of the standard deviation of sinus RR cycle (SDNN index) and 24 h every 5 min sinus RR interval mean standard deviation (SDANN) were similar between the 2 groups (all P > 0.05). Ultra-low-frequency power (VLF), low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF) and LF/HF were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in

  18. Artificial arterial blood pressure artifact models and an evaluation of a robust blood pressure and heart rate estimator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Mark, Roger G; Clifford, Gari D

    2009-01-01

    Background Within the intensive care unit (ICU), arterial blood pressure (ABP) is typically recorded at different (and sometimes uneven) sampling frequencies, and from different sensors, and is often corrupted by different artifacts and noise which are often non-Gaussian, nonlinear and nonstationary. Extracting robust parameters from such signals, and providing confidences in the estimates is therefore difficult and requires an adaptive filtering approach which accounts for artifact types. Methods Using a large ICU database, and over 6000 hours of simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram (ECG) and ABP waveforms sampled at 125 Hz from a 437 patient subset, we documented six general types of ABP artifact. We describe a new ABP signal quality index (SQI), based upon the combination of two previously reported signal quality measures weighted together. One index measures morphological normality, and the other degradation due to noise. After extracting a 6084-hour subset of clean data using our SQI, we evaluated a new robust tracking algorithm for estimating blood pressure and heart rate (HR) based upon a Kalman Filter (KF) with an update sequence modified by the KF innovation sequence and the value of the SQI. In order to do this, we have created six novel models of different categories of artifacts that we have identified in our ABP waveform data. These artifact models were then injected into clean ABP waveforms in a controlled manner. Clinical blood pressure (systolic, mean and diastolic) estimates were then made from the ABP waveforms for both clean and corrupted data. The mean absolute error for systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure was then calculated for different levels of artifact pollution to provide estimates of expected errors given a single value of the SQI. Results Our artifact models demonstrate that artifact types have differing effects on systolic, diastolic and mean ABP estimates. We show that, for most artifact types, diastolic ABP estimates are

  19. MANAGEMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE STROKE.

    PubMed

    Maida, Carlo; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Raimondo, Domenico Di; Pinto, Antonio

    2017-07-14

    Stroke represent one of the most devastating of all neurological diseases, affecting about 15 million people per year and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and currently the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Blood pressure and heart rate may undergo several modifications in patients with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in fact raised blood pressure levels may lead to cerebral edema, hematoma expansion or hemorrhagic transformation and in contrast low blood pressure can lead to increased cerebral infarction or perihematomal ischemia. In addition, ECG abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation, are relatively frequent after stroke, and other well known complications such as heart failure, miocardial infarction and sudden death have been reported. The acute phase of brain infarction requires a careful management of both blood pressure levels and heart rate but despite the large amount of information, blood pressure and heart rate management are still under debate. Provide clear indications about the optimal blood pressure and heart rate management of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, in view of the main available evidence. In this review, we discuss the evidence for blood pressure and heart rate management in acute stroke, the challenges and issues raised, and look to on-going and future trials that may provide some clarity in this controversial area. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during shuttle flight, entry and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Moore, T. P.; Uri, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) were recorded on a series of early Shuttle flights during preflight and pre-entry, entry, landing and egress. There were no significant differences between flight and preflight values during routine activity. Systolic blood pressure was slightly elevated in the deorbit period and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rates were all elevated with onset of gravitoinertial loads and remained so through egress. Two of seven subjects had orthostatic problems in egress but their data did not show significant differences from others except in heart rate. Comparison of this data to that from recent studies show even larger increase in HR/BP values during current deorbit and entry phases which is consistent with increased heat and weight loads imposed by added survival gear. Both value and limitations of ambulatory heart rate/blood pressure data in this situation are demonstrated.

  1. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during shuttle flight, entry and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Moore, T. P.; Uri, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) were recorded on a series of early Shuttle flights during preflight and pre-entry, entry, landing and egress. There were no significant differences between flight and preflight values during routine activity. Systolic blood pressure was slightly elevated in the deorbit period and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rates were all elevated with onset of gravitoinertial loads and remained so through egress. Two of seven subjects had orthostatic problems in egress but their data did not show significant differences from others except in heart rate. Comparison of this data to that from recent studies show even larger increase in HR/BP values during current deorbit and entry phases which is consistent with increased heat and weight loads imposed by added survival gear. Both value and limitations of ambulatory heart rate/blood pressure data in this situation are demonstrated.

  2. The effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary.

  3. Effects of music on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Arora, Rohit; Shah, Parinda H; Chandrasekar, Suraj; Molnar, Janos

    2012-01-01

    There are a handful of studies that have been done investigating the effect of music on various vital signs, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Many studies have also assessed effects of music on self-reported anxiety level, attributing some degree of music-induced anxiety relief to the beneficial impacts of music on vital signs. Several randomised studies have shown varying effects of music on these vital parameters and so a meta-analysis was done to compare the effect of music on them. The fixed effects model was used as studies were homogenous. A two-sided alpha error < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Compared to those who did not receive music therapy, those who did receive music therapy had a significantly greater decrease in SBP before and after (difference in means, -2.629, confidence interval (CI), -3.914 to -1.344, P < 0.001), a significantly greater decrease in DBP (difference in means, -1.112, CI, -1.692 to -0.532, P < 0.001), and a significantly greater decrease in HR (difference in means, -3.422, CI, -5.032 to -1.812, P < 0.001). Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Vascular Dysregulation in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Eva Charlotte; Staab, Johanna; Fuest, Matthias; Witt, Katharina; Voss, Andreas; Plange, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate blood pressure and heart rate variability in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) to detect disturbed blood pressure regulation. Methods. Thirty-one patients with POAG (mean age 68 ± 10 years) and 48 control subjects (mean age 66 ± 10 years) were included in a prospective study. Continuous blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously and noninvasively recorded over 30 min (Glaucoscreen, aviant GmbH, Jena, Germany). Data were analyzed calculating univariate linear (time domain and frequency domain), nonlinear (Symbolic Dynamics, SD) and bivariate (Joint Symbolic Dynamics, JSD) indices. Results. Using nonlinear methods, glaucoma patients were separated with more parameters compared to linear methods. In POAG, nonlinear univariate indices (pW113 and pW120_Sys) were increased while the indices pTH10_Sys and pTH11_Sys reflect a reduction of dominant patterns. Bivariate indices (JSDdia29, JSDdia50, and JSDdia52; coupling between heart rate and diastolic blood pressure) were increased in POAG. The optimum set consisting of six parameters (JSDdia29, JSDdia58, pTH9_Sys, pW231, pW110_Sys and pW120_Sys) revealed a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusions. Nonlinear uni- and bivariate indices of continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate are altered in glaucoma. Abnormal blood pressure variability suggests disturbed autonomic regulation in patients with glaucoma. PMID:26495136

  5. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Vascular Dysregulation in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Koch, Eva Charlotte; Staab, Johanna; Fuest, Matthias; Witt, Katharina; Voss, Andreas; Plange, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate blood pressure and heart rate variability in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) to detect disturbed blood pressure regulation. Methods. Thirty-one patients with POAG (mean age 68 ± 10 years) and 48 control subjects (mean age 66 ± 10 years) were included in a prospective study. Continuous blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously and noninvasively recorded over 30 min (Glaucoscreen, aviant GmbH, Jena, Germany). Data were analyzed calculating univariate linear (time domain and frequency domain), nonlinear (Symbolic Dynamics, SD) and bivariate (Joint Symbolic Dynamics, JSD) indices. Results. Using nonlinear methods, glaucoma patients were separated with more parameters compared to linear methods. In POAG, nonlinear univariate indices (pW113 and pW120_Sys) were increased while the indices pTH10_Sys and pTH11_Sys reflect a reduction of dominant patterns. Bivariate indices (JSDdia29, JSDdia50, and JSDdia52; coupling between heart rate and diastolic blood pressure) were increased in POAG. The optimum set consisting of six parameters (JSDdia29, JSDdia58, pTH9_Sys, pW231, pW110_Sys and pW120_Sys) revealed a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusions. Nonlinear uni- and bivariate indices of continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate are altered in glaucoma. Abnormal blood pressure variability suggests disturbed autonomic regulation in patients with glaucoma.

  6. Relationships between blood pressure and heart rate in the saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Altimiras, J; Franklin, C E; Axelsson, M

    1998-08-01

    The cardiac limb of the baroreflex loop was studied in the saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus. The classical pharmacological methodology using phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was used to trigger blood pressure changes, and the resulting alterations in heart rate were analysed quantitatively using a logistic function. Interindividual differences in resting heart rates and blood pressures were observed, but all seven animals displayed clear baroreflex responses. Atropine and sotalol greatly attenuated the response. A maximal baroreflex gain of 7.2 beats min-1 kPa-1 was found at a mean aortic pressure of 6.1 kPa, indicating the active role of the baroreflex in a wide pressure range encompassing hypotensive and hypertensive states. At the lowest mean aortic pressures (5.0 kPa), the synergistic role of the pulmonary-to-systemic shunt in buffering the blood pressure drop also contributes to blood pressure regulation. Pulse pressure showed a better correlation with heart rate and also a higher gain than mean aortic, systolic or diastolic pressures, and this is taken as an indicator of the existence of a differential control element working simultaneously with a linear proportional element.

  7. The effect of orthostatic stress on multiscale entropy of heart rate and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Turianikova, Zuzana; Javorka, Kamil; Baumert, Mathias; Calkovska, Andrea; Javorka, Michal

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular control acts over multiple time scales, which introduces a significant amount of complexity to heart rate and blood pressure time series. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has been developed to quantify the complexity of a time series over multiple time scales. In previous studies, MSE analyses identified impaired cardiovascular control and increased cardiovascular risk in various pathological conditions. Despite the increasing acceptance of the MSE technique in clinical research, information underpinning the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of orthostatic challenge on the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV) and the correlation between MSE (complexity measures) and traditional linear (time and frequency domain) measures. MSE analysis of HRV and BPV was performed in 28 healthy young subjects on 1000 consecutive heart beats in the supine and standing positions. Sample entropy values were assessed on scales of 1-10. We found that MSE of heart rate and blood pressure signals is sensitive to changes in autonomic balance caused by postural change from the supine to the standing position. The effect of orthostatic challenge on heart rate and blood pressure complexity depended on the time scale under investigation. Entropy values did not correlate with the mean values of heart rate and blood pressure and showed only weak correlations with linear HRV and BPV measures. In conclusion, the MSE analysis of heart rate and blood pressure provides a sensitive tool to detect changes in autonomic balance as induced by postural change.

  8. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s(-1) ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s(-1) ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA

  9. Extended duration orbiter medical project variability of blood pressure and heart rate (STS-50/USML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Charles, John B.; Boettcher, Sheila W.

    1994-01-01

    Decreases in arterial baroreflex function after space flight may be related to changes in blood pressure and heart rate patterns during flight. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were measured for 24 hours, in fourteen astronauts on two occasions before flight, two to three occasions in flight, and 2 days after landing on Shuttle missions lasting 4 to 14 days. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded every 20minutes during awake periods and every 30 minutes during sleep. In pre- and postflight studies, the 24-hour ambulatory measurements were followed by studies of carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Carotid baroreceptors were stimulated using a sequence of neck pressure and suction from +40 to -65 mmHg.

  10. Bombesin-like receptor 3 regulates blood pressure and heart rate via a central sympathetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Dalya M; Xiao, Cuiying; Brychta, Robert J; Diedrich, André; Schnermann, Jurgen; Reitman, Marc L

    2016-04-01

    Bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy expenditure, food intake, and body weight. We examined the effects of BRS-3 deletion and activation on blood pressure and heart rate. In free-living, telemetered Brs3 null mice the resting heart rate was 10% lower than wild-type controls, while the resting mean arterial pressure was unchanged. During physical activity, the heart rate and blood pressure increased more in Brs3 null mice, reaching a similar heart rate and higher mean arterial pressure than control mice. When sympathetic input was blocked with propranolol, the heart rate of Brs3 null mice was unchanged, while the heart rate in control mice was reduced to the level of the null mice. The intrinsic heart rate, measured after both sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade, was similar in Brs3 null and control mice. Intravenous infusion of the BRS-3 agonist MK-5046 increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate in wild-type but not in Brs3 null mice, and this increase was blocked by pretreatment with clonidine, a sympatholytic, centrally acting α2-adrenergic agonist. In anesthetized mice, hypothalamic infusion of MK-5046 also increased both mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Taken together, these data demonstrate that BRS-3 contributes to resting cardiac sympathetic tone, but is not required for activity-induced increases in heart rate and blood pressure. The data suggest that BRS-3 activation increases heart rate and blood pressure via a central sympathetic mechanism.

  11. Bombesin-like receptor 3 regulates blood pressure and heart rate via a central sympathetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lateef, Dalya M.; Xiao, Cuiying; Brychta, Robert J.; Diedrich, André; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy expenditure, food intake, and body weight. We examined the effects of BRS-3 deletion and activation on blood pressure and heart rate. In free-living, telemetered Brs3 null mice the resting heart rate was 10% lower than wild-type controls, while the resting mean arterial pressure was unchanged. During physical activity, the heart rate and blood pressure increased more in Brs3 null mice, reaching a similar heart rate and higher mean arterial pressure than control mice. When sympathetic input was blocked with propranolol, the heart rate of Brs3 null mice was unchanged, while the heart rate in control mice was reduced to the level of the null mice. The intrinsic heart rate, measured after both sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade, was similar in Brs3 null and control mice. Intravenous infusion of the BRS-3 agonist MK-5046 increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate in wild-type but not in Brs3 null mice, and this increase was blocked by pretreatment with clonidine, a sympatholytic, centrally acting α2-adrenergic agonist. In anesthetized mice, hypothalamic infusion of MK-5046 also increased both mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Taken together, these data demonstrate that BRS-3 contributes to resting cardiac sympathetic tone, but is not required for activity-induced increases in heart rate and blood pressure. The data suggest that BRS-3 activation increases heart rate and blood pressure via a central sympathetic mechanism. PMID:26801314

  12. The relationships between exercise intensity, heart rate, and blood pressure during an incremental isometric exercise test.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Jonathan D; Allum, Simon R; Coleman, Damian A; Swaine, Ian L

    2008-01-15

    Currently, it is not possible to prescribe isometric exercise at an intensity that corresponds to given heart rates or systolic blood pressures. This might be useful in optimizing the effects of isometric exercise training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationships between isometric exercise intensity and both heart rate and systolic blood pressure during repeated incremental isometric exercise tests. Fifteen participants performed seated isometric double-leg knee extension, during which maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was assessed, using an isokinetic dynamometer. From this, a corresponding peak electromyographic activity (EMG(peak)) was determined. Subsequently, participants performed two incremental isometric exercise tests (at least 48 h apart) at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% EMG(peak), during which steady-state heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded. In all participants, there were linear relationships between %EMG(peak) and heart rate (r at least 0.91; P < 0.05) and between %EMG(peak) and systolic blood pressure (r at least 0.92; P < 0.05). Also, when repeated tests were compared, there were no differences in the slopes (P > 0.50) or elevations (P > 0.10) for either of the relationships. Therefore, these linear relationships could be used to identify isometric exercise training intensities that correspond to precise heart rates or systolic blood pressures. Training performed in this way might provide greater insight into the underlying mechanisms for the cardiovascular adaptations that are known to occur as a result.

  13. Dopamine and noradrenaline are unrelated to renalase, heart rate, and blood pressure in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wasilewski, G; Przybyłowski, P; Janik, L; Nowak, E; Sadowski, J; Małyszko, J

    2014-10-01

    Renalase may degrade catecholamines and regulate sympathetic tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess dopamine, norepinephrine, and renalase in 80 heart transplant recipients and 22 healthy volunteers and their correlations with heart rate, blood pressure control, type of hypotensive therapy, and renal function. Renalase, dopamine, and norepinephrine were studied by using commercially available assays. Renalase levels were higher in heart transplant recipients compared with healthy volunteers, and noradrenaline levels were lower in the studied cohort patients than in the healthy volunteers. Noradrenaline was correlated with white blood cell count (r = -0.21, P < .05), copeptin (r = 0.41, P < .01), and left ventricular diameter (r = -0.29, P < .05), whereas dopamine was correlated in univariate analysis with white blood cell count (r = -0.22, P < .05), posterior wall of left ventricular diameter (r = 0.58, P < .01), and left atrium diameter (r = -0.31, P < .05). Neither noradrenaline nor dopamine was correlated with heart rate, blood pressure, kidney function, or New York Heart Association class. Noradrenaline was significantly higher in patients with elevated diastolic blood pressure (>90 mm Hg) compared with those with normal diastolic blood pressure (P < .05). Renalase was related to kidney function but was unrelated to catecholamines. Elevated renalase levels in heart transplant patients were related to kidney function but not linked to the sympathetic nervous system activity in this study population. In heart transplant recipients, these findings might suggest that sympathetic denervation and the modulation of β-receptors persist.

  14. Associations of Insomnia Symptoms With Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: The HUNT Study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hauan, Marianne; Strand, Linn B; Laugsand, Lars E

    2016-10-11

    Although elevated heart rate and blood pressure might represent biologically plausible links for the association of insomnia symptoms with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), few large studies have investigated the associations of insomnia symptoms with these factors. Our aim was to investigate the associations of self-reported insomnia symptoms with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate in a large population-based study. Self-reported information on insomnia symptoms, including sleep initiation problems, frequent awakening and early awakenings during night, and measurements of resting heart rate and blood pressure were collected from a total of 50,806 men and women who participated in the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT-3) in 2006-2008. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, established CVD risk factors, and snoring or breathing pauses. Compared to participants reporting none of the insomnia symptoms, those having all three insomnia symptoms several times a week had lower diastolic blood pressure (-0.80 [95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14] mmHg, p = 0.02), lower systolic blood (-1.69 [95% CI: -2.76 to -0.63) mmHg, p < 0.001), and higher resting heart rate (0.83 [95% CI: 0.11 to 1.55] beats/minute, p = 0.02). We found a modest positive association of insomnia symptoms with resting heart rate, and a modest inverse association of insomnia with blood pressure. However, the actual differences were small, and likely of less clinical importance. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether the potential link between insomnia and CVD is mediated through changes in heart rate and/or blood pressure.

  15. Effect of yoga therapy on heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac autonomic function in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Bandi Hari; Pal, Pravati; G K, Pal; J, Balachander; E, Jayasettiaseelon; Y, Sreekanth; M G, Sridhar; G S, Gaur

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a hall mark of heart failure is adverse changes in autonomic function. Elevated blood pressure is a powerful predictor of congestive heart failure and other Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) outcomes. In this study, we planned to examine the effects of a 12 week yoga therapy on blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and rate pressure product (RPP). Out of 130 heart failure patients recruited for the study, 65 patients were randomly selected to receive 12 week yoga therapy along with standard medical therapy (yoga group). Other patients (n=65) received only standard medical therapy (control group). Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac autonomic function (by short-term heart-rate variability analysis) and myocardial oxygen consumption (by RPP) were assessed before and after 12 weeks. In the yoga group, 44 patients and in the control group, 48 patients completed the study. There was a significant decrease in heart rate, blood pressure and RPP in yoga group compared to control group. Also, LFnu and LF-HF ratio decreased significantly and HFnu increased significantly in yoga group compared to control group. Twelve-week yoga therapy significantly improved the parasympathetic activity and decreased the sympathetic activity in heart failure patients (NYHA I&II).

  16. Beat-to-beat heart rate and blood pressure variability and hypertensive disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Flood, Pamela; McKinley, Paula; Monk, Catherine; Muntner, Paul; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Goetzl, Laura; Hatch, Maureen; Sloan, Richard P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between heart rate and/or blood pressure variability, measured at 28 weeks' gestation, and the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia. Secondary analysis of data from a prospectively enrolled cohort of 385 active military women in whom spectral analysis of continuous heart rate and variability was measured at 28 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was the predictive value of spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure for hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. High-frequency heart rate variability was reduced and low-frequency variability of systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased in women who would develop pregnancy-induced hypertension but not preeclampsia. Low-frequency variability of diastolic blood pressure remained a significant predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension but not preeclampsia after adjustment for age, weight, and blood pressure in a multivariate model. Early identification of pregnancy-induced hypertension can facilitate treatment to avoid maternal morbidity. Understanding the physiological underpinnings of the two very different diseases may lead to improved treatment and prevention. If proven effective in a broader population, the ability to differentiate pregnancy-induced hypertension from preeclampsia may reduce unnecessary iatrogenic interventions or inappropriate preterm delivery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  18. Joint Symbolic Dynamics Analysis of Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Interactions in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- The dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) induces important changes in the autonomic control. Measures of heart rate (HR) variability and systolic...rather simple physiological interpretations and seems to be particularly suitable for risk stratification in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy ...Keywords - Symbolic dynamics, heart rate variability, blood pressure variability I. INTRODUCTION Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy

  19. Effects of aerobic exercise on the circadian rhythm of heart rate and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Hideyuki; Umegaki, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Maiko; Kimura, Madoka; Ando, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    Although the effects of aerobic exercise on resting heart rate, heart rate variability, and blood pressure have been investigated, there are scant data on the effects of aerobic exercise on the circadian rhythm of such cardiovascular parameters. In this study, we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the 24 h rhythm of heart rate and ambulatory blood pressure in the morning, when cardiovascular events are more common. Thirty-five healthy young subjects were randomized to control and aerobic exercise groups. Subjects in the latter group participated in their respective exercise program for two months, while those in the former group did not exercise. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiogram and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data were obtained at baseline and at the end of the exercise intervention. The control group showed no changes, while the aerobic exercise group showed a significant decrease in heart rate (73.7 +/- 6.6 bpm to 69.5 +/- 5.1 bpm, p < 0.005) and sympathetic activity such as LF/HF ratio (2.0 +/- 0.7 to 1.8 +/- 0.6, p < 0.05) throughout the 24 h period, particularly in the daytime. The decrease in the heart rate was most prominent in the morning. However, heart rate and LF/HF ratio showed no statistical changes during the night. No significant changes were observed in blood pressure. These findings suggest aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on the circadian rhythm of heart rate, especially in the morning.

  20. Chronobiometric assessment of autogenic training effects upon blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Y; Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Saito, Y; Fukuda, K; Otsuka, K; Kikuchi, T

    1996-12-01

    Autogenic training, a method of self-hypnosis, lowers the extent of within-day variation of systolic blood pressure assessed by the circadian double amplitude. The blood pressure and heart rate of ten patients, conventionally diagnosed as having hypertension or white-coat hypertension, were automatically monitored at 30-min intervals for 7 days before autogenic training and again for 7 days, at 1 or 2 months after the start of autogenic training (practiced three times daily). The circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure of the patients investigated was 3 to 17 mm Hg lower on autogenic training. In 5 patients, reductions by 7 to 17 mm Hg were statistically significant. These results are regarded as provisional statistics, the utility of which depends on replication. By contrast, the over-all group reduction of the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure by 8 mm Hg on the average can be taken at face value. Autogenic training also lowered the circadian double amplitude of diastolic blood pressure, but the effect was small as was the effect of autogenic training upon the MESOR (a rhythm adjusted mean) and acrophase (a measure of the timing of over-all high values recurring each day). The effect of autogenic training upon the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure suggests its trial as first-line treatment of patients with an excessive circadian blood pressure amplitude, a condition which, even in the absence of an elevated 24-hr, average of blood pressure, is associated with a large increase in the risk of developing ischemic stroke or nephropathy.

  1. Test Your Blood Pressure IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... How High Blood Pressure is Diagnosed BP vs. Heart Rate Low Blood Pressure Resistant Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension High Blood Pressure Myths ... Healthy 6 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? 7 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 8 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate 9 Warning ...

  2. Transient response of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow to step changes in arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T E; Guyton, A C; Hall, J E

    1977-11-01

    Measurement of rapid renal hemodynamic changes were made for 90 s in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs following step increases and decreases in renal arterial pressure between 80 and 120 mm Hg. Transient analysis was used to observe time characteristics of the autoregulatory relationships which are obscured in steadystate measurements. Temporal decoupling of blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) occurred with both step increases and decreases of arterial pressure. Steady-state autoregulation of blood flow was attained in about 30 s, whereas steady-state autoregulation of GFR was not demonstrably attained even 90 s after the arterial pressure maneuver. The temporal decoupling of renal blood flow and GRR supports the concept of transient involvement of proximal tubular dynamics and efferent resistance changes during acute autoregulation of GFR following step changes in arterial pressure.

  3. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Alterations through Music in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery in Greece.

    PubMed

    Merakou, Kyriakoula; Varouxi, Georgia; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Karageorgos, Georgios; Theodoridis, Dimitrios; Koutsouri, Aristea; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Music has been proposed as a safe, inexpensive, nonpharmacological antistress intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing cataract surgery while listening to meditation music experience lower levels of blood pressure and heart rate. Two hundred individuals undergoing cataract surgery participated in the study. Hundred individuals listened to meditation music, through headphones, before and during the operation (intervention group) and 100 individuals received standard care (control group). Patients stress coping skills were measured by the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC Scale). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were defined as outcome measures. According to the SOC Scale, both groups had similar stress coping skills (mean score: 127.6 for the intervention group and 127.3 for the control group). Before entering the operating room (OR) as well as during surgery the rise in systolic and diastolic pressures was significantly lower in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy, those in the intervention group presented a lower increase only in systolic pressure (P < 0.001) at both time recordings. For those patients in the intervention group who did not receive antihypertensive treatment, lower systolic blood pressure at both time recordings was recorded (P < 0.001) while lower diastolic pressure was observed only during entry to the OR (P = 0.021). Heart rate was not altered between the two groups in any of the recordings. Meditation music influenced patients' preoperative stress with regard to systolic blood pressure. This kind of music can be used as an alternative or complementary method for blood pressure stabilizing in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  4. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Alterations through Music in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Merakou, Kyriakoula; Varouxi, Georgia; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Karageorgos, Georgios; Theodoridis, Dimitrios; Koutsouri, Aristea; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Music has been proposed as a safe, inexpensive, nonpharmacological antistress intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing cataract surgery while listening to meditation music experience lower levels of blood pressure and heart rate. METHODS Two hundred individuals undergoing cataract surgery participated in the study. Hundred individuals listened to meditation music, through headphones, before and during the operation (intervention group) and 100 individuals received standard care (control group). Patients stress coping skills were measured by the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC Scale). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were defined as outcome measures. RESULTS According to the SOC Scale, both groups had similar stress coping skills (mean score: 127.6 for the intervention group and 127.3 for the control group). Before entering the operating room (OR) as well as during surgery the rise in systolic and diastolic pressures was significantly lower in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy, those in the intervention group presented a lower increase only in systolic pressure (P < 0.001) at both time recordings. For those patients in the intervention group who did not receive antihypertensive treatment, lower systolic blood pressure at both time recordings was recorded (P < 0.001) while lower diastolic pressure was observed only during entry to the OR (P = 0.021). Heart rate was not altered between the two groups in any of the recordings. CONCLUSIONS Meditation music influenced patients’ preoperative stress with regard to systolic blood pressure. This kind of music can be used as an alternative or complementary method for blood pressure stabilizing in patients undergoing cataract surgery. PMID:26106264

  5. Relationship of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate with markers of hepatic function in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Tzamouranis, Dimitris G; Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Dourakis, Spyros P; Stergiou, George S

    2010-12-12

    There is evidence that in cirrhotic patients, certain hemodynamic parameters, such as blood pressure and heart rate, are related to the severity of liver disease. This study investigated whether non-invasive 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate are more closely associated with markers of liver disease severity than conventional office measurements. Ambulatory patients with cirrhosis underwent office blood pressure and heart rate measurements, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and blood laboratory tests. Fifty-one patients (32 men, mean age 57.4 ± 11.3 years) completed the study. Twenty six patients had compensated liver cirrhosis (group A) and 25 patients had more advanced liver disease (group B). Group A and B patients differed significantly both in ambulatory asleep diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and office diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), which were lower in more advanced liver disease. Office blood pressure and heart rate correlations were similar to or even stronger than ambulatory ones. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate awake-asleep variation (dipping) showed a relatively flat pattern as markers of liver dysfunction were deteriorating. The strongest correlations were found with both ambulatory and office heart rate, which increased as indicators of severity of liver disease were worsening. Heart rate seems to be a more reliable marker of ongoing liver dysfunction than blood pressure. Evaluation of blood pressure and heart rate with 24-hour ambulatory measurement does not seem to offer more information than conventional office measurements.

  6. Modulation of heart rate by acute or chronic aerobic exercise. Potential effects on blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Perez-Quilis, Carme; Kingsley, J Derek; Malkani, Kabir; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2017-07-10

    It was initially assumed that heart rate and arterial blood pressure were modulated by normal respiration and muscle contraction. The arterial baroreflex, an inverse relationship between blood pressure and heart rate, was later reported. Nonetheless, it was then assumed that those responses involved vagal modulation. We summarize available evidence on the modulation of heart rate by acute or chronic aerobic exercise as well as its potential implications on BP control. Numerous studies have tried to clarify whether aerobic exercise modifies neurally-mediated vasoconstriction, but they report contradictory results. In view of these incongruities, the aim of this narrative review is to summarize available evidence on the modulation of heart rate by acute or chronic aerobic exercise as well as its potential implications on blood pressure control. We mainly focus on the effects of aerobic exercise in both heart rate and blood pressure. Heart rate and heart rate variability have been indistinctly considered similar metrics, but they have completely different meanings when properly used. Both are risk markers in cardiac disease, whereas heart rate variability is also an index of sympathovagal modulation of heart rate. On the other hand, heart rate recovery has been also used as an index for mirroring both cardiovascular fitness and autonomic function, and can be used as a measure of vagal reactivation. Importantly, it is now well-known that a reduced rate of heart rate recovery represents a powerful predictor of overall mortality. In this review, due to its complexity, we have included studies in which any of these three parameters have been analyzed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise and recovery in subclinical hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Sunita; Mahajan, Aarti Sood; Jain, Ak; Singh, Np; Mishra, Tk

    2013-07-01

    Exercise response of asymptomatic subclinical hypothyroid patients may aid in early diagnosis of cardiovascular morbidity. To study and compare the heart rate and blood pressure changes during exercise and recovery in subclinical hypothyroid patients and euthyroid controls. For the study, 30 each cases (mean age of 40 ± 7 years) of subclinical hypothyroidism and healthy controls underwent exercise as per Bruce protocol. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) changes were compared every minute (min) till 3 min of stage II exercise, continued till maximum heart rate and thereafter on recovery, for 5 min after stoppage of exercise. Both groups had normal HR and BP at rest, heart rate and BP increased with exercise and remained high even after 5 min of recovery from exercise. The increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with exercise was less in patients at the stage of exercise where maximum HR was achieved and up to 1 min of recovery. SBP at 5 min of recovery was higher in patients (P = 0.018). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased with exercise and changes were similar in both groups during exercise and recovery. HR was higher in patients at 1 min of exercise. Changes in HR from 1 min of recovery to 2-5 min of recovery were significant in both groups. The present pilot study highlights that many parameters of HR and SBP during exercise and recovery in asymptomatic subclinical hypothyroid patients may differ from euthyroid, controls.

  8. Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, M.G.; Roggendorf, H.; Vogel, W.H.

    1987-06-29

    The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the heart. Blood pressure was not significantly affected by ethanol in these nonstressed rats. In stressed rats, marked behavioral excitation and significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Ethanol pretreatment calmed the animals considerably during restraint. Ethanol did reduce slightly the stress-induced tachycardia but markedly reduced or antagonized stress-induced blood pressure increases. No major changes in the ECG were noted during these studies with the exception of a few individual animals which showed pathologic ECG responses to ethanol. These data show that ethanol affects cardiovascular functions differently in anesthetized, non stressed or stressed rats, and that ethanol can significantly reduce or antagonize stress-induced behavioral excitation, tachycardia and hypertension. 32 references, 4 tables.

  9. [Heart rate and blood pressure are not good parameters to evaluate preoperative anxiety.].

    PubMed

    Conceição, Diogo Bruggemann da; Schonhorst, Leonardo; Conceição, Mário José da; Oliveira Filho, Getúlio Rodrigues de

    2004-12-01

    Surgical patients are subject to different levels of preoperative distress. Anxious patients may present unfavorable psychophysical reactions, such as hypertension and tachycardia. This study aimed at evaluating the level of preoperative anxiety in a population of surgical patients, and at detecting heart rate and blood pressure changes and their relationship with age, gender, education and previous surgical experience. Participated in this randomized study 145 adult patients of both genders, physical status ASA I - III, perfectly oriented in time and space, literate and scheduled for elective surgeries, to whom the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety questionnaire was applied during preanesthetic evaluation. Patients with scores > 11 were considered anxious. Age, gender, education, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, previous surgical experience and history of hypertension were recorded. Sixty-nine patients (47.58%) were considered anxious, while 76 (52.41%) were considered not anxious. There were no significant differences between anxious and non-anxious patients in age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Among anxious patients 68.12% were females and 31.88% were males (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in education, previous surgical experience and history of hypertension between anxious and non-anxious patients. Heart rate and blood pressure do not reflect the level of preoperative anxiety. Females are more anxious then males in the preoperative period.

  10. Glycyrrhizic Acid Reduces Heart Rate and Blood Pressure by a Dual Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kailash; Zaw, Aung Moe; Sekar, Revathi; Palak, Ahuja; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Chow, Billy K C

    2016-09-27

    Beta adrenergic receptors are crucial for their role in rhythmic contraction of heart along with their role in the pathological conditions such as tachycardia and high risk of heart failure. Studies report that the levels of beta-1 adrenergic receptor tend to decrease by 50%, whereas, the levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor remains constant during the risk of heart failure. Beta blockers-the antagonistic molecules for beta-adrenergic receptors, function by slowing the heart rate, which thereby allows the left ventricle to fill completely during tachycardia incidents and hence helps in blood pumping capacity of heart and reducing the risk of heart failure. In the present study, we investigate the potential of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as a possible principal drug molecule for cardiac arrhythmias owing to its ability to induce reduction in the heart rate and blood pressure. We use in vitro and in silico approach to study GA's effect on beta adrenergic receptor along with an in vivo study to examine its effect on heart rate and blood pressure. Additionally, we explore GA's proficiency in eliciting an increase in the plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide, which by dilating the blood vessel consequently, can be a crucial aid during the occurrence of a potential heart attack. Therefore, we propose GA as a potential principal drug molecule via its potential in modulating heart rate and blood pressure.

  11. Heart rate and blood pressure control in obesity - how to detect early dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Javorka, Michal; Turianikova, Zuzana; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Lazarova, Zuzana; Czippelova, Barbora; Javorka, Kamil

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is accompanied by many severe complications including various cardiovascular disorders. An impairment of cardiovascular control by autonomic nervous system could be one of the possible links between obesity and cardiovascular complications development. The aim of this study was to compare spontaneous heart rate and systolic blood pressure oscillations reflecting cardiovascular autonomic control of young obese subjects with normal control subjects by linear and nonlinear methods and to find sensitive markers of early autonomic dysregulation. Continuous recordings of beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure and RR intervals from ECG were obtained from 40 obese subjects (25 female, age 14·2 [13·1-16·1] (median [interquartile range]) years) and gender and age matched non-obese control subjects. In addition to linear measures (time and frequency domain), we performed recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and multiscale entropy analysis for both signals. While no significant differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure dynamics were detected by linear measures and MSE, analysis of recurrence plots from RR intervals time series showed significant differences - indices trapping time and maximal length of vertical from RQA were significantly higher in obese compared to control group. We conclude that heart rate and blood pressure control by autonomic nervous system in young obese subjects is relatively well preserved. However, novel RQA-related measures are able to detect early subtle abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control in obese subjects indicating decreased signal complexity. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sannino, G; Melillo, P; Stranges, S; De Pietro, G; Pecchia, L

    2015-01-01

    Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 minutes before standing. The blood pressure value was measured before and after rising. A mathematical model aiming to predict ΔBP based on Heart Rate Variability measurements was developed using a robust multi-linear regression and was validated with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation technique. The model predicted correctly the ΔBP in 80% of experiments, with an error below the measurement error of sphygmomanometer digital devices (± 4.5 mmHg), a false negative rate of 7.5% and a false positive rate of 10%. The magnitude of the ΔBP was associated with a depressed and less chaotic Heart Rate Variability pattern. The present study showes that blood pressure lowering due to standing can be predicted by monitoring the Heart Rate Variability in the 5 minutes before standing.

  13. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Methods Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 minutes before standing. The blood pressure value was measured before and after rising. A mathematical model aiming to predict ΔBP based on Heart Rate Variability measurements was developed using a robust multi-linear regression and was validated with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation technique. Results The model predicted correctly the ΔBP in 80% of experiments, with an error below the measurement error of sphygmomanometer digital devices (±4.5 mmHg), a false negative rate of 7.5% and a false positive rate of 10%. The magnitude of the ΔBP was associated with a depressed and less chaotic Heart Rate Variability pattern. Conclusions The present study showes that blood pressure lowering due to standing can be predicted by monitoring the Heart Rate Variability in the 5 minutes before standing. PMID:26391336

  14. Immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Tapas; Sharma, Hari Om; Mishra, Suchita; Mishra, Anurag; Prajapati, Rajesh; Singh, Smriti

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min) for 5 minutes on heart rate and blood pressure and the effect of the same breathing exercise for the same duration of time (5 minutes) following oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide (Buscopan), a parasympathetic blocker drug. Heart rate and blood pressure of volunteers (n = 39, age = 25-40 years) was recorded following standard procedure. First, subjects had to sit comfortably in an easy and steady posture (sukhasana) on a fairly soft seat placed on the floor keeping head, neck, and trunk erect, eyes closed, and the other muscles reasonably loose. The subject is directed to inhale through both nostrils slowly up to the maximum for about 4 seconds and then exhale slowly up to the maximum through both nostrils for about 6 seconds. The breathing must not be abdominal. These steps complete one cycle of slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min). During the practice the subject is asked not to think much about the inhalation and exhalation time, but rather was requested to imagine the open blue sky. The pranayama was conducted in a cool, well-ventilated room (18-20 degrees C). After 5 minutes of this breathing practice, the blood pressure and heart rate again were recorded in the aforesaid manner using the same instrument. The other group (n = 10) took part in another study where their blood pressure and heart rate were recorded following half an hour of oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide 20 mg. Then they practiced the breathing exercise as stated above, and the abovementioned parameters were recorded again to study the effect of parasympathetic blockade on the same pranayama. It was noted that after slow bhastrika pranayamic breathing (respiratory rate 6/min) for 5 minutes, both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly with a slight fall in heart rate. No significant alteration in both blood pressure and

  15. Time Rate of Blood Pressure Variation Is Associated With Endothelial Function in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yanping; Wei, Wanlin; Yan, Jianhua; Sun, Lixian; Lian, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Liang, Ruijuan; Xiaole, Liu; Fan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    The time rate of blood pressure (BP) variation indicates the speed of BP fluctuations. Previous studies have demonstrated that the time rate of BP variation was associated with target organ damage. However, the association between time rate of BP variation and endothelial function has not been evaluated.24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed in 61 patients with metabolic syndrome. Time rate of BP variation was calculated from BP recordings of ABPM. Endothelial function was assessed using reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry index (RHI) by EndoPat2000. Multiple linear regression models were used to detect the association between time rate of BP variation and RHI.Among all the subjects (n = 61), the multiple linear regression models revealed that the daytime rate of systolic blood pressure (SBP) variation was independently associated with RHI (β = -0.334, P = 0.008). A 0.1 mmHg/minute increase in the daytime rate of SBP variation correlated with a decline of 0.20 in RHI. The same effect was also found in the subjects with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/ (minute*1.73 m(2)). A greater association was found in those who were not taking a statin, β-blocker, ACEI/ARB, or diuretic and those without diabetes compared with those with any antihypertensive medication or with diabetes. Other ambulatory blood pressure parameters and central hemodynamics were not found to be associated with RHI.Our findings have shown that the daytime rate of SBP variation was associated with endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome, independent of other BP parameters and central hemodynamics.

  16. [Cluster analysis on the blood pressure control rate and related factors of hypertensive outpatients in China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wang, Jiwei; Yu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the blood pressure (BP) control rate and related factors in different parts of China. This cross-sectional survey was performed between March and May 2011 in 132 tertiary or secondary hospitals from 31 cities across China. Five consecutive hypertensive patients consulted to individual physician in these hospitals were included and a total of 4 110 patients aged ≥ 18 years were included, and 3 682 patients finished the follow-up protocol. All objects underwent questionnaire survey and physical examination. Cities were divided into 3 categories. Among included hypertensive outpatients, the prevalence of coronary heart disease was the highest (37.4%, 1 368/3 662) comorbidity. The most commonly used antihypertensive medication was calcium channel blocker (51.3%, 1 861/3 628). Blood control rate was the highest in city category II(37.0%) and the lowest in city category I (9.1%). Accordingly, body mass index (BMI, (25.7 ± 0.6) kg/m(2)) and waist circumference ( (90.6 ± 3.1 ) cm) were the largest and the prevalence of coronary heart disease (60.8%) and stroke (19.0%) were the highest in hypertensive outpatients from city categoryI. Blood pressure control rate varies among various cities in China. High BMI and co-morbidities of coronary heart disease and stroke are related to poor blood pressure control rate.

  17. Plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure and heart rate response to graded change in body position.

    PubMed

    Fiorica, V; Kem, D C

    1985-12-01

    In this study, 44 human subjects underwent either an orthostatic postural change (supine to stand, n = 17) or a graded change in body position (head-up) on a tilt-table (n = 27). No significant changes in systolic blood pressure or mean blood pressure were observed during either maneuver; significant increases, under both conditions, were observed in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations after orthostatic position change increased significantly (supine 181 +/- 14 (S.E.M.) pg X ml-1; stand, 472 +/- 35 pg X ml-1, p less than 0.01). Plasma norepinephrine concentrations during graded postural change increased proportionately with increasing degrees of tilt (r = 0.76, p less than 0.01). A significant correlation between plasma norepinephrine and heart rate was observed during both positional change maneuvers (graded tilt-table, r = 0.80, p less than 0.01; orthostatic, r = 0.50, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that the degree of sympathetic nervous system activity for blood pressure regulation during graded postural change is appropriately reflected by plasma norepinephrine concentrations.

  18. Effects of operationally effective doses of dextroamphetamine on heart rates and blood pressures of army aviators.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J A

    1996-11-01

    The cardiovascular effects of 30 mg of dextroamphetamine, given in divided 10-mg doses at midnight, 4 a.m., and 8 a.m. during a sustained-operations scenario, were explored. Blood pressures and heart rates of male and female UH-60 pilots were measured during two periods of continuous wakefulness in which subjects received dextroamphetamine and placebo. Persistent elevations in heart rates were observed from 2 hours after the second 10-mg dose of dextroamphetamine until the end of the day. Systolic blood pressures of males were elevated from 1 hour after the first 10-mg dose until 5 hours after the third 10-mg dose. Systolic blood pressures of females increased 1 hour after the third 10-mg dose of dextroamphetamine and remained high until 6 hours after the third 10-mg dose. Diastolic blood pressures in both genders showed a persistent elevation from 2 hours past the second 10-mg dose until 6 hours after the third 10-mg dose. These changes did not result in any clinically detectable adverse sequelae.

  19. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope-cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed), cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure), and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia). Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test.

  20. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed), cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure), and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia). Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test. PMID:27525257

  1. The effect of histamine iontophoresis on the heart rate and blood pressure of female subjects.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, R A; Olaogun, M O B; Ukponmwan, O E; Orafidiya, O O

    2004-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine iontophoresis on the Blood Pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) of female subjects. Twenty apparently healthy female undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (average age 24.2 +/- 2.9) participated in the study. An automated electronic sphygmo-manometer that monitors both BP and HR was used to measure the Systolic Blood Pressure(SBP) and diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) over the left brachial artery. The histamine gel used in this study contained 1 percent histamine dihydro-chloride. The gel was applied to the right biceps brachii and active was applied below the cubital fossa. The current intensity Interrupted Direct Current (IDC) was gradually increased and subjects were instructed to indicate immediately they experienced tingling sensation under the electrode. The same procedure was carried out the second time on the subjects with the same intensity of IDC current but without histamine for each subject. The treatments were administered on different days but within a two-week interval. The cardiovascular response was monitored five minutes before the administration, twenty minutes during the administration and five minutes after the termination of each treatment. Blood Pressure and heart rate did not change significantly from the baseline during the histamine iontophoresis and direct currents treatments (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that the subjects' BP and HR were not affected by histamine iontophoresis during the twenty minutes treatment. It was concluded that local administration of 1 percent histamine dihydrochloride into the subcutaneous tissue of females' right upper arm with the aid of direct current did not appreciably affect the blood pressure and heart rate after 20 minutes of treatment.

  2. Blood pressure and heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity before and after brain death

    PubMed Central

    Conci, F; Di, R; Castiglioni, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity before and after brain death.
METHODS—Spontaneous variability of arterial blood pressure and heart rate—estimated by power spectra of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse interval (PI)—and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)—estimated by the alpha index and the sequence technique—were evaluated in 11 patients twice: shortly before and 1 hour after the onset of brain death.
RESULTS—Significant spectral changes occurred after brain death: a general power reduction in PI spectra; a shift of SBP, DBP and PI powers toward the lower frequencies, resulting in a greater slope of the "1/f" spectral trends; and a marked reduction of SBP and DBP powers (-93%) and of SBP-PI coherence (−63%) at 0.1Hz. The estimated average BRS was relatively high before brain death (around 11 ms/mm Hg), and fell close to 0 or even was not detectable at all after brain death.
CONCLUSIONS—Parameters describing spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and indexes reflecting the baroreflex function, which were relatively normal up to a few hours before brain death, underwent marked changes with the onset of brain death. All the changes found are likely to reflect the cessation of activity of the cardiovascular brain stem centres. These findings indicate that techniques of blood pressure and heart rate spectral analysis and of dynamic assessment of baroreflex sensitivity may be useful to complement the diagnosis of brain stem death.

 PMID:11606674

  3. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  4. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  5. Blood Pressure Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure readings at home. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... options might work best for you. Low blood pressure Low blood pressure that either doesn't cause ...

  6. Effect of skin to skin care to neonates on pulse rate, respiratory rate SPO2 and blood pressure in mothers.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Archana; Patel, Dipen; Sethi, Ankur; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2014-01-01

    Physiological benefits of skin to skin care (STS) to newborns are known but there is scarcity of data on changes in physiological parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate, SPO2 and blood pressure in mothers during STS. We hypothesize that STS is beneficial to mothers with respect to these parameters. Objective of this study was to assess the changes of these parameters in mothers while providing STS for one hour. STS was provided by 52 mothers for a total of 127 times and parameters were recorded at starting of STS, at 15 min, at 30 min, at 60 min of STS and at 5 min rest after stopping STS. There were no significant changes in pulse rate and SPO2 but blood pressure and respiratory rate reduced significantly during STS as compared to rest after stopping STS. Thus STS is physiologically beneficial to mothers.

  7. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Caffeine exposure 12-24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing.

  8. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. Methods 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Results Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Conclusions Caffeine exposure 12–24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing. PMID:26098883

  9. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.

  10. Physiologic regulation of heart rate and blood pressure involves connexin 36–containing gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Varinder K.; Bruce, Gareth; Voytenko, Larysa; Drinkhill, Mark; Wellershaus, Kerstin; Willecke, Klaus; Deuchars, Jim; Deuchars, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronically elevated sympathetic nervous activity underlies many cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms contributing to sympathetic nervous system output may reveal new avenues of treatment. The contribution of the gap junctional protein connexin 36 (Cx36) to the regulation of sympathetic activity and thus blood pressure and heart rate was determined using a mouse with specific genetic deletion of Cx36. Ablation of the Cx36 protein was confirmed in sympathetic preganglionic neurons of Cx36-knockout (KO) mice. Telemetric analysis from conscious Cx36 KO mice revealed higher variance in heart rate and blood pressure during rest and activity compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and smaller responses to chemoreceptor activation when anesthetized. In the working heart–brain stem preparation of the Cx36-KO mouse, respiratory-coupled sympathetic nerve discharge was attenuated and responses to chemoreceptor stimulation and noxious stimulation were blunted compared to WT mice. Using whole cell patch recordings, sympathetic preganglionic neurons in spinal cord slices of Cx36-KO mice displayed lower levels of spikelet activity compared to WT mice, indicating reduced gap junction coupling between neurons. Cx36 deletion therefore disrupts normal regulation of sympathetic outflow with effects on cardiovascular parameters.—Lall, V. K., Bruce, G., Voytenko, L., Drinkhill, M., Wellershaus, K., Willecke, K., Deuchars, J., Deuchars, S. A. Physiologic regulation of heart rate and blood pressure involves connexin 36–containing gap junctions. PMID:28533325

  11. Heart rate and blood pressure variations after transvascular patent ductus arteriosus occlusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    De Monte, Valentina; Staffieri, Francesco; Caivano, Domenico; Nannarone, Sara; Birettoni, Francesco; Porciello, Francesco; Di Meo, Antonio; Bufalari, Antonello

    2017-09-05

    The objective of the study was to retrospectively analyse the cardiovascular effects that occurs following the transvascular occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in dogs. Sixteen anaesthesia records were included. Variables were recorded at the time of placing the arterial introducer, occlusion of the ductus, and from 5 to 60min thereafter, including, among the other, heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure. The maximal percentage variation of the aforementioned physiological parameters within 60min of occlusion, compared with the values recorded at the introducer placing, was calculated. The time at which maximal variation occurred was also computed. Correlations between maximal percentage variation of physiological parameters and the diameter of the ductus and systolic and diastolic flow velocity through it were evaluated with linear regression analysis. Heart rate decreased after occlusion of the ductus with a mean maximal percentage variation of 41.0±14.8% after 21.2±13.7min. Mean and diastolic arterial blood pressure increased after occlusion with a mean maximal percentage variation of 30.6±18.1 and 55.4±27.1% after 19.6±12.1 and 15.7±10.8min, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressure variation had a significant and moderate inverse correlation with diastolic and systolic flow velocity through the ductus. Transvascular patent ductus arteriosus occlusion in anaesthetised dogs causes a significant reduction in heart rate and an increase in diastolic and mean blood arterial pressure within 20min of closure of the ductus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  13. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on blood pressure and heart rate in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Eric J; Argo, Tami R; Egge, Jason A

    2013-02-01

    Hyperarousal is a hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD has been associated with increased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in veteran populations. We retrospectively identified male patients consulted to outpatient psychiatry at the Iowa City Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. Patients were divided into PTSD (n = 88) and non-PTSD (n = 98) groups. All PTSD patients and a subset of non-PTSD patients had documented blast exposure during service. The study investigated whether patients with PTSD had higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) than patients without PTSD. The effect of trauma exposure on BP was also examined. Mean SBP (133.8 vs. 122.3 mm Hg; p < .001), DBP (87.6 vs. 78.6 mm Hg; p < .001), and HR (78.9 vs. 73.1 bpm; p < .001) were all significantly higher in the PTSD group. Trauma-exposed patients without PTSD had significantly higher BP than nonexposed patients. The prevalence of hypertension (HTN) was 34.1% (diagnosed and undiagnosed) among PTSD patients. Patients with PTSD had higher BP and HR compared to patients without PTSD. Trauma exposure may increase BP in this population. These findings will increase awareness about the cardiovascular implications of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Blood pressure and heart rate variability complexity analysis in pregnant women with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tejera, Eduardo; Areias, Maria Jose; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Nieto-Villar, Jose Manuel; Rebelo, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of blood pressure and heart rate variability complexity during pregnancy between normal, hypertensive, and preeclamptic women. A total of 563 short electrocardiographic (10 min) records were obtained from 217 pregnant women (135 normal, 55 hypertensive, and 27 preeclamptic) during several gestational ages in sitting position. We used a mixed unbalanced model for the longitudinal statistical analysis and besides the conventional spectral analysis, we applied Lempel-Ziv complexity, sample entropy, approximated entropy, and detrended fluctuation analysis in the complexity measurement. The obtained results revealed significant differences between pathological and normal states with important considerations related to pregnancy adaptability and evolution as well as the relationship of complexity and blood pressure with factors such as maternal age, familial history of diabetes or hypertension, and parity.

  15. Predictors of differences between Type A and B individuals in heart rate and blood pressure reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lyness, S A

    1993-09-01

    Past estimates of the magnitude of Type A-B differences in cardiovascular reactivity are probably overly conservative. In addition, it is unclear which situations are more likely to elicit excessive reactivity in Type As. The present meta-analysis found that, overall, Type As had greater heart rate (mean d = .22), diastolic blood pressure (d = .22), and especially systolic blood pressure responses (d = .33) than Type Bs; these effect sizes were small but relatively consistent. However, Type As showed especially greater cardiovascular reactivity in situations characterized as having (a) positive or negative feedback evaluation, (b) socially aversive elements such as verbal harassment or criticism, and (c) elements inherent in playing video games. Measures of time urgency, Type A assessment method, and gender were not found to be strongly related to A-B differences in cardiovascular reactivity. Future studies that use more "Type A-relevant" situations will probably find greater effects.

  16. Heart rate, blood pressure and repolarization effects of an energy drink as compared to coffee.

    PubMed

    Brothers, R Matthew; Christmas, Kevin M; Patik, Jordan C; Bhella, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of energy drinks on haemodynamic and cardiac physiology. Comparisons were made to coffee as well as water consumption. In Protocol #1 the caffeine content was normalized to body weight to represent a controlled environment. Heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac QTc interval were assessed in 15 participants, on 4 days, prior to and for 6·5 h postconsumption of (i) energy drink (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight; low dose), (ii) energy drink (3 mg caffeine per kg body weight; medium dose), (iii) coffee (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight) and (iv) 250 ml water. In Protocol #2, the beverages were consumed in volumes that they are purchased to represent real-life conditions. The aforementioned measurements were repeated in 15 participants following (i) 1 16 oz can of energy drink (16 oz Monster), (ii) 1 24 oz can of energy drink (24 oz Monster), (iii) 1 packet of Keurig K-Cup Starbucks coffee (coffee) and (iv) 250 ml water. The order of the beverages was performed in a randomized double-blinded fashion. For both protocols, QTc interval, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were unchanged in any condition (P>0·05). Diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure were slightly elevated in Protocol #1 (P<0·05, main effect of time) with no difference between beverages (P<0·05, interaction of beverage × time); however, they were unaffected in Protocol #2 (P>0·05). These findings suggest that acute consumption of these commonly consumed beverages has no negative effect on cardiac QTc interval. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Determination of Correlation Among Heart Rate Variability, Left Atrium Global Strain, and Nighttime Blood Pressure Among Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Değirmenci, Hüsnü; Bakırcı, Eftal Murat; Salcan, İsmail; Demirelli, Selami; Duman, Hakan; Ceyhun, Gökhan; Küçüksu, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine the correlation among nighttime blood pressure, heart rate variability, and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain among patients with subjective tinnitus. Material/Methods Eighty patients with tinnitus were assigned to Group 1 and 80 healthy individuals were assigned to Group 2. Clinical blood pressure measurements, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and Holter electrocardiography monitoring were performed. All of the cases included in the study were examined with conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Results Mean nighttime systolic blood pressure (130.3±5.4) and mean nighttime diastolic blood pressure (82.8±3.9) in Group 1 were higher than in Group 2 (125.1±5.4 and 80.7±4.7, respectively) (p<0.05). Mean heart rate in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate variability parameters and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain values (p>0.05). Conclusions Nighttime systolic blood pressure and nighttime diastolic blood pressure were higher among the patients with tinnitus. In light of these results, we can conclude that both clinical blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are important for patients with tinnitus. PMID:25249354

  18. Determination of correlation among heart rate variability, left atrium global strain, and nighttime blood pressure among patients with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Değirmenci, Hüsnü; Bakırcı, Eftal Murat; Salcan, İsmail; Demirelli, Selami; Duman, Hakan; Ceyhun, Gökhan; Küçüksu, Zafer

    2014-09-24

    We aimed to examine the correlation among nighttime blood pressure, heart rate variability, and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain among patients with subjective tinnitus. Eighty patients with tinnitus were assigned to Group 1 and 80 healthy individuals were assigned to Group 2. Clinical blood pressure measurements, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and Holter electrocardiography monitoring were performed. All of the cases included in the study were examined with conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Mean nighttime systolic blood pressure (130.3±5.4) and mean nighttime diastolic blood pressure (82.8±3.9) in Group 1 were higher than in Group 2 (125.1±5.4 and 80.7±4.7, respectively) (p<0.05). Mean heart rate in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate variability parameters and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain values (p>0.05). Nighttime systolic blood pressure and nighttime diastolic blood pressure were higher among the patients with tinnitus. In light of these results, we can conclude that both clinical blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are important for patients with tinnitus.

  19. Blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood gas reactions to acute hypoxia in carotid body denervated spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Huckstorf, C; Behm, R; Habeck, J O; Rückborn, K; Franz, U

    1987-01-01

    The role of the peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the reflex control of respiration and the cardiovascular systems was studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In carotid body denervated and in sham-operated control rats mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood gases were measured under normoxic conditions and in acute normobaric hypoxia. Under normoxia the carotid body denervated SHR differ from the sham-operated ones only in significantly lowered arterial pO2 and pH and in significantly increased pCO2 values. The carotid body denervated SHR react to acute hypoxia with a significantly smaller increase in respiratory rate, a more pronounced fall in the arterial pO2 and a greater decrease in mean arterial blood pressure than the sham-operated control rats. Our results suggest that carotid body chemoreceptors in SHR are of great importance in regulating respiration but of secondary consequence regarding the reflex control of the cardiovascular system.

  20. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  1. Blood pressure and heart rate during ovariohysterectomy in pyometra and control dogs: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Odd Viking; Lövebrant, Johanna; Olsson, Ulf; Höglund, Katja

    2016-11-17

    Surgery causes a stress response, a physiologic response to trauma. The intraoperative surgical stress response in dogs diagnosed with pyometra has not previously been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the intraoperative surgical stress response, assessed by blood pressure and heart rate measurements, in dogs diagnosed with pyometra and healthy controls. All dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and methadone, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane, where after the dogs were subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Eight dogs diagnosed with pyometra and eight healthy controls were used. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to assess the surgical stress response. Additionally propofol dosage at induction of anaesthesia and the end-tidal isoflurane concentration were investigated. The surgery was split into four phases. Phase 0 was the period 10 min before the skin incision, phase 1 was skin incision and opening of abdomen, phase 2 was manipulation of uterine horns, lifting of the ovary with stretching of the mesovarium, ligation and transection of mesovarium and phase 3 was ligation and transection of cervix, removal of organs and closing of the abdomen. Dosage of propofol at induction of anaesthesia was 3.6 ± 1 mg/kg in dogs with pyometra and 4.1 ± 1 in healthy controls (P = 0.37). In both groups, systolic blood pressure increased between phase 1 and 2, from 87 ± 15 to 114 ± 19 mmHg in dogs with pyometra, and from 88 ± 18 to 106 ± 20 mmHg in healthy controls, (both P < 0.0001). Systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly between groups in any of the phases. Heart rate and end-tidal concentration of isoflurane did not differ significantly between phases or between groups. The increased blood pressure at removal of ovaries during ovariohysterectomy suggests a pronounced noxious stimulus at this part of the procedure. In principle, the study parameters and response to surgery

  2. Ejection fractions and pressure-heart rate product to evaluate cardiac efficiency. Continuous, real-time diagnosis using blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kunig, H; Tassani-Prell, P; Engelmann, L

    2014-04-01

    Ejection fractions, derived from ventricular volumes, and double product, related to myocardial oxygen consumption, are important diagnostic parameters, as they describe the efficiency with which oxygen is consumed. Present technology often allows only intermittent determination of physiological status. This deficiency may be overcome if ejection fractions and myocardial oxygen consumption could be determined from continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements. The purpose of this study is to determine the viability of pressure-derived ejection fractions and pressure-heart rate data in a diverse patient population and the use of ejection fractions to monitor patient safety. Volume ejection fractions, derived from ventricular volumes, EF(V), are defined by the ratio of the difference of end-diastolic volume, EDV, and end-systolic volume, ESV, to EDV. In analogy, pressure ejection fraction, EF(P), may be defined by the ratio of the difference of systolic arterial pressure, SBP, and diastolic arterial pressure, DBP, to SBP. The pressure-heart rate (heart rate: HR) is given by the product of systolic pressure and heart rate, SBP × HR. EF(P) and SBP × HR data were derived for all patients (n = 824) who were admitted in 2008 to the ICU of a university hospital at the specific time 30 min prior to leaving the ICU whether as survivors or non-survivors. The results are displayed in an efficiency/pressure-heart rate diagram. The efficiency/pressure-heart rate diagram reveals one subarea populated exclusively by survivors, another subarea populated statistically significant by non-survivors, and a third area shared by survivors and non-survivors. The efficiency/pressure-heart rate product relationship may be used as an outcome criterion to assess survival and to noninvasively monitor improvement or deterioration in real time to improve safety in patients with diverse dysfunctions.

  3. Relationship between exercise heart rate recovery and circadian blood pressure pattern.

    PubMed

    Okutucu, Sercan; Kabakci, Giray; Deveci, Onur Sinan; Aksoy, Hakan; Kaya, Ergun Baris; Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate heart rate recovery (HRR) in normotensive and hypertensive individuals with either nondipper or dipper type circadian rhythm of blood pressure. Eighty-five patients were divided into 4 groups according to the presence of hypertension and pattern of circadian blood pressure as follows: (1) normotensive/dipper, n=20; (2) normotensive/nondipper, n=21; (3) hypertensive/dipper, n=22; and (4) hypertensive/nondipper, n=22. HRR indices were calculated by subtracting first, second, and third minute heart rates from the maximal heart rate obtained during stress testing and designated as HRR1, HRR2, and HRR3. Mean HRR1 values (29.7+/-4.0 vs 26.6+/-3.7, P=.016) were significantly higher in the normotensive/dipper group than the normotensive/nondipper group. Mean HRR1 values (28.6+/-4.0 vs 24.8+/-4.6 beats per minute, P=.007) were higher in the hypertensive/dipper group than the hypertensive/nondipper group. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation between degree of nighttime dipping and HRR1 (r=.600, P=.001). The correlation coefficient between degree of nighttime dipping and HRR1 was higher in the hypertensive group than the normotensive group (r=.676, P=.001 and r=.575, P=.001, respectively). Blunting of the nocturnal fall in blood pressure associates with a delayed recovery of heart rate after graded maximal exercise in both normotensive and hypertensive groups. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acute Effects of T'ai Chi Chuan Exercise on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Peripheral Artery Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Filipe Fernandes Oliveira; da Silva Santana, Fábio; da Silva, Thiago Souza Rosas; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the acute effect of a t'ai chi chuan session on blood pressure and heart rate in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Randomized crossover intervention study. Outpatient therapy center. Seven patients with PAD, aged 50-79 years, not using β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or nondihidropiridinic vasodilators. T'ai chi chuan and control session (both sessions lasted 40 minutes). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, which were evaluated before and after the intervention (10, 30, and 50 minutes). T'ai chi chuan exercise acutely decreased systolic blood pressure at 30 minutes after exercise (p = 0.042) and increased diastolic blood pressure at 50 minutes after exercise (p = 0.041). Heart rate did not change after t'ai chi chuan exercise. T'ai chi chuan acutely decreases systolic blood pressure in patients with PAD.

  5. Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate: proven clinical value?

    PubMed

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    The baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) is a key mechanism contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed so far to assess BRS by analyzing the spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. These methods are inherently simple, non-invasive and low-cost. This study is an attempt to address the question of whether spontaneous baroreflex methods have proven to be of value in the clinical setting. In the first part of this article, we critically review most representative clinical studies using spontaneous BRS techniques either for risk stratification or treatment evaluation, these being major issues in the clinical management of the patients. In the second part, we address two important aspects of spontaneous BRS measurements: measurability and reliability. Estimation of BRS in the studies selected for the review was performed according to the sequence, transfer function, alpha-index and phase-rectified signal averaging method. Arterial blood pressure was recorded non-invasively during supine, short-term (<30 min) laboratory recordings. The conclusion from this review is that spontaneous BRS techniques have been shown to be of great value in clinical practice but further work is needed to confirm the validity of previous findings and to widen the field of clinical applications. Measurability and reliability can be a major issue in the measurement of spontaneous BRS, particularly in some patient populations like post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patents. Main causes of poor measurability are: non-sinus rhythm, a high rate of ectopic beats and the need for recorded time series of RR interval and arterial blood pressure to satisfy the constraints of the different BRS estimation algorithms. As for reliability, within-subject variability is rather high in the measurements of spontaneous BRS and, therefore, should be carefully taken into account

  6. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  8. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  10. High blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000468.htm High blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... body. Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers. ...

  11. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Damkjaer, M; Wang, T; Brøndum, E; Østergaard, K H; Baandrup, U; Hørlyck, A; Hasenkam, J M; Smerup, M; Funder, J; Marcussen, N; Danielsen, C C; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Pedersen, M; Agger, P; Candy, G; Aalkjaer, C; Bie, P

    2015-08-01

    The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) was assessed by inserting a needle into the medullary parenchyma. Doppler ultrasound measurements provided renal artery resistive index (RI). Hormone concentrations as well as biomechanical, structural and histological characteristics of vascular and renal tissues were determined. GFR averaged 342 ± 99 mL min(-1) and ERPF 1252 ± 305 mL min(-1) . RIHP varied between 45 and 140 mmHg. Renal pelvic pressure was 39 ± 2 mmHg and renal venous pressure 32 ± 4 mmHg. A valve-like structure at the junction of the renal and vena cava generated a pressure drop of 12 ± 2 mmHg. RI was 0.27. The renal capsule was durable with a calculated burst pressure of 600 mmHg. Plasma renin and AngII were 2.6 ± 0.5 mIU L(-1) and 9.1 ± 1.5 pg mL(-1) respectively. In giraffes, GFR, ERPF and RI appear much lower than expected based on body mass. A strong renal capsule supports a RIHP, which is >10-fold that of other mammals effectively reducing the net filtration pressure and protecting against the high MAP. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomization Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium.

    PubMed

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Bjorngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn O; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo E; Kumari, Meena; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Palotie, Aarno; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Ford, Ian; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Kuh, Diana; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Geus, Eco J C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Preisig, Martin; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Korhonen, Tellervo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Thuesen, Betina H; Sattar, Naveed; Morris, Richard W; Romundstad, Pål R; Munafò, Marcus R; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N

    2015-12-01

    Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. Data on 141 317 participants (62 666 never, 40 669 former, 37 982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were included in observational and Mendelian randomization meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the Mendelian randomization analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses among current smokers, 1 cigarette/day higher level of smoking heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 bpm; 95% confidence interval 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate and slightly higher diastolic blood pressure (0.05 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) and systolic blood pressure (0.08 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.13). However, in Mendelian randomization analyses among current smokers, although each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with higher resting heart rate (0.36 bpm/allele; 95% confidence interval 0.18; 0.54), there was no strong association with diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, or hypertension. This would suggest a 7 bpm higher heart rate in those who smoke 20 cigarettes/day. This Mendelian randomization meta-analysis supports a causal association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Persistent effects after trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation by mandibular extension on rat blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Lapi, D; Colantuoni, A; Del Seppia, C; Ghione, S; Tonlorenzi, D; Brunelli, M; Scuri, R

    2013-03-01

    The trigemino-cardiac reflex is a brainstem reflex known to lead to a decrement in heart rate and blood pressure, whereas few data have been collected about its effects on the cerebral hemodynamic. In this study we assess the in vivo effects of trigeminal nerve peripheral stimulation by mandibular extension on pial microcirculation and systemic arterial blood pressure in rats. Experiments were performed in male Wistar rats subjected to mandibular extension obtained inserting an ad hoc developed retractor between the dental arches. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and the pial arterioles were visualized by fluorescence microscopy to measure the vessel diameters before (15 minutes) during (5-15 minutes) and after (80 minutes) mandibular extension. While in control rats (sham-operated rats) and in rats subjected to the dissection of the trigeminal peripheral branches mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation did not change during the whole observation period (110 minutes), in rats submitted to mandibular extension, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and arteriolar diameter significantly decreased during stimulation. Afterward mean arterial blood pressure remained reduced as well as heart rate, while arteriolar diameter significantly increased evidencing a vasodilatation persisting for the whole remaining observation time. Therefore, trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation appears to trigger specific mechanisms regulating systemic arterial blood pressure and pial microcirculation.

  14. The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua workers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua (spa) workers. We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP. For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR. Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  15. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis; Part I. Blood pressure and heart rate effects in the anesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Magos, G A; Vidrio, H

    1991-02-01

    The effect of an alcoholic extract of seeds of Casimiroa edulis on blood pressure and heart rate was determined in rats anesthetized with pentobarbital and compared with that of histamine. The extract induced hypotension, accompanied at high doses by tachycardia. Hypotension after histamine was more transient and was not accompanied by changes in heart rate. Experiments with a variety of autonomic antagonists revealed that extract-induced hypotension was not mediated by histamine H2, muscarinic, or beta-adrenergic receptors, but involved an H1 mechanism. After H1 blockade, the depressor response was reversed to a pressor effect, mediated by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation. The increase in heart rate was due in part to H1 and in part to beta-adrenergic receptor activation. It was suggested that imidazole derivatives could be responsible for the depressor effect observed. The pressor response could be caused by these or other components of the extract.

  16. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main types of high blood ...

  17. Endomorphins decrease heart rate and blood pressure possibly by activating vagal afferents in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kwok, E H; Dun, N J

    1998-08-24

    Endomorphin 1 (10, 30, 100 nmol/kg) administered intravenously (i.v. ) to urethane-anesthetized rats consistently and dose-dependently lowered heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP); the decrease in blood pressure recovered faster as compared to the HR. The effects of endomorphin 2 were qualitatively similar. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.v.) completely antagonized the bradycardia and hypotension caused by endomorphin 1. Pretreatment of the rats with atropine methylnitrate, atropine sulfate (2 mg/kg, i.v.) or bilateral vagotomy nearly abolished the bradycardia and attenuated the hypotensive effect of endomorphin 1. Our studies suggest that the bradycardia effect following systemic administration of the new opioid peptide may be explained by activation of vagal afferents and the hypotensive effect may be secondary to a reduction of cardiac output and/or a direct vasodilation.

  18. Effects of particulate air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate in subjects with cardiovascular disease: a multicenter approach.

    PubMed Central

    Ibald-Mulli, Angela; Timonen, Kirsi L; Peters, Annette; Heinrich, Joachim; Wölke, Gabriele; Lanki, Timo; Buzorius, Gintautas; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; de Hartog, Jeroen; Hoek, Gerard; ten Brink, Harry M; Pekkanen, Juha

    2004-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that air pollution is associated with elevated blood pressure and heart rate, the effect of daily concentrations of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate was assessed in 131 adults with coronary heart disease in Helsinki, Finland; Erfurt, Germany; and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Blood pressure was measured by a digital monitor, and heart rate was calculated as beats per minute from an electrocardiogram recording with the patient in supine position. Particle concentrations were measured at central measuring sites. Linear regression was used to model the association between 24-hr mean concentrations of particles and blood pressure and heart rate. Estimates were adjusted for trend, day of week, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, and medication use. Pooled effect estimates showed a small significant decrease in diastolic and systolic blood pressure in association with particulate air pollution; a slight decrease in heart rate was found. Of the three centers, Erfurt revealed the most consistent particle effects. The results do not support findings from previous studies that had shown an increase in blood pressure and heart rate in healthy individuals in association with particles. However, particle effects might differ in cardiac patients because of medication intake and disease status, both affecting the autonomic control of the heart. PMID:14998755

  19. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, P<0.001). In conclusion, the decrease in HR with ivabradine was associated with an increase in central systolic pressure, which may have antagonized possible benefits of HR lowering in coronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Effect of selective vagal nerve stimulation on blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate in rats under metoprolol medication.

    PubMed

    Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Plachta, Dennis T T

    2016-02-01

    Selective vagal nerve stimulation (sVNS) has been shown to reduce blood pressure without major side effects in rats. This technology might be the key to non-medical antihypertensive treatment in patients with therapy-resistant hypertension. β-blockers are the first-line therapy of hypertension and have in general a bradycardic effect. As VNS itself can also promote bradycardia, it was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of the β1-selective blocker Metoprolol on the effect of sVNS especially with respect to the heart rate. In 10 male Wistar rats, a polyimide multichannel-cuff electrode was placed around the vagal nerve bundle to selectively stimulate the aortic depressor nerve fibers. The stimulation parameters were adapted to the thresholds of individual animals and were in the following ranges: frequency 30-50 Hz, amplitude 0.3-1.8 mA and pulse width 0.3-1.3 ms. Blood pressure responses were detected with a microtip transducer in the carotid artery, and electrocardiography was recorded with s.c. chest electrodes. After IV administration of Metoprolol (2 mg kg(-1) body weight), the animals' mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) decreased significantly. Although the selective electrical stimulation of the baroreceptive fibers reduced MAP and HR, both effects were significantly alleviated by Metoprolol. As a side effect, the rate of stimulation-induced apnea significantly increased after Metoprolol administration. sVNS can lower the MAP under Metoprolol without causing severe bradycardia.

  1. Urbanicity Affects Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Reactivity to a Speech Stressor in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Cheryl A.; Anderson, Norman B.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Hébert, James R.; Muna, Walinjom F. T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the interactive influence of urbanicity on cardiovascular reactivity to speech stressors among 103 urban and 93 rural Cameroonians. Method Heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (HR, SBP, and DBP) changes from baseline were assessed during a speech preparation period, speech stressor task, and post-speech recovery period. Results After adjusting for income, age, BMI, and sex, urban subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech conditions than to recovery. Urban subjects also showed greater reactivity to the speech stressor than to other conditions. Urban subjects showed greater HR reactivity to the speech stressor. Rural subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech stressor and less recovery. Conclusion Urbanicity affects blood pressure and heart rate differently for urban and rural Cameroonians. It also affects recovery from stressors. More exploration into the influence of urbanization on hypertension risk factors in developing countries is warranted. (Ethn Dis. 2010;20:251–256) PMID:20828098

  2. The effect of self-selected music during colonoscopy on anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Dianne; Topp, Robert; Singer, Lynda

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on self-reported and physiological signs of anxiety among ambulatory patients undergoing colonoscopy. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to either an experimental group who listened to music during the colonoscopy or a standard procedure no music control group. Before and after the procedure, subjects completed the State Anxiety Inventory. Physiological signs of anxiety, including heart rate and blood pressure, were monitored at four time points during the procedure. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated a significant group by time interaction on the physiological signs of anxiety. Post hoc analysis indicated that heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased among the music intervention group during the procedure while remaining unchanged in the control group. No significant effect of the treatment was observed on the State Anxiety Inventory, although a trend indicated that the music intervention decreased state anxiety. Finally, the group who received the music intervention required less physician-administered sedation during the procedure than did the control group. These findings indicate that music therapy has the potential to reduce physiological indicators of anxiety and the need for sedation among individuals undergoing a colonoscopy. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  3. Implication of base heart rate in autonomic nervous function, blood pressure and health-related QOL.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yasuko; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Matsushita, Kei; Tamura, Kouichi; Kihara, Minoru; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Tochikubo, Osamu; Umemura, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Increased resting heart rate (HR) and increased sympathetic nervous activity are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Recently, base heart rate (HRo: minimum stable HR during sleep) has been reported to relate to cardiac stroke volume and age. However, little is known about the relevance of HRo. The aim of our study was to evaluate how HRo is associated with HR variability (HRV), blood pressure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in healthy subjects. A total of 139 volunteers participated in this study that measured 24-hr HR, HRV, and blood pressure. HRo was estimated from the trendgram and the histogram of HR during the nighttime (sleep) period, and calculated as the 1% lowest value of its integral. HRQOL was assessed by Medical Outcome Study Short-Forum 36-Item Health Survey. Sympathetic nervous activity (ratio of low frequency to high frequency component: LF/HF) and parasympathetic nervous activity (high frequency component: HF) were calculated by ECG monitoring. HRo was positively correlated with 24-hr LF/HF and nighttime LF/HF. HRo was negatively correlated with 24-hr HF and nighttime HF. Moreover, HRo was positively correlated with the scores of social functioning and role-physical. Using multivariate analysis, HRo is related to LF/HF, body mass index, and the score of social functioning (HRQOL). HRo may be a useful indicator for assessing sympathetic nervous activity and HRQOL in normotensive healthy subjects.

  4. Effect of acute exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of the conscious rat

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, I.; Simomura, Y.; Yokoyama, E.

    1985-12-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure in conscious and unrestrained rats of various ages were recorded during a 3-hr exposure to filtered air or 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/). In general, heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure of rats significantly decreased during exposure to O/sub 3/, whereas these functional parameters remained almost stable during exposure to filtered air. Heart rate usually reached a plateau during the exposure to O/sub 3/. Additionally, PR interval and QRS complex significantly increased and premature atrial contraction and incomplete A-V block were frequently observed during the exposure to O/sub 3/. These circulatory effects of O/sub 3/ were more markedly manifested by rats 11 weeks old than either those 8 or 4 weeks old. On the other hand, no significant difference in the circulatory responses was observed between male and female rats. These circulatory effects of O/sub 3/ may be significant from the viewpoint of health effects, although its mechanisms remain unsolved.

  5. Evaluation of heart rate variability and night-time blood pressure measurements in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Demirelli, S; Degirmenci, H; Fırtına, S; Salcan, I; Ermis, E; Duman, H; Ipek, E; Hamur, H; Ceyhun, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in the etiology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) and night-time blood pressure levels. A total of 58 patients, 31 ISSHL patients (group 1) and 27 healthy volunteers (control group; group 2), were included in this study. Clinical and ambulatory blood pressure measurements and Holter electrocardiography were performed in both groups. After these evaluations, HRV parameters and night-time blood pressure values were determined. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measured at night-time were higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (p < 0.05). Heart rate variability parameters were lower in group 1 than in group 2. In patients with ISSHL, elevated blood pressure at night-time and reduced heart rate variability suggest that autonomic nervous system dysfunction might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The measurements of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability can reveal more enlightening data in the determination of the etiology of ISSHL and guiding the treatment.

  6. Fine structure of the low-frequency spectra of heart rate and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kuusela, Tom A; Kaila, Timo J; Kähönen, Mika

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the principal frequency components of the heart rate and blood pressure variability in the low frequency (LF) and very low frequency (VLF) band. The spectral composition of the R–R interval (RRI) and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) in the frequency range below 0.15 Hz were carefully analyzed using three different spectral methods: Fast Fourier transform (FFT), Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD), and autoregression (AR). All spectral methods were used to create time–frequency plots to uncover the principal spectral components that are least dependent on time. The accurate frequencies of these components were calculated from the pole decomposition of the AR spectral density after determining the optimal model order – the most crucial factor when using this method – with the help of FFT and WVD methods. Results Spectral analysis of the RRI and SAP of 12 healthy subjects revealed that there are always at least three spectral components below 0.15 Hz. The three principal frequency components are 0.026 ± 0.003 (mean ± SD) Hz, 0.076 ± 0.012 Hz, and 0.117 ± 0.016 Hz. These principal components vary only slightly over time. FFT-based coherence and phase-function analysis suggests that the second and third components are related to the baroreflex control of blood pressure, since the phase difference between SAP and RRI was negative and almost constant, whereas the origin of the first component is different since no clear SAP–RRI phase relationship was found. Conclusion The above data indicate that spontaneous fluctuations in heart rate and blood pressure within the standard low-frequency range of 0.04–0.15 Hz typically occur at two frequency components rather than only at one as widely believed, and these components are not harmonically related. This new observation in humans can help explain divergent results in the literature concerning spontaneous low-frequency oscillations. It also raises methodological

  7. Blood pressure and heart rate responses to sudden changes of gravity during exercise.

    PubMed

    Linnarsson, D; Sundberg, C J; Tedner, B; Haruna, Y; Karemaker, J M; Antonutto, G; Di Prampero, P E

    1996-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses to sudden changes of gravity during 80- to 100-W leg exercise were studied. One group was exposed to sudden changes between 1.0 and 0 g in the head-to-foot direction (Gz+), starting upright and with repeated 30-s tilts to the supine position. Another group was exposed to sudden Gz+ changes between 1.8 and 0 g in an aircraft performing parabolic flight. Arterial blood pressure at the level of the carotid (carotid distending pressure, CDP) showed a large transient increase by 27-47 mmHg when Gz+ was suddenly decreased and a similar drop when Gz+ was suddenly increased. HR displayed a reverse pattern with larger transients (-22 to -26 min-1) in response to Gz+ decreases and more sluggish changes of lower amplitude in the other direction. Central blood volume, as estimated from the inverse of transthoracic impedance (1/TTI), varied in concert with Gz+. A model is proposed in which HR responses are described as a function of CDP and 1/TTI after a time delay of 2.3-3.0 s and including a low-pass filter function with time constants of 0.34-0.35 s for decreasing HR and time constants of 2.9-4.6 s for increasing HR. The sensitivity of the carotid component was around -0.8 to -1.0 min-1 . mmHg-1 (4-7 ms/mmHg). The cardiopulmonary baroreceptor component was an additive input but was of modest relative importance during the initial HR responses. For steady-state HR responses, however, our model suggests that inputs from carotid and cardiopulmonary receptors are of equal importance.

  8. Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ambulatory exercise in chronic hemiparetics stroke survivors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Isa, Lawal; Abubakar, Aliyu; Rufa'i, Ahmad; Mukadas, Akindele

    2014-12-01

    Frenkel's ambulatory activity has been routinely employed by physiotherapists for rehabilitation of gait coordination, however, its immediate influence on blood pressure and heart rate has not been investigated. To investigate the acute effect of Frenkel's ambulatory activity on blood pressure and heart rate of chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors. Using a comparative study design, 60 chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors of varying onset of stroke, ≤6, >6-11 and ≥12 months were subjected to a 2-minute Frenkel's ambulatory activity on marked footsteps (from standard adult described footsteps). Participants were assessed for both blood pressure and heart rate before and after the Frenkel's ambulatory activity. Blood pressure and heart rate significantly increased (p<0.05) following Frenkel's ambulatory activity in all the 3 categories of stroke onset above baseline. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) across the onsets in both blood pressure and heart rate responses. The outcome of this study indicated that Frenkel's ambulatory activity has the propensity to increase blood pressure and heart rate of hemiparetic stroke survivors irrespective of the onset of stroke. We recommend a pre, within and post-activity monitoring of stroke survivors while subjecting them to Frenkel's ambulatory activity.

  9. Blood pressure and heart rate variability analysis of orthostatic challenge in normal human pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Saarelainen, Heli; Valtonen, Pirjo; Lyyra-Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Vanninen, Esko; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate pregnancy-related changes in autonomic regulatory functions in healthy subjects. We studied cardiovascular autonomic responses to head-up tilt (HUT) in 28 pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 3 months after parturition. The maternal ECG and non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure were recorded in the horizontal position (left-lateral position) and during HUT in the upright position. Stroke volume was assessed from blood pressure signal by using the arterial pulse contour method. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analysed in frequency domain, and baroreflex sensitivity by the cross-spectral and the sequence methods. In the horizontal position, all frequency components of HRV were lower during pregnancy than 3 months after parturition (P < 0.01 to <0.001), while pregnancy had no influence on normalized low frequency and high frequency powers. During pregnancy haemodynamics was well balanced with only minor changes in response to postural change while haemodynamic responses to HUT were more remarkable after parturition. In pregnant women HRV and especially its very low frequency component increased in response to HUT, whereas at 3 months after parturition the direction of these changes was opposite. Parasympathetic deactivation towards term is likely to contribute to increased heart rate and cardiac output at rest, whereas restored sympathetic modulation with modest responses may contribute stable peripheral resistance and sufficient placental blood supply under stimulated conditions. It is important to understand cardiovascular autonomic nervous system and haemodynamic control in normal pregnancy before being able to judge whether they are dysregulated in complicated pregnancies.

  10. Effect of Acute Administration of an Herbal Preparation on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, John G.; Nelson, Aaron; Devonish, Julia; Burke, Edmund R.; Stohs, Sidney J.

    2011-01-01

    Confusion and controversy exist regarding the cardiovascular effects of dietary supplements containing caffeine and Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinehrine, but exhibits markedly different pharmacokinetic and receptor binding properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a product containing caffeine, bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) and green tea extract in mildly overweight individuals. Fourteen female and nine male subjects (age 24.7 ±7.4 yrs, BMI: 26.6 ±3.8) volunteered in this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind designed study. On day one, subjects entered the laboratory following an overnight fast. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at 60 min. Expired air was analyzed for the next 10 min of the session. At each of three meals, subjects ingested one capsule that was either a non-caloric placebo or a dietary supplement that contained 13 mg p-synephrine and 176 mg caffeine. On the following day, the subjects returned and repeated the protocol for data collection beginning 60 min after consuming one capsule of the placebo or the dietary supplement. No effects of the dietary supplement on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or mean arterial pressure were observed. No between or within group differences were observed when data were analyzed for gender and caffeine usage. A small but significant decrease in resting respiratory exchange ratio was observed for the low caffeine user group in response to the product containing caffeine and p-synephrine. The results of this study indicate that ingestion of a product containing bitter orange extract, caffeine and green tea extract does not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation may increase in certain populations. PMID:21448304

  11. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Seifert, John G; Nelson, Aaron; Devonish, Julia; Burke, Edmund R; Stohs, Sidney J

    2011-03-02

    Confusion and controversy exist regarding the cardiovascular effects of dietary supplements containing caffeine and Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinephrine, but exhibits markedly different pharmacokinetic and receptor binding properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a product containing caffeine, bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) and green tea extract in mildly overweight individuals. Fourteen female and nine male subjects (age 24.7 ±7.4 yrs, BMI: 26.6 ±3.8) volunteered in this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind designed study. On day one, subjects entered the laboratory following an overnight fast. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at 60 min. Expired air was analyzed for the next 10 min of the session. At each of three meals, subjects ingested one capsule that was either a non-caloric placebo or a dietary supplement that contained 13 mg p-synephrine and 176 mg caffeine. On the following day, the subjects returned and repeated the protocol for data collection beginning 60 min after consuming one capsule of the placebo or the dietary supplement. No effects of the dietary supplement on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or mean arterial pressure were observed. No between or within group differences were observed when data were analyzed for gender and caffeine usage. A small but significant decrease in resting respiratory exchange ratio was observed for the low caffeine user group in response to the product containing caffeine and p-synephrine. The results of this study indicate that ingestion of a product containing bitter orange extract, caffeine and green tea extract does not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation may increase in certain populations.

  12. Effects of Ylang-Ylang aroma on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da-Jung; Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Although the Ylang-Ylang aroma (YYA) has used as a general method for enhancing sedative effect, there was a little report on the efficacy of YYA on heart function using the electrocardiogram (EKG). Therefore, identifying of the effects of YYA on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) is important in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of YYA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of YYA on BP and HR in healthy men. Twenty-nine men took part in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: Ylang-Ylang group (YYG, n= 15) and control group (CG, n= 14). Physiological parameters recorded were BP by using a sphygmomanometer and HR by using an EKG. The present results demonstrated that inhalation of YYA significantly decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Inhalation of YYA also significantly decreased the HRs in 10 leads, except in lead I and aVR. This indicates that the HRs recorded in lead I and aVR were less sensitive or obtuse compared to those in the 10 other leads. Therefore, such a result reveals that it is necessary to be aware of the terms regarding the position. In the present results, YYA caused a reduction of HR and BP, and a relief of the arousal level in healthy men. The present results show a sedative effect of YYA, and this study provides some evidences for the usage of YYA in medicinal agent. PMID:24278868

  13. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability on Recently Diagnosed Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Chávez, Anaclara; Estañol, Bruno; Gien-López, José Antonio; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Huitrado-Duarte, María Elena; Moreno-Morales, René; Becerra-Luna, Brayans

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects approximately 250 million people in the world. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that leads to severe postural hypotension, exercise intolerance, and increased incidence of silent myocardial infarction. Objective To determine the variability of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in recently diagnosed diabetic patients. Methods The study included 30 patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes of less than 2 years and 30 healthy controls. We used a Finapres® device to measure during five minutes beat-to-beat HR and blood pressure in three experimental conditions: supine position, standing position, and rhythmic breathing at 0.1 Hz. The results were analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Results In the HR analysis, statistically significant differences were found in the time domain, specifically on short-term values such as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and number of pairs of successive NNs that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50). In the BP analysis, there were no significant differences, but there was a sympathetic dominance in all three conditions. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased in patients with early diabetes compared with healthy subjects during the standing maneuver. Conclusions There is a decrease in HR variability in patients with early type 2 diabetes. No changes were observed in the BP analysis in the supine position, but there were changes in BRS with the standing maneuver, probably due to sympathetic hyperactivity. PMID:26176187

  14. [Effects of body mass index on blood pressure control rate in elderly coronary heart disease outpatients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Liang, D L; Li, X Y; Wang, L; Xu, H; Tuo, X P; Jian, Z J

    2016-09-20

    Objective: To explore the influences of body mass index (BMI) on blood pressure control rate in elderly coronary heart disease (CHD) outpatients with hypertension. Methods: In this multicenter, non-intervention and cross-sectional survey, the elderly coronary heart disease patients with hypertension aged 60 years or over were recruited from 165 hospitals in 21 provinces or cities across China from April to July 2011, and 5 140 cases of elderly CHD patients with hypertension were finally included into the study. The cases were divided into low BMI group (n=130 cases), normal body mass index (BMI) group (n=1 390 cases), overweight (n=2 418 cases), obesity group (n=662 cases) according to the different levels of BMI. Clinical data and blood pressure control rate were compared among the groups, and relationships of different BMI levels with blood pressure control rate were analyzed by the binary classification unconditioned Logistic regression equation. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in blood pressure control rate of general population, men and women patients among low BMI group, normal BMI group, overweight and obesity group (χ(2)=66.346, 58.995, 26.044, respectively, P<0.001), blood pressure failure rate in obesity group (73.7%) was higher than that in overweight group (65.8%) and normal BMI group (57.5%) (P<0.05), and overweight group was also higher than normal BMI group (P<0.05); blood pressure failure rate in obesity men was higher than that in normal BMI and low BMI group (P<0.05), overweight group was higher than normal BMI group (P<0.05); blood pressure failure rate in obesity women was higher than that in normal BMI and low BMI group (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in blood pressure control rate of different age groups (60-70, 71-80, >80 years old) among low BMI group, normal BMI group, overweight and obesity group (χ(2)=37.729, 20.007, 15.538, respectively, P<0.001). Blood pressure failure rate in

  15. Blood pressure control rate and associated risk factors in hospitals of different grades in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Zhan-Lan; She, Qiang; Ying, Yue-Hui; Huang, Jing; Deng, Song-Bai; Zhou, Li-Yuan; Ye, Shi-Quan; Hu, Rong

    2014-10-20

    The present article aimed to provide accurate estimate of the control rate of hypertension and the influencing factors in hospitals of different grades in Chongqing. In this survey, hypertensive outpatients were recruited from 5 tertiary hospitals, 6 secondary hospitals and 5 primary hospitals in 9 districts of Chongqing from November 2011 to May 2012. Outpatients were investigated by clinical interview with BP measurement and questionnaire. Univariate analyses and logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of variables on control of hypertension. A total of 2742 hypertensives were studied, of which 820 were from primary hospitals, 901 from secondary hospitals and 1021 from tertiary hospitals. The total control rate for hypertensive outpatients in Chongqing was 46.0%. The control rate of the primary,secondary and tertiary hospitals were 38.7%、46.7%、51.1%. Multinomial Logistic Regression showed that the control rate was positively correlated with mastery of knowledge of hypertension, normal BMI;whereas it was positively correlated with peasantry,the dissatisfactory with doctor's manner and the distrust to doctor. Blood pressure control rate of hypertensive outpatients in Chongqing was low.High BMI, peasantry, lack of knowledge of hypertension, doctors' manners, distrust to doctor were the key reasons for low BP control rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  17. [Effect of short-term aerogenic hypoxia on the behavior of heart rate and blood pressure in newborn swine].

    PubMed

    Menzel, K; Buchenau, W; Artjuschenko, T; Nissel, C; Heitsch, J

    1986-01-01

    The adaption of the cardiovascular system to hypoxia has been examined in piglets aged 3 to 81 hour. The reaction of the piglets to a shorttime normobaric hypoxia was very different: In 50% there was an inadequate reaction with decrease of blood pressure, heart rate, pulse pressure and therefore of stroke volume, in 30% there was in compliance with the adult mechanism a compensatory increase of blood pressure, heart rate, pulse pressure and stroke volume. Only in 2 cases a compensatory increase of blood pressure could be observed in combination with a simultaneous decrease of heart rate. The results refer once more to the fact, that the reactions of the cardiovascular system of the neonate to hypoxia can be very variable and require an individual therapeutic regime provided that they are transferable to the human newborn and premature baby.

  18. Interactions between breathing rate and low-frequency fluctuations in blood pressure and cardiac intervals.

    PubMed

    Horsman, H M; Peebles, K C; Tzeng, Y C

    2015-10-01

    Evidence derived from spontaneous measures of cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) suggests that slow breathing at 6 breaths/min augments BRS. However, increases in BRS associated with slow breathing may simply reflect the frequency-dependent nature of the baroreflex rather than the modulation of baroreflex function by changes in breathing rate per se. To test this hypothesis we employed a crossover study design (n = 14) wherein breathing rate and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) oscillation induced via the application of oscillating lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) were independently varied at fixed frequencies. Breathing rate was controlled at 6 or 10 breaths/min with the aid of a metronome, and SAP oscillations were driven at 0.06 Hz and 0.1 Hz using OLBNP. The magnitudes of SAP and R-R interval (cardiac period) oscillations were quantified using power spectral analysis, and the transfer function gain between SAP and R-R interval was used to estimate BRS. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the main effects and interactions between breathing rate and OLBNP frequency. There was no statistical interaction between breathing and OLBNP frequency (P = 0.59), indicating that the effect of breathing rate on BRS did not differ according to OLBNP frequency (and vice versa). Additionally, there was no main effect for breathing rate (P = 0.28). However, we observed a significant main effect for OLBNP frequency (P = 0.01) consistent with the frequency-dependent nature of baroreflex. These findings suggest that increases in spectral indices of BRS reflect the frequency dependence of the baroreflex and are not due to slow breathing per se. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Effects of an inverted position on blood pressure, pulse rate, and deep tendon reflexes of healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Rheault, W; Derleth, M; Casey, M; Czarnik, C; Kania, D; Nagel, G

    1985-09-01

    This study reports the effects of an inverted position on pulse rate, blood pressure, and deep tendon reflexes of the biceps muscle, triceps muscle, and Achilles tendon. Twenty healthy adults were used as subjects. We collected data both before and after the subjects were in the inverted position for eight minutes on a specially designed tonic labyrinthine inverted table. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and all tendon reflexes was observed along with a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure (p less than .05). Pulse rate showed no change. The findings indicate that the inverted position is likely to be effective for decreasing muscle tone and systolic blood pressure. Although this study used healthy subjects, the inverted position may be used as a therapeutic technique, provided the clinician monitors closely the physiological effects on patients.

  20. The Impact of Resonance Frequency Breathing on Measures of Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure, and Mood.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R; Austin, Tara; DeBarros, Andrea; Brown, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) significantly improves heart rate variability (HRV). Breathing at resonance frequency (RF, approximately 6 breaths/min) constitutes a key part of HRVB training and is hypothesized to be a pathway through which biofeedback improves HRV. No studies to date, however, have experimentally examined whether RF breathing impacts measures of HRV. The present study addressed this question by comparing three groups: the RF group breathed at their determined RF for 15 min; the RF + 1 group breathed at 1 breath/min higher than their determined RF for 15 min; and the third group sat quietly for 15 min. After this 15-min period, all groups participated in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) for 8 min, and then sat quietly during a 10-min recovery period. HRV, blood pressure, and mood were measured throughout the experiment. Groups were not significantly different on any of the measures at baseline. After the breathing exercise, the RF group reported higher positive mood than the other two groups and a significantly higher LF/HF HRV ratio relative to the control group, a key goal in HRVB training (p < 0.05). Additionally, the RF group showed lower systolic blood pressure during the PASAT and during the recovery period relative to the control group, with the RF + 1 group not being significantly different from either group (p < 0.05). Overall, RF breathing appears to play an important role in the positive effect HRVB has on measures of HRV.

  1. The Impact of Resonance Frequency Breathing on Measures of Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure, and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Patrick R.; Austin, Tara; DeBarros, Andrea; Brown, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) significantly improves heart rate variability (HRV). Breathing at resonance frequency (RF, approximately 6 breaths/min) constitutes a key part of HRVB training and is hypothesized to be a pathway through which biofeedback improves HRV. No studies to date, however, have experimentally examined whether RF breathing impacts measures of HRV. The present study addressed this question by comparing three groups: the RF group breathed at their determined RF for 15 min; the RF + 1 group breathed at 1 breath/min higher than their determined RF for 15 min; and the third group sat quietly for 15 min. After this 15-min period, all groups participated in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) for 8 min, and then sat quietly during a 10-min recovery period. HRV, blood pressure, and mood were measured throughout the experiment. Groups were not significantly different on any of the measures at baseline. After the breathing exercise, the RF group reported higher positive mood than the other two groups and a significantly higher LF/HF HRV ratio relative to the control group, a key goal in HRVB training (p < 0.05). Additionally, the RF group showed lower systolic blood pressure during the PASAT and during the recovery period relative to the control group, with the RF + 1 group not being significantly different from either group (p < 0.05). Overall, RF breathing appears to play an important role in the positive effect HRVB has on measures of HRV. PMID:28890890

  2. [Evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure in residents of Milpa Alta, D.F].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Girón, C; Brust-Mascher, E; De Icaza-Herrera, M; Vidrio-Amor, H; Brust-Carmona, H

    1992-01-01

    Both the altitude of Mexico City (D.F.) and the increase in atmospheric pollutants make it important to establish parameters of comparison for cardiovascular variables, such as heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). The epidemiological transition occurring in Mexico is increasing the need for human and physical resources at the first level of health care in order to perform early diagnoses of cardiovascular disorders among the population. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were recorded under diverse conditions (seated, standing, performing 30 sit-ups, and then standing and seated after the sit-ups) in 235 inhabitants of Milpa Alta (a suburb of Mexico City). The procedures and equipment used were designed and produced at the Center for Development and Technological Applications, Ministry of Health. The following results were found: HR decreases with age and body surface. Likewise, the HR increase due to exercise is lower with increasing age and larger body surface and its return to resting levels is slower. SBP and DBP magnitude is directly related to body surface. In women an increase of body weight was found to be significantly related to a higher SBP. The orthostatic reflex (OR) decreases with age and body surface. The descending slope is higher in women than in men. We propose that the study of OR could provide better information for predicting cardiovascular changes. The described procedures can be performed with the physical and human resources available at the Health Centers. The extension of this type of applied research to first level health care centers would allow the country to respond efficiently to the epidemiological transition.

  3. Association between Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Autonomic Activity in Cyclic Alternating Pattern during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Design: Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Setting: Academic sleep laboratory. Participants: Ten healthy males. Measurements and Results: The increase in HR (median [first quartile – third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P < 0.001, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). The increase in BP for each subtype was as follows: A1, 1.23 (-2.04 to 5.75), A2, 1.76 (-1.46 to 9.32), and A3, 12.51 (4.75 to 19.94) mm Hg (A1 vs. A2 P = 0.249, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). In all of phase A, the peak values for HR and BP appeared at 4.2 (3.5 to 5.4) and 8.4 (7.0 to 10.3) seconds, respectively, after the onset of phase A. The area under the curve for low-frequency and high-frequency amplitude significantly increased after the onset of CAP phase A (P < 0.001) and was higher in the order of subtype A3, A2, and A1 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: All phase A subtypes were accompanied with increased heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1. Citation: Kondo H; Ozone M; Ohki N; Sagawa Y; Yamamichi K; Fukuju M; Yoshida T; Nishi C; Kawasaki; Mori; Kanbayashi T; Izumi M; Hishikawa Y; Nishino S; Shimizu T. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep

  4. [Research on the association between glutathione S-transferase P1 genic polymorphism and heart rate and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Xuechuan; Zhao, Guangcai

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress may reduce cardiovascular function. Glutathione Stransferases(GSTs) play an important role in cell defending against oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene is one of the most intensively investigated glutathione S-transferase genes in epidemiologic studies. The GSTP1 gene displays a polymorphism at codon 105 (Ile105 Val), which results in an enzyme with altered substrate affinity. To date, there have been few studies evaluating whether Ilel05Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene has an effect on cardiovascular function in the broad masses of people. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Ile105 Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene and heart rate and blood pressure in 197 unrelated adult males of Han nationality. It was found that there were two types of the GSTP1 genotypes, Ile105/Ile105 and Ile105/Val105, but genotype Val105/Val105 was not found, and the frequencies of IleIes/Ileos and Ile105/Val105 genotypes were 78% and 22% respectively. Comparison with individuals with lie105/Val105 genotype showed that those with Ile105/Ile105 genotype had higher rest heart rate and maximal heart rate mean values. However, whether for rest heart rate and maximal heart rate or for heart rate reserve, no significant differences were found between the two genotype groups (P>0.05). Compared with individuals with Ile105/Val105 genotype, those with Iler105/Ile105 genotype had higher systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure mean values and lower diastolic blood pressure mean value. However, for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, no significant differences were found between the two genotype groups (P>0.05). The results suggested that Ile105 Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene may not be associated with heart rate and blood pressure in the broad masses of people.

  5. Effects of methanol in blood pressure and heart rate in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Kausar; Mahmood, D.; Fahim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Methanol ingestion is an uncommon form of poisoning that can cause severe metabolic disturbances, blindness, permanent neurologic dysfunction and death. While methanol itself may be harmless, it converts, in vivo, to highly toxic formic acid. Methanol intoxication clinically manifests as ocular toxicity. The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of methanol. Materials and Methods: On the day of the experiment, Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. The femoral artery on one side was exposed, and a polyethylene catheter was inserted into the artery for recording arterial blood pressure (ABP). The catheter was attached to a pressure transducer (Statham - P23D). Systolic blood pressure (BP), mean ABP, and heart rate were recorded on a power-lab data acquisition system with a computerized analysis program. Rats were administered with different dilutions (9.5%, 19.0%, 28.5%, 38.0%, 47.5%, 57.0%, 66.5%, 76%) of methanol (95% v/v, i.v.). Results: Of all dilutions of methanol, 66.5% dilution showed maximum decrease of diastolic BP from 124.64 ± 5.39 to 62.30 ± 11.90 mmHg; 76.0% dilution showed maximum decrease of systolic BP from 165.70 ± 5.57 to 112.11 ± 12.0 mmHg, and mean ABP from 160.61 ± 12.45 to 86.14 ± 4.11 mmHg. The heart rate increased (from 250 beats/s to near about 275 beats/s) following administration of methanol dilution from 19.0% till 76.0%. Conclusion: The present study is consistent with previous studies suggesting that methanol ingestion leads to severe hypotension as observed from decrease in diastolic BP, systolic BP, and mean ABP. However, severe increase of heart rate suggests activation of a compensatory mechanism to offset hypotension that eventually leads to death in methanol poisoning. Hence, this study emphasizes the need to monitor all the hemodynamic parameters in accidental methanol poisoning. PMID:25709339

  6. Mechanistic Model for Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Changes Produced by Telmisartan in Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Chae, Dongwoo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Park, Kyungsoo

    2017-08-14

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic model of telmisartan drug effect in human beings using non-invasive markers. Data were acquired from a previous study where telmisartan 80 mg was given once daily for 6 days. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before dosing for days 1-5 and serially after the last dose. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated from SBP and DBP. Relationships between MAP, PP, HR and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were developed. Circadian variation was incorporated into PP and HR, and TPR was assumed to adjust itself in response to changes in PP and HR based on baroreflex mechanism. Drug effects were then described as lowering the set point of MAP through TPR with a physiological feedback effect stimulating HR and PP. Drug concentrations were described by a two-compartment disposition model with first-order absorption and lag time, and first-order elimination. Circadian variation was described by cosine functions, having periods of 12 and 24 hr. A log-linear model was used to describe drug effect, with estimated drug effect parameter of 0.051/hr. Estimated fractional turnover rate of PP, HR and TPR was 11.2 hr. The model successfully described the time courses of these cardiovascular variables. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using non-invasive cardiovascular measurements to derive a mechanistic model for telmisartan in human beings. The model may be suitable for other ARBs. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  7. The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population.

    PubMed

    Goldring, Natalie; Wiles, Jonathan D; Coleman, Damian

    2014-01-01

    The isometric wall squat could be utilised in home-based training aimed at reducing resting blood pressure, but first its suitability must be established. The aim of this study was to determine a method of adjusting wall squat intensity and explore the cardiovascular responses. Twenty-three participants performed one 2 minute wall squat on 15 separate occasions. During the first ten visits, ten different knee joint angles were randomly completed from 135° to 90° in 5° increments; five random angles were repeated in subsequent visits. Heart rate and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) were measured. The heart rate and blood pressure parameters produced significant inverse relationships with joint angle (r at least -0.80; P < 0.05), demonstrating that wall squat intensity can be adjusted by manipulating knee joint angle. Furthermore, the wall squat elicited similar cardiovascular responses to other isometric exercise modes that have reduced resting blood pressure (135° heart rate: 76 ± 10 beats ∙ min(-1); systolic: 134 ± 14 mmHg; diastolic: 76 ± 6 mmHg and 90° heart rate: 119 ± 20 beats ∙ min(-1); systolic: 196 ± 18 mmHg; diastolic: 112 ± 13 mmHg). The wall squat may have a useful role to play in isometric training aimed at reducing resting blood pressure.

  8. Variation in genes that regulate blood pressure are associated with glomerular filtration rate in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Montasser, May E; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Gu, Dongfeng; Chen, Jing; Gu, Charles; Kelly, Tanika N; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rice, Treva K; Rao, Dabeeru C; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; De-PeLiu; Whelton, Paul K; Hamm, Lotuce Lee; He, Jiang; Hixson, James E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be a consequence of diabetes, hypertension, immunologic disorders, and other exposures, as well as genetic factors that are still largely unknown. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is widely used to measure kidney function, has a heritability ranging from 25% to 75%, but only 1.5% of this heritability is explained by genetic loci that have been identified to date. In this study we tested for associations between GFR and 234 SNPs in 26 genes from pathways of blood pressure regulation in 3,025 rural Chinese participants of the "Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity" (GenSalt) study. We estimated GFR (eGFR) using baseline serum creatinine measurements obtained prior to dietary intervention. We identified significant associations between eGFR and 12 SNPs in 6 genes (ACE, ADD1, AGT, GRK4, HSD11B1, and SCNN1G). The cumulative effect of the protective alleles was an increase in mean eGFR of 4 mL/min per 1.73 m2, while the cumulative effect of the risk alleles was a decrease in mean eGFR of 3 mL/min per 1.73 m2. In addition, we identified a significant interaction between SNPs in CYP11B1 and ADRB2. We have identified common variants in genes from pathways that regulate blood pressure and influence kidney function as measured by eGFR, providing new insights into the genetic determinants of kidney function. Complex genetic effects on kidney function likely involve interactions among genes as we observed for CYP11B1 and ADRB2.

  9. Baroreflex Dysfunction in Sick Newborns Makes Heart Rate an Unreliable Surrogate for Blood Pressure Changes

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Massaro, An N; Metzler, Marina; Andescavage, Nickie N.; Joshi, Radhika; Dave, Rhiya; du Plessis, Adre

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral pressure passivity (CPP) in sick newborns can be detected by evaluating coupling between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral blood flow measured by NIRS hemoglobin difference (HbD). However, continuous MAP monitoring requires invasive catheterization with its inherent risks. We tested whether heart rate (HR) could serve as a reliable surrogate for MAP in the detection of CPP in sick newborns. Methods Continuous measurements of MAP, HR, and HbD were made and partitioned into 10-minute epochs. Spectral coherence (COH) was computed between MAP and HbD (COHMAP-HbD) to detect CPP, between HR and HbD (COHHR-HbD) for comparison, and between MAP and HR (COHMAP-HR) to quantify baroreflex function (BRF). The agreement between COHMAP-HbD and COHHR-HbD was assessed using ROC analysis. Results We found poor agreement between COHMAP-HbD and COHHR-HbD in left hemisphere (area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.68) and right hemisphere (AUC 0.71). Baroreflex failure (COHMAP-HR not significant) was present in 79% of epochs. Confining comparison to epochs with intact BRF showed an AUC of 0.85 for both hemispheres. Conclusions In these sick newborns, HR was an unreliable surrogate for MAP required for the detection of CPP. This is likely due to the prevalence of BRF failure in these infants. PMID:26859365

  10. Influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood pressure, resting heart rate and heart rate variability among French Polynesians.

    PubMed

    Valera, Beatriz; Suhas, Edouard; Counil, Emilie; Poirier, Paul; Dewailly, Eric

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in a population highly exposed to methylmercury through the diet. Concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in erythrocytes membranes were measured in 180 French Polynesian adults (≥18 years) residing in Tubuai, which is a community with a traditional lifestyle, or Papeete, which has a modern lifestyle. HRV was measured using a 2-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram (Holter). Resting HR and BP were measured using standardized protocols and pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as systolic BP - diastolic BP. The associations between n-3 PUFAs and the dependent variables were studied using simple and multiple linear regressions. Increasing DHA concentration was associated with lower resting HR (β = -2.57, p = 0.005) and diastolic BP (β = -1.96, p = 0.05) and higher HRV in multivariable models. Specifically, DHA was associated with high frequency (HF; β = 0.19, p = 0.02) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (difference between two consecutive R waves; rMSSD; β = 0.08, p = 0.03), which are specific indices of the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system. DHA was associated with lower BP and resting HR and higher HRV among French Polynesians who are also exposed to high methylmercury levels.

  11. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Health Information Center High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...

  12. The product of resting heart rate times blood pressure is associated with high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anxin; Tao, Jie; Guo, Xiuhua; Liu, Xuemei; Luo, Yanxia; Liu, Xiurong; Huang, Zhe; Chen, Shuohua; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B; Wu, Shouling

    2014-01-01

    To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as a maker of arterial stiffness. The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP) and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP). The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586 ± 400 cm/s. Significant (P<0.0001) linear relationships were found between higher baPWV and higher resting heart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (P<0.0001) with increasing RHR-SBP quartile (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.72;95%Confidence interval (CI):1.46,5.08) and increasing RHR-MAP (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.18,3.72). Similar results were obtained in multivariate linear regression analyses with baPWV as continuous variable. Higher baPWV as a marker of arterial stiffness was associated with a higher product of RHR-SBP and RHR-MAP in multivariate analysis. In addition to other vascular risk factors, higher resting heart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness.

  13. [Relationship between blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in non-diabetic obese patients].

    PubMed

    Banu, I; Nguyen, M T; Hamo-Tchatchouang, E; Cosson, E; Valensi, P

    2015-06-01

    Some studies suggest that a high heart rate (HR) would be predictive of the incidence of an elevated blood pressure (BP). Cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CAD) affects a high proportion of obese patients. CAD could be involved in BP increase. Our aim was to examine the relationship between CAD, HR and BP in obese patients without known diabetes. We included 428 overweight or obese patients. CAD was assessed by analyzing HR variations during three standard tests (Valsalva, deep breathing, lying-to-standing), which are mostly dependent on vagal control. An oral load in glucose was performed and the Matsuda index was calculated. The population was separated in 4 groups according to the grade of CAD (no or only one abnormal test, 2 or 3 abnormal tests) and HR (< or ≥ 75 bpm). Age was similar in the four groups. Systolic (P=0.05), diastolic (P<0.005) and mean BP (P<0.001) differed significantly between the 4 groups, and was the highest in the group of patients who had 2 or 3 abnormal tests and HR ≥ 75 bpm. Matsuda index differed across the groups (P=0.018) and was the lowest in this group. These data indicate that among overweight or obese patients with a defect in cardiac vagal activity BP is elevated only in those with a high heart rate, which is indicative of a more marked insulin resistance and probably an excess in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Natriuretic Peptides as Cardiovascular Safety Biomarkers in Rats: Comparison With Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Heart Weight.

    PubMed

    Engle, Steven K; Watson, David E

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) toxicity is an important cause of failure during drug development. Blood-based biomarkers can be used to detect CV toxicity during preclinical development and prioritize compounds at lower risk of causing such toxicities. Evidence of myocardial degeneration can be detected by measuring concentrations of biomarkers such as cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase in blood; however, detection of functional changes in the CV system, such as blood pressure, generally requires studies in animals with surgically implanted pressure transducers. This is a significant limitation because sustained changes in blood pressure are often accompanied by changes in heart rate and together can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial degeneration in animals, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in humans. Increased concentrations of NPs in blood correlate with higher risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and MACE in humans. Their utility as biomarkers of CV function and toxicity in rodents was investigated by exploring the relationships between plasma concentrations of NTproANP and NTproBNP, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart weight in Sprague Dawley rats administered compounds that caused hypotension or hypertension, including nifedipine, fluprostenol, minoxidil, L-NAME, L-thyroxine, or sunitinib for 1-2 weeks. Changes in NTproANP and/or NTproBNP concentrations were inversely correlated with changes in blood pressure. NTproANP and NTproBNP concentrations were inconsistently correlated with relative heart weights. In addition, increased heart rate was associated with increased heart weights. These studies support the use of natriuretic peptides and heart rate to detect changes in blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in short-duration rat studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in the Multimodal Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Study Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Elliott, Glen R.; Swanson, James M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Wells, Karen; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Kaltman, Jonathan R.; Severe, Joanne B.; Odbert, Carol; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective Whether prolonged exposure to stimulant medication in childhood for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk for developing abnormalities in blood pressure or heart rate is unknown. We examined the association between stimulant medication and blood pressure and heart rate over 10 years. Method The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) randomized 579 children, age 7–9 years, to 14-months of behavior therapy, intensive medication treatment, the combination of the two, or community management. The controlled trial was followed by naturalistic treatment with periodic assessments. Blood pressure and heart rate data were first analyzed with linear regression models according to an intent-to-treat approach, using raw data and blood pressure categories of pre-hypertension and hypertension. Currently medicated subjects were then compared with never or no longer medicated subjects. Associations between cumulative stimulant cumulative exposure (in methylphenidate-equivalents) and blood pressure or heart rate were assessed. Results No treatment effect on either systolic or diastolic blood pressure could be detected. Children treated with intensive stimulant medication had higher heart rate (mean 84.2 bpm ±SD 12.4 on medication alone and 84.6 ± 12.2 on medication plus behavior therapy) than those treated with behavior therapy alone (79.1±12.0) or the community comparison group (78.9±12.9) at the end of the 14-month controlled trial (p=.01), but not thereafter. Stimulant medication did not increase the risk for tachycardia, but greater cumulative stimulant exposure was associated with higher heart rate at years 3 and 8. Conclusions No evidence could be found that stimulant treatment increased the risk for pre-hypertension or hypertension over the 10-year period of observation. Stimulants, however, had a persistent adrenergic effect on heart rate if continued. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT: 00000388 PMID

  16. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... have this problem. High blood pressure is often discovered during a visit to the provider for another ... to develop high blood pressure. If you have diabetes, heart disease, or kidney problems, or if you ...

  17. Low blood pressure

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    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for ...

  18. Blood Pressure Quiz

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    ... high blood pressure can lead to… stroke. kidney failure. heart attack and heart failure. all of the above. ... high blood pressure can lead to stroke, kidney failure, heart attack and heart failure A is the correct ...

  19. High blood pressure - infants

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  20. High Blood Pressure Prevention

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    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure Prevention Steps You Can Take You can take steps to prevent high blood pressure by adopting these healthy lifestyle habits. Follow a ...

  1. Blood Pressure Medicines

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    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... and kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Small Text Medium Text Large Text Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) YESTERDAY Hypertension is a silent killer because it ...

  3. Heart rate and blood pressure response to short-term head-down bed rest: a nonlinear approach.

    PubMed

    Balocchi, R; Di Garbo, A; Michelassi, C; Chillemi, S; Varanini, M; Barbi, M; Legramante, J M; Raimondi, G; Zbilut, J P

    2000-06-01

    Although it is well-known that prolonged exposure to microgravity environment such as in space travel results in derangements of orthostasis, recent evidence suggests that even short-term exposure may have similar effects and parallels such common examples as prolonged bed rest. Whereas spectral analysis of heart rate and systolic blood pressure have been unable to detect changes, we hypothesized that nonlinear indexes may be better able to uncover such perturbations. Eighteen healthy subjects were exposed to 4-hour head-down tilt, and of these, 4 exhibited fainting. Two nonlinear indexes, mutual information and recurrence quantification were used to analyze the data. Only recurrence quantification was able to detect a "decoupling" of heart rate and systolic blood pressure at rest using discriminant analysis (p < 0.05). These results suggest that orthostatic intolerance may be due to a decoupling of heart rate from systolic blood pressure reflexive activity occurring at rest.

  4. Blunted heart rate recovery is associated with exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Umuttan; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2013-11-01

    Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are the proposed mechanisms underlying exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise (EBPR). However, data regarding heart rate behavior in patients with EBPR are lacking. We hypothesized that heart rate recovery (HRR) could be impaired in patients with EBPR. A total of 75 normotensive subjects who were referred for exercise treadmill test examination and experienced EBPR were included to this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group consisted of 75 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects without EBPR. EBPR was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; abnormal HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. These parameters were compared with respect to occurrence of EBPR. Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP at baseline, peak exercise, and the first minute of the recovery were significantly higher in the subjects with EBPR. Mean HRR values were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in subjects with EBPR when compared with those without. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the decrease in systolic BP during the recovery and degree of HRR in individuals without EBPR (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). Such a correlation was not observed in subjects with EBPR (r = 0.11, P = 0.34). The percentage of abnormal HRR indicating impaired parasympathetic reactivation was higher in subjects with EBPR (29 % vs 13 %, P = 0.02). In logistic regression analyses, HRR and resting systolic BP were the only determinants associated with the occurrence of EBPR (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Decreased HRR was observed in normotensive individuals with EBPR. In subjects with normal BP response to exercise, a linear correlation existed between the degree of HRR and decrease in systolic BP during the recovery period. However, such a correlation

  5. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Mar 22,2017 What do your ... it’s too high for blood pressure High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  6. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low Updated:Dec 13,2016 How ... content was last reviewed October 2016 High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  8. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  9. Effect of intracerebroventricular and intravenous administration of nitric oxide donors on blood pressure and heart rate in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Nurminen, M. L.; Vapaatalo, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of nitric oxide (NO) releasing substances, sodium nitroprusside, 3-morpholino sydnonimine (SIN-1) and a novel oxatriazole derivative, GEA 3162, on blood pressure and heart rate were studied after peripheral or central administration in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar rats. 2. Given as cumulative intravenous injections, both nitroprusside and GEA 3162 (24-188 nmol kg-1) induced short-lasting and dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure, while SIN-1 decreased blood pressure only slightly even after larger doses (94-3000 nmol kg-1). Heart rate increased concomitantly with the hypotensive effect of the NO-releasing substances. 3. Cumulative intracerebroventricular administration of GEA 3162 (24-188 nmol kg-1) induced a dose-dependent hypotension with slight but insignificant increases in heart rate. In contrast, intracerebroventricular nitroprusside induced little change in blood pressure, while a large dose of SIN-1 (3000 nmol kg-1, i.c.v.) slightly increased mean arterial pressure. However, intracerebroventricular nitroprusside and SIN-1 increased heart rate at doses that did not significantly affect blood pressure. 4. To determine whether the cardiovascular effects of GEA 3162 were attributable to an elevation of cyclic GMP levels, pretreatments with methylene blue, a putative guanylate cyclase inhibitor, were performed. This substance failed to attenuate the cardiovascular effects of peripherally or centrally administered GEA 3162, suggesting that the effects were independent of guanylate cyclase. 5. In conclusion, the centrally administered NO-donor, GEA 3162, induced a dose-dependent. hypotensive response without significant changes in heart rate. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injections of nitroprusside and SIN-1 increased heart rate without affecting blood pressure. These results suggest that NO released by these drugs may affect central mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation independently of cyclic GMP. PMID:8968551

  10. Effect of polypeptides from sea anemone Heteractis crispa on the rodent blood pressure, heart rate, and hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Skobtsova, L A; Dyachenko, I A; Andreev, Ya A; Logashina, Yu A; Murashev, A N; Grishin, E V

    2016-09-01

    АРНС1-3 peptides, modulators of TRPV1 receptors, have been administered to SD rats to study their influence on the animal hemostatic system, heart rate, and blood pressure. None of АЗРС1-3 polypeptides have any effect on the hemostatic system. Both АРНС1 and АРНС2 polypeptides increased significantly the heart rate, but they did not affect blood pressure, which was probably caused by an ability of these polypeptides to modify animal thermoregulation.

  11. The association of serum sodium and chloride levels with blood pressure and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kei; Oda, Eiji; Kanda, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    High serum sodium (sNa) concentrations may be associated with hypertension, which deteriorates kidney function. However, it is equivocal whether high sNa concentrations are associated with impaired kidney function independently of blood pressure (BP) or serum chloride (sCl). Therefore, we addressed this issue in an apparently healthy population. Clinical variables including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were examined in 3603 men and women (aged 25-75 years) who underwent health-screening check-ups. sNa concentrations were classified into five categories. Most parameters, including age and BP, increased with increasing sNa, whereas eGFR decreased. Logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with low-normal sNa (≤ 140 mEq/l), high sNa (≥ 144 mEq/l) was significantly associated with elevated BP (≥ 130/85 mmHg) even after adjustment for blood hematocrit, eGFR, serum potassium (sK) concentration and sCl. The highest sNa category was significantly associated with reduced eGFR (< 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) independently of elevated BP. Unlike adjustment for sK, adjustment for sCl strengthened the association between high sNa and elevated BP but attenuated the association between high sNa and reduced eGFR. These results suggest that high sNa concentrations, even within the normal range, are independently associated with elevated BP and impaired kidney function. These associations may be substantially modified by sCl.

  12. Effects of implant surgery on blood pressure and heart rate during sedation with propofol and midazolam.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Sato, Junichi; Nejima, Jun; Maruyama, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Mariko; Iketani, Toshikazu; Sekiguchi, Rei; Kawahara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) sedation is commonly used in dentistry. However, no report has yet been published regarding age, hypertension, and antihypertensive drugs during implant surgery and their relationship with changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in implant surgery under IV sedation with propofol and midazolam. Medical records of 252 patients who underwent implant surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into four groups according to their age (in years) and hypertension status: A=≤64, no hypertension; B=≥65, no hypertension; C=≤64, hypertension; or D=≥65, hypertension. Hypertensive patients were further characterized by their antihypertensive medications: E=calcium channel blockers (CCBs), F=angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), G=CCBs+ARBs, or H=no medication. IV sedation was administered in two stages. After midazolam injection to prevent angialgia, propofol was infused at the rate of 4 mg/kg/h, followed by a dose reduction. Systolic and diastolic BP and heart rate were recorded before, during, and after surgery. Systolic BP increased significantly after patients were draped in groups A, C, and D, with group D showing the most pronounced increase. Sedatives decreased BP in all groups. Diastolic BP in group F decreased significantly compared to group H after induction and before infiltration of local anesthetic. After infiltration, systolic BP decreased more significantly in group G than in group H. Intraoperative hypotension was observed in 25% of patients. The incidence of intraoperative hypertension in group D was markedly higher than in group A (23% vs 4%). IV sedation using midazolam and propofol reduces hypertensive risks during implant surgery. Nevertheless, care must be taken, especially in older hypertensive patients and in hypertensive patients on ARBs or ARBs+CCBs.

  13. The relationship between survival rate and intradialytic blood pressure changes in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiayue; Zhu, Minxia; Liu, Shang; Zhu, Mingli; Pang, Huihua; Lin, Xinghui; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi; Cai, Hong; Zhang, Weiming

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between blood pressure changes and all-cause mortality, and between blood pressure changes and cardiovascular mortality, for maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients during dialysis. Data regarding general condition, biochemical indices, and survival prognosis of MHD patients who were treated at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine-affiliated Renji Hospital from July 2007 to December 2012 were collected, in order to evaluate the relationship between patients' blood pressure changes during hemodialysis and mortality. Among 364 patients, with an average age of 63.07 ± 13.93 years, an average dialysis vintage of 76.00 (range, 42.25-134.00) months, and a follow-up time of 54.86 ± 19.84 months, there were 85 cases (23.4%) of all-cause death and 46 cases (14.2%) of cardiovascular death. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were lowest (OR, 0.324 and 0.335; 95% CI, 0.152-0.692 and 0.123-0.911; p value, .004 and .032, respectively) in patients whose systolic blood pressure difference (ΔSBP) before and after dialysis was between 7.09 and 14.25 mmHg. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were markedly increased for patients with ΔSBPless than -0.25 mmHg (p value, .001 and .044, respectively). Cox regression analysis showed that ΔSBP< -0.25 mmHg, hemoglobin concentration, Kt/v and albumin were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in MHD patients. MHD patients whose blood pressure increased significantly after hemodialysis had a higher risk of dying; ΔSBP, hemoglobin concentration, Kt/v and albumin were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in MHD patients.

  14. Road traffic noise, blood pressure and heart rate: Pooled analyses of harmonized data from 88,336 participants.

    PubMed

    Zijlema, Wilma; Cai, Yutong; Doiron, Dany; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Fortier, Isabel; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Morley, David; Hodgson, Susan; Elliott, Paul; Key, Timothy; Kongsgard, Havard; Hveem, Kristian; Gaye, Amadou; Burton, Paul; Hansell, Anna; Stolk, Ronald; Rosmalen, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise may increase blood pressure and heart rate. It is unclear to what extent exposure to air pollution may influence this relationship. We investigated associations between noise, blood pressure and heart rate, with harmonized data from three European cohorts, while taking into account exposure to air pollution. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed using a European noise model based on the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe framework (CNOSSOS-EU). Exposure to air pollution was estimated using a European-wide land use regression model. Blood pressure and heart rate were obtained by trained clinical professionals. Pooled cross-sectional analyses of harmonized data were conducted at the individual level and with random-effects meta-analyses. We analyzed data from 88,336 participants, across the three participating cohorts (mean age 47.0 (±13.9) years). Each 10dB(A) increase in noise was associated with a 0.93 (95% CI 0.76;1.11) bpm increase in heart rate, but with a decrease in blood pressure of 0.01 (95% CI -0.24;0.23) mmHg for systolic and 0.38 (95% CI -0.53; -0.24) mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. Adjustments for PM10 or NO2 attenuated the associations, but remained significant for DBP and HR. Results for BP differed by cohort, with negative associations with noise in LifeLines, no significant associations in EPIC-Oxford, and positive associations with noise >60dB(A) in HUNT3. Our study suggests that road traffic noise may be related to increased heart rate. No consistent evidence for a relation between noise and blood pressure was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Midlife exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and fitness relate to brain volume 2 decades later.

    PubMed

    Spartano, Nicole L; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Lewis, Gregory D; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-04-05

    To determine whether poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness and exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were associated with worse brain morphology in later life. Framingham Offspring participants (n = 1,094, 53.9% female) free from dementia and CV disease (CVD) underwent an exercise treadmill test at a mean age of 40 ± 9 years. A second treadmill test and MRI scans of the brain were administered 2 decades later at mean age of 58 ± 8 years. Poor CV fitness and greater diastolic BP and HR response to exercise at baseline were associated with a smaller total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) almost 2 decades later (all p < 0.05) in multivariable adjusted models; the effect of 1 SD lower fitness was equivalent to approximately 1 additional year of brain aging in individuals free of CVD. In participants with prehypertension or hypertension at baseline, exercise systolic BP was also associated with smaller TCBV (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that lower CV fitness and exaggerated exercise BP and HR responses in middle-aged adults are associated with smaller brain volume nearly 2 decades later. Promotion of midlife CV fitness may be an important step towards ensuring healthy brain aging. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Outdoor Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults: Effect Modification by Individual Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Liang, Xin; Liu, Yan; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-02-15

    We collected data from Kailuan cohort study from 2006 to 2011 to examine whether short-term effects of ambient temperature on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are non-linear or linear, and their potential modifying factors. The HR, BP and individual information, including basic characteristics, life style, socio-economic characteristics and other characteristics, were collected for each participant. Daily mean temperature and relative humidity were collected. A regression model was used to evaluate associations of temperature with HR and BP, with a non-linear function for temperature. We also stratified the analyses in different groups divided by individual characteristics. 47,591 residents were recruited. The relationships of temperature with HR and BP were "V" shaped with thresholds ranging from 22 °C to 28 °C. Both cold and hot effects were observed on HR and BP. The differences of effect estimates were observed among the strata of individual characteristics. The effect estimate of temperature was higher among older people. The cold effect estimate was higher among people with lower Body Mass Index. However, the differences of effect estimates among other groups were inconsistent. These findings suggest both cold and hot temperatures may have short-term impacts on HR and BP. The individual characteristics could modify these relationships.

  17. Resting heart rate in children and adolescents: association with blood pressure, exercise and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sit-Yee; So, Hung-Kwan; Choi, Kai-Chow; Lo, Amy F C; Li, Albert M; Sung, Rita Y T; Nelson, E Anthony S

    2013-04-01

    Resting heart rate (RHR) is increasingly recognised as a prognostic marker for long term cardiovascular outcomes in adults. This study assessed associations of RHR with blood pressure (BP), anthropometry and exercise in a large representative sample of Hong Kong children. A territory-wide growth survey carried out in 2005-2006 included students sampled from each of Hong Kong's 18 districts. RHR and BP were measured by validated oscillometric BP devices and anthropometric data and exercise frequency were recorded. Multiple linear regressions were used to test associations among RHR and BP, anthropometry and exercise frequency. Data on 14 842 children aged 6-18 years were available. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that RHR was positively associated with BP, and negatively associated with age and exercise frequency (p<0.001). RHR was more positively linked to waist circumference among the anthropometric measurements, and positive independent association was only identified in boys (p<0.001). Elevated RHR is independently associated with elevated BP in children, whereas increased structured exercise is related to lower RHR.

  18. Heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity in overtrained athletes.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Mathias; Brechtel, Lars; Lock, Jürgen; Hermsdorf, Mario; Wolff, Roland; Baier, Vico; Voss, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    To assess the effects of abruptly intensified physical training on cardiovascular control. Retrospective longitudinal study. Research laboratory. Ten healthy athletes (5 men and 5 women) from track and field as well as triathlon. A 2-week training camp, including daily stepwise increasing cycling tests, running of 40 minutes, and additional cycling of 60 minutes. Time and frequency domain parameters of resting heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), before, during, and after the training camp. We found significantly reduced HRV during the training camp (mean beat-to-beat interval: 1042 [937 to 1194] ms vs. 933 [832 to 1103] ms vs. 1055 [947 to 1183] ms, P < 0.01; root-mean-square of beat-to-beat interval differences: 68 [52 to 95] ms vs. 52 [38 to 71] ms vs. 61 [48 to 78] ms, P < 0.05). Further, BRS was significantly reduced: 25.2 (20.4 to 40.4) ms/mmHg vs. 17.0 (12.9 to 25.7) ms/mmHg vs. 25.7 (18.8 to 29.1) ms/mmHg, P < 0.05. These effects disappeared at a large degree after 3 to 4 days of recovery. Abruptly intensified physical training results in an altered autonomic cardiovascular activity towards parasympathetic inhibition and sympathetic activation that can be monitored by means of HRV and BRS analyses and might provide useful markers to avoid the overtraining syndrome.

  19. Maternal blood pressure and heart rate response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cristine H; Naldoni, Luciane M V; Ribeiro, Juliana Dos Santos; Meirelles, Maria Cristina C C; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Bø, Kari

    2014-07-01

    To assess whether maternal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) change significantly in response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. Longitudinal exploratory study with repeated measurements. Twenty-seven nulliparous healthy women of mean age 23.3 years (range 18-36) and mean body mass index 23.4 (range 23.1-29.5). Individual supervised pelvic floor muscle training from gestational week 20 till 36 with assessment of BP and HR at gestational weeks 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured before and after each training session and HR was monitored during each session. Pelvic floor muscle training did not change BP. 77% (n = 21) of participants exceeded 70% of estimated maximum HR during at least one session. The time for exceeding 70% of estimated maximum HR was between 2.2 and 3.2 % of the total exercise session. Increases in BP and HR from gestational weeks 20 till 36 were within normal limits for pregnant women. Pelvic floor muscle training in nulliparous sedentary pregnant women does not increase BP. It significantly increases HR during the exercise sessions, but only for a limited period of time and with no negative long-term effect on BP or HR. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Early sepsis detection in critical care patients using multiscale blood pressure and heart rate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Shashikumar, Supreeth P; Stanley, Matthew D; Sadiq, Ismail; Li, Qiao; Holder, Andre; Clifford, Gari D; Nemati, Shamim

    2017-08-16

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. For each hour treatment initiation is delayed after diagnosis, sepsis-related mortality increases by approximately 8%. Therefore, maximizing effective care requires early recognition and initiation of treatment protocols. Antecedent signs and symptoms of sepsis can be subtle and unrecognizable (e.g., loss of autonomic regulation of vital signs), causing treatment delays and harm to the patient. In this work we investigated the utility of high-resolution blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) times series dynamics for the early prediction of sepsis in patients from an urban, academic hospital, meeting the third international consensus definition of sepsis (sepsis-III) during their ICU admission. Using a multivariate modeling approach we found that HR and BP dynamics at multiple time-scales are independent predictors of sepsis, even after adjusting for commonly measured clinical values and patient demographics and comorbidities. Earlier recognition and diagnosis of sepsis has the potential to decrease sepsis-related morbidity and mortality through earlier initiation of treatment protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heart rate and blood pressure response in adult men and women during exercise and sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Sebastian T; Kostis, John B; Casazza, Laurie; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Nezgoda, Joseph; Rosen, Raymond S

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) response of sexual activity compared with treadmill exercise in adult men and women. Nineteen men, 55 +/- 8 years, and 13 women, 51 +/- 7 years, underwent a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill stress test followed by home-monitored sexual activity using noninvasive HR and BP recording devices. The mean treadmill times were significantly shorter than the mean times of sexual activity for men and women (p <0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). For the men, average maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 72%, 80%, and 57% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. For the women, maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 64%, 75%, and 48% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. Age correlated inversely with duration of treadmill exercise (a 9-second decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.036), and with the duration of sexual activity (a 1-minute decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.024). Treadmill exercise duration predicted sexual activity duration (a 2.3-minute increase in sexual activity duration per each minute treadmill duration; p = 0.026). In conclusion, sexual activity provides modest physical stress comparable with stage II of the standard multistage Bruce treadmill protocol for men and stage I for women.

  2. Heart rate and blood pressure in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    PubMed

    Nei, Maromi; Mintzer, Scott; Skidmore, Christopher; Sperling, Michael R; Ho, Reginald T

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is associated with interictal and ictal autonomic dysfunction. Seizures can immediately cause increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). However, it is unknown whether uncontrolled seizures, particularly when frequent, might chronically elevate the BP or HR. Additionally, it is unknown whether the interictal BP and HR is altered in individuals who are at risk for SUDEP, compared with other individuals with epilepsy. SUDEP often occurs in patients with highly refractory epilepsy. Such individuals might be at risk for a state of chronically heightened sympathetic tone, which might affect the HR and BP interictally. This study compared the resting awake interictal HR and BP in individuals who subsequently died due to SUDEP and compared these to HR and BP in two control epilepsy groups (refractory and controlled). While the overall HR and BP are similar between groups, there is a trend toward a higher diastolic BP and more stable HR in individuals who subsequently died due to SUDEP, compared with epilepsy controls. These data suggest that there may be specific types of interictal autonomic dysfunction in individuals at risk for SUDEP. Such abnormalities might serve as markers for those at elevated risk for SUDEP.

  3. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Centile Curves and Distributions by Age of Hospitalized Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Eytan, Danny; Goodwin, Andrew J.; Greer, Robert; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Laussen, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) form the basis for monitoring the physiological state of patients. Although norms have been published for healthy and hospitalized children, little is known about their distributions in critically ill children. The objective of this study was to report the distributions of these basic physiological variables in hospitalized critically ill children. Continuous data from bedside monitors were collected and stored at 5-s intervals from 3,677 subjects aged 0–18 years admitted over a period of 30 months to the pediatric and cardiac intensive care units at a large quaternary children’s hospital. Approximately 1.13 billion values served to estimate age-specific distributions for these two basic physiological variables: HR and intra-arterial BP. Centile curves were derived from the sample distributions and compared to common reference ranges. Properties such as kurtosis and skewness of these distributions are described. In comparison to previously published reference ranges, we show that children in these settings exhibit markedly higher HRs than their healthy counterparts or children hospitalized on in-patient wards. We also compared commonly used published estimates of hypotension in children (e.g., the PALS guidelines) to the values we derived from critically ill children. This is a first study reporting the distributions of basic physiological variables in children in the pediatric intensive care settings, and the percentiles derived may serve as useful references for bedside clinicians and clinical trials. PMID:28367430

  4. Blood pressure and heart rate of students undergoing a medical licensing examination.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Andreas; Handschin, Daniel; Gyr, Niklaus; Martina, Benedict; Battegay, Edouard

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effect of a real life mental stress situation on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in students undergoing a medical licensing examination. Prospective observational study of 121 medical students taking the final licensing exam. BP and HR were taken before and after the exam. Additionally, BP was measured by ambulatory BP monitoring device and HR was recorded continuously by an HR monitor belt in 25 students throughout the examination. Diastolic BP (DBP) increased from 81 +/- 10 mmHg before the exam to 86 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.008) during the exam and to 88 +/- 11 mmHg, (p = 0.007) 15 min after the exam. Systolic BP (SBP) did not increase significantly during (from 131 +/- 14 before the exam to 136 +/- 18 mmHg) and after the exam (135 +/- 16 mmHg). HR decreased during (to 100 +/- 18 beats/min, p < 0.001), and after the exam (to 95 +/- 19 beats/min, p < 0.001) compared to values before the exam (114 +/- 19 beats/min). SBP was higher in male students compared to female students before (138 +/- 10 vs 125 +/- 18 mmHg) and after (126 +/- 18 vs 115 +/- 17 mmHg) the exam (p < 0.01). Only DBP increased during medical licensing examination, albeit within a small range. SBP did not change significantly and HR decreased during the exam. Male students showed a higher SBP compared to female students.

  5. Midlife exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and fitness relate to brain volume 2 decades later

    PubMed Central

    Himali, Jayandra J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Lewis, Gregory D.; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness and exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were associated with worse brain morphology in later life. Methods: Framingham Offspring participants (n = 1,094, 53.9% female) free from dementia and CV disease (CVD) underwent an exercise treadmill test at a mean age of 40 ± 9 years. A second treadmill test and MRI scans of the brain were administered 2 decades later at mean age of 58 ± 8 years. Results: Poor CV fitness and greater diastolic BP and HR response to exercise at baseline were associated with a smaller total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) almost 2 decades later (all p < 0.05) in multivariable adjusted models; the effect of 1 SD lower fitness was equivalent to approximately 1 additional year of brain aging in individuals free of CVD. In participants with prehypertension or hypertension at baseline, exercise systolic BP was also associated with smaller TCBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that lower CV fitness and exaggerated exercise BP and HR responses in middle-aged adults are associated with smaller brain volume nearly 2 decades later. Promotion of midlife CV fitness may be an important step towards ensuring healthy brain aging. PMID:26865519

  6. The effects of posture changes on blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized and reserpinized sloths.

    PubMed

    Duarte, D P; Huggins, S E; Da Costa, C P; Leal, A M

    1989-01-01

    1. Tilting sloths anesthetized with chloralose from erect to supine or supine to erect produced little or no effect on heart rate. 2. Tilting anesthetized sloths from erect to supine increased both systolic and diastolic pressures significantly and by about the same amounts. The maximum effect was produced in 20 sec. 3. Pressures stabilized at a higher level than in the erect posture but below the maximum reached in tilting. 4. Tilting these sloths from the supine to the erect posture resulted in a rapid (20 sec) and dramatic fall in pressures to below the initial erect pressure levels. Return to initial erect levels took place slowly. 5. Tilting reserpinized sloths from erect to supine or supine to erect produced little or no effect on heart rate. 6. Tilting reserpinized sloths from erect to supine increased both systolic and diastolic pressures materially and by similar amounts. The maximum effect took 50 sec. 7. Pressures stabilized at higher levels than in the erect posture but less than maximum reached with tilting. 8. Tilting these sloths from supine to erect caused significant falls in pressure to slightly below the initial erect pressure, with maximum effect reached in 30 sec and eventual return to control level. 9. Pressure changes were almost entirely the result of altered venous return. 10. Neither chloralose nor reserpine completely blocked vascular control but reduced it materially.

  7. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Camilla M; Lockhart, Barbara D; Hager, Ronald L; George, James D; Eggett, Dennis L; Steffen, Patrick R; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Bailey, Bruce W

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120-139/80-89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness.

  8. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness

    PubMed Central

    NIELSON, CAMILLA M.; LOCKHART, BARBARA D.; HAGER, RONALD L.; GEORGE, JAMES D.; EGGETT, DENNIS L.; STEFFEN, PATRICK R.; MITCHELL, ULRIKE H.; BAILEY, BRUCE W.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120–139/80–89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness. PMID:27182421

  9. Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and DBPIA (4.4 ± 1.5 vs. 1.0 ± 0.5 mmHg, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the anxiety group than in the no-anxiety group. The SBPIA/DBPIA and HRIA showed a similar profile also(9.7 ± 2.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9 bpm, P < 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between the SAS score and BPIA and HRIA both in the review and exam period. The smoking group and family hypertension group had higher anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase.

  10. [Genetic dependency of blood pressure and heart rate in patients with arterial hypertension and obesity].

    PubMed

    Dudchenko, I A; Pristupa, L N; Ataman, A V; Garbuzova, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gene polymorphisms Arg389Gly ADRβ1 gene and T393C gene GNAS1 on the level of heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in hypertensive patients according to body mass index (BMI). The study involved 166 patients with hypertension and 90 healthy individuals. Patients of the main group was divided according to BMI into three subgroups: I subgroup--with normal body weight, II subgroup--overweight, II subgroup--obesity. Gene polymorphism is determined using polymerase chain reaction and subsequent analysis of restriction fragments. Patients from subgroups II and III, who had presence of genotypes Arg389Arg, Arg389Gly, had higher HR, SBP than in patients with genotype Gly389Gly (p = 0.010 and p = 0.001; p = 0.010 and p = 0.001, respectively). In the analysis of DBP, the dependence of its level of polymorphism Arg389Gly of ADRβ1 gene was found only in I subgroup (p < 0.001). During the analysis of polymorphism T393C of GNAS1 gene only in patients from III subgroup was found a higher heart rate in patients with T393T genotype relatively to C393C genotype, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.191). There is a direct correlation between HR and SBP in hypertensive patients with overweight and obesity from polymorphism Arg389Gly of ADRβ1 gene, in hypertensive patients with normal body weight from this polymorphism depends DBP. Clinical manifestations of hypertension do not depend on polymorphism T393C of GNAS1 gene.

  11. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Academic sleep laboratory. Ten healthy males. The increase in HR (median [first quartile - third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P < 0.001, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). The increase in BP for each subtype was as follows: A1, 1.23 (-2.04 to 5.75), A2, 1.76 (-1.46 to 9.32), and A3, 12.51 (4.75 to 19.94) mm Hg (A1 vs. A2 P = 0.249, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). In all of phase A, the peak values for HR and BP appeared at 4.2 (3.5 to 5.4) and 8.4 (7.0 to 10.3) seconds, respectively, after the onset of phase A. The area under the curve for low-frequency and high-frequency amplitude significantly increased after the onset of CAP phase A (P < 0.001) and was higher in the order of subtype A3, A2, and A1 (P < 0.001). All phase A subtypes were accompanied with increased heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1.

  12. Estimation of the plasma effect site equilibration rate constant of sufentanil in children using the time to peak effect of heart rate and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jung, SungAe; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, Hee-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Although targeting the effect site concentration may offer advantages over the traditional forms of administering intravenous anesthetics, it is not applicable for sufentanil in children because its plasma effect site equilibration rate constant (ke0) is not known yet. We estimated ke0 of sufentanil in children using the time to peak effect (t peak) method. Under general anesthesia, sufentanil t peak was measured after administration of a submaximal bolus dose by means of the decrease in heart rate, blood pressure and calculated approximate entropy (ApEn) of electroencephalogram in 105 children (age range: 3-11 years). ke0 was estimated using t peak and known sufentanil pharmacokinetic parameters in normal children. The mean t peaks were measured as 44 ± 22 s and 227 ± 91 s by heart rate and by mean blood pressure respectively. The estimated ke0 were 5.16/min and 0.49/min by heart rate and blood pressure respectively. t peak could not be measured using the ApEn, thus ke0 could not be calculated by ApEn in children. Shorter measured sufentanil t peak by heart rate compared to blood pressure indicate that the heart rate decrease faster than decreasing of blood pressure. Moreover, the calculated sufentanil ke0 in children depends on the pharmacodynamics parameters.

  13. The effects of occupational noise on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in an automotive parts industry.

    PubMed

    Kalantary, Saba; Dehghani, Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Omidi, Leila; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important impacts of industrial noise is physiological and psychological effects. The increases in workers' blood pressure and heart rate were detected during and after exposure to high levels of noise. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the noise exposures have any effects on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in the automotive parts industry. This case study was done in 2011 at different units of an automotive parts manufacturing in Tehran. Sound pressure level was measured at different units of the factory with a calibrated instrument. Demographic features of workers were gathered with an appropriate questionnaire. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured twice in a day in the start time of work day (before exposure to noise) and middle shift hours (during exposure to noise) in the occupational physician office. For analyzing data, chi-square, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. P < 0.050 was considered statistically significant. The average age of workers in the case and control groups was 35.71 ± 8.10 and 33.40 ± 10.41 years, respectively. There was no difference between the average age of case and control groups (P = 0.436). The results of ANCOVA revealed the significant differences between the mean changes of heart rate F (1, 37) = 26.68, P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 21.70, P < 0.001, and diastolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 26.20, P < 0.001 of workers in the case and control groups. Exposure to industrial noise may increase the heart rate of workers. Although rises in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the case group were observed after exposure to noise, the values of heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were in the normal range. Further experimental investigations are needed to determine the relationships between these variables.

  14. The effects of occupational noise on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in an automotive parts industry

    PubMed Central

    Kalantary, Saba; Dehghani, Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Omidi, Leila; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the most important impacts of industrial noise is physiological and psychological effects. The increases in workers’ blood pressure and heart rate were detected during and after exposure to high levels of noise. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the noise exposures have any effects on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in the automotive parts industry. METHODS This case study was done in 2011 at different units of an automotive parts manufacturing in Tehran. Sound pressure level was measured at different units of the factory with a calibrated instrument. Demographic features of workers were gathered with an appropriate questionnaire. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured twice in a day in the start time of work day (before exposure to noise) and middle shift hours (during exposure to noise) in the occupational physician office. For analyzing data, chi-square, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. P < 0.050 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The average age of workers in the case and control groups was 35.71 ± 8.10 and 33.40 ± 10.41 years, respectively. There was no difference between the average age of case and control groups (P = 0.436). The results of ANCOVA revealed the significant differences between the mean changes of heart rate F (1, 37) = 26.68, P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 21.70, P < 0.001, and diastolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 26.20, P < 0.001 of workers in the case and control groups. CONCLUSION Exposure to industrial noise may increase the heart rate of workers. Although rises in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the case group were observed after exposure to noise, the values of heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were in the normal range. Further experimental investigations are needed to determine the relationships between these variables. PMID:26478728

  15. Gender differences in the relationship between resting heart rate variability and 24-hour blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Julian F; Sollers, John J; Friedman, Bruce H; Koenig, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between time- and frequency-domain indices of cardiac autonomic control and 24 h blood pressure variability (BPV) in a sample of healthy men and women. Vagally mediated cardiac control was inversely related to 24 h BPV, and measures of cardiac autonomic control were better predictors of systolic BPV in men and better predictors of diastolic BPV in women. These findings may help researchers to understand the disparity in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality between men and women.

  16. Influence of family history and lifestyle on blood pressure and heart rate in young adults in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H; Aboul-Enein, Basil H; Manuel, Bradley

    2006-11-01

    The most prevalent disease in Jordan is hypertension. Jordan is a small, middle-income developing country in the Middle East. It has a population of 5611202 people. Few studies have examined the associated cardiovascular risk factors in Jordan. The aim of this investigation was to explore specific lifestyles in Jordan, measuring blood pressure and heart rate through a randomized cross-sectional population study. A total of 14310 adult males (7400) and females (6910) were selected in various regions of Jordan. Selected participants were interviewed by trained senior pharmacy students. They were asked whether they had hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders and if the answer was negative further questions were asked. This was followed by measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. Demographic data such as age, sex and nationality were also recorded, as was family history of hypertension. For each individual of the sample, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate were measured three times with 10-15min intervals in a sitting position and resting state. The Student's unpaired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results were considered statistically significant when the P value was less than 0.05. A general trend in all the results tables was a lower blood pressure among those without a family history of cardiovascular disease and higher values among those with a family history of cardiovascular disease. This study demonstrates that SBP and DBP increase with all associated risk factors if a family history of hypertension is positive. This cross-sectional study revealed the presence of a consistent and strong relationship between certain lifestyle risk factors with an elevation in blood pressure concurrent with a positive family history of hypertension.

  17. Effects of cigarette smoking on ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuko; Kawano, Yuhei; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Satoko

    We investigated the influence of cigarette smoking on the levels and circadian patterns of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and HR variability (HRV) in hypertensive patients. Sixteen hypertensive smokers (57 ± 2 years old) receiving antihypertensive treatments participated in this study. Ambulatory monitoring of BP, HR, and electrocardiograms was performed every 30 min for 24 hours on a smoking day and nonsmoking day in a randomized crossover manner. Average 24-hour BP and daytime BP were significantly higher in the smoking period than in the nonsmoking period. No significant differences were observed in nighttime BP between the two periods. Average 24-hour and daytime HR, but not nighttime HR, were also higher in the smoking period than in the nonsmoking period. The daytime high frequency (HF) component of HRV was attenuated more in the smoking period than in the nonsmoking period. No significant differences were observed in the low frequency (LF) components of HRV or LF/HF ratio between the two periods. These results demonstrated that cigarette smoking increased the daytime and average 24-hour BP and HR, and the increases observed in daytime BP and HR were associated with the attenuation of parasympathetic nerve activity.

  18. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain increases heart rate and arterial blood pressure in awake humans

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Judith M; Aziz, Tipu; Schlugman, David; Paterson, David J

    2002-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus, basal ganglia or pedunculopontine nucleus in decorticate animals results in locomotion and a cardiorespiratory response resembling that seen during exercise. This has led to the hypothesis that parallel activation of cardiorespiratory and locomotor systems from the midbrain could form part of the ‘central command’ mechanism of exercise. However, the degree to which subcortical structures play a role in cardiovascular activation in awake humans has not been established. We studied the effects on heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of electrically stimulating the thalamus and basal ganglia in awake humans undergoing neurosurgery for movement disorders (n = 13 Parkinson's disease, n = 1 myoclonic dystonia, n = 1 spasmodic torticollis). HR and MAP increased during high frequency (> 90 Hz) electrical stimulation of the thalamus (HR 5 ± 3 beats min−1, P = 0.002, MAP 4 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.05, n = 9), subthalamic nucleus (HR 5 ± 3 beats min−1, P = 0.002, MAP 5 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.006, n = 8) or substantia nigra (HR 6 ± 3 beats min−1, P = 0.001, MAP 5 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.005, n = 8). This was accompanied by the facilitation of movement, but without the movement itself. Stimulation of the internal globus pallidus did not increase cardiovascular variables but did facilitate movement. Low frequency (< 20 Hz) stimulation of any site did not affect cardiovascular variables or movement. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain in awake humans can cause a modest increase in cardiovascular variables that is not dependent on movement feedback from exercising muscles. The relationship between this type of response and that occurring during actual exercise is unclear, but it indicates that subcortical command could be involved in ‘parallel activation’ of the locomotor and cardiovascular systems and thus contribute to the neurocircuitry of ‘central command’. PMID:11882692

  19. Effects of weightlifting and breathing technique on blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Hatzel, Brian M

    2010-08-01

    Weight training is a method commonly used to increase strength. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of breathing technique during weight training on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). After completing a health history questionnaire, 30 subjects (16 men: 21.25 +/- 1.21 years, 180.26 +/- 2.36 cm, 84.31 +/- 19.32 kg; and 14 women: 21.29 +/- 2.37 years, 170.08 +/- 2.15 cm, 137.36 +/- 62.31 kg) were familiarized and tested for an estimated 1 repetition maximum, on the chest press and leg press lifts using each of the 2 breathing techniques, hold breath (HB), and controlled breathing. Lifts were examined using each breathing technique with 1 set of 10 repetitions on separate days. Data were collected during the push phase on average of 3.72 times per set and again at 1 and 5 minutes post lift. Resting, during lift (peak, average); 1-minute and 5-minute post lift BP; and HR values were measured using the NIBP100A noninvasive BP system (Biopac Systems, Inc), for both breathing technique within each lift. The HB technique posted higher but statistically insignificant (p < 0.05) values for systolic BP (p = 0.420), diastolic BP (p = 0.531), and HR (p = 0.713) than the controlled breath technique. The HB technique used in this investigation produced minimal elevations in HR and BP and appears to be safe when performing the chest press and leg press lifts at a moderate resistance. Education on proper weight training techniques can help limit unwanted risks during these exercises.

  20. Changes in blood pressure and heart rate during sedation with ketamine in the pediatric ED.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Adam C; Wadia, Shernaz A; Lorenz, Douglas J; Stevenson, Michelle D

    2017-02-01

    Ketamine is commonly used in the emergency department for short, painful procedures. We describe changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during procedural sedation with ketamine, as these changes have not been well described in children. We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study involving children aged 8 to 18 years who received procedural sedation with ketamine in a pediatric emergency department. Serial vital signs and sedation scores were recorded from baseline until recovery from ketamine procedural sedation. Time of orthopedic manipulation was also recorded. Linear mixed-effect models were used to evaluate changes in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and HR using 3 sedation strata: presedation (baseline), sedated (ketamine administered and patient deeply sedated), and recovery (ketamine administered with patient minimally sedated), controlling for age and weight. Sixty children were enrolled; 10 were excluded due to missing manipulation time. A total of 394 observations were recorded. Mean sedated SBP, DBP, and HR were 8 mm Hg, 4 mm Hg, and 13 beats/min higher than presedation SBP (P<.001), DBP (P<.01), and HR (P<.001), respectively. Mean sedated SBP and DBP were 3 and 4 mm Hg higher than SBP (P=.006) and DBP (P<.01) during recovery. Manipulation increased mean SBP by 5 mm Hg (P<.001), mean DBP by 7 mm Hg (P<.001), and mean HR by 1 beat/min (P=.35). Ketamine administered during procedural sedation for painful procedures causes a statistically significant but modest increase in SBP, DBP, and HR. Orthopedic manipulation further increases BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heart rate and blood pressure variability during heavy training and overtraining in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    2000-01-01

    We investigated heavy training- and overtraining-induced changes in heart rate and blood pressure variability during supine rest and in response to head-up tilt in female endurance athletes. Nine young female experimental athletes (ETG) increased their training volume at the intensity of 70-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 125% and training volume at the intensity of < 70% of VO2max by 100% during 6-9 weeks. The corresponding increases in 6 female control athletes were 5% and 10%. The VO2max of the ETG and the control athletes did not change, but it decreased from 53.0 +/- 2.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) to 50.2 +/- 2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (mean+/-SEM, p < 0.01) in five overtrained experimental athletes. In the ETG, low-frequency power of R-R interval (RRI) variability during supine rest increased from 6 +/- 1 ms2 x 10(2) to 9 +/- 2 ms2 x 10(2) (p < 0.05). The 30/15 index (= RRI(max 30)/RRI(min 15), where RRI(max 30) denotes the longest RRI close to the 30th RRI and RRI(min 15) denotes the shortest RRI close to the 15th RRI after assuming upright position in the head-up tilt test), decreased as a result of training (analysis of variance, p = 0.05). In the ETG, changes in VO2max were related to the changes in total power of RRI variability during standing (r = 0.74, p < 0.05). Heart rate response to prolonged standing after head-up tilt was either accentuated or attenuated in the overtrained athletes as compared to the normal training state. We conclude that heavy training could increase cardiac sympathetic modulation during supine rest and attenuated biphasic baroreflex-mediated response appearing just after shifting to an upright position. Heavy-training-/overtraining-induced decrease in maximal aerobic power was related to decreased heart rate variability during standing. Physiological responses to overtraining were individual.

  2. Changes of blood pressure and heart rate during sexual activity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Xue-Rui, Tan; Ying, Lv; Da-Zhong, Yang; Xiao-Jun, Chen

    2008-08-01

    This study is to observe the changes of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), double product (DP) and heart rate variability during sexual activity in healthy adults before we cover patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Forty-nine participants grouped by sex, 22 males, aged 40.6+/-7.8 years; 27 females, aged 40.3+/-7.8 years, underwent simultaneous ambulatory monitoring of BP and HR for 24 h. During the monitoring period, sexual activity of the participants with man-on-top in their familiar environment was performed. Participants were requested to measure BP manually at the beginning of each sexual phase and three times after orgasm in every 10-min interval and 60 min after orgasm. For each individual, eight measuring values, respectively, about BP, HR, DP and heart rate variability were obtained from baseline to 1 h after orgasm. The data were statistically analyzed with paired t-test and the significant level was set at P<0.05. In both groups, the peak BP did not appear at orgasm, but at the beginning of plateau and dropped to baseline level at 10 min after orgasm (male 141.41+/-17.13/91.05+/-13.69 vs. 120.14+/-11.07/72.86+/-7.78 mmHg, female 121.67+/-16.61/77.37+/-15.03 vs. 109.37+/-10.54/67.19+/-9.41 mmHg). The peak HR occurred at the beginning of orgasm, and dropped to baseline level 10-20 min after orgasm (male 96.36+/-11.96 vs. 75.41+/-9.02 bpm, female 90.19+/-10.38 vs. 71.44+/-5.68 bpm). DP of both groups elevated at the beginning of plateau and orgasm then decreased to baseline level 10 min after orgasm (male 12964.27+/-2659.17 vs. 9134.09+/-1469.58 mmHg bpm, female 10044.48+/-1777.89 vs. 7841.30+/-1023.79 mmHg bpm). All the results showed that BP, HR and DP have mild to moderate changes during sexual activity in healthy adults. Using ambulatory technology to monitor BP and HR helps us to get the real data in participants during sexual activity. BP, HR and DP increase just slightly for a short time and recover to baseline level soon after sexual

  3. Effect of combining traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Zhao, Meiya; Ma, Jian; Tian, Shan; Xiang, Pin; Yao, Wei; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    Eighty-five percent of the population has experienced low back pain (LBP), which may result in decreasing muscle strength and endurance, functional capacity of the spine, and so on. Traction and vibration are commonly used to relieve the low back pain. The effect of the combing traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) was investigated in this study. Thirty healthy subjects participated in 12 trials lying supine on the spine-combing bed with different tilt angle (0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) and vibration modes (along with the sagittal and coronal axis with 0 Hz, 2 Hz and 12 Hz separately). EMG was recorded during each trial. Power spectral frequency analysis was applied to evaluate muscle fatigue by the shift of median power frequency (MPF). Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated from BP. HR and PP were used to estimate the effect of the combination of traction and vibration on the cardio-vascular system. It was shown that vibration could increase HR and decrease PP. The combination of traction and vibration (2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis) had no significant effect on the cardio-vascular system. The MPF of lumbar erector spinae (LES) and upper trapezius (UT) decreased significantly when the angle reached 20° under the condition of 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis compared with it of 0°. Furthermore, the MPF also decreased significantly compared with it of static mode at 20° for LES and at 30° for UT. However at 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis, the MPF had significant increase when the angle reached 20° in LES and 30° in UT compared to 0°. For LES, the MPF also had significant difference when the angle was increased from 10° to 20°. Therefore, combining 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and traction (tilt angles that less than 20°) may to reduce muscle fatigue both for LES and UT compared with either vibration or traction alone. The combination of 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis and traction (tilt angles

  4. The effect of GSM and TETRA mobile handset signals on blood pressure, catechol levels and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anthony T; Jackson, Peter R; Parry, Helen; Coulton, Leslie A; Cook, Greg G; Wood, Steven M

    2007-09-01

    An acute rise in blood pressure has been reported in normal volunteers during exposure to signals from a mobile phone handset. To investigate this finding further we carried out a double blind study in 120 healthy volunteers (43 men, 77 women) in whom we measured mean arterial pressure (MAP) during each of six exposure sessions. At each session subjects were exposed to one of six different radio frequency signals simulating both GSM and TETRA handsets in different transmission modes. Blood catechols before and after exposure, heart rate variability during exposure, and post exposure 24 h ambulatory blood pressure were also studied. Despite having the power to detect changes in MAP of less than 1 mmHg none of our measurements showed any effect which we could attribute to radio frequency exposure. We found a single statistically significant decrease of 0.7 mmHg (95% CI 0.3-1.2 mmHg, P = .04) with exposure to GSM handsets in sham mode. This may be due to a slight increase in operating temperature of the handsets when in this mode. Hence our results have not confirmed the original findings of an acute rise in blood pressure due to exposure to mobile phone handset signals. In light of this negative finding from a large study, coupled with two smaller GSM studies which have also proved negative, we are of the view that further studies of acute changes in blood pressure due to GSM and TETRA handsets are not required.

  5. Responses of heart rate and blood pressure to KC-135 hyper-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Ken'ichi; Reschke, Millard F.

    1992-01-01

    Many investigators have clarified the effects of hyper gravitational-inertial forces (G) upon the cardiovascular system, using the centrifugal apparatus with short rotating radius. We investigated the cardiovascular responses to KC-135 hyper-G flight with negligibly small angular velocity. Six normal, healthy subjects 29 to 40 years old (5 males and 1 female) took part in this experiment. Hyper gravitational-inertial force was generated by the KC-135 hyper-G flight, flown in a spiral path with a very long radius of 1.5 miles. Hyper-G was sustained for 3 minutes with 1.8 +Gz in each session and was repeatedly exposed to very subject sitting on a chair 5 times. The preliminary results of blood pressure and R-R interval are discussed. An exposure of 1.8 +Gz stress resulted in a remarkable increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the pulse pressure did not change and remained equal to the control level regardless of an exposure of hyper-G. These results in blood pressure indicate an increase of resistance in the peripheral vessels, when an exposure of hyper-G was applied. The R-R interval was calculated from ECG. R-R interval in all subjects was changed but not systematically, and R-R interval became obviously shorter during the hyper-G period than during the 1 +Gz control period although R-R interval varied widely in some cases. The coefficient of variation of R-R interval was estimated to determine the autonomic nerve activity, but no significant change was detectable.

  6. Responses of heart rate and blood pressure to KC-135 hyper-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Ken'ichi; Reschke, Millard F.

    1992-01-01

    Many investigators have clarified the effects of hyper gravitational-inertial forces (G) upon the cardiovascular system, using the centrifugal apparatus with short rotating radius. We investigated the cardiovascular responses to KC-135 hyper-G flight with negligibly small angular velocity. Six normal, healthy subjects 29 to 40 years old (5 males and 1 female) took part in this experiment. Hyper gravitational-inertial force was generated by the KC-135 hyper-G flight, flown in a spiral path with a very long radius of 1.5 miles. Hyper-G was sustained for 3 minutes with 1.8 +Gz in each session and was repeatedly exposed to very subject sitting on a chair 5 times. The preliminary results of blood pressure and R-R interval are discussed. An exposure of 1.8 +Gz stress resulted in a remarkable increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the pulse pressure did not change and remained equal to the control level regardless of an exposure of hyper-G. These results in blood pressure indicate an increase of resistance in the peripheral vessels, when an exposure of hyper-G was applied. The R-R interval was calculated from ECG. R-R interval in all subjects was changed but not systematically, and R-R interval became obviously shorter during the hyper-G period than during the 1 +Gz control period although R-R interval varied widely in some cases. The coefficient of variation of R-R interval was estimated to determine the autonomic nerve activity, but no significant change was detectable.

  7. The effect of a scalp massage on stress hormone, blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy female.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hong; Kim, Tae-Young; Ko, Young-Wan

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] A scalp massage was conducted on female office workers divided into a 15 minute group and 25 minute group and its effect on stress hormone, blood pressure and heart rate was analyzed in order to provide a theoretical rationale to apply scalp massage as stress therapy. [Subjects and Methods] A scalp massage was applied to 34 female office workers twice a week for a total of 10 weeks; the subjects were classified into 15 min., 25 min. and control groups, and their stress hormone levels, blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated. [Results] Significant differences in norepinephrine, cortisol and blood pressure (SBP & DBP) were found in terms of interaction by time interval and between groups. [Conclusion] As a result of applying scalp massage to female office workers for 15 and 25 minutes, positive effects were observed on stress hormone, blood pressure and heart rate. Therefore, scalp massage can be used for stress control with no spatial or time limit.

  8. The effect of a scalp massage on stress hormone, blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy female

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Hong; Kim, Tae-Young; Ko, Young-Wan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] A scalp massage was conducted on female office workers divided into a 15 minute group and 25 minute group and its effect on stress hormone, blood pressure and heart rate was analyzed in order to provide a theoretical rationale to apply scalp massage as stress therapy. [Subjects and Methods] A scalp massage was applied to 34 female office workers twice a week for a total of 10 weeks; the subjects were classified into 15 min., 25 min. and control groups, and their stress hormone levels, blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated. [Results] Significant differences in norepinephrine, cortisol and blood pressure (SBP & DBP) were found in terms of interaction by time interval and between groups. [Conclusion] As a result of applying scalp massage to female office workers for 15 and 25 minutes, positive effects were observed on stress hormone, blood pressure and heart rate. Therefore, scalp massage can be used for stress control with no spatial or time limit. PMID:27821918

  9. Effect of a beta-adrenergic antagonist on blood pressure, heart rate and beta-adrenoceptors in turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, W J; Kusiak, J W; Augustine, P C; Pitha, J

    1983-01-01

    An irreversible beta-adrenergic blocker, bromoacetylalprenololmenthane (BAAM), was administered both peripherally and centrally to turkey poults, Meleagris gallopavo. Peripheral administration of BAAM (60 mg/kg body weight) effected a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Twenty minutes postinjection, mean blood pressure and heart rate were reduced 34.5 and 24.2%, respectively. Two days later, mean blood pressure values remained significantly depressed at 17.3% below preinjection determinations. Biochemical analysis of heart tissue following peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of BAAM (60 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant decrease in beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR). Little or no change in the number of BAR in brain tissue was observed. Central (intraventricular) administration of BAAM (0.72 mg/g brain weight) resulted in no change in mean blood pressure or heart rate during a 20 min postinjection period. Biochemical analysis of heart tissue following central injections of BAAM showed little or no change in the number of BAR. There was, however, a significant decrease in the number of BAR in brain tissue.

  10. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and capacity in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix; Linz, Dominik; Pöss, Janine; Cremers, Bodo; Kindermann, Ingrid; Laufs, Ulrich; Ukena, Christian; Böhm, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Renal denervation reduces office blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. This study investigated the effects of renal denervation on blood pressure, heart rate, and chronotropic index at rest, during exercise, and at recovery in 60 patients (renal denervation group=50, control group=10) with resistant hypertension using a standardized bicycle exercise test protocol performed 6 and 12 months after renal denervation. After renal denervation, exercise blood pressure at rest was reduced from 158±3/90±2 to 141±3/84±4 mm Hg (P<0.001 for systolic blood pressure/P=0.007 for diastolic blood pressure) after 6 months and 139±3/83±4 mm Hg (P<0.001/P=0.022) after 12 months. Exercise blood pressure tended to be lower at all stages of exercise at 6- and 12-month follow-up in patients undergoing renal denervation, although reaching statistical significance only at mild-to-moderate exercise levels (75-100 W). At recovery after 1 minute, blood pressure decreased from 201±4/95±2 to 177±4/88±2 (P<0.001/P=0.066) and 188±6/86±2 mm Hg (P=0.059/P=0.01) after 6 and 12 months, respectively. Heart rate was reduced after renal denervation from 71±3 bpm at rest, 128±5 bpm at maximum workload, and 96±5 bpm at recovery after 1 minute to 66±2 (P<0.001), 115±5 (P=0.107), and 89±3 bpm (P=0.008) after 6 months and to 69±3 (P=0.092), 122±7 (P=0.01), and 93±4 bpm (P=0.032) after 12 months. Mean exercise time increased from 6.59±0.33 to 8.4±0.32 (P<0.001) and 9.0±0.41 minutes (P=0.008), and mean workload increased from 93±2 to 100±2 (P<0.001) and 101±3 W (P=0.007) at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. No changes were observed in the control group. In conclusion, renal denervation reduced blood pressure and heart rate during exercise, improved mean workload, and increased exercise time without impairing chronotropic competence.

  11. Time course of changes in heart rate and blood pressure variability in rats with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Aires, R.; Pimentel, E.B.; Forechi, L.; Dantas, E.M.; Mill, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the time course of changes in autonomic balance in the acute (1 and 3 days), sub-acute (7 days) and chronic (28 days) phases of myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Autonomic balance was assessed by temporal and spectral analyses of blood pressure variability (BPV) and heart rate variability (HRV). Pulsatile blood pressure (BP) recordings (30 min) were obtained in awake and unrestrained male Wistar rats (N = 77; 8-10 weeks old) with MI (coronary ligature) or sham operation (SO). Data are reported as means±SE. The high frequency (HF) component (n.u.) of HRV was significantly lower in MI-1- (P<0.01) and MI-3-day rats (P<0.05) than in their time-control groups (SO-1=68±4 vs MI-1=35.3±4.3; SO-3=71±5.8 vs MI-3=45.2±3.8), without differences thereafter (SO-7=69.2±4.8 vs MI-7=56±5.8; SO-28=73±4 vs MI-28=66±6.6). A sharp reduction (P<0.05) of BPV (mmHg2) was observed in the first week after MI (SO-1=8.55±0.80; SO-3=9.11±1.08; SO-7=7.92±1.10 vs MI-1=5.63±0.73; MI-3=5.93±0.30; MI-7=5.30±0.25). Normal BPV, however, was observed 4 weeks after MI (SO-28=8.60±0.66 vs MI-28=8.43±0.56 mmHg2; P>0.05). This reduction was mainly due to attenuation of the low frequency (LF) band of BPV in absolute and normalized units (SO-1=39.3±7%; SO-3=55±4.5%; SO-7=46.8±4.5%; SO-28=45.7±5%; MI-1=13±3.5%; MI-3=35±4.7%; MI-7=25±2.8%; MI-28=21.4±2.8%). The results suggest that the reduction in HRV was associated with decrease of the HF component of HRV suggesting recovery of the vagal control of heartbeats along the post-infarction healing period. The depression of BPV was more dependent on the attenuation of the LF component, which is linked to the baroreflex modulation of the autonomic balance. PMID:28076450

  12. The influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on blood pressure, heart rate variability, and prevalence of arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Grzegorz; Makowski, Karol; Michałkiewicz, Dariusz; Kowal, Jarosław; Ruchala, Marek; Szczepanek, Ewelina; Gielerak, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    The impact of subclinical hyperthyroidism (sHT) on the cardiovascular system still needs to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess blood pressure (BP), variability in heart rate, and the prevalence of arrhythmias in patients with sHT, both before and after they are restored to the euthyroid state. The study group consisted of 44 normotensive patients (37 women, 7 men), aged 22-65 years (mean±SD: 45.9±11.0) with sHT. Enrolled patients were drawn from 1080 patients referred to our department for treatment of hyperthyroidism. Study patients were treated with radioiodine treatment to restore the euthyroid state. Ambulatory BP monitoring and Holter electrocardiography were performed (i) when sHT was diagnosed and (ii) at least 6 months after they became euthyroid. sHT in comparison to the euthyroid state was associated with higher (109.3±7.1 vs. 107.1±7.7 mmHg) nocturnal systolic mean BP (p=0.035) and BP load (14.8 vs. 10.2%, p=0.033), mean diastolic BP (66.4±6.6 vs. 64.8±6.6 mmHg, p=0.047), and mean arterial pressure (80.8±43.1 vs. 79.3±43.6 mmHg, p=0.049). Moreover, significant changes in both the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were observed: decrease of the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (rMSSD) (45.68±34.1 vs. 65.09±50.6 ms, p=0.03) and the low frequency power (LF) (5.71±0.99 vs. 6.0±1.01 ms(2), p=0.049) as well as increase of QT interval dispersion (58.25±28.5 vs. 46.90±12.1 ms, p=0.020). This was accompanied by a clinically insignificant increase in the frequency of ventricular extrasystoles (VES) (3.1±7.4 vs. 0.6±1.2 per hour, p=0.048) and increased mean heart rate (78.4±6.8 vs. 76.0±8.0 beats/min, p=0.004). Some of the parameters correlated positively with thyroid hormones: nocturnal diastolic BP with free triiodothyronine (FT(3)) (r=0.397, p=0.008), rMSSD with free thyroxine (FT(4)) (r=0.389, p=0.013), and QT interval dispersion with FT(4

  13. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fatigue. Fever, vomiting, severe diarrhea, overuse of diuretics and strenuous exercise can lead to dehydration. Blood ... can cause low blood pressure, including: Water pills (diuretics), such as furosemide (Lasix) and hydrochlorothiazide (Maxzide, Microzide, ...

  14. Acute effects of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate in the cat: an evaluation of safety.

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, J A; Flecknell, P A; Kenyon, B R; Koh, T H; Miller, S

    1990-01-01

    The influence of repeated high intensity electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate has been investigated in the cat, to evaluate the safety of the method. The observations have been made in preparations under propofol anaesthesia before, during and after periods of anoxia. Electromagnetic stimulation of the brain evoked activity in descending motor pathways and was recorded by activity in the median nerve and by muscle twitches. Following repeated series of high intensity stimulation there were no systematic changes in somatosensory evoked potentials or background EEG, nor were there signs of epileptogenic activity during electromagnetic stimulation, before, during or after periods of anoxia. No systematic changes in cortical blood flow, blood pressure or heart rate were observed during electromagnetic stimulation, before or after periods of anoxia. In conclusion, no acute adverse consequences following electromagnetic stimulation in the normal and anoxic cat brain were demonstrated. PMID:2380732

  15. Blood pressure and heart rate effects, weight loss and maintenance during long-term phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Ed J; Greenway, Frank L; Westman, Eric C; Gupta, Alok K

    2011-12-01

    There is a perception that phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), exposing treated patients to increased cardiovascular risk. We collected data from phentermine-treated (PT) and phentermine-untreated (P0) patients at a private weight management practice, to examine blood pressure, HR, and weight changes. Records of 300 sequential returning patients were selected who had been treated with a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet if their records included complete weight, blood pressure, and HR data from seven office examinations during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The mean time in therapy, time range, and mode was 92 (97.0), 12-624, and 52 weeks. 14% were normotensive, 52% were prehypertensive, and 34% were hypertensive at their first visit or had a previous diagnosis of hypertension. PT subjects systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) declined from baseline at all data points (SBP/DBP -6.9/-5.0 mm Hg at 26, and -7.3/-5.4 at 52 weeks). P0 subjects' declines of SBP/DBP at both 26 and 52 weeks were -8.9/-6.3 but the difference from the treated cohort was not significant. HR changes in treated/untreated subjects at weeks 26 (-0.9/-3.5) and 52 (+1.2/-3.6) were not significant. Weight loss was significantly greater in the PT cohort for week 1 through 104 (P = 0.0144). These data suggest phentermine treatment for obesity does not result in increased SBP, DBP, or HR, and that weight loss assisted with phentermine treatment is associated with favorable shifts in categorical blood pressure and retardation of progression to hypertension in obese patients.

  16. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels.

  17. Blood pressure and heart rate during stress in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Pirojsakul, Kwanchai; Thanapinyo, Apinya; Nuntnarumit, Pracha

    2017-06-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system activity has been proposed as a potential mechanism for the blood pressure (BP) elevation seen in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA). This study was carried out to detect the changes in BP and heart rate (HR) in children born SGA during exposure to stress and to assess for changes in urinary catecholamine excretion. Nineteen children aged 6-14 years born SGA and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The stress test included a mathematical test and venipuncture. BP and HR were monitored during the test. Spot urine samples were collected at baseline and after the stress test to determine dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels. At baseline, there was no difference in BP and HR between the SGA and control groups, but mean urinary norepinephrine levels were slightly higher in the SGA group (55.7 ± 16.1 vs. 43.4 ± 3.8 mcg/gCr; P = 0.10). Compared to the control group, mean maximal HR increase was higher in the SGA group (31.3 ± 3.1 vs. 19.2 ± 3.8%; P = 0.008), and mean duration of maximal HR to baseline HR was longer (186 ± 23 vs. 97 ± 13 s, respectively; P = 0.003). There was a significant negative correlation between birth weight and maximal HR increase (r = -0.497, P = 0.003). Children born SGA showed significantly greater increases in HR and significantly longer periods of tachycardia during exposure to stress than did healthy controls. The rise in HR was inversely correlated with birth weight. These findings suggest that children born SGA have a greater increase in sympathetic response when exposed to stress than do healthy individuals.

  18. Daily environmental differences in blood pressure and heart rate variability in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2015-01-01

    As daily environments change, behavior and activity also change and as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are allostatically tied to these factors, one might expect that environments that elicit the greatest behavioral/activity variation should also evince the highest BP and HR variability [standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV)]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this premise. Two hundred and six women (age = 37.6 ± 9.1 years) wore an ambulatory BP monitor on a midweek workday. All worked in clerical, technical, or professional positions. Ambulatory BP and HR Means, SDs and CVs at work (11 AM-3 PM), home (∼6-10 PM) and during sleep (∼10 PM-6 AM) were compared using repeated measures ANCOVA. Mean BP and HR decreased from work and home to sleep [121 ± 11, 120 ± 11 vs. 107 ± 12 systolic; 82 ± 10, 80 ± 11 vs. 66 ± 11 diastolic; 79 ± 12, 80 ± 12 vs. 68 ± 11 HR (all P < 0.001)], while the CV of systolic and diastolic BP increased [0.06 ± 0.02, 0.07 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.03 systolic; 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 diastolic (P < 0.001)]. The HR SD decreased during sleep [8.1 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 3.8 vs. 6.9 ± 3.2 (P < 0.001)]. HR variability follows the expected variability pattern with behavior and activity, whereas BP does not. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Towards development of a mobile RF Doppler sensor for continuous heart rate variability and blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Insoo Kim; Bhagat, Yusuf A

    2016-08-01

    The standard in noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement is an inflatable cuff device based on the oscillometric method, which poses several practical challenges for continuous BP monitoring. Here, we present a novel ultra-wide band RF Doppler radar sensor for next-generation mobile interface for the purpose of characterizing fluid flow speeds, and for ultimately measuring cuffless blood flow in the human wrist. The system takes advantage of the 7.1~10.5 GHz ultra-wide band signals which can reduce transceiver complexity and power consumption overhead. Moreover, results obtained from hardware development, antenna design and human wrist modeling, and subsequent phantom development are reported. Our comprehensive lab bench system setup with a peristaltic pump was capable of characterizing various speed flow components during a linear velocity sweep of 5~62 cm/s. The sensor holds potential for providing estimates of heart rate and blood pressure.

  20. The Effect of Harp Music on Heart Rate, Mean Blood Pressure, Respiratory Rate, and Body Temperature in the African Green Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey. Journal of Medical Primatology 36:95...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Background: The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for nonhuman primates (NHP) is...Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music . Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean

  1. Respiratory rate estimation from the oscillometric waveform obtained from a non-invasive cuff-based blood pressure device.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, M A F; Santos, M D; Arteta, C; Domingos, J S; Maraci, M A; Clifford, G D

    2014-01-01

    The presence of respiratory activity in the electrocardiogram (ECG), the pulse oximeter's photoplethysmo-graphic and continuous arterial blood pressure signals is a well-documented phenomenon. In this paper, we demonstrate that such information is also present in the oscillometric signal acquired from automatic non-invasive blood pressure monitors, and may be used to estimate the vital sign respiratory rate (RR). We propose a novel method that combines the information from the two respiratory-induced variations (frequency and amplitude) via frequency analysis to both estimate RR and eliminate estimations considered to be unreliable because of poor signal quality. The method was evaluated using data acquired from 40 subjects containing ECG, respiration and blood pressure waveforms, the latter acquired using an in-house built blood pressure device that is able to connect to a mobile phone. Results demonstrated a good RR estimation accuracy of our method when compared to the reference values extracted from the reference respiration waveforms (mean absolute error of 2.69 breaths/min), which is comparable to existing methods in the literature that extract RR from other physiological signals. The proposed method has been implemented in Java on the Android device for use in an mHealth platform.

  2. Association of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate with advanced white matter lesions in ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Lim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Young Seo

    2014-02-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are a common finding in stroke patients, and the most important risk factors are old age and hypertension. Although many studies have described the association between WMLs and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients, little is known about the association in hypertensive ischemic stroke patients. From July 2009 to June 2012, 169 consecutive hypertensive noncardioembolic ischemic stroke patients were recruited within 1 week of suffering a stroke, and ABPM was applied 1 or 2 weeks after stroke onset. The subjects were classified into 2 groups according to the presence of advanced WMLs, and their ABPM parameters were compared. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the independent relationships between WMLs and ABPM parameters. Seventy (41%) patients had advanced WMLs. In univariable analysis, higher 24-hour, awake, and asleep systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure levels and 24-hour pulse pressure were associated with advanced WMLs. However, circadian blood pressure parameters such as 24-hour BP variability, morning surge, and nocturnal dipping pattern were not associated with advanced WMLs. After adjustments, old age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.063; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.024-1.104; P = 0.002), high 24-hour SBP levels (OR = 1.055; 95% CI = 1.028-1.082; P < 0.001), and high 24-hour heart rate (OR = 1.041; 95% CI = 1.006-1.078; P = 0.023) were independently associated with advanced WMLs. In addition to old age and elevated 24-hour SBP, increased heart rate is associated with advanced WMLs in ischemic stroke patients. Heart rate deserves more attention in predicting advanced WMLs in those patients.

  3. Long term effects of ritodrine on blood pressure and heart rate of adolescents exposed during the prenatal stage.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M; Pita, S; Costas, E; Cupeiro, A; Chaves, O F; García, M; Sola, A; Goyanes, V

    1995-04-01

    To determine the long term cardiovascular effects in adolescents exposed to ritodrine during prenatal stage. Twenty-seven ritodrine-exposed subjects and 19 controls, of both sexes, clinically healthy, and born at normal term, were evaluated for systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) each during 48 hours, with a Colin Ambulatory monitor. Data analysis were performed by individual Cosinor method, and non-parametric Mann Whitney's test and Lamotte procedures. Adolescents who were exposed to ritodrine showed losses in the HR rhythm and rising middle pulse values. Although SBP and DBP rhythm remains constant, the increase of maximum and minimum values for SBP as well as a rise of maximal rates of DBP suggest a possible hypertensive effect mediated by beta mimetic exposure. This study suggests a hypertensive effect mediated by beta mimetic exposure.

  4. Effect of a music intervention on noise annoyance, heart rate, and blood pressure in cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Byers, J F; Smyth, K A

    1997-05-01

    Exposure to noise in a critical care unit may trigger a response by the sympathetic nervous system, thereby increasing cardiovascular work in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. To investigate the effects of a music intervention given twice on the first postoperative day on noise annoyance, heart rate, and arterial blood pressure in subjects with high (n = 22) and low (n = 18) sensitivity to noise. A prospective, quasi-experimental, repeated-measures design was used. Based on results of power analysis, the sample size was 40. Subjects were recruited preoperatively, and their sensitivity to noise was assessed. On the first postoperative day, repeated-measures data were collected on levels of noise annoyance and physiological variables during 15 minutes of baseline and 15 minutes of music intervention on two occasions. Subjects completed a follow-up questionnaire regarding their perceptions of the noise in the critical care unit and the music intervention. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that subjects had lower levels of noise annoyance during music intervention than at baseline. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure decreased during the music intervention compared with baseline. Diastolic blood pressure decreased during the music intervention from baseline during time 2, but not time 1. Subjects with high baseline scores of noise sensitivity preoperatively had higher baseline levels of noise annoyance in the critical care unit the first postoperative day. Subjects rated the music intervention as highly enjoyable regardless of their baseline noise sensitivity or noise annoyance. Results of this study support the idea that noise annoyance is a highly individual phenomenon, influenced by a transaction of personal and environmental factors. Use of a music intervention with cardiac surgery patients during the first postoperative day decreased noise annoyance, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure, regardless of the subject's noise sensitivity.

  5. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART RATE AND MELATONIN CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE SEASON, EARTH MAGNETISM AND SOLAR FLARES

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Sothern, R.B.; Hillman, D.C.; Siegelová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three spectral components with periods of about (~) 0.41, ~0.5 and ~1.0 year had been found with serially independent sampling in human circulating melatonin. The time series consisted of around-the-clock samples collected for 24 hours at 4-hour intervals from different patients over several years. Some of these components had been found to be circadian stage-dependent, the daytime measurements following mostly a circannual variation, whereas a half-year characterized the nighttime samples. The latter were incorporated into a circasemiannual map. The relative brevity of the series prevented a check for the coexistence of all three spectral components, even if each component seemed to have a raison d’être. In time series of transdisciplinary data, a 1.00-year synchronized component is interpreted as representing the seasons. The half-year may qualify the circannual waveform, but it is also a signature of geomagnetics. An ~0.41-year (~5-month) component is the signature of solar flares. It has been called a cis-half-year (cis = on this side of a half-year) and may be detected only intermittently. Charles L. Wolff predicted the existence, among others, of ~0.42- and ~0.56-year components as beat periods of rotations at different solar latitudes. The multiple components characterizing circulating melatonin could also be found in a (to our knowledge unique) data set of a clinically healthy scientist (RBS). Herein, we focus on vascular data self-measured by RBS as he aged from ~20 to ~60 years. A multi-component model consisting of cosine curves with periods of 0.41, 0.50 and 1.00 year was fitted to weekly means of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) collected ~5 times a day over 39 years by RBS. All three components can coexist for a while, although all of them are nonstationary in their characteristics and come and go by the criterion of statistical significance. Intermittently, BP and HR are synchronized selectively with one or

  7. BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART RATE AND MELATONIN CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE SEASON, EARTH MAGNETISM AND SOLAR FLARES.

    PubMed

    Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F; Sothern, R B; Hillman, D C; Siegelová, J

    2010-01-01

    Three spectral components with periods of about (~) 0.41, ~0.5 and ~1.0 year had been found with serially independent sampling in human circulating melatonin. The time series consisted of around-the-clock samples collected for 24 hours at 4-hour intervals from different patients over several years. Some of these components had been found to be circadian stage-dependent, the daytime measurements following mostly a circannual variation, whereas a half-year characterized the nighttime samples. The latter were incorporated into a circasemiannual map. The relative brevity of the series prevented a check for the coexistence of all three spectral components, even if each component seemed to have a raison d'être. In time series of transdisciplinary data, a 1.00-year synchronized component is interpreted as representing the seasons. The half-year may qualify the circannual waveform, but it is also a signature of geomagnetics. An ~0.41-year (~5-month) component is the signature of solar flares. It has been called a cis-half-year (cis = on this side of a half-year) and may be detected only intermittently. Charles L. Wolff predicted the existence, among others, of ~0.42- and ~0.56-year components as beat periods of rotations at different solar latitudes.The multiple components characterizing circulating melatonin could also be found in a (to our knowledge unique) data set of a clinically healthy scientist (RBS). Herein, we focus on vascular data self-measured by RBS as he aged from ~20 to ~60 years. A multi-component model consisting of cosine curves with periods of 0.41, 0.50 and 1.00 year was fitted to weekly means of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) collected ~5 times a day over 39 years by RBS. All three components can coexist for a while, although all of them are nonstationary in their characteristics and come and go by the criterion of statistical significance.Intermittently, BP and HR are synchronized selectively with one or the

  8. Blood Pressure Checker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An estimated 30 million people in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. But a great many of them are unaware of it because hypertension, in its initial stages, displays no symptoms. Thus, the simply-operated blood pressure checking devices now widely located in public places are useful health aids. The one pictured above, called -Medimax 30, is a direct spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor astronauts in space. For manned space flights, NASA wanted a compact, highly-reliable, extremely accurate method of checking astronauts' blood pressure without the need for a physician's interpretive skill. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Technology, Inc., a contractor, developed an electronic sound processor that automatically analyzes blood flow sounds to get both systolic (contracting arteries) and diastolic (expanding arteries) blood pressure measurements. NASA granted a patent license for this technology to Advanced Life Sciences, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of Medimax 30.

  9. Effects of low-intensity exercise conditioning on blood pressure, heart rate, and autonomic modulation of heart rate in men and women with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lien P T; Brown, C Ann; Hains, Sylvia J M; Godwin, Marshall; Parlow, Joel L

    2009-10-01

    Untreated hypertension increases cardiovascular risk 2-fold to 3-fold, leading to serious cardiovascular problems that include left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, renal disease, and death. Exercise conditioning is recommended as one of the initial treatments for hypertension. The purpose of this pretest-posttest study was to quantify the effects of a 12-week home-based low-intensity exercise conditioning (walking) program in hypertensive men and women on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and autonomic modulation of heart rate. A total of 20 mildly hypertensive men and women who were assigned to a structured exercise (walking) program were compared with a control group of 20 nonexercising mildly hypertensive participants. Electrocardiographic heart rate and R-R interval data and beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure data were collected continuously for 10 min with participants in the supine and standing postures and during low-intensity steady-state exercise. The results show that systolic and diastolic blood pressure and R-R interval decreased and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity increased in the exercise group. The decline in blood pressure was significant statistically and clinically. The increase in spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity indicates that the ability of the cardiovascular system to respond rapidly to changing stimuli improved after the 12-week walking protocol. The low-intensity exercise conditioning program achieved a training effect in this population.

  10. Effects of far infrared rays irradiated from ceramic material (BIOCERAMIC) on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Chen, Chien-Ho; Tsai, Shih-Ying; Hsiao, George; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2012-10-31

    The present study examined the effects of BIOCERAMIC on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility using in vivo and in vitro animal models. We investigated the effects of BIOCERAMIC on the in vivo cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters of rats by monitoring their heart rates, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Thereafter, we assayed its effects on the heart rate in an isolated frog heart with and without adrenaline stimulation, and on cardiac contractility under oxidative stress. BIOCERAMIC caused significant decreases in heart rates and systolic and mean blood pressure in the stress-conditioned heart rate rat models (P < 0.05), as well as in the experimental models of an isolated frog heart with and without adrenaline stimulation (P < 0.05), and normalized cardiac contractility under oxidative stress (P < 0.05). BIOCERAMIC may, therefore, normalize the effects of psychological stress and oxidative stress conditions.

  11. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomisation Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K.; Skaaby, Tea; Taylor, Amy E.; Fluharty, Meg E.; Jeppesen, Jørgen L.; Bjorngaard, Johan H.; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Gabrielsen, Maiken E.; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Kumari, Meena; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Palotie, Aarno; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Ford, Ian; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Kuh, Diana; Eriksson, Johan G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Jukema, J. Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Preisig, Martin; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Korhonen, Tellervo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H.; Hayward, Caroline; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thuesen, Betina H.; Sattar, Naveed; Morris, Richard W.; Romundstad, Pål R.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. Methods and Results Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with higher resting heart rate (0.36 beats/minute/allele; 95% CI 0.18; 0.54), there was no strong association with DBP, SBP, or hypertension. This would suggest a 7 beats/minute higher heart rate in those who smoke 20 cigarettes/day. Conclusions This MR meta-analysis supports a causal association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate. PMID:26538566

  12. [Measuring blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Estrada Reventos, Dolors; Pujol Navarro, Ester

    2008-09-01

    High blood pressure is one of the main factors which lead to cardiovascular cerebral-vascular and kidney diseases; therefore, nursing professionals should have enough basic knowledge to enable them to carry out a precocious diagnosis and correct follow-up procedures. Although students in nursing schools are taught how to correctly measure blood pressure, often this teaching does not meet the recommendations provided by different national and international guidelines. Thus it is important to know how to use the correct methodology to measure blood pressure.

  13. The effect of harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Sarah Bro; Raimond, Susan; Purcell, Bret K

    2007-04-01

    The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for non-human primates is explored in this study. Konigsberg Instruments Model T27F-1B cardiovascular telemetry devices were implanted into nine African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music. Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature for a 30-minute baseline period before music exposure; a 90-minute period of music exposure; and a 90-minute post-exposure period, where no music was played. No statistical differences were noted in heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature between pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure periods. The lack of response in these African green monkeys may be attributable to their generally calm demeanor in captivity; experiments with a more excitable species such as the rhesus macaque might demonstrate a significant relaxation response to music.

  14. [Changes in blood pressure and heart rate by an increase in serum estradiol in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation].

    PubMed

    Tomczy, Rita; Paluch, Katarzyna; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Milewicz, Tomasz; Janeczko, Jarosław; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood pressure and heart rate in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) in preparation for assisted reproduction techniques. Material and method: The comparison of blood pressure and heart rate measurements obtained from 5 women (age 35.3 +/- 9.4 years) was performed. The data were collected during the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) using Holcard sphygmomanometer CR-07 Aspel S.A. at the beginning and in the last day of short protocol of COH with the use of triptorelin (Decapeptyl 0.1 mg/day--Ferring GmbH) and the total supply of Gonalu F 225 U/day--Merck Serono) and Menotropiny 75j FSH + LH 75 U/day (Merional Imed/lBSA). During COH the increase in the serum estradiol level was detected (54.03 +/- 9.4 pg/ml at baseline vs. 1128.7 +/- 208.6 pg/ml after COH, p < 0.001). However, there were no differences in SBP and DBP values before stimulation and on the day of its completion. Only the decrease of mean arterial pressure measured by oscillometric method was observed during the study (95.1 +/- 25.3 mmHg vs. 87.6 +/- 27.8 mmHg, p<0.02). Mean arterial pressure measured by oscillometric method decreased in the daytime measurements (98 +/- 27.3 mmHg vs. 92.8 +/- 26.5 mmHg, p<0.05) as well as in the nighttime measurements (84.4 +/- 17.4 mmHg vs. 78.8 +/- 14, 4 mmHg, p <0.05). After COH, the higher heart rate (HR) was measured (in overall ABPM statistics: baseline HR 68.5 +/- 12.8/min vs. 73.6 +/- 13.7/ min after COH, p<0.002 and also in daytime statistics: baseline HR70.8 +/- 13.6 / min vs. 76.3 +/- 15.5 / min after COH, p<0.002). The increase in serum estradiol level caused by COH leads to increase in heart rate and reduction in mean arterial pressure measured by oscillometric method. However, short-term increase in serum estradiol during COH is not associated with significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women preparing for the in vitro procedure.

  15. Blood pressure and heart rate immediately after termination of short-term ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Heusch, G; Fritzsche, A; Meyer, K; Gams, E; Winter, J

    2008-12-01

    Implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) can detect ventricular fibrillation (VF) and terminate it. For determining the optimal defibrillation threshold, ventricular fibrillation is repetitively induced and terminated with DC shocks. Depending on the protocol, several fibrillation/defibrillation sequences are mandatory before the final implantation of an ICD. This procedure provides an elegant human model of circulatory arrest and resuscitation. In anesthetized 73 patients (15 females) of on the average 60+/-11 years, the end-expiratory pressure was set to zero. Left ventricular pressure (LVP) was monitored with a microtip-catheter, central venous pressure (CVP) through a cannula which was advanced into the superior V. cava. ECG was recorded. After testing, a monoexponential function was found to best fit the time courses of LVP, CVP and heart rate. Data are mean+/-S.D. After termination of circulatory arrest, peak LVP increased with a time constant tau of 9.2+/-4.2 beats, CVP decreased with tau=2.8+/-1.5 beats, and RR-intervals decreased with tau=4.3+/-3.5 beats. Correlations between prefibrillatory values and steady-state values after termination of fibrillation were high: peak LVP: r=0.78; CVP: r=0.95; RRI: r=0.82. After DC termination of VF, the heart 'finds' relatively quickly a steady-state rhythm at the prefibrillatory level (22 beats), thereby normalizing CVP almost in parallel (14 beats). Peak LVP plateaus only after about 40 beats, although reasonable arterial pressures are reached within the first beats. Our data are limited to periods of ventricular fibrillation of no longer than 60s, which limits the generalisability to the setting of clinical cardiac arrest.

  16. Heart Rate Variability Moderates the Association Between Separation-Related Psychological Distress and Blood Pressure Reactivity Over Time.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Hasselmo, Karen; Sbarra, David A

    2016-08-01

    Divorce is a stressor associated with long-term health risk, though the mechanisms of this effect are poorly understood. Cardiovascular reactivity is one biological pathway implicated as a predictor of poor long-term health after divorce. A sample of recently separated and divorced adults (N = 138) was assessed over an average of 7.5 months to explore whether individual differences in heart rate variability-assessed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia-operate in combination with subjective reports of separation-related distress to predict prospective changes in cardiovascular reactivity, as indexed by blood pressure reactivity. Participants with low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline showed no association between divorce-related distress and later blood pressure reactivity, whereas participants with high respiratory sinus arrhythmia showed a positive association. In addition, within-person variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and between-persons variation in separation-related distress interacted to predict blood pressure reactivity at each laboratory visit. Individual differences in heart rate variability and subjective distress operate together to predict cardiovascular reactivity and may explain some of the long-term health risk associated with divorce.

  17. Chaos in blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C D; Nafz, B; Persson, P B

    1996-03-01

    A number of control mechanisms are comprised within blood pressure regulation, ranging from events on the cellular level up to circulating hormones. Despite their vast number, blood pressure fluctuations occur preferably within a certain range (under physiological conditions). A specific class of dynamic systems has been extensively studied over the past several years: nonlinear coupled systems, which often reveal a characteristic form of motion termed "chaos". The system is restricted to a certain range in phase space, but the motion is never periodic. The attractor the system moves on has a non-integer dimension. What all chaotic systems have in common is their sensitive dependence on initial conditions. The question arises as to whether blood pressure regulation can be explained by such models. Many efforts have been made to characterise heart rate variability and EEG dynamics by parameters of chaos theory (e.g., fractal dimensions and Lyapunov exponents). These method were successfully applied to dynamics observed in single organs, but very few studies have dealt with blood pressure dynamics. This mini-review first gives an overview on the history of blood pressure dynamics and the methods suitable to characterise the dynamics by means of tools derived from the field of nonlinear dynamics. Then applications to systemic blood pressure are discussed. After a short survey on heart rate variability, which is indirectly reflected in blood pressure variability, some dynamic aspects of resistance vessels are given. Intriguingly, systemic blood pressure reveals a change in fractal dimensions and Lyapunov exponents, when the major short-term control mechanism--the arterial baroreflex--is disrupted. Indeed it seems that cardiovascular time series can be described by tools from nonlinear dynamics [66]. These methods allow a novel description of some important aspects of biological systems. Both the linear and the nonlinear tools complement each other and can be useful in

  18. Relationship between heart rate variability, blood pressure and arterial wall properties during air and oxygen breathing in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Graff, Beata; Szyndler, Anna; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Kucharska, Wiesława; Graff, Grzegorz; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported that normobaric hyperoxia influences heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still not fully understood. Several factors are considered including degeneration of endothelium-derived nitric oxide by reactive oxygen species, the impact of oxygen-free radicals on tissues and alterations of autonomic nervous system function. Recently, new devices for the detailed non-invasive assessment of large and small arteries have been developed. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) as a potential indicator of autonomic balance and its relation to blood pressure and vascular properties during medical air (MAB) and 100% oxygen breathing (OXB) in healthy volunteers. In 12 healthy subjects we assessed heart rate and blood pressure variability, baroreflex sensitivity, respiratory frequency, common carotid artery diameter and its wall distensibility, as well as changes in the digital artery pulse waveform, stroke index and systemic vascular resistance during MAB and OXB. Mean and systolic blood pressure have increased significantly while digital pulse amplitude and carotid artery diameter were significantly lower during hyperoxia. Heart rate variability measures did not differ during MAB and OXB. However, the correlations between spectral HRV components and those hemodynamic parameters which have changed due to hyperoxia varied substantially during MAB (correlated significantly) and OXB (no significant correlations were noted). Our findings suggest that autonomic nervous system might not be the main mediator of the cardiovascular changes during 100% oxygen breathing in healthy subjects. It seems that the direct vascular responses are initial consequences of hyperoxia and other cardiovascular parameter alterations are secondary to them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart rate and blood pressure resting levels and responses to generic stressors in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Orr, S P; Meyerhoff, J L; Edwards, J V; Pitman, R K

    1998-01-01

    Resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured on 3 successive mornings in the homes of drug-free Vietnam combat veterans, classified on the basis of DSM-III-R criteria into current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 20) or non-PTSD (n = 15). Responses to three generic stressor challenges (orthostatic, mental arithmetic, and cold pressor) were also measured. In the orthostatic stressor condition, DBP increased over time in the non-PTSD, but not in the PTSD, veterans, suggesting a paradoxically reduced autonomic response in PTSD. There were no other significant group differences in resting levels or responses to any of the challenges for any measure.

  20. Music as a nursing intervention: effects of music listening on blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in abdominal surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Vaajoki, Anne; Kankkunen, Päivi; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2011-12-01

    Contradictory results have been presented on how music listening affects patients' blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of music listening on blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate on operation day, and on the first, second, and third postoperative days in abdominal surgery patients. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-post-test design, 168 abdominal surgery patients were assigned every second week to the music group (n=83) or to the control group (n=85) for 25 months. In the music group, the respiratory rate was significantly lower after intervention on both the first and second postoperative days compared with the control group. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure was demonstrated in the group that received music compared with the control group on both the first and second postoperative days. Evaluation of the long-term effects of music on physiological factors showed that the respiratory rate in the music group was significantly lower compared with the control group. Nurses should offer music listening to surgery patients because of its potential benefit.

  1. Effects of a complex housing environment on heart rate and blood pressure of rats at rest and after stressful challenges.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Jody; Azar, Toni; Lawson, David

    2014-01-01

    Housing enrichment for rodents continues to be a discussion topic within the animal care community. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a complex housing environment affects heart rate, blood pressure, and activity of rats when undisturbed and after exposure to stressful challenges and whether autonomic controls of heart rate would be affected. Male and female Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats with radiotelemetry transmitters were evaluated under nonenriched single-housing conditions and after acclimation to a complex environment of dim light and cohabitation with 3 conspecifics in large cages with hiding, food foraging, and nesting items. Telemetry data were collected when rats were undisturbed, after acute challenges (cage change, intraperitoneal injections, restraint), during a forced running protocol, and after cholinergic or adrenergic blockade. The complex environment reduced heart rate and increased activity in undisturbed rats but did not affect blood pressure. Heart rate responses to challenges were unaffected, decreased, or increased by complex housing, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Forced running was either unaffected or decreased, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Heart rate responses to cholinergic or β1-adrenergic blockade were not affected. We conclude that the complex housing did not reduce indices of stress (for example, heart rate) as compared with simpler housing. However, the possibility that some environmental elements interact negatively with each other must be considered in future studies.

  2. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... is at rest between beats Health care workers write blood pressure numbers with the systolic number above ... available to discuss recent findings and ongoing research projects about health conditions and social determinants that disproportionately ...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practice healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Getting regular physical activity and ... blood pressure at home. Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow breaths to help ...

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can improve your health in other ways. Mastering stress management techniques can lead to other behavior changes — including those that reduce your blood pressure. When looking for ways to manage stress, remember that you have many options. For example: ...

  5. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood profile in mares during the last 3 months of gestation and the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christina; Trenk, Lisa; Aurich, Jörg; Wulf, Manuela; Aurich, Christine

    2016-10-15

    In this study, peripartum changes in complete blood count, plasma electrolyte concentrations, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined in pregnant Warmblood mares (n = 10). Blood was collected from Days 245 to 330 of gestation (phase A), 2Days 3 to 1 before foaling (phase B), repeatedly within 12 hours after foaling (phase C), and on Days 1 to 3 postpartum (phase D). On the same days as blood collection, blood pressure and cardiac beat-to-beat intervals were measured and time domain HRV variables were calculated. Blood pressure decreased during the past 3 months of gestation, reached a nadir at foaling and increased rapidly thereafter (P < 0.001). Heart rate increased in phase A, reached a maximum in phase B, and decreased directly after foaling (P < 0.001) while HRV increased transiently after foaling (P < 0.001). The number of polymorphonuclear granulocytes was higher during phases B, C, and D than that during phase A (P < 0.001) and total leukocyte numbers peaked in phase C (P < 0.001). Erythrocyte counts and hematocrit increased immediately after foaling with a rapid decrease thereafter (P < 0.001), while plasma total protein was highest 1 hour after foaling (P < 0.001). Sodium and chloride concentrations increased from phases A to C and decreased in phase D (P < 0.001). Calcium concentrations were lowest immediately after foaling. In conclusion, changes in cardiovascular function and a transient hemoconcentration occur in peripartum mares. These changes may favor adequate uterine perfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  7. Blood pressure monitors for home

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of blood pressure monitor for home use. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS A digital device will also have a cuff that wraps ... on its own. The screen will show a digital readout of your systolic and diastolic blood pressure. ...

  8. Association of heart rate and blood pressure among European adolescents with usual food consumption: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Julián-Almárcegui, C; Vandevijvere, S; Gottrand, F; Beghin, L; Dallongeville, J; Sjöstrom, M; Leclercq, C; Manios, Y; Widhalm, K; Ferreira De Morares, A C; Gónzalez-Gross, M; Stehle, P; Castillo, M J; Moreno, L A; Kersting, M; Vyncke, K; De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I

    2016-06-01

    In adults, there is some evidence that improving diet reduces blood pressure (BP) and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, studies that analyse this association in adolescents are still scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between heart rate, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) among European adolescents and usual intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, meat, fish, high-sugar foods and savoury snacks. In total, 2283 adolescents from the HELENA-study (12.5-17.5 years old; 1253 girls) were included. Dietary intake was assessed using two computerized 24-hour dietary recalls. Age, sex, body mass index, maternal educational level, physical activity and Tanner stage were considered as confounders. Associations were examined by mixed model analysis stratified by sex. Tests for trend were assessed by tertiles of intake while controlling for the aforementioned confounders. Dairy products and fish intake were negatively associated with BP and heart rate. Significant decreasing trends were observed for heart rate and BP across tertiles of dairy products, fish intake and high-sugar foods intake (p < 0.05). Significant increasing trends were observed for SBP and MAP across tertiles of savoury snack intake (p < 0.05). Significant but small inverse associations between fish and dairy products consumption with blood pressure and heart rate have been found in European adolescents. Dietary intervention studies are needed to explore these associations in the context of the modification of several risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated Blood Pressure Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Vital-2 unit pictured is a semi-automatic device that permits highly accurate blood pressure measurement, even by untrained personnel. Developed by Meditron Instrument Corporation, Milford, New Hampshire, it is based in part on NASA technology found in a similar system designed for automatic monitoring of astronauts' blood pressure. Vital-2 is an advancement over the familiar arm cuff, dial and bulb apparatus customarily used for blood pressure checks. In that method, the physician squeezes the bulb to inflate the arm cuff, which restricts the flow of blood through the arteries. As he eases the pressure on the arm, he listens, through a stethoscope, to the sounds of resumed blood flow as the arteries expand and contract. Taking dial readings related to sound changes, he gets the systolic (contracting) and diastolic (expanding) blood pressure measurements. The accuracy of the method depends on the physician's skill in interpreting the sounds. Hospitals sometimes employ a more accurate procedure, but it is "invasive," involving insertion of a catheter in the artery.

  10. Effect of spontaneous running on blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac dimensions in developing and established spontaneous hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P; Friberg, P; Ely, D; Thorén, P

    1987-04-01

    The effect of chronic voluntary exercise on resting blood pressure and heart rate was measured in two different age groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the younger group, left ventricular dimensions were also measured. The younger group was 9 weeks old at the start of the experiment and was in a period of rapid blood-pressure rise. The older group, 13 weeks old at the start of the experiment, already had established hypertension. During a period of 6 weeks, the animals ran spontaneously in wheels mounted in their cages and reached a maximum of 6-7 km per 24 h. Age-matched, sedentary SHR were used as controls. Both groups of runners showed a decrease in body weight in comparison to controls. The younger runners exhibited a delayed onset of hypertension. They also showed a significantly increased left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume for every measured end-diastolic pressure between 7.5 mmHg and 20 mmHg (P less than 0.05). This suggests the development of a structural growth-dependent increase of the internal LV radius while LV weight and wall-to-lumen ratio were largely unaltered in younger runners compared with controls. In SHR with established hypertension, physical training did not reduce arterial blood pressure but heart rate was significantly lower than in the controls. These results thus indicate that an early onset of physical exercise in SHR may delay the development of hypertension. In addition, a more favourable cardiac design could also be seen.

  11. Plasma neurotransmitters, blood pressure, and heart rate during supine-resting, orthostasis, and moderate exercise conditions in major depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Lechin, F; van der Dijs, B; Orozco, B; Lechin, M E; Báez, S; Lechin, A E; Rada, I; Acosta, E; Arocha, L; Jiménez, V

    1995-08-01

    Major depressed patients showed greater heart rate, noradrenaline, and free-serotonin values than normal. Conversely, platelet-serotonin values in major depressed patients were significantly lower than normal. Patients registered the normal differential blood pressure reduction during orthostasis. They also revealed progressive and significantly higher heart rate rises during orthostasis and exercise periods, when compared to normals. Whereas noradrenaline showed maximal rises during the two last periods, adrenaline only showed small but significant increase during exercise. The analysis of correlations, together with the above data, suggests that major depressed patients register maximal neural sympathetic activity as well as adrenal glands sympathetic hypoactivity. In addition, these patients show hyperparasympathetic activity, as reflected by the free-serotonin profile. Finally, the fact that both the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with noradrenaline/adrenaline ratio and free-serotonin values strongly suggests that both neural sympathetic and cholinergic mechanisms are involved in major depression.

  12. Blood pressure, heart rate and tubuloglomerular feedback in A1AR-deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, S M; Mizel, D; Qin, Y; Huang, Y; Schnermann, J

    2015-01-01

    Differences in genetic background between control mice and mice with targeted gene mutations have been recognized as a potential cause for phenotypic differences. In this study, we have used A1AR-deficient mice in a C57Bl/6 and SWR/J congenic background to assess the influence of background on the effect of A1AR-deficiency on cardiovascular and renal functional parameters. In A1AR+/+ and A1AR-/- mice in C57Bl/6 and SWR/J congenic backgrounds, we assessed blood pressure and heart rate using radio-telemetry, plasma renin concentrations and tubuloglomerular feedback. We did not detect significant differences in arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rates (HR) between A1AR+/+ and A1AR-/- mice in either C57Bl/6, SWR/J or mixed backgrounds. MAP and HR were significantly higher in SWR/J than in C57Bl/6 mice. A high NaCl intake increased MAP in A1AR-/- mice on C57Bl/6 background while there was less or no salt sensitivity in the SWR/J background. No significant differences in plasma renin concentration were detected between A1AR-/- and A1AR+/+ mice in any of the strains. Tubuloglomerular feedback was found to be absent in A1AR-/- mice with SWR/J genetic background. While this study confirmed important differences between inbred mouse strains, we did not identify phenotypic modifications of A1AR-related effects on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma renin by differences in genetic background. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Model of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Vaso-Vagal Responses Produced by Vestibulo-Sympathetic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B.

    2016-01-01

    Blood Pressure (BP), comprised of recurrent systoles and diastoles, is controlled by central mechanisms to maintain blood flow. Periodic behavior of BP was modeled to study how peak amplitudes and frequencies of the systoles are modulated by vestibular activation. The model was implemented as a relaxation oscillator, driven by a central signal related to Desired BP. Relaxation oscillations were maintained by a second order system comprising two integrators and a threshold element in the feedback loop. The output signal related to BP was generated as a nonlinear function of the derivative of the first state variable, which is a summation of an input related to Desired BP, feedback from the states, and an input from the vestibular system into one of the feedback loops. This nonlinear function was structured to best simulate the shapes of systoles and diastoles, the relationship between BP and Heart Rate (HR) as well as the amplitude modulations of BP and Pulse Pressure. Increases in threshold in one of the feedback loops produced lower frequencies of HR, but generated large pulse pressures to maintain orthostasis, without generating a VasoVagal Response (VVR). Pulse pressures were considerably smaller in the anesthetized rats than during the simulations, but simulated pulse pressures were lowered by including saturation in the feedback loop. Stochastic changes in threshold maintained the compensatory Baroreflex Sensitivity. Sudden decreases in Desired BP elicited non-compensatory VVRs with smaller pulse pressures, consistent with experimental data. The model suggests that the Vestibular Sympathetic Reflex (VSR) modulates BP and HR of an oscillating system by manipulating parameters of the baroreflex feedback and the signals that maintain the oscillations. It also shows that a VVR is generated when the vestibular input triggers a marked reduction in Desired BP. PMID:27065779

  14. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise: insight from heart rate pacing during exercise with a trained and a deconditioned muscle group.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads; Hellsten, Ylva; Secher, Niels H; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-05-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P<0.05), but stroke volume was higher (P<0.05) and cardiac output was similar. Arterial and central venous pressures, rate-pressure product, and ventilation were lower during exercise with the trained leg (P<0.05), whereas pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was similar. When heart rate was controlled by atrial pacing, stroke volume decreased (P<0.05), but cardiac output, peripheral blood flow, arterial pressures, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure remained unchanged. Circulating [norepinephrine], [lactate] and [K(+)] were lower and interstitial [ATP] and pH were higher in the trained leg (P<0.05). The lower cardioventilatory response to exercise with the trained leg is partly coupled to a reduced signaling from skeletal muscle likely mediated by K(+), lactate, or pH, whereas the lower cardiac afterload increases stroke volume. These results demonstrate that skeletal muscle training reduces the cardioventilatory response to exercise without compromising O2 delivery, and it can therefore be used to reduce the load on the heart during physical activity.

  15. A new method for measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, and activity in the mouse by radiotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Mills, P A; Huetteman, D A; Brockway, B P; Zwiers, L M; Gelsema, A J; Schwartz, R S; Kramer, K

    2000-05-01

    A simple and reliable means for accurate, chronic measurement of pulsatile blood pressure (BP) from conscious, freely moving laboratory mice was developed and validated. The newly developed device consists of a small (1.9 ml, 3.4 g), fully implantable radiotelemetry transmitter. Initial frequency response tests showed an adequate dynamic response; the average -3-dB point found in five transmitters was 145 +/- 14 (SD) Hz. BP, heart rate, and locomotor activity were recorded from 16 chronically (30-150 days) implanted mice. Mean arterial and pulse pressure, checked at regular intervals, ranged from 90-140 mmHg and from 30-50 mmHg, respectively, throughout the study. Transmitter BP measurements were validated against a Millar 1.4-Fr. transducer-tipped catheter. The mean error of the transmitters for diastolic pressures was +1.1 +/- 6.9 mmHg (n = 7). The error for systolic pressures was, on average, 2.7 +/- 3.9 mmHg larger. This new device accurately monitors BP, heart rate, and locomotor activity in conscious, untethered, freely moving mice living in their home cages for periods of at least 150 days.

  16. Evaluation of a new monitoring device for arterial blood pressure and heart rate measurement by automatic sphygmomanometry.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, P; Morel, D; Forster, A; Suter, P M

    1982-12-01

    Measurements of arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) using a new non-invasive automatic apparatus were compared with the BP and HR values obtained with an invasive technique, i.e. arterial catheter and pressure transducer. This new device consists of a self-inflating BP cuff and of a microphone which converts Korotkoff sounds into digital values. The comparison was made on 400 measurements in 10 surgical intensive-care patients during 18 hours after open heart surgery. Systolic pressure was underestimated by the new device by 13 +/- 20 mm Hg/1.7 +/- 2.6 kPa (means +/- SD) and the linear correlation coefficient between the non-invasive and the invasive technique was r = 0.70. Diastolic pressure was overestimated by 9.4 +/- 12.0 mmHg (1.2 +/- 1.5 kPa) with an r = 0.63. HR was also underestimated by 7 +/- 17 heart beats per minute (r = 0.58). We conclude that this new device is not adequate for monitoring intensive-care patients, not so much because of the differences noted between the invasive and the non-invasive measurements, but in particular because there are no alarms, no mean arterial pressure measurement and also because it gives aberrant results once out of twenty measurements.

  17. Effects of whole-body mechanical stimulation at double the heart rate on the blood pressure waveform in rats.

    PubMed

    Hsiu, H; Jan, M Y; Wang, W K; Wang, Y Y Lin

    2006-02-01

    The effects of mechanical stimulation on hemodynamics, such as due to mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells, have been widely discussed recently. We previously proposed a resonance model in which the arterial system is treated as a pressure-transmitting system, and suggested that the application of external mechanical stimulation with frequencies near the heart rate (HR) or harmonics thereof can be sensed by the arterial system and induce hemodynamic changes. In this study, we monitored the effects of external mechanical stimulation at a frequency of double the HR on BPW (blood pressure waveform), HRV (HR variability) and BPHV (blood-pressure-harmonics variability) in rats. A motor beating a waterbed mattress was used to generate pressure variations of 0.5 mmHg to apply onto the rats. The experiments were performed on three groups of rats with different beating frequencies: (A) double the HR, (B) 5% deviation from double the HR and (C) 1.5 times the HR. The experimental procedure was a 15 min control period followed by application of the mechanical stimulation for 15 min and further recording for 15 min (OFF period). During the OFF period, the amplitude of the second harmonic in the BPW significantly increased by >5% in group A with decreased HRV and BPHV. The second harmonic increased less in group B, and decreased in group C. The increase in the second-harmonic amplitude in group A may be due to the filtering properties of the renal arterial structure. This mechanism could be used to improve the local blood supply into the kidneys, and hence provide a new treatment modality for some important diseases, such as renal hypertension or nephrosis.

  18. Association of blood pressure and heart rate response during exercise with cardiovascular events in the Heart and Soul Study.

    PubMed

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad R; Farzaneh-Far, Ramin; Sarna, Punit; Na, Beeya; Schiller, Nelson B; Whooley, Mary A

    2010-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the association of blood pressure and heart rate response during exercise with myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and death in ambulatory adults with coronary artery disease. A study population of 937 patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent treadmill exercise stress testing and was followed for 5 years. Participants were divided into quartiles based on peak SBP change, peak SBP and heart rate. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of change in SBP and heart rate with subsequent cardiovascular events. The participants with SBP increases in the highest quartile had a decreased rate of hospitalization for heart failure [hazard ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-0.7; P = 0.002], MI (hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.15-0.58; P = 0.0004), stroke or TIA (hazard ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.15-0.98; P = 0.04), and all cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.33-0.76; P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, history of MI and HTN, use of β blockers, statins and calcium channel blockers, resting heart rate, and SBP, participants with SBP change in the highest quartile remained at lowest risk of MI (hazard ratio 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.66, P = 0.002), hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.97, P = 0.04) and death (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.86, P = 0.01). This association was largely explained by greater exercise capacity in those with the highest SBP change. Change in heart rate had a similar association with cardiovascular events. In ambulatory patients with coronary artery disease, the group with the greatest blood pressure and heart rate increase had the lowest risk of MI, heart failure, stroke or TIA and death. These findings support the notion that a robust blood pressure response predicts favorable outcomes.

  19. Decreased central venous oxygen saturation despite normalization of heart rate and blood pressure post shock resuscitation in sick dogs.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian C; Prittie, Jennifer E; Fox, Philip; Barton, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate traditional and global perfusion parameters in clinical canine shock patients, and to evaluate for occult hypoperfusion as evidenced by low central venous oxygen saturation or high plasma lactate concentrations in clinical patients resuscitated to traditional endpoints. Clinical observational trial designed with a 1-year data entry period and patient follow-up of 28 days posthospital presentation. Large, private urban teaching hospital, and emergency and critical care center. Adult canine patients presenting to the emergency department with untreated shock. None. Patients received fluid resuscitation to normalize perfusion parameters based on physical examination and arterial blood pressure (BP). Monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2 ) was feasible with current standard of care interventions in critically ill, client-owned dogs. Decreased ScvO2 was observed in 37.8% of patients resuscitated to normal traditional perfusion parameters. Hyperlactatemia was commonly recorded. Decreased ScvO2 exists in a significant proportion of critically ill dogs following standard fluid resuscitation for shock, providing a relevant target population for implementation of a more standardized early goal-directed therapy bundle in veterinary patients. Normalization of heart rate, blood pressure, mentation, and perfusion parameters directed by physical examination may be attained despite the persistence of significant tissue hypoperfusion and oxygen debt. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  20. High-frequency and low-frequency chest compression: effects on lung water secretion, mucus transport, heart rate, and blood pressure using a trapezoidal source pressure waveform.

    PubMed

    O'Clock, George D; Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwong; Warwick, Warren J

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC), using an appropriate source (pump) waveform for frequencies at or above 3 Hz, can enhance pulmonary clearance for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using a trapezoidal HFCC source pressure waveform, secretion of water from epithelial tissue and transport of mucus through lung airways can be enhanced for patients with CF and COPD. At frequencies below 3 Hz, low-frequency chest compression (LFCC) appears to have a significant impact on the cardiovascular system. For a trapezoidal source pressure waveform at frequencies close to 1 Hz, LFCC produces amplitude or intensity variations in various components of the electrocardiogram time-domain waveform, produces changes at very low frequencies associated with the electrocardiogram frequency spectra (indicating enhanced parasympathetic nervous system activity), and promotes a form of heart rate synchronization. It appears that LFCC can also provide additional cardiovascular benefits by reducing peak and average systolic and diastolic blood pressure for patients with hypertension.

  1. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  2. Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure during dental treatment of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Rosane Menezes Faria; Neves, Itamara Lucia Itagiba; Neves, Ricardo Simões; Atik, Edmar; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula

    2014-01-01

    In this observational study, we evaluated the peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate, and blood pressure of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease who were undergoing dental extraction. Forty-four patients between the ages of 6 and 12 years who underwent upper primary tooth extraction were included in the study. Of these, 20 patients were in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group and 24 were in the control group. Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group varied quite significantly during the treatment protocol (p<0.05), with values of 80.5% (±7.6) to 82.8% (±7.8), 95.3 beats per minute (bpm) (±11.3) to 101.3 bpm (±9.8), and 93.6 mm Hg (±13,3) to 103.8 mm Hg (±12.7), respectively. The variations in the control group during the procedure were also significant. The changes observed during the study protocol, although statistically significant, were mild and lacked clinical relevance. The results indicate that dental treatment of children with cyanotic heart disease using a standardized protocol in decentralized offices without the support of a surgical center is safe.

  3. Cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure as early markers of PTSD risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Hellman, Natalie; Abelson, James L; Rao, Uma

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically exhibit altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. The goals of this study were to determine whether HPA and SNS alterations in the immediate aftermath of trauma predict subsequent PTSD symptom development and whether inconsistencies observed between studies can be explained by key demographic and methodological factors. This work informs secondary prevention of PTSD by identifying subgroups of trauma survivors at risk for PTSD. This meta-analysis (26 studies, N=5186 individuals) revealed that higher heart rate measured soon after trauma exposure was associated with higher PTSD symptoms subsequently (r=0.13). Neither cortisol (r=-0.07) nor blood pressure (diastolic: r=-0.01; systolic: r=0.02) were associated with PTSD symptoms which may be influenced by methodological limitations. Associations between risk markers (heart rate, cortisol, systolic blood pressure) and PTSD symptoms were in the positive direction for younger samples and negative direction for older samples. These findings extend developmental traumatology models of PTSD by revealing an age-related shift in the presentation of early risk markers. More work will be needed to identify risk markers and pathways to PTSD while addressing methodological limitations in order to shape and target preventive interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  5. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause high blood pressure. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system makes angiotensin and ... blood volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions ...

  6. The Effect of Green Exercise on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Mood State in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Michael J.; Clarke, Neil D.; Birch, Samantha L.; Tallis, Jason; Hankey, Joanne; Bryant, Elizabeth; Eyre, Emma L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was exploratory and sought to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and mood state responses in primary school children of moderate intensity cycling whilst viewing a green environment compared to exercise alone. Following ethics approval and parental informed consent, 14 children (seven boys, seven girls, Mean age ± SD = 10 ± 1 years) undertook two, 15 min bouts of cycling at a moderate exercise intensity in a counterbalanced order. In one bout they cycled whilst viewing a film of cycling in a forest setting. In the other condition participants cycled with no visual stimulus. Pre-, immediately post-exercise and 15 min post-exercise, BP, HR and Mood state were assessed. Analysis of variance, indicated significant condition X time interaction for SBP (p = 0.04). Bonferroni post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that systolic blood pressure (SBP) 15 min post exercise was significantly lower following green exercise compared to the control condition (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (all p > 0.05). HR immediately post exercise was significantly higher than HR pre exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (p = 0.001). Mood scores for fatigue were significantly higher and scores for vigor lower 15 min post exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (both p = 0.0001). Gender was not significant in any analyses (p > 0.05). Thus, the present study identifies an augmented post exercise hypotensive effect for children following green exercise compared to exercise alone. PMID:24699030

  7. The effect of green exercise on blood pressure, heart rate and mood state in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Clarke, Neil D; Birch, Samantha L; Tallis, Jason; Hankey, Joanne; Bryant, Elizabeth; Eyre, Emma L J

    2014-04-02

    The aim of this study was exploratory and sought to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and mood state responses in primary school children of moderate intensity cycling whilst viewing a green environment compared to exercise alone. Following ethics approval and parental informed consent, 14 children (seven boys, seven girls, Mean age ± SD = 10 ± 1 years) undertook two, 15 min bouts of cycling at a moderate exercise intensity in a counterbalanced order. In one bout they cycled whilst viewing a film of cycling in a forest setting. In the other condition participants cycled with no visual stimulus. Pre-, immediately post-exercise and 15 min post-exercise, BP, HR and Mood state were assessed. Analysis of variance, indicated significant condition X time interaction for SBP (p = 0.04). Bonferroni post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that systolic blood pressure (SBP) 15 min post exercise was significantly lower following green exercise compared to the control condition (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (all p > 0.05). HR immediately post exercise was significantly higher than HR pre exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (p = 0.001). Mood scores for fatigue were significantly higher and scores for vigor lower 15 min post exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (both p = 0.0001). Gender was not significant in any analyses (p > 0.05). Thus, the present study identifies an augmented post exercise hypotensive effect for children following green exercise compared to exercise alone.

  8. Association between indoor air pollutant exposure and blood pressure and heart rate in subjects according to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chien-Cheng; Su, Huey-Jen; Liang, Hsiu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of high body mass index (BMI) of subjects on individual who exhibited high cardiovascular disease indexes with blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) when exposed to high levels of indoor air pollutants. We collected 115 office workers, and measured their systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and HR at the end of the workday. The subjects were divided into three groups according to BMI: 18-24 (normal weight), 24-27 (overweight) and >27 (obese). This study also measured the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μm (PM2.5), as well as the bacteria and fungi in the subjects' work-places. The pollutant effects were divided by median. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the health effects of indoor air pollution exposure according to BMI. Our study showed that higher levels of SBP, DBP and HR occurred in subjects who were overweight or obese as compared to those with normal weight. Moreover, there was higher level of SBP in subjects who were overweight or obese when they were exposed to higher levels of TVOC and fungi (p<0.05). We also found higher value for DBP and HR with increasing BMI to be associated with exposure to higher TVOC levels. This study suggests that individuals with higher BMI have higher cardiovascular disease risk when they are exposed to poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and specifically in terms of TVOC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the generation of high heart rates and blood pressures in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Gesser, Hans; Taylor, Edwin W; Shiels, Holly A; Wang, Tobias

    2006-05-01

    The functional significance of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the generation of high heart rates and blood pressures was investigated in four species of reptile; the turtle, Trachemys scripta; the python, Python regius, the tegu lizard, Tupinanvis merianae, and the varanid lizard, Varanus exanthematicus. Force-frequency trials and imposed pauses were performed on ventricular and atrial tissue from each species with and without the SR inhibitor ryanodine, and in the absence and presence of adrenaline. In all species, an imposed pause of 1 or 5 min caused a post-rest decay of force, and a negative force-frequency response was observed in all species within their in vivo frequency range of heart rates. These relationships were not affected by either ryanodine or adrenaline. In ventricular strips from varanid lizards and pythons, ryanodine caused significant reductions in twitch force within their physiologically relevant frequency range. In atrial tissue from the tegu and varanid lizards, SR inhibition reduced twitch force across the whole of their physiological frequency range. In contrast, in the more sedentary species, the turtle and the python, SR inhibition only decreased twitch force at stimulation frequencies above maximal in vivo heart rates. Adrenaline caused an increase in twitch force in all species studied. In ventricular tissue, this positive inotropic effect was sufficient to overcome the negative effects of ryanodine. In atrial tissue however, adrenaline could only ameliorate the negative effects of ryanodine at the lower pacing frequencies. Our results indicate that reptiles recruit Ca2+ from the SR for force development in a frequency and tissue dependent manner. This is discussed in the context of the development of high reptilian heart rates and blood pressures.

  10. Effects of 4-week administration of simvastatin in different doses on heart rate and blood pressure after metoprolol injection in normocholesterolaemic and normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Owczarek, Jacek; Jasińska, Magdalena; Wejman, Irena; Kurczewska, Urszula; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria

    2012-02-29

    Statins and β1-adrenergic antagonists are well established in cardiovascular events therapy and prevention. The previous study showed that statins might impact on β-adrenergic signalling and blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 4-week administration of simvastatin given at different doses on the heart rate and blood pressure after injection of metoprolol in rats. The experiments were performed in normocholesterolaemic and normotensive Wistar rats. Rats received simvastatin in doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (bw) for 4 weeks. The control group received 0.2% methylcellulose. For the further estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure, metoprolol at 5 mg/kg bw or 0.9% NaCl was injected intraperitoneally. Simvastatin at doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw did not influence the heart rate or blood pressure as compared to the control group. Metoprolol injection statistically significantly decreased the heart rate (439.29±14.03 min(-1) vs. 374.41±13.32 min(-1); p<0.05). In rats receiving simvastatin during the 4-week period after metoprolol injection, heart rate and blood pressure (mean, systolic, diastolic) were similar as compared to the group receiving metoprolol alone. Simvastatin administration during a 4-week period in different doses did not influence the heart rate or blood pressure after metoprolol injection in normocholesterolaemic and normotensive rats.

  11. Influence of number of sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Tiago; Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark; Miranda, Humberto; Bentes, Claudio M; dos Reis, Victor Machado de Ribeiro; Simão, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of 1, 3, and 5 sets of strength training (ST), on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Eleven male volunteers (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 8.1 kg; height: 172 ± 4 cm) with at least 6 months previous experience in ST participated in the study. After determining the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load for the bench press (BP), lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), biceps curl (BC), triceps extension (TE), leg press (LP), leg extension (LE), and leg curl (LC), the participants performed 3 different exercise sequences in a random order and 72 hours apart. During the first sequence, subjects performed a single set of 8-10 repetitions, at 70% 1RM, and with 2-minute rest interval between exercises. Exercises were performed in the following order: BP, LPD, SP, BC, TE, LP, LE, and LC. During the second sequence, subjects performed the same exercise sequence, with the same intensity, 2-minute rest interval between sets and exercises, but with 3 consecutive sets of each exercise. During the third sequence, the same protocol was followed but with 5 sets of each exercise. Before and after the training sessions, blood pressure and HRV were measured. The statistical analysis demonstrated a greater duration of postexercise hypotension after the 5-set program vs. the 1 set or 3 sets (p ≤ 0.05). However, the 5-set program promoted a substantial cardiac stress, as demonstrated by HRV (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that 5 sets of 8-10 repetitions at 70% 1RM load may provide the ideal stimulus for a postexercise hypotensive response. Therefore, ST composed of upper- and lower-body exercises and performed with high volumes are capable of producing significant and extended postexercise hypotensive response. In conclusion, strength and conditioning professionals can prescribe 5 sets per exercises if the goal is to reduce blood pressure after training. In addition, these findings may have

  12. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate responses to intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thazhath, Sony S; Marathe, Chinmay S; Wu, Tongzhi; Chang, Jessica; Khoo, Joan; Kuo, Paul; Checklin, Helen L; Bound, Michelle J; Rigda, Rachael S; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Rayner, Christopher K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes. Nine subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive intravenous exenatide or saline control in a crossover design. Glucose (3 kcal min(-1)) was infused via an intraduodenal manometry catheter for 60 min. Blood pressure, heart rate, and the frequency and amplitude of duodenal pressure waves were measured at regular intervals. Gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored using 100 mm visual analogue scales. During intraduodenal glucose infusion (0-60 min), diastolic (p(0-60) = 0.03) and mean arterial (p(0-60) = 0.03) blood pressures and heart rate (p(0-60) = 0.06; p(0-120) = 0.03)) were higher with exenatide compared to placebo. The increase in the area under the curve for diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure was related directly to the suppression of the duodenal motility index with exenatide compared to control (p = 0.007 and 0.04, respectively). In type 2 diabetes, intravenous exenatide increases mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion, supporting the need for further research with exenatide for its potential use in postprandial hypotension. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Effects of short- and long-term exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of emphysematous rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, I.; Yokoyama, E.

    1989-02-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure of elastase-treated emphysematous rats (E rats) and saline-treated control rats (S rats) were recorded continuously during exposure to either 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 3 hr or 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6 hr. The heart rates (HRs) of both groups decreased to about 50 and 65% of the initial levels at the end of 1 ppm and 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs) also decreased to about 76 and 82%, respectively. There was no significant difference in these responses between E and S rats, although the levels of HRs and MAPs of the E rats were always a little lower than those of the S rats. Another group of E and S rats was continuously exposed to 0.2 ppm O/sub 3/ for 4 weeks. The HRs of both E and S groups decreased to about 81 and 88% of the initial levels on the first day, respectively, although they recovered completely by the third day. No significant difference in the variation of HRs during exposure was noted between E and S rats. However, the HR responses of these rats to a challenge exposure of 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr appeared to be different. That is, S rats were more tolerant of the challenge exposure to O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr than the E rats.

  14. Evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure variability as indicators of physiological compensation to hemorrhage before shock.

    PubMed

    Scully, Christopher G; Kramer, George C; Strauss, David G

    2015-05-01

    Individual responses to hemorrhage vary, with varying periods of compensation before the development of shock. We characterized heart rate and blood pressure variability measures during hemorrhage of 25 mL/kgBody Weight for 15 min in conscious sheep (N = 7, 14 total hemorrhages) as markers of the transition from compensated to decompensated shock using the continuous wavelet transform. Heart rate-low frequency (HR-LF) and systolic blood pressure-low frequency (SBP-LF) indices were developed to represent the change in spectral power during hemorrhage as low-frequency (0.06 - 0.15 Hz) power divided by the sum of high (0.15 - 1.0 Hz)- and very low (0.02 - 0.06 Hz) frequency power. Heart rate rose from 96.3 (22.2) beats/min (mean [SD] across all trials) to a peak of 176.0 (25.4) beats/min occurring at a minimum time of 5.3 min to a maximum of 22.1 min (11.7 [1.6] min), depending on the trial, after the start of hemorrhage. During the HR-compensated response to hemorrhage, there was elevated HR-LF and SBP-LF in five of the seven animals. In these animals, HR-LF and SBP-LF dropped to below baseline levels around the time of the peak HR. The results from this conscious-animal study suggest that HR and SBP low-frequency power rise during the compensation phase of the response to hemorrhage in conscious sheep. Use of variability monitoring could aid in describing an individual's current response to hemorrhage and anticipation of impending decompensation; however, individual differences in the response limit this potential.

  15. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  16. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Engineering Development Lab., Inc.'s E-2000 Neck Baro Reflex System was developed for cardiovascular studies of astronauts. It is regularly used on Space Shuttle Missions, and a parallel version has been developed as a research tool to facilitate studies of blood pressure reflex controls in patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes, etc. An advanced version, the PPC-1000, was developed in 1991, and the technology has been refined substantially. The PPC provides an accurate means of generating pressure for a broad array of laboratory applications. An improved version, the E2010 Barosystem, is anticipated.

  17. A review of methods for the signal quality assessment to improve reliability of heart rate and blood pressures derived parameters.

    PubMed

    Gambarotta, Nicolò; Aletti, Federico; Baselli, Giuseppe; Ferrario, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The assessment of signal quality has been a research topic since the late 1970s, as it is mainly related to the problem of false alarms in bedside monitors in the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence of which can be as high as 90 %, leading to alarm fatigue and a drop in the overall level of nurses and clinicians attention. The development of efficient algorithms for the quality control of long diagnostic electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings, both single- and multi-lead, and of the arterial blood pressure (ABP) signal is therefore essential for the enhancement of care quality. The ECG signal is often corrupted by noise, which can be within the frequency band of interest and can manifest similar morphologies as the ECG itself. Similarly to ECG, also the ABP signal is often corrupted by non-Gaussian, nonlinear and non-stationary noise and artifacts, especially in ICU recordings. Moreover, the reliability of several important parameters derived from ABP such as systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure is strongly affected by the quality of the ABP waveform. In this work, several up-to-date algorithms for the quality scoring of a single- or multi-lead ECG recording, based on time-domain approaches, frequency-domain approaches or a combination of the two will be reviewed, as well as methods for the quality assessment of ABP. Additionally, algorithms exploiting the relationship between ECG and pulsatile signals, such as ABP and photoplethysmographic recordings, for the reduction in the false alarm rate will be presented. Finally, some considerations will be drawn taking into account the large heterogeneity of clinical settings, applications and goals that the reviewed algorithms have to deal with.

  18. Perceived Stress, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure among Adolescents with Family Members Deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Davis, Harry; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the impact of the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and self-reported stress levels among three groups of self-categorized adolescents: 1) military dependents with family members deployed; 2) military dependents with no family members deployed; 3) civilian dependents. At the onset and end of the “major hostilities” of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 121 adolescents (mean age = 15.8 ± 1.1 years) completed questionnaires evaluating the psychological impact of the war and were evaluated for HR and BP. The military deployed dependents exhibited significantly higher HR than other groups at both evaluations (both p < 0.04). Ethnicity by group interactions indicated that European American-deployed dependents had higher stress scores at both time points (p < 0.02). Military dependent European Americans exhibited higher systolic BP compared to the other groups on the second evaluation (p < 0.03). PMID:17274264

  19. Perceived stress, heart rate, and blood pressure among adolescents with family members deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Vernon A; Davis, Harry; Treiber, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the impact of the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and self-reported stress levels among three groups of self-categorized adolescents: (1) military dependents with family members deployed; (2) military dependents with no family members deployed; (3) civilian dependents. At the onset and end of the "major hostilities" of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 121 adolescents (mean age = 15.8 +/- 1.1 years) completed questionnaires evaluating the psychological impact of the war and were evaluated for HR and BP. The military deployed dependents exhibited significantly higher HR than other groups at both evaluations (both p < 0.04). Ethnicity by group interactions indicated that European American-deployed dependents had higher stress scores at both time points (p < 0.02). Military dependent European Americans exhibited higher systolic BP compared to the other groups on the second evaluation (p < 0.03).

  20. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  1. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A.; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  2. [Estimating cardiovascular age of civil flying personnel by means of heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis].

    PubMed

    Niu, Y G; Zhang, L F; Zhang, Y H; Wang, S Y; Xu, X Y; Su, J X; Yan, Y B

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To estimate the cardiovascular age of civil flying personnel by means of heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis and to evaluate its significance in aviation medicine. Method. First, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were analyzed among 89 healthy civil flying personnel by using conventional AR spectral analysis and sequence method respectively. Then, principal component analysis was conducted over original and derived variables of HRV and BPV spectral and BRS data. Finally, by the use of multiple regression in which the chronological age acted as the dependent variable and the components significantly related to age were used as the regressors, the equation for estimating the cardiovascular age was established. Result. Only seven principal components can exactly reflect the same information of autonomic regulatory function which was embodied in the 17 variables of HRV and BPV spectral and BRS parameters. Among the seven principal components, the PC2orig, PC4orig and PC2deri were negatively correlated with chronological age (P<0.05), whereas the PC3orig was positively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.01). The cardiovascular age derived from the equation was significantly correlated with the chronological age of the civil flying personnel (r= 0.73, P<0.01). Conclusion. The cardiovascular age estimated by means of a multi-variate analysis of HRV, BPV and BRS can be treated as a comprehensive indicator reflecting the age dependency of autonomic regulatory function of cardiovascular system in healthy civil flying personnel, and its interpretation and significance in application are surely worthy of further and fully dedicated efforts.

  3. Heart rate and blood pressure responses during hypoxic cycles of a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in patients at risk for or with mild COPD.

    PubMed

    Faulhaber, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Haider, Thomas; Linser, Tobias; Netzer, Nikolaus; Burtscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information on heart rate and blood pressure responses during a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in COPD patients. Sixteen participants with COPD symptoms were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or control group and completed a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program (five sessions per week, each consisting of three to five breathing cycles, each cycle lasting 3-5 minutes with 3-minute breaks between cycles). During the breathing cycles, the hypoxia group received hypoxic air (inspired fraction of oxygen 15%-12%), whereas the control group received normal air (sham hypoxia). During the breaks, all participants breathed normoxic room air. Arterial oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during the normoxic and hypoxic/sham hypoxic periods. For each breathing cycle, changes from normoxia to hypoxia/sham hypoxia were calculated, and changes were averaged for each of the 15 sessions and for each week. Changes in arterial oxygen saturation were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures), with post hoc differences in weeks 1, 2, and 3. During the course of the intermittent hypoxia application, no between-group differences were detected for blood pressure or rate pressure product values. Changes in heart rate were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures), with post hoc differences only in week 3. Averages over all 15 sessions were significantly higher in the hypoxia group for heart rate and rate pressure product, and tended to be increased for systolic blood pressure. The applied intermittent hypoxia breathing program resulted in specific and moderate heart rate and blood pressure responses, and did not provoke a progressive increase in blood pressure during the hypoxic cycles in the course of the application.

  4. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability during Yoga-Based Alternate Nostril Breathing Practice and Breath Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Sharma, Sachin Kumar; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown a reduction in blood pressure (BP) immediately after the practice of alternate nostril yoga breathing (ANYB) in normal healthy male volunteers and in hypertensive patients of both sexes. The BP during ANYB has not been recorded. Material/Methods Participants were 26 male volunteers (group mean age ±SD, 23.8±3.5 years). We assessed (1) heart rate variability, (2) non-invasive arterial BP, and (3) respiration rate, during (a) ANYB and (b) breath awareness (BAW) sessions. Each session was 25 minutes. We performed assessments at 3 time points: Pre (5 minutes), during (15 minutes; for ANYB or BAW) and Post (5 minutes). A naïve-to-yoga control group (n=15 males, mean age ±SD 26.1±4.0 years) were assessed while seated quietly for 25 minutes. Results During ANYB there was a significant decrease (repeated measures ANOVA) in systolic BP and respiration rate; while RMSSD (the square root of the mean of the sum of squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals) and NN50 (the number of interval differences of successive normal to normal intervals greater than 50 ms) significantly increased. During BAW respiration rate decreased. In contrast, respiration rate increased during the control state. ANYB and BAW were significantly different (2-factor ANOVA) in RMSSD and respiration rate. BAW and control were different with respect to respiration rate. Conclusions The results suggest that vagal activity increased during and after ANYB, which could have contributed to the decrease in BP and changes in the HRV. PMID:25408140

  5. Combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone does not modify 24-h ambulatory blood pressure but increases heart rate in healthy young women: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, Angelo; Ferrari, Serena; Napolitano, Antonella; Piacenti, Ilaria; Arangino, Serenella; Volpe, Annibale

    2013-09-01

    Hypertension is a primary cardiovascular risk factor. Oral contraceptives (OCs) may increase blood pressure and cardiovascular events. We evaluated whether an OC containing ethynylestradiol (EE) in association with the spironolactone-derived progestin drospirenone (DRSP) influences 24-h ambulatory blood pressure of normotensive women. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured every 30 min by an ambulatory blood pressure device in 18 normotensive healthy women prior to and after 6 months of use of an OC containing 30 mcg EE and 3 mg DRSP. OC induced no modification in 24-h, nighttime and daytime blood pressure. Heart rate increased about 4 beats/min in the 24-h (p<.05) and daytime (p<.02) measurements. In normotensive women, an OC containing 30 mcg EE plus 3 mg DRSP does not modify blood pressure, and significantly increases 24-h and daytime heart rate. These data suggest a neutral effect on hypertension-associated cardiovascular risk and point out an unreported effect on heart rate of which cause and effect require further evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of heavy exercise on spectral baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate, and blood pressure variability in well-trained humans.

    PubMed

    Cottin, François; Médigue, Claire; Papelier, Yves

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the instantaneous spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) and determine the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency baroreflex sensitivity (HF-BRS) during a graded maximal exercise test. The first hypothesis was that the hyperpnea elicited by heavy exercise could entail a significant increase in HF-SBPV by mechanical effect once the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VTs) were exceeded. It was secondly hypothesized that vagal tone progressively withdrawing with increasing load, HF-BRS could decrease during the exercise test. Fifteen well-trained subjects participated in this study. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and gas exchanges were recorded during a cycloergometer test. Ventilatory equivalents were computed from gas exchange parameters to assess VTs. Spectral analysis was applied on cardiovascular series to compute RR and systolic blood pressure power spectral densities, cross-spectral coherence, gain, and alpha index of BRS. Three exercise intensity stages were compared: below (A1), between (A2), and above (A3) VTs. From A1 to A3, both HF-SBPV (A1: 45 +/- 6, A2: 65 +/- 10, and A3: 120 +/- 23 mm2Hg, P < 0.001) and HF-HRV increased (A1: 20 +/- 5, A2: 23 +/- 8, and A3:40 +/- 11 ms2, P < 0.02), maintaining HF-BRS (gain, A1: 0.68 +/- 0.12, A2: 0.63 +/- 0.08, and A3: 0.57 +/- 0.09; alpha index, A1: 0.58 +/- 0.08, A2: 0.48 +/- 0.06, and A3: 0.50 +/- 0.09 ms/mmHg, not significant). However, LF-BRS decreased (gain, A1: 0.39 +/- 0.06, A2: 0.17 +/- 0.02, and A3: 0.11 +/- 0.01, P < 0.001; alpha index, A1: 0.46 +/- 0.07, A2: 0.20 +/- 0.02, and A3: 0.14 +/- 0.01 ms/mmHg, P < 0.001). As expected, once VTs were exceeded, hyperpnea induced a marked increase in both HF-HRV and HF-SBPV. However, this concomitant increase allowed the maintenance of HF-BRS, presumably by a mechanoelectric feedback mechanism.

  7. Periodic structures and diurnal variation in blood pressure and heart rate in relation to microgravity on space station MIR.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, M; Kamo, T; Kamegai, M; Baevsky, R M; Funtova, I I; Chernikova, A; Nemoto, S; Hotta, M; Nomura, Y; Suzuki, T

    2004-10-01

    Four Russian crew members were studied on space station MIR, and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) data were continuously collected. BP and HR data were collected on earth 1 day before orbital flight to the space station, then at weeks 8, 16 and 24 during space flight, and again 1 or 2 days after returning to earth. Time serial data for BP and HR were analyzed by spectral analysis with the MemCalc system (Suwa Trust, Sapporo, Japan). Periodic structures of diurnal variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and HR were compared at 24-hour, 12-hour and 8-hour intervals, these being determined as the main periodic components for the assessment of BP and HR variability. The 24-h mean levels of SBP and HR during space flight were unchanged. Waking SBP was not different from pre-flight values. During sleep, in-flight changes in HR did not differ from pre-flight values. SBP during sleep in orbit increased to over pre-flight values. Waking DBP was reduced during flight. The SBP and HR phases over a 24-hour cycle were shortened with a more pronounced shortening in weeks 8 and 16 compared with pre-flight values, and at week 24 recovered to preflight values. The 12, 8-hour-cycle remained unchanged, and were similar to pre-flight values. At the space station, the astronauts' mission was carried out under strict control of sleeping and waking hours; therefore, their 24-hour schedule is an artificially constructed situation. Main periodicity structures were maintained by strict control of lifestyle during long-term space flight. The conclusions reached were as follows: 1) SBP levels during sleep in a space environment increased compared with those on earth; 2) the periodicity phase of BP and HR shifted toward to 24-hour cycle as a result of long-term space flight, even though these periods shortened after a few months compared with pre-space flight values.

  8. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...

  9. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  11. Effect of nocturnal blood pressure measurement on sleep and blood pressure during sleep.

    PubMed

    Middeke, M

    1996-01-01

    Nocturnal hypertension is of diagnostic interest and has important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Nighttime blood pressure can easily be measured using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). However, during nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure measurement pump noise, tactile stimuli and pressure produced by cuff inflation may alter the quality of sleep and subsequently influence the physiological fall of night time blood pressure. Eight studies were performed to determine whether non-invasive automated blood pressure monitoring during day and/or night provokes alert reaction, arousal, sleep disturbances and changes in blood pressure and/or heart rate. From these studies it can be concluded: 1) Nighttime blood pressure can be evaluated properly using ABPM. 2) Nocturnal blood pressure is not overestimated by ABPM. 3) ABPM does not induce an alarm reaction and a blood pressure rise when monitored with a silently operating recorder. 4) Sleep is often disturbed by blood pressure measurement without provoking a blood pressure increase. 5) In older patients blood pressure measurement and age-related alterations in sleep quality may influence each other. A patient's protocol has to be carried out and sleep quality should be recorded to provide a proper interpretation of nocturnal blood pressure behavior. ABPM is an important and valuable method to record nocturnal blood pressure for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  12. Comparative immediate effect of different yoga asanas on heart rate and blood pressure in healthy young volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Ramanathan, Meena; Balaji, R; Pushpa, D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study planned to compare immediate cardiovascular effects of different yoga asanas in healthy young volunteers. Materials and Methods: Heart rate (HR), systolic pressure (SP), and diastolic pressure (DP), blood pressure (BP), were recorded using the non invasive blood pressure (NIBP) apparatus in 22 healthy young subjects, before and after the performance of Dhanurasana (DA), Vakrasana (VA) (both sides), Janusirasasana (JSA) (both sides), Matsyasana and Shavasana for 30 s. HR and BP were further recorded during supine recovery at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min. A repeated measure of ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were significant changes in HR and BP both immediately after the Asanas as well as during the recovery period. Overall comparisons of ∆% changes immediately after the performance of the Asanas revealed significant differences with regard to HR that increased significantly after DA. In the recovery phase, there were significant intergroup differences from 2 min onward in both SP and DP. The decrease of SP after VA (right side) (VA-R) was significantly greater than Shavasana (4th, 6th, and 8th min) and JSA (left side) (JSA-L) at 6th and 8th min. DP decreased significantly after performing JSA-L compared to VA-R at the 6th and 8th min. Discussion: The cardiovascular changes immediately after the Asanas and during the recovery phase reveal inherent differences between the selected postures. The rise of HR in DA may be attributed to increased sympathetic response due to the relative difficulty of the posture as well as abdominal compression occurring in it. The effect of supine relaxation is more pronounced after the performance of the Asanas as compared to mere relaxation in Shavasana. This may be attributed to a normalization and resultant homeostatic effect occurring due to a greater, healthier de-activation of the autonomic nervous system occurring towing to the presence of prior activation. There were also subtle

  13. Differentiation of Overweight from Normal Weight Young Adults by Postprandial Heart Rate Variability and Systolic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Taffe, Lauren; Stancil, Kimani; Bond, Vernon; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and cardiovascular disease are inextricably linked and the health community’s response to the current epidemic of adolescent obesity may be improved by the ability to target adolescents at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease in the future. Overweight manifests early as autonomic dysregulation and current methods do not permit differentiation of overweight adolescents or young adults at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Aim This study was designed to test the hypothesis that scaling exponents motivated by nonlinear fractal analyses of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) differentiate overweight, otherwise healthy adolescent/young adult subjects at risk for developing prehypertension, the primary forerunner of cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods The subjects were 18-20year old males with Body Mass Index (BMI) 20.1-42.5kg/m2. Electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR) intervals were measured during 3h periods of bed rest after overnight fasting and ingestion of 900Cal high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages on separate days. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), k-means cluster and ANOVA analyses of scaling coefficients α, α1, and α2, showed dependencies on hourly measurements of systolic blood pressure and on premeasured BMI. Results It was observed that α value increased during the caloric challenge, appears to represent metabolically-induced changes in HRV across the participants. An ancillary analysis was performed to determine the dependency on BMI without BMI as a parameter. Cluster analysis of the high-carbohydrate test beverage treatment and the high-fat treatment produced grouping with very little overlap. ANOVA on both clusters demonstrated significance at p<0.001. We were able to demonstrate increased sympathetic modulation of our study group during ingestion and metabolism of isocaloric high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages. Conclusion These findings demonstrate significantly different

  14. Twenty-Four Hour Non-Invasive Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Monitoring in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stuebner, Eva; Vichayanrat, Ekawat; Low, David A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Isenmann, Stefan; Haensch, Carl-Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-Parkinsonian) drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP) readings and related symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension (OH) and supine hypertension. OH is usually diagnosed with a head-up-tilt test (HUT) or an (active) standing test (also known as Schellong test) in the laboratory, but 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a home setting may have several advantages, such as providing an overview of symptoms in daily life alongside pathophysiology as well as assessment of treatment interventions. This, however, is only possible if ABPM is administrated correctly and an autonomic protocol (including a diary) is followed which will be discussed in this review. A 24-h ABPM does not only allow the detection of OH, if it is present, but also the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction during and after various daily stimuli, such as postprandial and alcohol dependent hypotension, as well as exercise and drug induced hypotension. Furthermore, information about the circadian rhythm of BP and heart rate (HR) can be obtained and establish whether or not a patient has a fall of BP at night (i.e., “dipper” vs. non-“dipper”). The information about nocturnal BP may also allow the investigation or detection of disorders such as sleep dysfunction, nocturnal movement disorders, and obstructive sleep apnea, which are common in PD. Additionally, a 24-h ABPM should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of OH therapy. This review will outline the methodology of 24 h ABPM in PD, summarize findings of such studies in PD, and briefly consider common daily stimuli that might affect 24 h ABPM. PMID:23720648

  15. Consequences of the loss of the Grainyhead-like 1 gene for renal gene expression, regulation of blood pressure and heart rate in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Magdalena; Walkowska, Agnieszka; Mlącki, Michał; Pistolic, Jelena; Wrzesiński, Tomasz; Benes, Vladimir; Jane, Stephen M; Wesoły, Joanna; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elżbieta; Wilanowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The Grainyhead-like 1 (GRHL1) transcription factor is tissue-specific and is very highly expressed in the kidney. In humans the GRHL1 gene is located at the chromosomal position 2p25. A locus conferring increased susceptibility to essential hypertension has been mapped to 2p25 in two independent studies, but the causative gene has never been identified. Furthermore, a statistically significant association has been found between a polymorphism in the GRHL1 gene and heart rate regulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the physiological consequences of Grhl1 loss in a mouse model and ascertain whether Grhl1 may be involved in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. In our research we employed the Grhl1 "knock-out" mouse strain. We analyzed renal gene expression, blood pressure and heart rate in the Grhl1-null mice in comparison with their "wild-type" littermate controls. Most important results: The expression of many genes is altered in the Grhl1(-/-) kidneys. Some of these genes have previously been linked to blood pressure regulation. Despite this, the Grhl1-null mice have normal blood pressure and interestingly, increased heart rate. Our work did not discover any new evidence to suggest any involvement of Grhl1 in blood pressure regulation. However, we determined that the loss of Grhl1 influences the regulation of heart rate in a mouse model.

  16. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well-Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - العربية (Arabic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center High Blood Pressure - العربية ( ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  17. Controlling your high blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  18. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 on the blood pressure, heart rate, mesenteric blood flow, and glycemic responses to intraduodenal glucose in healthy older subjects.

    PubMed

    Trahair, Laurence G; Horowitz, Michael; Hausken, Trygve; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L

    2014-12-01

    Studies relating to the cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its agonists, which slow gastric emptying, have not discriminated between fasting and postprandial, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). To determine whether exogenous GLP-1 modulates the effects of an intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusion on BP, HR, and splanchnic blood flow in healthy older subjects. A double-blind randomized trial was conducted. Community-dwelling residents attended a clinical research laboratory. Ten healthy "older" subjects (9 male, 1 female; age 73.2 ± 1.5 y) were studied. Intravenous infusion of GLP-1 (0.9 pmol/kg/min), or saline (0.9%) for 90 min (t = -30-60 min). Between t = 0-60 min, ID glucose was infused at 3 kcal/min. BP, HR, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured. During the fasting period (t = -30-0 min), GLP-1 had no effect on BP or HR. In response to ID glucose (t = 0-60 min), systolic BP decreased (P < .001), and both HR (P < .001) and SMA flow (P < .05) increased, on both days. GLP-1 attenuated the maximum decrease in systolic BP (P < .05), tended to increase HR (P = .09), and increased SMA flow (P < .01). GLP-1 diminished the glycemic response (P < .05). In healthy older subjects, acute administration of GLP-1 attenuates the hypotensive response to ID glucose, and potentiates the increase in SMA flow.

  19. Energetic Interrelationship between Spontaneous Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Regional Cerebral Blood Volume, Arterial Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Respiratory Rhythm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katura, Takusige; Yagyu, Akihiko; Obata, Akiko; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Maki, Atsushi; Abe, Masanori; Tanaka, Naoki

    2007-07-01

    Strong spontaneous fluctuations around 0.1 and 0.3 Hz have been observed in blood-related brain-function measurements such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and optical topography (or functional near-infrared spectroscopy). These fluctuations seem to reflect the interaction between the cerebral circulation system and the systemic circulation system. We took an energetic viewpoint in our analysis of the interrelationships between fluctuations in cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rhythm based on multivariate autoregressive modeling. This approach involves evaluating the contribution of each fluctuation or rhythm to specific ones by performing multivariate spectral analysis. The results we obtained show MAP and HR can account slightly for the fluctuation around 0.1 Hz in CBV, while the fluctuation around 0.3 Hz is derived mainly from the respiratory rhythm. During our presentation, we will report on the effects of posture on the interrelationship between the fluctuations and the respiratory rhythm.

  20. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozheredov, V. A.; Chibisov, S. M.; Blagonravov, M. L.; Khodorovich, N. A.; Demurov, E. A.; Goryachev, V. A.; Kharlitskaya, E. V.; Eremina, I. S.; Meladze, Z. A.

    2016-11-01

    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  1. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozheredov, V. A.; Chibisov, S. M.; Blagonravov, M. L.; Khodorovich, N. A.; Demurov, E. A.; Goryachev, V. A.; Kharlitskaya, E. V.; Eremina, I. S.; Meladze, Z. A.

    2017-05-01

    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  2. Effects of caffeinated versus decaffeinated energy shots on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Abigail M; Leong, Jessica; Anand, Monica; Dargush, Anthony E; Shah, Sachin A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of a caffeinated 5-hour Energy shot compared with a decaffeinated 5-hour Energy shot as assessed by changes in blood pressure and heart rate in healthy, nonhypertensive volunteers. Randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study. University campus. Twenty healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomized to receive either the caffeinated 5-hour Energy shot or the decaffeinated 5-hour Energy shot; after a washout period of at least 6 days, subjects were given the alternate energy shot. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were recorded for each subject at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 hours after consumption of the energy shot. Heart rate, adverse effects, and energy levels were also assessed. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) baseline SBP for all study subjects was 114.06 ± 11.30 mm Hg and DBP was 69.53 ± 7.63 mm Hg. Mean changes in SBP between the caffeinated arm and the decaffeinated arm at the 1- and 3-hour time points were significantly increased compared with baseline (mean ± SD 6.08 ± 7.71 mm Hg at 1 hour [p=0.001] vs 3.33 ± 6.99 mm Hg at 3 hours [p=0.042]). Similarly, mean DBP changes between the caffeinated arm and the decaffeinated arm were significantly increased at the 1- and 3-hour time points compared with baseline (mean ± SD 5.18 ± 8.38 mm Hg at 1 hour [p=0.007] and 5.43 ± 7.21 mm Hg at 3 hours [p=0.005]). Heart rate, adverse effects, and energy levels were similar between the two groups. Caffeinated energy shots significantly increased SBP and DBP over a 3-hour period compared with decaffeinated energy shots in healthy, nonhypertensive individuals. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  3. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  4. The effect of music therapy on postoperative pain, heart rate, systolic blood pressures and analgesic use following nasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Chan, M F; Benzie, Iris F F

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of unrelieved postoperative pain is high and may lead to adverse effects including prolonged hospitalization and delayed recovery. Distraction may be an effective pain-relieving strategy, and can be implemented by several means including affective imaging, games, and possibly music. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of music therapy on postoperative pain. Fifty-seven patients (24 females, 33 males; mean +/- SD age 39.9 +/- 14.35 years [range 15 to 69 years] were matched for age and sex and then nonselectively assigned to either an experimental (n = 27) or a control (n = 30) group. Music was played intermittently to members of the experimental group during the first 24 hour postoperative period. Pain intensity was measured using the Pain Verbal Rating Scales (VRS). Significant decreases in pain intensity over time were found in the experimental group compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). In addition, the experimental group had a lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and took fewer oral analgesics for pain. These findings suggest that music therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic approach for postoperative pain management.

  5. Prediction of severity of additional blood pressure elevation after tracheal intubation in hypertensive patients by pre-anesthetic recurrence quantification analysis of heart rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Myung-Kul; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Kyungsik

    2001-03-01

    In hypertensive patients, an additional blood pressure elevation frequently occurs after endotracheal intubation during general anesthesia. We tried to determine whether the severity of the elevation could be predicted using pre-anesthetic recurrence quantification analysis of heart rates in the hypertensive patients. Twenty-four newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were included. We defined the degree of the blood pressure elevation as triangleup BP = maximal mean blood pressure after the intubation - mean blood pressure before the general anesthesia. Using pre-anesthetic heart rate data, we calculated classical linear and nonlinear indices of heart rate dynamics, and performed recurrence quantification analysis to calculate three preanesthetic recurrence indices, percent recurrence (%REC) , percent determinism (%DET), and maximal length of recurrence (ML). All pre-anesthetic classical linear and nonlinear indices showed no significant difference between the mild (triangleup BP <= 35mmHg, n=12) and severe group (triangleup BP > 35mmHg, n=12) and showed no significant linear correlation with the triangleup BP. However, the ML was significantly higher in severe than in mild group (16.10 ± 3.79 vs 7.90 ± 0.73, p<0.005) and, moreover, was significantly linearly correlated with the triangleup BP (r=0.691, p=0.001). In hypertensive patients, the severity of additional blood pressure elevation after general anesthesia and tracheal intubation can be predicted by the pre-anesthetic recurrence quantification analysis of heart rates.

  6. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    PubMed

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  7. Sustained Blood Pressure Responding during Synthetic Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-15

    split-half reliabilities of both heart rate and mean * blood pressure were high during task performance. Significant correlations were observed between... blood pressure responses elicited by :1 16 an anagram task showed a high test-retest reliability, even over an interval of 13 months. Examination of the...8217AD-AI5 733 JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MO DEPT OF PSYCHIATRY F/6 6/5 SUSTAINED BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONDING DURING SYNTHETIC WORK.(U) JUN A2 R L RAY

  8. Large-scale survey of rates of achieving targets for blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids and prevalence of complications in type 2 diabetes (JDDM 40)

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hiroki; Oishi, Mariko; Takamura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Katsuya; Shirabe, Shin-ichiro; Uchida, Daigaku; Sugimoto, Hidekatsu; Kurihara, Yoshio; Araki, Shin-ichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The fact that population with type 2 diabetes mellitus and bodyweight of patients are increasing but diabetes care is improving makes it important to explore the up-to-date rates of achieving treatment targets and prevalence of complications. We investigated the prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications and rates of achieving treatment targets through a large-scale multicenter-based cohort. Research design and methods A cross-sectional nationwide survey was performed on 9956 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who consecutively attended primary care clinics. The prevalence of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and macrovascular complications and rates of achieving targets of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg, and lipids of low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.1/≥1.0 mmol/L and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.8 mmol/L were investigated. Results The rates of achieving targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids were 52.9%, 46.8% and 65.5%, respectively. The prevalence of microvascular complications was ∼28% each, 6.4% of which had all microvascular complications, while that of macrovascular complications was 12.6%. With an increasing duration of diabetes, the rate of achieving target HbA1c decreased and the prevalence of each complication increased despite increased use of diabetes medication. The prevalence of each complication decreased according to the number achieving the 3 treatment targets and was lower in subjects without macrovascular complications than those with. Adjustments for considerable covariates exhibited that each complication was closely inter-related, and the achievement of each target was significantly associated with being free of each complication. Conclusions Almost half of the subjects examined did not meet the recommended targets. The risk of each complication was significantly affected by 1 on-target treatment (inversely) and the

  9. On-admission blood pressure and pulse rate in trauma patients and their correlation with mortality: Cushing's phenomenon revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Prashant; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Roy, Nobhojit; Kumar, Vineet; Samudrala, Veda Dhruthy; Kamble, Jyoti; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Background: Injury-induced alteration in initial physiological responses such as hypertension and heart rate (HR) has a significant effect on mortality. Research on such associations from our country-India is limited. The present study investigates the injury-induced early blood pressure (BP) and HR changes and their association with mortality. Materials and Methods: The data were selected from Towards Improved Trauma Care Outcomes collected from October 1, 2013, to July 24, 2014. Patients above 18 years of age with documented systolic BP (SBP) and HR were selected. BP was categorized into hypotension (SBP <90 mmHg), hypertension (SBP >140 mmHg), and normal (SBP 90–140 mmHg). HR was categorized into bradycardia (HR <60 beats/min [bpm]), tachycardia (HR >100 bpm), and normal (HR 60–100 bpm). These categories were compared with mortality. Results: A total of 10,200 patients were considered for the study. Mortality rate was 24%. Mortality among females was more than males. Patients with normal BP and HR had 20% of mortality. Mortality in patients with abnormal BP and HR findings was 36%. Mortality was higher among hypotension-bradycardia patients (80%) followed by hypertension-bradycardia patients (58%) and tachycardia hypotension patients (48%). Elderly patients were at higher risk of deaths with an overall mortality of 35% compared to 23% of adults. Conclusion: The study reports that initial combination of hypotension-bradycardia had higher mortality rate. Specific precautions in prehospital care should be given to trauma patients with these findings. Further prospective study in detail should be considered for exploring this abnormality. PMID:28382254

  10. Effects of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiographic parameters: An experimental study on healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Mohammadpour, Fatemeh; Manteghi, Mohammad Javad; Kordshakeri, Kiarash; Tokazebani, Masoud; Rahmani, Elham; Hassanzadeh, Morteza

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of the consumption of energy drinks on cardiovascular parameters in a group of healthy young individuals. In a quasi-experimental study, 44 healthy adult participants aged between 15 and 30 years were evaluated. The blood pressure (BP) as well as electrocardiographic indices, including heart rate (HR), PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT (QTc) interval, and ST-T changes were recorded before consumption of a caffeine-containing energy drink and at the specific time points over a 4-h test duration. We found statistically significant HR decline (p=0.004) and more frequent ST-T changes (p=0.004) after the participants consumed the energy drink. However, readings for systolic BP (p=0.44), diastolic BP (p=0.26), PR interval (p=0.449), QRS duration (p=0.235), and QTc interval (p=0.953) showed no significant change post-consumption. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the consumption of energy drinks could contribute to HR decline and ST-T change in healthy young adults.

  11. Comparative effect of positive and negative static magnetic fields on heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Martha R

    2002-09-01

    To compare changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) associated with short-term exposure to static magnetic fields (SMFs) of positive versus negative polarity. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial using a time series design. Physical therapy laboratory in a university setting. Seventy-five adults with a mean age of 30.6 years were assigned to one of three treatment groups. No subjects had any symptoms of cardiovascular disease or cardiac irregularity. Fifteen-minute exposure to an SMF by lying on a mattress pad containing magnets of positive polarity, negative polarity, or none (placebo). HR and BP were monitored prior to exposure, at 1-minute, 5-minute, 10-minute and 15-minute intervals following exposure, and again 5 minutes after exposure. Subjects in all groups demonstrated slight decreases in HR and BP, but none of these changes were associated with the intervention (p = 0.170). Short-term exposure to an SMF of either positive or negative polarity does not appear to cause any clinically meaningful changes in HR or BP among asymptomatic subjects. This finding supports the safe use of unipolar SMFs that contain low-intensity magnets (< 1000 gauss) relative to the cardiovascular system.

  12. Participation rates, weight loss, and blood pressure changes among obese women in a nutrition-exercise program.

    PubMed Central

    Lasco, R A; Curry, R H; Dickson, V J; Powers, J; Menes, S; Merritt, R K

    1989-01-01

    Since 1985, a black urban community in Atlanta has planned, implemented, and evaluated a cardiovascular risk reduction project. The Community Health Assessment and Promotion Project (CHAPP) was developed to reduce the high incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the neighborhood's predominantly black population. Based on data from a needs assessment, a community coalition designed and directed a 10-week exercise and nutrition intervention targeted to obese residents between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The intervention consists of an orientation, attitudes assessment, selection of a specific exercise class, and twice-weekly information on nutrition and community resources. The program uses a wide range of strategies, including individual consultations, reminder telephone calls, incentives, and rewards, and free transportation and child care, to encourage participation. The exercise-nutrition intervention was provided to two separate groups. A total of 70 participants completed the intervention over a 7-month period. Program evaluation has demonstrated high participation rates and significant reductions in weight and blood pressures both immediately after the intervention and on 4-month followup. Since completion of this evaluation study, over 400 additional community members have participated in this intervention. PMID:2511599

  13. Association of ambulatory heart rate and atherosclerosis risk factors with blood pressure in young non-hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to assess the association between 24 h ambulatory heart rate (HR), atherosclerosis risk factors and blood pressure (BP) in young non-hypertensive patients. Methods We recruited 186 participants aged 18–45 years from a large urban academic Family Medicine outpatient practice, serving 40 000 individuals for this observational study. The main analyses were based on multiple linear regression, with mean 24 h BP (systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP)) as the outcomes, mean 24 h HR as the main predictor of interest, and controlling for age, gender, race, insulin sensitivity/resistance and endothelial function measured by strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. Results HR was independently associated with mean 24 h SBP and DBP (SBP and DBP: p=0.042 and 0.001, respectively). In our analyses, associations were markedly stronger for ambulatory compared with office BP measurements. Endothelial dysfunction was associated with higher SBP (p=0.013); plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was significantly associated with both SBP and DBP (p=0.041 and 0.015, respectively), while insulin resistance was not associated with either SBP or DBP. Insulin resistance and C reactive protein were significant predictors of HR (p=0.013 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusions These findings suggest that HR may be a potential marker of elevated cardiovascular risk in young asymptomatic individuals, prior to the development of clinical hypertension or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26925242

  14. Effects of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiographic parameters: An experimental study on healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Mohammadpour, Fatemeh; Javad Manteghi, Mohammad; Kordshakeri, Kiarash; Tokazebani, Masoud; Rahmani, Elham; Hassanzadeh, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the consumption of energy drinks on cardiovascular parameters in a group of healthy young individuals. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, 44 healthy adult participants aged between 15 and 30 years were evaluated. The blood pressure (BP) as well as electrocardiographic indices, including heart rate (HR), PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT (QTc) interval, and ST-T changes were recorded before consumption of a caffeine-containing energy drink and at the specific time points over a 4-h test duration. Results: We found statistically significant HR decline (p=0.004) and more frequent ST-T changes (p=0.004) after the participants consumed the energy drink. However, readings for systolic BP (p=0.44), diastolic BP (p=0.26), PR interval (p=0.449), QRS duration (p=0.235), and QTc interval (p=0.953) showed no significant change post-consumption. Conclusion: In conclusion, we demonstrated that the consumption of energy drinks could contribute to HR decline and ST-T change in healthy young adults. PMID:26467367

  15. Effects of intravenous terbutaline on heart rate, arterial pressure and blood gases in anesthetized horses breathing air.

    PubMed

    Arcaro, Isla; Fischer, Berit L; Lascola, Kara M; Clark-Price, Stuart C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of intravenous (IV) administration of terbutaline on PaO2, PaCO2, pH, heart rate (HR) and arterial pressures in healthy, laterally recumbent horses breathing ambient air under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Prospective experimental study. Eight healthy adult horses were enrolled. Six horses, four mares and two geldings weighing 433-624 kg, completed the study. Horses were sedated with xylazine (1.0 mg kg(-1)) IV for placement of arterial and venous catheters. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.2 mg kg(-1)) IV and maintained with an IV infusion of guaifenesin (50 mg mL(-1)), ketamine (2 mg mL(-1)) and xylazine (0.5 mg mL(-1)) at 1.9 ± 0.3 mL kg(-1) hour(-1). Horses were in left lateral recumbency and breathed air spontaneously. Arterial blood was collected for pH and blood gas analysis during xylazine sedation, 15 minutes after induction of anesthesia, immediately before and 5, 15 and 30 minutes after administration of terbutaline (2 μg kg(-1)), and when the horse was standing after recovery from anesthesia. HR, systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressures were recorded at 5 minute intervals during anesthesia. Normal data were analyzed with anova and non-normal data were analyzed with a Friedman test with a p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean PaO2 decreased from baseline to <60 mmHg (8.0 kPa) during anesthesia (p < 0.0001) and did not improve after administration of terbutaline. After terbutaline administration, HR increased (p = 0.002), and SAP, MAP and DAP decreased (p < 0.001) with the greatest changes occurring immediately after terbutaline administration. Terbutaline (2 μg kg(-1)) IV did not improve PaO2 and was associated with adverse cardiovascular effects during TIVA in healthy, laterally recumbent horses breathing air. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier

  16. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  17. Impaired systolic blood pressure recovery and heart rate recovery after graded exercise in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Yildiz, Bekir S; Kilic, I Dogu; Uludag, Burcu; Demirci, Emre E; Zungur, Mustafa; Evrengul, Harun; Kaftan, Asuman H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare systolic blood pressure recovery and heart rate recovery (HRR) values obtained at various time intervals after maximal graded exercise treadmill testing between patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and the controls without MS. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating systolic blood pressure recovery (SBPR) impairment and its relations to HRR and other variables in this group of patients. The study population included 110 patients with MS (67 men, 43 women; mean age: 46 ± 9 years) and 110 control subjects who did not meet the criteria for MS (58 men, 52 women; mean age: 44 ± 10 years). All patients were selected from nonobese, apparently healthy sedentary individuals who had the ability to perform maximum exercise testing. SBPR was assessed by calculating the ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) obtained in the third minute of the recovery period to either the peak-exercise SBP or the SBP in the first minute of the recovery period after graded exercise testing. HRR values were calculated by subtracting the HR at the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth minutes of the recovery period from the HR reached at peak exercise. There was no significant difference found between the 2 groups with respect to age and sex distribution. As expected, patients with MS had higher waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control subjects. All HRR values calculated in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth minutes were significantly detected lower in the MS group compared with the control group (HRR 1st: 32 ± 10 vs 36 ± 11; P = 0.009; HRR 2nd: 47 ± 10 vs 51 ± 11; P = 0.02; HRR 3rd: 53 ± 11 vs 58 ± 12; P = 0.001; HRR 4th: 57 ± 11 vs 64 ± 12; P < 0.001; HRR 5th: 60 ± 16 vs 69 ± 15; P < 0.001). In addition, calculated mean values for SBPR1 and SBPR2 were >1 in patients with MS (1.01 ± 0.2 vs 0.91 ± 0.1 and 1

  18. Effect of head-down-tilt bed rest and hypovolemia on dynamic regulation of heart rate and blood pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaki, K. I.; Zhang, R.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Adaptation to head-down-tilt bed rest leads to an apparent abnormality of baroreflex regulation of cardiac period. We hypothesized that this "deconditioning response" could primarily be a result of hypovolemia, rather than a unique adaptation of the autonomic nervous system to bed rest. To test this hypothesis, nine healthy subjects underwent 2 wk of -6 degrees head-down bed rest. One year later, five of these same subjects underwent acute hypovolemia with furosemide to produce the same reductions in plasma volume observed after bed rest. We took advantage of power spectral and transfer function analysis to examine the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (BP) and R-R interval. We found that 1) there were no significant differences between these two interventions with respect to changes in numerous cardiovascular indices, including cardiac filling pressures, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or stroke volume; 2) normalized high-frequency (0.15-0.25 Hz) power of R-R interval variability decreased significantly after both conditions, consistent with similar degrees of vagal withdrawal; 3) transfer function gain (BP to R-R interval), used as an index of arterial-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, decreased significantly to a similar extent after both conditions in the high-frequency range; the gain also decreased similarly when expressed as BP to heart rate x stroke volume, which provides an index of the ability of the baroreflex to alter BP by modifying systemic flow; and 4) however, the low-frequency (0.05-0.15 Hz) power of systolic BP variability decreased after bed rest (-22%) compared with an increase (+155%) after acute hypovolemia, suggesting a differential response for the regulation of vascular resistance (interaction, P < 0.05). The similarity of changes in the reflex control of the circulation under both conditions is consistent with the hypothesis that reductions in plasma volume may be largely responsible for the observed changes in cardiac

  19. Effect of head-down-tilt bed rest and hypovolemia on dynamic regulation of heart rate and blood pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaki, K. I.; Zhang, R.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Adaptation to head-down-tilt bed rest leads to an apparent abnormality of baroreflex regulation of cardiac period. We hypothesized that this "deconditioning response" could primarily be a result of hypovolemia, rather than a unique adaptation of the autonomic nervous system to bed rest. To test this hypothesis, nine healthy subjects underwent 2 wk of -6 degrees head-down bed rest. One year later, five of these same subjects underwent acute hypovolemia with furosemide to produce the same reductions in plasma volume observed after bed rest. We took advantage of power spectral and transfer function analysis to examine the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (BP) and R-R interval. We found that 1) there were no significant differences between these two interventions with respect to changes in numerous cardiovascular indices, including cardiac filling pressures, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or stroke volume; 2) normalized high-frequency (0.15-0.25 Hz) power of R-R interval variability decreased significantly after both conditions, consistent with similar degrees of vagal withdrawal; 3) transfer function gain (BP to R-R interval), used as an index of arterial-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, decreased significantly to a similar extent after both conditions in the high-frequency range; the gain also decreased similarly when expressed as BP to heart rate x stroke volume, which provides an index of the ability of the baroreflex to alter BP by modifying systemic flow; and 4) however, the low-frequency (0.05-0.15 Hz) power of systolic BP variability decreased after bed rest (-22%) compared with an increase (+155%) after acute hypovolemia, suggesting a differential response for the regulation of vascular resistance (interaction, P < 0.05). The similarity of changes in the reflex control of the circulation under both conditions is consistent with the hypothesis that reductions in plasma volume may be largely responsible for the observed changes in cardiac

  20. Influence of smoking cessation drugs on blood pressure and heart rate in patients with cardiovascular disease or high risk score: real life setting.

    PubMed

    Silva, André Pacheco; Scholz, Jaqueline; Abe, Tania Ogawa; Pinheiro, Gabriela Gouveia; Gaya, Patricia Viviane; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima

    2016-01-05

    Smoking is the most important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. It is well established that quitting smoking reduces coronary events. However, on several occasions, the cardiovascular safety of smoking cessation drugs has been questioned. Our goal is to evaluate the effects of smoking cessation drugs on blood pressure and heart rate in patients from a smoking cessation service in a cardiology hospital. We examined the PAF database (Smoking Cessation Assistance Program database) between January 2008 and March 2014. We analyzed data from 900 patients who were compliant with the treatment (50.5% male, average age 53 ± 17 years). The most frequent clinical diagnoses were coronary artery disease (25.2%), hypertension (57.2%), and diabetes (13.4%). Blood pressure, heart rate, and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration in exhaled air were analyzed at consecutive visits during the first 45 days of treatment (mean visits - 3). Analysis of repeated measures was used for the statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Two hundred seventy one patients used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone, 81 used bupropion alone, 154 used varenicline alone, 283 used NRT plus bupropion and 111 used bupropion plus varenicline. For all smoking cessation drugs, used alone or in combination, no increase occurred in the average value of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR). Significant reductions in CO concentrations occurred in all smoking cessation drug groups. Smoking cessation drugs used in monotherapy or in combined regimens did not influence systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in this group of patients during the observation period.

  1. Changes in cardiovascular function after venlafaxine but not pregabalin in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of orthostatic challenge, blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Diaper, Alison; Rich, Ann S; Wilson, Sue J; Craig, Kevin; Dourish, Colin T; Dawson, Gerry R; Nutt, David J; Bailey, Jayne E

    2013-11-01

    It is generally thought that venlafaxine raises blood pressure at higher doses; however, some studies have found no effect or a decrease in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) effects of 3 weeks of dosing with venlafaxine, pregabalin and placebo on young healthy adults. Fifty-four participants, of mean age 23.1 years (sd 4.68), 29 male, were randomised into three parallel groups. Each group received one of the three drugs, dosed incrementally over a 3-week period to reach daily doses of 150 mg/day venlafaxine and 200 mg/day pregabalin. Blood pressure sphygmomanometer measurements, heart rate measurements, and orthostatic challenges recorded continuously beat-to-beat were performed weekly over this period and 5 days after treatment cessation. Results showed resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and resting and standing diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were significantly raised by venlafaxine compared with the pregabalin and placebo groups. SBP drop on standing was larger, the resulting overshoot was smaller, and recovery was slower on venlafaxine. HR recovery was significantly impaired by venlafaxine. CV changes were observed after only 1 week of dosing at 112.5 mg/day. These effects of venlafaxine are likely to be due to its action of noradrenergic reuptake inhibition.

  2. Temporal relationships of blood pressure, heart rate, baroreflex function, and body temperature change over a hibernation bout in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Barbara A; Chau, Sat M; Hamilton, Jock S; Song, Christine; Gorgone, Julia; Saenz, Marissa; Horowitz, John M; Chen, Chao-Yin

    2013-10-01

    Hibernating mammals undergo torpor during which blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), metabolic rate, and core temperature (TC) dramatically decrease, conserving energy. While the cardiovascular system remains functional, temporal changes in BP, HR, and baroreceptor-HR reflex sensitivity (BRS) over complete hibernation bouts and their relation to TC are unknown. We implanted BP/temperature telemetry transmitters into Syrian hamsters to test three hypotheses: H-1) BP, HR, and BRS decrease concurrently during entry into hibernation and increase concurrently during arousal; H-2) these changes occur before changes in TC; and H-3) the pattern of changes is consistent over successive bouts. We found: 1) upon hibernation entry, BP and HR declined before TC and BRS, suggesting baroreflex control of HR continues to regulate BP as the BP set point decreases; 2) during the later phase of entry, BRS decreased rapidly whereas BP and TC fell gradually, suggesting the importance of TC in further BP declines; 3) during torpor, BP slowly increased (but remained relatively low) without changes in HR or BRS or increased TC, suggesting minimal baroreflex or temperature influence; 4) during arousal, increased TC and BRS significantly lagged increases in BP and HR, consistent with establishment of tissue perfusion before increased TC/metabolism; and 5) the temporal pattern of these changes was similar over successive bouts in all hamsters. These results negate H-1, support H-2 with respect to BP and HR, support H-3, and indicate that the baroreflex contributes to cardiovascular regulation over a hibernation bout, albeit operating in a fundamentally different manner during entry vs. arousal.

  3. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Measures Associated With Increased Risk of Covert Brain Infarction and Worsening Leukoaraiosis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lester Y; Bartz, Traci M; Rice, Kenneth; Floyd, James; Psaty, Bruce; Gutierrez, Jose; Longstreth, W T; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    In people without previous stroke, covert findings on serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of incident brain infarcts and worsening leukoaraiosis are associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke and dementia. We evaluated whether various measures of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate are associated with these MRI findings. In the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study), a longitudinal cohort study of older adults, we used relative risk regression to assess the associations of mean, variability, and trend in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and heart rate measured at 4 annual clinic visits between 2 brain MRIs with incident covert brain infarction and worsening white matter grade (using a 10-point scale to characterize leukoaraiosis). We included participants who had both brain MRIs, no stroke before the follow-up MRI, and no change in antihypertensive medication status during follow-up. Among 878 eligible participants, incident covert brain infarction occurred in 15% and worsening white matter grade in 27%. Mean systolic BP was associated with increased risk for incident covert brain infarction (relative risk per 10 mm Hg, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.47), and mean diastolic BP was associated with increased risk for worsening white matter grade (relative risk per 10 mm Hg, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.69). These findings persisted in secondary and sensitivity analyses. Elevated mean systolic BP is associated with increased risk for covert brain infarction, and elevated mean diastolic BP is associated with increased risk for worsening leukoaraiosis. These findings reinforce the importance of hypertension in the development of silent cerebrovascular diseases, but the pathophysiologic relationships to BP for each may differ. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Does exercise intensity affect blood pressure and heart rate in obese adolescents? A 6-month multidisciplinary randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    Farah, B Q; Ritti-Dias, R M; Balagopal, P B; Hill, J O; Prado, W L

    2014-04-01

    Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular health in general, but whether the impact varies with exercise intensity is not clear. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of a high-intensity aerobic exercise training (HIT) vs. a low-intensity aerobic exercise training (LIT) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in obese adolescents. Forty-three (13-18 years) Tanner stage (III-IV) matched obese adolescents were studied in a randomized trial of either HIT (corresponding to the ventilatory threshold I; n = 20) or LIT (corresponding to 20% below the ventilatory threshold I; n = 23) programme for a period of 6 months. All participants also received a multidisciplinary therapy that included nutritional, psychological and clinical counselling. Both HIT and LIT sessions were isocaloric, with energy expenditure set at 350 kcal. BP, HR and HRV were measured along with markers of body adiposity and insulin resistance before and after the respective interventions. The participants in both groups had similar physical and clinical characteristics. After the 6-month intervention, systolic, diastolic and mean BP decreased (P < 0.05, for all) similarly in both groups, whereas waist circumference, HR and HRV showed beneficial changes only in the HIT group (P < 0.05). Aerobic exercise training set at a high intensity compared with the low intensity appears to have additional benefits on abdominal obesity and cardiovascular health in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in obese adolescents. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. Temporal relationships of blood pressure, heart rate, baroreflex function, and body temperature change over a hibernation bout in Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Barbara A.; Chau, Sat M.; Hamilton, Jock S.; Song, Christine; Gorgone, Julia; Saenz, Marissa; Horowitz, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernating mammals undergo torpor during which blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), metabolic rate, and core temperature (TC) dramatically decrease, conserving energy. While the cardiovascular system remains functional, temporal changes in BP, HR, and baroreceptor-HR reflex sensitivity (BRS) over complete hibernation bouts and their relation to TC are unknown. We implanted BP/temperature telemetry transmitters into Syrian hamsters to test three hypotheses: H-1) BP, HR, and BRS decrease concurrently during entry into hibernation and increase concurrently during arousal; H-2) these changes occur before changes in TC; and H-3) the pattern of changes is consistent over successive bouts. We found: 1) upon hibernation entry, BP and HR declined before TC and BRS, suggesting baroreflex control of HR continues to regulate BP as the BP set point decreases; 2) during the later phase of entry, BRS decreased rapidly whereas BP and TC fell gradually, suggesting the importance of TC in further BP declines; 3) during torpor, BP slowly increased (but remained relatively low) without changes in HR or BRS or increased TC, suggesting minimal baroreflex or temperature influence; 4) during arousal, increased TC and BRS significantly lagged increases in BP and HR, consistent with establishment of tissue perfusion before increased TC/metabolism; and 5) the temporal pattern of these changes was similar over successive bouts in all hamsters. These results negate H-1, support H-2 with respect to BP and HR, support H-3, and indicate that the baroreflex contributes to cardiovascular regulation over a hibernation bout, albeit operating in a fundamentally different manner during entry vs. arousal. PMID:23904107

  6. Effects of an n-butanol extract from the stem of Tinospora crispa on blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J; Allenbach, Yves; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Kurt; Sirirugsa, Poungpen; Jansakul, Chaweewan

    2011-01-27

    Tinospora crispa has been used in folkloric medicine for control of blood pressure, as an antipyretic, for cooling down the body temperature and for maintaining good health. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of an n-butanol extract from the stems of Tinospora crispa (T. crispa extract) on blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetized rats. Air-dried stems of T. crispa were extracted with water, followed by partitioned extract with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and finally by n-butanol. The n-butanol soluble part was evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilization to obtain a crude dried powder (T. crispa extract). The effects and mechanisms of the T. crispa extract on blood pressure and heart rate were studied in anesthetized normal and reserpinized rats in vivo in the presence of different antagonists. T. crispa extract (1-100 mg/kg, i.v.) caused a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and this effect was inhibited by propranolol, phentolamine, atenolol and/or the β(2)-antagonist ICI-118,551, but not by atropine or hexamethonium. In reserpinized rats, the T. crispa extract had a dual effect: reduction in hypotensive activity, followed by a small increase in blood pressure. The decrease in MAP in reserpinized rat was slightly potentiated by phentolamine, but inhibited by propranolol or ICI-118,551 only if atenolol and phentolamine were also present. The increase in MAP was potentiated by propranolol and ICI-118,551, but was inhibited by phentolamine. The T. crispa extract had a dual effect on heart rate in the normal rat: a small transient decrease, followed by an increase in heart rate. The positive chronotropic effect of T. crispa extract was inhibited by propranolol, phentolamine and atenolol, but not by ICI-118,551, atropine or hexamethonium. Reserpine potentiated the positive chronotropic effect of the T. crispa extract and this effect was inhibited by propranolol, atenolol and ICI-118,551, but not by phentolamine. From these

  7. Effect of blood pH on pulmonary artery pressure, left atrial pressure and fluid filtration rate in isolated rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Plata, V M; Pozo-Parilli, J C; Baum-Agay, A; Curiel, C; Sánchez de León, R

    1995-09-01

    To determine the effects of pH changes on Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP), 18 isolated rabbit lung preparations, perfused with autologous blood mixture and constant PaCO2 have been studied. Each preparation was studied under 3 conditions: Baseline: 30 minutes equilibration period. Acidosis: pH was decreased by 0.2 N HCl infusion, the ventilatory rate was changed and different CO2 mixtures were used to maintain the PCO2 within the initial parameters. Compensated Acidosis (CA): pH was returned to normal values by 0.7 N NaHCO3 infusion maintaining PCO2 in its initial values. The decrease in pH (acidosis) from 7.36 +/- 0.05 to 7.18 +/- 0.06 at constant PCO2, generated a significant increase in PAP (13.6 +/- 3.2 cm H2O to 18.8 +/- 5.2 cm H2O, p < 0.01). The pH increase (CA) from 7.18 +/- 0.06 to 7.40 +/- 0.09 caused the PAP to decrease (18.8 +/- 5.2 cm H2O to 15.9 +/- 4.2 cm H2O); the fluid filtration rate remained unchanged during the whole experiment. It is concluded that blood pH changes at constant PCO2 result in significant changes of PAP. Acidemia produces pulmonary vasoconstriction, which may be a contributing factor in the genesis of pulmonary hypertension in clinical conditions with increased hydrogen ion concentration [H+].

  8. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... consistently too high. How your blood pressure and circulatory system work In order to survive and function properly, ... and organs need the oxygenated blood that your circulatory system carries throughout the body. When the heart beats, ...

  9. A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Bichler, A; Swenson, A; Harris, M A

    2006-11-01

    Red Bull energy drink has become extraordinarily popular amongst college students for use as a study aid. We investigated the combined effects of Red Bull's two active ingredients, caffeine and taurine, on short term memory. Studies on the effects of these two neuromodulators on memory have yielded mixed results, and their combined actions have not yet been investigated. In this double-blind study, college student subjects consumed either caffeine and taurine pills or a placebo and then completed a memory assessment. Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored throughout the testing period. The combination of caffeine and taurine had no effect on short term memory, but did cause a significant decline in heart rate and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure. The heart rate decline may have been caused by pressure-induced bradycardia that was triggered by caffeine ingestion and perhaps enhanced by the actions of taurine.

  10. Circadian variation in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and EEG of immature broiler breeder chickens in restricted-fed and ad libitum-fed states.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L; Nevison, I M

    2006-10-01

    1. Heart rate, intra-aortic blood pressure, deep body temperature and telencephalic EEG were monitored by radiotelemetry in 6 freely moving immature broiler breeders (three in each of two years), during routine food restriction and then ad libitum feeding, over two 24-h periods in each feeding state.2. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were all higher during ad libitum than restricted feeding, and heart rate and body temperature were higher by day (12 h) than at night (12 h). The decreases in heart rate and body temperature at night were greater during restricted than ad libitum feeding. Blood pressure tended to be higher at night, except in year 2 during restricted feeding. Body temperature and ambient temperature were higher in year 2 than year 1.3. During restricted feeding, marked peaks in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature in the 15 min after provision of the daily food ration at 09:00 h, when birds were eating, were equivalent to corresponding values seen during ad libitum feeding.4. Relative powers in delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum were higher at night in year 2 only, while power in the alpha (8 to 12 Hz) band was higher at night in both years.5. It is concluded that most of the variation in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature between feeding states and times of day/night can be accounted for in terms of variation in food intake and energy expenditure. The greater slow wave (delta, theta) EEG activity seen after lights-off in year 2 may reflect non-paradoxical sleep at that time.

  11. Absence of sex differences in systolic blood pressure and heart rate responses to exercise in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Maruf, F A; Ogochukwu, U N; Dim, P A; Alada, A Ra

    2012-06-07

    The influence of sex on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) responses associated with cardiovascular morbidity, in healthy young adults was determined in ninety healthy young adults (47 females and 43 males) exercised using Bruce protocol. SBP and HR were measured pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery. SBPresponse (peak minus pre-exercise SBP), %SBPresponse [(peak minus pre-exercise SBP)÷pre-exercise SBP]x100, SBP3 (SBP 3 minutes into recovery), SBP4 (SBP 4 minutes into recovery), SBP3:peak (SBP3÷peak SBP), %SBPd3 [(peak SBP minus SBP 3 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]x100, %SBPd4 [(peak SBP minus SBP 4 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]X100, HRresponse (Peak HR minus pre-exercise HR), %HRresponse [(peak HR minus pre-exercise HR)÷pre-exercise HR]x 100, HR3 (HR 3 minutes into recovery), HR4 (HR 4 minutes into recovery), %HRd3 [(peak HR minus HR 3 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]x100, %HRd4 [(peak HR minus HR 4 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]X100, and HR50-70 (HR between 50th and 70th seconds into recovery) were derived from SBP and HR measurements. SBPpeak, HRresponse and %HRresponse were higher in males than in females whereas, SBPresponse, %SBPresponse and HRpeak were not different. There were no significant differences in the post-exercise SBP and HR responses of males and females except for SBP3, SBP4, HR3 and HR4. After adjusting for exercise duration, body mass index (BMI), and resting SBP and HR, these variables became similar. Sex differences in some SBP and HR responses to exercise, become nonexistent after adjusting for BMI, exercise duration, and resting SBP and HR.

  12. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Colak, Cengiz; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermis, Necip; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Colak, Cemil; Sarihan, Ediz; Dilek, Omer Faruk; Turan, Bahadir; Bakir, Sevtap; Acet, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Effects of electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones (MPs) on heart is one of the research interests. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from third-generation (3G) MP on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and ECG parameters and also to investigate whether exogenous melatonin can exert any protective effect on these parameters. In this study 36 rats were randomized and evenly categorized into 4 groups: group 1 (3G-EMR exposed); group 2 (3G-EMR exposed + melatonin); group 3 (control) and group 4 (control + melatonin). The rats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 3G-specific MP's EMR for 20 days (40 min/day; 20 min active (speech position) and 20 min passive (listening position)). Group 2 was also administered with melatonin for 20 days (5 mg/kg daily during the experimental period). ECG signals were recorded from cannulated carotid artery both before and after the experiment, and BP and HR were calculated on 1st, 3rd and 5th min of recordings. ECG signals were processed and statistically evaluated. In our experience, the obtained results did not show significant differences in the BP, HR and ECG parameters among the groups both before and after the experiment. Melatonin, also, did not exhibit any additional effects, neither beneficial nor hazardous, on the heart hemodynamics of rats. Therefore, the strategy (noncontact) of using a 3G MP could be the reason for ineffectiveness; and use of 3G MP, in this perspective, seems to be safer compared to the ones used in close contact with the head. However, further study is needed for standardization of such an assumption.

  13. The characteristics of coarse particulate matter air pollution associated with alterations in blood pressure and heart rate during controlled exposures

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L.; Wang, Lu; Das, Ritabrata; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Sun, Qinghua; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Although fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, the potential health effects of coarse PM (2.5–10 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM10–2.5) remain less clearly understood. We aimed to elucidate the components within coarse PM most likely responsible for mediating these hemodynamic alterations. Thirty-two healthy adults (25.9 ± 6.6 years) were exposed to concentrated ambient coarse PM (CAP) (76.2 ± 51.5 μg/m3) and filtered air (FA) for 2 h in a rural location in a randomized double-blind crossover study. The particle constituents (24 individual elements, organic and elemental carbon) were analyzed from filter samples and associated with the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes occurring throughout CAP and FA exposures in mixed model analyses. Total coarse PM mass along with most of the measured elements were positively associated with similar degrees of elevations in both systolic BP and HR. Conversely, total PM mass was unrelated, whereas only two elements (Cu and Mo) were positively associated with and Zn was inversely related to diastolic BP changes during exposures. Inhalation of coarse PM from a rural location rapidly elevates systolic BP and HR in a concentration-responsive manner, whereas the particulate composition does not appear to be an important determinant of these responses. Conversely, exposure to certain PM elements may be necessary to trigger a concomitant increase in diastolic BP. These findings suggest that particulate mass may be an adequate metric of exposure to predict some, but not all, hemodynamic alterations induced by coarse PM mass. PMID:25227729

  14. The interplay of exercise heart rate and blood pressure as a predictor of coronary artery disease and arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Andreas P; Liakos, Charalampos I; Vyssoulis, Gregory P; Chatzistamatiou, Evangelos I; Markou, Maria I; Tzamou, Vanessa; Stefanadis, Christodoulos I

    2013-03-01

    Delayed blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) decline at recovery post-exercise are independent predictors of incident coronary artery disease (CAD). Delayed BP recovery and exaggerated BP response to exercise are independent predictors of future arterial hypertension (AH). This study sought to examine whether the combination of two exercise parameters provides additional prognostic value than each variable alone. A total of 830 non-CAD patients (374 normotensive) were followed for new-onset CAD and/or AH for 5 years after diagnostic exercise testing (ET). At the end of follow-up, patients without overt CAD underwent a second ET. Stress imaging modalities and coronary angiography, where appropriate, ruled out CAD. New-onset CAD was detected in 110 participants (13.3%) whereas AH was detected in 41 former normotensives (11.0%). The adjusted (for confounders) relative risk (RR) of CAD in abnormal BP and HR recovery patients was 1.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.98; P=.011) compared with delayed BP and normal HR recovery patients and 1.71 (95% CI, 1.08-2.75; P=.014) compared with normal BP and delayed HR recovery patients. The adjusted RR of AH in normotensives with abnormal BP recovery and response was 2.18 (95% CI, 1.03-4.72; P=.047) compared with delayed BP recovery and normal BP response patients and 2.48 (95% CI, 1.14-4.97; P=.038) compared with normal BP recovery and exaggerated BP response individuals. In conclusion, the combination of two independent exercise predictors is an even stronger CAD/AH predictor than its components. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Heart rate and blood pressure interactions in the development of erectile dysfunction in high-risk cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Mario T; Schumacher, Helmut; Sliwa, Karen; Schmieder, Roland; Pöss, Janine; Mahfoud, Felix; Unger, Thomas; Lonn, Eva; Koon, Teo; Mancia, Guiseppe; Sleight, Peter; Yusuf, Salim; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors as elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), resting high heart rate (HR), and endothelial dysfunction and predicts cardiovascular events. However, the interaction between high HR and SBP and the development of ED remains unclear. We evaluated 1015 male patients enrolled in the ED substudy of ONTARGET and TRANSCEND, examining the influence of mean HR and mean SBP obtained over all study visits (mean 10.9±1.4 study visits) and their interaction with ED. In patients without pre-existing ED, new onset ED was detected in 29% of patients below, and 41% of patients above, the median of mean HR (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.8-2.5, p = 0.0047). In patients with pre-existing ED, high HR had no add-on effect. With or without pre-existing ED, high SBP had no influence after adjustment for covariates (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.66-1.59, p = 0.91). In a continuous model, it was shown that effects of high HR were prominent at low Kölner (Cologne) Evaluation of Erectile Function (KEED) score baseline values and in the presence of SBP above the median. In patients at risk for cardiovascular events, high HR is associated with ED, whereas the effect of high SBP was not significant. High resting HR might represent a cardiovascular risk indicator. Whether HR represents a potential treatment target to improve ED in high-risk individuals must be scrutinized in prospective trials.

  16. Effect of continuous smoking reduction and abstinence on blood pressure and heart rate in smokers switching to electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Cibella, Fabio; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Morjaria, Jaymin Bhagwanji; Battaglia, Eliana; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    We present prospective blood pressure (BP) and hear rate (HR) changes in smokers invited to switch to e-cigarettes in the ECLAT study. BP and HR changes were compared among (1) different study groups (users of high, low, and zero nicotine products) and (2) pooled continuous smoking phenotype classification (same phenotype from week 12 to -52), with participants classified as quitters (completely quit smoking), reducers (≥50% reduction in smoking consumption) and failures (<50% or no reduction in smoking consumption). Additionally, the latter comparison was repeated in a subgroup of participants with elevated BP at baseline. No significant changes were observed among study groups for systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HR. In 145 subjects with a continuous smoking phenotype, we observed lower systolic BP at week 52 compared to baseline but no effect of smoking phenotype classification. When the same analysis was repeated in 66 subjects with elevated BP at baseline, a substantial reduction in systolic BP was observed at week 52 compared to baseline (132.4 ± 12.0 vs. 141.2 ± 10.5 mmHg, p < 0.001), with a significant effect found for smoking phenotype classification. After adjusting for weight change, gender and age, reduction in systolic BP from baseline at week 52 remains associated significantly with both smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. In conclusion, smokers who reduce or quit smoking by switching to e-cigarettes may lower their systolic BP in the long term, and this reduction is apparent in smokers with elevated BP. The current study adds to the evidence that quitting smoking with the use of e-cigarettes does not lead to higher BP values, and this is independently observed whether e-cigarettes are regularly used or not.

  17. Scale exponents of blood pressure and heart rate during autonomic blockade as assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Paolo; Parati, Gianfranco; Di Rienzo, Marco; Carabalona, Roberta; Cividjian, Andrei; Quintin, Luc

    2011-01-15

    How the autonomic nervous system influences the fractal dynamics of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) remains unclear. The purpose of our study was to separately assess cardiac vagal and sympathetic (cardiac vs. vascular) influences on fractal properties of HR and BP as described by scale exponents of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). R-R intervals, systolic and diastolic BP were measured in nine supine volunteers before and after administration of autonomic blocking agents (atropine, propranolol, atropine+propranolol, clonidine). Spectra of DFA scale exponents, α(t), were calculated for scales between 5 and 100 s. HR and BP scale structures differed at baseline, being α(t) of HR <1, with a minimum between 10 and 20 s followed by a higher plateau between 40 to 80 s, while α(t) of BP decreased with t from values >1. Comparison of atropine and propranolol with baseline and combined cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic blockade (atropine+propranolol) indicated opposite influences of vagal and cardiac sympathetic outflows on HR exponents. The vagal outflow adds white-noise components, amplifying differences with BP exponents; the cardiac sympathetic outflow adds Brownian motion components at short scales and contributes to the plateau between 40 and 80 s. Overall sympathetic inhibition by clonidine decreased short- and long-term exponents of HR, and short-term exponents of BP, so that their α(t) spectra had different means but similar profiles. Therefore, cardiac vagal, cardiac sympathetic and vascular sympathetic outflows contribute differently to HR and BP fractal structures. Results are explained by different distribution and dynamics of acetylcholine receptors and of α- and β-adrenergic receptors between heart and vasculature.

  18. Influence of exercise training on heart rate variability in post-menopausal women with elevated arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Davy, K P; Willis, W L; Seals, D R

    1997-01-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be an independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease in women and has recently been identified as a risk factor for cardiac sudden death and all-cause mortality. We have recently demonstrated that endurance-trained post-menopausal women demonstrate higher levels of HRV than sedentary control subjects. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise would increase HRV in sedentary post-menopausal women with elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) (i.e. either high normal BP or stage I hypertension). A secondary aim was to test the hypothesis that the increase in HRV with exercise training, if observed, would be associated with an increase in spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (SBRS), an important physiological determinant of HRV. To accomplish these aims, we studied eight sedentary post-menopausal women (age = 54.5 +/- 1.3 years) before and after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training (3.3 +/- 0.3 days per week at 70% +/- 2% of maximal heart rate for 43 +/- 3 min per day). Maximal oxygen uptake and body weight did not change (P > 0.05) with training, but percentage fat (35.5 +/- 2.6% vs. 34.5 +/- 2.3%, P < 0.05) decreased and treadmill time to exhaustion increased (9.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 11.3 +/- 0.5 min, P < 0.05). Supine resting levels of heart rate, RR interval and the standard deviation of the RR interval (time domain measure of HRV) were unchanged (all P > 0.05) from baseline levels after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Similarly, the high-frequency, low-frequency and total power of HRV (frequency domain measures) were also unchanged from baseline (all P > 0.05). SBRS was also not different before and after aerobic exercise training (10 +/- 2 vs. 13 +/- 3 ms mmHg-1 respectively, P > 0.05). In contrast, systolic and diastolic BP were reduced approximately 8 and approximately 5 mmHg with training (both P < 0.05) respectively. These

  19. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood Pressure and Heart Rate via Sympathetic Nervous System Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, B; Oyeniyi, Y J; Mojiminiyi, F B O; Isezuo, S A; Alada, A R A

    2014-12-29

    The antihypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been validated in animals and man. This study tested the hypothesis that its hypotensive effect may be sympathetically mediated. The cold pressor test (CPT) and handgrip exercise (HGE) were performed in 20 healthy subjects before and after the oral administration of 15mg/Kg HS. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured digitally. Mean arterial pressure (MAP; taken as representative BP) was calculated. Results are expressed as mean ±SEM. P<0.05 was considered significant. CPT without HS resulted in a significant rise in MAP and HR (111.1±2.1mmHg and 100.8±2.0/min) from the basal values (97.9±1.9mmHg and 87.8±2.1/min; P<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS, CPT-induced changes (ΔMAP=10.1±1.7mmHg; ΔHR= 8.4±1.0/min) were significantly reduced compared to its absence (ΔMAP= 13.2±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 13.8±1.6/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The HGE done without HS also resulted in an increase in MAP and HR (116.3±2.1mmHg and 78.4±1.2/min) from the basal values (94.8±1.6mmHg and 76.1±1.0/min; p<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS the HGE-induced changes (ΔMAP= 11.5±1.0mmHg; ΔHR= 3.3±1.0/min) were significantly decreased compared to its absence (ΔMAP=21.4±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 12.8±2.0/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The CPT and HGE -induced increases in BP and HR suggest Sympathetic nervous system activation. These increases were significantly dampened by HS suggesting, indirectly, that its hypotensive effect may be due to an attenuation of the discharge of the sympathetic nervous system.

  20. Automated office blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Godwin, Marshall

    2012-05-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) is gradually disappearing from clinical practice with the mercury sphygmomanometer now considered to be an environmental hazard. Manual BP is also subject to measurement error on the part of the physician/nurse and patient-related anxiety which can result in poor quality BP measurements and office-induced (white coat) hypertension. Automated office (AO) BP with devices such as the BpTRU (BpTRU Medical Devices, Coquitlam, BC) has already replaced conventional manual BP in many primary care practices in Canada and has also attracted interest in other countries where research studies using AOBP have been undertaken. The basic principles of AOBP include multiple readings taken with a fully automated recorder with the patient resting alone in a quiet room. When these principles are followed, office-induced hypertension is eliminated and AOBP exhibits a much stronger correlation with the awake ambulatory BP as compared with routine manual BP measurements. Unlike routine manual BP, AOBP correlates as well with left ventricular mass as does the awake ambulatory BP. AOBP also simplifies the definition of hypertension in that the cut point for a normal AOBP (< 135/85 mm Hg) is the same as for the awake ambulatory BP and home BP. This article summarizes the currently available evidence supporting the use of AOBP in routine clinical practice and proposes an algorithm in which AOBP replaces manual BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  1. Observation charts with overlapping blood pressure and heart rate graphs do not yield the performance advantage that health professionals assume: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Christofidis, Melany J; Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S; Watson, Marcus O

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether overlapping blood pressure and heart rate graphs improve chart-users' ability to recognize derangements in these vital signs on hospital observation charts. Many health professionals prefer blood pressure and heart rate graphs to overlap. One justification is the use of a visual cue called the 'Seagull Sign' to detect physiological abnormalities. A 3 × 2 × 2 mixed-design experiment, with three independent variables: participant group, graph format (separate vs. overlapping) and alerting system (integrated colour-based track-and-trigger system present vs. absent). Over 64 experimental trials, 'Seagull-trained' nurses and novices randomly assigned to receive 'Seagull training' or remain untrained, viewed sequences of blood pressure and heart rate observations recorded on four different chart design extracts. The designs represented a crossing of the graph format and alerting system variables. For each design, eight cases contained normal data and eight contained an abnormal systolic blood pressure or heart rate observation (half of which yielded a Seagull Sign on overlapping plots). Participants (tested between January-May 2011) judged whether observations were physiologically normal or abnormal. Across all cases, participants from all groups responded faster and made fewer errors when blood pressure and heart rate observations were graphed separately, especially when a track-and-trigger system was present. Even for 'Seagull-trained' participants viewing 'Seagull Sign available' cases, no advantage of overlapping graphs was found. These findings suggest that overlapping graphs do not yield the performance advantage that many health professionals assume, either for novices or experienced nurses, even when the Seagull Sign is used. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P < .001 each) and heart rate (by 18%-20%; P < .001 each) compared with VAL, but stroke work (ACRPP per beat) was lower with VAL. Relative and adjusted variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interchangeability of Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure Measurement for Determining Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Free-Moving Domestic Pigs in Various Behavioral Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Annika; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interchangeability between heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs) recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG) and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding, and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, the standard deviation of IBIs, and the root mean of the squared distances of subsequent IBIs derived from ECG and BP signals for each behavior category using statistical procedures with different explanatory power [linear regression, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland and Altman plots, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Linear regression showed a strong relationship for HR during all behaviors and for HRV during resting. Excellent ICCs [lower 95% confidence intervals (CI) >0.75] and narrow limits of agreement in all behavior categories were found for HR. ICCs for HRV reached the critical lower 95% CI value of 0.75 only during resting. Using Bland and Altman plots, HRV agreement was unacceptable for all of the behavior categories. ANOVA showed significant differences between the methods in terms of HRV. BP systematically overestimated HRV compared with ECG. Our findings reveal that HR data recorded via BP agree well those recorded using ECG independently of the activity of the subject, whereas ECG and BP cannot be used interchangeably in the context of HRV in free-moving domestic pigs. PMID:26664979

  4. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressu...

  5. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate induced by caffeine are inhibited by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate: involvement of catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Yi; Kim, Chung-Soo; Lim, Kyu-Hee; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Seunghwan; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2011-10-01

    In a previous experiment, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) reduced caffeine-induced locomotor activity and stereotyped behaviors and inhibited caffeine-induced neuronal stimulant activity. This research was performed to give additional evidence that EGCG counteracts caffeine-induced stimulant effects in animals. EGCG inhibited caffeine-induced cardiovascular activation measures, such as arterial pressure and heart rate. In addition, the increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the blood induced by caffeine was reduced by EGCG. We suggest that EGCG may reduce caffeine-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate and may decrease the levels of catecholamines in the blood. Therefore, EGCG counteracts caffeine-induced cardiovascular activity. The stimulant effects of caffeine should be reduced by the amount of EGCG in green tea.

  6. Activity, sleep and ambient light have a different impact on circadian blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gubin, D G; Weinert, D; Rybina, S V; Danilova, L A; Solovieva, S V; Durov, A M; Prokopiev, N Y; Ushakov, P A

    2017-02-16

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors for the expression of the daily rhythms of body temperature (BT), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). One hundred and seventy-three young adults (YA), 17-24 years old (y.o.), of both genders were studied under a modified constant-routine (CR) protocol for 26 h. Participants were assigned randomly to groups with different lighting regimens: CR-LD, n = 77, lights (>400 l×) on from 09:00 to 17:00 h and off (<10 l×) from 17:00 to 09:00 next morning; CR-LL, n = 81, lights on (>400 l×) during the whole experimental session; CR-DD, n = 15, constant dim light (<10 l×) during the whole experiment. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, HR and BT were measured every 2 h. For comparison, the results of the former studies performed under conditions of regular life with an activity period from 07:00 to 23:00 h and sleep from 23:00 till 07:00 h (Control) were reanalyzed. Seven-day Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) records from 27 YA (16-38 y.o.) and BT self-measurement data from 70 YA (17-30 y.o.) taken on ≥ 3 successive days at 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00, 23:00 and 03:00 were available. The obtained daily patterns were different between Control and CR-DD groups, due to effects of activity, sleep and light. The comparison of Control and CR-LD groups allowed the effects of sleep and activity to be estimated since the lighting conditions were similar. The activity level substantially elevated SBP, but not DBP. Sleep, on the other hand, lowered the nighttime DBP, but has no effect on SBP. HR was affected both by activity and sleep. In accordance with previous studies, these results confirm that the steep BP increase in the morning is not driven by the circadian clock, but rather by sympathoadrenal factors related to awakening and corresponding anticipatory mechanisms. The effect on BT was not significant. To investigate the impact of light during the former

  7. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you stand up after lying down. Ordinarily, gravity causes blood to pool in your legs whenever ... eating. It affects mostly older adults. Just as gravity pulls blood to your feet when you stand, ...

  8. Effects of Methadone on the Minimum Anesthetic Concentration of Isoflurane, and Its Effects on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Ventilation during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Escobar, André; da Rocha, Rozana Wendler; Pypendop, Bruno Henri; Zangirolami Filho, Darcio; Sousa, Samuel Santos; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg(-1), i.m.) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg(-1) i.m. was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg(-1) of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg(-1) of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15, 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg(-1)) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg(-1) i.m. significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure.

  9. Effects of Methadone on the Minimum Anesthetic Concentration of Isoflurane, and Its Effects on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Ventilation during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Pypendop, Bruno Henri; Zangirolami Filho, Darcio; Sousa, Samuel Santos; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg-1, IM) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg-1 of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg-1 of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15, 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg-1) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure. PMID:27018890

  10. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  11. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:May 3,2017 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  12. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  13. Managing High Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing High Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Jan 3,2017 When your doctor ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  14. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Dec 14,2016 Pregnancy and ... Women . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  15. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... other ways to control blood pressure, including healthy lifestyle choices and maintaining a normal weight, Roth said. Murray said some of the factors responsible for the worldwide increase in high blood pressure are unhealthy diets and obesity. In addition, in developing countries, more people are ...

  16. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  17. Highly wearable cuff-less blood pressure and heart rate monitoring with single-arm electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxue; Zhou, Dian; Zeng, Xuan

    2017-02-06

    Long-term continuous systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) monitors are of tremendous value to medical (cardiovascular, circulatory and cerebrovascular management), wellness (emotional and stress tracking) and fitness (performance monitoring) applications, but face several major impediments, such as poor wearability, lack of widely accepted robust SBP models and insufficient proofing of the generalization ability of calibrated models. This paper proposes a wearable cuff-less electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG)-based SBP and HR monitoring system and many efforts are made focusing on above challenges. Firstly, both ECG/PPG sensors are integrated into a single-arm band to provide a super wearability. A highly convenient but challenging single-lead configuration is proposed for weak single-arm-ECG acquisition, instead of placing the electrodes on the chest, or two wrists. Secondly, to identify heartbeats and estimate HR from the motion artifacts-sensitive weak arm-ECG, a machine learning-enabled framework is applied. Then ECG-PPG heartbeat pairs are determined for pulse transit time (PTT) measurement. Thirdly, a PTT&HR-SBP model is applied for SBP estimation, which is also compared with many PTT-SBP models to demonstrate the necessity to introduce HR information in model establishment. Fourthly, the fitted SBP models are further evaluated on the unseen data to illustrate the generalization ability. A customized hardware prototype was established and a dataset collected from ten volunteers was acquired to evaluate the proof-of-concept system. The semi-customized prototype successfully acquired from the left upper arm the PPG signal, and the weak ECG signal, the amplitude of which is only around 10% of that of the chest-ECG. The HR estimation has a mean absolute error (MAE) and a root mean square error (RMSE) of only 0.21 and 1.20 beats per min, respectively. Through the comparative analysis, the PTT&HR-SBP models significantly outperform

  18. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals.

  19. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption upon cardiovascular reactivity, heart rate and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Hoffmann, P; Nilsson, H; Skarphedinsson, J; Folkow, B

    1992-07-01

    Clarification of the effect of chronic ethanol consumption upon cardiovascular reactivity in rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats were randomly allocated in groups of 10 to ethanol in tap water [20% (v:v) after the first week or tap water for 7-12 weeks]. Intra-arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured at rest and in response to vibration and noise stress. Vascular reactivity was assessed in isolated paired perfused hindquarters and in mesenteric arterioles in a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Resting intra-arterial blood pressure but not heart rate was lower in both ethanol-treated groups. The ethanol treatment increased the SHR heart rate response to sudden noise but the WKY response did not increase. Pressor responses to noise were initially greater in the ethanol-treated SHR. The ethanol had no effect upon isolated perfused hindquarter resistance at maximal dilation, dose-response curves in response to noradrenaline or vasopressin, or maximal contractile strength. Isolated mesenteric arterioles showed that ethanol had no effect upon responses to nerve stimulation or upon the 50% effective dose required for a response to noradrenaline or vasopressin. Ethanol treatment heightened the heart rate reactivity to stress without substantially affecting vascular neuro-effector characteristics in SHR. This is likely to be a central effect, caused by suppression of the central nervous inhibitory systems that influence the heart rate and baroreflex activity in a strain of rat already showing evidence of an impaired ability to modulate the heart rate and blood pressure in response to stress. The small reduction in resting blood pressure may be a consequence of the lower weight in the ethanol-treated rats, and/or may reflect a direct depressing action by the alcohol on vascular and cardiac muscle. These findings are discussed in the context of ethanol-induced hypertension in humans and possible genetic variations in

  20. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals. PMID:28049996

  1. High blood pressure in women.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  2. Relationship of blood pressure, heart rate and behavioral mood state to norepinephrine kinetics in younger and older men following caffeine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Arciero, P J; Gardner, A W; Benowitz, N L; Poehlman, E T

    1998-11-01

    To examine age-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, behavioral mood state and norepinephrine kinetics after caffeine ingestion in younger and older men. Placebo-controlled, double-blind study. General Clinical Research Center, University of Vermont. 10 older (O) (65-80 y) and 10 younger (Y) (19-26 y) healthy men who were moderate consumers of caffeine (Y= 126+/-30 mg/d; O = 160 44 mg/d:NS; mean +/- s.e.m.). All volunteers were characterized for fasting plasma glucose, insulin and caffeine levels, body composition, anthropometry, physical activity, and energy intake. Before and after placebo and caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg fat-free mass) test days, the following variables were measured in all subjects: heart rate, blood pressure, mood state, and norepinephrine concentrations (NEconc), appearance (NEapp) and clearance (NEcl). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, mood state, and norepinephrine kinetic responses to placebo and caffeine ingestion. Following caffeine ingestion, plasma caffeine levels were similar in Y and O men. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure increased significantly (P < 0.01) from baseline by 9% (130+/-6 vs 142+/-6 mmHg) and 3% (75+/-3 vs 77+/-3 mmHg), respectively, in O men following caffeine ingestion, but remained unchanged in Y men. Self-reported feelings of tension (P < 0.05) and anger (P = 0.06) decreased in O men, while anger tended to increase in Y men (P < 0.06) following caffeine ingestion. Heart rates in both groups were unaltered following caffeine ingestion. No differences were noted at baseline between O and Y men for NEconc, NEapp and NEcl. After caffeine ingestion, NEconc were significantly greater in O than Y men, whereas NEapp and NEcl rates did not differ from baseline in either group. Blood pressure and subjective mood state effects of caffeine were not related to changes in norepinephrine kinetics. Age may play a role in augmenting blood pressure response and reducing subjective

  3. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  4. The Birmingham blood pressure school study.

    PubMed Central

    De Giovanni, J. V.; Pentecost, B. L.; Beevers, D. G.; Beevers, M.; Jackson, S. H.; Bannan, L. T.; Osbourne, V. L.; Mathews, K.

    1983-01-01

    Four-hundred and twenty-eight school leavers of 3 ethnic groups (white, black and Asian) were screened for blood pressure, resting pulse rate and general anthropometric characteristics. Asian pupils were both shorter and lighter than the other two groups whilst black males were heavier and taller. There was no significant difference in the mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the 3 groups, although the black pupils had a stronger family history of hypertension, particularly on the mother's side. These observations differ in some respects from other ethnic blood pressure studies and establish values for the local population. PMID:6647172

  5. A wireless blood pressure monitoring system for personal health management.

    PubMed

    Li, Wun-Jin; Luo, Yuan-Long; Chang, Yao-Shun; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a wireless blood pressure monitoring system which provides a useful tool for users to measure and manage their daily blood pressure values. This system includes an ARM-based blood pressure monitor with a ZigBee wireless transmission module and a PC-based management unit with graphic user interface and database. The wireless blood pressure monitor can measure the blood pressure and heart rate and then store and forward the measuring information to the management unit through the ZigBee wireless transmission. On the management unit, user can easy to see their blood pressure variation in the past using a line chart. Accuracy of blood pressure measurement has been verified by a commercial blood pressure simulator and shown the bias of systolic blood pressure is ≤ 1 mmHg and the bias of diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 1.4 mmHg.

  6. Intraoperative changes in blood pressure, heart rate, plasma vasopressin, and urinary noradrenalin during elective ovariohysterectomy in dogs: repeatability at removal of the 1st and 2nd ovary.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Odd V; Hagman, Ragnvi; Olsson, Kerstin; Olsson, Ulf; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the physiologic reactions after removal of 1st ovary and whether this is repeated during removal of the 2nd ovary in elective ovariohysterectomy. Prospective study. Dogs (n = 10). Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine, carprofen, and methadone and anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane. Blood pressure, heart rate, and end-tidal isoflurane concentration were measured every minute. The effects of various events during surgery on physiologic variables were analyzed using mixed linear models. Blood and urine samples were collected before anesthesia, before incision, before and after removal of ovaries with a 15 minute pause between ovary removal, and after abdominal closure. Plasma vasopressin and urinary noradrenalin and creatinine concentrations were analyzed. The magnitude of blood pressure increase at removal of the 1st ovary was greater than for the 2nd ovary because of an elevation in baseline. Similarly, the heart rate increased at the removal of the 1st ovary but not at removal of the 2nd ovary. Plasma vasopressin concentration increased at removal of both ovaries. Urinary noradrenalin/creatinine ratio increased at anesthesia, removal of both ovaries, and was elevated at closure of the abdomen. End-tidal isoflurane concentration did not change. Blood pressure and vasopressin concentrations changed in parallel using z-scores for comparison. Peak values for blood pressure, heart rate, plasma vasopressin concentration, and urinary noradrenalin/creatinine ratio did not differ between removals of the ovaries. Relative changes differed between repeated noxious stimuli, which should be considered in evaluation of methods at ovary removal. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Blood pressure and migration in children.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, R; Eyles, E; Prior, I

    1979-03-01

    The effect of migration on childhood blood pressure levels has been studied by comparing children before and after migration to New Zealand with children who stayed at home on the Pacific atolls of Tokelau. Data were collected in 1971 on 502 children (97% response rate) aged 5--14 years resident in Tokelau and follow-up data were collected in New Zealand and in Tokelau in 1975--1977 (respknse rate 91%). No selection factors were detected before migration. After migration, the younger migrants had significantly higher blood pressures and were heavier, but not taller, than the non-migrants. Weight differences explained some but not all of the blood pressure differences. There were no differences in body size between the 2 groups of older children although the older non migrant girls had higher blood pressure than the migrant girls.

  8. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage. Some women with gestational hypertension eventually develop preeclampsia. Chronic hypertension. Chronic hypertension is high blood pressure ... determine when it began. Chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. This condition occurs in women with chronic hypertension ...

  9. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... all their lives. back to top Types of Medications FDA has approved many medications to treat high ...

  10. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (P<0.05) and to a similar extent. Further, SBP during recovery was, on average, not lower than at rest before exercise, and chronic endurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (P<0.05) with higher intensity. Finally, endurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  11. High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men.

    PubMed

    Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliott, Adrian D; Richards, Jo; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2017-05-13

    This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each P<0.05) in SED and increased MET capacity in both SED and LEX (P<0.01) which was amplified by HIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (P<0.05) and decrease to left ventricular internal dimension diastole (LVId) (P<0.05) in LEX following HIIT. A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  13. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  14. Dissociation between blood pressure and heart rate response to hypoxia after bilateral carotid body removal in men with systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Niewinski, Piotr; Janczak, Dariusz; Rucinski, Artur; Tubek, Stanislaw; Engelman, Zoar J; Jazwiec, Przemyslaw; Banasiak, Waldemar; Sobotka, Paul A; Hart, Emma C J; Paton, Julian F R; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    While the ventilatory response to hypoxia is known to be mediated by the carotid bodies, the origin of the haemodynamic alterations evoked by hypoxia is less certain. Bilateral carotid body removal (CBR) performed to treat congestive heart failure may serve as a model to improve our understanding of haemodynamic responses to hypoxia in humans. We studied six congestive heart failure patients before and 1 month after CBR [median (interquartile range): age, 58.5 (56-61) years old; and ejection fraction, 32 (25-34)%]. Peripheral chemosensitivity (hypoxic ventilatory response) was equated to the slope relating lowest oxygen saturation to highest minute ventilation following exposures to hypoxia. Likewise, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) slopes were calculated as slopes relating the lowest oxygen saturations to the highest SBP, DBP and HR responses. We found that CBR reduces the hypoxic ventilatory response (91%, P < 0.05), SBP (71%, P < 0.05) and DBP slopes (59%, P = 0.07). In contrast, the HR slope remained unchanged. The dissociation between the blood pressure and HR responses after CBR shows involvement of a different chemoreceptive site(s) maintaining the response to acute hypoxia. We conclude that carotid bodies are responsible for ventilatory and blood pressure responses, while the HR response might be mediated by the aortic bodies. The significant reduction of the blood pressure response to hypoxia after CBR suggests a decrease in sympathetic tone, which is of particular clinical relevance in congestive heart failure.

  15. Blood Pressure and Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Forbang, Nketi; Ix, Joachim; Criqui, Michael; Rifkin, Dena

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension in older adults is a dynamic process, with significant diurnal fluctuation. Little research has been done on the associations between increased short-term blood pressure variability and blunted night-time dipping in respect to decreased physical function in the elderly. Our aim is to use a cross-sectional analysis to illuminate any associations. Methods: A cross-sectional sub-study (mean age: 72, 67.5% female) was performed on selected participants from the San Diego Population Study (Criqui, et al, 2003). Blood pressure was measured both in the office (3 independent blood pressure readings) and using a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring cuff. Blood pressure variability was measured using average real variability (ARV). Physical function was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test. Statistical analysis was performed on IBM SPSS Statistics (1911) software. Results: An unadjusted univariate analysis adjusted for age and gender showed associations between 24-hr ARV of SBP (P = .001), 24-hr ARV pulse pressure (P < .001), and percent systolic dipping (P = .011) and SPPB score. After multivariate analysis adjusted for age and gender was performed, the results were substantially attenuated. However, the association of ARV of SBP was not significant with a P-value of .052 and the ARV of pulse pressure remained significant with a P-value of .022. Multivariate hierarchical linear regression models revealed insignificant trends. Conclusions: Increased short-term variability and blunted night-time dipping were associated physical function but were not independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Further research can be done as to the biology of how both age and BMI influence blood pressure patterns. The trends observed in this study may warrant the investigation of abnormal blood pressure patterns in those who are either elderly or have increased BMI.

  16. Association of Resting Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Late Adolescence With Subsequent Mental Disorders: A Longitudinal Population Study of More Than 1 Million Men in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Antti; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Rück, Christian; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Jernberg, Tomas; Almqvist, Catarina; Mataix-Cols, David; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Differences in cardiovascular autonomic activity between individuals with psychiatric disorders and healthy controls have been observed, but whether cardiovascular autonomic abnormalities are associated with subsequent psychiatric disorders is unknown. To investigate whether differences in cardiac autonomic function as indexed by resting heart rate and blood pressure are associated with psychiatric disorders during the lifetime of men in Sweden. We conducted a longitudinal register-based study of Swedish men whose resting heart rate (n = 1 039 443) and blood pressure (n = 1 555 979) were measured at military conscription at a mean (SD) age of 18.3 (0.6) years during the period from 1969 to 2010, with register-based follow-up data available until the end of 2013. Analyses were performed from November 18, 2015, to June 9, 2016. Dates of inpatient/outpatient diagnoses of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders and convictions for violent crimes, between 1973 and 2013, were obtained from nationwide registers. Adjustments were made for height, weight, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive ability, and socioeconomic covariates. After adjustment for covariates, Cox regression models with up to 45 years of follow-up data showed that men (mean [SD] age of 18.3 [0.6] years at conscription) with resting heart rates above 82 beats per minute had a 69% (95% CI, 46%-94%) increased risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder, a 21% (95% CI, 11%-33%) increased risk for schizophrenia, and an 18% (95% CI, 13%-22%) increased risk for anxiety disorders compared with men with resting heart rates below 62 beats per minute. Similar associations were observed with systolic/diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, lower resting heart rate and lower systolic blood pressure were associated with substance use disorders and violent criminality

  17. Evaluation of blood pressure and heart rate in patients with hypertension who received tapentadol extended release for chronic pain: a post hoc, pooled data analysis.

    PubMed

    Biondi, David M; Xiang, Jim; Etropolski, Mila; Moskovitz, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common co-existing conditions in patients with chronic pain, and the potential effects of an analgesic on heart rate and blood pressure are of particular concern for patients with hypertension. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate changes in blood pressure and heart rate with tapentadol extended release (ER) treatment in patients with hypertension. We performed a post hoc analysis of data pooled from three randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, phase III studies of tapentadol ER for managing chronic osteoarthritis knee (NCT00421928, NCT00486811) or low back (NCT00449176) pain (15-week, double-blind treatment period). Data were independently analyzed for patients with a listed medical history of hypertension at baseline and patients with at least one listed concomitant antihypertensive medication at baseline. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at each visit. In patients with a listed medical history of hypertension (n = 1,464), least-squares mean (LSM [standard error (SE)]) changes from baseline to endpoint with placebo, tapentadol ER, and oxycodone HCl controlled release (CR), respectively, were -0.7 (0.44), 0.2 (0.43), and -0.9 (0.45) beats per minute (bpm) for heart rate; -2.4 (0.64), -2.7 (0.64), and -3.7 (0.67) mmHg for SBP; and -1.0 (0.39), -1.3 (0.39), and -2.3 (0.41) mmHg for DBP; in patients with at least one listed concomitant antihypertensive medication (n = 1,376), the LSM (SE) changes from baseline to endpoint were -0.6 (0.45), 0.1 (0.44), and -0.7 (0.47) bpm for heart rate; -1.8 (0.66), -3.3 (0.65), and -3.7 (0.69) mmHg for SBP; and -0.7 (0.40), -1.4 (0.40), and -2.3 (0.42) mmHg for DBP. No clinically meaningful mean changes in heart rate or blood pressure were observed for the evaluated cohorts of patients with hypertension who were treated with tapentadol ER (100-250 mg twice daily).

  18. Acute and chronic effects of a hypocaloric diet on 24-hour blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability in mildly-to-moderately obese patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Minami, J; Kawano, Y; Ishimitsu, T; Matsuoka, H; Takishita, S

    1999-11-01

    We examined the acute and chronic effects of a nutritionally balanced, moderately hypocaloric diet on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability in mildly-to-moderately obese patients with essential hypertension. We enrolled 16 obese patients with essential hypertension [age: 51-76 years, body mass index (BMI): 26-32 kg/m2]. For the initial week, a standard diet of 2,000 kcal/day was given, followed by a 3-week of a hypocaloric diet of 850 kcal/day. In the last period of the standard diet and in the first and the last periods of the hypocaloric diet, each subject's 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate and R-R intervals of the electrocardiogram were recorded, and electrolytes and catecholamines in 24-hour urine samples were also measured. A power spectral analysis of the heart-rate variability was performed over a 24-hour period based on the autoregressive method. The subjects lost 3.7+/-0.3 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.) of body weight during the 3-week hypocaloric diet period. The 24-hour blood pressure did not differ between the last period of the standard diet and the first period of the hypocaloric diet; however, it showed a significant reduction after 3 weeks of the hypocaloric diet. The decrease in the 24-hour blood pressure during the study period was 10.5+/-1.5 mm Hg systole and 4.3+/-1.8 mm Hg diastole. In contrast, the 24-hour heart rate was significantly reduced in the first period of the hypocaloric diet, although the body weight and blood pressure did not change, and the rate was maintained even in the last period of the hypocaloric diet. The decrease in the 24-hour heart rate during the study period was 2.8+/-0.9 beats per minute. The hypocaloric diet did not change any autonomic indices obtained from a power spectral analysis of the heart-rate variability. In conclusion, different responses to a hypocaloric diet were observed between the blood pressure and the heart rate in obese hypertensive patients. The changes in

  19. Nutritional effects on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Valerie H; Champagne, Catherine M

    2007-02-01

    There has not been a thorough recent evaluation of the nutritional effects on blood pressure. Apart from outstanding clinical trials like Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, there have been controversial papers on a number of factors influencing blood pressure. This paper is a systematic review of the current literature as it relates to hypertension. Results from many meta-analyses and well controlled clinical trials on the effects of a variety of nutritional factors are presented in this review. Evidence suggests that dietary sodium intake needs reduction. There is a seemingly inverse relationship between protein intake and blood pressure, but data are inconclusive. High monounsaturated fat and fish oil appear to be beneficial. Several studies on dietary fiber indicate that the strongest evidence for blood pressure lowering effects is in hypertensive as opposed to normotensive participants. Vegetarians seem to have lower levels of hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk. Low carbohydrate diets show short-term beneficial effects but are not sustained. High levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium and soy seem to have some benefit, but results remain inconclusive. Weight reduction positively impacts blood pressure. More compelling research defining specific factors is needed to inform the public as to steps needed to reduce blood pressure and improve cardiovascular risk.

  20. Effects of p-Synephrine alone and in Combination with Selected Bioflavonoids on Resting Metabolism, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Self-Reported Mood Changes

    PubMed Central

    Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G; Keith, Samuel C.; Keith, Patti L.; Miller, Howard; Kaats, Gilbert R.

    2011-01-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract is widely used in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. Its primary protoalkaloid is p-synephrine. Most studies involving bitter orange extract and p-synephrine have used products with multiple ingredients. The current study assessed the thermogenic effects of p-synephrine alone and in conjunction with the flavonoids naringin and hesperidin in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled protocol with 10 subjects per treatment group. Resting metabolic rates (RMR), blood pressure, heart rates and a self-reported rating scale were determined at baseline and 75 min after oral ingestion of the test products in V-8 juice. A decrease of 30 kcal occurred in the placebo control relative to baseline. The group receiving p-synephrine (50 mg) alone exhibited a 65 kcal increase in RMR as compared to the placebo group. The consumption of 600 mg naringin with 50 mg p-synephrine resulted in a 129 kcal increase in RMR relative to the placebo group. In the group receiving 100 mg hesperidin in addition to the 50 mg p-synephrine plus 600 mg naringin, the RMR increased by 183 kcal, an increase that was statistically significant with respect to the placebo control (p<0.02). However, consuming 1000 mg hesperidin with 50 mg p-synephrine plus 600 mg naringin resulted in a RMR that was only 79 kcal greater than the placebo group. None of the treatment groups exhibited changes in heart rate or blood pressure relative to the control group, nor there were no differences in self-reported ratings of 10 symptoms between the treatment groups and the control group. This unusual finding of a thermogenic combination of ingredients that elevated metabolic rates without corresponding elevations in blood pressure and heart-rates warrants longer term studies to assess its value as a weight control agent. PMID:21537493

  1. Peak Expiratory Flow, Breath Rate and Blood Pressure in Adults with Changes in Particulate Matter Air Pollution during the Beijing Olympics: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lina; Deng, Furong; Tian, Lili; Li, Yanli; Swanson, Mya; Ying, Jingjing; Browne, Richard W; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Bonner, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine whether changes in short-term exposures to particulate matter are associated with changes in lung function, breath rate, and blood pressure among healthy adults and whether smoking status modifies the association. Methods We took advantage of the artificially controlled changes in air pollution levels that occurred during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China and conducted a panel study of 201 Beijing residents. Data were collected before, during, and after the Olympics, respectively. Linear mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equation models were used to compare measurements of peak expiratory flow, breath rate, blood pressure across the three time points. Results The mean values of peak expiratory flow were 346.0 L/min, 399.3 L/min, and 364.1 L/min over the three study periods. Peak expiratory flow levels increased in 78% of the participants when comparing the during- and pre- Olympics time points, while peak expiratory flow levels decreased in 80% of participants for the post- and during-Olympic periods comparison. In subgroup analyses comparing the during -Olympic to pre-Olympic time points, we found a larger percentage change in peak expiratory flow (+17%) among female, younger and non-smoking participants than among male, elderly and smoking participants (+12%). The percentage of participants with a fast breath rate (>20/min) changed from 9.7%, to 4.9%, to 30.1% among females, and from 7.9%, to 2.6%, to 27.3% among males over the three time points respectively. The changes on blood pressure over the three study periods were not very clear, although there is an increase in diastolic pressure and a decrease in pulse pressure among males during the games. Conclusions The results suggest that exposure to different air pollution levels has significant effects on respiratory function. Smoking, age and gender appear to modify participants’ biological response to changes in air quality. PMID:24906062

  2. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  3. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  4. Wrist Blood Pressure Monitors: Are They Accurate?

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at heart level. Even then, blood pressure measurements taken at the wrist are usually higher and ... a very large arm or find blood pressure measurements painful. In these cases, measuring blood pressure at ...

  5. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  6. Abrupt Quitting of Long-term Heavy Recreational Cannabis Use is Not Followed by Significant Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, U

    2016-01-01

    To shed more light on the role of heart rate and blood pressure during cannabis withdrawal. Post-hoc analysis of data collected during a prospective inpatient monitoring of withdrawal symptoms of 39 (8 female) adult (median 27 year old) treatment-seeking, predominantly white cannabis-dependents (Bonnet et al., Drug Alcohol Depend 2014; 143: 189-97). Beyond tobacco smoking, the body mass index, electrocardiogram and routine laboratory results were considered to estimate the cohort's risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abrupt cessation of recreational long-term daily cannabis use was not followed by significant changes in heart rate, blood and pulse pressure. Also, these measures were not significantly correlated with the severity of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. The cohort's risk for CVD was moderate (all tobacco using, overweight in 9 of 35 patients and elevation of serum C-reactive protein in many patients). Its metabolic risk for CVD was minor considering the mostly normal blood pressure, normal serum lipids and glucose. This merely minor metabolic risk might have contributed to the missing effects of cannabis cessation on the basic cardiovascular functions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Night time blood pressure dip

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Dennis; Park, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure, called the “dip”, is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%, referred to as blunted or absent, have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load, whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon, whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors. PMID:26225196

  8. Night time blood pressure dip.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Dennis; Park, Alex

    2015-07-26

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure, called the "dip", is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%, referred to as blunted or absent, have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load, whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon, whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  9. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  10. Impact of GLP-1 receptor agonists on blood pressure, heart rate and hypertension among patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Wu, Shanshan; Guo, Shuxia; Yu, Kai; Yang, Zhirong; Li, Lishi; Zhang, Yuan; Quan, Xiaochi; Ji, Linong; Zhan, Siyan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate current evidence of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) on blood pressure, heart rate, and hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library, and the website www.clinicaltrials.gov were searched on April 5th, 2014. Randomized-controlled trials with available data were included if they compared GLP-1RAs with placebo and traditional antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes with duration ≥ 12 weeks. Weighted mean difference for blood pressure and heart rate, odds ratio (OR) for hypertension were calculated by random-effect model. Network meta-analysis was performed to supplement direct comparisons. Sixty trials with 14 treatments were included. Compared with placebo, insulin, and sulfonylureas, GLP-1RAs decreased systolic blood pressure with range from -1.84 mmHg (95% CI: -3.48 to -0.20) to -4.60 mmHg (95% CI: -7.18 to -2.03). Compared with placebo, a reduction in diastolic blood pressure was detected significantly only for exenatide-10 μg-twice-daily (-1.08 mmHg, 95% CI: -1.78 to -0.33). Exenatide (2 mg once weekly), liraglutide 1.2 mg once daily), and liraglutide (1.8 mg once daily) increased heart rate by 3.35 (95% CI: 1.23-5.50), 2.06 (95% CI: 0.43, 3.74), and 2.35 (95% CI: 0.94-3.76) beats/min versus placebo. This effect was evident compared with active control (range: 2.22-3.62). No significant association between incident hypertension and GLP-1RAs was detected, except for the association between exenatide-10 μg-twice-daily and sulfonylureas (OR, 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.82). GLP-1RAs were associated with modest reduction on blood pressure, a slight increase in heart rate, yet no significant association with hypertension. Further investigation to explore mechanisms is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of the RESPeRATE device to lower blood pressure in inner city obese adolescents and children: a pilot feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Geissler, Jillian D; Stokes, Christina W; Heyman, Melvin B; Tran, C T

    2013-06-01

    The RESPeRATE device was tested for feasibility of use in a population of overweight and obese children and adolescents (n = 10) in San Francisco, CA. After a 2-week and then a 2-month period, participants were interviewed on their frequency of use and attitudes towards the device. A high percentage stated that they enjoyed using the device at 2 months (90%) and 80% stated that they would recommend use to a friend or relative. Future studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the RESPeRATE device in lowering blood pressure and helping with weight loss/weight management in obese and overweight children.

  12. Effects of magnesium sulfate on heart rate, blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity in preeclamptic rats treated with L-NAME.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Shen, Jie; Zhou, Guangxing; Shen, Linlin; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used for the treatment of preeclampsia. This study aimed to evaluate effects of magnesium sulfate on heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in pregnant rats treated with N(G)-nitro-.-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: non-pregnancy and three pregnant groups. From gestational day 2-12, normal pregnancy group (NOR) received sterile water through intravenous injection, LN was injected with L-NAME [25 mg/day] to induce preeclampsia, while LNM group was also treated with magnesium sulfate at 0.3 g/kg at gestational day 13. HRV, BPV and BRS were monitored, and endothelial functions were detected at gestational day 14. Rats with treatment of L-NAME showed significantly increased blood pressure and endothelin-1 concentration and decreased plasma NO concentration; concomitant treatment with magnesium sulfate suppressed blood pressure. Also, rats treated with L-NAME and magnesium sulfate underwent lower heart rate variability (lower absolute and normalized LF) and higher blood pressure variability (lower normalized HF and LF, higher normalized VLF) compared with non-pregnant or normal pregnant rats, whereas normalized LF of HRV in rats co-administered magnesium sulfate returned to normal level. Additionally, rats treated with L-NAME underwent decreased BRS-SP, BRS-NE, BRS LF and HF, and rats with concomitant magnesium sulfate partially reversed the decline (p>0.05) and had significantly lower BRS-SP, BRS-NE. Sympathetic and parasympathetic impairment exist in preeclamptic rats treated with L-NAME. Magnesium sulfate may ameliorate alterations in the autonomic nervous system noted in preeclampsia.

  13. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... and heart rate. This content was last reviewed October 2016. Our Sponsor Bayer Consumer Health, maker of ... stroke. Start exploring today ! Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly e-newsletter Our digital magazine delivers ...

  14. Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Arterial pressure compared with ambient bodily-fluid pressure. Implanted apparatus, capable of measuring blood pressure of patient, includes differential-pressure transducer connected to pressure sensor positioned in major artery. Electrical signal is function of differential pressure between blood-pressure sensor and reference-pressure sensor transmitted through skin of patient to recorder or indicator.

  15. Acute Effects of Caffeine on Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Tidal Volume in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared to Able-Bodied Individuals: A Randomized, Blinded Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Lienert, Martina; Schäfer Olstad, Daniela; Wilhelm, Matthias; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine increases sympathetic nerve activity in healthy individuals. Such modulation of nervous system activity can be tracked by assessing the heart rate variability. This study aimed to investigate the influence of caffeine on time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability parameters, blood pressure and tidal volume in paraplegic and tetraplegic compared to able-bodied participants. Heart rate variability was measured in supine and sitting position pre and post ingestion of either placebo or 6 mg caffeine in 12 able-bodied, 9 paraplegic and 7 tetraplegic participants in a placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blind study design. Metronomic breathing was applied (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume was recorded during heart rate variability assessment. Blood pressure, plasma caffeine and epinephrine concentrations were analyzed pre and post ingestion. Most parameters of heart rate variability did not significantly change post caffeine ingestion compared to placebo. Tidal volume significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in able-bodied (p = 0.021) and paraplegic (p = 0.036) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.34). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly post caffeine in able-bodied (systolic: p = 0.003; diastolic: p = 0.021) and tetraplegic (systolic: p = 0.043; diastolic: p = 0.042) but not in paraplegic participants (systolic: p = 0.09; diastolic: p = 0.33). Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in all three groups of participants (p<0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased significantly in able-bodied (p = 0.002) and paraplegic (p = 0.032) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.63). The influence of caffeine on the autonomic nervous system seems to depend on the level of lesion and the extent of the impairment. Therefore, tetraplegic participants may be less influenced by caffeine ingestion. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02083328 PMID:27776149

  16. Non-invasive evaluation of sympathovagal balance in athletes by time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate and blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Tahvanainen, K U; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1996-11-01

    We examined how the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate and blood pressure variability at supine rest reflect the sympathovagal balance of 23 female and male endurance athletes. Pharmacological blocking by atropine and propranolol was used as a standard for defining autonomic control of the heart. The Rosenblueth and Simeone model for neural control of heart rate was used to calculate the sympathovagal balance index (Abal). Atropinization significantly decreased all time and frequency domain measures of heart rate and blood pressure variability. beta-Blockade significantly decreased further the low- (< 0.07 Hz) and medium-frequency power (0.07-0.15 Hz) variability of R-R intervals (RRI) and SD of RRI. Abal was 0.629 +/- 0.019, indicating that parasympathetic activity predominated in the athletes. Basal heart rate (r = 0.519, P < 0.01), SD of RRI (r = -0.533, P < 0.01), root-mean-square of successive RRIs (RRI RMSSD) (r = -0.579, P < 0.05), RRI total (r = -0.557, P < 0.01) and RRI high-frequency (HF) power (r = -0.582, P < 0.01) correlated significantly with Abal and parasympathetic activity index. We concluded that the best non-invasive method of evaluating the sympathovagal balance of athletes at supine rest is to measure SD of RRI, RRI RMSSD, HF and total power of RRI variability. All heart rate variability measures were mainly parasympathetically modulated. The nature of blood pressure variability measures remained unclear and they could not be used to evaluate the sympathovagal balance among athletes.

  17. Blood pressure regulation: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Guyton, A C; Hall, J E; Lohmeier, T E; Jackson, T E; Kastner, P R

    1981-06-01

    In this paper we have attempted to explain the difference between proportional pressure control systems and the renal-blood volume-pressure control mechanism, which is an infinite gain pressure control system. Because of this infinite gain of the kidney mechanism, this mechanism has the capability of returning arterial pressure all the way back to the control leve. Furthermore, this mechanism can override the other pressure control mechanisms because of its extreme control capability. On the other hand, the renal-blood volume mechanism for pressure control itself be controlled by many other factors. These other factors are said to change the pressure "set-point" level of the renal system, and then the renal system automatically brings the pressure to the set-point level. It is especially noteworthy, however, that some of the factors that play extreme roles in short-term pressure control-such as heart strength, vascular capacity, and total peripheral resistance-will not alter the long-term arterial pressure level (unless they in some way concurrently alter the set-point of the kidney mechanism).

  18. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability in the Time Domain in Patients with Recent and Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C; Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Morales, Irving O; Landa, Emmanuel; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Moreno, Rene; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects the cardiovascular response of patients. To study this effect, interbeat intervals (IBI) and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability of patients during supine, standing and controlled breathing tests were analyzed in the time domain. Simultaneous noninvasive measurements of IBI and SBP for 30 recently diagnosed and 15 long-standing DM patients were compared with the results for 30 rigorously screened healthy subjects (control). A statistically significant distinction between control and diabetic subjects was provided by the standard deviation and the higher moments of the distributions (skewness, and kurtosis) with respect to the median. To compare IBI and SBP for different populations, we define a parameter, α, that combines the variability of the heart rate and the blood pressure, as the ratio of the radius of the moments for IBI and the same radius for SBP. As diabetes evolves, α decreases, standard deviation of the IBI detrended signal diminishes (heart rate signal becomes more "rigid"), skewness with respect to the median approaches zero (signal fluctuations gain symmetry), and kurtosis increases (fluctuations concentrate around the median). Diabetes produces not only a rigid heart rate, but also increases symmetry and has leptokurtic distributions. SBP time series exhibit the most variable behavior for recently diagnosed DM with platykurtic distributions. Under controlled breathing, SBP has symmetric distributions for DM patients, while control subjects have non-zero skewness. This may be due to a progressive decrease of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity to the heart and blood vessels as diabetes evolves.

  19. The Acute Effects of a Single Session of Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Oxygen Saturation in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Laciuga, Helena; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) is a rehabilitative program that has been tested for outcomes related to respiratory muscle strength, cough, swallow, and voice function in healthy young adult, elderly individuals, and in patients with progressive neurodegenerative disease. Because EMST has been used in patient care, the associated cardiovascular responses during EMST are of importance. This study investigated the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) during one session of EMST in healthy, young adults as a preliminary study of device safety. Thirty-one participants completed a single session of 25 trials with the EMST device. Valsalva maneuvers were performed at the beginning and at the end of the EMST trials for task comparison. The SBP, DBP, HR, and SpO2 were recorded at the baseline and after completing the following tasks: a Valsalva maneuver, 12 trials using the EMST device, 13 trials using the EMST device, and 5 min of rest following the EMST session. A mixed linear model tested for changes across the six time points. The results indicated no significant change of SBP, DBP, HR, or SpO2 during or following the EMST trials or after performing the Valsalva maneuver. The results suggest that EMST does not elicit significant fluctuations of blood pressure, HR, and SpO2 in healthy young adults even when considering the effects of covariates on the outcomes measures. PMID:22419910

  20. Changes in the arterial blood pressure, heart rate and normal ECG parameters of rat after envenomation with Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) venom.

    PubMed

    Omran, M A; Abdel-Nabi, I M

    1997-06-01

    1. The effect of Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) venom on the normal electrical activity of the cardiac muscles (ECG) and arterial blood pressure of envenomated rats were investigated in this study. 2. Rats were divided into three groups. The first group was injected im with saline and considered as control group. Rats of the second and third groups were injected IM with 0.02 micrograms and 0.04 micrograms cobra venom/gim b.wt, respectively. 3. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR) and four different ECG parameters (PR and QT intervals, R and T wave amplitudes) were measured over 1 h following envenomation. 4. The low dose (0.02 micrograms/g) of N. haje venom caused hypotension accompanied by an increase in the HR, whereas hypertension and bradycardia developed after injection of the high dose (0.04 micrograms/g) of venom. 5. There was a decrease in the P-R interval after administration of the low dose and prolongation of it after the high dose. The Q-T interval and R-wave amplitude were significantly increased after injection of both doses. T-wave amplitude was significantly elevated only after injection of the high dose. 6. The present results indicate that the Egyptian cobra (N. haje) venom significantly alters the arterial blood pressure and ECG parameters of envenomated rats. The suggests that impairment of the electrical activity of cardiac muscle may be one of the reasons why victims of cobra bite die.

  1. Blood Pressure Self-Measurement.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure self-measurement has been used extensively as part of several clinical processes including in the home monitoring setting for mitigating white coat effect and gaining more detailed insights into the blood pressure variability of patients over time. Self-measurement of BP is also being used as part of telemonitoring and telemedicine processes, as well as in the waiting rooms and self-measurement rooms of general practice clinics, specialized hospital department's outpatient clinics, and in other types of care facilitates and institutions.The aim of this review is to provide an overview of where, when, and how blood pressure self-measurement is being used, which official clinical guidelines and procedures are available for its implementation, as well as the opportunities and challenges that are related to its use.

  2. Caffeine raises blood pressure at work.

    PubMed

    Lane, J D; Phillips-Bute, B G; Pieper, C F

    1998-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of moderate doses of caffeine on ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during workday activities. Healthy, nonsmoking, habitual coffee drinkers (N = 21) received daily doses of 100 mg and 500 mg of caffeine on 2 days in a crossover design. Treatment order was random and counterbalanced, and administration was double-blind. Ambulatory monitoring was conducted for 6 to 9 hours during normal workday activities and diary entries were completed at each measurement. Ambulatory data were analyzed for the effects of caffeine dose, controlling for variations in posture, physical activity, and perceived stress. The average workday blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher when the higher dose of caffeine was consumed. Controlling for other factors, dose-related differences were 4 mm Hg for systolic and 3 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure, and were 3 bpm for heart rate. Results support earlier evidence that caffeine raises blood pressure at work, and demonstrate that these pressor effects are independent of changes in posture, physical activity, or stress. Daily blood pressure increases associated with caffeine consumption could increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In addition, caffeine consumption effects might confound ambulatory investigations of the cardiovascular effects of other psychosocial, personality, or health-behavior factors.

  3. Multiscale Joint Symbolic Transfer Entropy for Quantification of Causal Interactions Between Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability Under Postural Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Saini, B. S.; Singh, D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, joint symbolic transfer entropy (JSTE) is explored to quantify causal interactions between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and RR intervals (peak-to-peak distance between consecutive R-peaks) at multiple time scales. SBP→RR coupling (Cs-r) and RR→SBP coupling (Cr-s) coupling is analyzed at multiple time scales and delays. The ability of the approach based on JSTE to detect SBP-RR causal coupling is tested on 42 healthy subjects in supine and upright position along with 21 subjects of EUROBAVAR dataset. In addition, lack of causal coupling from SBP to RR was assessed on 20 post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Results demonstrate that (i) standard deviation (SD) of RR interval series and SBP series decreases with time scale τ = 1 to 10 for all types of subjects. (ii) SD in supine is more than that of upright position at each time scale irrespective of types of subjects. (iii) JSTE decreases with time delay for healthy and AMI patients but does not follow decreasing trend for baroflex sensitivity BRS failure patients. (iv) JSTE in supine position is more than that of upright position irrespective of time delay. (v) JSTE decreases with time scale for healthy and AMI patients but does not follow decreasing trend for BRS failure patients. (vi) JSTE in supine position is more than that of upright position only at finer scales. (vii) Enhanced feed-forward (FF) coupling and suppressed feedback (FB) coupling found at supine position within low frequency band (0.04-0.15 Hz) as well as high frequency band (0.151-0.4 Hz) indicated prevalence on non-baroreflex mechanisms. (viii) FB coupling recovered in the upright position which was stronger than FF coupling. Upon comparison with cross conditional entropy (CCE), it is found that JSTE provides more significant differences between supine and upright position.

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  5. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  6. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having more than three drinks ...

  7. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  8. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  9. Peak expiratory flow, breath rate and blood pressure in adults with changes in particulate matter air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lina; Deng, Furong; Tian, Lili; Li, Yanli; Swanson, Mya; Ying, Jingjing; Browne, Richard W; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Bonner, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to examine whether changes in short-term exposures to particulate matter are associated with changes in lung function, breath rate, and blood pressure among healthy adults and whether smoking status modifies the association. We took advantage of the artificially controlled changes in air pollution levels that occurred during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China and conducted a panel study of 201 Beijing residents. Data were collected before, during, and after the Olympics, respectively. Linear mixed-effect models and generalized estimating equation models were used to compare measurements of peak expiratory flow, breath rate and blood pressure across three time points. The mean values of peak expiratory flow were 346.0 L/min, 399.3 L/min, and 364.1L/min over the three study periods. Peak expiratory flow levels increased in 78% of the participants when comparing the during- with pre- Olympics time points, while peak expiratory flow levels decreased in 80% of participants for the post- and during-Olympic periods comparison. In subgroup analyses comparing the during-Olympic to pre-Olympic time points, we found a larger percentage change in peak expiratory flow (+17%) among female, younger and non-smoking participants than among male, elderly and smoking participants (+12%). The percentage of participants with a fast breath rate (>20/min) changed from 9.7% to 4.9% to 30.1% among females, and from 7.9% to 2.6% to 27.3% among males over the three time points. The changes in blood pressure over the three study periods were not very clear, although there is an increase in diastolic pressure and a decrease in pulse pressure among males during the games. The results suggest that exposure to different air pollution levels has significant effects on respiratory function. Smoking, age and gender appear to modify participants' biological response to changes in air quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heart rate and blood pressure response to ramp exercise and exercise capacity in relation to age, gender, and mode of exercise in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Haruki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Koike, Akira; Makita, Shigeru; Omiya, Kazuto; Kato, Yuko; Adachi, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tomoko; Tajima, Akihiko; Harada, Naomi; Taniguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure to the ramp exercise test are not known and the current understanding of peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold (AT) values in the normal Japanese population is insufficient. A total of 749 healthy Japanese subjects aged 20-78 years underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test using a cycle ergometer or treadmill ergometer with ramp protocols. HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and oxygen uptake VO2 at rest, at AT, and at peak exercise were determined. HR and SBP at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer and treadmill ergometer test decreased with age. Work rate at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer increased with body weight and decreased with age. VO2 at AT and at peak exercise were higher in treadmill ergometer testing than in cycle ergometer testing, and were not affected by exercise protocol. Both of these decreased with age. The normal responses of HR and SBP to ramp exercise testing are reported for the first time. AT, peak VO2, and VO2 at each stage are shown for a healthy population. Some of these parameters were influenced by weight, gender, and age, as well as mode of exercise and the protocol used. These results provide useful reference values for interpreting the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on isoprenaline-induced changes in heart rate, blood pressure, soleus muscle contractility and airways function in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, L. G.; Richardson, D. P.; Temple, D. M.; Williams, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist of propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol and butoxamine in anaesthetized cats has been measured and compared with the activity of four synthetic phenylethanolamine derivatives. The effects of isoprenaline on four parameters in the anaesthetized cat: heart rate, blood pressure, soleus muscle contractility and airway reactance, were measured and the modification of the isoprenaline dose-response relation by each of the antagonist drugs assessed. Parallel shifts in log dose-response curves for isoprenaline were caused by propranolol for all parameters, by metoprolol and atenolol for each parameter except blood pressure, and butoxamine for each except soleus muscle and heart rate. Selectivity of action of the antagonists between different organs was measured by comparing DR10 values, computed from isoprenaline dose-ratios. Propranolol was the most potent antagonist and showed slight selectivity of action on soleus muscle compared with heart. Atenolol and metoprolol were approximately equipotent and were cardioselective at low doses only. Butoxamine was the least potent antagonist and possessed non-beta-adrenoceptor effects on the parameters measured. Each of the new compounds, 4'-bromo-2'-methoxy-N-isopropyl phenylethanolamine, the 4'-chloro- and 4'-methyl analogues, and 4'-methoxy-N-t-butyl phenylethanolamine, was a potent antagonist but did not exhibit any selectivity of action. The results suggest no clear separation of beta-adrenoceptors into beta 1- and beta 2-subclasses in organs of the cat. There is no apparent separation of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated effects on skeletal muscle and airways. PMID:6140058

  12. Relaxing music prevents stress-induced increases in subjective anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate in healthy males and females.

    PubMed

    Knight, W E; Rickard PhD, N S

    2001-01-01

    Previous research suggests that while subjective anxiety is reduced by relaxing music, the effect of music on physiological stress indices is less consistent. In the current study, the effect of relaxing music on participants' subjective and physiological response to stress was explored, with attention paid to methodological factors and mediating variables that might have contributed to inconsistencies in previous studies. Undergraduate students (43 females & 44 males) were exposed to a cognitive stressor task involving preparation for an oral presentation either in the presence of Pachelbel's Canon in D major, or in silence. Measures of subjective anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and salivary IgA were obtained during rest and after presentation of the stressor. The stressor caused significant increases in subjective anxiety, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in male and female controls. These stress-induced increases were each prevented by exposure to music, and this effect was independent of gender. Music also enhanced baseline salivary IgA levels in the absence of any stress-induced effects. These findings provide experimental support for claims that music is an effective anxiolytic treatment, the robustness of which is demonstrated by retention of the effect in the presence of a range of potentially mediating variables.

  13. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability in the Time Domain in Patients with Recent and Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C.; Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Morales, Irving O.; Landa, Emmanuel; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Moreno, Rene; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects the cardiovascular response of patients. To study this effect, interbeat intervals (IBI) and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability of patients during supine, standing and controlled breathing tests were analyzed in the time domain. Simultaneous noninvasive measurements of IBI and SBP for 30 recently diagnosed and 15 long-standing DM patients were compared with the results for 30 rigorously screened healthy subjects (control). A statistically significant distinction between control and diabetic subjects was provided by the standard deviation and the higher moments of the distributions (skewness, and kurtosis) with respect to the median. To compare IBI and SBP for different populations, we define a parameter, α, that combines the variability of the heart rate and the blood pressure, as the ratio of the radius of the moments for IBI and the same radius for SBP. As diabetes evolves, α decreases, standard deviation of the IBI detrended signal diminishes (heart rate signal becomes more “rigid”), skewness with respect to the median approaches zero (signal fluctuations gain symmetry), and kurtosis increases (fluctuations concentrate around the median). Diabetes produces not only a rigid heart rate, but also increases symmetry and has leptokurtic distributions. SBP time series exhibit the most variable behavior for recently diagnosed DM with platykurtic distributions. Under controlled breathing, SBP has symmetric distributions for DM patients, while control subjects have non-zero skewness. This may be due to a progressive decrease of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity to the heart and blood vessels as diabetes evolves. PMID:26849653

  14. Admission Heart Rate Predicts Poor Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miaoyan; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Wang, Xia; Carcel, Cheryl; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Sandset, Else C; Delcourt, Candice; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-06-01

    Faster heart rate predicts higher mortality in coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke, but its prognostic significance in intracerebral hemorrhage remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of admission heart rate on clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. A post hoc pooled analysis of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT 1 and 2). Clinical outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days; and imaging outcome was absolute growth in hematoma volume during the initial 24 hours. Patients were divided into 4 categories according to baseline heart rate (<65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 bpm) and analyzed using multivariable adjusted models with the lowest heart rate group as the reference. Of 3185 patients with available data, higher admission heart rate was associated with both mortality and worse modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted hazard ratio for heart rate (≥85 versus <65 bpm) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.11) and adjusted odds ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.63), respectively (both P-trend <0.05). There was no significant relationship between heart rate and absolute growth in hematoma volume (P-trend, 0.196). Higher admission heart rate is independently associated with death and poor functional outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00226096 and NCT00716079. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The contribution of preintervention blood pressure, VO2max, BMI, autonomic function and gender to exercise-induced changes in heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Grant, Catharina C; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C

    2013-06-01

    The quantification of heart rate variability (HRV) is a tool to assess the interaction between exercise and autonomic control, as well as the pathophysiology of diseases affecting autonomic function. Little is known about the influence of genetically influenced physiology on exercise-induced changes in autonomic cardiac regulation. It was theorised that preintervention values for blood pressure, VO2max, body mass index (BMI), autonomic function and gender contribute significantly to the exercise-induced changes in HRV. A 12-week, medium-to-high intensity exercise intervention was completed by 183 volunteers (18-22 years). Data were sampled at baseline and after 12 weeks. Standard time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré HRV quantification techniques were implemented. Regression analysis was performed to determine the influences of the predictors (baseline values for low frequency  (LF), high frequency (HF), BMI, VO2max, gender, blood pressure) on the exercise-induced response of the dependent variables (changes in HRV-indicator values). Parameters found to be significant (p<0.05) predictors of exercise-induced changes were LF, HF and systolic blood pressure in, respectively, 10, 5 and 2 of the 12 regressions performed. The results indicated that the independent variables contribute between 12.83% and 29.82%, depending on the specific HRV indicator, to the exercise-induced changes in the autonomic nervous system. Preintervention autonomic status, as represented specifically by LF, is the most important determinant of cardiac autonomic response to an exercise intervention in a healthy study population. Baseline autonomic function could thus be a significant confounder in the outcome of exercise study results.

  16. A meta-analytical comparison of atenolol with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on arterial stiffness, peripheral blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Luo, Gaoqing; Zheng, Yong; Peng, Feng; Xie, Liangdi

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis of randomized parallel controlled trials was designed to compare the efficacy of atenolol with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in changing pulse wave velocity (PWV), peripheral blood pressure and heart rate (HR) among patients with essential hypertension. This study was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline. Data collection was independently completed by two investigators. Statistical analyses were completed by Stata software (v12.0). Eight clinical trials were meta-analyzed in this study. Overall changes in PWV (weighted mean difference or WMD = 0.068, 95% confidence interval or CI: -0.487 to -0.623, P = 0.811) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (PSBP) (WMD = -1.281 mmHg, 95% CI: -6.936 to 4.375, P = 0.657) did not differ significantly between atenolol and ACEIs treatment. Relative to ACEIs, atenolol had a more favorable impact on peripheral diastolic blood pressure (PDBP) (WMD = -1.912 mmHg, 95% CI: -3.732 to -0.091, P = 0.040) and HR (WMD = -9.23 bpm, 95% CI: -12.53 to -5.93, P < 0.001). In stratified analyses, particularly by follow-up period, atenolol was observed to be superior over ACEIs within early 3-month treatment in PSBP (WMD = -4.097 mmHg, 95% CI: -6.589 to -1.605, P = 0.001), PDBP (WMD = -6.802 mmHg, 95% CI: -8.517 to -5.087, P < 0.001) and HR (WMD = -14.242 bpm, 95% CI: -16.427 to -12.058, P = 0.028), without heterogeneity (I(2) = 0.0%). There were low probabilities of publication bias for all comparisons. Our findings demonstrate that atenolol and ACEIs were equally effective in reducing PWV and PSBP, while atenolol was superior over ACEIs in improving PDBP and HR, especially within short-term treatment.

  17. Gastric distension causes changes in heart rate and arterial blood pressure by affecting the crosstalk between vagal and splanchnic systems in anesthetised rats.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Grossini, Elena; Molinari, Claudio; Mary, David A S G; Vacca, Giovanni; Cannas, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Various hindbrain nuclei have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of the cardiovascular reflexes elicited by both non-noxious and noxious gastric distension, through parasympathetic and sympathetic activation. The different role played by the branches of autonomic nervous system in exerting these effects and their crosstalk in relation to low-/high-pressure distension rate has not been examined yet. Therefore, in the present work, monolateral and bilateral vagotomy and splanchnicotomy were performed in anesthetised rats to analyse the involvement of hindbrain nuclei in haemodynamic changes caused by gastric distension at high (80 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) pressure. The analysis of c-Fos expression in neuronal areas involved in cardiovascular control allowed us to examine their recruitment in response to various patterns of gastric distension and the crosstalk between vagal and splanchnic systems. The results obtained show that the low-pressure (non-noxious) gastric distension increases both heart rate and arterial blood pressure. In addition, the vagus nerve and hindbrain nuclei, such as nucleus ambiguous, ventrolateral medulla and lateral reticular nucleus, appear to be primarily involved in observed responses. In particular, we have found that although vagus nerve plays a central role in exerting those cardiovascular reflex changes at low gastric distension, for its functional expression an intact splanchnic system is mandatory. Hence, the absence of splanchnic input attenuates pressor responses or turns them into depressor responses. Instead at high-pressure (noxious) gastric distension, the splanchnic nerve represents the primary component in regulating the reflex cardiovascular effects.

  18. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  19. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  20. [Measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in the population of Ajusco, Tlalpan, Federal District, Mexico, using CEDAT equipment].

    PubMed

    Brust-Carmona, H; Zarco, J; Vidrio-Amor, H; Calderón-Becerra, J; Juárez-Cortez, M; Chavarín, G

    1991-01-01

    To improve the procedures for cardiovascular health care in Mexico it is necessary to be able to perform accurate measurements of the cardiovascular parameters with appropriate equipment and to count with standard values for the Mexican population at the primary health level. Cardiac frequency (CF), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were analyzed in O2 consenting volunteers under resting (seated) and standing conditions as well as during exercise (30 sitting), and again after exercise under resurge conditions. A direct relation was found between CF, SAP and DAP with body surface and age. The orthostatic reflex (OR) diminished with age. Exercise increased FC, PAS and PAD, which decreased four-eight minutes after completing the exercise in those subjects under 30 years of age, where as in those aged 30 to 50 years these parameters did not return to their previous values. The RO decrement is more pronounced in men, although arterial pressure values are higher in women aged 30 to 50 years. Data followed a normal distribution curve, agreeing with the data reported for altitudes lower than that of Mexico City. Implementing the measurement systems described in this paper will allow early detection of pathology that might affect cardiac activity and arterial pressure that could be related to environmental pollution at the first level of medical attention.

  1. Effects of the once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; White, William B; Calhoun, David A; Lonn, Eva M; Sager, Philip T; Brunelle, Rocco; Jiang, Honghua H; Threlkeld, Rebecca J; Robertson, Kenneth E; Geiger, Mary Jane

    2014-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, are associated with small reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increases in heart rate. However, findings based on clinic measurements do not adequately assess a drug's 24-hour pharmacodynamic profile. The effects of dulaglutide, a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on BP and heart rate were investigated using ambulatory BP monitoring. Patients (n=755; 56±10 years; 81% white; 48% women), with type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking ≥1 oral antihyperglycemic medication, with a clinic BP between 90/60 and 140/90 mm Hg were randomized to dulaglutide (1.5 or 0.75 mg) or placebo subcutaneously for 26 weeks. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed at baseline and at 4, 16, and 26 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 16 in mean 24-hour SBP, a tree gatekeeping strategy compared the effects of dulaglutide to placebo. Both doses of dulaglutide were noninferior to placebo for changes in 24-hour SBP and diastolic blood pressure, and dulaglutide 1.5 mg significantly reduced SBP (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]), -2.8 mm Hg [-4.6, -1.0]; P≤0.001). Dulaglutide 0.75 mg was noninferior to placebo (1.6 bpm; [0.3, 2.9]; P≤0.02) for 24-hour heart rate (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]), but dulaglutide 1.5 mg was not (2.8 bpm [1.5, 4.2]). Dulaglutide 1.5 mg was associated with a reduction in 24-hour SBP and an increase in 24-hour heart rate. The mechanisms responsible for the observed effects remain to be clarified. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. The Environment and Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D

    2017-05-01

    A host of environmental factors can significantly increase arterial blood pressure (BP) including cold temperature, high altitude, loud noises, and ambient air pollutants. Although brief exposures acutely elevate BP, over the long term, chronic exposures may be capable of promoting the development of sustained hypertension. Given their omnipresent nature, environmental factors may play a role in worsening BP control and heightening overall cardiovascular risk at the global public health level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia for labor – monitoring of newborn heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation during the first 24 hours after delivery

    PubMed Central

    Konefał, Halina; Jaskot, Brygida; Pastuszka, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is no available information about the effects of remifentanil labor analgesia on newborns’ vital signs in the first hours after delivery. The aim of the study was to assess changes in the heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation during the first 24 h of neonatal life after using remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for labor analgesia. Material and methods Forty-four full-term neonates, 23 from intravenous PCA remifentanil labor anesthesia 0.2 µg/kg, repeated not more frequently than every 2 min, and 21 born to mothers without any pharmacological forms of analgesia, were studied. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were monitored using a Nellcor Oxi Max monitor N5500 (Tyco Healthcare), and recorded at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. Results No significant differences in heart rate (p = 0.54; p = 0.26; p = 0.60; p = 0.83), oxygen saturation (p = 0.21; p = 0.27; p = 0.61; p = 0.9) and DBP (p = 0.98; p = 0.31; p = 0.83; p = 0.58) between the groups at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. Newborns from the remifentanil group had lower SBP at 1 h of life (59 mm Hg vs. 68.5 mm Hg) but the difference was just on the borderline of statistical significance (p > 0.06). There were no significant differences in SBP between the groups at 6 h (p = 0.65), 12 h (p = 0.11), and 24 h (p = 0.89) of life. Conclusions Remifentanil PCA analgesia during labor does not significantly modify the oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure in infants during the first day of their life. Therefore, further studies are needed to explain the observed trend for arterial hypotension in the first hour of life in infants born to mothers treated with remifentanil. PMID:24049531

  4. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney disease is diagnosed with urine and blood tests. Health care providers measure blood pressure with a blood pressure ... the sample to a lab for analysis. A health care provider may order a blood test to estimate how much blood the kidneys filter ...

  5. Short-term effects of espresso coffee on heart rate variability and blood pressure in habitual and non-habitual coffee consumers--a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann-Viehoff, Frank; Thayer, Julian; Koenig, Julian; Herrmann, Christian; Weber, Cora S; Deter, Hans-Christian

    2016-05-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of espresso coffee on heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of vagal activity, in healthy habitual and non-habitual coffee consumers. Seventy-seven healthy subjects (38 habitual and 39 non-habitual coffee consumers, 74% women, mean age 26.97 ± 6.88 years) took part in three laboratory sessions in a randomized order. In condition 1, subjects consumed espresso; in condition 2, subjects consumed decaffeinated espresso; and in condition 3, subjects consumed warm water. HRV and blood pressure were assessed at rest before and after ingestion of the respective beverage. HRV was significantly increased after consumption of caffeinated espresso, decaffeinated espresso, or water, indicating increased vagal activity in the course of the experiments. In the habitual coffee consumers, the increase in vagally mediated HRV was significantly lower after consumption of decaffeinated espresso compared to caffeinated espresso. Increases of systolic blood pressure were only found in the non-habitual consumers. We found no evidence for specific short-term effects of caffeinated espresso on vagal activity in healthy subjects. Instead, consumption of decaffeinated espresso inhibited vagal activity in habitual consumers. This may be explained by an attempt of the organism to establish a sympathovagal equilibrium comparable to that after caffeine consumption. In the absence of caffeine-induced sympathetic activation, this may have been achieved by relative vagal withdrawal.

  6. Biological effects of a new set 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines on heart rate and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several quinazoline and triazole derivatives are reported to possess a wide-range of interesting pharmacological effects. Although various triazoloquinazoline subclasses having been synthesized and studied, the preparation of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines as antihypertensive agent is still relatively unexplored. In continuation of our earlier research, we aimed at the synthesis and development of various potent antihypertensive 1,2,4-triazoloquinazoline derivatives. Results A new series of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline derivatives have been synthesized. Their structures were mainly established by spectroscopic methods of analysis (IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR). Their in vivo antihypertensive activity was evaluated by tail cuff method using Muromachi Blood Pressure Monitor (Model MK 2000) for rats and mice. Some of the tested compounds were found to exhibit valuable effects in terms of heart rate and blood pressure. According to the biological results, some of tested derivatives have abolished completely the tachycardia of the parent compounds and may be studied and modified as potential adrenoblockers and cardiac stimulant. Conclusion New series of fifteen 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines were synthesized by convenient methodology from four key molecules, whereby their structures were established by advanced spectroscopic analyses. Some lead compounds have abolished completely the tachycardia of the parent compounds, that may be examined as potent adrenoblockers and some other compounds seem to be a cardiac stimulant or may be modified to enhance their hypotensive activity. PMID:24428932

  7. Spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate, catecholamine and neuropeptide Y plasma levels in a new model of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in dog.

    PubMed

    Verwaerde, P; Senard, J M; Mazerolles, M; Tran, M A; Damase-Michel, C; Montastruc, J L; Montastruc, P

    1996-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) variability, catecholamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY) plasma levels induced by passive head-up tilt in normal and sino-aortic denervated (SAD) chloralose-anaesthetized dogs. In controls, 80 degrees head-up tilt test failed to change BP and increased HR. Plasma noradrenaline and NPY levels (but not adrenaline) significantly rose. In SAD dogs, head-up tilt test induced a marked and reproducible decrease in BP without any change in HR or noradrenaline and NPY plasma levels. In SAD dogs, spectral analysis in supine position was characterized by reduced variability in the high frequency (HF) band of the HR spectrum without changes in low frequency (LF) bands of both HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Head-up tilt test increased the LF component of SBP variability and decreased the HF component of HR variability in controls but failed to modify HR and BP variabilities in SAD dogs. In conclusion, sino-aortic denervation in dogs elicits a reproducible postural fall in BP with impaired adaptation of sympathetic nervous system activity. This model may be of value in evaluating the pharmacological effects of drugs for the management of orthostatic hypotension.

  8. [Blood pressure goals on the test bench].

    PubMed

    Slany, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    There is little evidence from controlled prospective studies to support the low blood pressure goals stipulated for the treatment of hypertension by present guidelines, especially in high-risk patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency or coronary heart disease. Aim of this review is to scrutinize the potential benefit and risk of low blood pressure on the basis of recent studies and secondary analyses of older studies. In patients with coronary heart disease or equivalent or with diabetes lowering systolic blood pressure to 130 to 135 mmHg reduced primary or secondary cardiovascular endpoints in the majority of studies. Between 120 and 129 mmHg some positive effects could be shown in patients with coronary heart disease but not in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. In patients with diabetic or nondiabetic nephropathy including those with proteinurea no convincing data exist which show a better outcome with systolic blood pressure below 130 versus below 140 mmHg. However, several studies suggest that the risk of stroke may decrease by lowering systolic pressure to 120 mmHg or even lower. Below 120 mmHg an increased risk of cardiac and noncardiac events or death was shown in quite a number of studies. In patients between 70 and 80 years, current evidence suggests lowering systolic blood pressure to 135 to 145 mmHg and in those above 80 years to 145 to 155 mmHg. No evidence was found to justify different diastolic pressure goals for different groups of patients; optimal values fall between 70 and 85 mmHg. Limitations of recent studies are short follow-up, few event rates and small differences in achieved pressure between groups leaving uncertainty about long-term effects. Apart from prevention of stroke there is sparse evidence that lowering systolic blood pressure below 130 mmHg may be beneficial. Current evidence suggests that lowering systolic and diastolic pressure into a range of 130 to 140/70 to 85 may be adequate for all patients with the exception

  9. [Effect of changes in airway pressure and the inspiratory volume on the fluid filtration rate and pulmonary artery pressure in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with blood and acellular solution].

    PubMed

    Crespo, Astrid; Novoa, Eva; Urich, Daniela; Trejo, Humberto; Pezzulo, Alejandro; Sznajder, Jacob I; Livia, Fernández; Sánchez-de León, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    It has been reported that ventilation with large tidal volumes causes pulmonary edema in rats by the stimulation and release of proinflammatory mediators. Our objective was to determine the level at which volutrauma induced by changes in Airway Pressure (PAW) and Inspiratory Volume (VI) produce significant changes on the Fluid Filtration Rate (FFR) and Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP) in lungs perfused with blood (cellular groups) or with a buffer-albumin solution (acellular groups), with a Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) 0 or 2 cmH2O and to study the effect of a vasodilator with antiinflammatory properties (fenoterol) in blood-perfused groups. Three experimental groups were used: the cellular groups studied the effect of increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with blood and PEEP 0 and 2; the acellular groups studied the increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with a buffer-albumin solution and PEEP 0 and 2; The fenoterol group studied the effect of increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with blood + fenoterol and PEEP 2. The results show that an increase of FFR is produced earlier in acellular groups than in cellular ones and that the damage in cellular groups is microscopically and macroscopically inferior when compared to acellular groups. Fenoterol did not inhibit edema formation, and that PEEP 2, both in the cellular and the acellular groups, has a protective effect. We propose the possible existence of mediators with protective effects against the formation of pulmonary edema in the blood. These data suggest that volutrauma induced pulmonary edema has a predominantly traumatic origin when the lungs are perfused with blood.

  10. Blood pressure and heart rate response to posteriorly directed pressure applied to the cervical spine in young, pain-free individuals: a randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yung, Emmanuel; Wong, Michael; Williams, Haddie; Mache, Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To compare the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response of healthy volunteers to posteriorly directed (anterior-to-posterior [AP]) pressure applied to the cervical spine versus placebo. Manual therapists employ cervical spine AP mobilizations for various cervical-shoulder pain conditions. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the procedure, cardiovascular response, and safety profile. Thirty-nine (25 female) healthy participants (mean ± SD age, 24.7 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received a placebo, consisting of light touch applied to the right C6 costal process. Group 2 received AP pressure at the same location. Blood pressure and HR were measured prior to, during, and after the application of AP pressure. One-way analysis of variance and paired-difference statistics were used for data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and mean HR (P >.05) for all time points. Within-group comparisons indicated statistically significant differences between baseline and post-AP pressure HR (-2.8 bpm; 95% confidence interval: -4.6, -1.1) and between baseline and post-AP pressure systolic BP (-2.4 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -3.7, -1.0) in the AP group, and between baseline and postplacebo systolic BP (-2.6 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -4.2, -1.0) in the placebo group. No participants reported any adverse reactions or side effects within 24 hours of testing. AP pressure caused a statistically significant physiologic response that resulted in a minor drop in HR (without causing asystole or vasodepression) after the procedure, whereas this cardiovascular change did not occur for those in the placebo group. Within both groups, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in systolic BP following the procedure.

  11. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  12. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  13. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to achieve target blood pressure goals with treatment. Overweight You are more likely to develop prehypertension or high blood pressure if you’re overweight or obese . The terms “overweight” and “obese” refer ...

  14. Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall ... Not Alone / Keep Weight Off / Facts About Fat / Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Fall 2008 Issue: ...

  15. Taking your blood pressure at home (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure you are taking your blood pressure correctly. Compare your home machine with the one at your ... sure you are taking your blood pressure correctly. Compare your home machine with the one at your ...

  16. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  17. Rate of change in cerebral oxygenation and blood pressure in response to passive changes in posture: a comparison between pure autonomic failure patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Tachtsidis, Ilias; Elwell, Clare E; Leung, Terence S; Bleasdale-Barr, Katharine; Hunt, Katharine; Toms, Nathan; Smith, Martin; Mathias, Christopher J; Delpy, David T

    2005-01-01

    The cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to head-up postural change are compromised in pure autonomic failure (PAF) patients because of sympathetic denervation. The aim of this study was to characterize the rate of change of systemic mean blood pressure (MBP) and cerebral haemodynamics in response to passive posture changes. Nine PAF patients and 9 age-matched controls took part in this study. MBP and oxy- (O2Hb), deoxy-haemoglobin (HHb), and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) on the forehead were continuously monitored non-invasively using the Portapres and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), respectively. From visual inspection of the haemoglobin difference signal (Hb(diff) = O2Hb-HHb), seven distinct phases were marked (1: supine, 2: start passive tilt, 3: head up to 60 degrees degrees, 4: end of tilt, 5: tilt reversal, 6: return to supine, 7: rest); the same time points were used for all of the other signals. For each phase, the slope was calculated using a linear regression algorithm. Significant differences were found between PAF patients and controls in the Hb(diff) slope magnitudes for phases 3 (P < .05) and 5 (P = .01), and the duration of phase 2 (P < .05). MBP slope magnitudes showed significant differences for phases 2 (P < .01) and 5 (P < .01). These differences in the rate of change suggest differences in blood vessel resistance related to sympathetic activation.

  18. Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Sachiko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Yoneda, Hirotsugu; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the changes in autonomic nervous activity, body temperature, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) after intake of the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper in humans to elucidate the mechanisms of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) due to CH-19 Sweet. We found that CH-19 Sweet activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhances thermogenesis as effectively as hot red pepper, ant that the heat loss effect due to CH-19 Sweet is weaker than that due to hot red pepper. Furthermore, we found that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them. These results indicate that DIT due to CH-19 Sweet can be induced via the activation of SNS as well as hot red pepper, but that the changes in BP, HR, and heat loss effect are different between these peppers.

  19. Normal behaviour of circulatory parameters during exercise. Reference values for heart rate and systemic blood pressure. The ECCIS Project data. Epidemiologia e Clinica della Cardiopatia Ischemica Silente.

    PubMed

    Menghini, F; Dally, L; Fazzini, P F; Menotti, A; Prati, P L; Rovelli, F; Antoniucci, D; Seccareccia, F

    1995-08-01

    The study of simultaneous variations in heart rate (HR) and systemic blood pressure is of great interest in ergometric practice complementing the analysis of the ST segment by ECG. This paper examines data proceeding from 500 consecutive, normal, exercise stress tests with the aim of offering reference values on the step-by-step behaviour of HR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) during exercise in a normal population. The sample comes from a large epidemiological study (ECCIS Project) conducted on 4842 healthy, working men, aged 40-59, which proposes to identify, by a 3 stage procedure, subjects with totally asymptomatic coronary artery disease (type I silent ischemia). A further aim of our paper is to examine the influence of some physiological variables (age, height, weight, body mass index, resting HR, SBP and DBP) on the response to effort of HR, SBP and DBP; reciprocal HR/SBP adjustment during exercise; maximal attained workload and recovery time. Due to a preliminary observation that the rate of step-by-step increase in HR and SBP is inversely related to total duration, the population was split into 4 groups according to exercise tolerance (defined by maximal attained workload) to elaborate reference values. Furthermore our data demonstrate that: 1) SBP increases more rapidly with respect to HR for older and heavier subjects; 2) Exercise tolerance is inversely related to age, baseline HR and SBP, and directly related to weight and height; 3) return to baseline conditions, during recovery, is quicker for subjects with better exercise tolerance and lower baseline HR, SBP and weight.

  20. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  1. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  2. Reliability of nocturnal blood pressure dipping.

    PubMed

    Dimsdale, J E; von Känel, R; Profant, J; Nelesen, R; Ancoli-Israel, S; Ziegler, M

    2000-08-01

    Increasing evidence documents the fact that individuals whose blood pressure drops or 'dips' relatively little at night have a higher risk of numerous cardiovascular illnesses. To examine the reliability of various measures of nocturnal blood pressure dipping. This study examined 17 individuals with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on three 24 h recordings while they pursued a schedule similar to that of in-patients on a clinical research unit. Nocturnal dipping of blood pressure was scored three ways: as the drop in blood pressure between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. ('clocktime'), as the drop in blood pressure tailored to each individual's reported bedtime ('bedtime'), and as the drop in blood pressure accompanying polysomnographically verified sleep ('sleeptime'). Adequate reliability was obtained for all three measures of dipping. There was, in general, a significant correlation across testing occasions (P<0.05). The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.5 to 0.8, depending on which criterion of dipping was selected and whether the endpoint was systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or mean arterial blood pressure. The reliability of systolic blood pressure dipping was somewhat lower than that of diastolic or mean arterial blood pressure dipping. Dipping appears to be a reliable construct. While no one definition of dipping was demonstrably better than another, the most sensible definition of dipping would allow some adjustment for defining 'night' on the basis of each individual's idiosyncratic bed time.

  3. [Ambulatory measurement of blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Mallion, J M; Tremel, F; Siché, J P; Azzouzi, L; Baguet, J P

    1995-12-09

    The advent of new techniques has greatly contributed to the development of ambulatory measurement as a noninvasive method for evaluating blood pressure. The technique implies use of a validated and reliable standardized apparatus. The operator must strictly comply with operating procedures, which must also be explained to the patient. Ambulatory measurement can be meaningful only if the results are compatible with reference values, which have now been established, and if the causes of possible error can be recognized and interpreted. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement has greatly improved our knowledge of physiological and pathological variations over the circadian cycle including day/night variability and the effects of psychosensorial stimulation. Diagnostic indications are clearly identified and include borderline hypertension suspected but not identified after about 3 months, the white coat effect, severe hypertension when modifications in the circadian cycle are suspected, paroxysmal hypertension, suspected pheochromocytoma, and gravid hypertension or an inversion of the circadian cycle possibly preceding an episode of eclampsia. There are also a certain number of particular indications in patients with degenerative or primary conditions affecting their autonomy. The true prognostic value of these recordings was recognized several years ago and has been confirmed by clinical trials. For example, the white blouse effect has no significant implication in terms or predicting less favourable morbidity or mortality. Finally, ambulatory blood pressure measurement has been definitively shown to be a valid method for evaluating the therapeutic effect of an anti-hypertensive drug in a given patient, especially when resting levels are questioned. For therapeutic trials, ambulatory measurements serve as a reference to evaluate the effect of treatment on the circadian cycle. Peak/dip levels can thus be determined in comparison with the residual effect of the drug. A

  4. Cutaneous control of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Randall S; Titze, Jens; Weller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Textbook theory holds that blood pressure (BP) is regulated by the brain, by blood vessels, or by the kidney. Recent evidence suggests that BP could be regulated in the skin. The skin holds a complex capillary counter current system, which controls body temperature, skin perfusion, and apparently systemic BP. Epidemiological data suggest that sunlight exposure plays a role in controlling BP. Ultraviolet A radiation produces vasodilation and a fall in BP. Keratinocytes and immune cells control blood flow in the extensive countercurrent loop system of the skin by producing nitric oxide, a key regulator of vascular tone. The balance between hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α activity in keratinocytes controls skin perfusion, systemic thermoregulation, and systemic BP by nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the skin accumulates Na which generates a barrier to promote immunological host defense. Immune cells control skin Na metabolism and the clearance of Na via the lymphatic system. Reduced lymphatic clearance increases BP. Apart from the well-known role of the brain, blood vessels, and the kidney, the skin is important for systemic BP control in humans and in experimental animals.

  5. Effects of kappa opioid agonists alone and in combination with cocaine on heart rate and blood pressure in conscious squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Charles W.; Graczyk, Zofi; Gilman, Joanne P.; Negus, S. Stevens; Bergman, Jack; Mello, Nancy K.; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    As kappa agonists have been proposed as treatments for cocaine abuse, the cardiovascular effects of the kappa opioid receptor agonists ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) and enadoline were investigated in conscious squirrel monkeys. Both EKC and enadoline increased heart rate with little effect on blood pressure. This effect appeared to be specific for kappa receptors as the mu opioid agonist morphine did not mimic the effects of the kappa agonists. The opioid antagonist naltrexone, at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg, blocked the effect of EKC. An action at both central and peripheral receptors may be responsible for the heart rate increase following kappa agonist treatment. The ganglionic blocker chlorisondamine partially antagonized the effect of EKC on heart rate, suggesting central involvement, while the peripherally-acting agonist ICI 204,448 ((±)-1-[2,3-(Dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) also increased heart rate, supporting a peripheral site of action. When given in combination with cocaine, EKC produced effects that were sub-additive, suggesting that the kappa agonists may be used safely as cocaine abuse treatments. PMID:17707792

  6. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli—Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure) were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction toward disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant's disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters. PMID:24027509

  7. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli-Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure) were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction toward disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant's disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  8. Physiologic Aspects of Porcine Hemorrhage. III. Heart Rate and Arterial Blood Pressure Changes during Spontaneous Recovery from 30 and 50 Percent Blood Volume Loss in the Conscious Animal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    spontaneous recovery from 30 and 50 percent blood vlue loss in the conscious animal-- I lannon et al Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is...SFC; Maria V. De La Cerda , SSG; Robert J. Hughes, PFC; David Weber, SP4; and Nancy J. Champagne, SP4, in the surgical preparation of the animals

  9. Blood pressure reprogramming adapter assists signal recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1967-01-01

    Blood pressure reprogramming adapter separates the two components of a blood pressure signal, a dc pressure signal and an ac Korotkoff sounds signal, so that the Korotkoff sounds are recorded on one channel as received while the dc pressure signal is converted to FM and recorded on a second channel.

  10. Searching for baseline blood pressure: A comparison of blood pressure at three different care points.

    PubMed

    Ard, John L; Kendale, Samir

    2016-12-01

    A common approach to blood pressure management in the operating room is to keep the intraoperative, pressures within 20% of baseline blood pressure. One question that arises from this recommendation is; what is a patient's true baseline blood pressure? In order to get a more precise definition of baseline blood pressure, a comparison of the first operating room blood pressure was made with the blood pressure taken in a preoperative holding area before surgery, and the blood pressure taken in pre-surgical testing. (before day of surgery). A database of 2087 adult general anesthesia cases was generated, which contained the blood pressure (BP) in the pre-surgical testing clinic, the first BP in preoperative holding on the day of surgery, and the first BP in the operating room. Comparisons were made between the blood pressures taken at each phase of care. All components of BP taken in the OR were statistically significantly higher (p<0.001 for all comparisons) than in either PST or the holding area, while the BP in the latter locations were not significantly different. This blood pressure difference persists whether or not the patient is taking antihypertensive medications. The higher blood pressure measured in the operating rooms precludes using this measurement to determine baseline blood pressure. Blood pressures taken prior to arrival in the operating room are similar to blood pressures taken before the day of surgery. Blood pressure measurements taken prior to entrance in the operating room can be used to determine baseline blood pressure.

  11. Impact of Stimulant Medication Use on Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure During Submaximal Exercise Treadmill Testing in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Westover, Arthur N; Nakonezny, Paul A; Adinoff, Bryon; Brown, Edson Sherwood; Halm, Ethan A

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriately decreased heart rate (HR) during peak exercise and delayed heart rate recovery (HRR) has been observed in adult users of stimulant medications who underwent exercise testing, suggesting autonomic adaptation to chronic stimulant exposure. In the general population, this pattern of hemodynamic changes is associated with increased mortality risk. Whether the same pattern of hemodynamic changes might be observed in adolescent stimulant medication users undergoing exercise testing is unknown. Among adolescents (aged 12 to 20 years) that underwent submaximal exercise treadmill testing from 1999 to 2004 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, propensity score matching of stimulant medication users (n = 89) to matched nonusers (n = 267) was conducted. Testing consisted of a 3-minute warm-up period, two 3-minute exercise stages, and three 1-minute recovery periods, with the goal of reaching 75% of the predicted HR maximum. A linear mixed model analysis was used to evaluate the effect of stimulant exposure on each of the exercise outcomes. Stimulant medication users compared to matched nonusers had a lower peak HR in Stage 2 (154.9 vs. 158.3 beats/minute [bpm], p = 0.055) and lower HR at 1-minute recovery (142.2 vs. 146.4 bpm, p = 0.030). However, submaximal HRR at 1 minute did not differ between stimulant users and matched nonusers (13.0 vs. 12.1 bpm, p = 0.38). Duration of stimulant use was not related to these outcomes. Adolescent stimulant medication users compared to matched nonusers demonstrated a trend toward decreased HR during submaximal exercise, which is potential evidence of chronic adaptation with stimulant exposure. There was no evidence for delayed HRR in this study, and thus, no evidence for decreased parasympathetic activity during initial exercise recovery. Exercise testing outcomes may have utility in future research as a method to assess stimulant-associated autonomic nervous system adaptations.

  12. Effects of MDMA, MDA and MDEA on blood pressure, heart rate, locomotor activity and body temperature in the rat involve α-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Bexis, Sotiria; Docherty, James R

    2006-01-01

    The effects of injection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDEA) (all 20 mg kg−1) on blood pressure, heart rate, core body temperature and locomotor activity in conscious rats were investigated using radiotelemetry. MDMA and MDA produced a prolonged increase in both systolic and diastolic pressures, with MDA causing the most marked rise. MDEA produced a transient but nonsignificant fall in diastolic pressure. The pressor response produced by MDA was accompanied by bradycardia. All three amphetamine derivatives caused an initial hypothermic response; however, MDA also produced a subsequent hyperthermia, and the speed of recovery from hypothermia was MDA>MDMA>MDEA. The α2A-adrenoceptor antagonist 2-((4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl)-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole (BRL 44408) (1 mg kg−1) prolonged the hypothermic response to MDMA. Only MDA induced locomotor activity when given alone, but in the presence of BRL 44408, MDMA produced increased locomotor activity. The order of potency for producing isometric contractions of rat aorta (α1D) and vas deferens (α1A) was MDA>MDMA>MDEA, with MDEA acting as an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist with a pKB of 4.79±0.12 (n=4) in aorta. The order of potency for prejunctional inhibition of stimulation-evoked contractions in rat vas deferens (α2A-adrenoceptor mediated) was MDA>MDMA>MDEA. Blood pressure actions of the three amphetamine derivatives may be at least partly due to α1-adrenoceptor agonism or antagonism. The reversal of the hypothermic actions are at least partly due to α2A-adrenoceptor agonism since the hypothermic response was more prolonged with MDEA which exhibits low α2A-adrenoceptor potency, and effects of MDMA after α2A-adrenoceptor antagonism were similar to those of MDEA. PMID:16491100

  13. Prolonged (48-hour) modest hyperinsulinemia decreases nocturnal heart rate variability and attenuates the nocturnal decrease in blood pressure in lean, normotensive humans.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Maja; Townsend, Raymond; Teff, Karen L

    2006-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), an index of cardiac vagal activity, is decreased in individuals with metabolic disease. The relationship between decreased HRV and metabolic disease is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether experimentally induced glucose intolerance decreases HRV in a circadian relevant manner in healthy individuals. This was a within-subject, randomized design study with subjects infused for 48 h with saline (50 ml/h) or 15% glucose (200 mg/m2.min). HRV was evaluated using time domain measurements taken over the 48-h period. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored, and blood samples were taken. This study was performed at the General Clinical Research Center of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight men and eight women; 18-30 yr old; mean body mass index, 21.7 +/- 1.6 kg/m2) were studied. After glucose infusion, mean plasma glucose was increased by 16.8% (P < 0.0001), and plasma insulin was increased by 99.4% (P < 0.0001) compared with after saline infusion. Significant decreases in homeostasis model assessment indicated a decrease in insulin sensitivity (saline, 0.52 + 0.13; glucose, 0.34 + 0.12; P < 0.0001). The nocturnal root mean square successive difference, an index of cardiac vagal activity, was significantly decreased (P < 0.01), and nocturnal HR (P < 0.001) and blood pressure were significantly elevated (saline, 107.4 +/- 2.7; glucose, 112.5 +/- 3.3 mm Hg; P < 0.05) compared with the saline control. The change in homeostasis model assessment due to glucose infusion was significantly correlated with the change in root mean square successive difference (r = 0.48; P < 0.01). Prolonged mild hyperinsulinemia disrupts the circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic activity. Early changes in the neural control of cardiac activity may provide a potential mechanism mediating the pathophysiological link between impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease.

  14. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  15. Operations and management of government-owned - contractor-operated microwave exposure facility. Volume 2. Pulsed microwave effects on rat blood pressure and heart rate. Final report, 1 March 1985-2 January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Brown, D.; Bassen, H.; Bates, F.

    1988-02-28

    Using a specialized waveguide exposure system, the head and neck of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were selectively exposed to 1250-MHz pulsed microwaves. Blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature were continually recorded. Statistical analysis of the physiological parameters that were recorded continuously revealed that during the exposure the animals exhibited no statistically significant change in core or head temperature, while heart rate decreased over 20%. The mean blood pressure remained constant but exhibited a sinusoidal undulation during exposure that was disassociated from heart rate. Cardiovascular parameters returned to normal soon after cessation of exposure. In summary, statistically significant changes were recorded concomitant with microwave exposure. Blood pressure exhibited a heretofore unreported oscillation, disassociated from heart rate. It is possible that this microwave reaction is mediated via baroreceptor cardiodepressor mechanisms.

  16. Orexin microinjection in the medullary raphe increases heart rate and arterial pressure but does not reduce tail skin blood flow in the awake rat.

    PubMed

    Luong, L N L; Carrive, P

    2012-01-27

    The rostral medullary raphe region is an important target of hypothalamic orexin neurons; however, little is known of the effect of orexin in this key autonomic and somatic premotor region. Here we tested the effect of orexin-A (3 and 30 pmol) microinjected in the medullary raphe, on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), tail skin blood flow, body temperature, and behavior in freely moving, awake rats. HR, MAP, and body activity were recorded by radio-telemetry. Changes in tail skin blood flow and body temperature, as well as potential interscapular brown adipose tissue thermogenesis were recorded indirectly by infrared thermography of the skin of the tail, lumbosacral back, and interscapular back areas, respectively. Compared with saline, orexin-A (30 pmol) evoked significant and long lasting increases in HR (+99 bpm), MAP (+11 mmHg), and body activity (grooming, not locomotor activity). However, it did not reduce tail skin blood flow more than saline, and there was no significant increase in body temperature. A small, though significant, thermogenic effect was observed in the interscapular region, but this effect is more likely to have originated from activity in neck and shoulder muscles than brown adipose tissue. Thus, orexin projections to the rostral medullary raphe can mediate significant cardiovascular changes, but does not seem to affect tail skin vasomotor tone or brown adipose tissue in the awake rat. This important brainstem relay may contribute to the cardiovascular changes evoked by arousal and various forms of stress that are associated with activation of orexin neurons.

  17. Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    heart to the blood pressure . We conclude that when the heart hypertrophies, as a result of the hypertension , the changed cardiac behavior, in turn...Plenary Talks Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure N.Westerhof, Lab. for Physiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research...Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam Blood pressure and blood flow result from the interaction of the heart, the pump, and the arterial system, the load

  18. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

  19. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced